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6. Wolf A, Willenberg HS, Cupisti K, Schott M, Geddert H, Raffel A, Bornstein SR, Scherbaum WA, Knoefel WT: Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma: diagnostic and therapeutic management. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Jun;37(6):391-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma: diagnostic and therapeutic management.
  • There is evidence for a close interrelation between the adrenomedullary and adrenocortical tissues, and there are well-characterized models of their paracrine interaction.
  • To contribute to the studies of systemic interactions between these tissues, we studied a 52-year-old female patient with a pheochromocytoma and a contralateral cortisol-producing adenoma.
  • Due to a misunderstanding, she presented to her family doctor to have an inherited kidney disease ruled out.
  • An adrenal mass was discovered incidentally by ultrasound.
  • A computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal masses.
  • Laboratory work-up, selective adrenal venous sampling and magnetic resonance imaging studies established the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma in the right-hand adrenal gland and a cortisol-producing adenoma on the left.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining against chromogranin A in a histological specimen obtained from the right-hand adrenal gland, while the left was negative; the left-hand adrenal gland stained positive against the ACTH receptor (MC2R) while the right was negative.
  • Genetically, the patient was negative for MEN2, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and mutations in subunits B, C, and D of the succinate dehydrogenase gene.
  • Although presence of bilateral adrenal adenomas or bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas in certain inherited disorders are possible, this rare case of an adrenal pheochromocytoma combined with a contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma may further underline the wide range of complex interactions between the two endocrine systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 16001333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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7. Hennings J, Lindhe O, Bergström M, Långström B, Sundin A, Hellman P: [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1410-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenal incidentalomas are common findings necessitating extensive laboratory work-up and repetitive radiological examinations.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) using (11)C-labeled metomidate (MTO) has previously been described as a tool for specific adrenocortical imaging.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated 212 MTO-PET examinations in 173 patients to identify its role in the management of adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS: Patients who were operated or biopsied due to adrenal tumors had histopathological diagnoses of adrenocortical adenoma (n = 26), adrenocortical cancer (ACC; n = 13), adrenocortical hyperplasia (n = 8), pheochromocytoma (n = 6), metastasis (n = 3), and tumors of nonadrenal origin (n = 19).
  • The hypothesis that MTO-PET is of value in the management of adrenal tumors, especially incidentaloma, was stated before data collection.
  • RESULTS: Sensitivity was 0.89 and specificity was 0.96 for MTO-PET in proving adrenocortical origin of the lesions.
  • Pheochromocytomas, metastases to the adrenal gland, and nonadrenal masses were all MTO negative.
  • PET measurements using standardized uptake values (SUV) in pathological adrenocortical tissue could differentiate lesions larger than 1-1.5 cm from normal adrenocortical tissue.
  • SUV was higher in aldosterone-hypersecreting adenomas, and the SUV ratio between the tumor and the contralateral gland was significantly higher in all hormonally hypersecreting adenomas as well as in ACC.
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a specific and sensitive method for diagnosing adrenocortical tumors.
  • MTO-PET is useful in the imaging work-up of adrenal incidentalomas and may be beneficial for the examination of patients with primary aldosteronism or ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Antineoplastic Agents. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16403816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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8. Szentirmai O, Winston KR, Jedlicka P, Lum GM: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a child with systemic hypertension and adrenal adenoma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2007 Oct;107(4 Suppl):328-9
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  • [Title] Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a child with systemic hypertension and adrenal adenoma. Case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Basal Ganglia / blood supply. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Hypertension / complications. Hypertension / etiology


9. Yang L, Cui X, Fan T, Wei Q: Two different adrenal adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome. Saudi Med J; 2010 May;31(5):578-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Two different adrenal adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications

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  • (PMID = 20464053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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10. Kaspareit J, Friderichs-Gromoll S, Buse E, Habermann G: Spontaneous neoplasms observed in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during a 15-year period. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2007 Nov;59(3-4):163-9
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  • The great majority of neoplasms was benign (23 benign neoplasms versus 10 malignant tumors).
  • Most of the tumors (22) in the cynomolgus monkeys were seen in endocrine organs (adrenal cortical adenoma, adrenal hemangioma, C-cell carcinoma, follicular adenoma), respiratory system (nasal cavity adenoma, pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, bronchio-alveolar carcinoma, bronchiolar papilloma, chondromatous hamartoma) and female genital system (uterine polyp, uterine adenoma, uterine leiomyoma and teratoma of the ovary).
