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1. Casey EM, Harb W, Bradford D, Bufill J, Nattam S, Patel J, Fisher W, Latz JE, Li X, Wu J, Hanna N: Randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, phase II study of pemetrexed, carboplatin, and bevacizumab with enzastaurin or placebo in chemonaïve patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer: Hoosier Oncology Group LUN06-116. J Thorac Oncol; 2010 Nov;5(11):1815-20
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  • [Title] Randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, phase II study of pemetrexed, carboplatin, and bevacizumab with enzastaurin or placebo in chemonaïve patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer: Hoosier Oncology Group LUN06-116.
  • INTRODUCTION: : Bevacizumab is approved in combination with chemotherapy as first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: : ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: ≥18 years of age, chemonaïve, stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous NSCLC, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pleural Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Double-Blind Method. Female. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Indoles / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pemetrexed. Placebos. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20881647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Glutamates; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Placebos; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; UC96G28EQF / enzastaurin
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2. Yamaguchi E, Uchida M, Makino Y, Tachibana M, Sato T, Yamamoto Y, Kawashima K, Araki A, Maruyama R: Tonsillar metastasis of gastric cancer. Clin J Gastroenterol; 2010 Dec;3(6):289-95

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tonsillar metastasis of gastric cancer.
  • Metastasis from a malignant tumor to the palatine tonsils is rare, with only 100 cases reported in the English-language literature.
  • Tonsillar metastasis from a gastric cancer is very rare.
  • We report here a case of palatine tonsillar metastasis after gastric cancer surgery.
  • The patient was an 88-year-old woman who had gastric cancer with abdominal wall invasion.
  • Histologically, the tumor was primarily a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • It was stage IV (T4, N1, M0) using TNM clinical classification.
  • Multiple lung metastases, Virchow's lymph node metastasis, and adrenal metastasis were observed.
  • It was diagnosed as a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, a metastasis from gastric cancer.
  • There was a concern of asphyxiation due to hemorrhage of the tumor; however, the tumor dislodged approximately 10 days after biopsy and tonsillar recurrence was not observed.
  • Tonsillar metastasis is a form of systemic metastasis of a malignant tumor, and there is a high risk for asphyxiation from tumor dislodgement or hemorrhage.

