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1. Singh V, Sinha RJ, Sankhwar SN, Kumar S, Mehrotra B, Puri M, Sengottayan VK: Primary hepatocellular carcinoma in ectopic liver masquerading as left adrenal carcinoma: a rare occurrence. Rare Tumors; 2010;2(2):e35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hepatocellular carcinoma in ectopic liver masquerading as left adrenal carcinoma: a rare occurrence.
  • We report a unique case of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in an ectopic liver rest in the left renal hilum masquerading as a left adrenal tumor.
  • Adrenal tumors have been reported within adrenal rests inside the liver but hepatocellular carcinoma in ectopic liver rests in the adrenal area is an extremely rare entity.
  • He had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and was hepatitis B surface antigen positive.
  • The provisional diagnosis of an adrenal tumor was made and open transperitoneal excision of the tumor along with two enlarged lymph nodes was done.
  • Immunohistochemistry staining of the specimen revealed it to be a primary hepato cellular carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21139837.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994502
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; carcinoma / hepatocellular / liver neoplasms
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2. Kumar S, Tiwari P, Das RK, Kundu AK: Virilizing adrenal carcinoma in a 3-year-old boy: A rarity. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2010 Jan;31(1):30-2

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  • [Title] Virilizing adrenal carcinoma in a 3-year-old boy: A rarity.
  • The child underwent open adrenalectomy and histopathology revealed adrenocortical carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20931019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2941601
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal carcinoma / adrenalectomy / virilization
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3. Bansal P, Gupta A, Mongha R, Kundu AK: Virilizing adrenal carcinoma with inferior vena cava thrombus. Indian J Cancer; 2009 Jul-Sep;46(3):247-9
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  • [Title] Virilizing adrenal carcinoma with inferior vena cava thrombus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology. Venous Thrombosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19574684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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4. Gladding P, King T, Grey A: Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal carcinoma. N Z Med J; 2005 Jun 3;118(1216):U1497
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  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal carcinoma.
  • We present a case of adrenocortical carcinoma-causing corticotrophin-independent Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cellulitis / diagnosis. Cellulitis / etiology. Cellulitis / therapy. Groin. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15937531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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5. Vega Vega A, Canga Presa JM, Sanz de la Morena P, de la Cruz Vigo JL: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in adrenal carcinoma]. Actas Urol Esp; 2005 Mar;29(3):277-80
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in adrenal carcinoma].
  • There is general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions against open procedures because of the efficacy and less morbidity.
  • For suspected adrenal malignancies laparoscopic use is controversial.
  • We report our experience in 6 cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with the suspicion of adrenal malignancy confined in the gland.
  • We concluded that in a suspected adrenal malignancy organ confined laparoscopic adrenalectomy presents the advantage compared with open surgery of reduced morbidity and similar results in the follow up of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 15945253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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6. Brown JW, Prieto LM, Perez-Stable C, Montoya M, Cappell S, Fishman LM: Estrogen and progesterone lower cyclin B1 AND D1 expression, block cell cycle in G2/M, and trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cell cultures. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):306-10
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  • [Title] Estrogen and progesterone lower cyclin B1 AND D1 expression, block cell cycle in G2/M, and trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cell cultures.
  • The effects of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone were evaluated separately and in combination, on the growth, survival, and cell cycle dynamics of SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture.
  • Both hormones significantly decreased cell survival, with dose response curves at four days demonstrating EC (50)s estimated at 1.2 x 10 (-5) M for 17 beta-estradiol and 4.8 x 10 (-6) M for progesterone.
  • The expression of the critical cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin B1 and D1 were significantly decreased by each hormone, with the influence of progesterone again predominating.
  • These data demonstrate that high doses of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone have inhibitory and apoptotic effects on SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells IN VITRO.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Cyclin B / biosynthesis. Cyclins / biosynthesis. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogens / pharmacology. G2 Phase / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Progesterone / pharmacology. Progestins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclin B1. Cyclin D. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Progestins; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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7. Izbizky G, Elias D, Gallo A, Farias P, Sod R: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal bilateral adrenal carcinoma. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Nov;26(6):669-71
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  • [Title] Prenatal diagnosis of fetal bilateral adrenal carcinoma.
  • Most of the large abdominal masses detected antenatally are renal in origin, although adrenal tumors should also be kept in mind in their differential diagnosis.
  • We report a case of a large-for-gestational-age fetus with abdominal distention secondary to bilateral adrenal carcinoma, polyhydramnios and placental enlargement.
  • Postmortem histological findings included nesidioblastosis, (i.e. hyperplasia of the cells of the islets of Langerhans) and adrenocortical cytomegaly, suggestive of a form of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / pathology. Fetal Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Spontaneous. Adenoma, Islet Cell / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color. Ultrasonography, Prenatal / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 ISUOG
  • (PMID = 16254889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Chen CH, Wu HC, Chang CH: An accessory spleen mimics a left adrenal carcinoma. MedGenMed; 2005;7(2):9
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  • [Title] An accessory spleen mimics a left adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spleen / abnormalities. Spleen / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • [Cites] Br J Radiol. 2001 Aug;74(884):767-72 [11511506.001]
  • [Cites] J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1980 Aug;4(4):543-4 [7391300.001]
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  • (PMID = 16369388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-0132
  • [Journal-full-title] MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MedGenMed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1681608
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9. Mir Montero M, Ruiz-Giménez Arrieta N, Zapata Syro C, Rodríguez Rodríguez B, Vílchez Aparicio V, Suárez Fernández C: [Adrenal carcinoma. Presentation of one case and a review of the literature]. Rev Clin Esp; 2009 Mar;209(3):150-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal carcinoma. Presentation of one case and a review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarrenal. Presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 19445854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2565
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista clínica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Clin Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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10. Candela G, Varriale S, Manetta F, Di Libero L, Giordano M, Santini L: Cushing syndrome and adrenal carcinoma: a clinical case. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Jan-Feb;80(1):75-81
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  • [Title] Cushing syndrome and adrenal carcinoma: a clinical case.
  • The echogram of the complete abdomen reveals, near the superior pole of the left kidney, the presence of a solid mass, not independent from the pole itself about 9.5 centimetres long, diagnosis confirmed to the TC abdomen and pelvis too, with or without mdc.
  • This removed mass resulted, from the histological exam, in an adrenal carcinoma with a general and trabecular structure.
  • Primal adrenal tumours are responsible for about 10% of Cushing syndrome cases.
  • The prognosis of adrenal ca remains low, with 5 year survival rate for 38% of diagnosed patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19537129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; RWP5GA015D / Potassium; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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11. Díaz Morales O, Mateos González ME, Vázquez Rueda F, Cañete Estrada R: [Virilizing syndrome as a form of presentation of adrenal carcinoma in an toddler]. An Pediatr (Barc); 2010 Jul;73(1):58-60
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  • [Title] [Virilizing syndrome as a form of presentation of adrenal carcinoma in an toddler].
  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome virilizante como forma de presentación de un carcinoma suprarrenal en una preescolar.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20570580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1695-9531
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de pediatría (Barcelona, Spain : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Pediatr (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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12. Sawhney S, Burney I, Jain R: Pulmonary Infarction: A rare case of adrenal carcinoma. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J; 2007 Apr;7(1):55-7

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  • [Title] Pulmonary Infarction: A rare case of adrenal carcinoma.
  • A case report of unsuspected adrenal carcinoma with pulmonary artery obstruction in a young girl who was admitted with recurrent episodes of hypotension is presented.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated a large right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC), right atrium, right ventricle and right pulmonary artery.
  • There are many case reports in literature documenting IVC and right atrial thrombus in patients with adrenal carcinoma.

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  • [Cites] Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2002 Feb;36(1):71-3 [12002362.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Radiol. 2003 Mar;44(2):160-1 [12694101.001]
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  • (PMID = 21654947.001).
  • [ISSN] 2075-051X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sultan Qaboos University medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Oman
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3086421
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal carcinoma / Case report / Computed Tomography / Oman / Pulmonary infarction
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13. Muttarak M, Chotirosniramit A, Unsrisong K, Na Chiangmai W: Adrenal carcinoma. Biomed Imaging Interv J; 2006 Jan;2(1):e9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal carcinoma.

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  • [Cites] World J Urol. 1999 Feb;17(1):26-34 [10096148.001]
  • [Cites] J Urol. 2003 Jan;169(1):5-11 [12478091.001]
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  • (PMID = 21614222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1823-5530
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical imaging and intervention journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Imaging Interv J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3097607
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14. Czajka I, Zgliczyński W, Kasperlik-Załuska A, Cichocki A: [Gynecomasty as a first sign of adrenal carcinoma--case report]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):940-4

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  • [Title] [Gynecomasty as a first sign of adrenal carcinoma--case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Ginekomastia pierwszym objawem raka kory nadnercza--opis przypadku.
  • We present a case of 50 year-old man with feminizing adrenal carcinoma.
  • Examinations revealed a large left adrenal mass and increased levels of estradiol.
  • Patient underwent adrenalectomy and followed by mitotan therapy as the result of histopathological examination was adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • One year after operation patient stays free from the recurrence of the disease and his estradiol, androstendion and DHEA levels are below the detection limits.
  • We report this case because feminizing adrenal carcinoma is a very rare but serious disease and gynecomastia that could be its manifestation is quite frequent symptom in men's population and thus it could easily be missed.
  • In every case of gynecomastia related to estradiol excess feminizing tumors of testis and adrenal gland should be ruled out.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Gynecomastia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16821215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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15. Chamuleau SA, Corssmit EP, Pereira AM, van de Berg BT, Siegert CE: A young woman with a severe bilateral pneumonia as the presenting sign of an adrenal carcinoma. Neth J Med; 2008 Mar;66(3):121-4
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  • [Title] A young woman with a severe bilateral pneumonia as the presenting sign of an adrenal carcinoma.
  • Additional diagnostic procedures accidentally revealed a large adrenal carcinoma and hypercortisolism.
  • The adrenal carcinoma was surgically removed, and she received mitotane treatment.
  • This severe and life-threatening infection was the first sign of an immunosuppressive state as part of Cushing's syndrome due to the adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Immunocompromised Host. Pneumonia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18349468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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16. Wosnitzer M, Lee DJ, Hirsch AJ, McKiernan JM: Predictors of renal function in nephron sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma in solitary kidneys. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16045

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictors of renal function in nephron sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma in solitary kidneys.
  • : e16045 Background: Partial nephrectomy (PN) is an effective option for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients who need to preserve renal function.
  • We assessed the outcomes after PN, and evaluated predictors of post-operative renal function.
  • Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation.
  • Severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal failure were defined as GFR of 15-30 cc/min/1.73m2 and GFR<15, respectively.
  • Recurrence occurred in the kidneys of 4 patients, lung in 3 patients, bone in 3 patients, and the ipsilateral adrenal gland in one patient.
  • Preoperative GFR (HR=1.01, p<0.01) and the volume of kidney removed (HR=0.93, p=0.01) were associated with severe CKD and renal failure on a univariate Cox regression analysis, but were not independent predictors after adjusting for age, race, tumor stage and grade.
  • Nephron sparing surgery for the treatment of RCC is feasible with acceptable morbidity and renal function outcome.
  • The volume of renal parenchyma removed and the preoperative GFR are associated with renal function loss several months after surgery, and may be useful in predicting long-term renal function.