  • [MeSH-major] Macaca fascicularis. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17869495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Groussin L, Cazabat L, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Bertherat J: Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex. Horm Res; 2005;64(3):132-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex.
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a main characteristic of CNC.
  • PPNAD is a very rare cause of Cushing's syndrome due to a primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations nor familial history.
  • Interestingly, patients with isolated PPNAD and no familial history of CNC can also present a germline de novo mutation of PRKAR1A.
  • Somatic mutations of PRKAR1A have been found in PPNAD as a mechanism of inactivation of the wild-type allele, in a patient already presenting a germline mutation, and in a subset of sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas with clinical, hormonal, and pathological features quite similar to PPNAD.
  • This review will summarize the recent findings on CNC from the perspective of the pathophysiology of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and PPNAD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / physiopathology. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / physiopathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16192737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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12. Stratakis CA, Carney JA: The triad of paragangliomas, gastric stromal tumours and pulmonary chondromas (Carney triad), and the dyad of paragangliomas and gastric stromal sarcomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome): molecular genetics and clinical implications. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):43-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A number of other lesions have been described in the condition including pheochromocytomas, oesophageal leiomyomas and adrenocortical adenomas; CT is a novel form of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a genetic condition with a female predilection.
  • We recently reported an international series of patients with CT, 34 females and three males (median age of presentation 21 years) who did not carry SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations.
  • The above have clinical implications (i) for patients with GISTs that are cKIT- and PDGFRA-mutation negative: these tumours are usually resistant to treatment with currently available tyrosine kinase inhibitors and may be part of a syndrome such as CT or CSS; and (ii) for patients with an inherited PGL syndrome, family history should be explored to identify any other tumours in the family, and in particular other endocrine lesions and GISTs.


13. Lee SS, Baek KH, Lee YS, Lee JM, Kang MI, Cha BY, Lee KW, Son HY, Kang SK: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Jul;31(7):675-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • Oncocytoma is a neoplasm that can arise in several organs, and it has been more commonly described in the kidney, salivary gland and thyroid.
  • Oncocytoma arising in the adrenal gland is a rare finding.
  • Moreover, functioning adrenocortical oncocytoma is exceptionally rare.
  • A 47-yr-old man was incidentally discovered to have a right adrenal mass.
  • The patient had no clinical features suggestive of increased adrenal function.
  • This is a rare case of subclinical Cushing's syndrome that was caused by adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18787391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / inhibin A; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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4. Wosnitzer B, Gadiraju R: The role of nuclear imaging in multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1). Radiol Case Rep; 2010;5(4):452
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) is a rare genetic disorder classically characterized by a predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet cells (1).
  • In addition to exhibiting these characteristic tumors, MEN 1 patients also have an increased propensity for other tumors such as carcinoids, adrenal adenomas, angiofibromas, and lipomas (1, 2, 3).
  • The tumors of MEN 1 are usually benign; however, malignancy of some carcinoid, islet cell, and gastrointestinal tract tumors can cause mortality (5, 6, 7, 8).
  • Diagnosis of MEN 1 is usually made by a combination of history and physical examination, biochemical serum testing, and various imaging modalities (9, 10).
  • We present a classic case of MEN 1 with unique presentation and diagnosis using predominantly nuclear imaging in order to emphasize the role of nuclear imaging in diagnosing and treating MEN 1.

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  • (PMID = 27307880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-0433
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4901017
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT, computed tomography / EGD, esophagogastroduodenoscopy / MEN 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 / MRI, magnetic resonance imaging
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15. de Matos LL, Trufelli DC, das Neves-Pereira JC, Danel C, Riquet M: Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review. Lung Cancer; 2006 Sep;53(3):381-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Neither of these patients had hypophysary microadenomas, adrenal adenomas or recurrence of CS after surgical treatment, demonstrating that CS was caused solely by the presence of the bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis


16. Inomoto C, Sato H, Kanai G, Hirukawa T, Shoji S, Terachi T, Kajiwara H, Osamura RY: Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2010 Jul;35(2):57-61
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  • [Title] Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Functioning black adrenal adenoma (BAA) rarely causes preclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS).
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed that she had a 15-mm in diameter, round, left adrenal adenoma.
  • The left adrenal adenoma was laparoscopically removed.