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  • (PMID = 21841958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-7257
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Lee SE, Jeon EJ, Oh JH, Shim KH, Lee J, Kim EH, Choi SW, Min KO: [A case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jan;51(1):40-4
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis].
  • The most common metastatic sites of gastric cancer are liver, lung, bone and adrenal gland.
  • However, skin metastases from gastric cancer are relatively rare.
  • We herein report a case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis in a 70-year-old male.
  • Endoscopy and abdominal CT scan demonstrated the stage IV gastric cancer.
  • We suspected that the perianal lesion was originated from gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18349561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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4. Fassnacht M, Johanssen S, Quinkler M, Bucsky P, Willenberg HS, Beuschlein F, Terzolo M, Mueller HH, Hahner S, Allolio B, German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry Group, European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors: Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a Revised TNM Classification. Cancer; 2009 Jan 15;115(2):243-50
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  • [Title] Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a Revised TNM Classification.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, and it was only in 2004 that the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) defined TNM criteria and published the first staging classification.
  • METHODS: The German ACC Registry comprising 492 patients was searched for patients who were diagnosed between 1986 and 2007 with detailed information on primary diagnosis and a minimum follow-up of 6 months.
  • Patients were assigned to UICC tumor stage, and disease-specific survival (DSS) was assessed.
  • RESULTS: In total, 416 patients with a mean follow-up of 36 months met the inclusion criteria (stage I, n=23 patients; stage II, n=176 patients; stage III, n=67 patients; stage IV, n=150 patients).
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a stage-dependent DSS.
  • However, DSS in patients with stage II ACC did not differ significantly from DSS in patients with stage III ACC (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.16).
  • Furthermore, patients who had stage IV ACC without distant metastases had an improved DSS compared with patients who had metastatic disease (P=.004).
  • An analysis of different potential risk factors for defining stage III ACC revealed important roles in DSS for tumor infiltration in surrounding tissue, venous tumor thrombus (VTT), and positive lymph nodes; whereas tumor invasion in adjacent organs carried a prognosis similar to that of infiltration in surrounding tissue only.
  • On the basis of the current analysis, a revised classification with superior prognostic accuracy is proposed (the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors classification).
  • In this system, stage III ACC is defined by the presence of positive lymph nodes, infiltration of surrounding tissue, or VTT; and stage IV ACC is restricted to patients with distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2009 Dec 15;115(24):5847; author reply 5848 [19827149.001]
  • (PMID = 19025987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Allolio B; Behrend M; Bucsky P; Brauckhoff M; Fasanacht M; Fottner C; Haaf M; Hahner S; Johanssen S; Koschker AC; Langer P; Laubner K; Linden T; Maeder U; Morcos M; Oelkers W; Quinkler M; Reincke M; Reisch N; Saeger W; Weismann D; Willenberg HS; Wortmann S; Baudin E; Bertherat J; Beuschlein F; Mannelli M; Terzolo M
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5. Ambika S, Melton A, Lee D, Hesketh PJ: Massive retroperitoneal adrenal hemorrhage secondary to lung cancer metastasis treated by adrenal artery embolization. Clin Lung Cancer; 2009 Sep;10(5):E1-4
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  • [Title] Massive retroperitoneal adrenal hemorrhage secondary to lung cancer metastasis treated by adrenal artery embolization.
  • The development of adrenal hemorrhage from lung cancer metastasis is extremely rare.
  • A 54-year-old woman with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer and known bilateral adrenal metastasis developed severe right-sided abdominal pain while undergoing chemotherapy treatment.
  • The bleeding vessel was identified as the right middle adrenal artery.
  • The patient underwent successful transcatheter embolization (TCE) and occlusion of the right middle adrenal artery using metallic coils, with resolution of the abdominal pain and stabilization of her hemoglobin.
  • TCE can be used to control hemorrhage arising from metastatic involvement of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Catheterization, Peripheral. Embolization, Therapeutic. Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Hemorrhage / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Flank Pain. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Glutamates / adverse effects. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / adverse effects. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pemetrexed. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology


6. Miyazaki T, Tagawa T, Nakamura A, Yamasaki N, Hashizume S, Matsumoto K, Taguchi T, Morino S, Nagayasu T: [Surgical treatment for stage IV lung cancer]. Kyobu Geka; 2006 Jan;59(1):36-40
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment for stage IV lung cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To find out the optimal surgical indication in stage IV lung cancer patients, we evaluated them retrospectively.
  • The metastatic lesions were lung (33.9%), brain (24.2%), liver, bone, adrenal gland and so on.
  • The overall survival rate of stage IV lung cancer was 10.4% at 5-year.
  • Two were lung and the others were brain and adrenal gland metastasis without lymph node metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Stage IV lung cancer with lung or brain or adrenal gland metastasis without lymph node metastasis should be resected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / mortality. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16440683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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7. Socinski MA, Crowell R, Hensing TE, Langer CJ, Lilenbaum R, Sandler AB, Morris D, American College of Chest Physicians: Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, stage IV: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest; 2007 Sep;132(3 Suppl):277S-289S
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  • [Title] Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, stage IV: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition).
  • BACKGROUND: Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a treatable but incurable disease.
  • The one exception is the addition of bevacizumab, an antiangiogenic agent, to carboplatin/paclitaxel in patients with stage IV disease and good PS.
  • In patients with stage IV NSCLC and PS of 2, chemotherapy is recommended, but the optimal approach has not been defined.
  • Because stage IV NSCLC is incurable, quality-of-life issues are important, and tools exist to monitor a patient's quality of life during therapy.
  • Last, patients need to be informed of the implication of the diagnosis of stage IV NSCLC and be educated about treatment options that are available to them.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Advances have been made in stage IV NSCLC, and the appropriate use of chemotherapy continues to evolve on the basis of well-designed clinical trials that address critical issues in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Pancoast Syndrome / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Neoplasm Staging


