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1. Berruti A, Terzolo M, Sperone P, Pia A, Della Casa S, Gross DJ, Carnaghi C, Casali P, Porpiglia F, Mantero F, Reimondo G, Angeli A, Dogliotti L: Etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin plus mitotane in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma: a large prospective phase II trial. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):657-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin plus mitotane in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma: a large prospective phase II trial.
  • To investigate the activity of etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin plus mitotane in the management of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients, 72 patients with measurable disease not amenable to radical surgery were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter phase II trial.
  • Radical surgical resection of residual disease after chemotherapy was performed in 10 patients.
  • The overall survival of patients attaining a disease free status (clinical complete responders+radically resected) was significantly higher than that of patients with partial response or no response (P<0.002).
  • Surgical resection of residual disease subsequent to chemotherapy leads to a more favourable outcome.
  • The natural history of the disease is significantly influenced by the secretory status of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16172198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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2. Michalakis K, Ilias I: Medical management of adrenal disease: a narrative review. Endocr Regul; 2009 Jul;43(3):127-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medical management of adrenal disease: a narrative review.
  • Adrenal diseases comprise for a variety of medical endocrine issues, ranging from partial or complete gland insufficiency, to several kinds of adrenal hyperfunction, either of congenital or neoplastic etiology.
  • Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency are treated with glucocorticoids to control androgen excess.
  • Most benign neoplastic adrenal diseases that cause hyperfunction of the gland are surgically treated, however this may not be always feasible or effective.
  • For neoplastic adrenomedullary disease surgery is the treatment of choice; medical treatment is used preoperatively (mainly alpha blockers) and in case of disease persistence and /or recurrence (mainly metyrosine).
  • For malignant adrenocortical disease, surgical removal remains the indicated treatment, but if the potential for surgical intervention is limited due to tumor extension, medical treatment can alleviate symptoms of hormone hypersecretion; mitotane in selected patients has good results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / drug therapy. Adrenal Insufficiency / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19817507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-0668
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine regulations
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Regul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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3. Parviainen H, Kiiveri S, Bielinska M, Rahman N, Huhtaniemi IT, Wilson DB, Heikinheimo M: GATA transcription factors in adrenal development and tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Feb;265-266:17-22
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  • [Title] GATA transcription factors in adrenal development and tumors.
  • Of the six GATA transcription factors, GATA-4 and GATA-6 are expressed in the mouse and human adrenal with distinct developmental profiles.
  • GATA-4 is confined to the fetal cortex, i.e. to the less differentiated proliferating cells, while GATA-6 is expressed both in the fetal and adult adrenal.
  • In vitro, GATA-4 regulates inhibin-alpha and steroidogenic factor-1 implicated in normal adrenal function.
  • GATA-6 probably has roles in the development and differentiation of adrenocortical cells, and in the regulation of steroidogenesis.
  • GATA-4 expression is dramatically upregulated and GATA-6 downregulated in gonadotropin dependent mouse adrenocortical tumors.
  • Human adrenal tumors occasionally express GATA-4, whereas GATA-6 levels are usually lower than normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. GATA Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17207921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA Transcription Factors; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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4. Kyriazopoulou V: Glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with Addison's disease. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2007 Apr;8(6):725-9
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  • [Title] Glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with Addison's disease.
  • One hundred and fifty years ago, Thomas Addison published his classic paper on the 'Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Supra-renal Capsules', in which he described 11 patients with the disorder that would come to bear his name.
  • Adrenal insufficiency is a rare disease, but its prevalence is increasing.
  • The most frequent causes of adrenal insufficiency in western countries are autoimmune adrenalitis, but other causes include, tuberculosis systemic fungal infections, AIDS, metastatic carcinoma and isolated glucocorticoid deficiency.
  • It is clear that autoimmunity precedes overt Addison's disease by years, as in many autoimmune endocrine disorders.
  • Adrenocortical function is lost over a period of years as it progresses to overt Addison's disease.
  • This editorial discusses the controversial glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with Addison's disease, and aims to provide a good review of literature and suggested guidelines for appropriate treatment of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Addison Disease / drug therapy. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods


5. Ragazzon B, Libé R, Gaujoux S, Assié G, Fratticci A, Launay P, Clauser E, Bertagna X, Tissier F, de Reyniès A, Bertherat J: Transcriptome analysis reveals that p53 and {beta}-catenin alterations occur in a group of aggressive adrenocortical cancers. Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 1;70(21):8276-81
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  • [Title] Transcriptome analysis reveals that p53 and {beta}-catenin alterations occur in a group of aggressive adrenocortical cancers.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with an overall poor but heterogeneous prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Mutation / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics


6. Sakura M, Tsujii T, Yamauchi A, Tadokoro M, Tsukamoto T, Kawakami S, Yonese J, Fukui I: Superior vena cava syndrome caused by supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct;12(5):382-4
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  • [Title] Superior vena cava syndrome caused by supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of renal cell carcinoma.
  • Left renal tumor was revealed and radical nephrectomy was performed.
  • Pathological examination revealed papillary renal cell carcinoma, pT3aN1M1 (ipsilateral adrenal gland).
  • Autopsy revealed a left supraclavicular lymph node metastasis invading the thyroid gland, mediastinum, and brachiocephalic vein.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17929122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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7. Ali AE, Raphael SJ: Functional oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(3):187-9
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  • [Title] Functional oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • We present a case of oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma in a 25-year-old man who presented with persistent hypertension, hypokalemia, and a large right adrenal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18058268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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8. Estes NR 2nd, Thottassery JV, Kern FG: siRNA mediated knockdown of fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 or 3 inhibits FGF-induced anchorage-independent clonogenicity but does not affect MAPK activation. Oncol Rep; 2006 Jun;15(6):1407-16
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  • Supplementation with exogenous growth factors such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is essential for anchorage-independent growth of the SW-13 human adrenal adenocarcinoma cell line.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Enzyme Activation. Humans. MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / genetics. MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / metabolism. MAP Kinase Kinase 2 / antagonists & inhibitors. MAP Kinase Kinase 2 / genetics. MAP Kinase Kinase 2 / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 16685373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA50376; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA13148
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FGF4 protein, human; 0 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 4; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; EC 2.7.1.- / MAP2K1 protein, human; EC 2.7.1.- / MAP2K2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 1; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 2; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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9. Nader N, Raverot G, Emptoz-Bonneton A, Déchaud H, Bonnay M, Baudin E, Pugeat M: Mitotane has an estrogenic effect on sex hormone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2165-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DESIGN: Human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2), lacking estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, and Hep89, stably transfected by ERalpha, were used.
  • PATIENTS AND OTHER PARTICIPANTS: The study included 10 male patients with recurrent adrenal carcinoma, receiving mitotane (4-6.5 g daily) for more than 6 months.
  • In the HepG2 cell line, 17beta-estradiol (E2) or o,p'-DDD treatment had no effect on mRNA or SHBG/CBG concentrations.
  • In contrast, in the Hep89 cell line, E2 increased concentrations of SHBG (r = 0.44, P < 0.0001) and CBG (r = 0.585, P < 0.0001) secreted into culture media in a dose-dependent manner. o,p'-DDD significantly increased SHBG (150% vs. control, P < 0.05) and CBG (184% vs. control, P < 0.05) production by Hep89 cells, at a concentration of 2 x 10(-5) m.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogen Receptor alpha / drug effects. Estrogen Receptor alpha / physiology. Humans. Liver / metabolism. Male. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Transcription, Genetic. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16551731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 9010-38-2 / Transcortin
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10. Lughezzani G, Sun M, Perrotte P, Jeldres C, Alasker A, Isbarn H, Budäus L, Shariat SF, Guazzoni G, Montorsi F, Karakiewicz PI: The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Mar;46(4):713-9
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  • [Title] The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation.
  • BACKGROUND: A reclassification of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients has recently been proposed by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) to better discriminate between cancer-specific mortality (CSM) risk strata.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards


11. Moid F, DePalma L: Comparison of relative value of bone marrow aspirates and bone marrow trephine biopsies in the diagnosis of solid tumor metastasis and Hodgkin lymphoma: institutional experience and literature review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Apr;129(4):497-501
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  • [Title] Comparison of relative value of bone marrow aspirates and bone marrow trephine biopsies in the diagnosis of solid tumor metastasis and Hodgkin lymphoma: institutional experience and literature review.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the relative value of aspirates and trephine biopsies in the diagnosis of solid tumor metastasis and Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The diagnosis and findings made on aspirates were compared with those made on trephine biopsies in each case.
  • The correlation between aspirates and trephine biopsies was highest in cases of small cell carcinoma of the lung (3/11, or 36.3%) followed by breast carcinoma (7/20, or 35%), prostate carcinoma (1/9, or 11.1%), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1/20, or 5%).
  • Two of 5 cases from the miscellaneous category demonstrated simultaneous involvement of aspirate and trephine biopsy by a gastric carcinoma as well as an adrenal gland carcinoma.
  • In cases of breast carcinoma, small cell carcinoma of lung, and prostate carcinoma, aspirate evaluation may confirm trephine biopsy results or, more rarely, provide the sole confirmation of the malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Marrow Examination / methods. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Hodgkin Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15794673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Pradeep PV, Mishra AK, Aggarwal V, Bhargav PR, Gupta SK, Agarwal A: Adrenal cysts: an institutional experience. World J Surg; 2006 Oct;30(10):1817-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cysts: an institutional experience.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal cysts are rare clinical entities.
  • We report our institutional experience with adrenal cysts and also assess various management options.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over the past 15 years the Department of Endocrine Surgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, has had seven cases of adrenal cysts, of which two were functional: one patient had Cushing's syndrome and the other patient had pheochromocytoma.
  • It is generally agreed that a hormonal work-up is necessary in all cases of adrenal cysts to rule out a sub-clinical disease.
  • Adrenal neoplasms, including adrenocortical carcinomas, can be associated with cysts that are benign in appearance.
  • However, surgical excision provides a definite histopathological diagnosis and also removes the fear of future complications such as hemorrhage into the cyst and local pressure effects due to the tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given that the adrenals are a vascular gland and taking into consideration the possibilities of bleeding and complications in the cyst, our treatment of choice is the elective excision of adrenal cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Academies and Institutes / statistics & numerical data. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. India. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16983481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. van Hest LP, Ruijs MW, Wagner A, van der Meer CA, Verhoef S, van't Veer LJ, Meijers-Heijboer H: Two TP53 germline mutations in a classical Li-Fraumeni syndrome family. Fam Cancer; 2007;6(3):311-6
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  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by a combination of tumors including sarcoma, breast cancer, brain tumors, adrenocortical carcinoma and leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 17318340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-9600
  • [Journal-full-title] Familial cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fam. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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14. Sugaya M, Takenoyama M, Shigematsu Y, Baba T, Fukuyama T, Nagata Y, Mizukami M, So T, Ichiki Y, Yasuda M, So T, Hanagiri T, Sugio K, Yasumoto K: Identification of HLA-A24 restricted shared antigen recognized by autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes from a patient with large cell carcinoma of the lung. Int J Cancer; 2007 Mar 1;120(5):1055-62
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  • [Title] Identification of HLA-A24 restricted shared antigen recognized by autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes from a patient with large cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • The aim of the present study was to elucidate the tumor-specific cellular immunological responses occurring in a patient with large cell carcinoma of the lung who had no evidence of recurrence following surgical resections of both a primary lung lesion and a metastatic adrenal lesion.
  • The F2b possessed T cell receptor (TCR) using the Valpha5 and Vbeta7 gene segment.
  • The F2b recognized 3 out of 7 HLA-A24 positive allogeneic tumor cell lines and in 1 out of 7 HLA-A24 negative allogeneic tumor cell lines when transfected with HLA-A24.
  • This peptide is therefore considered to be potentially useful for performing specific immunotherapy in a significant proportion of lung cancer patients bearing HLA-A24.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Carcinoma, Large Cell / immunology. HLA-A Antigens / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / immunology. Microfilament Proteins / genetics. Oligopeptides / isolation & purification. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alternative Splicing. Amino Acid Sequence. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic / genetics. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Gene Expression. HLA-A24 Antigen. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Peptides / genetics. Peptides / immunology. Peptides / isolation & purification. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17131342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / HLA-A Antigens; 0 / HLA-A*24:02 antigen; 0 / HLA-A24 Antigen; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / NYGFQIHTK; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; 0 / TRIOBP protein, human
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15. Mezhir JJ, Song J, Piano G, Testa G, Raman J, Al-Ahmadie HA, Angelos P: Adrenocortical carcinoma invading the inferior vena cava: case report and literature review. Endocr Pract; 2008 Sep;14(6):721-5
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma invading the inferior vena cava: case report and literature review.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a man with a right-sided adrenocortical carcinoma that invaded the inferior vena cava and was managed by radical resection and vein patch repair.
  • The literature is reviewed for the management of adrenocortical carcinoma in conjunction with inferior vena cava invasion.
  • RESULTS: In a 34-year-old man with new-onset abdominal pain, abdominal imaging disclosed a large right adrenal mass with invasion into the inferior vena cava.
  • Laboratory values revealed that the adrenal mass was likely nonfunctional.
  • At surgical intervention with use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the mass was removed en bloc with the adrenal gland, right kidney, and the wall of the inferior vena cava, and the inferior vena cava was reconstructed with bovine pericardium.
  • Thus, this scenario should not preclude attempted curative resection in patients with adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18996792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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16. Slattery JM, Blake MA, Kalra MK, Misdraji J, Sweeney AT, Copeland PM, Mueller PR, Boland GW: Adrenocortical carcinoma: contrast washout characteristics on CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Jul;187(1):W21-4
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: contrast washout characteristics on CT.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize pathologically proven adrenocortical carcinoma by examination of washout attenuation characteristics on contrast-enhanced CT images.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenocortical carcinoma has relative contrast retention on delayed contrast-enhanced CT.
  • All tumors in this series had a relative percentage washout less than 40%, a finding consistent with malignant disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Contrast Media. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16794135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; A4YJ7J11TG / ioxilan
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17. Opocher G, Schiavi F: Genetics of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):943-56
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  • Pheochromocytoma is the tumor of the main sympathetic paraganglia, which is the adrenal medulla.
  • The best known hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are the von Hippel-Lindau disease, in which pheochromocytoma may be associated with CNS hemangioblastoma, retinal angioma, pancreatic endocrine tumor/cysts and renal clear cell carcinoma/cysts; the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, in which pheochromocytoma is associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism, Type 1 neurofibromatosis, the most frequent hereditary cancer syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics


18. Rodgers SE, Evans DB, Lee JE, Perrier ND: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2006 Jul;15(3):535-53
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • ACC is a rare clinical entity that carries a poor prognosis; early diagnosis and complete surgical resection are associated with the improvement in patient survival.
  • Even with appropriated diagnosis and treatment, most patients will develop recurrence and succumb to ACC because of the underlying tumor biology, the difficulty of achieving a complete resection, and the lack of effective systemic therapies.
  • Despite its many drawbacks, mitotane continues to be a mainstay in the treatment of high-risk patients with ACC, especially those with recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 16882496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IGF2 protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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19. Taccone FS, Salmon I, Marechal R, Blecic SA: Paraneoplastic vasculitis of central nervous system presenting as recurrent cryptogenic stroke. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Apr;12(2):155-9
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  • We report the case of paraneoplastic vasculitis of the central nervous system associated with breast cancer.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral and medullary cryptogenic lesions, and a diagnosis of encephalomyelitis of unknown origin was made.
  • The previous diagnosis was then changed, because a poorly differentiated invasive lobular breast cancer was discovered.
  • Thoracic and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans diagnosed pulmonary, pericardial, adrenal, and renal metastases.
  • Because MRI findings did not fit with the diagnosis of brain metastases, a CT-guided cerebral biopsy was performed, and she was eventually diagnosed with paraneoplastic vasculitis of the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Epilepsy / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Pericardium / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
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  • [Language] eng
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20. Zhou GW, Wei Y, Chen X, Jiang XH, Li XY, Ning G, Li HW: Diagnosis and surgical treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Jul 5;122(13):1495-500
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and surgical treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia.
  • We discuss the diagnosis and surgical treatment of MEN.
  • There were 22 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), 10 cases of enteropanceatic tumor including 9 cases of insulinoma, 15 cases of pituitary adenoma, 9 cases of adrenal adenoma, 2 cases of thymic carcinoid.
  • Two patients had 4 glands involved, 3 patients had 3 glands involved, 16 patients had 2 glands involved, and 6 patients had only one gland involved.
  • 5 MEN2b patients had medullary thyroid carcinoma and mucosal ganglioneuromatosis with Marfanoid.
  • Twenty two MEN2a patients underwent pheochromocytoma enucleation including bilateral adrenal resection in 10 cases.
  • Among them, 3 cases underwent bilateral adrenal operations.
  • Germline mutation test is helpful in establishing a diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19719936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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21. Loukas M, Louis RG Jr, Hullett J, Loiacano M, Skidd P, Wagner T: An anatomical classification of the variations of the inferior phrenic vein. Surg Radiol Anat; 2005 Dec;27(6):566-74
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  • However, in the last decade, an increasing number of reports have arisen, with reference to the endoscopic embolization of esophageal and paraesophageal varices, as well as venous drainage of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC).
  • We have examined 300 formalin-fixed adult cadavers, without any visible gastrointestinal disease, and 30 cadavers derived from patients with HCC.
  • The left IPV drained into the following: the IVC inferior to the diaphragm in 37%, the left suprarenal vein in 25%, the left renal vein in 15%, the left hepatic vein in 14%, and both the IVC and the left adrenal vein in 1% of the specimens.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cadaver. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / blood supply. Collateral Circulation / physiology. Esophagus / blood supply. Female. Hepatic Veins / pathology. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / blood supply. Male. Middle Aged. Renal Veins / pathology. Veins / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • [ISSN] 0930-1038
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Radiol Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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22. Egan AM, Larkin JO, Ryan RS, Waldron R: Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage secondary to intra-abdominal sepsis: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:6894
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage secondary to intra-abdominal sepsis: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is a rare cause of adrenal failure.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a patient who underwent a left hemicolectomy with primary anastomosis and formation of a defunctioning loop ileostomy for an obstructing colon carcinoma at the splenic flexure.
  • This precipitated acute bilateral adrenal haemorrhage with consequent adrenal insufficiency.
  • CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of prompt diagnosis and treatment of adrenal failure.

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  • (PMID = 19829879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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23. Fasshauer M, Lincke T, Witzigmann H, Kluge R, Tannapfel A, Moche M, Buchfelder M, Petersenn S, Kratzsch J, Paschke R, Koch CA: Ectopic Cushing' syndrome caused by a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:108
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  • [Title] Ectopic Cushing' syndrome caused by a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery.
  • BACKGROUND: ACTH overproduction within the pituitary gland or ectopically leads to hypercortisolism.
  • Here, we report the first case of Cushing' syndrome caused by an ectopic ACTH-secreting neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery.
  • First, subtotal thyroidectomy was performed without remission of hypercortisolism, because an octreotide scan showed increased activity in the left thyroid gland and an ultrasound revealed nodules in both thyroid lobes one of which was autonomous.
  • In addition, the patient had a 3 mm hypoenhancing lesion of the neurohypophysis and a 1 cm large adrenal tumor.
  • At 18-months follow-up from initial presentation, we detected an ACTH-producing neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery by using a combination of octreotide scan, computed tomography scan, and positron emission tomography.
  • Intraoperatively, use of a gamma probe after administration of radiolabeled (111)In-pentetreotide helped identify the mesenteric neuroendocrine tumor.
  • After removal of this carcinoma, the patient improved clinically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Mesentery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16643652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1464147
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24. Kuczyk M, Wegener G, Jonas U: The therapeutic value of adrenalectomy in case of solitary metastatic spread originating from primary renal cell cancer. Eur Urol; 2005 Aug;48(2):252-7
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  • [Title] The therapeutic value of adrenalectomy in case of solitary metastatic spread originating from primary renal cell cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Solitary adrenal metastases occur in about 1.2-10% of renal cell cancer patients.
  • Since the vast majority of intraadrenal lesions can be detected preoperatively, we and others have recently recommended to renounce a routine adrenalectomy during surgery of renal cell cancer.
  • However, the impact of adrenalectomy on the patients' clinical prognosis in case of a solitary metastatic lesion within the adrenal gland remains an issue of controversial discussion.
  • Whereas some authors suggest adrenalectomy as a potentially curative treatment option in these cases, others compare its clinical value with that of a mere lymphadenectomy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: Between 1981 and 2000, 648 patients (440 males and 208 females) underwent nephrectomy in combination with adrenalectomy in our clinic for the diagnosis of renal cell cancer.
  • The median age at first diagnosis was 59 (range 33-84) and 60 (range 20-85) years for male and female patients, respectively.
  • Although metastases of the adrenal gland were diagnosed in 48 patients, solitary intraadrenal metastases without further systemic spread were observed in only 13 cases.
  • The observation that the long - term survival of the latter patients is comparable to that of patients with organ - confined disease might suggest the establishment of a separate TNM - category for patients revealing a solitary metastasis within the adrenal gland and no hint at further systemic metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology


25. John M, Lila AR, Bandgar T, Menon PS, Shah NS: Diagnostic efficacy of midnight cortisol and midnight ACTH in the diagnosis and localisation of Cushing's syndrome. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):48-53
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  • [Title] Diagnostic efficacy of midnight cortisol and midnight ACTH in the diagnosis and localisation of Cushing's syndrome.
  • Classical tests for diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) like urine free cortisol and dexamethasone suppression tests have limitations in various clinical settings.
  • A simultaneously done midnight plasma ACTH level was used to classify the disease as ACTH dependent or independent.
  • We evaluated 43 patients with CS comprising of 34 patients with Cushing's disease (CD), 2 patients with thymic carcinoid producing ectopic CS, 5 patients with adrenal carcinoma and 2 with adrenal adenoma.
  • SMNC achieved 100% sensitivity in the diagnosis of endogenous CS at cut offs of 138 nmol/l and below.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Diagnosis. Female. Histocytochemistry / standards. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sleep. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19714471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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26. Raparia K, Ayala AG, Sienko A, Zhai QJ, Ro JY: Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Oct;12(5):344-8
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  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms are rare, and to our knowledge, only about 23 cases have been reported in the literature, including 13 carcinomas and 10 adenomas.
  • We recently experienced 4 cases of myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms (3 benign and 1 borderline malignancy) and studied the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of these neoplasms.
  • Myxoid changes in adrenal cortical neoplasms are rare but can be seen in both an adenoma and a tumor of uncertain malignant potential.
  • The usual clinical and histological features can be applied to classify the lesions as benign, borderline tumor, or malignant.
  • In our series, there was no case with frank malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Mucins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18774497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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27. Grubbs E, Lee JE: Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a revised TNM classification. Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;115(24):5847; author reply 5848
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  • [Title] Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a revised TNM classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [CommentOn] Cancer. 2009 Jan 15;115(2):243-50 [19025987.001]
  • (PMID = 19827149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Nap RR, Meinardi JR, van den Berg G, Dullaart RP, de Vries J, Wolffenbuttel BH: [Long-term follow-up is indicated after surgery for a phaeochromocytoma]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 May 13;150(19):1045-9
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  • Two patients presented with symptoms that suggested a recurrence of phaeochromocytoma, 17 and 14 years after a first manifestation of this disease for which they had undergone successful surgery.
  • In addition to peritoneal metastases confirmed to be caused by malignant phaeochromocytoma he also had a carcinoma of the caecum.
  • Studies report recurrence ofphaeochromocytoma in 8-20% of cases, and such a recurrence may be either benign or malignant.
  • Factors predictive for recurrence are older age, a malignant primary tumour, tumour weight above 60 g, extra-adrenal origin of the tumour and peroperative tumour spill.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16733977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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29. Nagasaki S, Miki Y, Akahira J, Suzuki T, Sasano H: 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in human breast cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2009 Feb;1155:25-32
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  • [Title] 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in human breast cancer.
  • Estrogen plays a pivotal role in development and progression of human breast carcinoma.
  • Before menopause the main source of estrogen in women is circulating estrogen secreted from the ovary, but following menopause the source changes to the hormone that is converted from circulating adrenal androgens in peripheral tissues.
  • Therefore, adrenal androgens have to be converted to estrogen to stimulate breast carcinoma cells.
  • The balance of the relative expression levels of 17beta-HSD isozymes in human breast carcinomas is thought to play a pivotal role in supply of estradiol to estrogen receptor positive carcinoma cells.
  • Understanding the character of 17beta-HSD isozymes in human breast carcinoma thus provides important information on the mechanisms of biosynthesis of estradiol in breast carcinoma and for development of a therapeutic agent targeted for inhibition of local estradiol synthesis in breast carcinoma cells.
  • In the present review we summarize the roles played by 17beta-HSDs in human breast carcinoma to obtain a better understanding of the properties of 17beta-HSDs in human breast carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19250189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-6632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.- / 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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30. Lamas C, Palma M, Martín D, de Frutos VA, López M, Marco A: [Adrenal incidentalomas: clinical experience in the hospitals of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Oct;56(8):392-9
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas: clinical experience in the hospitals of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalomas suprarrenales: experiencia clínica en los hospitales de Castilla-La Mancha.
  • OBJECTIVE: The management of incidentally discovered adrenal masses (incidentalomas) remains controversial.
  • Our objective was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of a series of patients with adrenal incidentalomas attended in several hospitals of Castilla-La Mancha, and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the favorable outcome in most patients with adrenal incidentalomas and contributes to a better understanding of this clinical entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Aged. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Female. Glucose Metabolism Disorders / epidemiology. Glucose Metabolism Disorders / etiology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hyperaldosteronism / epidemiology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / epidemiology. Hypertension / etiology. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoporosis / epidemiology. Osteoporosis / etiology. Overweight / epidemiology. Spain / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19959148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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31. Barlaskar FM, Hammer GD: The molecular genetics of adrenocortical carcinoma. Rev Endocr Metab Disord; 2007 Dec;8(4):343-8
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  • [Title] The molecular genetics of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17934868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-9155
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Endocr Metab Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1C protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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32. Abadie C, Bernard F, Netchine I, Sanlaville D, Roque A, Rossignol S, Coupier I: Acute lymphocytic leukaemia in a child with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome harbouring a CDKN1C mutation. Eur J Med Genet; 2010 Nov-Dec;53(6):400-3
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  • This syndrome is a multigenic disorder caused by dysregulation of imprinted growth regulatory genes in the 11p15.5 region.
  • The most commonly reported tumours in this syndrome are tumours of embryologic origin such as Wilms tumours, hepatoblastomas, neuroblastomas, rhabdomyosarcomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • We report the case of a 10-year-old patient diagnosed with BWS, harbouring a CDKN1C (p57(KIP2)) mutation, who developed a T-type acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • We discuss the possibility of a link between BWS and leukaemia via one of the few known negative regulator of hematopoiesis, the transforming growth factor beta pathway, depending upon the up-regulation of CDKN1C.
  • [MeSH-major] Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57 / genetics. Mutation. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20826236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0849
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Med Genet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1C protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57
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33. National Toxicology Program: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of decalin (CAS No. 91-17-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice and a toxicology study of decalin in male NBR rats (inhalation studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2005 Jan;(513):1-316
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  • Decalin was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute because of its chemical structure, its potential for consumer exposure, and a lack of adequate testing of the chemical.
  • Male NBR rats do not produce alpha2u-globulin; the NBR rats were included to study the relationship of alpha2u-globulin and renal lesion induction.
  • Renal toxicity studies were performed in male F344/N and NBR rats.
  • Exposure-related hyaline droplet accumulation, degeneration and regeneration of renal cortical tubules, and granular casts occurred in the kidney of exposed F344/N male rats.
  • 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 25 male and 20 female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 2 (five male renal toxicity rats), 6 (10 male and 10 female clinical pathology rats), or 14 (10 core study rats) weeks.
  • Urinalysis results indicated that decalin exposure caused increases in urine glucose and protein concentrations and enzyme activities that were consistent with the renal lesions observed microscopically.
  • Renal toxicity studies were performed on rats sacrificed at 2 and 6 weeks and at the end of the study.
  • In kidney tissue examined for cell proliferation, the numbers of PCNA-labeled cells and labeling indices were generally significantly greater than those of the chamber controls in exposed groups of rats at all three time points.
  • Incidences of renal tubule regeneration and granular casts in the medulla of the kidney in exposed male rats were increased, and the severities of hyaline droplets generally increased with increasing exposure concentration.
  • Incidences of renal tubule adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) and of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in 100 and 400 ppm males were significantly increased.
  • There was a significant association between nephropathy severity and adrenal pheochromocytoma incidence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of these studies, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of decalin in male F344/N rats based on increased incidences of renal tubule neoplasms.
  • The increased incidences of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in male rats were also considered to be exposure related.

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  • (PMID = 15891779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Naphthalenes; 88451Q4XYF / decalin
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34. Fariña LA, Antón I, Fernández GC: [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access]. Actas Urol Esp; 2009 Sep;33(8):913-6
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  • [Title] [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access].
  • [Transliterated title] Seudoquiste adrenal grande que simula feocromocitoma quístico: exéresis minimizando el acceso laparoscópico.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal cysts and pseudocysts are rare and usually benign and asymptomatic; they are discovered either accidentally or during examination for non-specific abdominal discomfort.
  • The differential diagnosis for adrenal cysts must consider cystic adrenal carcinoma and cystic pheochromocytoma, which are both extremely rare, but more severe and difficult to treat.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: A 55 year-old woman reported right-side flank pain; imaging studies discovered a 10 cm cystic adrenal tumour, with radiological indications of cystic pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As less invasive laparoscopic procedures become widespread, an increasing number of case reports and series of cases regarding adrenal cyst operations have recently been reported.
  • A review of the literature shows that the cysts are generally benign, but it is not always possible to identify cystic adrenal carcinoma or cystic pheochromocytoma from the radiology image.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