  • Examination of the surgical specimen revealed unilateral double adrenal adenomas of the left adrenal gland, one of which was a BAA.
  • The compact cell zones remained in the adrenal cortex adjacent to the BAA showed atrophic change.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21319027.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
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  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Oncocytás mellékvese-adenoma.
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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18. Halefoglu AM, Yasar A, Bas N, Ozel A, Erturk SM, Basak M: Comparison of computed tomography histogram analysis and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging for adrenal mass characterization. Acta Radiol; 2009 Nov;50(9):1071-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of computed tomography histogram analysis and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging for adrenal mass characterization.
  • BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) histogram analysis and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently used modalities for adrenal mass characterization.
  • However, it is not yet clear which modality can be regarded as most sensitive in terms of adrenal mass characterization.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively compare CT histogram analysis and chemical-shift MRI in the characterization of adrenal masses.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between May 2007 and November 2008, 93 patients (45 males, 48 females; mean age 56.7 years, range 22-85 years) with 109 adrenal masses prospectively underwent both unenhanced CT and chemical-shift MRI examinations.
  • These masses consisted of 67 adenomas and 42 metastases.
  • Histogram analysis was applied with a circular region of interest (ROI) that recorded mean attenuation, total number of pixels, number of negative pixels, and the percentage of negative pixels on unenhanced CT images for each adrenal mass.
  • In chemical-shift MRI, signal intensity drop between in-phase and opposed-phase images was quantitatively calculated so that adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratios and adrenal signal intensity indexes were determined for each of the adrenal masses.
  • A mass was regarded as an adenoma if it contained more than 10% negative pixels by CT histogram analysis, showed an adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratio of less than 0.71, and had an adrenal signal intensity index of more than 16.5% by chemical-shift MRI.
  • The results were compared to reveal which method was most sensitive in the diagnosis of adrenal masses and whether or not a correlation exists between these two modalities.
  • Final diagnoses were based on imaging follow-up of minimum 6 months, biopsy, surgery, and adrenal washout study.
  • RESULTS: On unenhanced CT examinations, all of the 67 adenomas and 21 out of 42 metastases exhibited negative pixels.
  • CT histogram analysis using a 10% negative pixel threshold gave a 91% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the diagnosis of an adenoma.
  • On chemical-shift MRI, for an adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratio of less than 0.71, a 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity were achieved, while a 97% sensitivity and 93% specificity were obtained for an adrenal signal intensity index of more than 16.5% for adenoma diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: CT histogram analysis method using a 10% negative pixel threshold on unenhanced CT had a good sensitivity and perfect specificity for the differentiation of adrenal adenomas from non-adenomas.
  • In spite of the good results obtained with the CT histogram analysis method, chemical-shift MRI using adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratio and adrenal signal intensity index formulas had a higher sensitivity and could help in the characterization of adrenal masses appearing indeterminate by CT histogram analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19863419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Ohtake H, Kawamura H, Matsuzaki M, Yokoyama E, Kitajima M, Onizuka S, Yamakawa M: Oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Jun;14(3):204-8
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  • [Title] Oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Only 17 cases of oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma have been reported in the English literature.
  • Here, we report an incidental case of oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Abdominal computed tomography revealed a left adrenal tumor.
  • Upon review of previous cases of oncocytic adrenocortical tumors, we reconsidered the diagnostic findings of the potential for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Autoantibodies / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Mitochondria / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20471567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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20. Kim E, Aguayo P, St Peter SD, Holcomb GW 3rd: Adrenocortical adenoma expressing glucocorticoid in an 8-month-old female. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Aug;19(4):265-7
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical adenoma expressing glucocorticoid in an 8-month-old female.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Glucocorticoids / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19197833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-359X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
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81. Liu XK, Liu XJ, Dong X, Kong CZ: [Clinical research about treatment for adrenal incidentalomas]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jun 1;46(11):832-4
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  • [Title] [Clinical research about treatment for adrenal incidentalomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic methods of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Pathological results indicated that 34 cases were pheochromocytoma, 83 adrenal cortical adenoma, 5 adrenal cortical carcinoma, 3 metastases carcinoma, and 26 other benign tumors.