8. Herndon JE 2nd, Kornblith AB, Holland JC, Paskett ED: Patient education level as a predictor of survival in lung cancer clinical trials. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Sep 1;26(25):4116-23
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  • [Title] Patient education level as a predictor of survival in lung cancer clinical trials.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of socioeconomic status, as measured by education, on the survival of 1,577 lung cancer patients treated on 11 studies conducted by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B.
  • RESULTS: The patient population included 1,177 patients diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; stage III or IV) and 400 patients diagnosed with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC; extensive or limited).
  • Significant predictors of poor survival in the final model included male sex, PS of 1 or 2, dyspnea, weight loss, liver or bone metastases, unmarried, presence of adrenal metastases and high alkaline phosphatase levels among patients with NSCLC, and high WBC levels among patients with advanced disease.
  • Once enrolled onto a clinical trial, education does not affect the survival of patients with SCLC or stage III or IV NSCLC.

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  • (PMID = 18757325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32291; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77651; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77658
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2654374
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9. Butler C, Butler WM, Rizvi AA: Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):441-5
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  • [Title] Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • An 8-cm left adrenal lesion was found on computed tomography, removed surgically, and confirmed as adrenal carcinoma on pathologic examination.
  • Postoperative scanning revealed metastases to both lungs and the liver that were confirmed by fine-needle biopsy, thus establishing stage IV disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib provide targeted oncologic treatment and may be effective in treating advanced adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20061282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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10. Schindler T, Yu C, Rossleigh M, Pereira J, Cohn R: False-positive MIBG uptake in pneumonia in a patient with stage IV neuroblastoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Sep;35(9):743-5
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  • [Title] False-positive MIBG uptake in pneumonia in a patient with stage IV neuroblastoma.
  • A 32-month-old female child with a history of stage IV favorable biology neuroblastoma with a 123-I MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine scan) avid adrenal mass, with retroperitoneal nodal extension and bony metastasis, was in complete remission after intense multimodal therapy.
  • Seventeen months after diagnosis a surveillance 123-I MIBG scan showed abnormal tracer uptake in the midzone of the right thorax.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. False Positive Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20706060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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11. Ishido K, Koizumi W, Tanabe S, Higuchi K, Sasaki T, Katada C, Azuma M, Saigenji K, Futawatari N, Saegusa M: A patient with stage IV type 4 advanced gastric cancer who had a complete pathological response to short-term treatment with S-1 alone. Anticancer Drugs; 2008 Oct;19(9):921-5
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  • [Title] A patient with stage IV type 4 advanced gastric cancer who had a complete pathological response to short-term treatment with S-1 alone.
  • Stage IV (cT3, cN3, cH0, cM1) type 4 advanced gastric cancer was diagnosed.
  • The left adrenal gland and the paragastric, mediastinal, and abdominal para-aortic lymph nodes were enlarged.
  • The tumor had shrunk and was severely deformed.
  • Abdominal computed tomography revealed that ascites and enlargement of the left adrenal gland and paragastric lymph nodes had resolved.
  • The primary gastric tumor, resected lymph nodes, and a peritoneal-lavage specimen were all negative for tumor.
  • Histologically, the tumor had a complete pathological response to S-1.