35. Ruotolo G, Ambrosio MR, Caroleo PR, Bonacci E, Condito AM, Merante A, Arcuri P, Rocca BJ, Palermo BV, Palermo S, Gareri P: Adrenal incidentaloma: a case of carcinoma. Clin Interv Aging; 2010;5:31-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: a case of carcinoma.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is a term applied to an accidentally discovered adrenal mass on imaging performed for reasons unrelated to adrenal pathology.
  • The widespread application of abdominal imaging procedure has resulted in an increased frequency of clinically silent adrenal masses.
  • Although most AIs are nonfunctioning benign adenomas, a multidisciplinary approach with biochemical and radiological evaluation is needed to characterize these lesions and identify patients who are at high risk for hormonal or malignant evolution.
  • Herein, we describe a case of a 69-year-old man with a pain at the base of right chest.
  • On the basis of clinical evaluation, biochemical analysis, as well as imaging procedures, a diagnosis of right adrenocortical carcinoma was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 20396632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical interventions in aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Interv Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2854049
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal incidentaloma / adrenal mass / adrenocortical carcinoma
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36. Namboodiri N, Krishnamoorthy KM, Tharakan JA: Intra-atrial extension of Wilms' tumor. J Am Soc Echocardiogr; 2008 Jan;21(1):91.e3-4
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  • Ultrasonography revealed the contiguous spread of the tumor through renal vein with near total caval occlusion.
  • Intracardiac extension of infradiaphragmatic tumors through caval route, although infrequent, can be seen with renal cell carcinoma, Wilms' tumor, hepatoma, lymphoma, and uterine and adrenal tumors.
  • Detection of a mass in right atrium in a child should alert the echocardiographer about the possibility of caval spread from a renal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Echocardiography. Fatal Outcome. Heart Atria / pathology. Heart Atria / ultrasonography. Hepatic Veins / pathology. Hepatic Veins / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Renal Veins / pathology. Renal Veins / ultrasonography. Tricuspid Valve / pathology. Tricuspid Valve / ultrasonography. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17628424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6795
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Soc Echocardiogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Kauhanen S, Seppänen M, Ovaska J, Minn H, Bergman J, Korsoff P, Salmela P, Saltevo J, Sane T, Välimäki M, Nuutila P: The clinical value of [18F]fluoro-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography in primary diagnosis, staging, and restaging of neuroendocrine tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Mar;16(1):255-65
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  • [Title] The clinical value of [18F]fluoro-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography in primary diagnosis, staging, and restaging of neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Patients were divided into two groups: primary diagnosis/staging and restaging of disease.
  • All patients without previous diagnosis of NET had biochemical proof of disease.
  • In patients having PET for primary diagnosis/staging (n=32), the accuracy of PET was 88%, and for restaging 92% (n=61).
  • In organ-region-specific analysis, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% in the primary diagnosis of pheochromocytoma (n=16) and metastases were found in all cases with recurrent disease (n=5).
  • For the NETs located in the head-neck-thoracic region (n=19), the overall accuracy of PET was 89% including 12 cases of recurrent medullary thyroid cancer with a sensitivity of 90%.
  • In analysis of patients with biochemical proof of disease combined with negative conventional imaging methods, PET had positive and negative predictive value of 92% and 95% respectively.
  • [(18)F]DOPA PET-CT provided important additional information in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and restaging of known NET.
  • Both in primary diagnosis and in patients with formerly known NET and increasing tumor markers, [(18)F]DOPA PET-CT is a sensitive first-line imaging method.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • [ErratumIn] Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009 Jun;16(2):661
  • (PMID = 19088184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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38. Egawa H, Uemoto S, Takada Y, Ozawa K, Teramukai S, Haga H, Kasahara M, Ogawa K, Sato H, Ono M, Takai K, Fukushima M, Inaba K, Tanaka K: Initial steroid bolus injection promotes vigorous CD8+ alloreactive responses toward early graft acceptance immediately after liver transplantation in humans. Liver Transpl; 2007 Sep;13(9):1262-71
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  • The naive T cell proportion was considerably higher in Group I than in Groups II and III, whereas Group II recipients had the highest effector memory (EM) T cells and Group III the highest effector T cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Graft Survival / physiology. Liver Transplantation / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Loss, Surgical. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Living Donors / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 AASLD.
  • (PMID = 17763384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6465
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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39. Tan CT, Meyer-Rochow GY, Sywak MS, Delbridge LW, Sidhu SB: Reoperative adrenal surgery: lessons learnt. ANZ J Surg; 2009 May;79(5):371-7
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  • [Title] Reoperative adrenal surgery: lessons learnt.
  • With the widespread use of abdominal imaging, the detection and therefore incidence of adrenal tumours is increasing.
  • The laparoscopic approach to primary surgical resection of adrenal tumours has now become the standard of care.
  • There is scarce published literature regarding the management and outcomes of recurrent adrenal tumours.
  • The aim of the present study was therefore to review the authors' experience with reoperative adrenal surgery.
  • Two were cases of adrenocortical carcinoma, two involved cases of familial phaeochromocytomas and two cases were due to sporadic phaeochromocytomas.
  • Reoperative adrenal surgery is an uncommon event.
  • During the index surgery for adrenal tumours, all adrenal tissue should be removed and knowledge of the vagaries of adrenal anatomy is essential.
  • Reoperative adrenal surgery is a safe procedure and may confer survival benefit or symptom relief.
  • Lifelong follow up is essential for all patients who have had surgery for functional and malignant adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. New South Wales. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19566520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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40. Bacchetta J, Droz JP: [Practical use of o,p'DDD in adrenocortical carcinoma]. Bull Cancer; 2005 Mar;92(3):273-9
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  • [Title] [Practical use of o,p'DDD in adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Thérapeutique pratique par l'o,p'DDD dans le carcinome corticosurrénalien.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (AC) is a rare tumor of poor prognosis.
  • Five patients (four with AC and one with a metastatic Leydig cell tumor of the testis) were treated by Lysodren.
  • Surgery is an important part of metastatic disease treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15820922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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41. Erdogan MF, Gulec B, Gursoy A, Pekcan M, Azal O, Gunhan O, Bayer A: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B presenting with pseudo-Hirschsprung's disease. J Natl Med Assoc; 2006 May;98(5):783-6
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B presenting with pseudo-Hirschsprung's disease.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) is a rare syndrome characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma and typical phenotypic features, such as marfanoid habitus, multiple mucosal ganglioneuromas and thickened corneal nerves.
  • Individuals with MEN 2B may develop megacolon and pseudo-obstruction due to intestinal ganglioneuromatosis simulating Hirschsprung's (HSCR) disease.
  • We hereby describe the clinical and genetic features of a 21-year-old male patient with MEN 2B associated with pseudo-HSCR disease.
  • Genetic testing revealed a de novo ret proto-oncogene germline mutation in codon 918 in exon 16.
  • Megacolon and pseudo-obstruction similar to the HSCR disease may develop in patients with MEN 2B.
  • However, the observed dysmotility is the result of an abnormal proliferation of intramural ganglion cells in contrast to the absence of enteric ganglia which were present in the HSCR disease.
  • Attentiveness about the phenotypic characteristics and unusual findings might lead to early and correct diagnosis of the MEN 2B syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hirschsprung Disease / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male


42. Gegúndez C, Paz JM, Mata I, Cao J, Conde J, Couselo JM, Avila S, Arija F: [Small bowel obstruction due to metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast]. Cir Esp; 2005 Feb;77(2):102-4
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  • [Title] [Small bowel obstruction due to metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast].
  • [Transliterated title] Obstrucción de intestino delgado por metástasis de carcinoma mamario lobulillar.
  • Although breast cancer most frequently metastasizes to the bone, lung, pleura, liver, adrenal glands and brain, it can also affect other organs such as the small bowel and ovaries, especially if the type of cancer is infiltrating and lobular.
  • We present a case of metastases to the small bowel and ovaries from pleomorphic type infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma presenting as intestinal obstruction.
  • A flat formation in the area of the ileocecal valve was observed on endoscopy but the results of biopsy were negative, a fairly frequent finding due to the absence of infiltration of the intestinal mucosa.
  • Pathological and immunohistochemical study of the intestinal and ovarian surgical specimens confirmed the diagnosis of metastases from lobular carcinoma of the breast, which was corroborated by breast biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / complications. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Ileal Neoplasms / complications. Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Ileocecal Valve. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Jejunal Neoplasms / complications. Jejunal Neoplasms / secondary


43. Lakatos L, Lakatos PL: [Medical therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases: ulcerative colitis]. Orv Hetil; 2007 Jun 24;148(25):1163-70
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  • There are fewer significant changes in the medical therapy of ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease.
  • The most important factors that determine therapy are disease extent and severity.
  • Topical medication is more effective in proctitis and distal colitis, and the combination of topical and orally-administered drugs is superior to oral therapy alone also in extensive disease.
  • There are increasing data supporting the notion that aminosalicylates may lower the risk for UC-associated colorectal cancer.
  • The most important changes in the management of UC are the more frequent use of topical aminosalicylates and azathioprine, the availability of infliximab in severe UC, and increasing use of aminosalicylates for chemoprevention of colorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / etiology. Carcinoma / prevention & control. Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Humans. Infliximab. Mesalamine / therapeutic use. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 17573252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4Q81I59GXC / Mesalamine; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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44. Skarsgard ED, Albanese CT: The safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in children. Arch Surg; 2005 Sep;140(9):905-8; discussion 909
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  • HYPOTHESIS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become standard therapy for benign adrenal masses in adults.
  • The utility of LA in children with adrenal masses is less well defined because of the infrequency and pathologic variability of pediatric adrenal masses, and body size and instrumentation considerations that exist in small children.
  • Evaluation of a case series of children undergoing lateral, transperitoneal LA will reflect the safety and efficacy of this procedure in pediatric patients and identify preferred patient selection criteria.
  • PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: All children with pathologic adrenal masses undergoing LA were included.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary study outcome measures included operative duration, conversions to open adrenalectomy, complications, length of hospital stay, and freedom from recurrence of the original pathologic adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: A total of 21 LAs (including a staged, bilateral LA) were performed in 20 patients (13 girls, 7 boys) with a mean age of 6.4 years (range, 14 months to 18 years).
  • Operative duration averaged mean +/- SD 101 +/- 48 minutes, and there was a single conversion to open adrenalectomy in a patient with a left adrenal carcinoma and tumor thrombus extending into the renal vein.
  • At a mean +/- SD follow-up of 31 +/- 17 months, all patients remained clinically (radiologically and/or biochemically) free of their original adrenal disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy can be used to safely treat suspected benign and selected malignant adrenal masses in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16175699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Segawa M, Kusajima Y, Saito K: [Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung rapidly developed multiple metastases after surgery]. Kyobu Geka; 2006 May;59(5):387-91
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  • [Title] [Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung rapidly developed multiple metastases after surgery].
  • Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung is a type of carcinoma with spindle and/or giant cells with a poor diagnosis.
  • Lung biopsy revealed that the tumor was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Histological findings showed adenocarcinoma comprised of spindle cell components that reacted positively to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and no lymph node metastasis.
  • Therefore, he was diagnosed with pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung, pT2N0M0, stage IB.
  • But metastatic lesions newly appeared in the thoracic skin, the liver, the diaphragm, the bilateral adrenal glands, and the retroperitoneal space on the 30th postoperative day.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Pneumonectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Aged. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Postoperative Period. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16715890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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46. Fardella CE, Mosso LM, Carvajal CA: [Primary aldosteronism]. Rev Med Chil; 2008 Jul;136(7):905-14
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  • In the cardiovascular system, aldosterone modifies endothelial and smooth muscle cell response, increasing cardiovascular risk in a blood pressure-independent way.
  • This ratio increases along with the severity of the hypertensive disease.
  • The diagnostic work up of PA should confirm the autonomy of aldosterone secretion from the renin-angiotensin system and should differentiate the clinical subtypes of the disease.
  • Other causes are familial hyperaldosteronism (FH) type I (glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism), FH-II (non glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism), primary adrenal hyperplasia and adrenal carcinoma.
  • This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of PA and also the clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics of its different subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldosterone / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18949169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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47. Kuwada M, Hosokawa Y, Takada S, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Adrenocortical carcinoma with intratumoral hemorrhage detected from chest and back pain: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Oct;55(10):599-602
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  • [Title] [Adrenocortical carcinoma with intratumoral hemorrhage detected from chest and back pain: a case report].
  • Based on abdominal CT, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The histological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The patient died three months after operation because of disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Back Pain / etiology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Chest Pain / etiology. Hemorrhage / etiology


