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1. Yuan X, Balk SP: Mechanisms mediating androgen receptor reactivation after castration. Urol Oncol; 2009 Jan-Feb;27(1):36-41
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  • Androgen deprivation is still the standard systemic therapy for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), but patients invariably relapse with a more aggressive form of PCa termed hormone refractory, androgen independent, or castration resistant PCa (CRPC).
  • Significantly, the androgen receptor (AR) is expressed at high levels in most cases of CRPC, and these tumors resume their expression of multiple AR-regulated genes, indicating that AR transcriptional activity becomes reactivated at this stage of the disease.
  • Recent data indicate that CRPC cells may also carry out intracellular synthesis of testosterone and DHT from weak adrenal androgens and may be able to synthesize androgens from cholesterol.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Castration. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Male. Medical Oncology / methods. Models, Biological. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 19111796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111803; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111803-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
  • [Number-of-references] 79
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS88206; NLM/ PMC3245883
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2. Degraff DJ, Aguiar AA, Sikes RA: Disease evidence for IGFBP-2 as a key player in prostate cancer progression and development of osteosclerotic lesions. Am J Transl Res; 2009 Jan 20;1(2):115-30
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  • [Title] Disease evidence for IGFBP-2 as a key player in prostate cancer progression and development of osteosclerotic lesions.
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that alterations in the IGF axis contribute to the development of chemo- and radio-resistant, advanced-stage cancers.
  • Increased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) is found in advanced cancers of the ovary, breast, stomach, adrenal gland, bladder, CNS, and prostate.
  • Further, IGFBP-2 seemingly has ligand-independent effects that participate in the development and dissemination of advanced cancer cells.

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  • (PMID = 19956425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-8141
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of translational research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Transl Res
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2776314
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Insulin-like growth factor, IGF / androgen insensitivity, AI / androgen sensitive, AS / neoplasm, bone, metastasis / prostate cancer, PCa
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3. Martin DT, Gendron RL, Jarzembowski JA, Perry A, Collins MH, Pushpanathan C, Miskiewicz E, Castle VP, Paradis H: Tubedown expression correlates with the differentiation status and aggressiveness of neuroblastic tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Mar 1;13(5):1480-7
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  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tubedown protein expression was quantitatively assessed in neuroblastic tumors (neuroblastomas, ganglioneuroblastomas, and ganglioneuromas) and normal adrenal tissues using Western blot and OE5 immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: High levels of Tubedown expression are observed in tumors with significant neuroblastic component, unfavorable histopathology, advanced stage, high-risk group, and poor outcome.
  • Tubedown expression may be useful to more accurately define different neuroblastic tumor subsets and ultimately provide more adequate assessment and treatment for neuroblastoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetyltransferases / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17332292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA69276-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.3.1.- / Acetyltransferases
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4. Joseph JM, Gross N, Lassau N, Rouffiac V, Opolon P, Laudani L, Auderset K, Geay JF, Mühlethaler-Mottet A, Vassal G: In vivo echographic evidence of tumoral vascularization and microenvironment interactions in metastatic orthotopic human neuroblastoma xenografts. Int J Cancer; 2005 Mar 1;113(6):881-90
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  • Human neuroblastoma (NB) is the second most frequent solid tumor of childhood and represents a highly heterogeneous disease at clinical and biologic levels.
  • Little progress has been made to improve the poor prognosis of patients with high-stage NB.
  • Tumor progression and metastatic dissemination still represent major obstacles to the successful treatment of advanced stage disease.
  • Tumor growth, vascular properties and metastatic patterns were investigated using a sensitive and newly developed in vivo echographic technology in addition to immunohistochemistry and PCR analyses.
  • Results show that implantation of low numbers of NB cells directly into the adrenal gland of nude mice resulted in rapid and homogeneous tumor growth without tumor morbidity.
  • Nude mice were shown to rapidly develop highly vascularized adrenal tumors that selectively metastasized to the liver and bone marrow.
  • In addition, the newly formed mouse vessels in orthotopic but not in heterotopic tumors, were found to express the highly angiogenic alphavbeta3 integrin marker, indicating the development of a truly malignant neovasculature in orthotopic conditions only.
  • This observation confirms the impact of the regional microenvironment on tumor biology and suggests the existence of cross-talk with the tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Genes, Reporter. Green Fluorescent Proteins / analysis. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Mice, Nude. Mice, SCID. Microcirculation / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Transfection. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15514941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
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5. Socinski MA, Crowell R, Hensing TE, Langer CJ, Lilenbaum R, Sandler AB, Morris D, American College of Chest Physicians: Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, stage IV: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest; 2007 Sep;132(3 Suppl):277S-289S
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  • [Title] Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, stage IV: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition).
  • BACKGROUND: Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a treatable but incurable disease.
  • The one exception is the addition of bevacizumab, an antiangiogenic agent, to carboplatin/paclitaxel in patients with stage IV disease and good PS.
  • In patients with stage IV NSCLC and PS of 2, chemotherapy is recommended, but the optimal approach has not been defined.
  • Because stage IV NSCLC is incurable, quality-of-life issues are important, and tools exist to monitor a patient's quality of life during therapy.
  • Last, patients need to be informed of the implication of the diagnosis of stage IV NSCLC and be educated about treatment options that are available to them.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Advances have been made in stage IV NSCLC, and the appropriate use of chemotherapy continues to evolve on the basis of well-designed clinical trials that address critical issues in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Pancoast Syndrome / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Neoplasm Staging


6. Carlson P, Jefferies JL, Kearney D, Russell H: Refractory dilated cardiomyopathy associated with metastatic neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Oct;55(4):736-8
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  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a 7 cm adrenal lesion, confirmed as poorly differentiated neuroblastoma (NB).
  • However, the tumor proved unresponsive to treatment.
  • The patient died from stage IV congestive heart failure (CHF) and progressive NB.


7. Gounaris I, Rahamim J, Shivasankar S, Earl S, Lyons B, Yiannakis D: Marked response to a cisplatin/docetaxel/temozolomide combination in a heavily pretreated patient with metastatic large cell neuroendocrine lung carcinoma. Anticancer Drugs; 2007 Nov;18(10):1227-30
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  • We report a 52-year-old woman large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma patient with progressive stage IV disease in the chest, liver, adrenal glands and, particularly, the brain, who achieved a marked response to a fourth-line combination of docetaxel, cisplatin and temozolomide.
  • The good response obtained in this heavily pretreated patient adds to the evidence regarding the use of temozolomide in patients with lung cancer with brain metastases.

