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1. Cavlan D, Bharwani N, Grossman A: Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):638-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers.
  • Androgen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for only a tiny proportion of the total number of women presenting with signs of androgen excess.
  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are rarer still.
  • Understanding how these tumors work benefits from an appreciation of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, as it is said that secretion in cancers is an anarchic version of normal adrenal function.
  • Selection of patients in whom we should have a high suspicion of a malignancy is vital, so that biochemical investigation and imaging is deployed appropriately.
  • When an adrenal tumor is found to secrete androgens or estrogens to excess, it can be difficult to confirm that it is a cancer, as there is significant overlap in the secretory patterns and imaging appearances of benign and malignant disease.
  • The most reliable indicator of malignancy in these tumors remains the presence of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Estrogens / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Adult. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Virilism / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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2. Figueiredo BC, Sandrini R, Zambetti GP, Pereira RM, Cheng C, Liu W, Lacerda L, Pianovski MA, Michalkiewicz E, Jenkins J, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Mastellaro MJ, Vianna S, Watanabe F, Sandrini F, Arram SB, Boffetta P, Ribeiro RC: Penetrance of adrenocortical tumours associated with the germline TP53 R337H mutation. J Med Genet; 2006 Jan;43(1):91-6
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  • BACKGROUND: An inherited germline P53 mutation has been identified in cases of childhood adrenocortical carcinoma (ACT), a neoplasm with a high incidence in southern Brazil.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The TP53 R337H mutation dramatically increases predisposition to childhood ACT but not to other cancers, and explains the increased frequency of ACT observed in this geographic region.

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  • (PMID = 16033918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-6244
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Genet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-71907
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2564508
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3. Abiraterone acetate. Drugs R D; 2010;10(4):261-9
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  • Abiraterone acetate (CB 7630; CB7630; JNJ-212082), the 3β-acetate prodrug of abiraterone, is structurally related to ketoconazole and is being developed by Cougar Biotechnology as a hormonal therapy for advanced prostate and breast cancers.
  • As a selective inhibitor of adrenal androgens, it is thought to be a safer product than existing second-line hormonal therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Androstadienes / pharmacology. Androstadienes / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Drugs, Investigational / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prodrugs / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21171672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-6901
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs in R&D
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs R D
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Androstadienes; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Drugs, Investigational; 0 / Prodrugs; EM5OCB9YJ6 / Abiraterone Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3586139
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4. Ozben B, Papila N, Tanrikulu MA, Bayalan F, Fak AS, Oktay A: Inferior vena caval tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium in a patient with pancreatic cancer. J Thromb Thrombolysis; 2007 Dec;24(3):317-21
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  • [Title] Inferior vena caval tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium in a patient with pancreatic cancer.
  • Venous thromboembolism is a common complication in patients with cancer and an important cause of morbidity and mortality.
  • Idiopathic thrombosis, migratory or recurrent thrombophlebitis may be the first manifestation of an occult malignancy.
  • While deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are the most common thrombotic conditions in patients with malignant disease, tumor thrombus may be seen in inferior vena cava, mainly in patients with renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, testicular tumors or adrenal carcinoma.
  • Although pancreatic cancer is one of the cancers that are most strongly associated with thrombotic complications along with cancers of ovary and brain, there has been no report about presence of thrombus in the inferior vena cava in pancreatic cancer.
  • We report a female patient with pancreatic cancer associated with tumor thrombus extending from the inferior vena cava to the right atrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology. Venous Thromboembolism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17483876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-5305
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thromb. Thrombolysis
  • [Language] eng
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  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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5. Chen ML, Xu PZ, Peng XD, Chen WS, Guzman G, Yang X, Di Cristofano A, Pandolfi PP, Hay N: The deficiency of Akt1 is sufficient to suppress tumor development in Pten+/- mice. Genes Dev; 2006 Jun 15;20(12):1569-74
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  • [Title] The deficiency of Akt1 is sufficient to suppress tumor development in Pten+/- mice.
  • The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently inactivated in human cancers.
  • Here we showed that the deficiency of Akt1 is sufficient to dramatically inhibit tumor development in Pten+/- mice.
  • Akt1 deficiency had a profound effect on endometrium and prostate neoplasia, two types of human cancer, in which PTEN is frequently mutated, and also affected thyroid and adrenal medulla tumors and intestinal polyps.
  • Even haplodeficiency of Akt1 was sufficient to markedly attenuate the development of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and endometrial carcinoma.
  • These results have significant implications for cancer therapy.


6. Yang JY, Yang MQ, Luo Z, Ma Y, Li J, Deng Y, Huang X: A hybrid machine learning-based method for classifying the Cushing's Syndrome with comorbid adrenocortical lesions. BMC Genomics; 2008;9 Suppl 1:S23
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  • BACKGROUND: The prognosis for many cancers could be improved dramatically if they could be detected while still at the microscopic disease stage.
  • It follows from a comprehensive statistical analysis that a number of antigens such as hTERT, PCNA and Ki-67 can be considered as cancer markers, while another set of antigens such as P27KIP1 and FHIT are possible markers for normal tissue.
  • Because more than one marker must be considered to obtain a classification of cancer or no cancer, and if cancer, to classify it as malignant, borderline, or benign, we must develop an intelligent decision system that can fullfill such an unmet medical need.
  • We provided statistical evidence that higher expression levels of hTERT, PCNA and Ki-67 etc. are associated with a higher risk that the tumors are malignant or borderline as opposed to benign.
  • While no significant difference was found between cell-arrest antigens such as P27KIP1 for malignant, borderline, and benign tumors, there was a significant difference between expression levels of such antigens in normal adrenal medulla samples and in adrenomedullary tumors.
  • This research has many potential applications; it might provide an alternative diagnostic tool and a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in malignant transformation as well as information that is useful for treatment planning and cancer prevention.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / classification


7. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.
  • Conversion to an open procedure should be an early decision, prior to tumor morcellation or fracture of the tumor capsule.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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8. Wakshlag JJ, McNeill CJ, Antonyak MA, Boehm JE, Fuji R, Balkman CE, Zgola M, Cerione RA, Page RL: Expression and activity of transglutaminase II in spontaneous tumours of dogs and cats. J Comp Pathol; 2006 Feb-Apr;134(2-3):202-10
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  • Bladder, liver and adrenal gland exhibited prominent expression of TGase II while other tissues, including mammary gland, displayed limited expression and activity.
  • Thus, TGase II was significantly expressed in mammary cancers from dogs and cats and immunoreactivity of TGase II was similar to that reported in humans beings.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Animal / enzymology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / enzymology. Transglutaminases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Blotting, Western / veterinary. Cats. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dogs. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / veterinary. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect / veterinary. Hyperplasia / enzymology. Hyperplasia / pathology. Hyperplasia / veterinary. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16615935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9975
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM61762
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 2.3.2.- / transglutaminase 2; EC 2.3.2.13 / Transglutaminases; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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9. van Duursen MB, Nijmeijer SM, Ruchirawat S, van den Berg M: Chemopreventive actions by enterolactone and 13 VIOXX-related lactone derivatives in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Toxicol Lett; 2010 Feb 15;192(3):271-7
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  • Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17) has been linked to various hormone-related diseases, including breast cancer, thus being a potential target for cancer chemoprevention.
  • We conclude that the proposed cancer chemopreventive actions of ENL are not mediated through interaction with CYP17 or cell cycle status.
  • Of the VIOXX-related lactone derivatives, CRI-7 could prove useful in the prevention of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer, since in vitro it shows low cytotoxicity, it is a potent inhibitor of CYP17 activity and strong inducer of cell cycle arrest.
  • [MeSH-major] 4-Butyrolactone / analogs & derivatives. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / enzymology. Lactones / pharmacology. Lignans / pharmacology. Phytoestrogens / pharmacology. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / drug effects. Sulfones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Induction / drug effects. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / prevention & control. Protein Processing, Post-Translational / drug effects. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19913079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3169
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Lignans; 0 / Phytoestrogens; 0 / Sulfones; 0QTW8Z7MCR / rofecoxib; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases; OL659KIY4X / 4-Butyrolactone; X01E7E1D6H / 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone
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10. Thiboutot DM, Harper JC, O'Connell K, Rich P, Sondheimer SJ: Improving outcomes through collaboration. Cutis; 2008 Jan;81(1 Suppl):26-31
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  • Although PCOS is often the source of the problem, it is important to rule out a testosterone-producing tumor or an adrenal tumor.
  • It was determined, however, that the perception that OCs cause cervical and breast cancer persists among some dermatologists.
  • Even in women with a family history of breast cancer, OCs do not increase the risk.
  • Nor is cervical cancer related to OC use; rather, it results from human papillomavirus.
  • Thus, patients should be assured that OCs will not increase their risk for either of these cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acne Vulgaris / drug therapy. Acne Vulgaris / epidemiology. Acne Vulgaris / etiology. Affect / drug effects. Female. Genital Diseases, Female / diagnosis. Humans. Hyperandrogenism / complications. Hyperandrogenism / drug therapy. Libido / drug effects. Patient Education as Topic. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / complications. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / drug therapy. Sex Factors. Weight Gain / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18340677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral
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11. Kumanov P, Nandipati KC, Tomova A, Robeva R, Agarwal A: Significance of inhibin in reproductive pathophysiology and current clinical applications. Reprod Biomed Online; 2005 Jun;10(6):786-812
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  • Inhibin concentrations are elevated in patients with granulosa cell tumours and in post-menopausal women with mucinous ovarian cancers.
  • Immunoreactivity against the inhibin alpha-subunit was identified in all cases of adrenal cortical adenoma and carcinoma, and levels are suppressed in the malignant prostate disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Activins / chemistry. Activins / metabolism. Adult. Age Factors. Chromosomes, Human, Y. Exocrine Glands / metabolism. Female. Fertilization in Vitro / methods. Follistatin / chemistry. Follistatin / metabolism. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Menstrual Cycle / physiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / physiopathology. Pregnancy. Sequence Deletion. alpha-Macroglobulins / chemistry. alpha-Macroglobulins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15970011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6483
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biomedicine online
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biomed. Online
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Follistatin; 0 / alpha-Macroglobulins; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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12. El Bahri DM, Meddeb N, Sellami S: [Rheumatoid arthritis: current status of therapy]. Tunis Med; 2007 Jan;85(1):1-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Actualités thérapeutiques de la polyarthrite rhumatoïde.
  • Recent advances in the field of immunopathology of RA have oriented treatment targeting the pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin (IL) and IL6.
  • However, before any biotherapy prescription especially of anti-TNF-alpha, an initial screening should be achieved to exclude patients with history of untreated tuberculosis, solid cancers, malignant hemopathies or demyelinating disorders.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adalimumab. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Animals. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / adverse effects. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antirheumatic Agents / administration & dosage. Antirheumatic Agents / adverse effects. Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Biological Therapy / adverse effects. Biological Therapy / methods. Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease Models, Animal. Etanercept. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / administration & dosage. Immunoglobulin G / adverse effects. Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Infliximab. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein / administration & dosage. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein / adverse effects. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein / therapeutic use. Interleukin-1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / administration & dosage. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use. Risk Assessment. Spondylarthropathies / drug therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 17424701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab; FYS6T7F842 / Adalimumab; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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13. Selcer KW, Difrancesca HM, Chandra AB, Li PK: Immunohistochemical analysis of steroid sulfatase in human tissues. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2007 Jun-Jul;105(1-5):115-23
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  • This enzyme is best known for its role in estrogen production via the fetal adrenal-placental pathway during pregnancy; however, it also has important functions in other physiological and pathological steroid pathways.
  • The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of steroid sulfatase in normal human tissues and in breast cancers using immunohistochemistry, employing a newly developed steroid sulfatase antibody.
  • The antiserum also crossreacted with single protein bands in Western blots of microsomes from two human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and from rat liver; however, there were some size differences in the immunoreactive bands among tissues.
  • ER+/PR+ breast cancers also showed relatively strong levels of steroid sulfatase immunoreactivity.
  • Normal human breast showed moderate levels of steroid sulfatase immunoreactivity, while ER-/PR- breast cancer showed weak immunoreactivity.
  • This confirms previous reports that steroid sulfatase is higher in hormone-dependent breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17604157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.6.2 / Steryl-Sulfatase
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14. Jurczyńska J, Zieleniewski W, Stepień H, Komorowski J: Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in adrenal tumours. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Nov-Dec;57(6):633-40
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  • [Title] Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in adrenal tumours.
  • It appears that neoangiogenesis is an important factor in tumour invasion and the formation of metastases in several human cancers, and studies on pro-angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors are therefore of considerable interest to researchers.
  • In this review we present pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors and other growth factors and their role in the formation of new blood vessels in adrenal tumours.
  • Assessment of the angiogenic status of adrenal tumours and their vascular pattern may be useful for discriminating benign from malignant lesions and knowledge of their angiogenesis may be essential to the drawing up of promising treatment strategies for patients with malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / metabolism. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17253437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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15. Baston E, Leroux FR: Inhibitors of steroidal cytochrome p450 enzymes as targets for drug development. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov; 2007 Jan;2(1):31-58
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  • It catalyzes the last step of the androgen biosynthesis in the testes and adrenal glands and produces androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone from progesterone and pregnenolone.
  • Estrogens stimulate tumor growth in hormone dependent breast cancer.
  • In addition, about 80 percent of prostate cancers are androgen dependent.

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  • (PMID = 18221052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1574-8928
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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16. Pawlikowski M, Winczyk K, Sledź B: Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(1):51-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors.
  • Angiotensin II is well known to affect the adrenal cell growth and function.
  • Angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 were found to be present in the normal adrenal gland.
  • However, the data on the expression of the angiotensin receptors in the adrenal tumors are very scarce.
  • To overcome this gap, the paraffin sections of the adrenal cortical tumors and of pheochromocytomas from the archival material were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 (sc-1173) and AT2 (sc-9040) receptor proteins.
  • In hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and in benign adrenocortical adenomas, both functioning and non-functioning, the AT1 immunostaining was present mainly in the cell membranes.
  • In the adrenal cancer, as well as in pheochromocytomas, neither cell membranes nor cell nuclei were immunostained with anti-AT1 antibody.
  • Our data indicates that the expression of AT1 receptors is altered in adrenal cancer and in pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18296263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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17. Pittavini L, De Gaetano A, Solano G, Losito A: Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma. J Nephrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):614-6
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  • [Title] Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.
  • The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma.
  • This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications


18. Degraff DJ, Aguiar AA, Sikes RA: Disease evidence for IGFBP-2 as a key player in prostate cancer progression and development of osteosclerotic lesions. Am J Transl Res; 2009 Jan 20;1(2):115-30
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  • [Title] Disease evidence for IGFBP-2 as a key player in prostate cancer progression and development of osteosclerotic lesions.
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that alterations in the IGF axis contribute to the development of chemo- and radio-resistant, advanced-stage cancers.
  • New evidence indicates that the IGFBPs, irrespective of ligand interactions, correlate with the development and metastatic behavior of several cancers.
  • Increased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) is found in advanced cancers of the ovary, breast, stomach, adrenal gland, bladder, CNS, and prostate.
  • Further, IGFBP-2 seemingly has ligand-independent effects that participate in the development and dissemination of advanced cancer cells.
  • As such, IGFBP-2 can assist in the development of the lethal phenotype for some cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19956425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-8141
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of translational research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Transl Res
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2776314
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Insulin-like growth factor, IGF / androgen insensitivity, AI / androgen sensitive, AS / neoplasm, bone, metastasis / prostate cancer, PCa
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19. Stelow EB, Debol SM, Stanley MW, Mallery S, Lai R, Bardales RH: Sampling of the adrenal glands by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Jul;33(1):26-30
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  • [Title] Sampling of the adrenal glands by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has proven to be a valuable modality for the primary diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal, and perigastrointestinal malignancy.
  • Aside from assessing thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes and the liver for metastases, EUS can assess and sample the adrenal glands, which are frequently involved by metastatic disease, but can also harbor benign primary neoplasms.
  • The cytology files at our institution were reviewed for all cases of EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal glands.
  • Results were compared with overall EUS-guided FNA performance and the performance of non-EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal.
  • Between 1/1/00 and 5/15/04 there were 24 cases of EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal gland from 22 different patients (13 men; 9 women) at our institution.
  • This represented 1.4% of overall EUS-guided FNA and 77% of adrenal gland FNA.
  • Most patients had other cancers or mass lesions and were being staged at the time of the procedure (19 of 22).
  • Almost all FNAs were of the left adrenal gland (23 of 24).
  • Final diagnoses were as follows: cortical tissue consistent with cortical adenoma (19), metastatic adenocarcinoma (3), pheochromocytoma (1), and adrenal cortical carcinoma (1).
  • EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal gland is primarily used in the staging of other malignancies when lesions of the left adrenal are recognized sonographically.
  • Diagnostic tissue is easily obtained, including material for cell block IHC, which allows definitive diagnosis in cases that present difficult differential diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endosonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 15945088.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Novara G, Ficarra V, Antonelli A, Artibani W, Bertini R, Carini M, Cosciani Cunico S, Imbimbo C, Longo N, Martignoni G, Martorana G, Minervini A, Mirone V, Montorsi F, Schiavina R, Simeone C, Serni S, Simonato A, Siracusano S, Volpe A, Carmignani G, SATURN Project-LUNA Foundation: Validation of the 2009 TNM version in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients treated for renal cell carcinoma: are further improvements needed? Eur Urol; 2010 Oct;58(4):588-95
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  • [Title] Validation of the 2009 TNM version in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients treated for renal cell carcinoma: are further improvements needed?
  • BACKGROUND: A new edition of the TNM was recently released that includes modifications for the staging system of kidney cancers.
  • Specifically, T2 cancers were subclassified into T2a and T2b (< or =10 cm vs >10 cm), tumors with renal vein involvement or perinephric fat involvement were classified as T3a cancers, and those with adrenal involvement were classified as T4 cancers.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to validate the recently released edition of the TNM staging system for primary tumor classification in kidney cancer.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models addressed cancer-specific survival (CSS) after surgery.
  • In multivariable analysis, the novel classification of the primary tumor was a powerful independent predictor of CSS (p for trend <0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The recently released seventh edition of the primary tumor staging system for kidney tumors is a powerful predictor of CSS.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2011 Apr;185(4):1223 [22115474.001]
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Oct;58(4):517-9; discussion 519-21 [20728266.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Eur Urol. 2011 Jan;59(1):182. Schiavina, Roberto [corrected to Schiavina, Riccardo]
  • (PMID = 20674150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Investigator] De Cobelli O; Schiavina R; Antonelli A; Corti S; Cosciani Cunico S; Simeone C; Castelli M; Cimino S; Favilla V; Morgia G; Billia M; Terrone C; Volpe A; Imbimbo C; Longo N; Mirone V; Carini M; Masieri L; Minervini A; Serni S; Carmignani G; Oneto F; Simonato A; Varca V; Rocco F; Artibani W; Ficarra V; Novara G; Costantini E; Porena M; Zucchi A; Morgia G; Ciciliato S; Lampropoulou N; Siracusano S; Fontana D; Gontero P; Tizzani A; Brunelli M; Martignoni G; Valotto C; Zattoni F
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21. Bowes T, Singh B, Gupta RS: Subcellular localization of fumarase in mammalian cells and tissues. Histochem Cell Biol; 2007 Mar;127(3):335-46
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  • In thin sections from kidney, liver, heart, adrenal gland and anterior pituitary, strong and specific labeling due to fumarase antibody was only detected in mitochondria.
  • Although the cellular function of fumarase at these extramitochondrial locations is not known, the appearance/localization of fumarase outside mitochondria may help explain how mutations in this mitochondrial protein can give rise to a number of different types of cancers.