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  • (PMID = 18766007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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12. Paton BL, Novitsky YW, Zerey M, Harrell AG, Norton HJ, Asbun H, Kercher KW, Heniford BT: Outcomes of adrenal cortical carcinoma in the United States. Surgery; 2006 Dec;140(6):914-20; discussion 919-20
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  • [Title] Outcomes of adrenal cortical carcinoma in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Improvements in the sensitivity of radiographic imaging have lead to an increase in the number of adrenal masses diagnosed.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if technologic advancements have resulted in the diagnosis of earlier-staged adrenal cortical cancer (ACC) and to determine if the survival of patients with ACC has improved over the past 15 years.
  • Changes in demographics, stage, size, and treatment were analyzed by standard statistical testing.
  • RESULTS: We identified 602 patients with a mean age of 53 years and an average tumor size of 11.8 cm.
  • Two hundred thirty-eight (39.5%) patients presented with localized disease (stages I and II), and 311 (52%) patients presented with advanced disease (stages III and IV).
  • Age (P = .10), tumor size (P = .85), tumor stage (P = .45), and 5-year survival (P = .5) did not change over the 15-year study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Over the 15-year study, patients with ACC were not diagnosed at an earlier stage or with tumors smaller, and survival did not improve.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17188138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Yasumoto T, Hayashi S, Shimizu J, Dono K, Nakata S, Sato M, Kitada M, Shimano T: [Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2371-3
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  • [Title] [Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report].
  • We report a case of local recurrent tumor after a resection of right adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
  • The lesions were judged to be T4, N0, M0 and Stage IV,then, he was treated as an outpatient on a regular schedule.
  • In July 2003, a right adrenal tumor 2 cm in diameter was detected by computed tomography (CT), but the value of the adrenocortical hormones were normal on blood examination, and he was observed at regular intervals.
  • In February 2005, the adrenal lesion enlarged to 5 cm in diameter and the value of PIVKA-II became high on blood examination, so April 2005, a surgical resection was performed, and it was diagnosed as the metastasis from HCC.
  • In July 2008, the recurrent tumor 3 cm in diameter was observed in the right retroperitoneum.
  • It was considered inoperable because of the past operation, and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of an inferior adrenal artery and a fine branch through a right sub-phrenic artery was performed for the recurrent tumor, and one week after the embolization, radiofrequency ablation was treated by CT fluoroscopy guidance.
  • Ten months after the tumor embolization combined with radiofrequency ablation, there were no local and distant recurrences observed by CT examination.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization combined with radiofrequency ablation is considered as a feasible and effective method for not only HCC but also for a local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Catheter Ablation. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20037426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Pfannschmidt J, Dienemann H: Surgical treatment of oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2010 Sep;69(3):251-8
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Patients with stage IV metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are generally believed to have an incurable disease.
  • This article discusses the biology of the oligometastatic state in patients with lung cancer and the selection of patients for surgery, as well as the prognostic factors that influence survival of the patient.
  • Patients with resected brain metastasis achieve 5-year survival rates between 11% and 30%, and those with adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis achieve 5-year survival rates of 26%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Prognosis. Survival Rate


15. Debevec L, Erzen J, Debeljak A, Crnjac A, Kovac V: Exploratory thoracotomy and its influence on the survival of patients with lung cancer. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2006 Aug;118(15-16):479-84
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  • [Title] Exploratory thoracotomy and its influence on the survival of patients with lung cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate diagnostic procedures, reasons for exploratory thoracotomy (ET), causes of unresectability of lung cancer, possibility for reducing numbers of ETs, and the influence of ET on survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 1999, 1808 patients with lung cancer were operated on.
  • The clinical stages were: three patients in stage IA, 28 in IB, one in IIA, 35 in IIB, 50 in IIIA, 10 in IIIB (all due to invasion of the mediastinum), and four patients in IV (three with ipsilateral pulmonary and one with solitary suprarenal metastasis).
  • The control group for calculating survival difference consisted of 130 consecutive non-operated patients with comparable characteristics (age, sex, clinical stage, performance status, histology and comorbidity) who were diagnosed during the period 1996-1998.
  • Clinical and surgical staging were equal in 3% of stage IIB patients, in 24% of stage IIIA, 100% of stage IIIB and 75% of patients in stage IV.
  • The reasons for ET were: diagnosis of preoperatively unverified tumor in one patient, necessity for pneumonectomy in the case of poor pulmonary function in 11 patients, and unresectability in 119 (due to invasion of the mediastinum in 98 patients, thoracic wall in three and vertebral body in one, and due to pleural metastases in 17 patients).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Lung / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Radiography, Thoracic. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Ann Chir. 1990;44(2):133-7 [2189334.001]
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  • (PMID = 16957979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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16. Nakagawa H, Yamamoto K: [A case of small cell lung cancer complicated by Cushing syndrome]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Mar;46(3):210-5
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  • [Title] [A case of small cell lung cancer complicated by Cushing syndrome].
  • After a systemic examination, Stage IV small cell lung cancer with Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed.
  • Marked increases in ACTH levels were observed, but no abnormality was found in the pituitary MRI findings, and therefore ACTH-producing small cell lung cancer was suspected.
  • The tumor temporarily began to decrease in size, but hypercortisolemia remained, and thus adrenal hormone synthesis-inhibiting therapy was concurrently administered.
  • Hypercortisolemia is believed to induce the suppression of the immune system, thereby affecting the outcome and QOL more than the immediate symptoms of cancer.
  • Therefore, from an early stage, it is believed that adrenal cortical hormone synthesis-inhibiting therapy should be performed concurrently with chemotherapy, if hypercortisolemia cannot be controlled by radiation and chemotherapy alone.