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  • (PMID = 17893525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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8. Attard G, Reid AH, A'Hern R, Parker C, Oommen NB, Folkerd E, Messiou C, Molife LR, Maier G, Thompson E, Olmos D, Sinha R, Lee G, Dowsett M, Kaye SB, Dearnaley D, Kheoh T, Molina A, de Bono JS: Selective inhibition of CYP17 with abiraterone acetate is highly active in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Aug 10;27(23):3742-8
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  • [Title] Selective inhibition of CYP17 with abiraterone acetate is highly active in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: It has been postulated that castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) commonly remains hormone dependent.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a phase I/II study of abiraterone acetate in castrate, chemotherapy-naive CRPC patients (n = 54) with phase II expansion at 1,000 mg (n = 42) using a two-stage design to reject the null hypothesis if more than seven patients had a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline of > or = 50% (null hypothesis = 0.1; alternative hypothesis = 0.3; alpha = .05; beta = .14).
  • Computed tomography scans every 12 weeks and circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration were performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Androstenols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Androstenes. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19470933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A7851; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / ; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Department of Health / / C51/A7401; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501019
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Androstenes; 0 / Androstenols; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; EC 1.14.14.19 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; G819A456D0 / abiraterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ EMS28710; NLM/ PMC3535569
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9. Bhatia V: Endoscopic ultrasound: imaging techniques and applications in the mediastinum. Trop Gastroenterol; 2010 Apr-Jun;30(2 Suppl):S4-19
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  • Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer is stage dependent, and endosonography helps sample lymph nodes at levels 4L, 5, 7, 8, 9 as well as the celiac, and the left adrenal nodes.
  • Endosonography is the most accurate loco-regional staging modality for esophageal cancer with a T-stage and N-stage accuracy of 75%-85%, and 65%-75%, respectively.
  • Endosonography can triage patients with esophageal cancer to surgery alone, neoadjuvant therapy, and palliative therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / ultrasonography. Esophageal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Granular Cell Tumor / ultrasonography. Humans. Leiomyoma / ultrasonography. Lung Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Sarcoidosis / ultrasonography. Tuberculosis / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20715425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-636X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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10. de Matos LL, Trufelli DC, das Neves-Pereira JC, Danel C, Riquet M: Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review. Lung Cancer; 2006 Sep;53(3):381-6
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  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review.
  • Both cases had IA stage (T1N0M0), positively immunostaining for chromogranin and ACTH.
  • Neither of these patients had hypophysary microadenomas, adrenal adenomas or recurrence of CS after surgical treatment, demonstrating that CS was caused solely by the presence of the bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis


11. Landfried K, Bataille F, Rogler G, Brenmoehl J, Kosovac K, Wolff D, Hilgendorf I, Hahn J, Edinger M, Hoffmann P, Obermeier F, Schoelmerich J, Andreesen R, Holler E: Recipient NOD2/CARD15 status affects cellular infiltrates in human intestinal graft-versus-host disease. Clin Exp Immunol; 2010 Jan;159(1):87-92
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  • Intestinal GVHD was associated with a stage-dependent decrease in CD4 T cell infiltrates and an increase in CD8 T cells in the lamina propria; CD8 infiltrates correlated with extent of apoptosis and consecutive epithelial proliferation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / pharmacology. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / pathology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / pathology. Cell Count. Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Middle Aged. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Neutrophils / pathology. Transplantation, Homologous / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19912254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / NOD2 protein, human; 0 / Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2802698
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12. Debus J, Eberhardt W, Hoffmann H, Passlick B, Rübe C, Thomas M: [The boundaries of curation]. Onkologie; 2010;33 Suppl 5:12-20
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  • Local interventions improve the prognosis of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and can, in many cases, enable long-term survival.
  • This is not just true for early-stage patients but also for selected patients with operable singular intra- or extrathoracic metastases.
  • This article focuses on the use of bimodal treatment in stage IIIA/IIIB disease, exploration of the mediastinum, trimodal therapy in the case of patients with N2 disease identified prior to treatment, curative resection in metastatic disease, and the use of stereotactic radiation therapy in NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20523102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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13. Miyazaki T, Tagawa T, Nakamura A, Yamasaki N, Hashizume S, Matsumoto K, Taguchi T, Morino S, Nagayasu T: [Surgical treatment for stage IV lung cancer]. Kyobu Geka; 2006 Jan;59(1):36-40
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment for stage IV lung cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To find out the optimal surgical indication in stage IV lung cancer patients, we evaluated them retrospectively.
  • The metastatic lesions were lung (33.9%), brain (24.2%), liver, bone, adrenal gland and so on.
  • The overall survival rate of stage IV lung cancer was 10.4% at 5-year.
  • Two were lung and the others were brain and adrenal gland metastasis without lymph node metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Stage IV lung cancer with lung or brain or adrenal gland metastasis without lymph node metastasis should be resected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / mortality. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16440683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Balogova S, Huchet V, Kerrou K, Nataf V, Gutman F, Antoine M, Ruppert AM, Prignon A, Lavolée A, Montravers F, Mayaud C, Cadranel J, Talbot JN: Detection of bronchioloalveolar cancer by means of PET/CT and 18F-fluorocholine, and comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Nucl Med Commun; 2010 May;31(5):389-97
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  • [Title] Detection of bronchioloalveolar cancer by means of PET/CT and 18F-fluorocholine, and comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose.
  • AIM: Bronchioloalveolar (BAC) cancer is a source of false-negative F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) results.
  • We carried out this prospective pilot study to evaluate whether FCH PET/CT could detect lung cancer with a BAC component and could be more sensitive than FDG in this aim.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients (12 lesions) presented BAC or adenocarcinoma with BAC features, two patients presented adenocarcinoma without BAC features (five lesions) and four patients presented benign lesions (15 non-malignant sites).
  • For both FCH and FDG, patient-based sensitivity was 78% for detecting cancer with a BAC component and 82% for detecting malignancy.
  • Site-based sensitivity for detecting malignancy was 76 and 75% for detecting cancer with BAC features, for both radiopharmaceuticals.
  • In these early-stage cancers, only one adrenal metastasis was observed that took up FCH and FDG.
  • CONCLUSION: In this population of patients with ground-glass opacities selected on CT suggestive of BAC or with a history of BAC and a recent lung anomaly on CT, FCH detected all malignant lesions with at least a 2.0 cm short axis.

