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1. Jaber JJ, Thomas FJ, Carfrae MJ, Galati LT: Radiotherapy-associated euthyroid Graves ophthalmopathy following floor-of-mouth surgery: a case report. Ear Nose Throat J; 2008 Sep;87(9):533-6
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  • The thyroid gland is commonly included in the radiation field during treatment of nonthyroidal neoplastic disease of the head and neck.
  • We report an unusual case of radiotherapy-associated Graves ophthalmopathy 5 months after adjuvant external irradiation of the head and neck in a euthyroid patient who had undergone wide local excision of squamous cell carcinoma from the floor of the mouth.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Graves Ophthalmopathy / etiology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Floor / pathology. Mouth Floor / surgery. Oral Surgical Procedures / methods. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Thyroid Function Tests. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18800329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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2. Karakas Z, Tugcu D, Unuvar A, Atay D, Akcay A, Gedik H, Kayserili H, Dogan O, Anak S, Devecioglu O: Li-Fraumeni syndrome in a Turkish family. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 May;27(4):297-305
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  • The adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) association with acute leukemia is unusual in childhood, even in LFS.
  • The authors here present a family with pR337P mutation in TP53 gene who had a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and associated adrenocortical carcinoma as a case 1 and his cousin with brain tumor as a case 2.
  • A hereditary TP53 mutation supported the diagnosis of LFS in this family.
  • The availability of a reliable molecular marker to detect the R337P TP53 mutation allows the rapid identification of carriers in families that have a child with ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20426520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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3. Müssig K, Wehrmann M, Horger M, Teichmann R, Maser-Gluth C, Häring HU, Overkamp D: Steroid profile in an adrenocortical carcinoma producing aldosterone. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2005 Apr;113(4):236-40
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  • [Title] Steroid profile in an adrenocortical carcinoma producing aldosterone.
  • We report a rare case of primary aldosteronism due to an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A 61-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and hypokalemia was referred for evaluation of a 4.2 cm measuring adrenal mass without secondary signs of malignancy.
  • The patient underwent surgical resection of the adrenal mass; histology revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Four months after adrenalectomy, the patient presented again with hypokalemic hypertension and was found to have metastatic disease.
  • Careful hormonal investigation should be obtained in patients with adrenal masses causing excessive aldosterone secretion.
  • In uncertain cases of primary aldosteronism, we would suggest to measure 18-hydroxycortisol levels, as excessive amounts may indicate adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Aldosterone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Posture. Supine Position. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15891961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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4. Montoya T, Guijarro G, Elvira R, Olivar J: [Virilization of a post-menopausal woman. Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Oct;56(8):422-7
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  • [Title] [Virilization of a post-menopausal woman. Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations].
  • Virilizing tumors are rare disorders that commonly develop in the adrenal cortex or the ovaries.
  • We present the case of a 71-year-old woman who presented with severe clinical hyperandrogenism and biochemical traits suggestive of an ovarian source but who was diagnosed with a 10-cm adrenal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gonadotropins, Pituitary / physiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Ovarian Diseases / diagnosis. Postmenopause. Virilism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Androgens / blood. Androgens / secretion. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell. Cyproterone Acetate / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. Female. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. Incidental Findings. Triptorelin Pamoate. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19959153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Gonadotropins, Pituitary; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 4KM2BN5JHF / Cyproterone Acetate; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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5. Assié G, Antoni G, Tissier F, Caillou B, Abiven G, Gicquel C, Leboulleux S, Travagli JP, Dromain C, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Schlumberger M, Baudin E: Prognostic parameters of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jan;92(1):148-54
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  • [Title] Prognostic parameters of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Prognostic parameters of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) are poorly characterized.
  • CONCLUSION: Metastatic ACC is a heterogeneous disease with poor outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17062775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Volante M, Sperone P, Bollito E, Frangipane E, Rosas R, Daffara F, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Papotti M: Matrix metalloproteinase type 2 expression in malignant adrenocortical tumors: Diagnostic and prognostic significance in a series of 50 adrenocortical carcinomas. Mod Pathol; 2006 Dec;19(12):1563-9
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  • [Title] Matrix metalloproteinase type 2 expression in malignant adrenocortical tumors: Diagnostic and prognostic significance in a series of 50 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The differential diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma from adrenocortical adenoma is based on different pathological parameters, usually incorporated in scoring systems, which unfortunately lack a 100% sensitivity and specificity.
  • Little is known on the molecular mechanisms leading to the malignant phenotype in adrenocortical tumors.
  • Among other molecules, metalloproteinases were demonstrated to be implicated in malignant progression and metastatization of solid tumors, including endocrine ones.
  • Therefore, we aimed to investigate metalloproteinases and their inhibitors expression in a series of 50 adrenocortical carcinomas and 50 control adrenocortical adenomas, diagnosed according to the Weiss histological criteria.
  • Metalloproteinase type 2 gave the most significant result, being detected in neoplastic cells in 1/50 adrenocortical adenomas (2%) and 37/50 adrenocortical carcinomas (74%) (P < 0.001), with a focal (score 1, <20% of positive cells--two-thirds of cases) or diffuse (score 2, >20% of positive cells--one-third of cases) pattern.
  • In addition, diffuse (score 2) metalloproteinase type 2 protein expression, as compared to focal or negative immunostaining, correlated with shorter survival (P < 0.02) and disease-free interval (P = 0.05).
  • Our data indicate that metalloproteinase type 2 immunohistochemical localization in tumor cells is significantly restricted to malignant adrenocortical tumors, with high specificity but low sensitivity.
  • In addition, a strong metalloproteinase type 2 expression in adrenocortical carcinoma was for the first time recognized as an unfavorable prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / enzymology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16980949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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7. Szolar DH, Korobkin M, Reittner P, Berghold A, Bauernhofer T, Trummer H, Schoellnast H, Preidler KW, Samonigg H: Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT. Radiology; 2005 Feb;234(2):479-85
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively measure the adrenal gland attenuation and the percentage loss of adrenal gland enhancement at delayed contrast medium-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in patients with adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas and to compare these data with those in patients with adenomas and metastases.
  • Eleven patients with proved adrenocortical carcinoma, 17 with proved pheochromocytoma, 23 with adrenal adenoma, and 16 with metastasis to the adrenal gland underwent helical CT.
  • RESULTS: The mean attenuation of adenomas (8 HU +/- 18 [standard deviation]) was significantly lower than those of adrenocortical carcinomas (39 HU +/- 14), pheochromocytomas (44 HU +/- 11), and metastases (34 HU +/- 11) on nonenhanced CT scans (P < .001).
  • Although the mean attenuation values for nonadenomas (ie, adrenocortical carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases) were significantly higher than the value for adenomas on the 1-minute contrast-enhanced CT scans (P < .001), there was more overlap in attenuation between adenomas and nonadenomas on contrast-enhanced scans than on nonenhanced scans.
  • On the 10-minute delayed contrast-enhanced scans, the mean attenuation of adenomas (32 HU +/- 17) was significantly lower than the mean attenuations of carcinomas (72 HU +/- 15), pheochromocytomas (83 HU +/- 14), and metastases (66 HU +/- 13) (P < .001).
  • At optimal threshold values of 50% for absolute percentage of enhancement loss and 40% for relative percentage of enhancement loss at 10 minutes, both the sensitivity and the specificity for the diagnosis of adenoma were 100% when adenomas were compared with carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: The enhancement loss in adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas is similar to that in adrenal metastases but significantly less than that in adrenal adenomas.
  • The percentage change in contrast material washout is a useful adjunct to absolute CT attenuation values in differentiating adrenal adenomas from adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2005 Sep;236(3):1112-3 [16118181.001]
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2006 Jan;238(1):373; author reply 373-4 [16373781.001]
  • (PMID = 15671003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Lee HG, Lee B, Kim SM, Suh BJ, Yu HJ: A case of gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as meningeal carcinomatosis. Korean J Intern Med; 2007 Dec;22(4):304-7
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  • [Title] A case of gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as meningeal carcinomatosis.
  • Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in approximately 5% of patients with cancer.
  • The most common cancers involving the leptomeninges are breast, lung cancer and melanoma.
  • However, gastric adenocarcinoma has been rarely reported with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.
  • We report a case of leptomeningeal metastasis that presented as a gastric cancer.
  • The endoscopy showed a thickening of the folds of the stomach compatible with the diagnosis of a Borrman type IV gastric cancer.
  • The biopsy revealed a signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • The cytology examination of the cerebrospinal fluid supported the diagnosis of metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Female. Humans. Mannitol. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18309694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 3OWL53L36A / Mannitol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687665
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9. Gasilionis V, Ersahin C, Gabram S, Bova D, Branch J, Rajan P: Adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast. J Clin Pathol; 2006 May;59(5):546-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast.
  • A 56 year old woman was diagnosed with adrenal cortical carcinoma in May 2003, for which she underwent left radical adrenalectomy.
  • A diagnosis of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma was made on core biopsy.
  • Subsequently, the patient underwent a lumpectomy of the mass, which confirmed the diagnosis.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16644887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860300
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10. Palmero EI, Schüler-Faccini L, Caleffi M, Achatz MI, Olivier M, Martel-Planche G, Marcel V, Aguiar E, Giacomazzi J, Ewald IP, Giugliani R, Hainaut P, Ashton-Prolla P: Detection of R337H, a germline TP53 mutation predisposing to multiple cancers, in asymptomatic women participating in a breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil. Cancer Lett; 2008 Mar 8;261(1):21-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of R337H, a germline TP53 mutation predisposing to multiple cancers, in asymptomatic women participating in a breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil.
  • Germline TP53 mutations predispose to a rare familial cancer syndrome, the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), characterized by the early onset of multiple cancers including childhood adrenocortical carcinomas, sarcomas and brain tumors, and breast and colon cancer in young adults.
  • An identical germline mutation at codon 337 in TP53 (R337H) has been shown to be causally related to an increased risk of multiple cancers in unrelated subjects with familial cancer risk in Southern Brazil.
  • Here we have assessed the prevalence of R337H in 750 healthy women participating in a community-based breast cancer screening program in the area of Porto Alegre.
  • The mutant was detected in two participants (0.3%) who were fourth-degree relatives and reported a familial history of cancer at multiple sites that did not match classical criteria for LFS and its variants.
  • Testing in additional family members detected the mutation in three subjects, one of whom developed breast cancer at the age of 36.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, p53. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brazil. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Genetic Testing. Humans. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Middle Aged. Pedigree

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  • (PMID = 18248785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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11. Noda M, Ohno S, Nakajin S: Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) induces nuclear receptor 4A subfamily in NCI-H295R cells: a possible mechanism of aromatase suppression by MEHP. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Aug 15;274(1-2):8-18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of phthalate esters on aromatase (CYP19) activity and on its gene expression in a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, NCI-H295R.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Protein Kinase C / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17574328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / NR4A1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1; 0 / Plasticizers; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / Transcription Factors; C42K0PH13C / Diethylhexyl Phthalate; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
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12. Gross BA, Mindea SA, Pick AJ, Chandler JP, Batjer HH: Medical management of Cushing disease. Neurosurg Focus; 2007;23(3):E10
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  • [Title] Medical management of Cushing disease.
  • Although transsphenoidal excision of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing neoplasm is often the treatment of choice in patients with Cushing disease, medical management is itself a useful preoperative temporizing measure, an option for long-term management in nonsurgical candidates, and an option for patients in whom surgery and/or radiotherapy have failed.
  • Three pathophysiologically based approaches exist in the research literature--neuro-modulation to limit ACTH levels, adrenal enzyme inhibition, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonism.
  • Adrenal enzyme inhibitors, however, offer substantial future promise in the management of Cushing disease but are limited by the potential need to use them indefinitely and by dose-tolerance effects.
  • Although etomidate is a potential intravenous alternative for acute cortisol level control, ketoconazole has shown efficacy in the long-term treatment of patients with the disease.
  • If success is still not achieved, the potent adrenolytic agent often used for adrenocortical carcinomas, mitotane, is another alternative.