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  • (PMID = 17111171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-6143
  • [Journal-full-title] Histochemistry and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indicators and Reagents; EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase; KOO5CM684H / Digitonin
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22. Freddi S, Arnaldi G, Fazioli F, Scarpelli M, Appolloni G, Mancini T, Kola B, Bertagna X, Mantero F, Collu R, Boscaro M: Expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor splicing variants in human primary adrenocortical tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 May;62(5):533-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: Several splice variants (SVs) of GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) have been identified in various human cancers through which GHRH antagonists may exert their IGF-II-mediated antiproliferative action.
  • Because the overexpression of the IGF-II gene is a frequent feature of adrenal carcinoma, we searched for the presence of GHRH-R SVs in these tumours.
  • SV2 was detected in five of 24 cancers examined, whereas the incidence of SV1 and SV4 was lower.
  • No PCR products for SV3 or wild-type GHRH-R were found in carcinomas; mRNA for wild-type GHRH-R or SVs of GHRH-R were not observed either in adenomas or in normal adrenal or in NCI-H295R cells.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first time that the expression of splice variants of GHRH-R has been demonstrated in human adrenal carcinoma.
  • This study raises the possibility that splice variants might play a role in adrenal carcinogenesis and might offer the possibility for new therapeutic strategies at least in a subgroup of adrenal carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Alternative Splicing. Carcinoma / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics. Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15853821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 0 / Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone; 0 / somatotropin releasing hormone receptor
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23. Nadeau ME, Kaartinen MJ, Laguë MN, Paquet M, Huneault LM, Boerboom D: A mouse surgical model for metastatic ovarian granulosa cell tumor. Comp Med; 2009 Dec;59(6):553-6
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  • [Title] A mouse surgical model for metastatic ovarian granulosa cell tumor.
  • However, because the primary tumors killed their hosts before metastases were able to form, the use of these mice to study metastatic disease required the development of a simple, reliable, and humane surgical protocol for the excision of large GCTs from debilitated mice.
  • Here we describe a protocol involving multimodal anesthesia, tumor removal through ventral midline celiotomy and perioperative fluid therapy, and analgesia that led to the postoperative survival of more than 90% of mice, despite the removal of tumors representing as much as 10% of the animal's body weight.
  • Intraabdominal recurrence of the GCT did not occur in surviving animals, but most developed pulmonary or adrenal metastases (or both) by 12 wk after surgery.
  • Furthermore, our results delineate anesthetic and surgical principles for the removal of large abdominal tumors from mice that will be applicable to other models of human cancers.

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  • [Cites] Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2001 Jan;4(1):169-91 [11217459.001]
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  • (PMID = 20034430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0820
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2798836
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24. Lachenmayer A, Lichtenauer UD, Cox T, Schott M, Malendowicz LK, Goretzki PE, Cupisti K, Scherbaum WA, Bornstein SR, Willenberg HS: Nestin as a marker in the classification of adrenocortical tumors. Horm Metab Res; 2009 May;41(5):397-401
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  • Since adrenocortical carcinoma, a tumor entity still very difficult to classify, may gain the ability to aberrantly express neuroectodermal proteins including chromogranin A and synaptophysin, we asked the question whether nestin might also be detected in adrenocortical carcinomas, and if so, whether it might serve as a tool for clinical pathology.
  • Therefore, we studied the expression of nestin in normal adrenal glands, adrenocortical adenomas, and adrenocortical cancers using specific immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
  • Immunostaining was nestin-positive in 1 out of 9 normal adrenal glands (11%), 2 out of 20 adrenocortical adenomas (10%), and 13 out of 16 adrenocortical carcinomas (81%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / classification. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nestin

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  • (PMID = 19294612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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25. Advani A, Johnson SJ, Nicol MR, Papacleovoulou G, Evans DB, Vaikkakara S, Mason JI, Quinton R: Adult-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by aberrant expression of aromatase in an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma. Endocr J; 2010;57(7):651-6
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  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare, with feminizing symptoms attributed to aromatase expression in the adrenal tumor.
  • A right adrenal mass was identified on CT scanning and the patient underwent an open adrenalectomy.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the adrenal cancer confirmed aberrant expression of aromatase in most, although not all, carcinoma cells.
  • Transcripts associated with utilization of promoters II, I.1 and I.3 were prominently represented in the tumor aromatase mRNA.
  • This case highlights that clinical features of feminizing adrenocortical carcinomas can be secondary to estrogen production by aberrantly transcribed and translated aromatase within the tumor.
  • The diagnosis of adrenocortical adenocarcinoma should be considered in men presenting with low testosterone and gonadotropins, particularly in the presence of feminizing features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aromatase / genetics. Hypogonadism / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20467160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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26. Ohta S, Lai EW, Morris JC, Bakan DA, Klaunberg B, Cleary S, Powers JF, Tischler AS, Abu-Asab M, Schimel D, Pacak K: MicroCT for high-resolution imaging of ectopic pheochromocytoma tumors in the liver of nude mice. Int J Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;119(9):2236-41
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  • Successful outcomes for patients with cancer often depend on the early detection of tumor and the prompt initiation of active therapy.
  • Despite major advances in the treatment of many cancers, early-stage lesions often go undetected due to the suboptimal resolution of current anatomical and functional imaging modalities.
  • This limitation also applies to preclinical animal tumor models that are crucial for the evaluation and development of new therapeutic approaches to cancer.
  • Furthermore, we show that in vivo microCT imaging enhanced using a hepatobiliary-specific contrast agent, glyceryl-2-oleyl-1,3-di-7-(3-amino-2,4,6-triiodophenyl)-heptanoate (DHOG), detected tumors as small as 0.35 mm as early as 4 weeks after the injection of the tumor cells.
  • This model may be useful for in vivo studies of tumor biology and for development of new strategies to treat metastatic pheochromocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 16841334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037685; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS 37685
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS43416; NLM/ PMC2288741
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27. Wolkersdörfer GW, Marx C, Brown J, Schröder S, Füssel M, Rieber EP, Kuhlisch E, Ehninger G, Bornstein SR: Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1768-74
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  • A distinctive feature of malignant adrenocortical neoplasms is decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression.
  • Therefore, MHC class II phenotype and genotype and expression patterns of the Fas/Fas ligand system were investigated in 24 adrenocortical tumors (n(Adenomas) = 14, n(Carcinomas) = 10) and an adrenal cancer cell line (NCI-H295).
  • In summary, the DRB1*01 genotype may be correlated to a higher risk for malignancy.
  • Additional studies on MHC class II genotype and phenotype and the altered Fas/Fas ligand system in adrenal neoplasms may help to identify mechanisms of immune escape and suggest new diagnostic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15585555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DRB1 Chains; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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28. Katanoda K, Hayashi K, Yamamoto K, Sobue T: Secular trends in neuroblastoma mortality before and after the cessation of national mass screening in Japan. J Epidemiol; 2009;19(5):266-70
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  • METHODS: Utilizing vital statistics data from 1980 through 2006, we analyzed the secular trends in NB mortality by using cancer of the adrenal gland as a surrogate.
  • RESULTS: The number of deaths from cancer of the adrenal gland was closely correlated with the number of deaths from NB.


29. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
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  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer with unknown aetiology.
  • Constitutive activation of beta-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Over a 17 months time course, transgenic adrenals developed malignant characteristics such as uncontrolled neovascularization and loco-regional metastatic invasion.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Metastasis


30. Yoon M, Kim S: Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT. Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Sep;44(3):230-1
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT.
  • We present the case of a 42-year-old man who had experienced intermittent left flank pain for a month.
  • Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) showed intense uptake in the retroperitoneal mass, which mimicked an adrenal cancer.
  • The patient underwent left radical nephroadrenalectomy, and the tumor was revealed to be a pleomorphic liposarcoma upon pathological examination.
  • When there is a large retroperitoneal mass with intense F-18 FDG activity, the possibility of a pleomorphic liposarcoma should be considered.

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  • (PMID = 24899957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1869-3474
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4042936
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal cancer / F-18 FDG / Liposarcoma / PET/CT / Pleomorphic / Retroperitoneal
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31. Bergheim I, McClain CJ, Arteel GE: Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Dig Dis; 2005;23(3-4):275-84
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  • For example, the Veterans Administration Cooperative Studies reported that patients with cirrhosis and superimposed alcoholic hepatitis had a 4-year mortality of >60% (worse than many common cancers such as breast and prostate).

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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  • (PMID = 16508292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0257-2753
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA003624-26; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA003624-26; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA003624-27A1; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA003624-27A1; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA003624
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; SD6QCT3TSU / Pentoxifylline
  • [Number-of-references] 82
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS88322; NLM/ PMC2636549
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32. Hamid T, Malik MT, Millar RP, Kakar SS: Protein kinase A serves as a primary pathway in activation of Nur77 expression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the LbetaT2 mouse pituitary gonadotroph tumor cell line. Int J Oncol; 2008 Nov;33(5):1055-64
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  • [Title] Protein kinase A serves as a primary pathway in activation of Nur77 expression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the LbetaT2 mouse pituitary gonadotroph tumor cell line.
  • It plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including regulation of signaling functions in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, regulation of thymocyte apoptosis, regulation of steroidogenesis and regulation of tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis.
  • In addition to pituitary, the presence of GnRH high affinity receptors has been reported in various cancers and cancer cell lines.
  • In addition, GnRH and its analogs are clinically used in the treatment of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Gonadotrophs / enzymology. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / enzymology. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism. Signal Transduction
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Chelating Agents / pharmacology. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme Activators / pharmacology. Mice. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Time Factors. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18949369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U127681325; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA60871
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chelating Agents; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Enzyme Activators; 0 / Nr4a1 protein, mouse; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 79561-22-1 / LHRH, Ala(6)-Gly(10)-ethylamide-; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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33. Gola M, Doga M, Bonadonna S, Mazziotti G, Vescovi PP, Giustina A: Neuroendocrine tumors secreting growth hormone-releasing hormone: Pathophysiological and clinical aspects. Pituitary; 2006;9(3):221-9
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  • Excessive peripheral production of GHRH by a tumor source would therefore be expected to cause somatotroph cell hyperstimulation, increased GH secretion and eventually pituitary acromegaly.
  • Immunoreactive GHRH is present in several tumors, including carcinoid tumors, pancreatic cell tumors, small cell lung cancers, endometrial tumors, adrenal adenomas, and pheochromocytomas which have been reported to secrete GHRH.
  • Unique and unexpected clinical features in an acromegalic patient, including respiratory wheezing or dyspnea, facial flushing, peptic ulcers, or renal stones sometimes are helpful in alerting the physician to diagnosing non pituitary endocrine tumors.
  • Surgical resection of the tumor secreting ectopic GHRH should be the logical approach to a patient with ectopic GHRH syndrome.
  • In fact, long-acting somatostatin analogs may be able to control not only the ectopic hormonal secretion syndrome, but also, in some instances, tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / secretion. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secretion. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17036195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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34. Rice JM: The carcinogenicity of acrylamide. Mutat Res; 2005 Feb 7;580(1-2):3-20
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  • In two bioassays in rats, acrylamide administered in drinking water consistently induced peritesticular mesotheliomas, thyroid follicular cell tumors, and mammary gland tumors, as well as primary brain tumors when all such tumors were included in data analysis.
  • In one of the rat bioassays, increased numbers of adrenal pheochromocytomas, adenomas of pituitary and clitoral glands, papillomas of the oral cavity, and adenocarcinomas of the uterus also occurred.
  • Epidemiologic studies of possible health effects from exposures to acrylamide have not produced consistent evidence of increased cancer risk, in either occupationally exposed workers or the general populations of several countries in which acrylamide is present in certain foods and beverages.
  • A doubling of risk for pancreatic cancer was observed in the most highly exposed workers within the largest industrial cohort, but no consistent exposure-response relationships were identified.
  • Retrospective re-analyses of previously conducted case-control studies of cancer incidence in several European populations have identified no causal relationship between consumption of foods or beverages that contain acrylamide and the incidence of cancers at various sites including kidney, large bowel, urinary bladder, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, breast, and ovary.
  • These retrospective studies of cancer incidence in relation to acrylamide in food have limited power to detect increased cancer risks, and have been criticized on various grounds, but they do indicate that no major cancer risks are attributable to intake of acrylamide in Western diets.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylamide. Carcinogens. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Food Contamination. Humans. Neoplasms, Experimental / chemically induced. Risk

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  • (PMID = 15668103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 20R035KLCI / Acrylamide
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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35. Owecki M, Majewska KA, Stawny B, Nikisch E, Drews M, Sowiński J: [Adrenal tumours in a selected 10-years surgical material]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2006 Jun;20(120):678-81
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumours in a selected 10-years surgical material].
  • The aim of the study was to analyze the number and proportions of different adrenal tumours resected during the last 10 years in our centre.
  • In 45 (65.22%) cases the right adrenal was affected, in 21 (30.43%)--the left, in 3 (4.35%)--both.
  • RESULTS: 12 adrenocortical cancers, 20 phaeochromocytomas, 9 cortisol-secreting adenomas, 4 aldosteronomas, 18 hormonally inactive adenomas, 6 miscellaneous tumours were found.
  • Malignant tumours where significantly larger than benign (12.20 +/- 6.81 vs 6.71 +/- 5.62 cm, p < 0.005).
  • We observed no correlation between the age and preoperative tumor size (p = 0.1756), between the age and pathological tumor size (p = 0.3601), and between BMI and the preoperative and histopathologic size (p = 0.4204, and p = 0.6478, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most common tumour was phaeochromocytoma.
  • Most tumours where found in the right adrenal.
  • The malignant tumours where larger than benign ones.
  • No correlations between age and BMI, and tumour size where demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17007266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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36. Lodish MB, Stratakis CA: Rare and unusual endocrine cancer syndromes with mutated genes. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):680-90
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  • [Title] Rare and unusual endocrine cancer syndromes with mutated genes.
  • The study of a number of rare familial syndromes associated with endocrine tumor development has led to the identification of genes involved in the development of these tumors.
  • Major advances have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of these rare endocrine tumors, resulting in the elucidation of causative genes in rare familial diseases and a better understanding of the signaling pathways implicated in endocrine cancers.
  • Recognition of the familial syndrome associated with a particular patient's endocrine tumor has important implications in terms of prognosis, screening of family members, and screening for associated conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / diagnosis. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carney Complex / diagnosis. Carney Complex / genetics. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / genetics. Humans. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics. Rare Diseases

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21167385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS246989; NLM/ PMC3053053
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37. Brown KL, Bacal D: Large adrenocortical carcinoma. J Natl Med Assoc; 2009 Dec;101(12):1287-90
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  • Adrenal cortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare, highly malignant tumors that carry a poor prognosis.
  • We present a patient who underwent successful resection of a massive 19-cm, nonfunctional ACC, which encased the right kidney.
  • The goal of this report is to enrich the growing body of knowledge concerning the presentation, evaluation, and surgical intervention of these rare cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20070018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Papewalis C, Kouatchoua C, Wuttke M, Jacobs B, Scherbaum WA, Schott M: Chromogranin a as potential tumour antigen in pheochromocytoma. Horm Metab Res; 2009 Sep;41(9):707-9
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  • [Title] Chromogranin a as potential tumour antigen in pheochromocytoma.
  • Importantly, in vitro studies demonstrated the presence of naturally occurring CgA-specific cytotoxic T cells in patients with neuroendocrine cancers.
  • Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate the potential role of CgA as tumour antigen in pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Chromogranin A / immunology. Pheochromocytoma / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19370504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Chromogranin A
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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39. Johnsen JI, Lindskog M, Ponthan F, Pettersen I, Elfman L, Orrego A, Sveinbjörnsson B, Kogner P: NSAIDs in neuroblastoma therapy. Cancer Lett; 2005 Oct 18;228(1-2):195-201
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  • COX-2 is upregulated in several adult epithelial cancers.
  • In neuroblastoma it has been shown that the majority of primary tumours and cell lines express high levels of COX-2, whereas normal adrenal medullas from children do not express COX-2.

