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11. Wittekind C: [TNM 2010. What's new?]. Pathologe; 2010 Oct;31 Suppl 2:153-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [TNM 2010. What's new?].
  • [Transliterated title] TNM 2010. Was ist neu?
  • In the seventh edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours there are several entirely new classifications: upper aerodigestive mucosal melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour, gastrointestinal carcinoid (neuroendocrine tumour), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, uterine sarcomas, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasm Staging / trends. Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / classification. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / classification. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Digestive System Neoplasms / classification. Digestive System Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / classification. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / classification. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / classification. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / classification. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20737151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Fassnacht M, Johanssen S, Quinkler M, Bucsky P, Willenberg HS, Beuschlein F, Terzolo M, Mueller HH, Hahner S, Allolio B, German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry Group, European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors: Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a Revised TNM Classification. Cancer; 2009 Jan 15;115(2):243-50
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  • [Title] Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a Revised TNM Classification.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, and it was only in 2004 that the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) defined TNM criteria and published the first staging classification.
  • METHODS: The German ACC Registry comprising 492 patients was searched for patients who were diagnosed between 1986 and 2007 with detailed information on primary diagnosis and a minimum follow-up of 6 months.
  • Patients were assigned to UICC tumor stage, and disease-specific survival (DSS) was assessed.
  • An analysis of different potential risk factors for defining stage III ACC revealed important roles in DSS for tumor infiltration in surrounding tissue, venous tumor thrombus (VTT), and positive lymph nodes; whereas tumor invasion in adjacent organs carried a prognosis similar to that of infiltration in surrounding tissue only.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The 2004 UICC staging classification for ACC has significant limitations.
  • On the basis of the current analysis, a revised classification with superior prognostic accuracy is proposed (the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors classification).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2009 Dec 15;115(24):5847; author reply 5848 [19827149.001]
  • (PMID = 19025987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Allolio B; Behrend M; Bucsky P; Brauckhoff M; Fasanacht M; Fottner C; Haaf M; Hahner S; Johanssen S; Koschker AC; Langer P; Laubner K; Linden T; Maeder U; Morcos M; Oelkers W; Quinkler M; Reincke M; Reisch N; Saeger W; Weismann D; Willenberg HS; Wortmann S; Baudin E; Bertherat J; Beuschlein F; Mannelli M; Terzolo M
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13. Kebebew E, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Extent of disease at presentation and outcome for adrenocortical carcinoma: have we made progress? World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):872-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a rare and aggressive malignancy, accounts for up to 14% of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • The only chance of cure for ACC is diagnosis at an early stage; therefore, a main indication for adrenalectomy in patients with adrenal incidentaloma has been the potential risk of ACC.
  • Recent studies suggest that this has led to earlier stage of ACC at diagnosis, more curative operations, and better survival.
  • METHODS: We analyzed data on ACC from The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.
  • The average tumor size was 12 cm (range: 2-36 cm), and only 4.2% were < or = 6 cm.
  • Most (88%) patients had surgical resection of their tumor, and external beam radiotherapy was used in only 12% of patients.
  • Between the time quartiles compared (as well as annually), there was no significant difference at presentation in age at diagnosis, sex, race/ethnicity, tumor size, tumor grade, the frequency of distant metastasis, and overall TNM stage.
  • Low tumor grade, lower stage of ACC, later time quartile, and surgical resection were associated with a lower cause-specific mortality by univariate analysis (P < or = 0.002) and by multivariate analysis (P < or = 0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although adrenal incidentalomas have become a common indication for adrenalectomy, this has not resulted in patients with ACC being diagnosed earlier or treated at a lower stage of disease at the national level.
  • The most important predictors of survival in these patients are tumor grade, tumor stage, and surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. SEER Program. Treatment Outcome. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16680602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Fandella A, Borghesi M, Bertaccini A: Renal cell carcinoma. 2002 TNM classification is still adequate? Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2009 Mar;81(1):51-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma. 2002 TNM classification is still adequate?
  • The TNM classification should be a tool that allows the physician to make therapeutic decisions and gain even a prognostic scheme.
  • Currently, the 2002 TNM classification for kidney cancer doesn't have these features.
  • Moreover, the T2 category, isto-pathologically restricted, receives less than 2% of all kidney cancers; into the T3 category, if there is also adrenal invasion, it makes a worse prognostic trend, similar to T4 category.
  • The TNM classification, moreover, is inaccurate and unclear regarding the staging of lymph node involvement.
  • For these reasons the TNM classification for parenchymal renal cell carcinoma is unreliable, so an appropriate review of the classification is needed.