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  • (PMID = 27963019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Montoya M, Brown JW, Fishman LM: Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):302-5
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  • [Title] Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that is usually fatal within a short time after diagnosis.
  • We have investigated the effects on the growth and survival of SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture of some currently used and some potentially new agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer.
  • All the other agents tested required much higher doses for effect, including mitotane, the current most commonly used chemotherapy for adrenal cancer, with an EC (50) of 3.3x10 (-4) M.
  • These data suggest that paclitaxel, 2-methoxyestradiol, and cytosine arabinofuranoside should be further evaluated for their potential in the chemotherapy of adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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18. Lou E, Goodwin J, Howell DN, Hicks J, Caram LB: A G-CSF-secreting adrenal carcinoma with rhabdoid-like differentiation causing leukocytosis. Nat Rev Urol; 2009 Jul;6(7):392-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A G-CSF-secreting adrenal carcinoma with rhabdoid-like differentiation causing leukocytosis.
  • He had chronic renal insufficiency, sleep apnea, hypertension, and peripheral vascular disease.
  • DIAGNOSIS: G-CSF-secreting adrenal carcinoma with rhabdoid-like differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Biomarkers, Tumor / secretion. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / secretion. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / secretion. Leukocytosis / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19578356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4820
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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19. Golshayan AR, Elson P, Wood LS, Garcia JA, Dreicer R, Rini BI: Association of tumor burden characteristics with outcomes in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with sunitinib. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):5043

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association of tumor burden characteristics with outcomes in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with sunitinib.
  • METHODS: Pts with clear-cell mRCC treated with sunitinib from June 1, 2004, to October 5, 2007, were retrospectively identified.
  • CT scan images were re-reviewed from baseline, at the time of maximal tumor burden shrinkage (TS), at time of disease progression and at time of last assessment prior to death.
  • Sites of metastases included: lung (87%), mediastinal lymph nodes (52%), retroperitoneal lymph nodes (36%), adrenal (29%), bone (38%), liver (22%), pancreas (14%), kidney (7%), and brain (6%).
  • In multivariable analysis, disease confined to above the diaphragm (p = 0.03) and total TB <13cm (p = 0.09) prior to sunitinib were independent positive predictors of PFS.
  • At time of disease progression (PD), tumor location and pattern of progression were not associated with OS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor burden shrinkage and tumor burden at time of disease progression are associated with overall survival in pts with mRCC treated with sunitinib.

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  • (PMID = 27962954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Owecki M, Baszko-Błaszyk D, Waśko R, Sowiński J: [Non-small cell lung cancer presenting under the mask of a primary adrenal cancer--case report]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Feb;18(104):216-8
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  • [Title] [Non-small cell lung cancer presenting under the mask of a primary adrenal cancer--case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Niedrobnokomórkowy rak płuca przebiegajacy pod maska pierwotnego raka nadnercza--opis przypadku.
  • Adrenal carcinoma is a malignant disease that often results in distant metastases to different organs, including the lungs.
  • While diagnosing patients with suspected adrenal carcinoma, metastases to the lungs should always be considered.
  • The opposite clinical situation also should be considered, i.e. lung cancer metastases to the adrenal gland.
  • Both conditions may have a very similar course and their differential diagnosis may be sometimes very difficult.
  • However, proper diagnosis is of great importance because both diseases are treated by different means.
  • We present a case of a 50-year-old female patient with a small primary focus of non-small cell lung carcinoma and its large metastasis to the left adrenal gland, accompanied by SIADH and paraneoplastic hypercalcemia.
  • In the presented case adrenal carcinoma and its lung metastasis were primarily misdiagnosed which led to unnecessary laparotomy.
  • The proper diagnosis was enabled by CT guided biopsy of the lung tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Diagnostic Errors. Lung Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Unnecessary Procedures


21. Wang FF, Chang YH, Pan CC, Tu DG, Won JG: Unusual visualization of an adrenal carcinoma on NP-59 scintiscan. J Formos Med Assoc; 2006 Apr;105(4):340-5
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  • [Title] Unusual visualization of an adrenal carcinoma on NP-59 scintiscan.
  • [Iodine-131]6-beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol (NP-59) visualization of adrenocortical carcinoma is unusual.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a 9-cm right adrenal mass.
  • NP-59 adrenal scanning displayed unilateral uptake of tracer and no visualization of the contralateral adrenal gland.
  • Exploratory laparotomy revealed adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Visualization of an adrenal tumor on NP-59 scintiscan is an unusual finding, which cannot exclude the possibility of malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 16618615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 55623-03-5 / Adosterol; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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22. Muro Toledo GE, Losada Guerra JL, Martín Pérez A, Pérez Marín IR: [Giant adrenal carcinoma. Case report]. Arch Esp Urol; 2009 Mar;62(2):134-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant adrenal carcinoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarenal gigante. Presentación de un caso.
  • BACKGROUND: To present a case of giant suprarenal carcinoma assisted by the Urology Service of the "Camilo Cienfuegos Gorriarán" General University Hospital of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba.
  • Pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of suprarenal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The big dimensions of the tumor determined a wide excision surgery which didn't stop the progression of the disease and the death of the patient 6 months after being operated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19448281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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23. Sane T: [Mitotane in the treatment of adrenal carcinoma]. Duodecim; 2010;126(17):2040-6
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  • [Title] [Mitotane in the treatment of adrenal carcinoma].
  • Mitotane has been used for 50 years as the first-line drug in the treatment of disseminated adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • It reduces local recurrence of the disease and development of metastases even after a seemingly total surgical removal of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21053521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-7183
  • [Journal-full-title] Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Duodecim
  • [Language] fin
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Finland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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24. Zardi EM, Santini D, Vincenzi B, Galati G, Tonini G, Zobel BB, Afeltra A: Surgical complications after resection of adrenal carcinoma. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Sep;25(3):449-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical complications after resection of adrenal carcinoma.
  • Sonographic and tomographic examinations showed the presence of a large adrenal gland tumor and the promptly performed adrenalectomy and splenectomy proved that the lesion was an adrenal gland carcinoma infiltrating the spleen.
  • One month after surgical treatment, the patient's general condition dramatically worsened due to development of perirenal abscess and renal infarction; finally, the patient died.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17167987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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25. Hermsen IG, Gelderblom H, Kievit J, Romijn JA, Haak HR: Extremely long survival in six patients despite recurrent and metastatic adrenal carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Jun;158(6):911-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extremely long survival in six patients despite recurrent and metastatic adrenal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive tumour with a high mortality.
  • The patient is still alive 28 years after diagnosis.
  • The patient is still alive 25 years after diagnosis.
  • She is still alive 18 years after diagnosis.
  • He is still alive 17 years after the initial diagnosis.
  • After diagnosis, she developed lung metastasis, which were treated with o,p'-DDD and chemotherapy.
  • The patient is still alive with slowly progressive disease 12 years after diagnosis.
  • The patient is still alive 28 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Some patients can have an extremely long survival of ACC, despite recurrent disease and metastases.

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  • (PMID = 18505909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Abma EM, Kluin PM, Dullaart RP: Malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumour: reoccurrence with glucocorticoid excess without hyperaldosteronism. Neth J Med; 2008 Jun;66(6):252-5
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  • [Title] Malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumour: reoccurrence with glucocorticoid excess without hyperaldosteronism.
  • We describe a case of hypokalaemic hypertension due to hyperaldosteronism caused by a unilateral adrenocortical tumour with unfavourable histopathology suggestive of malignancy.
  • The patient's clinical course was uneventful, until she presented with extensive metastases of adrenal carcinoma four years later.
  • Although malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumours are very rare, the present case underscores that clinicians should be aware that primary hyperaldosteronism can occur in the context of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperkalemia / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Pressure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Potassium / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18689909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] RWP5GA015D / Potassium; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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27. Dural C, Bilge O, Toker A, Erbil Y, Salmaslioglu A, Ozbey N, Aral F: Malignant phaeochromocytoma with cavoatrial extension: transcaval removal of tumor without cardiopulmonary bypass A case report. Minerva Chir; 2010 Aug;65(4):485-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant phaeochromocytoma with cavoatrial extension: transcaval removal of tumor without cardiopulmonary bypass A case report.
  • Adrenal carcinoma is a rare tumor and with metastasis usually in lungs, lymph nodes, liver, and bones.
  • The surgical approach to adrenal tumor extending into the vena cava is challenging.
  • This article reports a case of malignant pheochromocytoma extending into the cavoatrial junction in a young man.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Atria. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 20802436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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28. Ramírez Plaza CP, Santoyo Santoyo J, Domínguez López ME, Eloy-García Carrasco C, Cobo Dols M, Suárez Muñoz MA, Fernández Aguilar JL, de la Fuente Perucho A: [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 Mar;58(2):115-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarrenal: supervivencia a 7 años libre de enfermedad tras resección completa del tumor primario y resecciones repetidas de recidivas locorregional y a distancia. Revisión a raiz de un caso con una pobre esperanza de vida inicial.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a female patient with adrenal carcinoma who had undergone surgery and presented with local-regional and distant recurrences, emphasizing the importance of the aggressive surgical treatment to achieve long-term survival which is unexpected sometimes.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who consulted for left flank pain, being diagnosed of an adrenal tumor by radiological tests; she underwent surgical excision of a left adrenal carcinoma (stage II).
  • Currently, the patient is alive and free of disease 7 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal cancer recurrences have been considered lethal in the short-term.
  • Nevertheless, an aggressive surgical approach of local recurrences and metastasic disease may significantly prolong patient's survival and, sometimes, leave the patient disease free several years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15847268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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29. Renschler JS, Dean GA: What is your diagnosis? Abdominal mass aspirate in a cat with an increased Na:K ratio. Vet Clin Pathol; 2009 Mar;38(1):69-72
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  • [Title] What is your diagnosis? Abdominal mass aspirate in a cat with an increased Na:K ratio.
  • The cytologic interpretation was adrenal neoplasia, consistent with adrenal carcinoma.
  • Surgical removal of the mass was accomplished via right adrenalectomy and a diagnosis of adrenal carcinoma was confirmed histologically.
  • Primary hyperaldosteronism caused by a functional adrenal carcinoma is an uncommon condition in cats.

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  • (PMID = 19228358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-6382
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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30. Di Carlo I, Toro A, Sparatore F, Cordio S: Liver resection for hepatic metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma. HPB (Oxford); 2006;8(2):106-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Liver resection for hepatic metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma are very rare and no clear indications for surgery exist.
  • All the patients submitted to hepatic resection for liver metastases from adrenal carcinoma reported in the literature (PubMed source) from 1978 to 2005 were considered for the present study.