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  • (PMID = 20145579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5628
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / fluorocholine; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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15. Bodendorf MO, Haas V, Laberke HG, Blumenstock G, Wex P, Graeter T: Prognostic value and therapeutic consequences of vascular invasion in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung Cancer; 2009 Apr;64(1):71-8
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  • All had been treated by potentially curative surgical resection of the primary tumor and systematic lymphadenectomy.
  • In all cases, lymphatic metastatic spread was at its earliest stage and only one regional lymph node was involved, 27.0+/-8.9 nodes per patient being examined histologically.
  • 62.5% were at stage IIB, 25.9% at stage IIIA, and 9.8% at stage IIA.
  • Local recurrence occurred in 10.7% of the patients, distant metastasis in 24.1%, and both forms of tumor progression simultaneously in a further 7.1%.
  • Thus 31.2% of the patients developed distant metastases by hematogenous spread (to the brain, bones, lung, adrenal, and liver, in descending order of frequency), mostly within two years of surgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18790545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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16. Lee SE, Jeon EJ, Oh JH, Shim KH, Lee J, Kim EH, Choi SW, Min KO: [A case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jan;51(1):40-4
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis].
  • The most common metastatic sites of gastric cancer are liver, lung, bone and adrenal gland.
  • However, skin metastases from gastric cancer are relatively rare.
  • We herein report a case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis in a 70-year-old male.
  • Endoscopy and abdominal CT scan demonstrated the stage IV gastric cancer.
  • We suspected that the perianal lesion was originated from gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18349561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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17. Quackenbush KE, Luna-Fineman S, Magee JF, Gundogan M, Golobi M, Irie T, Fernandez CV: Neuroblastoma involvement of the falx cerebri. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;53(7):1337-9
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  • Involvement of the falx cerebri in infants with stage 4 neuroblastoma is thought to be rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dura Mater / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cell Lineage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / genetics. Neoplasm Staging. Neural Crest. Pulmonary Veins / abnormalities. Remission Induction. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Waardenburg Syndrome / complications. Waardenburg Syndrome / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19821537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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18. Hess KR, Varadhachary GR, Taylor SH, Wei W, Raber MN, Lenzi R, Abbruzzese JL: Metastatic patterns in adenocarcinoma. Cancer; 2006 Apr 1;106(7):1624-33
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  • The authors analyzed clinical data from a large number of patients with histologically confirmed, distant-stage adenocarcinoma to evaluate metastatic patterns.
  • METHODS: Tumor registry data were collected between 1994-1996 on 11 primary tumor sites and 15 metastatic sites from 4399 patients.
  • A single organ was the dominant source of metastases in 7 sites: axillary lymph node from the breast (97%), intestinal lymph node from the colon (84%), thoracic lymph node from the lung (66%), brain from the lung (64%), mediastinal lymph node from the lung (62%), supraclavicular lymph node from the breast (51%), and adrenal gland from the lung (51%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Algorithms. Neoplasm Metastasis. Registries / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16518827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Cardinale L, Cortese G, Borasio P, Dogliotti L, Ferraris F, Novello S, Perotto F, Scagliotti G, Fava C: Low dose CT in early lung cancer diagnosis: Prevalence data. Radiol Med; 2005 Nov-Dec;110(5-6):532-43
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  • [Title] Low dose CT in early lung cancer diagnosis: Prevalence data.
  • PURPOSE: Lung cancer has a high mortality rate and its prognosis largely depends on early detection.
  • We report the prevalence data of the study on early detection of lung cancer with low-dose spiral CT underway at our hospital.
  • Six cases of lung cancer were identified, of which four were stage I, one stage was IIIB and one was stage IV with adrenal metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data on spiral CT as a potential new diagnostic tool for lung cancer screening, although less promising than the Japanese and ELCAP results, confirm the feasibility of the technique.
  • [MeSH-minor] Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Radiation Dosage. Smoking

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  • (PMID = 16437039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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20. Wängberg B, Khorram-Manesh A, Jansson S, Nilsson B, Nilsson O, Jakobsson CE, Lindstedt S, Odén A, Ahlman H: The long-term survival in adrenocortical carcinoma with active surgical management and use of monitored mitotane. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):265-72
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumour disease with sinister prognosis also after attempts to radical surgery; better prognosis is seen for low-stage tumours.
  • Despite a high proportion of high-stage tumours (67%), the complete resection rate was high (77%).
  • The disease-specific 5-year survival was high (64.1%); very high for patients with low-stage tumours without evident relation to mitotane levels.
  • Patients with high-stage tumours had a clear survival advantage with mitotane levels above a threshold of 14 mg/l in serum.
  • The results indicate that adjuvant mitotane may be the standard of care for patients with high-stage ACC after complete resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20026647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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21. Müller-Horvat C, Radny P, Eigentler TK, Schäfer J, Pfannenberg C, Horger M, Khorchidi S, Nägele T, Garbe C, Claussen CD, Schlemmer HP: Prospective comparison of the impact on treatment decisions of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer; 2006 Feb;42(3):342-50
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  • [Title] Prospective comparison of the impact on treatment decisions of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma.
  • Patient management and treatment strategies for metastatic melanoma depend largely on the stage of metastatic disease.
  • A total of 43 patients (41 with completed wbCT and wbMRI examination) with known American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage III-IV malignant melanoma were examined and 775 metastases were identified by both methods.
  • In kidneys, adrenal glands and lymph nodes, respectively, wbCT and wbMRI detected the same number of lesions.
  • In conclusion, wbMRI detected clearly more malignant melanoma metastases in most organ systems with the exception of lung metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Decision Making. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prognosis. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16364631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Iwanami T, Uramoto H, Baba T, Takenaka M, Yokoyama E, Oka S, So T, Ono K, So T, Takenoyama M, Hanagiri T, Iwata T, Inoue M, Yasumoto K: [Treatment recommendations for adrenal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 Dec;63(13):1101-6; discussion 1106-8
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  • [Title] [Treatment recommendations for adrenal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer].
  • To evaluate the optimum treatment strategy for metastatic adrenal tumors derived from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we retrospectively analyzed 17 consecutive cases (8 resection cases: 4 synchronous and 4 metachronous: 9 non-resection cases: 3 synchronous and 6 metachronous) who received surgical resection for NSCLC.
  • The mean interval after lung resection and treatment of metachronous adrenal metastasis was 9.9 months.
  • The mean time to progression from treatment of metachronous adrenal metastasis to disease progression was 8.9 months.
  • A survival analysis showed no significant prognostic difference between the patient age, gender, pathological stage, synchronous/metachronous classification, CEA, and site of metastases.
  • The 2-year survival of patients following resection versus those who did not undergo a resection for adrenal metastasis was 62.5 and 22.8%, respectively.
  • These data indicate that metastatic adrenal tumors should be resected if the patient can tolerate surgery after appropriate selection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology


23. Ishido K, Koizumi W, Tanabe S, Higuchi K, Sasaki T, Katada C, Azuma M, Saigenji K, Futawatari N, Saegusa M: A patient with stage IV type 4 advanced gastric cancer who had a complete pathological response to short-term treatment with S-1 alone. Anticancer Drugs; 2008 Oct;19(9):921-5
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  • [Title] A patient with stage IV type 4 advanced gastric cancer who had a complete pathological response to short-term treatment with S-1 alone.
  • Stage IV (cT3, cN3, cH0, cM1) type 4 advanced gastric cancer was diagnosed.
  • The left adrenal gland and the paragastric, mediastinal, and abdominal para-aortic lymph nodes were enlarged.
  • The tumor had shrunk and was severely deformed.
  • Abdominal computed tomography revealed that ascites and enlargement of the left adrenal gland and paragastric lymph nodes had resolved.
  • The primary gastric tumor, resected lymph nodes, and a peritoneal-lavage specimen were all negative for tumor.
  • Histologically, the tumor had a complete pathological response to S-1.