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  • (PMID = 15975708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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41. Leboeuf R, Bénard F, Langlois MF: Thyroid cancer presenting as a PET incidentaloma in a patient with concomitant breast cancer metastases to the thyroid. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Jul;31(7):382-5
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  • [Title] Thyroid cancer presenting as a PET incidentaloma in a patient with concomitant breast cancer metastases to the thyroid.
  • INTRODUCTION: Metastases to the thyroid gland are considered a rare cause of thyroid tumor.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe the case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with simultaneous papillary and breast carcinoma within the thyroid gland.
  • F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) done for the evaluation of her metastatic breast cancer revealed a thyroid incidentaloma with a high metabolic rate (standardized uptake value [SUV] of 13).
  • CONCLUSION: This is a rare description of a concomitant papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an FDG PET incidentaloma alongside breast cancer metastases to the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid and breast cancer sometimes occur in the same patient.
  • However, no explanation has been found to link these 2 cancers.
  • Although uncommon, FDG PET thyroid incidentalomas seem to harbor a higher rate of malignancy than incidentalomas found on conventional imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Estrogens. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / secondary. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mastectomy, Segmental. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / radiography. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16785803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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42. Paliutko IuI, Gakhramanov AD: [Successful surgical treatment of adrenal cancer with repeated metastasis]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2008;(12):51-3
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  • [Title] [Successful surgical treatment of adrenal cancer with repeated metastasis].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy / methods. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19938263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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43. Kato M, Higashihara E: [Urological cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Sep;32(9):1255-9
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  • [Title] [Urological cancer].
  • We reported laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer, our experience of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, radical prostatectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Nephrectomy. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16184920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2007 Mar;42(3):170-8
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  • [Title] [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Anästhesie bei Erkrankungen der Nebennierenrinde--Effizientes Risikomanagement von der Prämedikation bis zum Aufwachraum.
  • Perioperative management of patients with adrenal gland diseases requires detailed information on the individual endocrine status and the potential complications.
  • Addison's disease, after removal of a cortisol producing tumour or as the result of long-term therapy with glucocorticoids) consequent perioperative supplementation of hydrocortisone is mandatory.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17366436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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45. Cekinmez M, Sarica FB, Tufan K, Sener L, Sen O: An unusual cause of low back pain: paravertebral muscle metastases of lung cancer. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;43(1):83-5
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  • [Title] An unusual cause of low back pain: paravertebral muscle metastases of lung cancer.
  • Schwannoma, neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma and paraganglioneuromas that show contiguous spread should also be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • Haematogenous metastases are most frequently caused by lung cancers.
  • Lung cancers typically metastasize to liver, brain, bone, kidney, and adrenal glands.
  • The mass in his lower back region was excised and histopathological examination confirmed metastasis of a neuroendocrine tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Low Back Pain / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19353448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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46. Lee HG, Lee B, Kim SM, Suh BJ, Yu HJ: A case of gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as meningeal carcinomatosis. Korean J Intern Med; 2007 Dec;22(4):304-7
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  • Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in approximately 5% of patients with cancer.
  • The most common cancers involving the leptomeninges are breast, lung cancer and melanoma.
  • We report a case of leptomeningeal metastasis that presented as a gastric cancer.
  • The endoscopy showed a thickening of the folds of the stomach compatible with the diagnosis of a Borrman type IV gastric cancer.
  • The cytology examination of the cerebrospinal fluid supported the diagnosis of metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Female. Humans. Mannitol. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18309694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 3OWL53L36A / Mannitol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687665
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47. Bertherat J, Bertagna X: Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):261-71
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  • [Title] Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • The study of the clonality of adrenocortical tumours (ACTs) has shown that adrenocortical cancers (ACCs) are of monoclonal origin.
  • Somatic mutations of the tumour suppressor gene TP53 are observed in a third of ACCs.
  • This recent progress in the molecular genetics of ACC has led to the development of new molecular markers for the diagnosis of malignancy; these might also help to identify prognostic markers of ACC and may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19500768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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48. Nahleh Z: Androgen receptor as a target for the treatment of hormone receptor-negative breast cancer: an unchartered territory. Future Oncol; 2008 Feb;4(1):15-21
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  • [Title] Androgen receptor as a target for the treatment of hormone receptor-negative breast cancer: an unchartered territory.
  • Estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) and progesterone receptor-negative (PR-) breast cancers represent approximately 30% of all breast cancers and, in general, have a more aggressive clinical course.
  • Androgen receptor (AR) expression has been reported in over 70% of breast cancer and in 45-50% of patients with ER-negative breast cancer.
  • Preclinical data have suggested the inhibitory role of adrenal steroids, such as dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate on the growth of human ER-negative breast cancer cell lines, when these demonstrate a strong expression of AR.
  • However, DHEA has been shown to stimulate growth in breast cancer cells when an ER is expressed in ER-positive breast cancer cells.
  • Therefore, the effect of adrenal steroids may differ based on the tumor hormone receptor status and ER-/PR- breast tumors may not be truly hormone 'insensitive'.
  • This article reviews the role of the AR in breast cancer and discusses potential avenues for the treatment of ER-/PR-/AR+ tumors with 'hormonal therapy'.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Receptor Antagonists. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dehydroepiandrosterone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18240997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8301
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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49. Labrie F: [Keyrole of endocrinology in the victory against prostate cancer]. Bull Cancer; 2006 Sep;93(9):949-58
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  • [Title] [Keyrole of endocrinology in the victory against prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Rôle clé de l'endocrinologie dans la victoire contre le cancer de la prostate.
  • The most significant discovery of the last quarter of the XXth century in the field of prostate cancer is probably the observation that the human prostate synthesizes locally an amount of androgens from the inactive steroid precursors dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate DHEA-S that is approximately equivalent to the androgens made in the testis.
  • This treatment, called combined androgen blockade, has been the first treatment demonstrated to prolong life in prostate cancer in prospective and randomized studies.
  • While the first studies were performed in patients with advanced and metastatic disease, our recent data indicate a much higher efficacy of the same treatment applied to localized prostate cancer, thus leading to an at least 90 % possibility of cure.
  • In fact, the lifesaving benefits of androgen blockade in prostate cancer have been largely underestimated.
  • When compared to other cancer therapies, the results obtained are quite remarkable.
  • In fact, while death rates decreased by 1.1 % per year from 1993 to 2001 for all cancers combined, prostate cancer showed a larger decrease at 3.6 %.
  • Lichtenberg using National Cancer Institute data obtained from 2.1 million cancer patients, has concluded that "cancer-fighting drugs improved survival rates, especially for cancer of the prostate, where drug innovations have been the greatest".
  • The knowledge about the absence of development of resistance to androgen blockade in localized prostate cancer is extremely important.
  • In fact, deferring treatment implies that, very often, it will then be too late, because after the cancer has migrated to the bones, resistance to treatment can no more be avoided.
  • It should be realized that when prostate cancer is first detected, even by screening, the cancer is not small since its diameter is of the order of 1 cm or more.
  • This is the most appropriate time to treat with the strong hope of a cure.
  • With the presently available techniques, screening can diagnose prostate cancer at a clinically localized stage in 99 % of cases.
  • Such an early diagnosis permits immediate treatment with a curative intent, combined androgen blockade (CAB) being a truly efficient alternative especially in older patients.
  • Using this strategy, based upon today's available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, death from prostate cancer can be an exception, confirming that victory against prostate cancer is achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Dehydroepiandrosterone / antagonists & inhibitors. Dehydroepiandrosterone / metabolism. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Prostatectomy