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  • (PMID = 18409568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Cardinale L, Cortese G, Borasio P, Dogliotti L, Ferraris F, Novello S, Perotto F, Scagliotti G, Fava C: Low dose CT in early lung cancer diagnosis: Prevalence data. Radiol Med; 2005 Nov-Dec;110(5-6):532-43
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  • [Title] Low dose CT in early lung cancer diagnosis: Prevalence data.
  • PURPOSE: Lung cancer has a high mortality rate and its prognosis largely depends on early detection.
  • We report the prevalence data of the study on early detection of lung cancer with low-dose spiral CT underway at our hospital.
  • Six cases of lung cancer were identified, of which four were stage I, one stage was IIIB and one was stage IV with adrenal metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data on spiral CT as a potential new diagnostic tool for lung cancer screening, although less promising than the Japanese and ELCAP results, confirm the feasibility of the technique.
  • [MeSH-minor] Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Radiation Dosage. Smoking

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  • (PMID = 16437039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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18. Tibaldi C, Vasile E, Bernardini I, Orlandini C, Andreuccetti M, Falcone A: Baseline elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood is associated with poor survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prognostic model. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct;134(10):1143-9
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  • [Title] Baseline elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood is associated with poor survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prognostic model.
  • PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of several baseline variables in stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer to create a model based on independent prognostic factors.
  • Performance status of 2, squamous histology, number of metastatic sites >2, presence of bone, brain, liver and contralateral lung metastases and elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood were all statistically significant prognostic factors in univariate analyses whereas the other tested variables (sex, stage, age, presence of adrenal gland and skin metastases) were not.