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  • (PMID = 18766007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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24. Groussin L, Bonardel G, Silvéra S, Tissier F, Coste J, Abiven G, Libé R, Bienvenu M, Alberini JL, Salenave S, Bouchard P, Bertherat J, Dousset B, Legmann P, Richard B, Foehrenbach H, Bertagna X, Tenenbaum F: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumors: a prospective study in 77 operated patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 May;94(5):1713-22
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  • [Title] 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumors: a prospective study in 77 operated patients.
  • CONTEXT: Most adrenal incidentalomas are nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs).
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare but should be recognized at an early stage.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) to predict malignancy in patients without a previous history of cancer.
  • Using a cutoff value above 1.45 for adrenal to liver maxSUV ratio, the sensitivity and specificity to distinguish ACAs from ACCs were, respectively, 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.85-1.00) and 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.75-0.96).
  • An adrenal to liver maxSUV ratio less than 1.45 is highly predictive of a benign lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18


25. Akaza H, Labrie F, Namiki M: [A way of thinking of a MAB therapy for local/locally advanced prostate cancer: the theory and recent evaluation]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Apr;34(4):657-69
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  • [Title] [A way of thinking of a MAB therapy for local/locally advanced prostate cancer: the theory and recent evaluation].
  • The MAB (Maximal Androgen Blockade) therapy is a treatment to exert maximal effects of hormone therapy, inhibiting androgen activity derived from both testes and adrenal gland that promotes proliferation of prostate cancer, being proposed by Dr.
  • For efficacy of the MAB therapy, a meta-analysis of randomized control studies with metastatic prostate cancer realized primarily in Europe and America showed the survival benefit of MAB therapy using nonsteroidal antiandrogen agent, which have placed it as a standard therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • However, it was suggested that the better effect of MAB therapy was expected in patients without distant metastasis rather than patients with metastatic prostate cancer, and it was noted that the time to progression (TTP) was significantly improved in patients of stage C in a randomized double-blind control study on bicalutamide+LH-RH agonist vs. placebo+LH-RH agonist conducted in Japan.
  • Labrie et al. suggested that the patients where the cure was expected did exist by continuing long-term MAB therapy against local prostate cancer.
  • Labrie, the importance of MAB therapy among the hormone therapy against prostate cancer, the possibility of MAB therapy as a curative treatment against local/locally advanced prostate cancer and the ideal way of application of hormone therapy were discussed, and the significance was showed to conduct a most effective hormone therapy (MAB therapy) in earlier stage where the androgen sensitivity was noted.

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  • (PMID = 17431361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Conference; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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26. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Cichocki A: Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up. J Exp Ther Oncol; 2005;5(2):125-32
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  • [Title] Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up.
  • Metastatic or regional stage was diagnosed in 15 patients, while localized disease in three patients.
  • In the group of patients with regional or metastatic stage, both the o,p'-DDE levels and the o,p'-DDE/o,p'-DDD ratios were higher in the survivors than in non-survivors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / blood. Mitotane / analogs & derivatives. Mitotane / blood

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  • (PMID = 16471038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-4117
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental therapeutics & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Ther. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 34113-46-7 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)acetic acid; 3424-82-6 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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27. Kushner BH, Kramer K, Modak S, Akhurst TJ, Cheung NK: A focal lesion in the falx cerebri: Harbinger of classic stage 4 neuroblastoma in an infant cured despite residual disease after minimal therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;53(7):1340-2
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  • [Title] A focal lesion in the falx cerebri: Harbinger of classic stage 4 neuroblastoma in an infant cured despite residual disease after minimal therapy.
  • An asymptomatic 11-week-old male received no treatment after he was classified as having a suspected atypical form of MYCN-nonamplified hyperdiploid stage 4S neuroblastoma (NB), with masses in an adrenal gland, subcutaneous tissues, and the falx cerebri.
  • The falx cerebri probably does not represent an atypical site for stage 4S NB, but stage 4 NB with favorable biology is sometimes curable with minimal therapy.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 19711437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA106450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106450; United States / FDA HHS / FD / FD-R-001041
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS342933; NLM/ PMC4079037
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28. Boutros J, Bond M, Beaudry P, Blair GK, Skarsgard ED: Case selection in minimally invasive surgical treatment of neuroblastoma. Pediatr Surg Int; 2008 Oct;24(10):1177-80
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  • Six of the eight (75%) tumors were adrenal in origin and the remainder were located in the posterior mediastinum.
  • Distribution by International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage was: stage 1 (3), stage 2 (2), and stage 4 (3).
  • One stage 4 tumor was N-myc amplified.
  • All stage 4 patients experienced a >50% tumor volume cytoreduction in response to preoperative chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With appropriate preoperative case selection based on anatomic features, MIS tumor resection in patients with NB can be performed safely and effectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18716783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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29. Casey EM, Harb W, Bradford D, Bufill J, Nattam S, Patel J, Fisher W, Latz JE, Li X, Wu J, Hanna N: Randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, phase II study of pemetrexed, carboplatin, and bevacizumab with enzastaurin or placebo in chemonaïve patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer: Hoosier Oncology Group LUN06-116. J Thorac Oncol; 2010 Nov;5(11):1815-20
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  • [Title] Randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, phase II study of pemetrexed, carboplatin, and bevacizumab with enzastaurin or placebo in chemonaïve patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer: Hoosier Oncology Group LUN06-116.
  • INTRODUCTION: : Bevacizumab is approved in combination with chemotherapy as first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: : ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: ≥18 years of age, chemonaïve, stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous NSCLC, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pleural Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Double-Blind Method. Female. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Indoles / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pemetrexed. Placebos. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


30. Cantarovich D, Vistoli F, Soulillou JP: Immunosuppression minimization in kidney transplantation. Front Biosci; 2008;13:1413-32
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  • Kidney transplantation is considered the best treatment for patients with end-stage renal failure, even in extreme age-groups.
  • This chronic, somewhat unselected, inhibition of the host immune system may induce complications, such as cancer and infection, that could counterbalance the benefits achieved by the transplant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Kidney Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 17981639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-9946
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front. Biosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Calcineurin Inhibitors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
  • [Number-of-references] 170
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31. Eloubeidi MA, Cerfolio RJ, Chen VK, Desmond R, Syed S, Ojha B: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph node in patients with suspected lung cancer after positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Jan;79(1):263-8
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph node in patients with suspected lung cancer after positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans.
  • BACKGROUND: The treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) depends on the stage.
  • The reference standard included thoracotomy with complete lymphadenectomy in patients with lung cancer or if EUS-FNA was benign, repeat clinical imaging, or long-term follow-up.
  • RESULTS: There were 104 patients (63 men) with 125 lesions (117 lymph nodes, 8 left adrenal glands) who underwent EUS-FNA.
  • EUS-FNA was more accurate and had a higher positive predictive value than the PET or CT (p < 0.001) scan in confirming cancer in the posterior mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • EUS-FNA documented metastatic cancer to the left adrenal in all 4 patients with advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Esophagoscopy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radiography. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Granuloma / diagnosis. Histiocytosis / complications. Histiocytosis / diagnosis. Histoplasmosis / complications. Histoplasmosis / diagnosis. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Diseases / complications. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / radiography. Lymphoma / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma / ultrasonography. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sarcoidosis / complications. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis. Silicosis / complications. Silicosis / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