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  • (PMID = 16980238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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50. Fujiwara M, Kamma H, Wu W, Yano Y, Homma S, Satoh H: Alternative lengthening of telomeres in the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R. Int J Oncol; 2006 Aug;29(2):445-51
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  • The biological significance and molecular mechanism of ALT have not been well studied in human cancers.
  • We anticipate that H295R cells will be a good model for understanding the significance and mechanism of ALT in human cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Carcinoma / ultrastructure. Telomere / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. HeLa Cells. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Neoplasms / metabolism. Oligonucleotides / chemistry. Phenotype. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16820888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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51. Waalkes MP, Liu J, Ward JM, Powell DA, Diwan BA: Urogenital carcinogenesis in female CD1 mice induced by in utero arsenic exposure is exacerbated by postnatal diethylstilbestrol treatment. Cancer Res; 2006 Feb 1;66(3):1337-45
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  • Arsenic alone induced some urogenital system tumors, including mostly benign tumors of the ovary and uterus, and adrenal adenoma.
  • Diethylstilbestrol alone induced some tumors (primarily cervical) but when given after in utero arsenic, it greatly enhanced urogenital tumor incidence, multiplicity, and progression.
  • For instance, compared with the incidence of urogenital malignancies in the control (0%), arsenic alone (9%), and diethylstilbestrol alone (21%) groups, arsenic plus diethylstilbestrol acted synergistically, inducing a 48% incidence of malignant urogenital tumors.
  • Of the urogenital tumors induced by arsenic plus diethylstilbestrol, 80% were malignant, and 55% were multiple site.
  • Tamoxifen alone did not increase urogenital tumors or affect arsenic-induced neoplasia but did increase arsenic-induced uroepithelial proliferative lesions.
  • Thus, arsenic acts with estrogens to enhance production of female mouse urogenital cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenic / toxicity. Diethylstilbestrol / toxicity. Genital Neoplasms, Female / chemically induced. Kidney Neoplasms / chemically induced. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 16452187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01 CO 12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; N712M78A8G / Arsenic
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52. Clark HA, Snedeker SM: Critical evaluation of the cancer risk of dibromochloropropane (DBCP). J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev; 2005;23(2):215-60
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  • [Title] Critical evaluation of the cancer risk of dibromochloropropane (DBCP).
  • Dibromochloropropane (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, DBCP), a pesticide used widely for over 20 years to control nematodes on crops, turf and in nurseries, was banned by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) in 1977 because of evidence of infertility in men and induction of a variety of tumors in laboratory animals.
  • In this review, we present a critical evaluation of the available scientific literature on the potential for DBCP to affect cancer risk, including the results of animal cancer bioassays, human epidemiological studies and in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies.
  • Results from long-term cancer bioassays in rodents show a statistically significant increase in the incidence of malignant and benign mammary gland tumors in female rats treated orally with DBCP compared to controls and some evidence of increased incidence of mammary fibroadenomas in DBCP low-dose treated female rats exposed by inhalation.
  • Rats exposed to DBCP by inhalation showed significant increases in tumors of the tunica vaginalis in males; tumors of the pharynx and adrenal gland in females; and tumors of the tongue, nasal turbinate and nasal cavity in both sexes compared to controls.
  • Male and female mice exposed to DBCP by inhalation experienced increased tumor incidence in the lungs and nasal cavity compared to controls.
  • Although high mortality rates in both rat and mouse bioassays limited the ability to detect tumors late in life, the induction of a variety of tumors by multiple routes of exposure in two rodent species provides clear evidence of a DBCP tumorigenic response.
  • Few studies have been conducted to assess whether DBCP workplace or drinking water exposures affect cancer risk in humans.
  • While case-control, cohort and ecological epidemiology studies have not found significant, positive associations between DBCP exposure and cancer in exposed populations, these studies have numerous limitations including small numbers of participants, a lack of control for confounding factors, lack of exposure information on DBCP and other chemicals and short follow-up times.
  • Given the persistent nature of DBCP contamination in areas of past use, efforts should be made to continue remediation efforts and follow previously exposed populations for development of certain human cancers, including breast, ovarian, stomach, respiratory, oral and nasal cancers, among others.
  • [MeSH-major] Antinematodal Agents / toxicity. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Propane / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16291528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1059-0501
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental science and health. Part C, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antinematodal Agents; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 96K0FD4803 / 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane; T75W9911L6 / Propane
  • [Number-of-references] 118
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53. Ramírez Plaza CP, Santoyo Santoyo J, Domínguez López ME, Eloy-García Carrasco C, Cobo Dols M, Suárez Muñoz MA, Fernández Aguilar JL, de la Fuente Perucho A: [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 Mar;58(2):115-9
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  • [Title] [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarrenal: supervivencia a 7 años libre de enfermedad tras resección completa del tumor primario y resecciones repetidas de recidivas locorregional y a distancia. Revisión a raiz de un caso con una pobre esperanza de vida inicial.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a female patient with adrenal carcinoma who had undergone surgery and presented with local-regional and distant recurrences, emphasizing the importance of the aggressive surgical treatment to achieve long-term survival which is unexpected sometimes.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who consulted for left flank pain, being diagnosed of an adrenal tumor by radiological tests; she underwent surgical excision of a left adrenal carcinoma (stage II).
  • Currently, the patient is alive and free of disease 7 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal cancer recurrences have been considered lethal in the short-term.
  • Nevertheless, an aggressive surgical approach of local recurrences and metastasic disease may significantly prolong patient's survival and, sometimes, leave the patient disease free several years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15847268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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54. Nagase H, Yokouchi H, Ide Y, Okada K, Yanagisawa T, Mukai R, Ota H, Maruyama K, Murata K, Kinuta M: [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2747-9
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  • [Title] [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma].
  • Computed tomography revealed a tumor of right adrenal gland and a tumor of upper lobe of the right lung.
  • Adrenal tumor had rapidly increased, so we performed adrenectomy.
  • At first adrenal tumor was diagnosed as primary adrenal cancer because its histological findings did not coincide with those of common histologic types of lung cancer.
  • As there were possibilities that one of adrenal or lung tumor was primary and the other was metastatic or both of the two were double primary, we performed right upper lobectomy.
  • Lung tumor was diagnosed as primary pleomorphic carcinoma containing spindle-shaped tumor cells and adenocarcinoma, and then the diagnosis of adrenal tumor was corrected as metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Two months after the lung operation, cervical lymph node swelling, metastasis of stomach and local recurrence of adrenal tumor appeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 21224700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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55. Mokos I, Bernat MM, Mareković Z, Pasini J: Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy. Coll Antropol; 2005 Dec;29(2):753-5
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  • [Title] Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy.
  • We report a rare case of virilizing adrenal cancer with tumorous invasion of the left renal vein in which a retroperitoneal adrenalectomy with bail-out nephrectomy was performed.
  • A tumor thrombus infiltrated the wall of the left adrenal vein and extended into the left renal vein.
  • Initially, a kidney sparing procedure with partial tangential excision of the involved renal vein wall was performed.
  • To the authors' awareness, this is the first report of a virilizing adrenal cancer with a tumor thrombus infiltration of the renal vein and surgical tendency for kidney preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Nephrectomy. Renal Veins / pathology. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16417195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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56. Arvanitis LD, Pitelka LA, Gattuso P: Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting with a peritoneal effusion. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):514-6
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  • In this report, we describe the fine-needle aspiration findings of a case of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) that spread to the peritoneal cavity in an 80-year-old female.
  • Although ACC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the adrenal gland, its metastatic spread to the peritoneal cavity is exceptionally unusual.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Coulter CL: Fetal adrenal development: insight gained from adrenal tumors. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;16(5):235-42
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  • [Title] Fetal adrenal development: insight gained from adrenal tumors.
  • Conversely, tumor progression and the development of cancer probably occur through a process of dysregulation and dedifferentiation.
  • Similarities exist between normal human fetal adrenal cortex and adrenal cancers, such as high expression of growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor II.
  • This review is prompted by recent gene profiling studies that have identified genes differentially expressed between normal and abnormal adrenal glands.
  • Several of these genes are specific growth factors or key cell cycle regulators, in addition to genes not previously associated with adrenal growth or function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / embryology

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  • (PMID = 15949953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-2760
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Somatomedins
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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58. Stava CJ, Jimenez C, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R: Endocrine sequelae of cancer and cancer treatments. J Cancer Surviv; 2007 Dec;1(4):261-74
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  • [Title] Endocrine sequelae of cancer and cancer treatments.
  • INTRODUCTION: Exposure to cancer and its treatments, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, may result in late adverse effects including endocrine dysfunction.
  • Endocrine disorders are the most commonly reported long-term complications of cancer treatment, especially by adult survivors of childhood cancers.
  • This review will explore the endocrinologic adverse effects from non-endocrine cancer therapies.
  • Endocrine disorders including hypothalamus dysfunction, hypopituitarism, syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion, diabetes insipidus, growth hormone disorders, hyperprolactinemia, gonadotropin deficiency, serum thyroid hormone-binding protein abnormalities, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypomagnesium, hypocalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, adrenal dysfunction, gonadal dysfunction, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and glycosuria were identified and their association with cancer therapies were outlined.
  • DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: The journal articles have highlighted the association of cancer therapies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with endocrine dysfunction.
  • IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Recognition and awareness of endocrine sequelae of cancer treatments may permit for early detection and appropriate follow-up care for cancer survivors, thus improving their overall health and quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / etiology. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Health Status. Hypothalamic Diseases / etiology. Metabolic Diseases / etiology. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18648961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-2267
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Surviv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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59. Pasini B, Stratakis CA: SDH mutations in tumorigenesis and inherited endocrine tumours: lesson from the phaeochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndromes. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):19-42
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  • A genetic predisposition for paragangliomas and adrenal or extra-adrenal phaeochromocytomas was recognized years ago.
  • Beside the well-known syndromes associated with an increased risk of adrenal phaeochromocytoma, Von Hippel Lindau disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and neurofibromatosis type 1, the study of inherited predisposition to head and neck paragangliomas led to the discovery of the novel 'paraganglioma-phaeochromocytoma syndrome' caused by germline mutations in three genes encoding subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme (SDHB, SDHC and SDHD) thus opening an unexpected connection between mitochondrial tumour suppressor genes and neural crest-derived cancers.
  • Germline mutations in SDH genes are responsible for 6% and 9% of sporadic paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas, respectively, 29% of paediatric cases, 38% of malignant tumours and more than 80% of familial aggregations of paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma.
  • Life-time tumour risk seems higher than 70% with variable clinical manifestantions depending on the mutated gene.
  • In this review we summarize the most recent knowledge about the role of SDH deficiency in tumorigenesis, the spectrum and prevalence of SDH mutations derived from several series of cases, the related clinical manifestantions including rare phenotypes, such as the association of paragangliomas with gastrointestinal stromal tumours and kidney cancers, and the biological hypotheses attempting to explain genotype to phenotype correlation.