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  • (PMID = 17961023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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13. Chen TW, Tsai CH, Chou SJ, Yu CY, Shih ML, Yu JC, Hsieh CB: Intrapericardial isolation of the inferior vena cava through a transdiaphragmatic pericardial window for tumor resection without sternotomy or thoracotomy. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Mar;33(2):239-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Pericardium / surgery. Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / radiography. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Hepatectomy. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Sternum / surgery. Thoracotomy / contraindications. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17174512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Patel VV, Shah DS, Raychaudhari CR, Patel KB: Giant non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare childhood tumor. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2010 Apr;31(2):65-8
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  • [Title] Giant non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare childhood tumor.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, especially in children.
  • Empty left renal fossa and compensatory enlarged right kidney were seen.
  • With a stage IV disease, the patient died after 2 months from diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] Radiographics. 1999 Jul-Aug;19(4):989-1008 [10464805.001]
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  • (PMID = 21209768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2970938
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenocortical carcinoma / adrenocortical tumor / nonfunctioning
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15. Vega Vega A, Canga Presa JM, Sanz de la Morena P, de la Cruz Vigo JL: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in adrenal carcinoma]. Actas Urol Esp; 2005 Mar;29(3):277-80
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in adrenal carcinoma].
  • There is general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions against open procedures because of the efficacy and less morbidity.
  • For suspected adrenal malignancies laparoscopic use is controversial.
  • We report our experience in 6 cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with the suspicion of adrenal malignancy confined in the gland.
  • We concluded that in a suspected adrenal malignancy organ confined laparoscopic adrenalectomy presents the advantage compared with open surgery of reduced morbidity and similar results in the follow up of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 15945253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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16. Kanczkowski W, Zacharowski K, Wirth MP, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Bornstein SR: Differential expression and action of Toll-like receptors in human adrenocortical cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):57-65
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  • [Title] Differential expression and action of Toll-like receptors in human adrenocortical cells.
  • During sepsis, an intact adrenal gland glucocorticoid stress response is critical for survival.
  • However, the exact role which TLRs play in adrenal homeostasis and malfunction is not yet sufficiently known.
  • Using quantitative real-time PCR, confocal microscopy and the NF-kappaB reporter gene assay, we aimed to analyse both, expression and function of all relevant TLRs in the human adrenocortical cell line-NCI-H295R and adrenal cells in primary culture.
  • Our results demonstrate a differential expression pattern of TLR1-9 in human adrenocortical cells as compared to immune cells and adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • Therefore, Toll-like receptors expression and function is a novel feature of the adrenal stress system contributing to adrenal tissue homeostasis, regeneration and tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Gene Expression Regulation. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19022344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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17. Erbil Y, Salmaslioğlu A, Barbaros U, Bozbora A, Mete O, Aral F, Ozarmağan S: Clinical and radiological features of adrenal cysts. Urol Int; 2008;80(1):31-6
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  • [Title] Clinical and radiological features of adrenal cysts.
  • Adrenal cysts are very rare lesions, usually asymptomatic or without characteristic symptoms.
  • Although pseudocysts are reported to be the most common clinically recognized adrenal cysts in surgical series, endothelial cysts are more common in autopsy series.
  • We studied 15 consecutive patients with adrenal cysts who underwent surgical resection at our institution from 1990 to 2005.
  • Of 15 patients with adrenal cysts, 10 had pseudocysts, 3 epithelial cysts, 1 an endothelial cyst and 1 a parasitic cyst.
  • In conclusion, a better understanding of cystic adrenal masses is necessary to recognize true adrenal cysts and differentiating them from adrenal carcinoma or adenoma by demonstrating the foci of cystic or degenerative changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Endothelium / pathology. Epithelium / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / radiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18204230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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18. Horinouchi H, Yamao S, Gotoh S, Jinta T, Nishimura N, Suzuki K, Chohnabayashi N: [Two cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis mimicking pneumonia in lung cancer patients]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Sep;47(9):786-92
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  • [Title] [Two cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis mimicking pneumonia in lung cancer patients].
  • BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) occurs predominantly in immunocompromised hosts, however increasing numbers of cases of IPA have been reported among basically immunocompetent patients who have some pulmonary abnormalities such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • He had COPD and small cell lung cancer and had finished chemotherapy 5 years previously.
  • He had COPD and non-small cell lung cancer and finished chemotherapy 2 months previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / complications. Immunocompromised Host. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis / diagnosis. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antifungal Agents. Community-Acquired Infections. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Pneumonia, Bacterial. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / complications. Radiography, Thoracic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19827582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antifungal Agents
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19. Le Parc JM: [Inflammatory arthritis of the elderly]. Rev Prat; 2005 Dec 15;55(19):2115-20
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  • Same syndromes resistant to steroids will reveal hemopathy or metastastic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Arthritis, Gouty / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iatrogenic Disease. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sex Factors. Spondylarthritis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16544922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
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20. Yi NJ, Suh KS, Cho JY, Kwon CH, Lee KW, Joh JW, Lee SK, Kim SI, Lee KU: Recurrence of hepatitis B is associated with cumulative corticosteroid dose and chemotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl; 2007 Mar;13(3):451-8
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  • [Title] Recurrence of hepatitis B is associated with cumulative corticosteroid dose and chemotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation.
  • Eighty-five patients (41.9%) had a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Hepatitis B / chemically induced. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 AASLD.
  • (PMID = 17318862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6465
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / hepatitis B hyperimmune globulin; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine
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21. Müssig K, Wehrmann M, Horger M, Maser-Gluth C, Häring HU, Overkamp D: Adrenocortical carcinoma producing 11-deoxycorticosterone: a rare cause of mineralocorticoid hypertension. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Jan;28(1):61-5
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma producing 11-deoxycorticosterone: a rare cause of mineralocorticoid hypertension.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scans showed a large right adrenal mass without signs of metastatic disease.
  • The tumor was removed by open laparotomy, and histology revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Two yr after diagnosis, the patient is in good general condition and there is no sign of recurrence or metastatic disease, despite the large tumor size.
  • DOC producing adrenocortical carcinomas causing mineralocorticoid hypertension are very rare, so far only 10 cases have been described in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Desoxycorticosterone / biosynthesis. Hypertension / etiology. Hypertension / physiopathology. Mineralocorticoids / physiology. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / urine. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / urine. Catecholamines / urine. Humans. Hypokalemia / etiology. Hypokalemia / physiopathology. Male. Renin / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15816373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Mineralocorticoids; 40GP35YQ49 / Desoxycorticosterone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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22. Zaitoon A, Zaitoon MM, Perlmutter AE, Zaslau S: Aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinoma: a case report. W V Med J; 2007 May-Jun;103(3):17-8
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  • [Title] Aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinoma: a case report.
  • We present a case of aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • This diagnosis should be suspected in patients first seen with hypertension and hypokalemia since this tumor may not always be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Aldosterone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17849670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Virginia medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] W V Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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23. Fujiwara M, Kamma H, Wu W, Yano Y, Homma S, Satoh H: Alternative lengthening of telomeres in the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R. Int J Oncol; 2006 Aug;29(2):445-51
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  • [Title] Alternative lengthening of telomeres in the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R.
  • It has been reported that clinical samples of adrenocortical carcinoma show a low incidence of telomerase positivity.
  • We characterized an adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, H295R, focusing on the telomere maintenance mechanism, and compared it with telomerase-positive 293 cells and HeLa cells.
  • In conclusion, the H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cell line is negative for telomerase and maintains its telomeres by the ALT mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Carcinoma / ultrastructure. Telomere / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. HeLa Cells. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Neoplasms / metabolism. Oligonucleotides / chemistry. Phenotype. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16820888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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24. Trahair T, Andrews L, Cohn RJ: Recognition of Li Fraumeni syndrome at diagnosis of a locally advanced extremity rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Mar;48(3):345-8
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  • [Title] Recognition of Li Fraumeni syndrome at diagnosis of a locally advanced extremity rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • A contemporaneous presentation of a second breast cancer in a mother and an extremity rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in her daughter led to the diagnosis of the Li Fraumeni syndrome (LFS).
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, p53. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Case Management. Child, Preschool. Codon, Nonsense. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Humans. Leg. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Male. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / prevention & control. Neoplasms, Second Primary / prevention & control. Pedigree. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / contraindications. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / genetics. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Sarcoma / genetics. Sarcoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16534790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Codon, Nonsense
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25. Sabaté JM, Gómez A, Torrubia S, Salinas T, Clotet M, Lerma E: Lupus panniculitis involving the breast. Eur Radiol; 2006 Jan;16(1):53-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Lupus panniculitis is an unusual immunological disease that characteristically affects the subcutaneous fat and occurs in 2% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  • High echogenicity constituted the most relevant sonographic finding.
  • Differential diagnosis with carcinoma and fat necrosis and the value of core biopsy are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Panniculitis, Lupus Erythematosus / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Adult. Biopsy / methods. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rare Diseases