32. Russo P, Synder M, Vickers A, Kondagunta V, Motzer R: Cytoreductive nephrectomy and nephrectomy/complete metastasectomy for metastatic renal cancer. ScientificWorldJournal; 2007;7:768-78
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  • [Title] Cytoreductive nephrectomy and nephrectomy/complete metastasectomy for metastatic renal cancer.
  • Between July 1989 and September 2003, we queried our department's renal tumor database for patients undergoing cytoreductive nephrectomy alone or in conjunction with complete metastasectomy.
  • Clinical and pathological factors analyzed included primary tumor size, stage and histological subtype, age, gender, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) prior to nephrectomy, number and location of metastatic sites, and the presence or absence of any systemic therapy.
  • Sixty-four percent of patients had a single site of metastatic disease, with lung the most common, followed by bone, adrenal, brain, and liver.
  • For patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, surgical resection of the primary tumor alone (cytoreductive nephrectomy) or in conjunction with metastasectomy can be accomplished with acceptable perioperative morbidity and mortality.
  • This surgical experience provides a contemporary foundation as new targeted therapeutic agents are integrated into the neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment of locally advanced and metastatic renal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / mortality. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Nephrectomy / mortality. Risk Assessment / methods


33. Kim HM, Ikeda M, Okano M, Miyoshi N, Hirose H, Yamashita S, Takemasa I, Mizushima T, Yamamoto H, Sekimoto M, Doki Y, Mori M: [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2548-50
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy].
  • We report a case of 57-year-old woman suffering from advanced sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence.
  • Sigmoidectomy was performed for sigmoid colon cancer in January 2002.
  • Pathological staging was Stage II (pT3, pN0, pM0, Cur A).
  • However, adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence was detected in February 2007, and mFOLFOX6 was performed as preoperative chemotherapy.
  • She had no recurrence for almost 3 years after a resection of adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Aorta. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Hepatectomy. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21224635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; 1-UFT protocol; Folfox protocol
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34. Lacroix A: Approach to the patient with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Nov;95(11):4812-22
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  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare and often aggressive malignancy that requires multidisciplinary expertise for optimal management.
  • Thorough imaging and endocrine evaluations can identify the majority of ACCs amongst adrenal tumors; however, some smaller ACCs are better identified using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan.
  • Complete resection by an expert surgeon is the only potentially curative treatment for ACC, and tumor spillage should be avoided.
  • Histopathology is important for diagnosis, but immunohistochemistry markers and gene profiling of the resected tumor may become superior to current staging systems to stratify prognosis.
  • Despite complete resection in stage I-III tumors, approximately 40% of patients develop metastasis within 2 yr.
  • Careful replacement of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency after surgery or mitotane therapy is important; steroid excess from remaining tumor burden should also be controlled to avoid its morbidities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21051577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Libè R, Groussin L, Tissier F, Elie C, René-Corail F, Fratticci A, Jullian E, Beck-Peccoz P, Bertagna X, Gicquel C, Bertherat J: Somatic TP53 mutations are relatively rare among adrenocortical cancers with the frequent 17p13 loss of heterozygosity. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Feb 1;13(3):844-50
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  • The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is located at 17p13.
  • TP53-mutant tumors were significantly larger than wild-type TP53 tumors (median tumor weight: 640 versus 185 g; P=0.02), were associated with a more advanced stage of tumor progression (MacFarlane stage IV; P=0.01), and had a shorter disease-free survival (P=0.03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The finding that only a minority of adrenocortical tumors with 17p13 LOH had either a VNTR1 LOH or a TP53 mutation indicates that TP53 might not be the only or major tumor suppressor gene at 17p13 involved in adrenocortical cancer progression.
  • We suggest that a genetic instability of the 17p13 region, occurring early in adrenocortical cancer development, involves various genes located in this region.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Genes, p53. Loss of Heterozygosity. Minisatellite Repeats / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alleles. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Neoplasm / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17289876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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36. Grignon D, Paner GP: Renal cell carcinoma and the renal sinus. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 Mar;14(2):63-8
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  • Renal sinus fat invasion was incorporated as one of the parameters for pT stage definition of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) only in the latest 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer/tumor-node-metastasis staging protocol.
  • The current pT3a subcategory (in addition to adrenal gland involvement) groups 2 modes of extrarenal extension by RCC, either by peripheral perinephric fat extension or by renal sinus fat invasion.

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  • [CommentOn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1218-21 [16145373.001]
  • [CommentOn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1199-202; discussion 1202 [16145369.001]
  • (PMID = 17471114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
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  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • The third was a pediatric patient with a tumor showing a nodule-in-nodule pattern with insulin-like growth factor II expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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38. Li J, Ma S, Kang S, Xie J, Sheng X, Luo R: [Evaluation on survival in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for multimodality treatment with or without operation]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi; 2005 Dec 20;8(6):535-7
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  • [Title] [Evaluation on survival in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for multimodality treatment with or without operation].
  • BACKGROUND: It is uncertain that the effect of multimodality treatment with operation on survival for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Arm A (n=56): 39 cases were at stage IIIA, and 17 at stage IIIB; Median KPS was 80 (range from 70 to 90 ); Multimodality treatment program included operation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and traditional Chinese herb medicine.
  • Arm B (n=58): 23 cases were at stage IIIA, and 35 at stage IIIB; Median KPS was 70 (range from 60 to 90); Treatment program was the same approximately as arm A except for no operation.
  • (1) Metastatic locations in follow-up, in turn, showed as: lymph node, pleural-lung, bone, brain, liver, pericardium, skin and adrenal;.
  • (1) Metastatic locations in follow-up, in turn, showed as: lymph node, pleural-lung, bone, brain, liver, pericardium, skin, adrenal, pancreatic and esophageal metastasis;.