48. Fu XM, Dai X, Ding J, Zhu BT: Pancreas-specific protein disulfide isomerase has a cell type-specific expression in various mouse tissues and is absent in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells: implications for its functions. J Mol Histol; 2009 Jun;40(3):189-99
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  • [Title] Pancreas-specific protein disulfide isomerase has a cell type-specific expression in various mouse tissues and is absent in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells: implications for its functions.
  • In the present study, we found that PDIp was also highly expressed in several other tissues in mice, including the stomach, cecum, ileum, adrenal glands, epididymis, and prostate.
  • In addition, high levels of PDIp expression were also detected in normal human pancreas, but its expression was mostly absent in human pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer cell lines.
  • The absence of PDIp expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma may serve as an additional biomarker for pancreatic cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Pancreas / enzymology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / enzymology. Protein Disulfide-Isomerases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. COS Cells. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / enzymology. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cercopithecus aethiops. Humans. Mice. Organ Specificity. Protein Transport. Subcellular Fractions / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 19821078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097109; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97109; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20RR021940
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 5.3.4.1 / Protein Disulfide-Isomerases
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49. Watanabe M, Noda M, Nakajin S: Effect of epidermal growth factor and prostaglandin on the expression of aromatase (CYP19) in human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI-H295R cells. J Endocrinol; 2006 Jan;188(1):59-68
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  • [Title] Effect of epidermal growth factor and prostaglandin on the expression of aromatase (CYP19) in human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI-H295R cells.
  • We investigated the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and prostaglandins (PG) on the expression of aromatase (CYP19) in human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI-H295R cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Aromatase / metabolism. Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Prostaglandins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alprostadil / analogs & derivatives. Alprostadil / pharmacology. Benzylamines / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Dinoprost / pharmacology. Dinoprostone / analogs & derivatives. Dinoprostone / pharmacology. Exons. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Humans. Isoquinolines / pharmacology. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Prostaglandins A / pharmacology. Prostaglandins E / analysis. Prostaglandins E / pharmacology. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Prostaglandin E / agonists. Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP1 Subtype. Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP2 Subtype. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stimulation, Chemical. Sulfonamides / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16394175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 0 / 9-deoxy-9-chloro-15-deoxy-16-hydroxy-17,17-trimethylene-19,20-didehydroprostaglandin E2; 0 / Benzylamines; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / ONO-DI-004; 0 / PTGER1 protein, human; 0 / PTGER2 protein, human; 0 / Prostaglandins; 0 / Prostaglandins A; 0 / Prostaglandins E; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Prostaglandin E; 0 / Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP1 Subtype; 0 / Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP2 Subtype; 0 / Sulfonamides; 127243-85-0 / N-(2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide; 139298-40-1 / KN 93; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; B7IN85G1HY / Dinoprost; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; F5TD010360 / Alprostadil; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone; VYR271N44P / prostaglandin A1
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50. Suresh B, Kishore TA, Albert AS, Joy A: Myxoid adrenal cortical carcinoma--a rare variant of adrenocortical carcinoma. Indian J Med Sci; 2005 Nov;59(11):505-7
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  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal cortical carcinoma--a rare variant of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16340152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5359
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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51. Ito K, Mizuguchi Y, Sato A, Kuroda K, Horiguchi A, Kimura F, Sumitomo M, Asano T, Hayakawa M: [Clinical evaluation for adrenal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in a single institute]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 May;99(4):584-92
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  • [Title] [Clinical evaluation for adrenal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in a single institute].
  • OBJECTIVE: Clinicopathogical features and prognosis of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) concomitant with adrenal involvement (metastasis or invasion) were evaluated in a single institute.
  • METHODS: In 380 patients with RCC who underwent radical nephrectomy 18 patients had adrenal involvement (13 ipsilateral adrenal involvement).
  • RESULTS: Patients with ipsilateral adrenal involvement had significantly higher percentage of tumor>5.5 cm, upper pole tumor, pathological stage (pT) 3< or =, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis outside ipsilateral adrenal gland, histological grade 3 and microvascular invasion than control patients (p<0.05).
  • Therefore, large tumor (especially 5.5 cm<), upper pole tumor, clinical T3 (especially patients with tumor thrombus), lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were candidates for risk factors of ipsilateral adrenal involvement.
  • 76.9% of ipsilateral adrenal metastasis could be diagnosed by computed tomography (CT).
  • Thus, preoperative adrenal finding by CT is very important to determine the indication of ipsilateral adrenalectomy.
  • All 3 patients with small ipsilateral adrenal metastasis that could not be detected preoperative CT died within one and half year postoperatively.
  • Patients with solitary adrenal metastasis appeared to have better prognosis compared to those with both adrenal and other metastases.
  • In 4 patients who survived more than 2 years after the presentation of adrenal metastasis, 3 patients had solitary adrenal metastasis and underwent adrenalectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: From the results in a single institute, radiological finding of adrenal grand, tumor size, tumor location, T stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis outside ipsilateral adrenal gland are possible important factors to determine the indication of ipsilateral adrenalectomy preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18536308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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52. Bourlet P, Dumousset E, Nasser S, Chabrot P, Pezet D, Thieblot P, Garcier JM, Boyer L: Embolization of hepatic and adrenal metastasis to treat Cushing's syndrome associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma: a case report. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol; 2007 Sep-Oct;30(5):1052-5
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  • [Title] Embolization of hepatic and adrenal metastasis to treat Cushing's syndrome associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma: a case report.
  • We report functionally successful hepatic and left adrenal embolization with particles to treat Cushing's syndrome associated with a medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


53. Bollag WB, Kent P, White S, Wilson MV, Isales CM, Calle RA: Phorbol ester increases mitochondrial cholesterol content in NCI H295R cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 Dec 16;296(1-2):53-7
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  • Angiotensin II (AngII), the primary agonist of aldosterone secretion from adrenal glomerulosa cells, is known to induce cholesterol mobilization to mitochondria.
  • To determine PKC's involvement, human adrenocortical carcinoma cells were incubated with or without PKC-activating phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and mitochondrial cholesterol content assayed.

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  • (PMID = 18793695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL070046-02; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL070046-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL070046; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL070046-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046-02; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL070046-01A1; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phorbol Esters; 0 / Steroids; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 20839-06-9 / phorbol-12-myristate; 85637-73-6 / Atrial Natriuretic Factor; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS81938; NLM/ PMC2645228
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54. Zwermann O, Beuschlein F, Lalli E, Klink A, Sassone-Corsi P, Reincke M: Clinical and molecular evidence for DAX-1 inhibition of steroidogenic factor-1-dependent ACTH receptor gene expression. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 May;152(5):769-76
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  • In non-functional adrenal adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas, ACTH-R expression is low.
  • DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome, gene-1) is a general repressor of steroid production, inhibiting steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1)-dependent expression of multiple steroidogenic enzymes.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether ACTH-R gene transcription is affected by DAX-1 and whether this mechanism is involved in down-regulation of ACTH-R expression in adrenocortical tumors.
  • METHODS: We screened 22 adrenocortical tumors for ACTH-R and DAX-1 mRNA expression by Northern blot.
  • For in vitro analyses we co-transfected mouse Y1 adrenocortical carcinoma cells with the luciferase reporter gene vector pGL3 containing full-length constructs of human (h) or mouse (m) ACTH-R promoter together with a DAX-1 expression plasmid.
  • DAX-1 inhibition was also present in the shortest construct of a series of 5'-deletion constructs of the human promoter extending from -64 to +40 bp relative to the transcription start site.

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  • (PMID = 15879363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Nr0b1 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin
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56. Martinez-Ruzafa I, Dominguez PA, Dervisis NG, Sarbu L, Newman RG, Cadile CD, Kitchell BE: Tolerability of gemcitabine and carboplatin doublet therapy in cats with carcinomas. J Vet Intern Med; 2009 May-Jun;23(3):570-7
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  • [Title] Tolerability of gemcitabine and carboplatin doublet therapy in cats with carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the toxicity of gemcitabine-carboplatin doublet therapy in cats with carcinomas.
  • ANIMALS: Twenty cats with spontaneously occurring carcinomas.
  • METHODS: A cohort of 6 cats received gemcitabine (2 mg/kg IV) on days 1, 8, and 15 and carboplatin (10 mg/kg IV) immediately after gemcitabine on day 1 of a 21-day cycle.
  • In the 2nd cohort, of 11 cats with measurable tumors, there was 1 complete response (pancreatic carcinoma) and 1 partial response (squamous cell carcinoma, receiving concurrent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).

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  • (PMID = 19298611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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57. Vierimaa O, Ebeling TM, Kytölä S, Bloigu R, Eloranta E, Salmi J, Korpi-Hyövälti E, Niskanen L, Orvola A, Elovaara E, Gynther A, Sane T, Välimäki M, Ignatius J, Leisti J, Salmela PI: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in Northern Finland; clinical features and genotype phenotype correlation. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Sep;157(3):285-94
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  • Except for pituitary adenoma and nonfunctional pancreatic tumour (NFPT), age was a risk factor for all the disease manifestations.


58. Vere CC, Streba CT, Streba LM, Ionescu AG, Sima F: Psychosocial stress and liver disease status. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jun 28;15(24):2980-6
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  • [Title] Psychosocial stress and liver disease status.
  • Organic response to stress implicates two major components of the stress system, namely the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system.
  • Stress is anamnestically reported by patients during the course of disease, usually accompanied by a decline in their overall health status.
  • As the mechanisms involving glucocorticoids and catecholamines have been deciphered, and their actions on immune cell function deeper understood, it has become clear that stress has an impact on hepatic inflammatory response.
  • This article reviews a number of studies on both human populations and animal models performed in recent years, all linking stress, mainly of psychosocial nature, and the evolution of three important liver-related pathological entities: viral hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / psychology. Hepatitis, Chronic / physiopathology. Hepatitis, Chronic / virology. Humans. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Inflammation / immunology. Inflammation / physiopathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / physiopathology. Liver Neoplasms / psychology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology. Prognosis. Sympathetic Nervous System / physiology. Sympathetic Nervous System / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19554650.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 90
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2702105
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59. Kvacheniuk AN: [Surgical treatment of adrenocortical cancer: significance of systematic lymphodissection]. Klin Khir; 2008 Mar;(3):34-7
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of adrenocortical cancer: significance of systematic lymphodissection].
  • Comparative efficacy of radical methods of surgical intervention for adrenocortical cancer (ACC) with lymphodissection (LD) and without it was studied.

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  • (PMID = 18680995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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60. Mermejo LM, Elias Junior J, Saggioro FP, Tucci Junior S, Castro Md, Moreira AC, Elias PC: Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: unusual association mimicking an androgen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Jun;54(4):419-24
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: unusual association mimicking an androgen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The objective of this study was to describe a case of giant myelolipoma associated with undiagnosed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase (21OH) deficiency.
  • Five seven year-old male patient referred with abdominal ultrasound revealing a left adrenal mass.
  • Biochemical investigation revealed hyperandrogenism and imaging exams characterized a large heterogeneous left adrenal mass with interweaving free fat tissue, compatible with the diagnosis of myelolipoma, and a 1.5 cm nodule in the right adrenal gland.
  • Biochemical correlation has brought concerns about differential diagnosis with adrenocortical carcinoma, and surgical excision of the left adrenal mass was indicated.
  • Further investigation resulted in the diagnosis of CAH due to 21OH deficiency.
  • Concluded that CAH has been shown to be associated with adrenocortical tumors.
  • Although rare, myelolipoma associated with CAH should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal gland masses.
  • Moreover, CAH should always be ruled out in incidentally detected adrenal masses to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20625655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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61. Wollenberg A, Moosmann N, Kroth J, Heinemann V, Klein E: [Therapy of severe cetuximab-induced acneiform eruptions with oral retinoid, topical antibiotic and topical corticosteroid]. Hautarzt; 2007 Jul;58(7):615-8
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  • Cetuximab is licensed for treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma, as it enhances the efficacy of cytostatic therapy.
  • We report two patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma, who developed a severe acneiform drug eruption on the face and upper part of the body during the treatment with cetuximab.
  • [MeSH-major] Acneiform Eruptions / chemically induced. Acneiform Eruptions / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Dermatologic Agents / administration & dosage. Drug Eruptions / drug therapy. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Fluoroquinolones / administration & dosage. Isotretinoin / administration & dosage. Quinolizines / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17146641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Fluoroquinolones; 0 / Quinolizines; 6CL9Y5YZEQ / nadifloxacin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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62. Melegari S, Albo G, Rocco B, Verweij F, Abbinante M, de Cobelli O: Metachronous bladder metastases from renal cell carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Ecancermedicalscience; 2010;4:175
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  • [Title] Metachronous bladder metastases from renal cell carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: adrenal gland, parotid gland, pharynx, eye and bladder are rare localizations of metastases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • We report a case of metachronous RCC metastases to the bladder in a patient with a medical history of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder.
  • The histology of the resected sample was confirmed to be RCC, comparable to a primary kidney cancer and not recurrent TCC.
  • Survival rates following single metastasectomy are 60% and 38% at three and five years, respectively; metachronous diagnosis has a better prognosis than synchronous.