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  • (PMID = 19499760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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15. Hintze C, Dinkel J, Biederer J, Heussel CP, Puderbach M: [New procedures. Comprehensive staging of lung cancer by MRI]. Radiologe; 2010 Aug;50(8):699-705
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  • [Title] [New procedures. Comprehensive staging of lung cancer by MRI].
  • [Transliterated title] Neue Verfahren. Umfassendes Staging des Lungenkarzinoms mit der MRT.
  • Lung cancer staging according to the TNM system is based on morphological assessment of the primary cancer, lymph nodes and metastases.
  • The predominant metastatic spread to the adrenal glands and spine can be detected in coronal orientation during dedicated MRI of the lungs.
  • Search focused whole body MRI completes the staging.
  • In the oncological context the most important techniques are imaging of perfusion and tumor motion.
  • Functional MRI of the lungs complements the pure staging and improves surgical approaches and radiotherapy planning.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood supply. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spinal Neoplasms / blood supply. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Stochastic Processes. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


16. Kirkali Z, Algaba F, Scarpelli M, Trias I, Selvaggi FP, Van Poppel H: What does the urologist expect from the pathologist (and what can the pathologists give) in reporting on adult kidney tumour specimens? Eur Urol; 2007 May;51(5):1194-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify the parameters required by the urologist to determine the prognosis and the treatment of renal cancer in adults, and to establish the potential therapeutic targets of the new treatments that started to show clinical efficacy.
  • METHODS: A literature search of the last 10 yr was done, paying specific attention to TNM 2002 (UICC staging) and Fuhrman's grading.
  • RESULTS: After the review of the literature, the opinion of the joint meeting including urologists and pathologists is that some aspects of the TNM 2002 classification must be refined.
  • The TNM 2002 classification is useful, but some adjustments should be made, particularly as referred to the tumour size cut-off, assessment of the invasion of the renal sinus fat tissue, and invasion of the ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pathology, Clinical

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2007 May;51(5):1166-8; discussion 1168-70 [17257741.001]
  • (PMID = 17125908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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17. Ficarra V, Galfano A, Guillé F, Schips L, Tostain J, Mejean A, Lang H, Mulders P, De La Taille A, Chautard D, Descotes JL, Cindolo L, Novara G, Rioux-Leclercq N, Zattoni F, Artibani W, Patard JJ: A new staging system for locally advanced (pT3-4) renal cell carcinoma: a multicenter European study including 2,000 patients. J Urol; 2007 Aug;178(2):418-24; discussion 423-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A new staging system for locally advanced (pT3-4) renal cell carcinoma: a multicenter European study including 2,000 patients.
  • PURPOSE: We provide an adequate prognostic stratification for locally advanced renal cell carcinoma and propose a new TNM classification.
  • Cancer specific survivals were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
  • Five-year cancer specific survival was 60% for pT3a, 46.2% for pT3b, 10% for pT3c and 12% for pT4 tumors (p <0.0001).
  • According to median survival we identified 3 prognostic groups, including 1--patients with renal vein thrombosis (117 months), fat invasion (98 months) or infradiaphragmatic vena caval thrombosis (67 months), 2--patients with adrenal invasion alone (24 months), renal vein thrombosis plus fat invasion (24 months) or infradiaphragmatic vena cava plus fat invasion (24 months) and 3--patients with renal or infradiaphragmatic caval thrombosis plus adrenal involvement (11 months), supradiaphragmatic vena caval thrombosis (12 months) or Gerota's fascia invasion (12 months).
  • Five-year cancer specific survival rates in groups 1 to 3 were 61%, 35% and 12.9%, respectively (p <0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Aged. Europe. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Kidney / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Nephrectomy. Prognosis. Renal Veins / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology


18. Fassnacht M, Wittekind C, Allolio B: [Current TNM classification systems for adrenocortical carcinoma]. Pathologe; 2010 Sep;31(5):374-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Current TNM classification systems for adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Aktuelle TNM-Klassifikationssysteme für das Nebennierenkarzinom.
  • It was only in 2003 that the UICC proposed the first TNM classification for ACC.
  • Therefore, the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENSAT) developed a revised staging system, the superiority of which was recently confirmed in an independent American cohort.
  • Stage III is defined by the presence of positive lymph nodes, infiltration of surrounding tissue, or venous tumor thrombus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Prognosis. Registries

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  • (PMID = 20703482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Siemer S, Lehmann J, Loch A, Becker F, Stein U, Schneider G, Ziegler M, Stöckle M: Current TNM classification of renal cell carcinoma evaluated: revising stage T3a. J Urol; 2005 Jan;173(1):33-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current TNM classification of renal cell carcinoma evaluated: revising stage T3a.
  • PURPOSE: : Recent studies of rare cases of pT3a renal cell carcinoma extending directly into the adrenal gland showed worse survival than in other pT3a cases and recategorization as stage pT4 was suggested.
  • We assessed the prognostic validity of a stage pT3a diagnosis based on perirenal fat infiltration.
  • Focusing on pT3a tumors, as defined by perirenal fat infiltration, numerous clinical and histopathological parameters were investigated by univariate and multivariate statistical methods with cancer specific survival as the primary end point.
  • In patients with pT3a tumors tumor size was a significant parameter predicting survival.
  • The most significant cutoff value for tumor size in pT3a disease was 7 cm.
  • Therefore, to assess the prognostic value of the current T classification in regard to T3a tumors we excluded patients with tumor stage cM+ for further subgroup analysis.
  • Subsequently multivariate analysis in all 1,794 patients showed that modified T stage was an independent significant predictor of cancer specific survival.
  • Tumors directly infiltrating the adrenal gland should be reclassified as T4.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15592020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Bodtger U, Vilmann P, Clementsen P, Galvis E, Bach K, Skov BG: Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration of left adrenal masses in established or suspected lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Dec;4(12):1485-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration of left adrenal masses in established or suspected lung cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Correct lung cancer staging is pivotal for optimal allocation to surgical and nonsurgical treatment.
  • A left adrenal gland (LAG) mass is found in 5 to 16%, and malignancy preclude surgery.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is superior to other imaging procedures in visualizing LAG, but the impact of EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) on tumor, node, metastasis (TNM)-staging, treatment, and survival is unknown.
  • METHODS: The impact of EUS-FNA of the LAG on TNM staging, treatment, and survival was evaluated retrospectively in all patients (n = 40) referred to EUS during 2000-2006 for known or suspected lung cancer and where EUS disclosed an enlarged LAG.
  • RESULTS: EUS-FNA of an enlarged LAG altered the TNM staging in 70% (downstaged: 26 of 28 patients) and treatment in 48% (gained surgery 25%, avoided surgery 5%, surgically verified benign disease 5%, no cancer and no further workup 5%, and no cancer, control computed tomography, and then no further workup 8%).
  • A malignant LAG lesion was found in 28% and was significantly associated with shorter survival.
  • CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA of an enlarged LAG in patients with known or suspected lung cancer had a significant impact on TNM staging, treatment, and survival.
  • The impact of routine visualization of the LAG in lung cancer workup needs to be prospectively validated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endoscopy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Large Cell / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / surgery. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Treatment Outcome