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  • (PMID = 18333256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2131421
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31. Serrano Frago P, Del Agua Arias Camisón C, Gil Sanz MJ, Allué López M, Gonzalvo Ibarra A, Plaza Mas L, Rioja Sanz LA: Controversies related to epithelioid variant of renal angiomyolipoma: a review of the literature. Urology; 2006 Apr;67(4):846.e3-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Controversies related to epithelioid variant of renal angiomyolipoma: a review of the literature.
  • We present the case of a patient with possible adrenal carcinoma suggested by computed tomography for whom the histopathologic study revealed an epithelioid angiomyolipoma arising from the kidney.
  • We recommend surgical treatment and a follow-up regimen similar to that for renal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16600344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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32. Nigawara T, Sakihara S, Kageyama K, Terui K, Takayasu S, Hatakeyama S, Ohyama C, Sasano H, Suda T: Endothelial cyst of the adrenal gland associated with adrenocortical adenoma: preoperative images simulate carcinoma. Intern Med; 2009;48(4):235-40
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  • [Title] Endothelial cyst of the adrenal gland associated with adrenocortical adenoma: preoperative images simulate carcinoma.
  • A 68-year-old woman was referred for characterization of a left adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Endocrinological examinations indicated subclinical Cushing's syndrome, whereas the large volume (10 cm in diameter) and heterogeneous configuration of the tumor raised a strong suspicion of adrenal carcinoma.
  • Histopathologically, this lesion was a thick hyaline-walled endothelial cyst, flanked with a compressed adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The puzzling image resemblance of a variation of adrenal cyst to carcinoma necessitated histological examination for confirmative diagnosis.
  • This is the first reported case of adrenal endothelial cyst associated with adrenocortical adenoma, the former of which alone is a rarity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19218775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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33. Erbil Y, Salmaslioğlu A, Barbaros U, Bozbora A, Mete O, Aral F, Ozarmağan S: Clinical and radiological features of adrenal cysts. Urol Int; 2008;80(1):31-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical and radiological features of adrenal cysts.
  • Adrenal cysts are very rare lesions, usually asymptomatic or without characteristic symptoms.
  • Although pseudocysts are reported to be the most common clinically recognized adrenal cysts in surgical series, endothelial cysts are more common in autopsy series.
  • We studied 15 consecutive patients with adrenal cysts who underwent surgical resection at our institution from 1990 to 2005.
  • Of 15 patients with adrenal cysts, 10 had pseudocysts, 3 epithelial cysts, 1 an endothelial cyst and 1 a parasitic cyst.
  • In conclusion, a better understanding of cystic adrenal masses is necessary to recognize true adrenal cysts and differentiating them from adrenal carcinoma or adenoma by demonstrating the foci of cystic or degenerative changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Endothelium / pathology. Epithelium / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / radiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18204230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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34. Fariña LA, Antón I, Fernández GC: [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access]. Actas Urol Esp; 2009 Sep;33(8):913-6
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  • [Title] [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access].
  • [Transliterated title] Seudoquiste adrenal grande que simula feocromocitoma quístico: exéresis minimizando el acceso laparoscópico.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal cysts and pseudocysts are rare and usually benign and asymptomatic; they are discovered either accidentally or during examination for non-specific abdominal discomfort.
  • The differential diagnosis for adrenal cysts must consider cystic adrenal carcinoma and cystic pheochromocytoma, which are both extremely rare, but more severe and difficult to treat.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: A 55 year-old woman reported right-side flank pain; imaging studies discovered a 10 cm cystic adrenal tumour, with radiological indications of cystic pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As less invasive laparoscopic procedures become widespread, an increasing number of case reports and series of cases regarding adrenal cyst operations have recently been reported.
  • A review of the literature shows that the cysts are generally benign, but it is not always possible to identify cystic adrenal carcinoma or cystic pheochromocytoma from the radiology image.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


35. Freddi S, Arnaldi G, Fazioli F, Scarpelli M, Appolloni G, Mancini T, Kola B, Bertagna X, Mantero F, Collu R, Boscaro M: Expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor splicing variants in human primary adrenocortical tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 May;62(5):533-8

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  • [Title] Expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor splicing variants in human primary adrenocortical tumours.
  • Because the overexpression of the IGF-II gene is a frequent feature of adrenal carcinoma, we searched for the presence of GHRH-R SVs in these tumours.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of GHRH-R SVs was assessed by nested PCR in 45 human adrenocortical tumours.
  • We have amplified 720-, 566- and 335-bp PCR products only in carcinomas.
  • Their simultaneous expression was observed in one carcinoma.
  • No PCR products for SV3 or wild-type GHRH-R were found in carcinomas; mRNA for wild-type GHRH-R or SVs of GHRH-R were not observed either in adenomas or in normal adrenal or in NCI-H295R cells.
  • Interestingly, all carcinomas which expressed SVs were also positive for the presence of GHRH mRNA.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first time that the expression of splice variants of GHRH-R has been demonstrated in human adrenal carcinoma.
  • This study raises the possibility that splice variants might play a role in adrenal carcinogenesis and might offer the possibility for new therapeutic strategies at least in a subgroup of adrenal carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Alternative Splicing. Carcinoma / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics. Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15853821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 0 / Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone; 0 / somatotropin releasing hormone receptor
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36. Kalgikar AM, Chandratreya SA, Goel A, Shrivastava M, Limaye US, Karvat A, Shah NS, Menon PS: Inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the diagnostic evaluation of Cushing's syndrome: K.E.M. experience. J Assoc Physicians India; 2005 Aug;53:685-8
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  • INTRODUCTION: An overlap in the clinical and biochemical features of the more common pituitary Cushing's disease and the rare ectopic ACTH secreting tumors often leads to a diagnostic dilemma.
  • Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) with measurement of ACTH levels localizes the source of excess ACTH secretion and aids in the differential diagnosis of ACTH dependant Cushing's syndrome.
  • The data was analysed in 39 patients with definite histopathological diagnosis which included 34 patients with Cushing's disease, four with ectopic Cushing's syndrome and one with adrenal carcinoma.
  • A centre:periphery ratio of plasma ACTH levels of > or =2 was considered diagnostic of Cushing's disease.
  • IPSS could correctly localize the lesion in 23 of 34 patients of Cushing's disease (sensitivity: 67.6%).
  • All patients of ectopic Cushing's syndrome and adrenal carcinoma had a ratio of <2 (specificity: 100%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Petrosal Sinus Sampling
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16398076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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37. Hemal AK, Singh A, Gupta NP: Whether adrenal mass more than 5 cm can pose problem in laparoscopic adrenalectomy? An evaluation of 22 patients. World J Urol; 2008 Oct;26(5):505-8
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  • [Title] Whether adrenal mass more than 5 cm can pose problem in laparoscopic adrenalectomy? An evaluation of 22 patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate technical feasibility and analyze outcome of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for large adrenal masses more than 5 cm.
  • METHODS: The data of 22 patients (8 men, 14 women), who underwent LA for adrenal masses >5 cm between January 1995 and July 2007 were analyzed for this study.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients with a mean age of 42.5 years underwent LA for large adrenal masses (>5 cm) between January 1995 and July 2007.
  • Histopathological examination of the specimen confirmed adrenal carcinoma in 5, pheochromocytoma in 14, myelolipoma in 2 and adenoma in 1 patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The size of an adrenal mass on preoperative imaging studies alone should not be the primary factor in determining whether LA should be performed.
  • LA for adrenocortical cancers could be performed safely and effectively in the selected group.
  • Transperitoneal approach is most suitable and recommended for large adrenal tumor and adrenal carcinoma to employ laparoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18536881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-4983
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. McHugh K: Renal and adrenal tumours in children. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7:41-51
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  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumours in children.
  • The differential diagnosis of renal and supra-renal masses firstly depends on the age of the child.
  • Benign renal masses predominate in early infancy but beyond the first year of life Wilms' tumour is the most common renal malignancy, until adolescence when renal cell carcinoma has similar or increased frequency as children get older.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas also occur in childhood; these tumours are indistinguishable on imaging but criteria for the diagnosis of adrenal carcinoma include size larger than 5 cm, a tendency to invade the inferior vena cava and to metastasise.
  • The most topical dilemmas in the radiological assessment of renal and adrenal tumours are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age of Onset. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroblastoma / epidemiology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / epidemiology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / epidemiology. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17339140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 19
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1828369
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39. Kim KH, Park JC, Lim SY, Sohn IS, Yun KH, Cho SH, Hong YJ, Park HW, Kim JH, Kim W, Ahn YK, Chung IJ, Jeong MH, Cho JG, Kang JC: A case of non-functioning huge adrenocortical carcinoma extending into inferior vena cava and right atrium. J Korean Med Sci; 2006 Jun;21(3):572-6
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  • [Title] A case of non-functioning huge adrenocortical carcinoma extending into inferior vena cava and right atrium.
  • Primary adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor and its usual sites of metastasis are the lung (71%), lymph node (68%), liver (42%), and bone (26%).
  • However, intracaval invasion extending into the right atrium is very rare and spontaneous regression of tumor burden in adrenal carcinoma is also rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Heart Atria / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16778409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2729971
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40. Geiss HK, Feldhues R, Niemann S, Nolte O, Rieker R: Landouzy septicemia (sepsis tuberculosa acutissima) due to Mycobacterium microti in an immunocompetent man. Infection; 2005 Oct;33(5-6):393-6
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  • In the following, we describe the case of a previously healthy man who underwent laparotomy for suspected adrenal carcinoma.
  • No other pathogen could be isolated during the clinical course, which finally led to the diagnosis of Landouzy septicemia (sepsis tuberculosa acutissima).

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  • (PMID = 16258876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8126
  • [Journal-full-title] Infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infection
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Otto M, Cichocki A, Rosłonowska E, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Jeske W, Papierska L, Zgliczyński W: Incidentally discovered adrenal tumors: a lesson from observation of 1,444 patients. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):338-41
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  • [Title] Incidentally discovered adrenal tumors: a lesson from observation of 1,444 patients.
  • This study was aimed at summarizing our experience in the management of 1,444 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumors observed at a single endocrinological centre.
  • Hormonal determinations were performed in all patients at the beginning of the observation period to detect subclinical adrenal hyperfunction.
  • The imaging phenotype on CT and MRI was analyzed for defining the malignant potential of the tumors.
  • Based on the results of these examinations we diagnosed among our cohort probably benign masses in 87%, malignant tumors in 10% (adrenal carcinoma - 9%), and metastases in 3%.
  • Malignancy is the most serious risk in the group of patients with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms / radiography. Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18491253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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42. Qin K, Rosenfield RL: Characterization of the basal promoter element of the human type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2005 May 1;1728(3):115-25
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  • Of the androgenic 17beta-HSD isoenzymes, only type 5 (17beta-HSD5) is expressed ubiquitously, including the human adrenal gland and ovary.
  • To characterize this gene promoter, luciferase constructs of the human 5'-flanking region were transiently transfected into the H295R human adrenal carcinoma cell line.
  • Mithramycin A, which inhibits the binding of Sp1 and Sp3 to DNA, also remarkably decreased HSD17B5 mRNA expression in the H295R cell line.
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases. 5' Flanking Region / genetics. Base Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Colforsin / pharmacology. DNA Primers. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Humans. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases. Luciferases / genetics. Molecular Sequence Data. Oligonucleotides. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Alignment. Sp1 Transcription Factor / genetics. Sp1 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Sp3 Transcription Factor. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Transfection. Trinucleotide Repeats / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15814298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K08 HD043279-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K08 HD043279-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K08 HD043279-02; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K08 HD043279-03; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD39267-02
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / SP3 protein, human; 0 / Sp1 Transcription Factor; 0 / Transcription Factors; 148710-94-5 / Sp3 Transcription Factor; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 97666-60-9 / mithramycin A; EC 1.1.- / 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.- / AKR1C3 protein, human; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; NIJ123W41V / Plicamycin
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43. Ozben B, Papila N, Tanrikulu MA, Bayalan F, Fak AS, Oktay A: Inferior vena caval tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium in a patient with pancreatic cancer. J Thromb Thrombolysis; 2007 Dec;24(3):317-21
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  • [Title] Inferior vena caval tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium in a patient with pancreatic cancer.
  • Venous thromboembolism is a common complication in patients with cancer and an important cause of morbidity and mortality.
  • While deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are the most common thrombotic conditions in patients with malignant disease, tumor thrombus may be seen in inferior vena cava, mainly in patients with renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, testicular tumors or adrenal carcinoma.
  • Although pancreatic cancer is one of the cancers that are most strongly associated with thrombotic complications along with cancers of ovary and brain, there has been no report about presence of thrombus in the inferior vena cava in pancreatic cancer.
  • We report a female patient with pancreatic cancer associated with tumor thrombus extending from the inferior vena cava to the right atrium.