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  • (PMID = 15937681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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26. Mseddi M, Bouassida S, Khemakhem M, Marrekchi S, Abdelmaksoud W, Hadjtaieb H, Turki H, Zahaf A: [Radiotherapy-induced pemphigus: a case report]. Cancer Radiother; 2005 Mar;9(2):96-8
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  • A 61-year-old male patient suffering from squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip developed pemphigus vulgaris two months after exposure to radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Lip Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pemphigus / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15820437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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27. Owecki M, Baszko-Błaszyk D, Waśko R, Sowiński J: [Non-small cell lung cancer presenting under the mask of a primary adrenal cancer--case report]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Feb;18(104):216-8
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  • [Title] [Non-small cell lung cancer presenting under the mask of a primary adrenal cancer--case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Niedrobnokomórkowy rak płuca przebiegajacy pod maska pierwotnego raka nadnercza--opis przypadku.
  • Adrenal carcinoma is a malignant disease that often results in distant metastases to different organs, including the lungs.
  • While diagnosing patients with suspected adrenal carcinoma, metastases to the lungs should always be considered.
  • The opposite clinical situation also should be considered, i.e. lung cancer metastases to the adrenal gland.
  • Both conditions may have a very similar course and their differential diagnosis may be sometimes very difficult.
  • However, proper diagnosis is of great importance because both diseases are treated by different means.
  • We present a case of a 50-year-old female patient with a small primary focus of non-small cell lung carcinoma and its large metastasis to the left adrenal gland, accompanied by SIADH and paraneoplastic hypercalcemia.
  • In the presented case adrenal carcinoma and its lung metastasis were primarily misdiagnosed which led to unnecessary laparotomy.
  • The proper diagnosis was enabled by CT guided biopsy of the lung tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Diagnostic Errors. Lung Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Unnecessary Procedures


28. Vuorenoja S, Rivero-Muller A, Kiiveri S, Bielinska M, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB, Huhtaniemi IT, Rahman NA: Adrenocortical tumorigenesis, luteinizing hormone receptor and transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Apr 15;269(1-2):38-45
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumorigenesis, luteinizing hormone receptor and transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6.
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH/hCG) responsiveness of normal and pathological human adrenal glands as well as the possibility of constitutive expressions of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in adrenal cortex has been reported.
  • Some recent studies showed a correlation between the LHR and abundant GATA-4 expression in both metastasizing and non-metastasizing human adrenocortical tumors, but not in normal adrenals, implicating the putative relevance of LHR and GATA-4 for adrenocortical pathophysiology.
  • However, the physio- and pathophysiological significance of LHR and GATA-4 in the mechanism of adrenocortical tumorigenesis remains unclear.
  • The paucity of suitable models for adrenal tumorigenesis makes the establishment of proper animal models highly important.
  • LHR expression in the murine adrenal gland is an exception and not found in wild-type (WT) animal.
  • We have previously shown that ectopic LHR expression in the murine adrenal gland can be induced by chronically elevated LH levels.
  • We have generated a gonadotropin-responsive adrenal tumor model in gonadectomized transgenic (TG) mice expressing the inhibin alpha promoter/Simian Virus 40 T antigen transgene (inhalpha/Tag).
  • Given the induction of expression and regulation of GATA-4 and GATA-6 zinc finger transcription factors in the gonads by gonadotropins, this review will explore their relationship to LHR expression and their role in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • A functional link between LHR and GATA-4 actions in the adrenal pathophysiology is proposed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. GATA4 Transcription Factor / physiology. GATA6 Transcription Factor / physiology. Receptors, LH / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Inhibins / genetics. Mice. Mice, Transgenic

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  • (PMID = 17337116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA4 protein, human; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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29. Sperone P, Berruti A, Gorzegno G, Paccotti P, Terzolo M, Porpiglia F, Angeli A, Dogliotti L: Long-term disease free survival in a patient with metastatic adreno-cortical carcinoma after complete pathological response to chemotherapy plus mitotane. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jun;29(6):560-2
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  • [Title] Long-term disease free survival in a patient with metastatic adreno-cortical carcinoma after complete pathological response to chemotherapy plus mitotane.
  • Adreno-cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with poor prognosis.
  • Complete surgical resection of the primary tumor and, when feasible, of the local and distant metastases offers the best prospects for long-term survival; conversely, the role of systemic therapy in patients developing unresectable metastatic disease is unclear.
  • We describe the case of a young female patient (36 yr) who presented with an androgen-releasing metastatic ACC.
  • The left adrenal gland was then removed and histopathological examination showed extensive tumor necrosis and the absence of viable cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16840836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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30. Daffara F, De Francia S, Reimondo G, Zaggia B, Aroasio E, Porpiglia F, Volante M, Termine A, Di Carlo F, Dogliotti L, Angeli A, Berruti A, Terzolo M: Prospective evaluation of mitotane toxicity in adrenocortical cancer patients treated adjuvantly. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1043-53
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of mitotane toxicity in adrenocortical cancer patients treated adjuvantly.
  • Seventeen consecutive patients who were treated with mitotane after radical resection of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) from 1999 to 2005 underwent physical examination, routine laboratory evaluation, monitoring of mitotane concentrations, and a hormonal work-up at baseline and every 3 months till ACC relapse or study end (December 2007).
  • Mitotane affected adrenal steroidogenesis with a more remarkable inhibition of cortisol and DHEAS than aldosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18824557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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31. Wöhrl S, Loewe R, Pickl WF, Stingl G, Wagner SN: EMPACT syndrome. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2005 Jan;3(1):39-43
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  • Therapeutic measures included seizure prophylaxis with phenytoin and total brain radiation therapy of brain metastases from bronchial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Bronchial Neoplasms. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / administration & dosage. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Skin Tests. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome / chemically induced. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome / etiology. Syndrome. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2005 Jul;3(7):569-70; author reply 570 [15967019.001]
  • (PMID = 16353748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 6158TKW0C5 / Phenytoin
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32. Sorge I, Bierbach U, Finke R, Hirsch W: Multiple malignant and benign lesions in the liver in a child with adrenocortical carcinoma. Pediatr Radiol; 2008 May;38(5):588-91
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  • [Title] Multiple malignant and benign lesions in the liver in a child with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • We report 4-year-old girl who was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma when she was 2 years old.
  • At the time of diagnosis there were no metastases, but 6 months later multiple liver metastases appeared.
  • We discuss the origin and the uncommon appearance of multifocal nodular hyperplasia in hormone-active tumours such as adrenocortical carcinoma in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Liver / diagnostic imaging. Liver / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rare Diseases. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18256815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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33. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Rucinski M, Malendowicz LK, De Caro R: Natriuretic peptides in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol; 2010;280:1-39
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  • [Title] Natriuretic peptides in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • All natriuretic peptides and their receptors are widely present in the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal cortex, and medulla.
  • Inhibition or stimulation of glucocorticoid secretion by adrenocortical cells has been reported on the basis of the species involved, and an indirect effect mediated by adrenalmedullary cells has been hypothesized.
  • In the adrenal medulla, natriuretic peptides inhibit catecholamine release and increase catecholamine uptake.
  • It appears that natriuretic peptides may play a role in the pathophysiology of adrenocortical neoplasias and pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Natriuretic Peptides / metabolism. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Receptors, Neuropeptide / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20797680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-6448
  • [Journal-full-title] International review of cell and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Rev Cell Mol Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Natriuretic Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide
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34. Fujino M, Shirato H, Onishi H, Kawamura H, Takayama K, Koto M, Onimaru R, Nagata Y, Hiraoka M: Characteristics of patients who developed radiation pneumonitis requiring steroid therapy after stereotactic irradiation for lung tumors. Cancer J; 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):41-6
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  • BACKGROUND: To find possible risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic irradiation (STI) for peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pre-treatment pulmonary function test and dose volume statistics in patients who developed RP requiring steroid intake were retrospectively compared with statistics of those who did not develop RP.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Pneumonitis / etiology. Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiotherapy Dosage. Respiratory Function Tests. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Stereotaxic Techniques

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer J. 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):19-20 [16613657.001]
  • (PMID = 16613661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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35. Frère P, Baron F, Bonnet C, Hafraoui K, Pereira M, Willems E, Fillet G, Beguin Y: Infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2006 Feb;37(4):411-8
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  • [Title] Infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen.
  • Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) following nonmyeloablative conditioning (NMSCT) may be associated with a reduced risk of infection compared to standard allogeneic HCT.
  • Donor other than sibling, older age, early disease and male gender were significant risk factors.
  • The risk of bacteremia increased with older age and the use of a donor other than an HLA-identical sibling, but not with neutropenia.
  • The risk of CMV infection increased with high-risk CMV serology, and risk of CMV disease with high-risk CMV serology, older age, first transplantation and a diagnosis of lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy. Hematologic Neoplasms / therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Infection / epidemiology. Transplantation Conditioning / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Belgium / epidemiology. Cytomegalovirus Infections / epidemiology. Cytomegalovirus Infections / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Graft vs Host Disease / prevention & control. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 16415900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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36. Balogh K, Hunyady L, Patócs A, Valkusz Z, Bertalan R, Gergics P, Majnik J, Toke J, Tóth M, Szucs N, Gláz E, Futo L, Horányi J, Rácz K, Tulassay Z: [Clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Results of genetic screening in Hungarian patients]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Oct 23;146(43):2191-7
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  • [Title] [Clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Results of genetic screening in Hungarian patients].
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by endocrinopathies involving the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreas.
  • Also, it may be associated with foregut carcinoid, adrenocortical tumors and non-endocrine tumors.
  • After reviewing the prevalence, genetic background, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the disorder, the authors present their genetic screening method used for the detection of mutations of the MEN1 gene (prescreening of polymerase chain reaction amplified exons using temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis followed by direct DNA sequencing).
  • Using this method, the authors identified disease-causing MEN1 gene mutations in 9 probands (small deletions in 2 cases, insertion in 2 cases, nonsense mutations in 2 cases and missense mutations in 3 cases).
  • Family screening indicated de novo mutations in 2 probands.
  • The authors conclude that one of the major advantages of genetic screening in families with MEN1 syndrome was the identification of family members carrying the mutation who should be regularly screened for disease manifestations and those not carrying the mutation in whom clinical screening is unnecessary.
  • Also, genetic screening may be useful in cases when MEN1 syndrome is suspected, but the clinical manifestations do not fully establish the diagnosis of MEN1 syndrome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Humans. Hungary / epidemiology. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism / therapy. Mutation. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Pedigree. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Polymorphism, Genetic


37. Goldschneider KR, Racadio JM, Weidner NJ: Celiac plexus blockade in children using a three-dimensional fluoroscopic reconstruction technique: case reports. Reg Anesth Pain Med; 2007 Nov-Dec;32(6):510-5
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  • One carried the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, one abdominal pain and gastrointestinal dysmotility, the other adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adult. Carcinoma / complications. Child. Child, Preschool. Cystic Fibrosis / complications. Fatal Outcome. Gastrointestinal Motility / drug effects. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mitochondrial Diseases / complications. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Palliative Care. Pancreatitis / complications