  • 3 cases of metastases carcinoma died in 1.5 years, 2 cases of cortical carcinoma died in 2.0 and 2.5 years for recurrence and metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical operations should be performed in malignant tumors, hypersecretion tumors, deuto-clinical adrenal cortical tumors, pheochromocytoma and those whose diameters of tumors are over 3 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19035218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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82. Piaditis GP, Kaltsas GA, Androulakis II, Gouli A, Makras P, Papadogias D, Dimitriou K, Ragkou D, Markou A, Vamvakidis K, Zografos G, Chrousos G: High prevalence of autonomous cortisol and aldosterone secretion from adrenal adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Dec;71(6):772-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High prevalence of autonomous cortisol and aldosterone secretion from adrenal adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Previous studies based on standard endocrine testing have shown a variable incidence of autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) or autonomous aldosterone secretion (AAS) in patients with single adrenal adenomas (SAA).
  • Patients We investigated 151 patients with SAA and 72 matched controls with normal adrenal computerized tomography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / administration & dosage. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Case-Control Studies. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radioimmunoassay

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  • (PMID = 19226269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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83. Lee SM, Hahm JR, Jung TS, Jung JH, Kang MY, Kim SJ, Chung SI: A case of Cushing's syndrome presenting as endometrial hyperplasia. Korean J Intern Med; 2008 Mar;23(1):49-52
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  • We describe here the case of a 39-year-old woman with a cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma and she presented with endometrial hyperplasia and hypertension without the specific characteristics of Cushing's syndrome.
  • Adrenal Cushing's syndrome was confirmed on the basis of the elevated urinary free cortisol (454 microg/24h, normal range: 20-70) with a suppressed ACTH level (2.0 pg/mL, normal range: 6.0-76.0) and the loss of circadian cortisol secretion.
  • A CT scan revealed a 3.1 cm, hyperechoic, well-marginated mass in the left adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Circadian Rhythm. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hydrocortisone / urine

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  • (PMID = 18363281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2686950
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84. Ye P, Mariniello B, Mantero F, Shibata H, Rainey WE: G-protein-coupled receptors in aldosterone-producing adenomas: a potential cause of hyperaldosteronism. J Endocrinol; 2007 Oct;195(1):39-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] G-protein-coupled receptors in aldosterone-producing adenomas: a potential cause of hyperaldosteronism.
  • The source of aldosterone in 30-40% of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).
  • RNA samples from normal adrenals (n = 5), APAs (n = 10), and cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs; n = 13) were used on 15 genomic expression arrays, each of which included 223 GPCR transcripts presented in at least 1 out of 15 of the independent microarrays.
  • Four GPCR transcripts exhibited a statistically significant increase that was greater than threefold when compared with normal adrenals, suggesting a general increase in expression when compared with normal adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Adenoma / secretion. Aldosterone / secretion. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17911395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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85. Sasano H, Suzuki T, Moriya T: Recent advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry of adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(4):345-54
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  • [Title] Recent advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Discerning malignancy in resected adrenocortical neoplasms can pose diagnostic difficulty.
  • Macroscopic examination is the first important step toward diagnosis and should include accurate measurement of weight and dimension of the specimens and description of the cut surface of the tumors.
  • It is also important to sample the specimens for histological diagnosis near foci of hemorrhage and/or necrosis.
  • Histological scoring systems evaluating multiple parameters, especially the criteria of Weiss, have been shown to be reliable in differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma.
  • A tumor is defined as adrenocortical carcinoma when three or more of the following criteria are met;.
  • The criteria are relatively straightforward and considered the most effective standard for diagnosis of adrenocortical malignancy.
  • However, great care should be taken in applying the criteria to histological evaluation of two relatively rare and peculiar adrenocortical tumors, adrenocortical oncocytoma and pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms.
  • At this juncture, ancillary biological or molecular markers are of little practical value in terms of differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma but tumors with MIB1 or Ki-67 labeling index more than 2.5 may be considered malignant.
  • Prognostic markers of adrenocortical carcinoma have not been established other than complete respectability of the tumor.
  • It sometimes is important for surgical pathologists to differentiate adrenocortical carcinoma from metastatic malignancies of other sites.