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  • (PMID = 17483876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-5305
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thromb. Thrombolysis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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44. Maweja S, Materne R, Detrembleur N, de Leval L, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, Hamoir E: Adrenal ganglioneuroma. A neoplasia to exclude in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Acta Chir Belg; 2007 Nov-Dec;107(6):670-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal ganglioneuroma. A neoplasia to exclude in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determinate the MRI and CT scanning appearance of adrenal ganglioneuroma and correlate the imaging with histological features.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In the last 10 years, eight patients with a pathologically proven adrenal ganglioneuroma were operated on in our department of endocrine surgery.
  • To our knowledge, these patients represent one the largest reported cohorts of adrenal ganglioneuroma treated in a single institution.
  • RESULTS: The most relevant characteristics of adrenal GN resected in our patients were: No hormonal hypersecretion, Presence of calcifications; no vessel involvement; and a non-enhanced attenuation of less than 40 HU on CT, A low non-enhanced T1W signal, a slightly high and heterogeneous T2W signal, a late and gradual enhancement on dynamic MRI, especially if associated with a whorled pattern.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even if many aggressive tumours, mainly adrenal carcinoma, may share some of these radiological features, the presence of all or most of them must made the clinician evoke the diagnosis of GN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18274182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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45. Iihara M, Obara T: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Aug;106(8):479-83
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors].
  • Adrenal surgery is necessary for the management of functioning adrenal tumors, such as aldosterone-producing adenoma, cortisol-producing adenoma, and pheochromocytoma.
  • The role of adrenal imaging in primary hyperaldosteronism is to separate the surgically resectable unilateral aldosteronoma from bilateral hyperplasia.
  • Once the clinical diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism is confirmed, adrenal computed tomography (CT) with 3-mm sections should be the first imaging study.
  • If the results of CT and NP-59 scintigraphy are equivocal, adrenal venous sampling is necessary.
  • Cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas are seen as adrenal masses 2.5 cm or larger in diameter in CT scanning.
  • When an adrenal mass measures more than 5 cm in diameter, a functioning adrenal carcinoma should be considered.
  • In the past decade, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has replaced open adrenalectomy as a standard operative procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal-sparing laparoscopic surgery has recently become a feasible option in patients with hereditary bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16119111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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46. Butler C, Butler WM, Rizvi AA: Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):441-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience using kinase inhibition therapy with sorafenib in a patient with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • An 8-cm left adrenal lesion was found on computed tomography, removed surgically, and confirmed as adrenal carcinoma on pathologic examination.
  • Postoperative scanning revealed metastases to both lungs and the liver that were confirmed by fine-needle biopsy, thus establishing stage IV disease.
  • Treatment with the adrenolytic agent mitotane failed to halt disease progression.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib provide targeted oncologic treatment and may be effective in treating advanced adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds

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  • (PMID = 20061282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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47. Kageyama K, Hanada K, Suda T: Differential regulation and roles of urocortins in human adrenal H295R cells. Regul Pept; 2010 Jun 8;162(1-3):18-25
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  • [Title] Differential regulation and roles of urocortins in human adrenal H295R cells.
  • Ucn1 and Ucn3 exhibit potent effects on the adrenal system via the CRF receptors.
  • This study aimed to explore the regulation and roles of Ucns in the adrenal system using human adrenal carcinoma H295R cells, which express Ucn1, Ucn2, Ucn3, CRF receptor type 1 (CRF(1) receptor), and CRF receptor type 2a (CRF(2a) receptor) mRNA.
  • Cell viability was reduced by both Ucn1 and Ucn3 via the CRF(2) receptor in H295R cells.
  • The ERK and protein kinase A pathways were involved in Ucn3-decreased cell viability.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Urocortins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Primers. Humans. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20171993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1686
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / Urocortins
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48. Gustavsen MW, von Krogh K, Taubøll E, Zimmer KE, Dahl E, Olsaker I, Ropstad E, Verhaegen S: Differential effects of antiepileptic drugs on steroidogenesis in a human in vitro cell model. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl; 2009;(189):14-21
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  • [Title] Differential effects of antiepileptic drugs on steroidogenesis in a human in vitro cell model.
  • OBJECTIVES: To better understand the interaction of antiepileptic drugs and production of sex hormones, possible effects of valproate (VPA), levetiracetam (LEV) and carbamazepine (CBZ) on steroidogenesis were investigated in the human adrenal carcinoma cell line H295R.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carbamazepine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation. Endocrine Disruptors / pharmacology. Estradiol / metabolism. Humans. Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases / genetics. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Piracetam / analogs & derivatives. Piracetam / pharmacology. Progesterone / metabolism. Radioimmunoassay. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Steroid Hydroxylases / genetics. Testosterone / metabolism. Valproic Acid / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19566492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-5449
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol. Scand., Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Steroids; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 230447L0GL / etiracetam; 33CM23913M / Carbamazepine; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases; EC 1.14.- / Steroid Hydroxylases; ZH516LNZ10 / Piracetam
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49. Ng AC, Loh HL, Shum CF, Yip SK: A case of adrenal cavernous hemangioma presenting with progressive enlargement and apparent hormonal hypersecretion. Endocr Pract; 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):104-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of adrenal cavernous hemangioma presenting with progressive enlargement and apparent hormonal hypersecretion.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a man with an adrenal cavernous hemangioma presenting as a progressively enlarging adrenal mass with apparent hormonal hypersecretion.
  • The literature is reviewed for the typical presentations of adrenal cavernous hemangiomas.
  • RESULTS: A 59-year-old man presented with an adrenal incidentaloma that had an imaging phenotype suggestive of a pheochromocytoma or an adrenal carcinoma.
  • Surgery, however, proved the diagnosis to be an adrenal cavernous hemangioma.
  • CONCLUSION: Although adrenal cavernous hemangioma is a rare entity, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Its radiologic features are not specific, and the presence of hormonal hypersecretion does not exclude the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / secretion. Disease Progression. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Renin / blood. Renin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18238749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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50. Ridho FE, Adam FM, Adam JM: Adrenal incidentaloma. Acta Med Indones; 2009 Apr;41(2):87-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma is an adrenal tumor, which is unidentified before the imaging procedures conducted for an abnormality which is initially unforeseen as an adrenal disease.
  • Symptoms and/or clinical signs of adrenal tumor do not have to be present prior to a diagnosis.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma can be divided into non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, hypersecreting tumor, primary adrenal carcinoma, other adrenal mass, and metastases.
  • The majority of adrenal tumor is non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, but it is always considered as hypersecreting tumor until proven otherwise.
  • Some conditions that can be found due to hormonal activity of adrenal incidentaloma is subclinical Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, aldosteronoma (Conn's disease), and several tumors which secrete androgen and sex hormone.
  • Diagnostic approach of adrenal incidentaloma is focused on two main problems, which are, whether the lesion is hormonally active even though lacking characteristic clinical signs, and whether the lesion is benign or malignant; thus it needs hormonal and radiologic evaluation, even a fine needle biopsy.
  • The management for adrenal incidentaloma includes surgical removal for hormonally active adrenal tumors, or inactive tumors with size less than 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Aldosterone / blood. Catecholamines / urine. Incidental Findings. Renin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Indonesia / epidemiology. Morbidity / trends

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  • (PMID = 19390128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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51. Nicol MR, Papacleovoulou G, Evans DB, Penning TM, Strachan MW, Advani A, Johnson SJ, Quinton R, Mason JI: Estrogen biosynthesis in human H295 adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):115-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estrogen biosynthesis in human H295 adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy and feminizing symptoms secondary to adrenal estrogen-secretion are extremely rare.
  • The direct secretion of estradiol by adrenocortical tumors requires, in addition to the expression of aromatase (CYP19), the expression of one or more of the reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.
  • The expression of CYP19 transcripts and protein were markedly induced in the H295 adrenocortical carcinoma cell line after treatment with either forskolin or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).
  • Western immunoblotting of an estrogen-secreting adrenal carcinoma revealed notable levels of both aromatase and AKR1C3 expression while an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma lacked aromatase expression and showed a reduced level of AKR1C3 expression.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the carcinoma-bearing adrenal revealed localization of AKR1C3 not only in the tumor but also principally in the zona reticularis of the normal adrenal tissue.
  • Adrenal aromatase and AKR1C3 expression therefore appear to be features of adrenocortical malignancies that are associated with biosynthesis of active estrogen.

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  • (PMID = 19026713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090744-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090744; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090744-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA90744
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; EC 1.1.- / 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.- / AKR1C3 protein, human; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.145 / 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II; EC 1.1.1.145 / Progesterone Reductase; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS99072; NLM/ PMC2673546
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52. Erem C, Kocak M, Onder Ersoz H, Ersoz S, Yucel Y: Epinephrine-secreting cystic pheochromocytoma presenting with an incidental adrenal mass: a case report and a review of the literature. Endocrine; 2005 Nov;28(2):225-30
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. EPINEPHRINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epinephrine-secreting cystic pheochromocytoma presenting with an incidental adrenal mass: a case report and a review of the literature.
  • Cystic adrenal masses are a relatively rare condition, and are usually nonfunctioning and asymptomatic.
  • Differential diagnosis includes pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and adrenal carcinoma; 8-10% of patients with PHEO may be completely asymptomatic.
  • We report a case of a E-secreting pure cystic PHEO presenting with an incidental adrenal mass.
  • A 49-year-old Turkish woman was hospitalized at Farabi Hospital for further examinations of a right adrenal cystic mass with a thick wall that was incidentally discovered by abdominal ultrasonography during examination for nausea, vomiting, headache, and angina-like chest pain in another hospital.
  • Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a cystic round tumor approx 5 cm in diameter, located in the right adrenal gland.
  • In conclusion, a diagnosis of E-secreting PHEO should be considered in patients with nonspecific symptoms, presenting with an incidental cystic adrenal mass, even in the absence of hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenal Glands / secretion. Epinephrine / secretion. Pheochromocytoma / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16388097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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53. Castillo O, Sánchez-Salas R, Vidal I: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2008 Sep;60(3):177-84