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  • (PMID = 18035298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-7339
  • [Journal-full-title] Regional anesthesia and pain medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reg Anesth Pain Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Fenske W, Völker HU, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Wortmann S, Schmidt M, Morcos M, Müller-Hermelink HK, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):919-28
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  • [Title] Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Owing to the rarity of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) no prognostic markers have been established beyond stage and resection status.
  • Accelerated glycolysis is a characteristic feature of cancer cells and in a variety of tumour entities key factors in glucose metabolism like glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and -3), transketolase like-1 enzyme (TKTL1) and pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK) are overexpressed and of prognostic value.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 167 ACCs, 15 adrenal adenomas and 4 normal adrenal glands.
  • When analysing patients in their early stages and advanced disease separately, similar results were obtained.
  • HR for survival was 5.31 (1.80-15.62) in patients with metastatic ACC and in patients after radical resection the HR for disease-free survival was 6.10 (2.16-16.94).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19465749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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39. Allwes D, Popovich ML: Empowering patients and researchers through a common health information registry: a case example of adrenocortical carcinoma patients and researchers. Stud Health Technol Inform; 2007;127:219-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Empowering patients and researchers through a common health information registry: a case example of adrenocortical carcinoma patients and researchers.
  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that forms in the outer layer of tissue of the adrenal gland, which is a small gland situated on the anteriosuperior aspect of the kidneys.
  • Because this cancer affects a limited number of patients, it is referred to as an Orphan disease, which is defined as a condition that affects fewer than 200,000 people nationwide.
  • With a small number of patients, and a correspondingly small number of providers and researches, this disease is a candidate for establishing a shareable information system that is used by the patient, provider, and researcher.
  • Orphan disease registries are prime candidates for establishing health information resources that support communications between patients, providers, and researchers.
  • By empowering a common community of individuals that share a common disease, the potential to accelerate research and identify improved treatment options may also increase.
  • This paper presents a strategic plan and design for implementing Orphan disease registries within an e-health environment that specifically links patients and providers with researchers.
  • The Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry will be used to demonstrate the implementation and potential of these systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Medical Informatics / organization & administration. Patient Participation. Registries. Research Personnel

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  • (PMID = 17901614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9630
  • [Journal-full-title] Studies in health technology and informatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stud Health Technol Inform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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40. Fassnacht M, Allolio B: What is the best approach to an apparently nonmetastatic adrenocortical carcinoma? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Nov;73(5):561-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What is the best approach to an apparently nonmetastatic adrenocortical carcinoma?
  • In suspected nonmetastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) a careful preoperative diagnostic work up is needed including comprehensive endocrine analysis as recommended by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (http://www.ENSAT.org/ACC.htm).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20738315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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41. Koschker AC, Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Weismann D, Allolio B: Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Feb;114(2):45-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with a poor prognosis.
  • DIAGNOSIS: In case of an adrenal mass, hormonal workup before surgery is required for differential diagnosis, perioperative management, and for follow-up.
  • GANIMED, as a Germany-wide network of experts on adrenal diseases, has been founded allowing for improved gathering of data and joint studies.
  • ENSAT (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours) has been brought to life, aiming at European standards for therapy, diagnosis and tumour banking.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Mutation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16570232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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42. El Demellawy D, Nasr A, Samkari A, Pastolero P, Alowami S: Aberrant adrenocortical tissue in hernia sac occurring in an adult: case report and review of the literature. Hernia; 2009 Dec;13(6):659-662
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  • [Title] Aberrant adrenocortical tissue in hernia sac occurring in an adult: case report and review of the literature.
  • Aberrant adrenal tissue is rare, particularly in adults.
  • Awareness of the possible occurrence of adrenal tissue in hernial sac is crucial, as these rests may have several clinical implications.
  • These potential implications include hyperplasia, adrenal insufficiency, neoplastic transformation and misdiagnosis as metastatic clear cell carcinoma.
  • We report a rare case of aberrant adrenocortical tissue in hernial sac.
  • We review the literature and highlight the clinical implications of this incidental finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Choristoma / complications. Hernia, Inguinal / complications

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  • [Cites] Ann Diagn Pathol. 2007 Aug;11(4):291-2 [17630115.001]
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  • (PMID = 19367442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1248-9204
  • [Journal-full-title] Hernia : the journal of hernias and abdominal wall surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hernia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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43. Ramos-De la Medina A, Que FG: Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting as a retroperitoneal abscess: an unusual presentation of a rare tumor. Endocr Pract; 2007 Sep;13(5):567-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting as a retroperitoneal abscess: an unusual presentation of a rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Retropharyngeal Abscess / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Hormones / urine. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17872359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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44. Sperone P, Ferrero A, Daffara F, Priola A, Zaggia B, Volante M, Santini D, Vincenzi B, Badalamenti G, Intrivici C, Del Buono S, De Francia S, Kalomirakis E, Ratti R, Angeli A, Dogliotti L, Papotti M, Terzolo M, Berruti A: Gemcitabine plus metronomic 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine as a second-/third-line chemotherapy in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma: a multicenter phase II study. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Jun;17(2):445-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gemcitabine plus metronomic 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine as a second-/third-line chemotherapy in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma: a multicenter phase II study.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by poor prognosis.
  • First-line systemic treatments in advanced disease include mitotane, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy.
  • They received a combination of i.v. gemcitabine (800 mg/m(2), on days 1 and 8, every 21 days) and i.v.
  • A complete response was observed in 1 patient (3.5%); 1 patient (3.5%) obtained a partial regression, 11 patients (39.3%) obtained a disease stabilization and 15 patients (53.7%) progressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Capecitabine. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Mucositis / chemically induced. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010 Jul;6(7):355 [20583342.001]
  • (PMID = 20410174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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45. Attivi D, Ajana I, Astier A, Demoré B, Gibaud S: Development of microemulsion of mitotane for improvement of oral bioavailability. Drug Dev Ind Pharm; 2010 Apr;36(4):421-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Mitotane (o,p'-DDD) is considered to be the drug of choice in the treatment of nonresectable and metastasized adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The optimum formulation consisted of a mixture of Capryol, Tween, and Cremophor EL (33:33:33).
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacokinetics. Biological Availability. Drug Compounding / methods. Emulsions. Humans. Intestinal Absorption. Jejunum / metabolism. Male. Particle Size. Rabbits. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Solubility. Surface-Active Agents / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19778161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5762
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug development and industrial pharmacy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Dev Ind Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Emulsions; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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46. Khan S, Imtiaz KE: Adrenocortical carcinoma: a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. Br J Hosp Med (Lond); 2009 Jan;70(1):46-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: a diagnostic and treatment dilemma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Seeding

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  • (PMID = 19357579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-8460
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of hospital medicine (London, England : 2005)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Hosp Med (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Ignaszak-Szczepaniak M, Horst-Sikorska W, Sawicka J, Kaczmarek M, Slomski R: The TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and predisposition to adrenocortical cancer in Polish patients. Oncol Rep; 2006 Jul;16(1):65-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and predisposition to adrenocortical cancer in Polish patients.
  • We have analyzed the 72Pro polymorphic variant in patients with adrenocortical tumors to evaluate whether 72G--> C substitution at codon 72 of TP53 gene may be associated with increased risk for malignancy in adrenal cortex in comparison to the control group.
  • DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes of 46 Polish patients with adrenocortical tumors (17 malignant and 29 benign) and 50 controls was examined by PCR-HD method followed by direct sequencing.
  • High frequency of 72Pro allele in patients with carcinoma (29%) in comparison to the benign tumors (14%) and controls (12%) was statistically analyzed.
  • Our results suggest that the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism could be associated with susceptibility for adrenocortical cancer in the examined Polish patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Polymorphism, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16786124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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48. Castillo O, Sánchez-Salas R, Vidal I: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2008 Sep;60(3):177-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the gold standard for the surgical management of small and medium adrenal masses.
  • Nevertheless, there is still controversy for the laparoscopic treatment of adrenal carcinoma.
  • The aim of this article was to report current standards on LA.
  • Even when available evidence in the literature is low for LA, it has become the standard of treatment for adrenal masses especially in benign lesions.
  • The most employed surgical technique for LA is the lateral transabdominal, but novel approaches have been developed to treat surgically adrenal diseases and an objective evaluation of outcomes is awaited.
  • Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal primary malignancy and metastases is still controversial although clear indications for laparoscopy in these cases are bounded to surgical experience.
  • LA has definitively replaced open surgery in the surgical management of adrenal tumors < or = 12 cm, because of its advantages in terms of morbidity and recovery.
  • Large and malignant tumors should be carefully approached by experienced laparoscopic surgeons.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18787512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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49. Kutzleb C, Busmann A, Wendland M, Maronde E: Discovery of novel regulatory peptides by reverse pharmacology: spotlight on chemerin and the RF-amide peptides metastin and QRFP. Curr Protein Pept Sci; 2005 Jun;6(3):265-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Reverse pharmacology is a screening technology that matches G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with unknown cognate ligands in cell-based screening assays by detection of agonist-induced signaling pathways.
  • One decade spent pursuing orphan GPCR screening by this technique assigned over 30 ligand/receptor pairs and revealed previously known or novel undescribed ligands, mostly of a peptidic nature.
  • The novel RF-amide QRFP is implicated in food intake and aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex in the rat.
  • By GPCR screening, bioactive chemerin was isolated from ovarial carcinoma fluid as well as hemofiltrate.