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  • (PMID = 21208544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3419
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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39. Fujino M, Shirato H, Onishi H, Kawamura H, Takayama K, Koto M, Onimaru R, Nagata Y, Hiraoka M: Characteristics of patients who developed radiation pneumonitis requiring steroid therapy after stereotactic irradiation for lung tumors. Cancer J; 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):41-6
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  • BACKGROUND: To find possible risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic irradiation (STI) for peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pre-treatment pulmonary function test and dose volume statistics in patients who developed RP requiring steroid intake were retrospectively compared with statistics of those who did not develop RP.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1996 to 2002, 156 patients with Stage I NSCLC received STI at 5 hospitals in Japan.
  • RESULTS: There were no statistical differences in age, sex, tumor size, performance status, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0%), or percent vital capacity (%VC) between patients medicated with steroids for RP and those who did not have RP and received no steroids.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pre-treatment pulmonary function test (%VC, FEV1.0%), and dose volume statistics V20, total dose, BED, dose per fraction, peripheral dose) were not predictive of RP requiring steroid intake after STI for stage I NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiotherapy Dosage. Respiratory Function Tests. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Stereotaxic Techniques

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer J. 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):19-20 [16613657.001]
  • (PMID = 16613661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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40. Bisenkov LN, Shalaev SA, Orzheshkovskiĭ OV, Platunov SK, Efremov FA: [One-stage operations on the lungs and other organs in multifocal and metastatic cancer]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2005;(4):33-6
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  • [Title] [One-stage operations on the lungs and other organs in multifocal and metastatic cancer].
  • Surgical treatment of 135 patients with multifocal and metastatic cancer of the lungs and other organs is analyzed.
  • Surgical procedures were performed in 109 patients, 37 (33.9%) of them were one-stage.
  • One-stage procedures meet the requirements of radical surgery and are most preferable biologically and clinically.
  • As cytoreductive operations, one-stage resections improve the condition of the patients, enable effective polychemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Digestive System Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagoplasty. Gastrectomy. Humans. Length of Stay. Nephrectomy. Pneumonectomy. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Time Factors


41. Abiven G, Coste J, Groussin L, Anract P, Tissier F, Legmann P, Dousset B, Bertagna X, Bertherat J: Clinical and biological features in the prognosis of adrenocortical cancer: poor outcome of cortisol-secreting tumors in a series of 202 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jul;91(7):2650-5
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  • [Title] Clinical and biological features in the prognosis of adrenocortical cancer: poor outcome of cortisol-secreting tumors in a series of 202 consecutive patients.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 44 +/- 16 yr (range, 11-88 yr).
  • We found that 154 patients (76%) had hypersecreting tumors [mostly cortisol and androgens (47%), cortisol alone (27%), or androgens alone (6%)] and 43 patients (21%) had metastases at diagnosis.
  • Multivariate analysis identified the following independent prognostic factors associated with shorter survival: older age at diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR), 1.03; P < 0.0001], initial MacFarlane extension stages 3 (HR, 4.42; P = 0.005) and 4 (HR, 7.93; P < 0.0001), and cortisol hypersecretion (HR, 3.90; P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: This study highlights the better prognosis of ACC diagnosed at a noninvasive local stage, the particularly poor prognosis of patients with cortisol-secreting tumors, and the beneficial effect of o,p'DDD therapy in this subgroup of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Androgens / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16670169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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42. Tanaka T, Sekimura A, Tanaka H, Tonegawa K, Ogawa K, Haneda H: [Gallbladder metastasis of large cell lung cancer]. Kyobu Geka; 2009 Nov;62(12):1069-72
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  • [Title] [Gallbladder metastasis of large cell lung cancer].
  • A man, who received right upper lobectomy of the lung due to stage IIB large cell carcinoma 7 and half years ago, visited our hospital complaining of right upper abdominal pain.
  • Computed tomography (CT) revealed gallbladder tumor and extended resection of the gallbladder was performed.
  • Pathological diagnosis was adenosquamous cell carcinoma After 1 year and 4 months later, left adrenal gland tumor was found by CT scan, and the surgery was conducted.
  • Pathologically, it was diagnosed as metastasis from lung cancer.
  • By reevaluation of pathology of the gallbladder, the tumor was found to have similar component of resected lung cancer, suggesting the possibility of the tumor to be metastatic.

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  • (PMID = 19894573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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43. Lughezzani G, Sun M, Perrotte P, Jeldres C, Alasker A, Isbarn H, Budäus L, Shariat SF, Guazzoni G, Montorsi F, Karakiewicz PI: The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Mar;46(4):713-9
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  • [Title] The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation.
  • BACKGROUND: A reclassification of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients has recently been proposed by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) to better discriminate between cancer-specific mortality (CSM) risk strata.
  • Conversely, a statistically significant difference was observed between 2008 ENSAT stage II and stage III patients (p<0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards