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the gold standard for the surgical management of small and medium adrenal masses.
  • Nevertheless, there is still controversy for the laparoscopic treatment of adrenal carcinoma.
  • The aim of this article was to report current standards on LA.
  • Even when available evidence in the literature is low for LA, it has become the standard of treatment for adrenal masses especially in benign lesions.
  • The most employed surgical technique for LA is the lateral transabdominal, but novel approaches have been developed to treat surgically adrenal diseases and an objective evaluation of outcomes is awaited.
  • Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal primary malignancy and metastases is still controversial although clear indications for laparoscopy in these cases are bounded to surgical experience.
  • LA has definitively replaced open surgery in the surgical management of adrenal tumors < or = 12 cm, because of its advantages in terms of morbidity and recovery.
  • Large and malignant tumors should be carefully approached by experienced laparoscopic surgeons.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18787512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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54. Hu X, Dietz JD, Xia C, Knight DR, Loging WT, Smith AH, Yuan H, Perry DA, Keiser J: Torcetrapib induces aldosterone and cortisol production by an intracellular calcium-mediated mechanism independently of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition. Endocrinology; 2009 May;150(5):2211-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The direct effects of torcetrapib and related molecules on adrenal steroid production were assessed in cell culture using the H295R as well as the newly developed HAC15 human adrenal carcinoma cell lines.
  • Torcetrapib induced the synthesis of both aldosterone and cortisol in these two in vitro cell systems.
  • Transcription profiling indicated that torcetrapib and angiotensin II share overlapping pathways in regulating adrenal steroid biosynthesis.
  • Consistent with intracellular calcium being the key mediator of torcetrapib's effect in adrenal cells, calcium channel blockers completely blocked torcetrapib-induced corticoid release and calcium increase.
  • The results indicate that the pressor and adrenal effects observed with torcetrapib and related molecules are independent of CETP inhibition.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Anticholesteremic Agents / adverse effects. Anticholesteremic Agents / chemistry. Anticholesteremic Agents / pharmacology. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Intracellular Fluid / drug effects. Intracellular Fluid / metabolism. Models, Biological. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • [CommentIn] Endocrinology. 2009 May;150(5):2024-6 [19383878.001]
  • (PMID = 19164467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticholesteremic Agents; 0 / Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins; 0 / Quinolines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 4N4457MV2U / torcetrapib; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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55. Marazuela M, Domínguez-Gadea L, Larrañaga E, Rodríguez-Ramos R, López-Gallardo G, Rodríguez-Eyre JL, Gómez-Pan A: [The use of suprarenal scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of suprarenal incidentaloma]. Rev Clin Esp; 2005 Jul;205(7):316-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The use of suprarenal scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of suprarenal incidentaloma].
  • [Transliterated title] Utilidad de la gammagrafía suprarrenal en el diagnóstico diferencial del incidentaloma suprarrenal.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the usefulness of adrenal scintigraphy for clinical evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas, and its relation with pathological diagnosis and follow-up.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have studied 46 patients with unilateral adrenal incidentaloma of size between 10 and 100 mm (average 30.5 +/- 19 mm).
  • The lesions were discovered with abdominal computerized tomography in the study of a primary tumor (22%) or in the evaluation of benign pathology (78%).
  • Adrenal scintigraphy assessed uptake in adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Hormonal study included urinary catecholamines, plasma cortisol after dexamethasone, adrenal androgens, and renin and aldosterone in hypertensive patients.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma was considered nonfunctional if the lesion did not modified its size nor showed analytical alterations along a follow-up higher than 8 months.
  • RESULTS: Of 46 adrenal lesions, seven didn't show uptake (three metastases, one cyst, one adrenal carcinoma, one pheochromocytoma, and one angiomyolipoma), 34 showed excessive uptake (29 nonfunctional adrenal nodules and 5 hyperfunctional adrenal nodules), and five had normal uptake (nonfunctional adrenal nodules).
  • Adrenal scintigraphy was compatible in all cases with cytological study or the response to chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Detection of a lesion with no uptake in adrenal scintigraphy forces to carry out complementary explorations in order to rule out malignant pathology.
  • A lesion with excessive uptake is indicative of a benign process and should be assessed with hormonal determinations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16029757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2565
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista clínica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Clin Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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56. Gross MD, Gauger PG, Djekidel M, Rubello D: The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1137-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Appropriate surgical approach to diseases of the adrenal requires a diagnosis sufficient to determine the biochemical status of adrenal dysfunction and anatomic evaluation sufficient to differentiate unilateral from bilateral disease, intra-adrenal from extra-adrenal neoplasm, adrenal tumor recurrence or adrenal metastases.
  • High resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance have been the primary imaging modalities for the evaluation of anatomy, while scintigraphic studies have played a secondary role in diagnosis.
  • The recent availability of functional imaging provided by positron emission tomography (PET) with radiopharmaceuticals designed to depict substrate precursor uptake, cellular metabolism or receptor binding in neoplasms and CT as a single modality, hybrid PET/CT, to directly correlate function and anatomy has had a significant impact upon the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to many cancers and has been applied to adrenal disease with some early success that we describe in this review.
  • METHODS: In addition to the authors' experience, a search of Medline and PubMed databases was performed using search terms: 'adrenal scintigraphy', 'positron tomography', 'computed tomography', 'adrenal surgery', 'adrenal mass', '(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose', 'adrenal carcinoma', 'adrenal medulla' and 'pheochromocytoma'.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present PET radiopharmaceuticals and their use in hybrid PET/CT have demonstrated efficacy in the preoperative and follow-up evaluation of neoplasms of the adrenal cortex and medulla that hopefully will continue to improve with the development of newer tracers that continue to exploit unusual characteristics of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19243910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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57. Erem C, Hacihasanoglu A, Cinel A, Isik AC, Reis A, Sari A, Ersoz HO, Ukinç K: Carotid body tumors and adrenal pheochromocytomas in siblings of a Turkish family. Med Princ Pract; 2006;15(5):396-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carotid body tumors and adrenal pheochromocytomas in siblings of a Turkish family.
  • OBJECTIVE: This is a report of 2 hypertensive siblings with a history of carotid body tumors and subsequent benign adrenal pheochromocytomas (pheos) in a family where the mother had died of possible adrenal carcinoma.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: The first case was a 35-year-old woman with paroxysmal hypertensive attacks and a right adrenal mass.
  • Abdominal MRI and (131)I-MIBG scintigraphy revealed a right adrenal tumor.
  • The second case, the 45-year-old brother of the first case, was found to have a left adrenal mass on abdominal MRI.
  • Both siblings showed no evidence of other familial syndromes, such as multiple neoplasia type 2, von Hippel-Lindau disease or neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the combination of familial carotid body tumors and pheo is rare, a patient who remains hypertensive after removal of a carotid body tumor deserves a careful evaluation to exclude pheo.
  • Such tumors may be extra-adrenal or multifocal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carotid Body Tumor / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 16888401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-7571
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Princ Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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58. Fardella CE, Mosso LM, Carvajal CA: [Primary aldosteronism]. Rev Med Chil; 2008 Jul;136(7):905-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In the cardiovascular system, aldosterone modifies endothelial and smooth muscle cell response, increasing cardiovascular risk in a blood pressure-independent way.
  • This ratio increases along with the severity of the hypertensive disease.
  • The diagnostic work up of PA should confirm the autonomy of aldosterone secretion from the renin-angiotensin system and should differentiate the clinical subtypes of the disease.
  • Other causes are familial hyperaldosteronism (FH) type I (glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism), FH-II (non glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism), primary adrenal hyperplasia and adrenal carcinoma.
  • This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of PA and also the clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics of its different subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldosterone / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18949169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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59. Zhu Y, Zhang HB, Lu L, Li NS, Fu Y, Wang O, Xu LL, Jiang Y, Tong AL, Zhu HJ, Li W, Hu MM, Yu M, Mao JF, Yuan T, Li M, Xia WB, Xing XP: [Adrenal lesions in patients of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Oct 19;90(38):2689-92
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  • [Title] [Adrenal lesions in patients of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of adrenal lesions in Chinese multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) patients.
  • METHODS: Adrenal CT scan and clinical manifestations were retrospectively reviewed in 32 consecutive MEN-1 patients who were evaluated at our hospital during January 1986 to December 2009.
  • RESULTS: Adrenal lesions were identified in 16 of 32 (50%) MEN-1 patients.
  • Five (31.3%) patents with adrenal involvement showed bilateral lesions, including bilateral adenoma (n=1), bilateral hyperplasia (n=2) and adenoma and hyperplasia on each side (n=2).
  • Unilateral adrenal lesion was presented in 11 (68.7%) patients.
  • In two patients, functioning adrenal abnormalities were detected including Cushing adenoma (n=1) and aldosterone-secreting adenoma (n=1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of adrenal lesion in MEN-1 patient is similar between China and western countries.
  • Taking into account a high incidence of adrenal carcinoma in previous foreign studies, routine screening and close surveillance are still recommended for adrenal lesions in MEN-1 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21162898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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60. Babińska A, Sworczak K, Siekierska-Hellmann M, Lewczuk A, Błaut K, Obołoiczyk L, Wiśniewski P, Zielonko J, Kaska L, Lachiński A: [Incidentally discovered adrenal masses in the Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Hemostatic Disorders, Medical University of Gdansk]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(11-12):744-50
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  • [Title] [Incidentally discovered adrenal masses in the Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Hemostatic Disorders, Medical University of Gdansk].
  • [Transliterated title] Przypadkowo wykryte guzy nadnerczy w materiale Kliniki Chorób Wewnetrznych, Endokrynologii i Zaburzeń Hemostazy Akademii Medycznej w Gdańsku.
  • Clinically silent adrenal masses (incidentaloma) are incidentally discovered lesions when noninvasive imaging methods (ultrasonography--USG, computer tomography--CT, magnetic resonance imaging--MRI) are performed for the reason other than known or suspected adrenal disease.
  • Most of studies report the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma range between 1 and 10% in radiological series.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1993 and 03.2004 we observed 198 patients with incidentalomas of adrenal glands (144 females--72.7% and 54 males--27.3%).
  • Adrenocortical adenoma was diagnosed in 54.9%, adrenal hyperplasia in 8.5%, adrenal carcinoma in 6.7%, pheochromocytoma in 12.9% (in 3.1% of all cases malignant pheochromocytoma was diagnosed), in 4.9% others malignant tumors (primary or metastatic), in 4.9% adrenal cysts and in 7.1% other rare adrenal pathologies were found.
  • In tumors with diameter over 6 cm malignant cases were found in 70.8%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / epidemiology. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Female. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Prevalence. Radiography, Abdominal. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17427485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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61. John M, Lila AR, Bandgar T, Menon PS, Shah NS: Diagnostic efficacy of midnight cortisol and midnight ACTH in the diagnosis and localisation of Cushing's syndrome. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):48-53
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  • [Title] Diagnostic efficacy of midnight cortisol and midnight ACTH in the diagnosis and localisation of Cushing's syndrome.
  • Classical tests for diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) like urine free cortisol and dexamethasone suppression tests have limitations in various clinical settings.
  • A simultaneously done midnight plasma ACTH level was used to classify the disease as ACTH dependent or independent.
  • We evaluated 43 patients with CS comprising of 34 patients with Cushing's disease (CD), 2 patients with thymic carcinoid producing ectopic CS, 5 patients with adrenal carcinoma and 2 with adrenal adenoma.
  • SMNC achieved 100% sensitivity in the diagnosis of endogenous CS at cut offs of 138 nmol/l and below.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Diagnosis. Female. Histocytochemistry / standards. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sleep. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19714471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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62. Mezzadri NA, Catalina Mandry A, Sinagra DL, Eduardo Falco J, Fernández Vila JM: [Laparoscopic approach in the treatment of malignant adrenal tumours]. Cir Esp; 2010 May;87(5):306-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic approach in the treatment of malignant adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Abordaje laparoscópico en el tratamiento de las tumoraciones adrenales malignas.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant primary or secondary adrenal tumours are uncommon.
  • Although controversy exists on this issue, the increasing experience in laparoscopic surgery extends the indication for laparoscopic adrenalectomy to potentially malignant and to metastatic adrenal tumours.
  • Our aim was to evaluate the technical feasibility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant neoplasias, describing the results of our consecutive series of patients.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 13 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant neoplasia between March 1999 and June 2009, at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Universidad of Buenos Aires and at the Hospital Alemán of Buenos Aires.
  • RESULTS: Thirteen laparoscopic adrenalectomies were performed due to malignant neoplasia.
  • Five patients had an adrenal carcinoma, 1 patient a malignant phaeochromocytoma, and 7 patients had metastatic tumours.
  • The cause of death was the underlying disease in all cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a reasonable technique for malignant adrenal tumours, when the open oncological resection can be reproduced by the laparoscopic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20382378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1578-147X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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63. Nader N, Raverot G, Emptoz-Bonneton A, Déchaud H, Bonnay M, Baudin E, Pugeat M: Mitotane has an estrogenic effect on sex hormone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2165-70
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  • DESIGN: Human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2), lacking estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, and Hep89, stably transfected by ERalpha, were used.
  • PATIENTS AND OTHER PARTICIPANTS: The study included 10 male patients with recurrent adrenal carcinoma, receiving mitotane (4-6.5 g daily) for more than 6 months.
  • In the HepG2 cell line, 17beta-estradiol (E2) or o,p'-DDD treatment had no effect on mRNA or SHBG/CBG concentrations.
  • In contrast, in the Hep89 cell line, E2 increased concentrations of SHBG (r = 0.44, P < 0.0001) and CBG (r = 0.585, P < 0.0001) secreted into culture media in a dose-dependent manner. o,p'-DDD significantly increased SHBG (150% vs. control, P < 0.05) and CBG (184% vs. control, P < 0.05) production by Hep89 cells, at a concentration of 2 x 10(-5) m.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogen Receptor alpha / drug effects. Estrogen Receptor alpha / physiology. Humans. Liver / metabolism. Male. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Transcription, Genetic. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16551731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 9010-38-2 / Transcortin
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64. Popescu I, Ciurea S, Romanescu D, Boros M: Isolated resection of the caudate lobe: indications, technique and results. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 May-Jun;55(84):831-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: This paper reports a series of 24 isolated caudate lobe resections (ICLR), performed for 13 benign tumors (10 hemangiomas, 2 focal nodular hyperplasias, 1 adenoma) and 11 malignant tumors (3 hepatocarcinomas, 1 peripheral cholangiocarcinoma and 7 metastatic - 5 colorectal carcinomas, 1 breast carcinoma, 1 adrenal carcinoma).
  • From the 10 patients with malignant tumors who survived the operation, 7 developed recurrences: 2 intrahepatic, 1 retroperitoneal, 4 systemic.
  • Three patients died from generalized disease.
  • Another patient, with generalized disease, was lost from follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ICLR is a difficult operation, especially with malignant tumors.
  • Malignant tumors located in the caudate lobe have a poor prognosis; local and, especially, distant metastases are frequent.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / mortality. Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Adenoma, Liver Cell / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / mortality. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / surgery. Hemangioma / mortality. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangioma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18705277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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65. Nakamura Y, Vargas Morris C, Sasano H, Rainey WE: DAX-1A (NR0B1A) expression levels are extremely low compared to DAX-1 (NR0B1) in human steroidogenic tissues. Horm Metab Res; 2009 Jan;41(1):30-4
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  • DAX-1A expression has been observed in several tissues, including adrenal gland, ovary, and testis.
  • Transfection studies have further shown that DAX-1A has an inhibitory effect on DAX-1, suggesting a role for DAX-1A in the regulation of adrenal and gonadal differentiation/function.
  • Herein, we developed and performed quantitative real-time RT-PCR to measure DAX-1 and DAX-1A mRNA expression levels in H295R human adrenal carcinoma cell lines, human adult and fetal adrenal glands, corpus luteum, testis, whole pre- and postmenopausal ovaries, ovarian follicles, placenta, liver, and kidney.
  • In addition, Western blotting analysis was performed to examine both DAX-1 and DAX-1A protein levels in H295R cells, adrenal glands, corpus luteum, and liver.
  • Western blotting analysis results demonstrated that DAX-1 protein was predominantly expressed in H295R cells, human adult adrenal, and corpus luteum.
  • These results suggest that in comparison to DAX-1A, DAX-1 is, by far, the predominant mRNA isoform found in human adrenal glands and gonads.