  • An immunohistochemical evaluation of adrenal 4 binding protein (Ad4BP) or SF-1, a transcription factor of all steroidogenesis, can aid in this differential diagnosis because nuclear immunoreactivity for this transcription factor is relatively specific to steroid producing cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Count. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mitotic Index. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17525483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.3.2.27 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 2.3.2.27 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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86. Rossi GP, Bernini G, Caliumi C, Desideri G, Fabris B, Ferri C, Ganzaroli C, Giacchetti G, Letizia C, Maccario M, Mallamaci F, Mannelli M, Mattarello MJ, Moretti A, Palumbo G, Parenti G, Porteri E, Semplicini A, Rizzoni D, Rossi E, Boscaro M, Pessina AC, Mantero F, PAPY Study Investigators: A prospective study of the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in 1,125 hypertensive patients. J Am Coll Cardiol; 2006 Dec 5;48(11):2293-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The patients with an aldosterone/renin ratio >40 at baseline, and/or >30 after captopril, and/or a probability of PA (by a logistic discriminant function) > or =50% underwent imaging tests and adrenal vein sampling (AVS) or adrenocortical scintigraphy to identify the underlying adrenal pathology.
  • An aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) was diagnosed in patients who in addition to excess autonomous aldosterone secretion showed:.
  • 1) lateralized aldosterone secretion at AVS or adrenocortical scintigraphy, 2) adenoma at surgery and pathology, and 3) a blood pressure decrease after adrenalectomy.
  • Evidence of excess autonomous aldosterone secretion without such criteria led to a diagnosis of idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA).
  • RESULTS: A total of 1,180 patients (age 46 +/- 12 years) were enrolled; a conclusive diagnosis was attained in 1,125 (95.3%).
  • The availability of AVS is essential for an accurate identification of the adrenocortical pathologies underlying PA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Blood Specimen Collection. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prospective Studies. Radionuclide Imaging. Veins


87. Adam P, Hahner S, Hartmann M, Heinrich B, Quinkler M, Willenberg HS, Saeger W, Sbiera S, Schmull S, Voelker HU, Ströbel P, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Epidermal growth factor receptor in adrenocortical tumors: analysis of gene sequence, protein expression and correlation with clinical outcome. Mod Pathol; 2010 Dec;23(12):1596-604
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor in adrenocortical tumors: analysis of gene sequence, protein expression and correlation with clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but highly malignant neoplasm with still limited treatment options.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be overexpressed in many solid tumors, but its expression in adrenocortical carcinoma has been studied only in a limited number of cases.
  • Therefore, we analyzed the expression of EGFR in 169 adrenocortical carcinoma samples and compared it with 31 adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Additionally, in 30 cases of adrenocortical carcinoma, exons 18-21 of the EGFR gene were cloned and sequenced.
  • EGFR expression was found in 128 of 169 adrenocortical carcinoma samples (76%), and in 60 of these samples (=36%) strong membrane staining was detected.
  • In contrast, only 1 out of 31 adrenocortical adenomas weakly expressed the EGFR (3%).
  • In summary, EGFR was overexpressed in more than three-quarters of adrenocortical carcinoma cases of this series.
  • As EGFR is hardly expressed in adrenocortical adenomas, our results suggest that its expression in adrenocortical tumors indicates a malignant phenotype, which may be used in the differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20693985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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88. Quintos JB, Salas M: Virilizing adrenal adenoma in a 20 month-old girl. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Sep;22(9):779-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Virilizing adrenal adenoma in a 20 month-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19960887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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89. Reisch N, Scherr M, Flade L, Bidlingmaier M, Schwarz HP, Müller-Lisse U, Reincke M, Quinkler M, Beuschlein F: Total adrenal volume but not testicular adrenal rest tumor volume is associated with hormonal control in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;95(5):2065-72
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  • [Title] Total adrenal volume but not testicular adrenal rest tumor volume is associated with hormonal control in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • CONTEXT: Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) have been shown to develop adrenal adenomas and, in males, testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) at a high percentage.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the interrelation of adrenal masses and TARTs as well as factors stimulating tumor growth of orthotopic and ectopic adrenal tissue in 21-OHD.
  • Adrenal size and morphology was compared to 26 age-matched controls.
  • RESULTS: Combined adrenal volume of 21-OHD patients was significantly higher (median, 9.3 ml; range, 3.2-124.5 ml) in comparison to controls (median, 7.4 ml; range, 5.5-10.8 ml; P = 0.005).
  • None of the controls, but 42% of 21-OHD patients had an overall adrenal volume higher than 11 ml.
  • Total adrenal volume and tumor size but not TART volume correlated positively with current parameters of hormonal control (androstenedione, morning 17-OHP in serum, pregnanetriol in 24-h urine; P < 0.001 for each).