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  • (PMID = 22276029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3234030
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63. Morelli L, Pusiol T, Piscioli I, Larosa M, Pozzoli GL, Monica B: Concurrent occurrence of three primary neoplasms with different hystotype in the same kidney, associated with an adenoma of the omolateral adrenal gland: first case report. Int J Urol; 2006 Sep;13(9):1236-9
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  • [Title] Concurrent occurrence of three primary neoplasms with different hystotype in the same kidney, associated with an adenoma of the omolateral adrenal gland: first case report.
  • We present an unusual case of concurrent occurrence of three synchronous primary tumors in the same kidney (oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, angiomyolipoma) associated to an adenoma of the omolateral adrenal gland in a patient with no evident clinical symptoms.
  • The immunohistochemistry showed a positivity for KIT in oncocytoma and chromophobe cell carcinoma, and a weak positivity in the angiomyolipoma, only in the cells positive for HMB-45.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16984560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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64. Monsálvez V, Rivera R, Vanaclocha F: [Lichen sclerosus]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2010 Jan-Feb;101(1):31-8
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  • Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that is highly bothersome for men and women of all ages.
  • Surgery is reserved for cases of phimosis, urethral stenosis, synechiae, and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Algorithms. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Autoimmune Diseases / immunology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genital Diseases, Female / diagnosis. Genital Diseases, Female / pathology. Genital Diseases, Male / diagnosis. Genital Diseases, Male / pathology. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / physiology. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20109390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1578-2190
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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65. Yamazaki K, Sugio K, Yamanaka T, Hirai F, Osoegawa A, Tagawa T, Fukuyama S, Wataya H, Seto T, Ichinose Y: Prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancer patients with postoperative recurrence following third-generation chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Apr;30(4):1311-5
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancer patients with postoperative recurrence following third-generation chemotherapy.
  • AIM: To analyse the prognostic factors for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent cytotoxic chemotherapy with third generation agents or epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) for recurrence.
  • Univariate analysis showed female gender, age younger than 65 years, ECOG performance status of 0-1, never-smoker status, and adenocarcinoma prolonged survival, whereas metastasis to the liver or adrenal gland shortened survival.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed age, performance status, cell type and metastasis to the adrenal gland to be independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSION: Age, performance status, cell type, and metastasis to the adrenal were independent prognostic factors in NSCLC patients treated with third-generation agents or EGFR-TKI for recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology


66. Szabó KG, Szentkereszty Z, Tóth LA, Damjanovich L, Sápy P: [Distal pancreas resection for metastasis of clear cell renal cancer]. Magy Seb; 2010 Aug;63(4):161-3
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  • [Title] [Distal pancreas resection for metastasis of clear cell renal cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: Distant spread from renal cell carcinoma is commonly found in the liver and lung.
  • Metastatic involvement of any other gastro-intestinal organ (duodenum, other kidney, adrenal gland) is unexpected.
  • However, clear cell renal carcinoma is known to cause pancreatic metastasis.
  • METHODS: The authors present the case of a successfully operated 82- year-old man, who was operated for a metastatic tumor in his pancreas.
  • 8 years prior to his current hospitalization, a left sided nephrectomy was performed for renal cell carcinoma.
  • Histology revealed clear cell renal carcinoma metastasis.
  • Renal cell carcinoma generally gives hepatic and pulmonary metastases.
  • However, clear cell renal carcinoma is known to give pancreatic metastasis, too.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatectomy / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20724240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar sebészet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Seb
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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67. Stephan EA, Chung TH, Grant CS, Kim S, Von Hoff DD, Trent JM, Demeure MJ: Adrenocortical carcinoma survival rates correlated to genomic copy number variants. Mol Cancer Ther; 2008 Feb;7(2):425-31
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma survival rates correlated to genomic copy number variants.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy accounting for between 0.02% and 0.2% of all cancer deaths.
  • Unfortunately, ACC has undergone metastatic spread in 40% to 70% of patients at the time of diagnosis.
  • The modern molecular technology of comparative genomic hybridization allows the examination of DNA for chromosomal alterations, which can lend biological insight into cancer processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Chromosome Aberrations

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  • (PMID = 18281524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Raynaud CM, Mercier O, Commo F, Dartevelle P, Gomez-Roca C, de Montpreville V, Sabatier L, Soria JC: Telomere length, telomeric proteins and DNA damage repair proteins are differentially expressed between primary lung tumors and their adrenal metastases. Lung Cancer; 2009 Aug;65(2):144-9
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  • [Title] Telomere length, telomeric proteins and DNA damage repair proteins are differentially expressed between primary lung tumors and their adrenal metastases.
  • INTRODUCTION: The development of molecular targeted therapies as anti-cancer strategies raises important questions regarding the biological and molecular behavior of the metastatic sites as compared to their corresponding primary tumors.
  • We analysed telomere related markers (telomere length and telomeric proteins) and DNA damage repair (DDR) markers in a cohort of patients with surgically resected primary lung NSCLC and adrenal metastasis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied a single series of 21 patients who had undergone surgery of both their primary lung tumor and its related adrenal gland metastasis in a single Institution.
  • Cluster analysis of each specimen according to its protein's expression levels and telomere length showed that matched primary tumors/adrenal metastasis were mostly separated into different clusters.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Repair / physiology. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomere / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Cluster Analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19091442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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69. Si N, Sun M, Lu CX, Liu YS, Qi Z, Yang W, Zhao XL, Zhang X: [Identification of a novel TP53 germline mutation in one child with adrenocortical carcinoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2009 May 26;89(20):1402-4
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  • [Title] [Identification of a novel TP53 germline mutation in one child with adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect the germline TP53 gene mutation in a child with pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma (ADCC) in order to provide genetic diagnosis and counseling.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation

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  • (PMID = 19671334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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70. Arum SM, Dahia PL, Schneider K, Braverman LE: A RET mutation with decreased penetrance in the family of a patient with a "sporadic" pheochromocytoma. Endocrine; 2005 Nov;28(2):193-8
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  • [Title] A RET mutation with decreased penetrance in the family of a patient with a "sporadic" pheochromocytoma.
  • We present the case of a 38-yr-old man with a sporadic, multifocal pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma who was discovered to carry a Y791F germline mutation in exon 13 of the RET proto-oncogene.
  • Neither of them had either biochemical evidence of pheochromocytoma or medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The patient had a pro-phylactic thyroidectomy, which revealed mild C-cell hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Genetic Testing. Humans. Hyperplasia / surgery. Male. Pedigree. Penetrance. Point Mutation. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / prevention & control. Thyroidectomy


71. Natsuizaka M, Omura T, Akaike T, Kuwata Y, Yamazaki K, Sato T, Karino Y, Toyota J, Suga T, Asaka M: Clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastases. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Nov;20(11):1781-7
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  • [Title] Clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: There are few detailed clinical reports about extrahepatic metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • RESULTS: Patients with extrahepatic metastases had more advanced intrahepatic tumors at the first diagnosis of HCC: 73.8% of the patients with extrahepatic metastases had tumors of intrahepatic tumor stage T3 or T4 according to the TNM classification, while only 28.5% of the patients without extrahepatic metastases had tumors of T3 or T4 (P < 0.001).
  • Vessel invasion was also detected at the first diagnosis of HCC more frequently in the patients with extrahepatic metastasis (P < 0.001).
  • Other metastatic sites were the adrenal gland, peritoneum, skin, brain and muscle.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Hepatitis, Viral, Human. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16246200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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72. Lumachi F, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Marino F, Fassina A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Iacobone M, Favia G: High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Tumori; 2007 May-Jun;93(3):269-74
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  • [Title] High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The incidental finding of nonfunctioning adrenal masses (incidentalomas) is common, but no reliable criteria in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal masses have been defined.
  • The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the usefulness of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas with the aim of excluding or confirming malignancy before surgery.
  • METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients (18 men and 24 women; median age, 54 years; range, 25-75 years) with incidentally discovered adrenal masses of 3 cm or more in the greatest diameter were prospectively enrolled in the study.
  • RESULTS: The revised final pathology showed 30 (71.4%) benign (26 adrenocortical adenomas, of which 3 were atypical, 2 ganglioneuromas, and 2 nonfunctioning benign pheochromocytomas) and 12 (28.6%, 95% CI = 15-42) adrenal malignancies (8 adrenocortical carcinomas and 4 unsuspected adrenal metastases).
  • The definitive diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma was made according to Weiss criteria and confirmed on the basis of local invasion at surgery or metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the aim of selecting for surgery patients with a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma of 3 cm or more in diameter, the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and fine-needle aspiration cytology should be considered the strategy of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Epinephrine / urine. Female. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnostic imaging. Ganglioneuroma / metabolism. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Iodine Radioisotopes. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Norepinephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiography, Abdominal. Renin / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17679462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 6B3QJ94C7P / 6-iodomethylcholesterol; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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73. Maksimovic O, Schraml C, Hartmann JT, Bitzer M, Claussen CD, Pintoffl J, Horger M: Evaluation of response in malignant tumors treated with the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib: a multitechnique imaging assessment. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jan;194(1):5-14
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  • [Title] Evaluation of response in malignant tumors treated with the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib: a multitechnique imaging assessment.
  • Malignant tumors treated with sorafenib undergo both morphologic and functional changes; however, the morphologic changes are less frequent and inadequate for early evaluation of response.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20028898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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74. Kornberg A, Küpper B, Tannapfel A, Katenkamp K, Thrum K, Habrecht O, Wilberg J: Long-term survival after recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma in liver transplant patients: clinical patterns and outcome variables. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2010 Mar;36(3):275-80
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  • [Title] Long-term survival after recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma in liver transplant patients: clinical patterns and outcome variables.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this trial was to analyze the clinical patterns and outcome variables of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in liver transplant patients.
  • Sites of first tumor recurrence were lung (n = 5), liver (n = 4), bone (n = 4), cerebrum (n = 1), adrenal gland (n = 1) and peritoneum (n = 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19857941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Shen WT, Sturgeon C, Duh QY: From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;89(3):186-92
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  • [Title] From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • In this article we review the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, with an emphasis on oncologic concerns.
  • Concise, logical guidelines for the diagnosis and operative treatment of incidentalomas, aldosteronomas, adrenal Cushing syndrome, virilizing and feminizing adrenal tumors, isolated adrenal metastases, and adrenocortical carcinoma are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15719374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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76. Bílek R, Safarík L, Ciprová V, Vlcek P, Lisá L: Chromogranin A, a member of neuroendocrine secretory proteins as a selective marker for laboratory diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Physiol Res; 2008;57 Suppl 1:S171-9
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  • [Title] Chromogranin A, a member of neuroendocrine secretory proteins as a selective marker for laboratory diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • The function of chromogranin A (CGA) is reviewed, and the radioimmunometric determination of plasma CGA was evaluated as a marker of pheochromocytoma using a comparison of pheochromocytoma patients immediately before surgery (group P, n=25, 635+/-451 ng/ml) with other groups of patients, i.e. pheochromocytoma patients approximately 1 year after removal of tumor (group PP, n=13, 69+/-33 ng/ml), medullary thyroid carcinoma patients (group M, n= 22, 106+/-59 ng/ml), congenital adrenal hyperplasy patients (n=33, 65+/-40 ng/ml), and controls (n=31, 66+/-29 ng/ml).