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  • (PMID = 18819054.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK069950; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK069950; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD11149
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Steroids
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS484291; NLM/ PMC3712853
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66. Zhang L, Liu M, Merling R, Giam CZ: Versatile reporter systems show that transactivation by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax occurs independently of chromatin remodeling factor BRG1. J Virol; 2006 Aug;80(15):7459-68
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  • [Title] Versatile reporter systems show that transactivation by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax occurs independently of chromatin remodeling factor BRG1.
  • Potent activation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) gene expression is mediated by the virus-encoded transactivator protein Tax and three imperfect 21-bp repeats in the viral long terminal repeats.
  • Using an easily transduced and chromosomally integrated reporter system derived from a self-inactivating lentivirus vector, we showed in a BRG1- and BRM1-deficient adrenal carcinoma cell line, SW-13, that Tax- and 21-bp repeat-mediated transactivation does not require BRG1 or BRM1 and is not enhanced by BRG1.

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  • (PMID = 16840326.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / F32 GM075688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA048709; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 48709; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA/GM 75688
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Activating Transcription Factors; 0 / CREB1 protein, human; 0 / Chromatin; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Gene Products, tax; 0 / Histones; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SMARCA2 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / SMARCA4 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.- / DNA Helicases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1563696
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67. Fan W, Yanase T, Morinaga H, Gondo S, Okabe T, Nomura M, Komatsu T, Morohashi K, Hayes TB, Takayanagi R, Nawata H: Atrazine-induced aromatase expression is SF-1 dependent: implications for endocrine disruption in wildlife and reproductive cancers in humans. Environ Health Perspect; 2007 May;115(5):720-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Atrazine is a potent endocrine disruptor that increases aromatase expression in some human cancer cell lines.
  • METHODS: We compared steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) expression in atrazine responsive and non-responsive cell lines and transfected SF-1 into nonresponsive cell lines to assess SF-1's role in atrazine-induced aromatase.
  • RESULTS: Atrazine-responsive adrenal carcinoma cells (H295R) expressed 54 times more SF-1 than nonresponsive ovarian granulosa KGN cells.
  • CONCLUSION: The current findings are consistent with atrazine's endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, amphibians, and reptiles; the induction of mammary and prostate cancer in laboratory rodents; and correlations between atrazine and similar reproductive cancers in humans.
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Binding Sites / genetics. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Primers. Humans. Ligands. Luciferases / metabolism. Mice. Mutation / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Simazine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17520059.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-6765
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; QJA9M5H4IM / Atrazine; SG0C34SMY3 / Simazine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1867956
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68. Parnaby CN, Chong PS, Chisholm L, Farrow J, Connell JM, O'Dwyer PJ: The role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumours of 6 cm or greater. Surg Endosc; 2008 Mar;22(3):617-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumours of 6 cm or greater.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has been shown to reduce hospital stay and morbidity when compared to open adrenalectomy (OA).
  • It is uncertain if the laparoscopic resection of large (>/=6 cm) potentially malignant adrenal tumours is appropriate due to concern over incomplete resection and local recurrence.
  • The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of LA for tumours >/=6 cm with those < 6 cm.
  • METHODS: Details of all patients referred with adrenal tumours between January 1999 and January 2006 had been recorded prospectively on a database.
  • LA was performed using a lateral transabdominal approach.
  • Contraindications to LA were local invasion requiring en bloc resection of adjacent organs or the requirement of additional open procedures.
  • RESULTS: 103 patients were referred for adrenal resection.
  • Three with metastatic adrenal carcinoma and two with severe cardiorespiratory disease were deemed unsuitable for operation.
  • Thirty-nine LA were for tumours >/=6 cm while nine OA were for tumours >/=6 cm.
  • There were no significant differences between the median total anaesthetic time, postoperative complications or postoperative stay for patients undergoing LA for tumours >/=6 cm versus tumours <6 cm.
  • Of the six conversions, five were performed for adrenal tumours >/=6 cm [local invasion (n = 3), adhesions (n = 1), primary renal carcinoma (n = 1)].
  • All tumours in the LA group were resected with clear margins and at a median follow up of 50 months (range 38-74 months).
  • This has helped confirm a policy of initial laparoscopic resection for all noninvasive adrenal tumours can be applied safely.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18071798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0400874
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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69. von Krogh K, Harjen H, Almås C, Zimmer KE, Dahl E, Olsaker I, Taubøll E, Ropstad E, Verhaegen S: The effect of valproate and levetiracetam on steroidogenesis in forskolin-stimulated H295R cells. Epilepsia; 2010 Nov;51(11):2280-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Two different AEDs, valproate (VPA) and levetiracetam (LEV), were tested in forskolin-stimulated human adrenal carcinoma (H295R) cells to explore their effect on steroidogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Aromatase / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / genetics. DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics. Stimulation, Chemical

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PROGESTERONE .
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  • [Copyright] Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.
  • (PMID = 20726872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1167
  • [Journal-full-title] Epilepsia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epilepsia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 230447L0GL / etiracetam; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1; ZH516LNZ10 / Piracetam
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70. Tauchmanovà L, Pivonello R, Di Somma C, Rossi R, De Martino MC, Camera L, Klain M, Salvatore M, Lombardi G, Colao A: Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 May;91(5):1779-84
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  • [Title] Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status.
  • Cushing's disease and adrenal and ectopic Cushing's syndrome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients and 80 controls were prospectively enrolled: 37 patients (21 females) with pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma, 18 (14 females) with adrenocortical adenoma, 15 (11 females) with adrenal carcinoma of mixed secretion, and 10 (three females) with ectopic ACTH secretion.
  • At diagnosis, bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck; vertebral fractures were investigated by standard spinal radiographs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers. Body Mass Index. Carcinoma / blood. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16522701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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71. Shah SR, Purcell GP, Malek MM, Kane TD: Laparoscopic right adrenalectomy for a large ganglioneuroma in a 12-year-old. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2010 Feb;20(1):95-6
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  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is well established as the standard technique for all indications of adrenalectomy except adrenal carcinoma; however, some also consider large adrenal masses a relative contraindication.
  • We present a video of a laparoscopic excision of a large ganglioneuroma and right adrenalectomy in a 12-year-old female.
  • Upon surgical consultation, she underwent a magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a 7.9 x 4.4 x 5.6 cm heterogeneously enhancing suprarenal lesion that was either arising from or compressing the right adrenal gland.
  • A flexible 5-mm liver retractor (Mediflex; Velmed, Inc., Wexford, PA) was placed directly through the abdominal wall without a trocar in order to elevate the liver from the area of the right adrenal and retroperitoneum.
  • The pathology revealed an 8.5 x 7.0 x 3.0 cm ganglioneuroma, with primarily neural and Schwann cell-type tissue with interspersed large, prominent ganglion cells, and a normal adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As demonstrated by our video, large adrenal masses in the pediatric population can be successfully excised laparoscopically with appropriate surgeon comfort and experience.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19489680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9034
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100519
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72. Vaikkakara S, Al-Ozairi E, Lim E, Advani A, Ball SG, James RA, Quinton R: The investigation and management of severe hyperandrogenism pre- and postmenopause: non-tumor disease is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and typically responds to insulin-sensitization with metformin. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2008 Feb;24(2):87-92
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TESTOSTERONE .

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  • [Title] The investigation and management of severe hyperandrogenism pre- and postmenopause: non-tumor disease is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and typically responds to insulin-sensitization with metformin.
  • RESULTS: Four out of 18 cases had adrenal carcinoma that was clinically obvious at initial presentation (one virilized, three Cushingoid).