  • Baseline ACTH was independent of adrenal and TART volume.
  • There was no correlation of total adrenal or adrenal tumor size with TART volume.
  • CONCLUSION: These data provide indirect evidence that different factors regulate the growth of orthotopic adrenal tissue and ectopic adrenal remnants in TARTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Adrenal Rest Tumor / genetics. Adrenal Rest Tumor / pathology. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20190160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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90. Meyer S, von Mach MA, Ivan D, Schäfer S, Habbe N, Kann B, Kann PH: Color-coded duplex endoscopic ultrasound of the adrenals. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Oct;31(10):882-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Imaging of the adrenals by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a valuable technique for detection and localization of adrenal lesions, but endosonomorphological tumor distinction remains difficult.
  • In this single-center study, the amount of blood flow in common adrenal lesions, such as adrenal adenomas, adrenal hyperplasia, and pheochromocytomas, was visualized by color-coded duplex EUS (CD-EUS) and was retrospectively analysed.
  • Therefore, we reviewed our EUS database to evaluate and correlate the perfusion patterns of common adrenal lesions with histologically confirmed diagnosis, possible malignancy, and endosonomorphological features such as echogeneity, echostructure, and tumor size.
  • In 38 consecutive patients (male=19; female=19; age: mean 53+/-16 yr SD), perfusion patterns of 46 histologically confirmed adrenal, para- or extra-adrenal lesions of adrenal origin (adenoma: no.
  • Compared to adenomas (p=0.003) and nodular hyperplasia (p=0.047), pheochromocytomas showed a significantly higher grade of perfusion.
  • There was no relationship between perfusion patterns and localization of pheochromocytomas (adrenal: 8; paraadrenal: 3; extra-adrenal: 4).
  • CD-EUS is an additional tool for adrenal endosonographic tumor distinction and seems to improve the endosonographic detection of pheochromocytomas by visualization of hypervascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Endosonography / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19092293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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91. Bovio S, Cataldi A, Reimondo G, Sperone P, Novello S, Berruti A, Borasio P, Fava C, Dogliotti L, Scagliotti GV, Angeli A, Terzolo M: Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Apr;29(4):298-302
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  • [Title] Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas, defined as masses discovered incidentally during imaging investigation of non-adrenal disorders, have become a rather common finding in clinical practice.
  • The aim of the present study was to perform a prospective evaluation of the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas among subjects undergoing computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest in a screening program of lung cancer (Tic TAC study) in Piedmont, a region of Northwestern Italy.
  • Twenty-three patients with adrenal masses were identified: 21 adrenal adenomas, 1 myelolipoma, and 1 metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Therefore, the overall prevalence of adrenal lesions was 4.4%, and that of benign adrenal masses was 4.2%.
  • Another factor that influenced our results is that subject age is skewed towards the decades characterized by a greater occurrence of adrenal masses.
  • The outcome of this study confirms that we are presently able to identify incidentally discovered adrenal masses more often than in early years and that the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas on CT images is approaching that of autopsy series.
  • The present study provides a reliable estimate of the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma with currently used CT scanners.
  • Notwithstanding that our subjects were at increased risk of lung cancer, the rate of adrenal metastases was low.
  • We think that the present results can be generalized even if we may disclose the lack of histological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16699294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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92. Weng SW, Yang CH, Huang WT, Chen MC, Wang PW: Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour. N Z Med J; 2005 Jun 3;118(1216):U1498
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  • [Title] Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • Adrenal cortical tumour-induced malignant hypertension is rare, except for some documented aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • This case in Taiwan is only the second reported case with malignant hypertension secondary to a cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15937532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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93. Hori T, Taniguchi K, Kurata M, Nakamura K, Kato K, Ogura Y, Iwasaki M, Okamoto S, Yamakado K, Yagi S, Iida T, Kato T, Saito K, Wang L, Kawarada Y, Uemoto S: Carcinoembryonic antigen-producing adrenal adenoma resected using combined lateral and anterior transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Dec 7;13(45):6094-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoembryonic antigen-producing adrenal adenoma resected using combined lateral and anterior transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery.
  • Computed tomography detected a left adrenal mass measuring 3.5 cm multiply 3.0 cm in diameter.
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the adrenal tumor only, with a maximum standardized uptake value of 2.8.
  • A diagnosis of CEA-producing benign adenoma was made.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a benign adenoma.