44. Britvin TA, Kazantseva IA, Kalinin AP, Kushlinskii NE: Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2005 Aug;140(2):228-30
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  • [Title] Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors.
  • Serum levels of vascular endothelium growth factor were measured in 43 patients with adrenal tumors and 25 healthy subjects.
  • The mean blood levels of the factor in patients with adrenal tumors significantly surpassed the control.
  • The levels of this factor were maximum in patients with adrenocortical cancer, but its mean level differed negligibly from that in other morphological variants of tumors.
  • The level of vascular endothelium growth factor tended to increase with increasing the stage of adrenocortical cancer.
  • A direct correlation was revealed between the level of vascular endothelium growth factor and tumor size in adrenocortical cancer and aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • Presumably, vascular endothelium growth factor is involved into mechanisms of growth, invasion, and metastatic growth of adrenocortical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16283008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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45. Butler C, Butler WM, Rizvi AA: Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):441-5
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  • [Title] Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • An 8-cm left adrenal lesion was found on computed tomography, removed surgically, and confirmed as adrenal carcinoma on pathologic examination.
  • Postoperative scanning revealed metastases to both lungs and the liver that were confirmed by fine-needle biopsy, thus establishing stage IV disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib provide targeted oncologic treatment and may be effective in treating advanced adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20061282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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46. Kudo M, Ueshima K: Positioning of a molecular-targeted agent, sorafenib, in the treatment algorithm for hepatocellular carcinoma and implication of many complete remission cases in Japan. Oncology; 2010 Jul;78 Suppl 1:154-66
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  • Sorafenib, a molecular-targeted agent that inhibits tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis by inhibiting RAF serine-threonine kinase and VEGF, PDGF, Flt-3, c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase, was approved in Europe and North America in 2007 and in Japan on May 20, 2009.
  • Factors indicating systemic cancer spread, including multiple liver lesions, lymph node metastases, adrenal metastases, lung metastases and vascular invasion, were completely absent in both cases of CR by 2 and 1 year, respectively.
  • Similarly, three tumor markers (AFP, PIVKA-II, and AFP-L3) completely returned to normal values.
  • According to a subanalysis of the SHARP study, it is expected that sorafenib in combination with resection, ablation, TACE or HAIC will markedly prolong the overall survival in early-, intermediate- and advanced- stage HCCs.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20616599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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47. Schulte JH, Pentek F, Hartmann W, Schramm A, Friedrichs N, Øra I, Koster J, Versteeg R, Kirfel J, Buettner R, Eggert A: The low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75, is upregulated in ganglioneuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma and reduces tumorigenicity of neuroblastoma cells in vivo. Int J Cancer; 2009 May 15;124(10):2488-94
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  • Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial tumor of childhood, is derived from neural crest progenitor cells that fail to differentiate along their predefined route to sympathetic neurons or sympatho-adrenergic adrenal cells.
  • These cell lines exhibited an undifferentiated morphology, and were all derived from aggressive, high-stage neuroblastomas.
  • Taken together, our data suggest that expression of the p75 low-affinity neurotrophin receptor is correlated with a reduced level of tumorigenicity, and that induction of p75 expression may be an option to revert features of an aggressive tumor phenotype.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cohort Studies. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19142969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor
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48. Nevo I, Sagi-Assif O, Edry Botzer L, Amar D, Maman S, Kariv N, Leider-Trejo LE, Savelyeva L, Schwab M, Yron I, Witz IP: Generation and characterization of novel local and metastatic human neuroblastoma variants. Neoplasia; 2008 Aug;10(8):816-27
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  • Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most commonly occurring solid tumor in children.
  • The disease usually arises in the adrenal medulla, and it is characterized by a remarkable heterogeneity in its progression.
  • Most NB patients with an advanced disease have massive bone marrow infiltration at diagnosis.
  • Lung metastasis represents a widely disseminated stage and is typically considered to be a terminal event.
  • Currently, models consisting of metastatic and nonmetastatic cell variants of the same genetic background exist for several types of cancer; however, none exists for NB.
  • SH-SY5Y and MHH-NB-11 NB cells were inoculated orthotopically into the adrenal glands of athymic nude mice.
  • Neuroblastoma cells metastasizing to the lungs were isolated from mice bearing adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Experimental / secondary. Neuroblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Deferoxamine / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Karyotyping. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / secretion. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / secretion. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Survival Rate. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 18683320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; J06Y7MXW4D / Deferoxamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2504768
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49. Miller BS, Gauger PG, Hammer GD, Giordano TJ, Doherty GM: Proposal for modification of the ENSAT staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma using tumor grade. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):955-61
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  • [Title] Proposal for modification of the ENSAT staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma using tumor grade.
  • We hypothesized that incorporating tumor grade into the current European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) staging system would improve the ability to more accurately predict time to recurrence and death.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of patients included in the University of Michigan ACC database from 2005 to 2009 was done; and stage, tumor grade, time to recurrence, and death were recorded and analyzed using the Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
  • There were 28 deaths; overall, tumor grade showed a significant difference in time to tumor recurrence (p = 0.011) and time to death (p = 0.004).
  • Time to death among stage 2 patients separated into those with high- and low-grade tumors reached statistical significance (p = 0.05), and notable but not statistically significant differences were identified in all stages.
  • Based on tumor grade and survival curves, modifications to the current ENSAT staging system were made.
  • CONCLUSION: Tumor grade plays a significant role in the outcome of patients with ACC.
  • The proposed modification of the ENSAT staging system allows for incorporation of tumor grade when predicting overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Staging / trends

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  • (PMID = 20694732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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50. Thompson RH, Leibovich BC, Cheville JC, Webster WS, Lohse CM, Kwon ED, Frank I, Zincke H, Blute ML: Is renal sinus fat invasion the same as perinephric fat invasion for pT3a renal cell carcinoma? J Urol; 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1218-21
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  • PURPOSE: Perinephric and renal sinus fat invasion are classified as pT3a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) according to the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1970 and 2002, 205 patients without direct adrenal invasion underwent nephrectomy for pT3a clear cell RCC.
  • In addition, the risk of death persisted in multivariate analysis after adjusting for regional lymph nodes and distant metastases (RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.26-2.89, p=0.002) and after adjusting for the Mayo Clinic SSIGN (stage, size, grade and necrosis) score (RR 1.90, 95% CI 1.25-2.88, p=0.003).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] Adv Anat Pathol. 2007 Mar;14(2):63-8 [17471114.001]
  • (PMID = 16145373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Sharma S, Sharma MC, Johnson MH, Lou M, Thakar A, Sarkar C: Esthesioneuroblastoma - a clinicopathologic study and role of DNA topoisomerase alpha. Pathol Oncol Res; 2007;13(2):123-9
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  • Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) differs from adrenal neuroblastomas in its histopathologic and biologic characteristics.
  • Three cases recurred locally, one each stage A, B and C, but all low-grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / physiology. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / physiology. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / enzymology. Nasal Cavity / enzymology. Nose Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Proliferation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17607373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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52. Tsuchida Y, Miyauchi J, Kuroiwa M, Suzuki N, Sakamoto J, Suzuki M, Shitara T: Histologic survey of neuroblastomas after intensive induction chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;45(5):656-62
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  • Thirty patients were >12 months of age with stage 3/4 disease, and 4 were <12 months of age but with MYCN-amplified stage 4 diseases.
  • After 3 to 7 cycles (mean, 4.3 cycles) of induction chemotherapy, patients underwent radical surgery of the primary tumor and lymph nodes in all retroperitoneal sections.
  • A single pathologist reviewed all of the specimens, and histologic chemotherapeutic effects were graded as: (+++), <1% viable tumor; (++), 1%-10% viable tumor; (+), 11%-50% viable tumor; (+/-), 51%-90% viable tumor; and (-), >91% viable tumor.
  • Histologically, metastases were found in the contralateral nodes beyond the aorta in 92% of those whose tumor originated on the left, and in 80% of those with tumors occurring on the right.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15929130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Genazzani AD, Lanzoni C, Genazzani AR: Might DHEA be considered a beneficial replacement therapy in the elderly? Drugs Aging; 2007;24(3):173-85
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  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) [prasterone] is typically secreted by the adrenal glands and its secretory rate changes throughout the human lifespan.
  • As menopause is the beginning of the biological transition of women towards senescence, it is of great interest to better understand how DHEA might help to solve and/or overcome the problems of this complex stage of life.
  • In men with adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadism without androgen replacement, DHEA administration results in a significant increase in circulating androgens.