73. Riedl M, Maier C, Zettinig G, Nowotny P, Schima W, Luger A: Long term control of hypercortisolism with fluconazole: case report and in vitro studies. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Apr;154(4):519-24
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  • Disease progression was slow and no side effects occurred.
  • IN VITRO RESULTS: Fluconazole in a concentration of 500 microM nearly abolished corticosterone production over 24 h from the adrenal adenoma cell line Y-1 (8.6 +/- 0.5% compared with control, P < 0.0001) and significantly reduced corticosterone production in concentrations of 50 microM (48.3 +/- 1.9% vs. control, P < 0.0001) and 5 microM (80.5 +/- 8.5% vs. control, P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate for the first time that fluconazole normalises cortisol concentrations in vivo in a patient with Cushing's syndrome with adrenal carcinoma and inhibit glucocorticoid production in vitro in a cell line.

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  • (PMID = 16556713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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74. Cawood TJ, Hunt PJ, O'Shea D, Cole D, Soule S: Recommended evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas is costly, has high false-positive rates and confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal lesion becoming malignant; time for a rethink? Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Oct;161(4):513-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recommended evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas is costly, has high false-positive rates and confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal lesion becoming malignant; time for a rethink?
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of current clinical recommendations for the evaluation of an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Eligible studies were those deemed most applicable to the clinical scenario of a patient referred to an endocrinologist for assessment of an incidentally detected adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of functional and malignant lesions presenting as adrenal incidentaloma was similar to that quoted in most reviews, other than a lower incidence of adrenal carcinoma (1.9 vs 4.7%) and metastases (0.7 vs 2.3%).
  • The development of functionality or malignancy during follow-up was rare (<1% becoming functional and 0.2% becoming malignant).
  • The average recommended computed tomography (CT) scan follow-up exposes each patient to 23 mSv of ionising radiation, equating to a 1 in 430 to 2170 chance of causing fatal cancer.
  • This is similar to the chance of developing adrenal malignancy during 3-year follow-up of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • CONCLUSION: Current recommendations for evaluation of adrenal incidentaloma are likely to result in significant costs, both financial and emotional, due to high false-positive rates.
  • The dose of radiation involved in currently recommended CT scan follow-up confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal becoming malignant.


75. Moinzadeh A, Gill IS: Laparoscopic radical adrenalectomy for malignancy in 31 patients. J Urol; 2005 Feb;173(2):519-25
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  • We analyzed our experience with laparoscopic radical adrenalectomy for cancer with an emphasis on predictors of surgical outcome and oncological followup data.
  • Mean adrenal tumor size was 5 cm (range 1.8 to 9).
  • The pathological diagnoses were metastatic cancer in 26 cases and primary adrenal malignancy in 7.
  • Overall 15 patients (48%) died and 16 (52%) were alive, of whom 13 (42%) showed no evidence of disease.
  • Cancer specific survival at a median followup of 42 months was 53% and 5-year actuarial survival was 40%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic radical adrenalectomy can be performed with acceptable outcomes in the carefully selected patient with a small, organ confined, solitary adrenal metastasis or primary adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 15643237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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76. Skarsgard ED, Albanese CT: The safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in children. Arch Surg; 2005 Sep;140(9):905-8; discussion 909
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become standard therapy for benign adrenal masses in adults.
  • The utility of LA in children with adrenal masses is less well defined because of the infrequency and pathologic variability of pediatric adrenal masses, and body size and instrumentation considerations that exist in small children.
  • Evaluation of a case series of children undergoing lateral, transperitoneal LA will reflect the safety and efficacy of this procedure in pediatric patients and identify preferred patient selection criteria.
  • PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: All children with pathologic adrenal masses undergoing LA were included.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary study outcome measures included operative duration, conversions to open adrenalectomy, complications, length of hospital stay, and freedom from recurrence of the original pathologic adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: A total of 21 LAs (including a staged, bilateral LA) were performed in 20 patients (13 girls, 7 boys) with a mean age of 6.4 years (range, 14 months to 18 years).
  • Operative duration averaged mean +/- SD 101 +/- 48 minutes, and there was a single conversion to open adrenalectomy in a patient with a left adrenal carcinoma and tumor thrombus extending into the renal vein.
  • At a mean +/- SD follow-up of 31 +/- 17 months, all patients remained clinically (radiologically and/or biochemically) free of their original adrenal disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy can be used to safely treat suspected benign and selected malignant adrenal masses in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16175699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Hevia Suárez M, Abascal Junquera JM, Boix P, Dieguez M, Delgado E, Abascal García JM, Abascal García R: [Surgical experience and results in transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy]. Actas Urol Esp; 2010 May;34(5):412-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Experiencia y resultados en la suprarrenalectomía laparoscópica transperitoneal.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently the gold standard in surgical management of adrenal pathology.
  • Analyzed variables: age, size, side, preoperative diagnosis, operative time, blood loss, reconversion, hospital stay and histopathologic report.
  • Preoperative diagnosis was: functional mass (44%), pheocromocytome (17%), incedentaloma>4 cm (20%), metastasis (10%) and adrenal carcinoma (5%).

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  • (PMID = 20470713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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78. Garg MK, Pakhetra R, Dutta MK, Gundgurthi A: Response to growth hormone therapy in Indian patients. Indian J Pediatr; 2010 Jun;77(6):639-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Primary GHD (73%) was the commonest diagnosis among patients on GHT, followed by organic GHD (12.6%), genetic syndromes (8.4%) and systemic diseases (5.4%).
  • One patient of Turner's syndrome died of adrenal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20532685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-7693
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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79. Suzuki H: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal carcinoma and metastases. Curr Opin Urol; 2006 Mar;16(2):47-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal carcinoma and metastases.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review article discusses topics concerned with laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal pathologies.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past decade, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the operation of choice for the resection of adrenal tumors, and provides dramatically reduced morbidity associated with the operation.
  • Although current laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic or primary adrenal malignancy is a feasible procedure, great care is required.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for these adrenal pathologies should be converted to open adrenalectomy or hand-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy for difficult dissection, invasion, adhesions or surgeon inexperience.
  • In general, laparoscopic adrenalectomy can be performed with acceptable outcomes in carefully selected patients with small, organ-confined, solitary adrenal metastasis or primary adrenal carcinoma.
  • SUMMARY: As surgical technique and complete resection are crucial to the success of the procedure, appropriate and careful judgment on the part of the surgeon is the most important factor in the care of a patient with such adrenal malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16479203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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80. Matsumoto K, Egawa S, Satoh T, Okuno N, Kaseda S, Baba S: Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy for isolated locally recurrent adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2005 Dec;12(12):1055-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy for isolated locally recurrent adrenal carcinoma.
  • A 58-year-old man who had undergone left adrenalectomy 2 years previously for adrenocortical carcinoma was diagnosed to have a left suprarenal solid mass.
  • Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic excision of the tumor was conducted under the diagnosis of isolated local recurrence of adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thoracoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16409610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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81. Prieto LM, Brown JW, Perez-Stable C, Fishman LM: High dose 17 beta-estradiol and the alpha-estrogen agonist PPT trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cells but the beta-estrogen agonist DPN does not. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):311-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High dose 17 beta-estradiol and the alpha-estrogen agonist PPT trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cells but the beta-estrogen agonist DPN does not.
  • Previous studies have shown that high dose 17beta-estradiol (10 (-5) M) has a G2/M blocking effect in SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cultures and strongly enhances apoptosis.
  • Flow cytometry was used to analyze the percentages of cells in various phases of the cell cycle [sub-G1 (apoptosis), G1, S, and G2/M] in each experimental condition.
  • Estrogen was also found to block the cell cycle in G2/M, increasing it from 15+/-0.4 to 21+/-1.0% of cells (p<0.01), but neither the alpha- nor beta-estrogen agonists had any effect at this point in the cell cycle, indicating that the influence of estrogen was not likely to be either alpha- or beta-receptor mediated.
  • These studies suggest that induction of apoptosis by estrogen in SW-13 human adrenal cortical carcinoma cultures is mediated by the alpha-receptor, but the G2/M blocking effect of estrogen is not likely to be related to either alpha or beta mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogens / pharmacology. Nitriles / pharmacology. Phenols / pharmacology. Pyrazoles / pharmacology. Receptors, Estrogen / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Flow Cytometry. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole; 0 / 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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82. Szabó D, Zsippai A, Bendes M, Tömböl Z, Szabó PM, Rácz K, Igaz P: [Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer]. Orv Hetil; 2010 Jul 18;151(29):1163-70
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  • [Title] [Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] A mellékvesekéreg-carcinoma molekuláris patogenezise.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a rare tumor with poor prognosis.
  • The hereditary syndromes associated with adrenocortical cancer are: Li-Fraumeni's syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann's syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis, whereas multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney's complex and McCune-Albright's syndrome mostly predispose to benign adrenocortical tumors.
  • Options for medical treatment of adrenocortical cancer are rather limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Carney Complex / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / metabolism. Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p53. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Signal Transduction. Up-Regulation. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20591784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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83. Patalano A, Brancato V, Mantero F: Adrenocortical cancer treatment. Horm Res; 2009 Jan;71 Suppl 1:99-104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical cancer treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: With a reported incidence of 1 to 2 cases per million, adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare disease with poor prognosis.
  • Although most cases of ACC are of sporadic origin, they may also occur as part of a congenital or familial disease in which the genetic abnormalities are well established.
  • New treatments, such as insulin-like growth factor I receptor antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other antiangiogenic compounds, are now being intensively investigated to identify better therapies for this extremely severe malignant neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Streptozocin / administration & dosage. Syndrome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19153517.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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84. Ignaszak-Szczepaniak M, Horst-Sikorska W, Sawicka J, Kaczmarek M, Slomski R: The TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and predisposition to adrenocortical cancer in Polish patients. Oncol Rep; 2006 Jul;16(1):65-71
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  • [Title] The TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and predisposition to adrenocortical cancer in Polish patients.
  • We have analyzed the 72Pro polymorphic variant in patients with adrenocortical tumors to evaluate whether 72G--> C substitution at codon 72 of TP53 gene may be associated with increased risk for malignancy in adrenal cortex in comparison to the control group.
  • DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes of 46 Polish patients with adrenocortical tumors (17 malignant and 29 benign) and 50 controls was examined by PCR-HD method followed by direct sequencing.
  • High frequency of 72Pro allele in patients with carcinoma (29%) in comparison to the benign tumors (14%) and controls (12%) was statistically analyzed.
  • Our results suggest that the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism could be associated with susceptibility for adrenocortical cancer in the examined Polish patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Polymorphism, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16786124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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85. Wandoloski M, Bussey KJ, Demeure MJ: Adrenocortical cancer. Surg Clin North Am; 2009 Oct;89(5):1255-67
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy causing up to 0.2% of all cancer deaths This article reviews the incidence, presentation, and pathology of ACC.
  • Particular attention is paid to the molecular oncogenesis of this disease, and the surgical and therapeutic options available for its cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19836496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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86. Cerquetti L, Sampaoli C, Amendola D, Bucci B, Misiti S, Raza G, De Paula U, Marchese R, Brunetti E, Toscano V, Stigliano A: Mitotane sensitizes adrenocortical cancer cells to ionizing radiations by involvement of the cyclin B1/CDK complex in G2 arrest and mismatch repair enzymes modulation. Int J Oncol; 2010 Aug;37(2):493-501
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mitotane sensitizes adrenocortical cancer cells to ionizing radiations by involvement of the cyclin B1/CDK complex in G2 arrest and mismatch repair enzymes modulation.
  • It also has a cytotoxic effect on the adrenocortical cells and represents a primary drug used in the adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • H295R and SW13 cell lines were treated with mitotane 10(-5) M and ionizing radiations (IR) in combination therapy, inducing an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • As shown in a previous report, mitotane/IR combination treatment induced a cell accumulation in the G2 phase.
  • Here, we report the radiosensitizing properties of mitotane in two different ACC cell lines.
  • Indeed, treatment with purvalanol, a cdc2-inhibitor prevents cell cycle arrest, triggering the G2/M transition.
  • The observation that mitotane and IR in combination treatment amplifies the activation level of cyclin B/cdc2 complexes contributing to cell cycle arrest, suggests that the MPF could function as a master signal for controlling the temporal order of different mitotic events.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / metabolism. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Mitotane / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / radiation effects. DNA Mismatch Repair / drug effects. DNA Mismatch Repair / physiology. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. G2 Phase / drug effects. G2 Phase / physiology. Humans. Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Purines / pharmacology. Radiation, Ionizing. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20596677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 6-((3-chloro)anilino)-2-(isopropyl-2-hydroxyethylamino)-9-isopropylpurine; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Purines; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinases; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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87. Coli A, Di Giorgio A, Castri F, Destito C, Marin AW, Bigotti G: Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland: A case report and review of literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Jan 15;206(1):59-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland: A case report and review of literature.
  • Reports about adrenocortical carcinomas (AC) mixed with sarcomatous areas are very rare.
  • Herein, we report a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland in a 75-year-old woman who presented with left abdominal pain of one month's standing.
  • The results of abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a large heterogeneous adrenal mass.
  • Histologically, the neoplasm showed areas of adrenocortical carcinoma and areas of sarcomatoid spindle cell proliferation.
  • Twelve months after removal of the primary tumor, the patient died of her disease.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma have been reported in the medical literature.
  • We review the reported cases according to the 2004 classification of the World Health Organization (WHO) of lung tumors, and highlight the histogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical course of this very aggressive tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19369012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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88. Balasubramaniam S, Fojo T: Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):619-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare, challenging disease with a broad range of clinical presentations.
  • Biopsies should be performed only when metastatic disease is present and a primary tumor has not been clearly established.
  • The use of mitotane in patients without evidence of disease remains controversial.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is effective in patients with widely metastatic disease or as an adjunct to a surgical intervention and should focus on regimens that have been shown to effect responses; "novel targeted therapies" should not be employed as first-line treatment.
  • Finally, physicians caring for these patients need to recognize that Cushing's disease is a debilitating problem that should be managed aggressively; expecting chemotherapy to solve this complication is not appropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 21167380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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89. Sudhakar MK, Kallarakkal JT, Damodharan J, Sahib K, Mahajan A, Kannan R: Sweet's syndrome preceding carcinoma of the adrenal cortex. J Indian Med Assoc; 2005 Aug;103(8):433-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sweet's syndrome preceding carcinoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • A case of Sweet's syndrome preceding carcinoma of the adrenal cortex is reported.
  • Sweet's syndrome can be a rare premalignant manifestation of carcinoma of adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sweet Syndrome / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16363199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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90. Kvacheniuk AN: [Surgical treatment of adrenocortical cancer: significance of systematic lymphodissection]. Klin Khir; 2008 Mar;(3):34-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of adrenocortical cancer: significance of systematic lymphodissection].
  • Comparative efficacy of radical methods of surgical intervention for adrenocortical cancer (ACC) with lymphodissection (LD) and without it was studied.