  • We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of CEA-producing adrenal adenoma, along with a review of the relevant literature, and discuss our laparoscopic surgery techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18023107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4250898
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94. Tanaka K, Morishima Y, Ishii Y, Sakamoto T, Suzuki H, Otsuka F, Hizawa N: [Sarcoidosis presenting after successful treatment for Cushing syndrome]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Jun;47(6):501-6
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  • She had had a history of Cushing syndrome due to right adrenal adenoma, which was successfully treated by unilateral adrenalectomy two years before her admission to our department; however, the chest radiographic abnormalities and the skin lesions were not apparent at that time.
  • Skin biopsy specimens demonstrated noncaseating epithelioid cell granuloma, which was consistent with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.
  • An elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level and increased accumulation of gallium-67 citrate in the pulmonary parenchyma and hilar lymph nodes also supported the diagnosis.
  • We should be aware of the possibility of the condition that steroid-responsive immune diseases such as sarcoidosis might be unmasked and develop after successful treatment for Cushing syndrome.


95. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) (Cas No. 57117-31-4) in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2006 Sep;(525):1-198
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  • The TEF methodology is a relative potency scheme that ranks the dioxin-like activity of a compound relative to TCDD, which is the most potent congener.
  • This allows for the estimation of the potential dioxin-like activity of a mixture of chemicals, based on a common mechanism of action involving an initial binding of DLCs to the AhR.
  • Hepatic Cell Proliferation Data: To evaluate hepatocyte replication, analysis of labeling of replicating hepatocytes with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was conducted at the 14-, 31-, and 53-week interim evaluations.
  • At 2 years, there were significant dose-dependent trends for increased incidences of hepatocellular adenoma and cholangiocarcinoma of the liver.
  • A significant dose-dependent increase in hepatic toxicity was observed and was characterized by increased incidences of numerous nonneoplastic lesions including hepatocellular hypertrophy, multinucleated hepatocytes, oval cell hyperplasia, diffuse fatty change, pigmentation, nodular hyperplasia, eosinophilic foci, hepatocellular necrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, bile duct fibrosis, cholangiofibrosis, and toxic hepatopathy.
  • At 2 years, three gingival squamous cell carcinomas of the oral mucosa were seen in the 200 ng/kg core and stop-exposure groups, two occurred in the 6 ng/kg group, and one occurred in each of the vehicle control, 20 ng/kg, and 92 ng/kg groups.
  • A single occurrence of a multiple cystic keratinizing epithelioma of the lung was observed in the 200 ng/kg core study group.
  • One pancreatic acinar adenoma and one pancreatic acinar carcinoma were each observed in the 92 ng/kg group and in the 200 ng/kg stop-exposure group at 2 years.
  • Numerous nonneoplastic effects were seen in other organs including thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy, thymic atrophy, adrenal cortex cystic degeneration, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, and squamous hyperplasia of the forestomach.

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  • (PMID = 17160103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzofurans; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; U4C2RV3124 / 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran
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96. Lamas C, Palma M, Martín D, de Frutos VA, López M, Marco A: [Adrenal incidentalomas: clinical experience in the hospitals of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Oct;56(8):392-9
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas: clinical experience in the hospitals of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalomas suprarrenales: experiencia clínica en los hospitales de Castilla-La Mancha.
  • OBJECTIVE: The management of incidentally discovered adrenal masses (incidentalomas) remains controversial.
  • Our objective was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of a series of patients with adrenal incidentalomas attended in several hospitals of Castilla-La Mancha, and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.
  • After a median follow-up of 28.8 months, 6% of nonfunctioning adenomas progressed to subclinical Cushing's syndrome, tumoral enlargement of more than 1 cm was found in 9.4% and a contralateral mass developed in 8.9%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the favorable outcome in most patients with adrenal incidentalomas and contributes to a better understanding of this clinical entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Aged. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Female. Glucose Metabolism Disorders / epidemiology. Glucose Metabolism Disorders / etiology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hyperaldosteronism / epidemiology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / epidemiology. Hypertension / etiology. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoporosis / epidemiology. Osteoporosis / etiology. Overweight / epidemiology. Spain / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19959148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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97. Tiu SC, Chan AO, Taylor NF, Lee CY, Loung PY, Choi CH, Shek CC: Use of urinary steroid profiling for diagnosing and monitoring adrenocortical tumours. Hong Kong Med J; 2009 Dec;15(6):463-70
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  • [Title] Use of urinary steroid profiling for diagnosing and monitoring adrenocortical tumours.