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  • (PMID = 15974952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-2037
  • [Journal-full-title] Current protein & peptide science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Protein Pept. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / KISS1 protein, human; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / chemerin protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 139
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50. Betz MJ, Shapiro I, Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Reincke M, Beuschlein F, German and Austrian Adrenal Network: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress adrenocortical tumor cell proliferation and induce differentiation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;90(7):3886-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress adrenocortical tumor cell proliferation and induce differentiation.
  • Moreover, recent evidence has suggested that TZDs might have favorable effects in the treatment of a variety of tumors as differentiation-inducing agents.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor entity with poor prognosis due to its highly malignant phenotype and lack of effective treatment options.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of TZDs on adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • RESULTS: PPARgamma mRNA expression was detectable in all adrenocortical tumors including ACCs at similar levels.
  • Furthermore, incubation of the adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI h295 with the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone led to a decrease in cell viability, a decrease of cellular proliferation, and an increase in apoptosis as well as steroidogenesis.
  • On the molecular level, NCI h295 cells expressed higher levels of ACTH receptor (melanocortin receptor-2) mRNA upon treatment, whereas cyclin E mRNA was reduced, thus reflecting a shift toward an expression pattern found in less aggressive adrenocortical tumors in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. PPAR gamma / agonists. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anilides / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclin E / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15886257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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51. Rescorla FJ: Malignant adrenal tumors. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;15(1):48-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors, apart from neuroblastoma, are relatively rare in infancy and childhood.
  • Most adrenal lesions are benign, and both benign and malignant tumors may be hormonally active thus, making accurate preoperative diagnosis difficult.
  • The two main malignant tumors are adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma.
  • In both tumors, it may be difficult to determine benign from malignant and the biologic behavior and degree of invasion may portend a more malignant course.
  • An open procedure should be considered for invasive adrenocortical carcinoma and in pheochromocytomas in which preoperative imaging demonstrates metastatic nodal disease.
  • Chemotherapy, although without proven efficacy, is utilized in some children with metastatic or unresectable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16458846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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52. Cavalier ME, Davis MM, Croop JM: Germline p53 mutation presenting as synchronous tumors. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Aug;27(8):441-3
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  • The authors describe a 14-month-old boy who presented with synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma and adrenal cortical carcinoma and a novel mutation of the p53 gene.
  • Although codon 273 is a known hotspot region for p53 mutation, the patient's mutation, R273H, has not been associated with development of adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16096528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon
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53. Martarelli D, Pompei P, Mazzoni G: Inhibition of adrenocortical carcinoma by diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197. Chemotherapy; 2009;55(6):425-32
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  • [Title] Inhibition of adrenocortical carcinoma by diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197.
  • BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the effect of CRM197 treatment in human adrenocortical carcinoma (AC) implanted in nude mice.
  • The effects on cell invasion and migration were investigated with a matrigel invasion assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Bacterial Proteins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Movement / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19996587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9794
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / HBEGF protein, human; 0 / Hbegf protein, mouse; 0 / Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 92092-36-9 / CRM197 (non-toxic variant of diphtheria toxin)
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54. Ferruzzi P, Ceni E, Tarocchi M, Grappone C, Milani S, Galli A, Fiorelli G, Serio M, Mannelli M: Thiazolidinediones inhibit growth and invasiveness of the human adrenocortical cancer cell line H295R. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1332-9
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  • [Title] Thiazolidinediones inhibit growth and invasiveness of the human adrenocortical cancer cell line H295R.
  • In the present study, we evaluated PPARgamma mRNA and protein expression in tissue samples of human adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), normal adrenal glands, and the human ACC cell line H295R.
  • PPARgamma mRNA was expressed in six of eight ACC, two of three normal adrenal glands and the H295R cells.
  • Western blot analysis showed that TZDs increased the expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27 and reduced the expression of cyclin D1.
  • These data suggest that TZDs reduce the malignant potential of the H295R ACC cell line and, therefore, might potentially constitute a novel tool in the medical treatment of human ACCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. PPAR gamma / genetics. PPAR gamma / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15585569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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55. Nasr Ben Ammar C, Chaari N, Kochbati L, Attia I, Ben Hamadi D, Chebbi A, Saadi A, Besbes M, Maalej M: [Brain radionecrosis in patients irradiated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: about nine cases]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Sep;11(5):234-40
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  • [Title] [Brain radionecrosis in patients irradiated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: about nine cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Radionécrose cérébrale chez les patients irradiés pour cancer du nasopharynx: à propos de neuf cas.
  • PURPOSE: To study the clinical, radiological, therapeutic and progressive aspects of brain radionecrosis after treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine patients (seven men and two women) of mean age 47.7 years old (extremes: 18-57 years old) were treated for UCNT (undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx) between 1989 and 2003 and developed cerebral radionecrosis.
  • Imaging techniques (CT scan but more so MRI) play a major role in the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Age Factors. Analgesics / therapeutic use. Blood-Brain Barrier. Brachytherapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Nasopharynx / pathology. Necrosis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17631405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Analgesics
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56. Schmidt A, Schwella N, Helmchen U, von Renteln D, Caca K: [A 42 year old patient with bilateral loss of sight and hypertension. Gemcitabine-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA)]. Internist (Berl); 2008 Aug;49(8):989-90, 992-4
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  • We report a case of a 42 year old male patient with a history of adrenocortical carcinoma, who was admitted with bilateral loss of sight and hypertension.
  • Laboratory tests and further clinical evaluation showed hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anemia, Hemolytic / chemically induced. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / toxicity. Blindness / etiology. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome / chemically induced. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology. Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Kidney / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 18427761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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57. Libè R, Fratticci A, Bertherat J: Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):13-28
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • By contrast, benign adrenocortical tumors are frequent, underlying the importance of a correct diagnosis of malignancy of such tumors.
  • ACC can be diagnosed by the investigation of endocrine signs of steroid excess, symptoms due to tumor growth or an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Careful pathological investigation with the assessment of the Weiss score is important for the diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Tumors localized to the adrenal gland (McFarlane stages 1 and 2) have a better outcome than invasive and metastatic tumors (stages 3 and 4).
  • In patients with metastatic or progressive disease, medical treatment is started with mitotane that requires a close monitoring of its blood level.
  • Local treatment (radiofrequency, chemoembolization, and radiation therapy) can have some indications for metastatic disease.
  • In patients with disease progression cytotoxic chemotherapy can be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy


58. Matkovic U, Pacenti M, Trevisan M, Palù G, Barzon L: Investigation on human adrenocortical cell response to adenovirus and adenoviral vector infection. J Cell Physiol; 2009 Jul;220(1):45-57
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  • [Title] Investigation on human adrenocortical cell response to adenovirus and adenoviral vector infection.
  • After systemic administration, adenoviral vectors (AdVs) are sequestered in the liver and adrenal glands.
  • Adenoviral vector transduction has been shown to cause cytopathic effects on human hepatocytes and to induce an inflammatory response, whereas the effect of AdVs on human adrenocortical cells has never been investigated.
  • In this study, human adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines and primary cell cultures were used to assess the effects of wild-type adenovirus (Ad5WT) and E1/E3-deleted AdVs on cell proliferation and steroidogenesis.
  • Ad5WT could efficiently replicate in adrenocortical cells, leading to S phase induction, followed by cell death, whereas high titer AdVs transduction had only mild effects on adrenocortical cell proliferation, with accumulation of cells in G2/M.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae / pathogenicity. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / virology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / virology. Genetic Vectors / adverse effects. Transduction, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle. Cell Death. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cell Shape. Cytokines / metabolism. Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral. Humans. Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis. Inflammation Mediators / metabolism. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Virus Replication

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  • (PMID = 19202555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4652
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Inflammation Mediators; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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59. Papotti M, Volante M, Duregon E, Delsedime L, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Rosai J: Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jul;34(7):973-83
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior.
  • Myxoid changes have been rarely reported both in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • The recent observation by our group of an adrenal myxoid tumor with morphologically borderline features, but aggressive clinical behavior prompted us to review a series of 196 adrenocortical lesions, comprising 122 carcinomas and 74 adenomas, to define the morphologic, phenotypical and clinical characteristics of adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features.
  • Fourteen cases, including 12 carcinomas and 2 borderline tumors, formed the basis of this report, and were characterized by a variably abundant myxoid component (from 5% to 90% of tumor) and 2 distinct cellular growth patterns: the first (10 cases), mostly associated with a predominant myxoid stromal component, was made of small cells with mild atypia arranged in cords and microcysts; the second (4 cases) was characterized by focal myxoid changes in tumors otherwise similar to conventional adrenocortical carcinoma, with large atypical cells having an eosinophilic cytoplasm and a diffuse or nodular architecture.
  • A peculiar reactivity to neurofilaments was seen, mostly associated to the presence of predominant rather that focal myxoid stromal changes, and in 40% of conventional adrenocortical carcinomas, thus representing an undescribed potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of adrenal lesions.
  • Myxoid adrenocortical tumors probably represent a rare but histologically and phenotipically distinct entity and, although rare cases of benign lesions are on record, they seem to be generally associated to morphologic and clinical features of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Mucins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. Fetal Development. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20534995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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60. Cho NH, Lee HW, Lim SY, Kang S, Jung WY, Park CS: Genetic aberrance of sporadic MEN 2A component tumours: analysis of RET. Pathology; 2005 Feb;37(1):10-3
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  • AIM: The molecular pathogenesis of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 (parathyroid adenoma with medullary thyroid carcinoma and adrenal pheochromocytoma) is associated with a germ-line mutation in the RET proto-oncogene.
  • METHODS: Direct sequencing for RET exon 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 and immunohistochemistry for RET monoclonal antibody were performed on the archival tissues of 84 cases of sporadic endocrine tumours, including 22 medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs), 35 adrenal pheochromocytomas (APCs), 18 paragangliomas (PGs), and nine parathyroid adenomas (PTAs).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adult. Base Sequence. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Paraganglioma / genetics. Paraganglioma / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Point Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15875728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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61. Sasaki K, Kasahara M, Fukuda A, Shigeta T, Tanaka H, Nakagawa S, Mitsui K, Harada R, Nakagawa A: Living donor liver transplantation for hepatoblastoma with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Pediatr Transplant; 2010 Nov;14(7):E89-92
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  • BWS is one of the most well-known somatic overgrowth syndromes, which is characterized by macroglossia, organomegaly, abdominal wall defects, and predisposition to embryonal tumors, such as Wilms' tumor, hepatoblastoma, and adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Tumor surveillance after transplantation would be necessary to detect possible recurrence of the original disease and development of other malignancies.