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  • (PMID = 19522823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2796
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-13; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01-HD-000642-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • [Number-of-references] 157
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS305487; NLM/ PMC3163304
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60. Mohammad K, Sadikot RT: Adrenal insufficiency as a presenting manifestation of nonsmall cell lung cancer. South Med J; 2009 Jun;102(6):665-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency as a presenting manifestation of nonsmall cell lung cancer.
  • The adrenals are a common site of metastases for lung cancers; adrenal insufficiency, however, as a presenting feature of lung cancer, is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of primary adrenal insufficiency secondary to metastases from adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • CT scans showed a right upper lobe mass and bilateral adrenal masses.
  • The frequent occurrence of constitutional symptoms, metabolic derangements, and cardiovascular compromise in patients with advanced cancer may lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of adrenal insufficiency in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis


61. Narimoto K, Mizokami A, Izumi K, Mihara S, Sawada K, Sugata T, Shimamura M, Miyazaki K, Nishino A, Namiki M: Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen. Int J Urol; 2010 Apr;17(4):337-45
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  • [Title] Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical effects of flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen for combined androgen blockade in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) initially treated with bicalutamide as a first-line anti-androgen.
  • Furthermore, adrenal androgen levels in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line were also measured.
  • In vitro, 3 micromol/L flutamide suppressed DHEA, androstenedione and androstenediol synthesis compared with bicalutamide in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that flutamide suppresses the adrenal androgens in comparison with bicalutamide.
  • Metabolites from adrenal androgens contribute to the progression of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Androgens / blood. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / secretion. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy


62. Espina AG, Méndez-Vidal C, Moreno-Mateos MA, Sáez C, Romero-Franco A, Japón MA, Pintor-Toro JA: Induction of Dlk1 by PTTG1 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and correlates with malignant transformation. Mol Biol Cell; 2009 Jul;20(14):3353-62
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  • [Title] Induction of Dlk1 by PTTG1 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and correlates with malignant transformation.
  • Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) is an oncogene highly expressed in a variety of endocrine, as well as nonendocrine-related cancers.
  • Dlk1 is known to participate in several differentiation processes, including adipogenesis, adrenal gland development, and wound healing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipocytes / cytology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19477929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-4586
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biology of the cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biol. Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DLK1 protein, human; 0 / Dlk1 protein, mouse; 0 / Foxa2 protein, mouse; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; 135845-92-0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2710844
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63. Cai C, Zhang HY, Le JJ, Dong JC, Cui Y, Xu CQ, Liu BJ, Wu JF, Duan XH, Cao YX: Inflammatory airway features and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in asthmatic rats combined with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Jul;123(13):1720-6
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  • [Title] Inflammatory airway features and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in asthmatic rats combined with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • This study was to evaluate changes of inflammatory airway features and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in asthmatic rats combined with COPD.
  • [MeSH-major] Asthma / immunology. Asthma / pathology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / pathology. Inflammation / physiopathology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / pathology. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20819636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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64. Stratakis CA: Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias (corticotropin- independent Cushing syndrome). Endocr Dev; 2008;13:117-32
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  • Endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) is caused by excess adrenal glucocorticoid secretion that is adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-dependent or independent; ACTH-independent adrenocortical causes of CS account for up to 20% of CS in adults, and 15% in children over age 7 years.
  • In both adults and children, adrenocortical lesions causing CS include the common, isolated and sporadic, solitary cortisol-producing adenoma, the rare adrenocortical cancer, and a spectrum of recently recognized, bilateral hyperplasias (bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias, BAHs): micronodular adrenal disease and its pigmented variant, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease are mostly genetic processes.
  • The majority of benign adrenocortical tumors associated with CS are associated with defects of the cAMP signaling pathway, whereas adrenal cancer is linked to aberrant expression of growth factors and germline or somatic mutations of tumor suppressor genes such as TP53.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cyclic AMP / physiology. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18493137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-7082
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD000642-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307822; NLM/ PMC3132884
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65. Mezhir JJ, Song J, Piano G, Testa G, Raman J, Al-Ahmadie HA, Angelos P: Adrenocortical carcinoma invading the inferior vena cava: case report and literature review. Endocr Pract; 2008 Sep;14(6):721-5
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  • OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a man with a right-sided adrenocortical carcinoma that invaded the inferior vena cava and was managed by radical resection and vein patch repair.
  • RESULTS: In a 34-year-old man with new-onset abdominal pain, abdominal imaging disclosed a large right adrenal mass with invasion into the inferior vena cava.
  • Laboratory values revealed that the adrenal mass was likely nonfunctional.
  • At surgical intervention with use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the mass was removed en bloc with the adrenal gland, right kidney, and the wall of the inferior vena cava, and the inferior vena cava was reconstructed with bovine pericardium.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite direct invasion or extension of tumor thrombus into the inferior vena cava (or both), complete (R0) resection can be obtained.
  • Thus, this scenario should not preclude attempted curative resection in patients with adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18996792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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66. Kouidou S, Malousi A, Kyventidis A, Fragou A, Maglaveras N: G:C &gt; A:T mutations and potential epigenetic regulation of p53 in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Dec;106(3):351-60
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  • [Title] G:C > A:T mutations and potential epigenetic regulation of p53 in breast cancer.
  • Analysis of germline p53 mutations in breast cancer reveals that the Li-Fraumeni and Li-Fraumeni-like syndromes are mostly related to the loss of initiation codon 133 of regulatory TP53 isoforms (Delta133p53).
  • In eight codons of exons 5-8 (including 133), mutations are frequent in Li-Fraumeni-related, but scarce in sporadic breast cancer, while in six more codons they are frequent both in familial and sporadic breast cancers.
  • At the proximity of these codons, we observed in somatic mutation databases, 16 codons (minihotspots mostly in exons 7, 8) which undergo frequent G:C > A:T transitions (non-CpG) in all sporadic cancers.
  • In addition, in sporadic breast cancer we observed 35 adjacent codons in which the following types of mutation are observed: frequent G:C > A:T transitions at CCs/GGs, frequent silent mutations in exons 5,6 and suppressed nonsense mutations (5 codons, few records).
  • Non-CpG G:C > A:T transitions in the 35 codons are rare in familial cancers (p53, BRCA1, or BRCA2-related), but frequent in sporadic cancers in organs where Li-Fraumeni-related carcinogenesis is common e.g. adrenal cortex, soft tissues.
  • These data are in support of the following tissue-specific processes: in sporadic breast cancer (sarcomas etc.
  • Frequent C > T activation at non-CpG is also observed in prostate sporadic cancer, which similarly to breast, undergoes age-related crisis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. Genes, p53. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Codon. CpG Islands. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics


67. Michael McClain R, Wolz E, Davidovich A, Pfannkuch F, Edwards JA, Bausch J: Acute, subchronic and chronic safety studies with genistein in rats. Food Chem Toxicol; 2006 Jan;44(1):56-80
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  • There is wide spread interest in phytoestrogens as chemopreventive agents for a variety of diseases and cancers based on epidemiologic evidence.
  • For clinical chemistry, with the exception of a slight increase in gamma glutamyl transferase in male and female rats at the high dose, there were a number of other minor changes considered not toxicologically significant.
  • Organ weight changes in male rats at the high dose of 500 mg/kg/day included increased kidney, spleen, adrenal and testes weights and for females included, increased liver, kidney, spleen, ovary and uterus weights.
  • The increased incidence of minimal bile duct proliferation and slightly increased gamma glutamyl transferase are indicative of a mild hepatic effect at the high dose of 500 mg/kg/day.