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  • (PMID = 18347812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Morio A, Ninomiya H, Sunada K, Tomioka K, Nakahara K: [A case of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer successfully treated with S-1 plus CBDCA after multiple chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Sep;36(9):1533-6
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer successfully treated with S-1 plus CBDCA after multiple chemotherapy].
  • He was diagnosed as left lung adenocarcinoma (c-T2N0M1, stage IV).
  • After the brain tumor extraction, CDDP (80 mg/m2) + GEM (1,000 mg/m2) were administered as first-line treatment, and the tumor response was PR (33.3% reduction rate), impaired liver function served to interrupt this regimen.
  • Other chemotherapy was then conducted in the order of GEM (1,000 mg/m2) + VNR (25 mg/m2), and CBDCA (AUC=5) + DOC(60 mg/m2), and the tumor response was NC.
  • After 3 courses of the treatment, the serum CEA level normalized, a chest CT detected the left lung tumor size reduction (66.7% reduction rate), and an abdominal CT detected disappearance of the left adrenal gland tumor.
  • Histopathological examination of the lung tumor showed viable adenocarcinoma cells.
  • This case suggests that S-1+CBDCA may be an effective treatment in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer even after multiple chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 19755827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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20. Kim YS, Kim N, Kim SY, Cho KS, Park MJ, Choi SH, Lim SH, Yim JY, Cho KR, Kim CH, Kim DH, Kim SS, Kim JH, Choi BI, Jung HC, Song IS, Shin CS, Cho SH, Oh BH: Extracolonic findings in an asymptomatic screening population undergoing intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography colonography. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 Jul;23(7 Pt 2):e49-57
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  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate extracolonic findings that could be encountered with computed tomography colonography (CTC) using intravenous (IV) contrast material in an asymptomatic screening population.
  • New extracolonic cancer was detected in 0.5% (12/2230), and the majority of them (83.3%) were not metastasized.
  • Computed tomography colonography missed eight potentially important extracolonic findings in eight subjects (0.4%, 8/2230): 0.8-cm early-stage prostatic cancer, six adrenal mass and one intraductal papillary mucinous tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Intravenous contrast-enhanced CTC could safely detect asymptomatic early-stage extracolonic malignant diseases without an unreasonable number of additional work-ups, thus reducing their morbidity or mortality.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biliary Tract / radiography. Blood Vessels / pathology. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Early Diagnosis. Esophagus / radiography. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Kidney / radiography. Liver / radiography. Lung / radiography. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Pancreas / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Stomach / radiography. Time Factors. Urogenital System / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17645481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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21. Müller-Horvat C, Radny P, Eigentler TK, Schäfer J, Pfannenberg C, Horger M, Khorchidi S, Nägele T, Garbe C, Claussen CD, Schlemmer HP: Prospective comparison of the impact on treatment decisions of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer; 2006 Feb;42(3):342-50
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  • [Title] Prospective comparison of the impact on treatment decisions of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma.
  • Patient management and treatment strategies for metastatic melanoma depend largely on the stage of metastatic disease.
  • A total of 43 patients (41 with completed wbCT and wbMRI examination) with known American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage III-IV malignant melanoma were examined and 775 metastases were identified by both methods.
  • In kidneys, adrenal glands and lymph nodes, respectively, wbCT and wbMRI detected the same number of lesions.
  • In conclusion, wbMRI detected clearly more malignant melanoma metastases in most organ systems with the exception of lung metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Decision Making. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prognosis. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16364631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Libè R, Groussin L, Tissier F, Elie C, René-Corail F, Fratticci A, Jullian E, Beck-Peccoz P, Bertagna X, Gicquel C, Bertherat J: Somatic TP53 mutations are relatively rare among adrenocortical cancers with the frequent 17p13 loss of heterozygosity. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Feb 1;13(3):844-50
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  • The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is located at 17p13.
  • TP53-mutant tumors were significantly larger than wild-type TP53 tumors (median tumor weight: 640 versus 185 g; P=0.02), were associated with a more advanced stage of tumor progression (MacFarlane stage IV; P=0.01), and had a shorter disease-free survival (P=0.03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The finding that only a minority of adrenocortical tumors with 17p13 LOH had either a VNTR1 LOH or a TP53 mutation indicates that TP53 might not be the only or major tumor suppressor gene at 17p13 involved in adrenocortical cancer progression.
  • We suggest that a genetic instability of the 17p13 region, occurring early in adrenocortical cancer development, involves various genes located in this region.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Genes, p53. Loss of Heterozygosity. Minisatellite Repeats / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alleles. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Neoplasm / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17289876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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23. Dong W, Willett KL: Local expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 in developing and adult killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2008 Jan 15;155(2):307-17
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  • In 90 dpf (day post-fertilization) fish and adult fish, CYP19A1 was expressed in the ooplasm of early stage I oocytes (primary growth stage).
  • Expression of CYP19A1 was localized in the follicle cell layer of late stage I (previtellogenic stage) and stage II (vitellogenic stage) follicles, but by stage III (early maturational follicles) CYP19A1 expression was localized in the vitelline envelope.
  • Overall, CYP19A1 oocyte membrane expression gradually declined from highest expression at late stage I to nondetectable levels by stage IV.
  • In addition to the brain, there was strong CYP19A2 signal in adrenal/kidney cells in 6-14 dpf embryos.