62. McNicol AM: Assessment of malignancy in adrenal cortical tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(2):131-6
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  • [Title] Assessment of malignancy in adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The roles of the pathologist in assessing adrenal cortical tumors are, first, to differentiate adenoma from carcinoma, and, second, to assess prognosis when the diagnosis of malignancy is made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17159245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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63. Singh R, Basturk O, Klimstra DS, Zamboni G, Chetty R, Hussain S, La Rosa S, Yilmaz A, Capelli P, Capella C, Cheng JD, Adsay NV: Lipid-rich variant of pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Feb;30(2):194-200
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  • Some have been included in descriptions of the rare clear-cell variant associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome.
  • Pathology reports indicated substantial diagnostic challenge in these cases; on biopsies, 1 case was originally diagnosed as adrenal cortical carcinoma, another as renal cell carcinoma, a third as solid-pseudopapillary tumor, and a fourth had a fine needle aspiration cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemically, markers implicated in VHL-associated neoplasia, including HIF-1alpha, inhibin, and Melan-A (in clear-cell PENs) and MUC6 (in serous cystadenomas) were mostly negative in lipid-rich PENs (1 of 10, 1 of 10, 0 of 10 and 0 of 10, respectively).
  • In conclusion, the lipid-rich pattern, reminiscent of adrenal cortical cells, represents a distinct subset of PENs.
  • The findings suggest that the pathogenesis of lipid-rich tumors may be different from the VHL-associated clear-cell variants of PENs.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lipids. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications

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  • (PMID = 16434893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids
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64. Rodgers SE, Evans DB, Lee JE, Perrier ND: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2006 Jul;15(3):535-53
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • ACC is a rare clinical entity that carries a poor prognosis; early diagnosis and complete surgical resection are associated with the improvement in patient survival.
  • Even with appropriated diagnosis and treatment, most patients will develop recurrence and succumb to ACC because of the underlying tumor biology, the difficulty of achieving a complete resection, and the lack of effective systemic therapies.
  • Despite its many drawbacks, mitotane continues to be a mainstay in the treatment of high-risk patients with ACC, especially those with recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 16882496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IGF2 protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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65. Sturm N, Moulai N, Laverrière MH, Chabre O, Descotes JL, Brambilla E: Primary adrenocortical sarcomatoid carcinoma: case report and review of literature. Virchows Arch; 2008 Feb;452(2):215-9
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  • [Title] Primary adrenocortical sarcomatoid carcinoma: case report and review of literature.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (AC) mixed with a sarcoma or sarcoma-like component is exceptional, and only six cases have been detailed in the literature, three including osteo-, chondro-, or rhabdomyosarcoma components, and three others only showing a malignant spindle cell component.
  • These histological subtypes, respectively called adrenal carcinosarcomas and sarcomatoid AC, represent poorly differentiated and extremely aggressive forms of carcinoma, with locoregional recurrence and metastases rapidly arising from the sarcomatous or sarcomatoid component, and death occurring in a few months.
  • We report a case of AC in a 31-year-old man presenting as a nonfunctional tumor, with a histological biphasic pattern combining few areas of differentiated AC and extensive areas of sarcomatoid spindle cell proliferation.
  • This case underlines the necessity to identify and isolate these carcinoma's subtypes with worse prognosis and the difficulties to distinguish them from metastatic carcinomas and retroperitoneal sarcomas, in relation to the particular adrenal cortex immunoprofile.
  • According to the World Health Organization principles of terminology, we suggest these tumors be collectively classified as "adrenal sarcomatoid carcinomas," a designation that tends to unify all carcinomas with "pleomorphic, sarcomatoid, or sarcomatous elements. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18080137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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66. Bussey KJ, Demeure MJ: Genomic and expression profiling of adrenocortical carcinoma: application to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Future Oncol; 2009 Jun;5(5):641-55
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  • [Title] Genomic and expression profiling of adrenocortical carcinoma: application to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive endocrine tumor with a poor 5-year survival rate of 10-20%.
  • Although ACC is extremely rare, recent advances in genomic and expression profiling, coupled with knowledge gained from the study of the inherited syndromes that increase ACC risk, are beginning to bring together a picture of a tumor type dependent on p53, the G2/M cell cycle transition and IGF2 stimulation.
  • Nevertheless, ACC remains a heterogeneous disease.
  • Advances in treatment will depend on exploiting those pathways already implicated in ACC, along with those yet to be identified, and testing those treatments in better models of the disease than the three cell lines that currently exist and are widely available to the community.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19519204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8301
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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67. Huang H, Fojo T: Adjuvant mitotane for adrenocortical cancer--a recurring controversy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Oct;93(10):3730-2
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  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane for adrenocortical cancer--a recurring controversy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Mitotane / adverse effects. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18842984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Volante M, Bollito E, Sperone P, Tavaglione V, Daffara F, Porpiglia F, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Papotti M: Clinicopathological study of a series of 92 adrenocortical carcinomas: from a proposal of simplified diagnostic algorithm to prognostic stratification. Histopathology; 2009 Nov;55(5):535-43
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological study of a series of 92 adrenocortical carcinomas: from a proposal of simplified diagnostic algorithm to prognostic stratification.
  • AIMS: Pathological diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma relies on several microscopic features commonly used in combination in different scoring systems that are sometimes subjective and/or time consuming.
  • The aim was to investigate the impact of individual pathological parameters in the diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The series included 92 malignant cases and a control series of 47 adenomas, all classified according to Weiss score criteria.
  • The presence of disruption of the reticular network, as highlighted by histochemical staining, was present in all adrenocortical carcinomas and the inclusion of at least one of the three following additional parameters - mitotic index >5/50 high-power fields (HPF), presence of necrosis and presence of vascular invasion - gave an algorithm with 100% sensitivity and specificity to recognize malignant tumours according to the Weiss system, with easier and more practical applicability.
  • Moreover, on multivariate analysis, stage III/IV and mitotic count >9/50 HPF showed a strong adverse impact on disease-free and overall survival, leading to the identification of three risk groups affected by a significantly different prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have defined an easy-to-perform and highly specific and sensitive algorithm for the diagnosis and prognostic categorization of adrenocortical tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Algorithms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19912359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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69. Chan JW: Acute monocular visual loss in carcinomatous hypertrophic pachymeningitis mimicking giant cell arteritis. J Clin Rheumatol; 2006 Feb;12(1):30-1
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  • [Title] Acute monocular visual loss in carcinomatous hypertrophic pachymeningitis mimicking giant cell arteritis.
  • Neuroimaging, dural biopsy, and breast biopsy all confirmed the diagnosis of carcinomatous hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • Her clinical presentation initially mimicked the symptoms and signs of giant cell arteritis.
  • Acute monocular visual loss without other cranial nerve palsies may be an uncommon presentation of hypertrophic pachymeningitis from metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Meningitis / etiology. Meningitis / pathology. Vision Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Aged. Biopsy. Blood Sedimentation. C-Reactive Protein / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Dura Mater / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Giant Cell Arteritis / diagnosis. Headache / diagnosis. Headache / etiology. Humans. Hypertrophy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging


70. Fiszer-Maliszewska L, Kazanowska B, Padzik J, Regional Blood Transfusion Center: p53 Tetramerization domain mutations: germline R342X and R342P, and somatic R337G identified in pediatric patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and a child with adrenocortical carcinoma. Fam Cancer; 2009;8(4):541-6
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  • [Title] p53 Tetramerization domain mutations: germline R342X and R342P, and somatic R337G identified in pediatric patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and a child with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Germline p53 mutations are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and other familial cancer phenotypes not fulfilling the definition for LFS.
  • The germline mutation, R342X (16915C>T), and the novel mutation, R342P (16916G>C), were found in a child with adrenocortical carcinoma and in a LFS pediatric patient with multiple primaries.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Protein Structure, Tertiary / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19714490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] Familial cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fam. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Ichida T: [Physicians' views on applicability and evaluation of liver transplantation]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Mar 10;95(3):468-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Cirrhosis / surgery. Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Chronic Disease. Hepacivirus. Hepatitis B virus. Humans. Informed Consent

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  • (PMID = 16640076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5384
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Naika Gakkai zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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72. Liu XK, Liu XJ, Dong X, Kong CZ: [Clinical research about treatment for adrenal incidentalomas]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jun 1;46(11):832-4
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  • [Title] [Clinical research about treatment for adrenal incidentalomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic methods of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Pathological results indicated that 34 cases were pheochromocytoma, 83 adrenal cortical adenoma, 5 adrenal cortical carcinoma, 3 metastases carcinoma, and 26 other benign tumors.
  • 3 cases of metastases carcinoma died in 1.5 years, 2 cases of cortical carcinoma died in 2.0 and 2.5 years for recurrence and metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical operations should be performed in malignant tumors, hypersecretion tumors, deuto-clinical adrenal cortical tumors, pheochromocytoma and those whose diameters of tumors are over 3 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19035218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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73. Bertherat J, Bertagna X: Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):261-71
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  • [Title] Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • The study of the clonality of adrenocortical tumours (ACTs) has shown that adrenocortical cancers (ACCs) are of monoclonal origin.
  • Numerous chromosomal alterations have been observed in ACCs, and they are much more frequent than in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • This recent progress in the molecular genetics of ACC has led to the development of new molecular markers for the diagnosis of malignancy; these might also help to identify prognostic markers of ACC and may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19500768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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74. Happel B, Heinz-Peer G: Enhancement characteristics of pheochromocytomas. Radiology; 2006 Jan;238(1):373; author reply 373-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


75. Kim AC, Barlaskar FM, Heaton JH, Else T, Kelly VR, Krill KT, Scheys JO, Simon DP, Trovato A, Yang WH, Hammer GD: In search of adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells. Endocr Rev; 2009 May;30(3):241-63
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  • [Title] In search of adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells.
  • The theory that adrenocortical organ homeostasis is maintained by undifferentiated stem or progenitor cells can be traced back nearly a century.
  • Similar to other organ systems, it is widely believed that these rare cells of the adrenal cortex remain relatively undifferentiated and quiescent until needed to replenish the organ, at which time they undergo proliferation and terminal differentiation.
  • Historical studies examining cell cycle activation by label retention assays and regenerative potential by organ transplantation experiments suggested that the adrenocortical progenitors reside in the outer periphery of the adrenal gland.
  • Over the past decade, the Hammer laboratory, building on this hypothesis and these observations, has endeavored to understand the mechanisms of adrenocortical development and organ maintenance.
  • In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of adrenal organogenesis.
  • We present evidence for the existence and location of adrenocortical stem/progenitor cells and their potential contribution to adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Together, the work provides a framework for the emerging somatic stem cell field as it relates to the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Clone Cells / cytology. Clone Cells / physiology. Humans. Organogenesis / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19403887.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7189
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA134606
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 225
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2726842
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76. National Toxicology Program: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) (CAS No. 57465-28-8) in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (Gavage Studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2006 Jan;(520):4-246
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The TEF methodology is a relative potency scheme that ranks the dioxin-like activity of a compound relative to TCDD that is the most potent congener.
  • This allows for the estimation of the potential dioxin-like activity of a mixture of chemicals, based on a common mechanism of action involving an initial binding of DLCs to the AhR.
  • The toxic equivalency of DLCs was nominated for evaluation, because of the widespread human exposure to DLCs and the lack of data on the adequacy of the TEF methodology for predicting relative potency for cancer risk.
  • PCB 126 was selected for study by the National Toxicology Program as a part of the dioxin TEF evaluation to assess the cancer risk posed by complex mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and PCBs.
  • HEPATIC CELL PROLIFERATION DATA: To evaluate hepatocyte replication, analysis of labeling of replicating hepatocytes with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was conducted at the 14-, 31-, and 53-week interim evaluations.
  • At 2 years, a significant dose-related increase in hepatic toxicity was observed and was characterized by increased incidences of numerous lesions including hepatocyte hypertrophy, multinucleated hepatocytes, diffuse fatty change, bile duct hyperplasia, bile duct cyst, oval cell hyperplasia, necrosis, pigmentation, inflammation, nodular hyperplasia, portal fibrosis, cholangiofibrosis, and toxic hepatopathy.
  • At 2 years, treatment related increases in the incidences of cystic keratinizing epithelioma and squamous cell carcinomas were observed.
  • The incidence of gingival squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa was significantly increased in the 1,000 ng/kg core study group at 2 years.
  • Gingival squamous cell carcinoma, although reduced in incidence as compared to the 1,000 ng/kg core study group, was still present in the 1,000 ng/kg stop-exposure group.
  • At 2 years, adenomas and/or carcinomas were present in the adrenal cortex of most core study groups and in the 1,000 ng/kg stop-exposure group.
  • Dose-related effects on the incidences of adrenal cortex atrophy and cytoplasmic vacuolization were also seen. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Carcinogenicity Tests. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Female. Hepatocytes / drug effects. Liver / pathology. Male. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Neoplasms / pathology. Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Organ Size / drug effects. Quality Control. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Survival Analysis. Thyroid Hormones / blood