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  • (PMID = 16213646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-6915
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Phytoestrogens; DH2M523P0H / Genistein; EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase
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68. Sidhu S, Martin E, Gicquel C, Melki J, Clark SJ, Campbell P, Magarey CJ, Schulte KM, Röher HD, Delbridge L, Robinson BG: Mutation and methylation analysis of TP53 in adrenal carcinogenesis. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Jun;31(5):549-54
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  • [Title] Mutation and methylation analysis of TP53 in adrenal carcinogenesis.
  • AIM: To investigate the role of coding region mutation and promoter hypermethylation of TP53 in adrenocortical cancer formation.
  • METHODS: Twenty sporadic adrenocortical cancers (ACCs) and five normal adrenal tissue samples were available for analysis.
  • In 10 ACCs and five normal adrenal tissue specimens, methylation of the 16 CpG sites within the TP53 promoter was examined using bisulphite methylation sequencing.
  • Four of 5 patients with a TP53 mutation had metastases at diagnosis or detected soon thereafter and 3 of 4 died of disease within 12 months of surgical resection.
  • No methylation was seen in the TP53 promoter in 10 ACC and the five normal adrenal tissues examined.
  • Promoter methylation of TP53 is not present in ACC as a mechanism for tumour suppressor gene (TSG) inactivation and, therefore, other genes in the 17p13 region are implicated in adrenal carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA Methylation. Genes, p53. Mutation. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 15922892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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69. Butler C, Butler WM, Rizvi AA: Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):441-5
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  • An 8-cm left adrenal lesion was found on computed tomography, removed surgically, and confirmed as adrenal carcinoma on pathologic examination.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib provide targeted oncologic treatment and may be effective in treating advanced adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20061282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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70. Otsuki H, Ito K, Kosaka T, Mikami H, Yoshii H, Asakuma J, Kaji T, Asano T, Hayakawa M: [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Dec;53(12):879-82
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report].
  • Right adrenal tumor was found by computed tomography and he was referred to our hospital.
  • Imaging studies revealed right adrenal tumor (8 cm) with marked swelling of surrounding lymph nodes and synchronous left renal tumor (2 cm) that was weakly enhanced by contrast media.
  • Needle biopsy of the left kidney proved to be clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the preoperative diagnosis was left RCC and right primary adrenal cancer with lymph node metastasis.
  • Pathological findings of right adrenal tumor and lymph nodes were both metastatic adenocarcinoma, which was not consistent with RCC or adrenal-derived carcinoma.
  • According to pathological findings and an elevation of carcinoembryogenic antigen, the adrenal lesion was diagnosed as adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary


71. Schteingart DE, Benitez R, Bradford C, Narayan A, Wang S: Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4805-9
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  • [Title] Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that response of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) to pro-apoptosis drugs depends on expression of anti-apoptosis genes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins was determined in two human adrenal cancer cell lines, NCI-H-295 and RL-251.
  • Profiling adrenal tumors for expression of anti-apoptosis genes may provide clues to their potential response to drugs that induce apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. bcl-X Protein / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Genes, bcl-2. Gossypol / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Taxoids / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 21187456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
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72. Khochikar MV: Management of urological cancers during pregnancy. Nat Rev Urol; 2010 Apr;7(4):195-205
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  • [Title] Management of urological cancers during pregnancy.
  • Urological cancers during pregnancy pose many challenges for clinicians.
  • As these tumors are very rare among pregnant women and their symptoms might mimic those of common pregnancy-related disorders, the diagnosis is often delayed.
  • Once a urological tumor is diagnosed in a pregnant patient, appropriate steps should be taken to treat her and the fetus at the same time.
  • Common urological cancers that might occur during pregnancy include renal cancer, bladder cancer and adrenal tumors, particularly pheochromocytoma.
  • The treatment outcomes of these cancers in pregnant women are no different from those in the general population.
  • [MeSH-major] Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Urologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Rev Urol. 2010 Jul;7(7):doi:10.1038/nrurol.2010.25-c1 [20665982.001]
  • (PMID = 20212515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4820
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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73. Warne GL: Long-term outcome of disorders of sex development. Sex Dev; 2008;2(4-5):268-77
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  • Many studies have focused on a particular disorder and there have been more about congenital adrenal hyperplasia and complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS) than any of the other conditions, even though mixed gonadal dysgenesis is probably more common than CAIS.
  • The studies show that while many patients fare well and are leading productive lives, gender dysphoria has been underestimated in the past and that gender counseling as well as sexual counseling should be part of the multi-disciplinary service available to patients with DSD.
  • More emphasis is also needed on strategies to prevent the development of germ cell cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / pathology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / psychology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18987501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-5433
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexual development : genetics, molecular biology, evolution, endocrinology, embryology, and pathology of sex determination and differentiation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 109
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74. Iorgulescu R, Ilie R, Iorgulescu A, Borca V, Dragomirescu C: [Intraabdominal malignant pathology missed at laparoscopic cholecystectomy]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2005 Mar-Apr;100(2):121-5
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  • [Title] [Intraabdominal malignant pathology missed at laparoscopic cholecystectomy].
  • [Transliterated title] Patologie malignă abdominală omisă la colecistectomia laparoscopică.
  • Studying the archives of our clinic from January 1995 up to December 2003, we found 15 cases of intraabdominal neoplasia diagnosed in the year that followed laparoscopic cholecystectomy: 7 colorectal cancers, 4 pancreatic cancers, 2 gastric carcinomas, one uterine and one adrenocortical malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Diagnostic Errors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15957452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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75. Zacharopoulou C, Nassif J, Allemann P, Dallemagne B, Perretta S, Marescaux J, Wattiez A: Exploration of the retroperitoneum using the transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery technique. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2009 Mar-Apr;16(2):198-203
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  • An excellent view of the retroperitoneal space and structures, such as the vascular and lymphatic tissues, the kidney, the adrenal gland, and the ureter, was obtained.

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  • [CommentIn] J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009 Sep-Oct;16(5):659; author reply 659 [19835818.001]
  • (PMID = 19249708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • Hormonal examinations were normal, but the tumour size was indication for surgery treatment.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination and adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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77. Wu PP, Kuo SC, Huang WW, Yang JS, Lai KC, Chen HJ, Lin KL, Chiu YJ, Huang LJ, Chung JG: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway. Anticancer Res; 2009 Apr;29(4):1435-42
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  • [Title] (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway.
  • Nevertheless, there are no reports to date about the molecular mechanisms and signal pathways of EGCG on the induction of apoptosis in human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect and molecular mechanisms of EGCG on human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • When NCI-H295 cells were treated with 20 microM EGCG, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased and intracellular free Ca(2+) increased in a time-dependent manner as analysed by flow cytometry.
  • Based on the above findings, it was confirmed that EGCG may be a drug candidate for the treatment of human adrenal cancer in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Catechin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Calcium / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured


78. Lawnicka H, Kowalewicz-Kulbat M, Sicinska P, Altmann KH, Hofmann T, Stepien H: Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2009 Oct-Dec;22(4):889-95
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  • [Title] Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro.
  • However, the role of this compound in the regulation of endocrine-related cancer cell growth and tumor progression remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Lactones / pharmacology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Resorcinols / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50

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  • (PMID = 20074452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / L 783277; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Resorcinols; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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79. Haleblian GE, Wilson C, Haddad D, Albala DM: Adrenocortical carcinoma: role of laparoscopic surgery in treatment. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2007 Sep;7(9):1295-300
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disorder with a prevalence of one case per 1.7 million people and a generally poor prognosis.
  • It accounts for 0.02% of all cancer cases and 0.2% of cancer deaths.
  • Within the past three decades, accurate diagnosis, precise radiologic localization, satisfactory preoperative medical management, appropriate anesthesia and refined surgical techniques have come together to render the surgical management of adrenal abnormalities a safe endeavor with predictable outcomes.
  • While there is a general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions, controversy remains regarding the use of laparoscopy for suspected adrenal malignancies.
  • This paper provides an overview of adrenal cancer and reviews the literature on laparoscopic adrenalectomy for cancer, including the operative techniques, indications and contraindications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17892430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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80. Ismail A, Bateman A: Expression of TBX2 promotes anchorage-independent growth and survival in the p53-negative SW13 adrenocortical carcinoma. Cancer Lett; 2009 Jun 18;278(2):230-40
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  • The transcriptional regulator TBX2 is genetically amplified in several cancers and has, in addition, important roles in development.
  • This is a cell type-dependent effect as TBX2 overexpression in PANC1 pancreatic cancer cells which are p53-negative has no effect on colony formation or survival after irradiation.
  • Our findings identify TBX2 as a cell type-dependent survival factor under a p53-negative background, and are indicative of a potentially wider role for TBX2 in carcinogenesis than hitherto described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. T-Box Domain Proteins / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / radiation effects. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism. Humans. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19216023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / T-Box Domain Protein 2; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
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81. Lai M, Lü B, Xing X, Xu E, Ren G, Huang Q: Secretagogin, a novel neuroendocrine marker, has a distinct expression pattern from chromogranin A. Virchows Arch; 2006 Oct;449(4):402-9
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  • Preliminary data suggest that secretagogin (SCGN), a calcium-binding protein identified from our previous proteomics study of colorectal cancers, is a potentially useful neuroendocrine marker.
  • In this study, we further analyzed SCGN expression in normal and tumor tissues from various organ sites compared with three other conventional neuroendocrine markers [chromogranin A (CgA), neuron specific enolase, and synaptophysin].
  • We found strong SCGN staining in most normal neuroendocrine tissues except in the adrenal cortex.
  • In a subset of neuroendocrine tumors, such as gastric neuroendocrine cancers and typical carcinoid tumors of rectum and ovary, SCGN showed strong staining while CgA expression was often negative.
  • It is intriguing to note that SCGN staining was positive in 26 out of 31 small cell lung cancers, more frequently than the other three markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Neurosecretory Systems / metabolism. Pathology, Surgical / methods

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  • (PMID = 16955307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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82. Kozarek RA: The society for gastrointestinal intervention. Are we, as an organization of disparate disciplines, cooperative or competitive? Gut Liver; 2010 Sep;4 Suppl 1:S1-8