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  • (PMID = 17582409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016476; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR016476; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES012710; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES012710-04; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01ES012710; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES012710-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fish Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS38783; NLM/ PMC2254941
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24. Gounaris I, Rahamim J, Shivasankar S, Earl S, Lyons B, Yiannakis D: Marked response to a cisplatin/docetaxel/temozolomide combination in a heavily pretreated patient with metastatic large cell neuroendocrine lung carcinoma. Anticancer Drugs; 2007 Nov;18(10):1227-30
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  • We report a 52-year-old woman large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma patient with progressive stage IV disease in the chest, liver, adrenal glands and, particularly, the brain, who achieved a marked response to a fourth-line combination of docetaxel, cisplatin and temozolomide.
  • The good response obtained in this heavily pretreated patient adds to the evidence regarding the use of temozolomide in patients with lung cancer with brain metastases.

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  • (PMID = 17893525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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25. Carlson P, Jefferies JL, Kearney D, Russell H: Refractory dilated cardiomyopathy associated with metastatic neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Oct;55(4):736-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a 7 cm adrenal lesion, confirmed as poorly differentiated neuroblastoma (NB).
  • However, the tumor proved unresponsive to treatment.
  • The patient died from stage IV congestive heart failure (CHF) and progressive NB.


26. Leboulleux S, Deandreis D, Al Ghuzlan A, Aupérin A, Goéré D, Dromain C, Elias D, Caillou B, Travagli JP, De Baere T, Lumbroso J, Young J, Schlumberger M, Baudin E: Adrenocortical carcinoma: is the surgical approach a risk factor of peritoneal carcinomatosis? Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1147-53
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  • CONTEXT: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a rare site of distant metastases in patients with adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • Mean tumor size was 132 mm.
  • Patients had stage I disease in 2 cases, stage II disease in 32 cases, stage III disease in 7 cases, stage IV disease in 21 cases, and unknown stage disease in 2 cases.
  • It was present at initial diagnosis in three cases and occurred during follow-up in 15 cases.
  • Neither tumor size, stage, functional status, completeness of surgery, nor plasma level of op'DDD was associated with the occurrence of PC.

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  • (PMID = 20348273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Shen XC, Gu CX, Qiu YQ, Du CJ, Fu YB, Wu JJ: Estrogen receptor expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2009 Jan;10(1):1-6
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but highly malignant tumor, and its diagnosis is mostly delayed and prognosis is poor.
  • We report estrogen receptor (ER) expression in this tumor and our clinical experiences with 17 ACC cases.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to detect ER expression in tumor samples from the 17 patients.
  • RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis, 4 tumors were classified as Stage I, 4 as Stage II, 3 as Stage III, and 6 as Stage IV.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19198016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2613956
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28. McNutt DM, Holdsworth MT, Wong C, Hanrahan JD, Winter SS: Rasburicase for the management of tumor lysis syndrome in neonates. Ann Pharmacother; 2006 Jul-Aug;40(7-8):1445-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rasburicase for the management of tumor lysis syndrome in neonates.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the management of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) with rasburicase in 2 patients who presented with cancer within the first month of life and compare and contrast both cases with respect to their underlying renal physiology, management, and eventual outcome.
  • One patient was a 21-day-old infant who received 2 days of induction chemotherapy for the treatment of congenital Stage IV-S neuroblastoma.
  • While rasburicase has the potential to provide a rapid reversal of TLS in this patient population, when TLS is complicated by pre-existing acute renal failure, additional interventions and alternative anti-tumor strategies may be necessary for a successful outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Tumor Lysis Syndrome / drug therapy. Urate Oxidase / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / congenital. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neuroblastoma / blood. Neuroblastoma / complications. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Uric Acid / blood

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  • (PMID = 16868218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-0280
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 268B43MJ25 / Uric Acid; EC 1.7.3.3 / Urate Oxidase; EC 1.7.3.3. / rasburicase
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