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  • (PMID = 16628245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; TSH69IA9XF / 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl
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77. Soon PS, McDonald KL, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Oncologist; 2008 May;13(5):548-61
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  • [Title] Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenal tumors are common, with an estimated incidence of 7.3% in autopsy cases, while adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare, with an estimated prevalence of 4-12 per million population.
  • Because the prognoses for adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and ACCs are vastly different, it is important to be able to accurately differentiate the two tumor types.
  • Advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ACCs is essential for the development of more sensitive means of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in better clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) occur as a component of several hereditary tumor syndromes, which include the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1, Carney complex, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The adrenocorticotropic hormone-cAMP-protein kinase A and Wnt pathways are also implicated in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis, including results of comparative genomic hybridization, loss of heterozygosity, and microarray gene-expression profiling studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18515740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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78. Groussin L, Bertherat J, Gicquel C, le Bouc Y, Bertagna X: Insights into the molecular biology of adrenocortical tumors. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Mar;115(3):175-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Insights into the molecular biology of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Molecular Biology / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human. Cyclic AMP / physiology. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 17427106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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79. Crand A, Borson-Chazot F, Brue T: [Recent data in adrenocortical tumorigenesis]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Sep;70 Suppl 1:S20-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Recent data in adrenocortical tumorigenesis].
  • [Transliterated title] Actualités dans la tumorigenèse surrénalienne.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare tumors characterized by an aggressive behaviour with a 5-year survival rate below 30%.
  • Until now, surgery is the only curative treatment for tumors confined to the adrenal gland and there is a lack of an effective medical treatment for invasive or metastatic tumors due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying adrenocortical malignancy.
  • Moreover, histopathology is sometimes insufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis between a benign and a malignant adrenal tumor and a poor indicator of prognosis.
  • In the last decade, the study of rare genetic syndromes associated with adrenocortical carcinomas and the identification of genetic alterations in adrenal tumors has improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of adrenal tumors.
  • The development of molecular predictors of malignancy and of survival could help for histological diagnosis and determination of prognosis.
  • These significant advances are essential to improve adrenocortical carcinoma management.
  • This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding and management of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19878765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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80. Allain J, Mékinian A, Stirnemann J, Fain O: [Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema and lung carcinoma]. Rev Prat; 2010 Jun 20;60(6):750
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  • [Title] [Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema and lung carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Polyarthrite oedémateuse du sujet agé et cancer du poumon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology. Synovitis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20623886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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81. Muttarak M, Chotirosniramit A, Unsrisong K, Na Chiangmai W: Adrenal carcinoma. Biomed Imaging Interv J; 2006 Jan;2(1):e9
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  • [Title] Adrenal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21614222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1823-5530
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical imaging and intervention journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Imaging Interv J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3097607
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82. Nishimoto K, Nakagawa K, Li D, Kosaka T, Oya M, Mikami S, Shibata H, Itoh H, Mitani F, Yamazaki T, Ogishima T, Suematsu M, Mukai K: Adrenocortical zonation in humans under normal and pathological conditions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;95(5):2296-305
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical zonation in humans under normal and pathological conditions.
  • CONTEXT: Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) catalyze the terminal steps for aldosterone and cortisol syntheses, respectively, thereby determining the functional differentiation of human adrenocortical cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the localization of CYP11B2 and -B1 in human adrenal specimens by using developed antibodies capable of distinguishing the two enzymes from each other.
  • Adrenocortical cells lacking both enzymes were observed in the outer cortical regions.
  • In addition to conventional zonation, we found a variegated zonation consisting of a subcapsular cell cluster expressing CYP11B2, which we termed aldosterone-producing cell cluster, and a CYP11B1-expressing area.
  • Aldosterone-producing adenomas differed in cell populations expressing CYP11B2 from one another, whereas CYP11B1-expressing and double-negative cells were also intermingled.
  • The nontumor portions of both types of adenomas bore frequently one or more aldosterone-producing cell clusters, which sustained CYP11B2 expression markedly under the conditions of the suppressed renin-angiotensin system.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry of the human normal adrenal cortex for CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 revealed a variegated zonation with cell clusters constitutively expressing CYP11B2.
  • This technique may provide a pathological confirmatory diagnosis of adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antibodies. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / enzymology. Corticosterone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / enzymology. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / deficiency. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / enzymology. Mammals. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Rabbits. Reference Values. Rodentia. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Zona Fasciculata / enzymology. Zona Glomerulosa / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20200334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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83. Van Moerkercke W, Verhamme M, Meeus G, Oyen R, Steenbergen WV: A case of IgG4-related sclerosing disease with retroperitoneal fibrosis, autoimmune pancreatitis and bilateral focal nephritis. Pancreas; 2009 Oct;38(7):825-32
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  • [Title] A case of IgG4-related sclerosing disease with retroperitoneal fibrosis, autoimmune pancreatitis and bilateral focal nephritis.
  • A 74-year-old male patient presented with progressive anorexia, cholestatic liver function tests, and a diffuse enlarged pancreas suggestive of a pancreatic carcinoma.
  • Further investigation led to the diagnosis of IgG4-related sclerosing disease with involvement of the pancreas, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and bilateral focal nephritis.
  • This systemic disease can have several clinical manifestations: IgG4-positivity not only can be found in the pancreas, but also at the level of extrahepatic biliary ducts, gallbladder, salivary glands, retroperitoneal tissue, kidneys, ureters, and lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Pancreas / drug effects. Pancreas / pathology. Sclerosis. Treatment Outcome


84. Dundr P, Povýsil C, Zelinka T, Tvrdík D, Ciprová V, Novák K: Adrenocortical adenoma with rhabdoid features. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(3):177-81
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical adenoma with rhabdoid features.
  • We report a case of an aldosterone producing adrenocortical adenoma with rhabdoid features in a 16-year-old girl.
  • Rhabdoid features have been described in many tumors of variable histogenesis; however, to the best of our knowledge, the presence of rhabdoid phenotype has never been described in either adrenocortical adenoma or carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16448785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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85. Shackelford RE, Veillon DM, Heldmann M, Elmajian DA, Gonzalez E, Cotelingam JD: Pathology case of the month. Thirty-year-old man with a right adrenal mass. Adrenocortical carcinoma with lung and right renal hilar metastases. J La State Med Soc; 2006 Jul-Aug;158(4):172-5
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  • [Title] Pathology case of the month. Thirty-year-old man with a right adrenal mass. Adrenocortical carcinoma with lung and right renal hilar metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary