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  • (PMID = 18680995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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91. Soon PS, McDonald KL, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Oncologist; 2008 May;13(5):548-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenal tumors are common, with an estimated incidence of 7.3% in autopsy cases, while adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare, with an estimated prevalence of 4-12 per million population.
  • Because the prognoses for adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and ACCs are vastly different, it is important to be able to accurately differentiate the two tumor types.
  • Advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ACCs is essential for the development of more sensitive means of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in better clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) occur as a component of several hereditary tumor syndromes, which include the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1, Carney complex, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The adrenocorticotropic hormone-cAMP-protein kinase A and Wnt pathways are also implicated in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis, including results of comparative genomic hybridization, loss of heterozygosity, and microarray gene-expression profiling studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18515740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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92. Daffara F, De Francia S, Reimondo G, Zaggia B, Aroasio E, Porpiglia F, Volante M, Termine A, Di Carlo F, Dogliotti L, Angeli A, Berruti A, Terzolo M: Prospective evaluation of mitotane toxicity in adrenocortical cancer patients treated adjuvantly. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1043-53
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of mitotane toxicity in adrenocortical cancer patients treated adjuvantly.
  • Seventeen consecutive patients who were treated with mitotane after radical resection of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) from 1999 to 2005 underwent physical examination, routine laboratory evaluation, monitoring of mitotane concentrations, and a hormonal work-up at baseline and every 3 months till ACC relapse or study end (December 2007).
  • Mitotane affected adrenal steroidogenesis with a more remarkable inhibition of cortisol and DHEAS than aldosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18824557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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93. Libè R, Fratticci A, Bertherat J: Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):13-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • By contrast, benign adrenocortical tumors are frequent, underlying the importance of a correct diagnosis of malignancy of such tumors.
  • ACC can be diagnosed by the investigation of endocrine signs of steroid excess, symptoms due to tumor growth or an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Careful pathological investigation with the assessment of the Weiss score is important for the diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Tumors localized to the adrenal gland (McFarlane stages 1 and 2) have a better outcome than invasive and metastatic tumors (stages 3 and 4).
  • In patients with metastatic or progressive disease, medical treatment is started with mitotane that requires a close monitoring of its blood level.
  • Local treatment (radiofrequency, chemoembolization, and radiation therapy) can have some indications for metastatic disease.
  • In patients with disease progression cytotoxic chemotherapy can be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy


94. Matsuoka T, Morikage N, Kuga T, Nakayama T, Fujii Y: [Metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2005 Jun;58(6):499-503
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  • [Title] [Metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; report of a case].
  • A 69-year-old man had undertaken left upper lobectomy (ND 2 a) with partial resection of the left lower lobe under the diagnosis of a primary lung cancer, T2N0M0, stage IB in June, 2002.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), T3N0M0, stage IIB.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed an enhanced tumor in the left adrenal lesion, 3 cm in diameter, in October, 2003.
  • Although a prognosis of LCNEC is poor in general, we should consider the resection of metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from LCNEC for long-term survival expectantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15957427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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95. Aspinall SR, Imisairi AH, Bliss RD, Scott-Coombes D, Harrison BJ, Lennard TW: How is adrenocortical cancer being managed in the UK? Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2009 Sep;91(6):489-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] How is adrenocortical cancer being managed in the UK?
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare.
  • This case series is reported to give an overview of how adrenocortical carcinoma is currently managed in the UK.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was made of case notes from patients with adrenocortical carcinomas presenting to the authors (TWJL, RDB, BJH, and DS-C) over the past 10 years in Newcastle, Sheffield and Cardiff.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The size of tumour, stage and mode of presentation, age and overall survival of patients in this study are comparable to published series of adrenocortical carcinomas from major endocrine surgical centres world-wide.
  • The exact role of adjuvant therapy in the management of adrenocortical carcinoma is not as well established as for other more common malignancies.
  • Establishing a database for adrenocortical carcinomas in the UK would contribute to our understanding of the management of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19558758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Cytotoxins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2966201
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96. Bauditz J, Quinkler M, Beyersdorff D, Wermke W: Improved detection of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Oncol Rep; 2008 May;19(5):1135-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improved detection of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer by contrast-enhanced ultrasound.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and heterogeneous malignancy whose pathogenesis and poor prognosis is poorly understood.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely performed for the imaging of the adrenal mass and for standard staging of the chest and abdomen as the lung and liver are the primary organs for metastasis in ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Contrast Media / pharmacology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 18425368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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97. Lindhe O, Skogseid B: Mitotane effects in a H295R xenograft model of adjuvant treatment of adrenocortical cancer. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Sep;42(10):725-30
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  • [Title] Mitotane effects in a H295R xenograft model of adjuvant treatment of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is one of the most aggressive endocrine malignancies.
  • Growth through the capsule or accidental release of cancer cells during surgery frequently results in metastatic disease.
  • We investigated the antitumoral effect of 2 adrenocorticolytic compounds, O, P'-DDD and MeSO2-DDE, in the adrenocortical cell line H295R both in vitro and as a xenograft model in vivo.
  • O, P'-DDD, MeSO2-DDE, or oil (control) was administered i. p., either simultaneously with cell injection at day 0 (mimicking adjuvant treatment), or at day 48 (established tumors).
  • We suggest that FLT may be a potential PET biomarker when assessing adrenocortical cancer treatment with O,P'-DDD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / therapeutic use. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Aggregation / drug effects. Cell Count. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mice. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radioactive Tracers. Spheroids, Cellular / drug effects. Spheroids, Cellular / pathology. Time Factors. Tumor Burden / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20665429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0 / Radioactive Tracers; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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98. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • [Transliterated title] Pierwotny chłoniak w przypadkowo wykrytym guzie nadnercza.
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination and adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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99. Porpiglia F, Fiori C, Daffara F, Zaggia B, Bollito E, Volante M, Berruti A, Terzolo M: Retrospective evaluation of the outcome of open versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy for stage I and II adrenocortical cancer. Eur Urol; 2010 May;57(5):873-8
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  • [Title] Retrospective evaluation of the outcome of open versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy for stage I and II adrenocortical cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Although there is consensus that laparoscopy is the standard of care for the resection of benign adrenal tumours, there is controversy regarding the role of laparoscopy for the resection of adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to review the ACC database of the San Luigi Hospital to compare the oncologic effectiveness of open adrenalectomy (OA) versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in the treatment of patients with stage I and II ACC.
  • The "open group" consisted of patients treated with OA; the "lap group" consisted of patients treated with LA.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Oncologic effectiveness of the procedures was tested comparing the recurrence-free survival of patients treated with OA versus LA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present findings provide interesting evidence that OA and LA may be comparable in terms of recurrence-free survival for patients with stage I and II ACC when the principles of surgical oncology are respected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20137850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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100. Cantini G, Lombardi A, Piscitelli E, Poli G, Ceni E, Marchiani S, Ercolino T, Galli A, Serio M, Mannelli M, Luconi M: Rosiglitazone inhibits adrenocortical cancer cell proliferation by interfering with the IGF-IR intracellular signaling. PPAR Res; 2008;2008:904041
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  • [Title] Rosiglitazone inhibits adrenocortical cancer cell proliferation by interfering with the IGF-IR intracellular signaling.
  • We investigated RGZ effect on cell proliferation in two cell line models (SW13 and H295R) of human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and its interaction with the signaling pathways of the activated IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR).
  • We demonstrate a high expression of IGF-IR in the two cell lines and in ACC.
  • Cell proliferation is stimulated by IGF-I in a dose- and time-dependent manner and is inhibited by RGZ.
  • In conclusion, our results suggest that RGZ exerts an inhibitory effect on human ACC cell proliferation by interfering with the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways downstream of the activated IGF-IR.

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  • (PMID = 18670617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-4757
  • [Journal-full-title] PPAR research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PPAR Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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