  • It has been suggested that urinary steroid profiling may be used to provide information aiding the diagnosis and monitoring of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Nonetheless, the abnormal patterns suggestive of adrenal malignancy are not well defined.
  • We retrospectively studied the urinary steroid profiles of five patients with adrenocortical carcinoma at presentation and at follow-up, and compared these results with those from 76 patients with benign adrenocortical adenoma and 172 healthy controls.
  • Three abnormal patterns of urinary steroid excretion were identified in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma at presentation and/or follow-up of residual disease:.
  • These preliminary findings offer ways in which urinary steroid profiling performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry can be helpful in the diagnosis and monitoring of adrenocortical carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19966352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids
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98. Lamas C, López LM, Lozano E, Atienzar M, Ruiz-Mondéjar R, Alfaro JJ, Botella F: Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Sep;117(8):440-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are uncommon benign tumors, composed of mature adipose tissue and haematopoietic elements in varying proportions.
  • They are usually asymptomatic, non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas, but there have been a few reports of myelolipomatous masses associated with adrenocortical hypersecretion.
  • We report two cases of large mixed adrenal tumors, with heterogeneous appearance and areas of fat density in imaging techniques, and with autonomous cortisol production leading to Cushing's syndrome.
  • Both underwent adrenalectomy and the histological study showed an adrenocortical adenoma with widespread myelolipomatous metaplasia.
  • We review all the previous reported cases of hypercortisolism associated with adrenal myelolipomas.
  • We also discuss the recommended diagnostic approach and therapeutic management of adrenal masses of lipomatous appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Myelolipoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
  • (PMID = 19373749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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99. Young WF Jr: Clinical practice. The incidentally discovered adrenal mass. N Engl J Med; 2007 Feb 8;356(6):601-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical practice. The incidentally discovered adrenal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aged. Algorithms. Catecholamines / urine. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2007 May 10;356(19):2005-6 [17506163.001]
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2007 May 10;356(19):2005 [17494941.001]
  • (PMID = 17287480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Catecholamines
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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100. Hahner S, Fassnacht M, Hammer F, Schammann M, Weismann D, Hansen IA, Allolio B: Evidence against a role of human airway trypsin-like protease--the human analogue of the growth-promoting rat adrenal secretory protease--in adrenal tumourigenesis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Jan;152(1):143-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence against a role of human airway trypsin-like protease--the human analogue of the growth-promoting rat adrenal secretory protease--in adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: A serine protease from rat adrenal cortex was recently characterized and named adrenal secretory protease (AsP).
  • AsP is expressed in the adrenal cortex and is capable of cleaving pro-gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (1-76 N-terminus of pro-opiomelanocortin) into fragments that act as adrenal mitogens.
  • AsP may therefore play a crucial role in adrenal growth and tumourigenesis.
  • The aim of this study was to further characterize the human homologue of AsP and its possible role in adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • Further analysis revealed that the HAT gene is the human homologue of a long splice variant of AsP, which we recently described as rat airway trypsin-like serine protease 1.
  • In contrast to rodents, no short isoform of HAT was found in humans due to a stop codon in exon 6 which prevents the expression of a short isoform.
  • While high expression of HAT mRNA was found in the trachea and in the gastrointestinal tract, expression in the adrenal was only very weak.
  • We further investigated HAT expression in five normal adrenal glands, 15 adrenocortical adenomas (five hormonally inactive adenomas, five aldosterone-producing adenomas and five cortisol-producing adenomas), nine adrenocortical carcinomas, five phaeochromocytomas and two adrenal hyperplasias.
  • Weak HAT expression was detectable in only two out of five normal adrenal glands, in one out of twenty-four adrenocortical tumours and four out of five phaeochromocytomas.
  • However, the expression in the adrenal tissue was several orders of magnitude lower than in the trachea.
  • In addition, we could not detect any HAT transcripts in a sample of fetal adrenal.
  • CONCLUSION: Gene structure and tissue distribution of HAT, the human homologue of the rat adrenal secretory protease AsP, reveal major interspecies differences.
  • The observation of very low expression levels in normal adrenal tissue and adrenocortical tumours casts doubt about a role for HAT in the physiological and pathological growth of adrenocortical cells.

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  • (PMID = 15762198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / human airway trypsin-like protease
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