77. Doghman M, Cazareth J, Lalli E: The T cell factor/beta-catenin antagonist PKF115-584 inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Aug;93(8):3222-5
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  • [Title] The T cell factor/beta-catenin antagonist PKF115-584 inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • CONTEXT: Mutations of the beta-catenin (CTNNB1) gene are frequently found in adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the small-molecule inhibitor of the T cell factor (Tcf)/beta-catenin complex PKF115-584 on beta-catenin-dependent transcription and proliferation of H295R adrenocortical tumor cells, which harbor mutations in CTNNB1 as well as the TP53 tumor suppressor gene.
  • PKF115-584 dose-dependently inhibited beta-catenin-dependent transcription and H295R proliferation, even in the presence of increased steroidogenic factor-1 levels, which augment proliferation in this cell line.
  • The drug had no effect on HeLa cells, a cell line in which the beta-catenin pathway is not activated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inhibitors of the Tcf/beta-catenin complex may prove useful in the treatment of adrenocortical tumors in which multiple genetic alterations have accumulated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. TCF Transcription Factors / antagonists & inhibitors. beta Catenin / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Genes, p53. Humans. Mutation. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18544621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TCF Transcription Factors; 0 / beta Catenin
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78. Lin TY, Chou YY, Hsiao FC, Wang YC, Chang PY, Yao NS: Lung cancer metastatic to the masticator space. Onkologie; 2009 Jun;32(6):349-51
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  • [Title] Lung cancer metastatic to the masticator space.
  • BACKGROUND: Distant metastasis from lung cancer occurs most frequently to the brain, bone, adrenal gland, liver, lymph nodes, and spinal cord.
  • However, masticator space metastasis is rarely found among lung cancer patients.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung with metastasis to the masticator space diagnosed by imaging and histopathological examinations.
  • CONCLUSION: The present case highlights the fact that large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung can result in an uncommon isolated masticator space metastasis.
  • Clinicians should carefully evaluate cancer patients who report a painful sensation in the cheek.
  • Thorough dental and physical examination, and imaging studies could provide early diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary


79. Tanaka M, Ono Y, Matsuda T, Terachi T, Suzuki K, Baba S, Hara I, Hirao Y, Urological Laparoscopic Surgery Guideline Committee, Japanese Society of Endourology and ESWL: Guidelines for urological laparoscopic surgery. Int J Urol; 2009 Feb;16(2):115-25
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  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Humans. Hydronephrosis / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Transplantation. Living Donors. Male. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19228223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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80. Sueur G, Baert O, Rozada P, Rezig N, Dureuil B: [Tongue haematoma after difficult intubation facilitated by the presence of an subclinical tumor]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim; 2009 Sep;28(9):808-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Hématome de langue après intubation difficile favorisé par la présence d'une tumeur infraclinique.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Hematoma / etiology. Intraoperative Complications / etiology. Intubation, Intratracheal / adverse effects. Laryngoscopy / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / complications. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / complications. Tongue / injuries. Tongue Diseases / etiology. Tongue Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Female. Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases / etiology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19695827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6623
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales françaises d'anesthèsie et de rèanimation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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81. Terzolo M, Fassnacht M, Ciccone G, Allolio B, Berruti A: Adjuvant mitotane for adrenocortical cancer--working through uncertainty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jun;94(6):1879-80
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  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane for adrenocortical cancer--working through uncertainty.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;93(10):3730-2 [18842984.001]
  • (PMID = 19494162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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82. Kiiveri S, Liu J, Arola J, Heikkilä P, Kuulasmaa T, Lehtonen E, Voutilainen R, Heikinheimo M: Transcription factors GATA-6, SF-1, and cell proliferation in human adrenocortical tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2005 Apr 15;233(1-2):47-56
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  • [Title] Transcription factors GATA-6, SF-1, and cell proliferation in human adrenocortical tumors.
  • Transcription factor GATA-6 is expressed in fetal and adult human adrenal cortex and has been suggested to have a role in adrenal androgen synthesis.
  • In other tissues GATA-6 has been linked to the cell cycle regulation and the dedifferentiation of carcinoma cells.
  • GATA-6 has been shown to be downregulated in mouse adrenocortical tumors, but has not been studied in human adrenocortical tumors in detail.
  • We have now analyzed GATA-6 expression in 20 human adrenocortical adenomas and 16 carcinomas using Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemistry.
  • GATA-6 mRNA and protein expression was remarkably diminished in adrenocortical carcinomas as compared to normal adrenal cortex and adenomas (p<0.05).
  • In opposite to other tumor types GATA-6 expression was, however, high in virilizing carcinomas.
  • Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) has been functionally linked to GATA-6, and the expression of these two factors correlated in the adrenal tumors.
  • In contrast to GATA-6, we found upregulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and proliferation marker Ki67 in adrenocortical carcinomas indicating that GATA-6 is not linked to cell proliferation in human adrenal tumors.
  • Taken together, the present and earlier results link GATA-6 to adrenocortical steroidogenesis and to the benign adrenocortical phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Female. GATA6 Transcription Factor. Homeodomain Proteins. Humans. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear. Steroidogenic Factor 1. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15767045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse
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83. Hill KE, Scott-Moncrieff JC, Koshko MA, Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Nelson RW, Blevins WE, Oliver JW: Secretion of sex hormones in dogs with adrenal dysfunction. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2005 Feb 15;226(4):556-61
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  • [Title] Secretion of sex hormones in dogs with adrenal dysfunction.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adrenal sex hormone concentrations in response to ACTH stimulation in healthy dogs, dogs with adrenal tumors, and dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH).
  • ANIMALS: 11 healthy control dogs, 9 dogs with adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (adenocarcinoma [ACA] or other tumor); 11 dogs with PDH, and 6 dogs with noncortisol-secreting adrenal tumors (ATs).
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dogs with ACA secrete increased concentrations of adrenal sex hormones, compared with dogs with PDH, noncortisol-secreting ATs, and healthy dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Dog Diseases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / veterinary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / blood. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / veterinary. Animals. Dexamethasone. Dogs. Female. Male. Progesterone / blood. Progesterone / secretion. Prospective Studies. Testosterone / blood. Testosterone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 15742696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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84. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):233-43
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  • [Title] Management of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, are discovered inadvertently in the course of work-up or treatment of unrelated disorders.
  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent tumour detected incidentally, but adrenocortical cancer, phaeochromocytoma and metastasis are not rare.
  • Two critical questions should be answered before trying to outline the management of adrenal incidentaloma:.
  • (1) identify either primary (adrenocortical cancer) or secondary (adrenal metastasis) malignancy;.
  • Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies.
  • The management of clinically inapparent adrenal adenomas may vary depending whether or not they are functioning.
  • Also the management of this condition is largely empirical, and data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or non-surgical approach to managing patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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85. Wang JW, Zhao S, Liu Y, Li J, Xu LM: [Preliminary study on the validity of whole body diffusion-weighted imaging for the detection of malignant lesions]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Apr;32(4):304-8
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  • [Title] [Preliminary study on the validity of whole body diffusion-weighted imaging for the detection of malignant lesions].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of whole body diffusion-weighted imaging (WBDWI) for the detection of malignant lesions.
  • METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers, 4 postoperative cases of malignant tumor and 16 malignant tumor cases were included in this study.
  • Clinical diagnoses of malignant lesions were mainly based on PET results taken as gold standard.
  • The malignant lesions were evaluated according to nine locations: lymph node; central nervous system; lung; liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen; digestive tract; kidney and adrenal gland; pelvic; skeleton, and soft tissue of each subject.
  • 57 malignant lesions were found in the 20 malignant cases by PET, among whom 48 lesions were detected by WBDWI including 2 false positive lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: The validity of WBDWI is high, and it could be a new whole body imaging technique for staging of malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Whole Body Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20510086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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86. Müssig K, Wehrmann M, Horger M, Teichmann R, Maser-Gluth C, Häring HU, Overkamp D: Steroid profile in an adrenocortical carcinoma producing aldosterone. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2005 Apr;113(4):236-40
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  • [Title] Steroid profile in an adrenocortical carcinoma producing aldosterone.
  • We report a rare case of primary aldosteronism due to an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A 61-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and hypokalemia was referred for evaluation of a 4.2 cm measuring adrenal mass without secondary signs of malignancy.
  • The patient underwent surgical resection of the adrenal mass; histology revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Four months after adrenalectomy, the patient presented again with hypokalemic hypertension and was found to have metastatic disease.
  • Careful hormonal investigation should be obtained in patients with adrenal masses causing excessive aldosterone secretion.
  • In uncertain cases of primary aldosteronism, we would suggest to measure 18-hydroxycortisol levels, as excessive amounts may indicate adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Aldosterone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Posture. Supine Position. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15891961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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87. Wakim-Fleming J, Mullen KD: Long-term management of alcoholic liver disease. Clin Liver Dis; 2005 Feb;9(1):135-49
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  • [Title] Long-term management of alcoholic liver disease.
  • Despite the epidemics of viral hepatitis C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol remains one of the major causes of liver disease.
  • This association in many instances is noted to accelerate the progression of liver disease.
  • In many respects, the long-term management of alcoholic liver disease is not dissimilar from the long-term management of patients with cirrhosis from other etiologies.
  • Similarities in managing patients with cirrhosis due to alcohol or cirrhosis from other causes include vaccination to prevent superimposed viral hepatitis and screening for esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinoma with subsequent appropriate therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Life Style. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / diagnosis. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / therapy. Liver Transplantation


88. D'Ancona CA, Petrucci O Jr, Otsuka R: Renal cell carcinoma with thrombus in the inferior vena cava: extracorporeal circulation and deep hypothermia without open-chest surgery. Int Braz J Urol; 2005 Jan-Feb;31(1):49-50
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  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma with thrombus in the inferior vena cava: extracorporeal circulation and deep hypothermia without open-chest surgery.
  • INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma with thrombus in the inferior vena cava and no apparent metastasis requires immediate surgical treatment.
  • Over the last few years, extracorporeal circulation with deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest have played an increasingly important role in the treatment of diseases not associated with primary cardiovascular disorders, such as cavoatrial tumor thrombus in uterine tumors, adrenal tumors, Wilms' tumor, as well as renal cell carcinoma.
  • CASE REPORT: A 78-year-old patient with renal cell carcinoma and tumoral thrombus in the inferior vena cava and above the supra-hepatic veins underwent right radical nephrectomy and removal of the thrombus from the vena cava with extracorporeal circulation and deep hypothermia with total circulatory arrest without opening the chest.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Thrombosis / etiology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15763008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-5538
  • [Journal-full-title] International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Braz J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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89. Andreis PG, Rucinski M, Neri G, Conconi MT, Petrelli L, Parnigotto PP, Malendowicz LK, Nussdorfer GG: Neuropeptides B and W enhance the growth of human adrenocortical carcinoma-derived NCI-H295 cells by exerting MAPK p42/p44-mediated proliferogenic and antiapoptotic effects. Int J Mol Med; 2005 Dec;16(6):1021-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuropeptides B and W enhance the growth of human adrenocortical carcinoma-derived NCI-H295 cells by exerting MAPK p42/p44-mediated proliferogenic and antiapoptotic effects.
  • GPR7 and GPR8 are expressed in the adrenal cortex, and there is evidence that NPB and NPW stimulate glucocorticoid secretion from human adrenocortical cells by activating protein kinase (PK) A and PKC signaling.
  • To gain insight into the role of NPB and NPW in human adrenal functional regulation, we have investigated their effects on the secretion and growth of the human adrenocortical carcinoma-derived NCI-H295 cell line.
  • Taken together, our findings allow us to conclude that GPR7 and GPR8 expressed in NCI-H295 cells: i) are, at variance with those present in normal human adrenocortical cells, uncoupled to PKA- and PKC-dependent cascades, thereby explaining the absence of any secretory response to NPB and NPW; and ii) are coupled to the TK-dependent MAPK p42/p44 signaling, whose activation mediates the proliferogenic and antiapoptotic effect of NPB and NPW.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / ultrastructure. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Golgi Apparatus / ultrastructure. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Imidazoles / pharmacology. Mitochondria / ultrastructure. Pregnenolone / secretion. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyridines / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled. Receptors, Neuropeptide / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16273281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / NPBWR1 protein, human; 0 / NPBWR2 protein, human; 0 / NPW protein, human; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 0 / SB 203580; 0 / neuropeptide B; 73R90F7MQ8 / Pregnenolone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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90. Djajadiningrat-Laanen SC, Galac S, Cammelbeeck SE, van Laar KJ, Boer P, Kooistra HS: Urinary aldosterone to creatinine ratio in cats before and after suppression with salt or fludrocortisone acetate. J Vet Intern Med; 2008 Nov-Dec;22(6):1283-8
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  • BACKGROUND: The endocrine diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism in cats currently is based on an increased plasma aldosterone to renin ratio, which has several disadvantages for use in veterinary practice.
  • In the cat with an aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma, the basal UACR and the UACR after fludrocortisone administration were 32 x 10(-9) and 36 x 10(-9), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Using the UACR for an oral fludrocortisone suppression test may be useful for the diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism in cats.