86. Doghman M, Arhatte M, Thibout H, Rodrigues G, De Moura J, Grosso S, West AN, Laurent M, Mas JC, Bongain A, Zambetti GP, Figueiredo BC, Auberger P, Martinerie C, Lalli E: Nephroblastoma overexpressed/cysteine-rich protein 61/connective tissue growth factor/nephroblastoma overexpressed gene-3 (NOV/CCN3), a selective adrenocortical cell proapoptotic factor, is down-regulated in childhood adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Aug;92(8):3253-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nephroblastoma overexpressed/cysteine-rich protein 61/connective tissue growth factor/nephroblastoma overexpressed gene-3 (NOV/CCN3), a selective adrenocortical cell proapoptotic factor, is down-regulated in childhood adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) have a fetal adrenal phenotype and overexpress steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1).
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure NOV protein levels in childhood ACTs and characterize NOV expression regulation and biological function in human adrenocortical cells.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Protein extracts from ACT and normal adrenal cortex samples, human adrenocortical carcinoma H295R, primary adrenocortical tumors and fetal adrenal cultures, tissue culture supernatants, and cell lysates from H295R cells overexpressing SF-1 in an inducible fashion were used.
  • RESULTS: NOV mRNA and protein expression is lower in childhood ACTs than in normal adrenal cortex.
  • No significant difference was observed between adenomas and carcinomas.
  • NOV has a selective proapoptotic activity toward human adrenocortical cells.
  • The C-terminal domain of NOV is responsible for its proapoptotic effect.
  • NOV protein is expressed in DAX-1-positive human fetal adrenal cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: NOV is a selective proapoptotic factor for human adrenocortical cells.
  • Reduced expression of NOV in ACTs may play an important role in the process of childhood ACT tumorigenesis, accounting at least in part for the defect of apoptotic regression of the fetal adrenal that has been proposed to be responsible for tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis / genetics. Apoptosis / physiology. Carcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Immediate-Early Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Caspases / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Connective Tissue Growth Factor. DNA, Complementary / biosynthesis. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Down-Regulation / genetics. Down-Regulation / physiology. Enzyme Activation / physiology. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Humans. Immunoblotting. Luciferases / biosynthesis. Luciferases / genetics. Nephroblastoma Overexpressed Protein. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / biosynthesis. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Steroidogenic Factor 1. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 17566092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63230
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTGF protein, human; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / NOV protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Nephroblastoma Overexpressed Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 139568-91-5 / Connective Tissue Growth Factor; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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87. Ziegler CG, Brown JW, Schally AV, Erler A, Gebauer L, Treszl A, Young L, Fishman LM, Engel JB, Willenberg HS, Petersenn S, Eisenhofer G, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Bornstein SR: Expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in human adrenal tumors and cell lines: antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Sep 15;106(37):15879-84
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  • [Title] Expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in human adrenal tumors and cell lines: antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues.
  • Peptide analogues targeting various neuropeptide receptors have been used effectively in cancer therapy.
  • A hallmark of adrenocortical tumor formation is the aberrant expression of peptide receptors relating to uncontrolled cell proliferation and hormone overproduction.
  • In light of these findings, we performed a comprehensive analysis of relevant receptors in both human adrenomedullary and adrenocortical tumors and tested the antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues targeting these receptors.
  • Specifically, we examined the receptor expression of somatostatin-type-2 receptor, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor or GHRH receptor splice variant-1 (SV-1) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor at the mRNA and protein levels in normal human adrenal tissues, adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors, and cell lines.
  • Cytotoxic derivatives of somatostatin AN-238 and, to a lesser extent, AN-162, reduced cell numbers of uninduced and NGF-induced adrenomedullary pheochromocytoma cells and adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • Both the splice variant of GHRH receptor SV-1 and the LHRH receptor were also expressed in adrenocortical cancer cell lines but not in the pheochromocytoma cell line.
  • The GHRH receptor antagonist MZ-4-71 and LHRH antagonist Cetrorelix both significantly reduced cell growth in the adrenocortical cancer cell line.
  • In conclusion, the expression of receptors for somatostatin, GHRH, and LHRH in the normal human adrenal and in adrenal tumors, combined with the growth-inhibitory effects of the antitumor peptide analogues, may make possible improved treatment approaches to adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Neuropeptides / pharmacology. Receptors, Neuropeptide / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine / analogs & derivatives. 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine / pharmacology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Aniline Compounds / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cytostatic Agents / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Gene Expression. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. PC12 Cells. Pyrroles / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Receptors, LHRH / genetics. Receptors, LHRH / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19717419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AN 238; 0 / Aniline Compounds; 0 / Cytostatic Agents; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 2PK59M9GFF / vapreotide; 33189-65-0 / N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-2,5-dichloroaniline; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7568-93-6 / 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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88. Chen CH, Wu HC, Chang CH: An accessory spleen mimics a left adrenal carcinoma. MedGenMed; 2005;7(2):9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An accessory spleen mimics a left adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spleen / abnormalities. Spleen / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16369388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-0132
  • [Journal-full-title] MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MedGenMed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1681608
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89. Leiva-Salinas C, Domingo ML, Flors L: Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour: a confusing diagnosis. Arch Bronconeumol; 2010 Feb;46(2):106-7
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  • [Title] Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour: a confusing diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Myofibroma / diagnosis. Plasma Cell Granuloma, Pulmonary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / diagnosis. Calcinosis / etiology. Calcinosis / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Inflammation. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pneumonectomy. Pneumonia / etiology. Recurrence. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19815324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de bronconeumología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Bronconeumol.
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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90. Beydoun SR, Shatzmiller RA: Chronic immune-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathy in the setting of cetuximab treatment. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2010 Dec;112(10):900-2
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  • Cetuximab, a chimeric mouse/human monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor, is commonly used in colorectal and head and neck cancer.
  • We describe an acquired neuropathy associated with cetuximab treatment in a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.
  • Electrodiagnostic studies demonstrated prolonged distal latencies, conduction block, and prolonged F-wave latencies, consistent with a diagnosis of definite CIDP according to EFNS/PNS criteria.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cetuximab. Electrodiagnosis. Electromyography. Functional Laterality / physiology. Humans. Immunization, Passive. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Muscle Weakness / etiology. Spinal Puncture. Spine / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / complications. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20685033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6968
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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91. Ronchi CL, Sbiera S, Kraus L, Wortmann S, Johanssen S, Adam P, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Expression of excision repair cross complementing group 1 and prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):907-18
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  • [Title] Expression of excision repair cross complementing group 1 and prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Therapeutic progress in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is severely hampered by its low incidence.
  • We have retrolectively established adrenal tissue microarrays and analyzed prospectively samples from 163 ACCs, 15 benign adrenal adenomas, and 8 normal adrenal glands by immunohistochemistry for ERCC1 protein expression.
  • ERCC1 protein was highly expressed in all normal adrenal glands, 14 benign tumors (93%) and in 75 ACCs (47%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endonucleases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19240185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Platinum Compounds; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases
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92. Jain A, Mohanka R, Orloff M, Abt P, Kashyap R, Kelley M, Burlee K, Bozorgzadeh A: Intravenous mycophenolate mofetil with low-dose oral tacrolimus and steroid induction for live donor liver transplantation. Exp Clin Transplant; 2005 Dec;3(2):361-5
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (mean age, 50.1 years; 15 men, 13 women) were examined between January 2000 and January 2004 with a mean follow-up of 17 months for survival, rejection, and renal function.
  • RESULTS: Four patients died at 2, 5, 8, and 18 months after LDLT from sepsis (n = 3) and recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, we demonstrate a new strategy of IV MMF administration with low-dose tacrolimus that provides for lower rates of acute rejection, better preservation of renal function, and one that is better tolerated compared with historical treatments after LTx.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Living Donors. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Tacrolimus / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16417444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1304-0855
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp Clin Transplant
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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93. Vaikkakara S, Al-Ozairi E, Lim E, Advani A, Ball SG, James RA, Quinton R: The investigation and management of severe hyperandrogenism pre- and postmenopause: non-tumor disease is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and typically responds to insulin-sensitization with metformin. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2008 Feb;24(2):87-92
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  • [Title] The investigation and management of severe hyperandrogenism pre- and postmenopause: non-tumor disease is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and typically responds to insulin-sensitization with metformin.
  • RESULTS: Four out of 18 cases had adrenal carcinoma that was clinically obvious at initial presentation (one virilized, three Cushingoid).


94. Ohwada S, Izumi M, Tanahashi Y, Kawate S, Hamada K, Tsutsumi H, Horiguchi J, Koibuchi Y, Takahashi T, Yamada M: Combined liver and inferior vena cava resection for adrenocortical carcinoma. Surg Today; 2007;37(4):291-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined liver and inferior vena cava resection for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, usually diagnosed at an advanced stage when it has invaded or adhered to adjacent organs.
  • RESULTS: Perioperative mortality was zero, and morbidity was 33.3%, with temporary liver failure in two patients and renal failure in one patient.
  • The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 16.7%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17387560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-84-0 / Polytetrafluoroethylene
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95. Sane T: [Mitotane in the treatment of adrenal carcinoma]. Duodecim; 2010;126(17):2040-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Mitotane in the treatment of adrenal carcinoma].
  • Mitotane has been used for 50 years as the first-line drug in the treatment of disseminated adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • It reduces local recurrence of the disease and development of metastases even after a seemingly total surgical removal of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21053521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-7183
  • [Journal-full-title] Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Duodecim
  • [Language] fin
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Finland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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96. Gonçalves R, Linhares E, Albagli R, Valadão M, Vilhena B, Romano S, Ferreira CG: Occurrence of other tumors in patients with GIST. Surg Oncol; 2010 Dec;19(4):e140-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the presence of other tumors in cohort of patients with GIST treated at a cancer treatment referral center - INCA.
  • Immunohistological diagnosis was confirmed by a pathologist specialized in sarcomas.
  • The mean size of lesions was 4.79 cm (0.3-15 cm), with malignant potential low/very low in 7 cases (50%), intermediate in 5 cases (35.7%) and high in 2 cases (14.3%).
  • The diagnosis of GIST was incidental in 6 cases and in one case the non-GIST tumor was incidental.
  • The non-GIST tumors were most frequent in the stomach (adenocarcinoma), in 4 cases (28.5%) and colon/rectum (adenocarcinoma) in 4 other cases.
  • The other sites involved were breast (ductal carcinoma), kidney (clear cell carcinoma), prostate (adenocarcinoma), endometrium (adenocarcinoma), ovary (adenocarcinoma) and adrenal (neuroblastoma), with one case each.
  • With a median follow-up after GIST resection of 41 months (2-87 months), 9 patients were alive without evidence of disease, 2 died due to GIST, 2 died due to non-GIST tumors and the remaining patient died due to postoperative complications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Aged. Brazil / epidemiology. Child. Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20675121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3320
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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97. Segawa M, Kusajima Y, Saito K: [Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung rapidly developed multiple metastases after surgery]. Kyobu Geka; 2006 May;59(5):387-91
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  • [Title] [Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung rapidly developed multiple metastases after surgery].
  • Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung is a type of carcinoma with spindle and/or giant cells with a poor diagnosis.
  • Lung biopsy revealed that the tumor was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Histological findings showed adenocarcinoma comprised of spindle cell components that reacted positively to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and no lymph node metastasis.
  • Therefore, he was diagnosed with pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung, pT2N0M0, stage IB.
  • But metastatic lesions newly appeared in the thoracic skin, the liver, the diaphragm, the bilateral adrenal glands, and the retroperitoneal space on the 30th postoperative day.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Pneumonectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Aged. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Postoperative Period. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16715890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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98. Brown JW, Prieto LM, Perez-Stable C, Montoya M, Cappell S, Fishman LM: Estrogen and progesterone lower cyclin B1 AND D1 expression, block cell cycle in G2/M, and trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cell cultures. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):306-10
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  • [Title] Estrogen and progesterone lower cyclin B1 AND D1 expression, block cell cycle in G2/M, and trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cell cultures.
  • The effects of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone were evaluated separately and in combination, on the growth, survival, and cell cycle dynamics of SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture.
  • Both hormones significantly decreased cell survival, with dose response curves at four days demonstrating EC (50)s estimated at 1.2 x 10 (-5) M for 17 beta-estradiol and 4.8 x 10 (-6) M for progesterone.
  • The expression of the critical cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin B1 and D1 were significantly decreased by each hormone, with the influence of progesterone again predominating.
  • These data demonstrate that high doses of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone have inhibitory and apoptotic effects on SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells IN VITRO.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Cyclin B / biosynthesis. Cyclins / biosynthesis. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogens / pharmacology. G2 Phase / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Progesterone / pharmacology. Progestins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclin B1. Cyclin D. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Progestins; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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99. Fassnacht M, Weismann D, Ebert S, Adam P, Zink M, Beuschlein F, Hahner S, Allolio B: AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;90(7):4366-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was the investigation of the role of AKT in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical tumors.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Total AKT and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) in 15 pheochromocytomas, nine aldosterone-producing adenomas, nine cortisol-producing adenomas, eight adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), and 15 normal adrenals were investigated by Western blot analysis.
  • Immunohistochemistry for total AKT and pAKT was performed in pheochromocytomas (n = 8), ACC (n = 4), and normal adrenal glands (n = 2).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Determination of pAKT/total AKT ratio in adrenal tissues was the main outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence for increased activation of AKT in pheochromocytomas but not in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15855265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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100. Schteingart DE: Adjuvant mitotane therapy of adrenal cancer - use and controversy. N Engl J Med; 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2415-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane therapy of adrenal cancer - use and controversy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 20;357(12):1257-8; author reply 1259 [17891838.001]
  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80 [17554118.001]
  • (PMID = 17554125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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