21. Margulis V, Tamboli P, Matin SF, Meisner M, Swanson DA, Wood CG: Location of extrarenal tumor extension does not impact survival of patients with pT3a renal cell carcinoma. J Urol; 2007 Nov;178(5):1878-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Location of extrarenal tumor extension does not impact survival of patients with pT3a renal cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: The current TNM classification for pathological pT3a renal cell carcinoma includes patients with perinephric or sinus fat invasion, suggesting that the prognoses are similar for these pathological findings.
  • However, sinus fat invasion was proposed by some investigators to be an independent predictor of inferior cancer specific outcome following surgical treatment.
  • To assess and improve the predictive ability of the current pT3a primary tumor classification we evaluated the prognostic significance of location of extrarenal tumor extension on cancer specific survival following surgery.
  • Patients with nonrenal cell carcinoma histology, direct adrenal invasion or a followup of less then 6 months were excluded from analyses.
  • There was no difference in 5-year cancer specific survival between 166 patients (45.5%) with SF invasion and 199 (54.5%) with PF invasion only (50.8% and 54.1%, p = 0.782 respectively).
  • On univariate analyses neither sinus fat invasion nor the location of extrarenal extension, assessed as perinephric fat vs sinus fat vs perinephric plus sinus fat, correlated with cancer specific survival following surgical treatment (HR 1.052, p = 0.783 and HR 1.072, p = 0.543, respectively).
  • After adjusting for the effects of nodal and systemic metastases tumor grade and sarcomatoid differentiation remained independent predictors of renal cell carcinoma specific survival in our pT3a cohort of patients (HR 1.508, p = 0.003 and HR 1.810, p = 0.018, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previously reported observations, in our cohort of surgically treated patients with pT3a renal cell carcinoma the location of extrarenal extension was not an important prognosticator of cancer specific mortality.
  • Based on our findings we confirm that perinephric and/or sinus fat should be similarly subclassified in the primary tumor staging system.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy / methods. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends. Texas / epidemiology. Time Factors


22. Bertini R, Roscigno M, Freschi M, Strada E, Petralia G, Pasta A, Matloob R, Sozzi F, Da Pozzo L, Colombo R, Guazzoni G, Doglioni C, Montorsi F, Rigatti P: Renal sinus fat invasion in pT3a clear cell renal cell carcinoma affects outcomes of patients without nodal involvement or distant metastases. J Urol; 2009 May;181(5):2027-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: According to the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM classification, perinephric and renal sinus fat invasion are classified as pT3a renal cell carcinoma.
  • We analyzed the impact of sinus fat invasion on cancer specific survival in a cohort of patients with pT3a clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • The prognostic role of sinus fat invasion in cancer specific survival was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression models.
  • RESULTS: Ten patients had direct ipsilateral adrenal invasion and were excluded from analysis.
  • In the overall population sinus fat invasion did not reach independent predictive status in terms of cancer specific survival on multivariate Cox regression analysis after adjusting for age, performance status, tumor dimension, tumor grade, synchronous metastases, nodal involvement, sarcomatoid differentiation and coagulative necrosis.
  • In the subset of patients with pNx/pN0 M0 (83) the actuarial 5-year cancer specific survival was 71.9% and 45.5% for those with perinephric fat invasion only and sinus fat invasion, respectively (p = 0.025).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sinus fat invasion in clear cell renal cell carcinoma significantly affects cancer specific survival in patients without nodal or distant metastases.
  • However, sinus fat invasion is not associated with worse cancer specific survival in cases of metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / mortality. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kidney Pelvis / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis


23. Quint LE: Staging non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7:148-59
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  • [Title] Staging non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) need accurate tumor staging in order to direct appropriate therapy and establish prognosis; the tumor is usually staged using the TNM system.
  • The major imaging modalities currently used for staging this disease are thoracic computed tomography (CT) (including the adrenal glands) and whole body fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) scanning.
  • CT is generally most useful in evaluating the T stage, i.e. local spread of the neoplasm, whereas PET is most helpful in assessing the N and M stages, i.e. regional and distant tumor spread, respectively.
  • Staging accuracy using any of these imaging techniques is imperfect; therefore, pathologic confirmation of positive findings is recommended, whenever possible, before denying a patient potentially curative therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 17964957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 56
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2072091
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