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  • (PMID = 18775055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; U0476M545B / Fludrocortisone
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91. Hunt I, Rankin SC, Lang-Lazdunski L: Combined lung resection and transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and homolateral solitary adrenal metastasis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2006 Jul;30(1):194-5
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  • [Title] Combined lung resection and transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and homolateral solitary adrenal metastasis.
  • Surgery may offer a long-term survival benefit to a small proportion of patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and solitary adrenal metastasis.
  • We describe a technique that allows a single incision, single operation through a transdiaphragmatic approach to the ipsilateral adrenal gland following a standard lung resection through a postero-lateral thoracotomy.
  • By using this approach, along with the harmonic scalpel to aid adrenal dissection, both lobectomy and adrenalectomy can be carried out safely and effectively with minimal perioperative and postoperative morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery


92. Sencan M, Dokmetas HS: A case of postpartum hypopituitarism accompanied by Cushing's syndrome as a result of an adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr J; 2005 Apr;52(2):219-22
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  • [Title] A case of postpartum hypopituitarism accompanied by Cushing's syndrome as a result of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • We found an adrenal mass with distant metastases to the liver and lung while investigating the origin of the hypercortisolism.
  • Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed as hypopituitarism due to Sheehan's syndrome accompanied by Cushing's syndrome as a result of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Puerperal Disorders / etiology


93. Lachenmayer A, Lichtenauer UD, Cox T, Schott M, Malendowicz LK, Goretzki PE, Cupisti K, Scherbaum WA, Bornstein SR, Willenberg HS: Nestin as a marker in the classification of adrenocortical tumors. Horm Metab Res; 2009 May;41(5):397-401
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  • [Title] Nestin as a marker in the classification of adrenocortical tumors.
  • Since adrenocortical carcinoma, a tumor entity still very difficult to classify, may gain the ability to aberrantly express neuroectodermal proteins including chromogranin A and synaptophysin, we asked the question whether nestin might also be detected in adrenocortical carcinomas, and if so, whether it might serve as a tool for clinical pathology.
  • Therefore, we studied the expression of nestin in normal adrenal glands, adrenocortical adenomas, and adrenocortical cancers using specific immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
  • Immunostaining was nestin-positive in 1 out of 9 normal adrenal glands (11%), 2 out of 20 adrenocortical adenomas (10%), and 13 out of 16 adrenocortical carcinomas (81%).
  • We conclude that our findings provide further evidence that nestin, as a marker, is not restricted to neuronal stem cells and nestin expression is worth to be studied in adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / classification. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nestin

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  • (PMID = 19294612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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94. Stratakis CA: Adrenocortical tumors, primary pigmented adrenocortical disease (PPNAD)/Carney complex, and other bilateral hyperplasias: the NIH studies. Horm Metab Res; 2007 Jun;39(6):467-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors, primary pigmented adrenocortical disease (PPNAD)/Carney complex, and other bilateral hyperplasias: the NIH studies.
  • It has been estimated that up to 1 in 10 adults has at least one adrenocortical nodule up to 1 cm on autopsy; these benign tumors may contribute to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, obesity and abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that can be linked to other serious disorders such as osteoporosis, depression and late-onset diabetes mellitus.
  • In addition, up to 1 in 1500 of these adrenal "incidentalomas" may hide a carcinoma, which, if diagnosed late or left untreated, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
  • Consistent with the theme of this symposium, in the present report, we review the efforts undertaken at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the last quarter century to unravel the complex clinical genetics and molecular mechanisms involved in adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • We first proposed that adrenocortical tumors form in a molecular sequence of events similar to that in other organs: as the pathology of the tumor increases towards malignancy, genetic changes accumulate.
  • For example, known genetic associations, like TP53 gene changes, occur during the latest stages of adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • At the NIH, significant progress has been made in the understanding of the genetics of primary pigmented adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) and other forms of bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias.
  • This recently led to the identification of phosphodiesterase 11A ( PDE11A) mutations as a low-penetrance predisposing factor to adrenocortical hyperplasias of both the pigmented and non-pigmented variants.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17578766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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95. Caso J, Seigne J, Back M, Spiess PE, Pow-Sang J, Sexton WJ: Circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava for primary and recurrent malignant tumors. J Urol; 2009 Sep;182(3):887-93
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  • [Title] Circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava for primary and recurrent malignant tumors.
  • We explored the oncological effectiveness of inferior vena caval resection, as determined by margin status, cancer recurrence and survival.
  • Primary tumor type was renal cell carcinoma in 7 patients, metastatic testicular cancer in 5, leiomyosarcoma in 3, and adrenal cortical carcinoma, primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumor and upper tract transitional cell carcinoma in 1 each.
  • Data reviewed included preoperative and postoperative sequelae of inferior vena caval obstruction, postoperative complications, pathological results, cancer recurrence, graft requirements and functional outcomes.
  • A total of 12 patients underwent simultaneous nephrectomy and/or left renal vein ligation in the same setting with acceptable alterations in postoperative renal function and no need for permanent dialysis.
  • Cancer recurred locally in 4 of 15 patients who underwent resection.
  • Five of 15 patients in the resection group died of disease or were lost to followup compared to all 3 in whom resection was aborted or macroscopically incomplete (mean followup 19.2 vs 4.3 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Local cancer control and potentially increased cancer specific survival can be achieved with successful complete circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava as a component of multimodality care in select patients with locally advanced malignancy.
  • The most common postoperative complications are renal insufficiency and lower extremity edema, which are generally transient.

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  • (PMID = 19616230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Badger J, Kang S, Uzieblo A, Srinivas S: Double diagnosis in cancer patients and cutaneous reaction related to gemcitabine: CASE 3. Photo therapy recall with gemcitabine following ultraviolet B treatment. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 1;23(28):7224-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Double diagnosis in cancer patients and cutaneous reaction related to gemcitabine: CASE 3. Photo therapy recall with gemcitabine following ultraviolet B treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Photosensitivity Disorders / chemically induced. Phototherapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Aged. Humans. Inflammation. Keratinocytes / physiology. Male. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8549
  • (PMID = 16192608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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97. Ctvrtlík F, Herman M, Student V, Tichá V, Minarík J: Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Feb;69(2):243-52
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare CT findings of adrenal incidentalomas with a definitive histological diagnosis in order to establish CT features characteristic for individual types of lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The retrospective study comprised of patients with adrenal lesions detected on abdominal CT.
  • The study consisted of 62 adrenal expansions found in 55 patients (in seven patients bilateral lesions were found).
  • According to the definitive histological diagnosis after adrenalectomy, the lesions were divided into the following six groups: primary adrenocortical carcinoma (n=4), metastasis (n=7), adrenocortical adenoma (n=37), pheochromocytoma (n=9), myelolipoma (n=2), and others (n=3).
  • CONCLUSION: Standard CT of the abdomen (not specifically aimed at adrenal glands) is a suitable method for distinguishing adrenal lesions which need to be operated on from those which are probably benign but need to be monitored.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiography, Abdominal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18226485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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98. Fassnacht M, Kreissl MC, Weismann D, Allolio B: New targets and therapeutic approaches for endocrine malignancies. Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Jul;123(1):117-41
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  • In endocrine malignancies (thyroid carcinoma, parathyroid carcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, malignant pheochromocytoma) surgery is currently the treatment of choice, in case of differentiated thyroid carcinomas followed by 131-I-radioiodine administration.
  • This approach is often successful in early disease; however, treatment options for advanced endocrine malignancies remain unsatisfactory and prognosis is poor.
  • Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathology of endocrine malignancies has recently led to identification of key events in endocrine oncogenesis (e.g. oncogenic RET mutations in medullary thyroid carcinoma or RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma).
  • These new insights are increasingly matched by new compounds (e.g. tyrosine kinase inhibitors) targeting signaling pathways essential for tumor cell survival, proliferation and metastases.
  • First results of "targeted therapies" in medullary and differentiated thyroid carcinoma are impressive: phase II trials targeting RET or VEGF receptor kinases led to objective tumor response in up to 50% of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Drug Design. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19374919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-016X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 438
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99. Nishikawa T, Saito J, Omura M: [Medical treatment for Cushing's syndrome]. Nihon Rinsho; 2008 Jan;66(1):186-91
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  • It is well known that the development of the microvascular disease of various organs such as the heart and kidney, in patients with diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hypertension of which disorders are frequently associated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • Thus, we should treat Cushing's syndrome as soon as possible, since many complications, including cardiovascular diseases and infections, will soon occur when the definite diagnosis is delayed.
  • Medical adrenalectomy is achieved by using with mitotane which is usually used for adrenocortical cancer.
  • We commonly treat the patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal tumor and pituitary or ectopic ACTH producing tumor by using metyrapone which mainly inhibits 11-hydroxylase.
  • Metyrapone is also recommended to treat the patients who are not well differentiated Cushing's disease from ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Replacement therapy with hydrocortisone should be considered if adrenal failure will occur during treatment with those drugs.

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  • (PMID = 18186263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0O54ZQ14I9 / Aminoglutethimide; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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100. Peitsidis P, Peitsidou A, Papadimitriou C, Rodolakis A, Tsekoura V, Akrivos T: Correlation of dermatomyositis with fallopian tube carcinoma: A potential paraneoplastic syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2008 Apr;28(3):365-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation of dermatomyositis with fallopian tube carcinoma: A potential paraneoplastic syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Dermatomyositis / diagnosis. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18569502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-6893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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