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  • (PMID = 17362047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs & aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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54. Zheng LD, Tong QS, Tang ST, Du ZY, Liu Y, Jiang GS, Cai JB: Expression and clinical significance of heparanase in neuroblastoma. World J Pediatr; 2009 Aug;5(3):206-10
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  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that heparanase (HPA), an endoglycosidase involved in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, is up-regulated in a variety of malignancies.
  • The expression rates of stage 1-2, stage 3-4 and stage 4S were 35.7%, 80.0% and 62.5%, respectively.
  • The differences between stage 1-2 and stage 3-4 were significant (P<0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / enzymology. Glucuronidase / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 19693465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8569
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of pediatrics : WJP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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55. Kuczyk M, Wegener G, Jonas U: The therapeutic value of adrenalectomy in case of solitary metastatic spread originating from primary renal cell cancer. Eur Urol; 2005 Aug;48(2):252-7
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  • [Title] The therapeutic value of adrenalectomy in case of solitary metastatic spread originating from primary renal cell cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Solitary adrenal metastases occur in about 1.2-10% of renal cell cancer patients.
  • Since the vast majority of intraadrenal lesions can be detected preoperatively, we and others have recently recommended to renounce a routine adrenalectomy during surgery of renal cell cancer.
  • However, the impact of adrenalectomy on the patients' clinical prognosis in case of a solitary metastatic lesion within the adrenal gland remains an issue of controversial discussion.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: Between 1981 and 2000, 648 patients (440 males and 208 females) underwent nephrectomy in combination with adrenalectomy in our clinic for the diagnosis of renal cell cancer.
  • The median age at first diagnosis was 59 (range 33-84) and 60 (range 20-85) years for male and female patients, respectively.
  • According to the TNM - classification system (2003) tumor stages were classified as follows: T1, 228 pat. (37%); T2, 70 pat. (11%); T3, 287 pat. (46%); T4, 37 pat. (6%).
  • Although metastases of the adrenal gland were diagnosed in 48 patients, solitary intraadrenal metastases without further systemic spread were observed in only 13 cases.
  • Several patients' and tumor characteristics (age, tumor stage and size, the presence of regional lymph node metastases, the presence of metastatic lesions at different organ sites as well as the detection of solitary intraadrenal metastases) were correlated with the patients' overall survival by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis (logistic Cox regression analysis).
  • The observation that the long - term survival of the latter patients is comparable to that of patients with organ - confined disease might suggest the establishment of a separate TNM - category for patients revealing a solitary metastasis within the adrenal gland and no hint at further systemic metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology


56. Nakagawa H, Yamamoto K: [A case of small cell lung cancer complicated by Cushing syndrome]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Mar;46(3):210-5
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  • [Title] [A case of small cell lung cancer complicated by Cushing syndrome].
  • After a systemic examination, Stage IV small cell lung cancer with Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed.
  • Marked increases in ACTH levels were observed, but no abnormality was found in the pituitary MRI findings, and therefore ACTH-producing small cell lung cancer was suspected.
  • The tumor temporarily began to decrease in size, but hypercortisolemia remained, and thus adrenal hormone synthesis-inhibiting therapy was concurrently administered.
  • Hypercortisolemia is believed to induce the suppression of the immune system, thereby affecting the outcome and QOL more than the immediate symptoms of cancer.
  • Therefore, from an early stage, it is believed that adrenal cortical hormone synthesis-inhibiting therapy should be performed concurrently with chemotherapy, if hypercortisolemia cannot be controlled by radiation and chemotherapy alone.


57. Schilling D, Küfer R, Kruck S, Stenzl A, Kuczyk MA, Merseburger AS: [Somatostatin analogs for the treatment of advanced, hormone-refractory prostate cancer: a possibility for secondary hormonal ablation?]. Urologe A; 2008 Oct;47(10):1334-8
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  • [Title] [Somatostatin analogs for the treatment of advanced, hormone-refractory prostate cancer: a possibility for secondary hormonal ablation?].
  • Almost all patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer under primary androgen deprivation therapy will develop progression, frequently initially marked by an asymptomatic increase of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
  • Recent data showed that taxane-based chemotherapy offers significant survival benefit to patients with advanced prostate cancer; however, the toxic side effects frequently exert a significant negative impact on the quality of life.
  • At the androgen-independent stage of the cancer, before becoming hormone refractory, progression might still be delayed by secondary manipulation of either androgen or confounding receptors and their signaling pathways.
  • Secondary hormonal manipulations traditionally included antiandrogen withdrawal, second-line antiandrogens, direct adrenal androgen inhibitors, estrogens, and progestins.We discuss the mode of action and application of somatostatin analogs as an emerging secondary hormonal treatment concept in patients with advanced prostate cancer on the basis of the current literature.
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Apoptosis / drug effects. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prostate-Specific Antigen / drug effects. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18566791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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58. Wu XR, Zhu MH, Zhang ZD: [Expression of KAI1/CD82 in neuroblastoma and its correlation to prognosis]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jul;24(7):885-9
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  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: KAI1/CD82 was recently detected as a tumor metastasis suppressor gene.
  • Its expression was negatively correlated to clinical stage of neuroblastoma (P=0.003).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Antigens, CD82 / metabolism. Ganglioneuroblastoma / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphatic Vessels / metabolism. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16004821.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD82; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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59. Dong W, Willett KL: Local expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 in developing and adult killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2008 Jan 15;155(2):307-17
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  • In 90 dpf (day post-fertilization) fish and adult fish, CYP19A1 was expressed in the ooplasm of early stage I oocytes (primary growth stage).
  • Expression of CYP19A1 was localized in the follicle cell layer of late stage I (previtellogenic stage) and stage II (vitellogenic stage) follicles, but by stage III (early maturational follicles) CYP19A1 expression was localized in the vitelline envelope.
  • Overall, CYP19A1 oocyte membrane expression gradually declined from highest expression at late stage I to nondetectable levels by stage IV.
  • In addition to the brain, there was strong CYP19A2 signal in adrenal/kidney cells in 6-14 dpf embryos.

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  • (PMID = 17582409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016476; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR016476; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES012710; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES012710-04; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01ES012710; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES012710-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fish Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS38783; NLM/ PMC2254941
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60. Hishida T, Nagai K, Yoshida J, Nishimura M, Ishii G, Iwasaki M, Nishiwaki Y: Is surgical resection indicated for a solitary non-small cell lung cancer recurrence? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2006 Apr;131(4):838-42
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  • [Title] Is surgical resection indicated for a solitary non-small cell lung cancer recurrence?
  • OBJECTIVES: Some investigators have reported long-term survival after surgical resection of a solitary non-small cell lung cancer recurrence in various sites.
  • METHODS: We reviewed 28 patients with a solitary recurrence after successful initial resection of primary non-small cell lung cancer who underwent resection of the recurrent lesion.
  • Recurrence resection was performed for the following sites: 16 in the lung, 5 in the brain, 2 in the adrenal gland, and 1 each in the chest wall, stomach, skin, pelvic lymph node, and malar bone.
  • Advanced p-stage (p-stage II and III, n = 14) of the primary tumor was the significant negative prognostic factor.
  • Patients with p-stage II or III had survival equivalent to that of those who had multiple recurrences or were unfit for further surgical intervention.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Resection of a solitary non-small cell lung cancer recurrence might provide long-term survival in highly selected patients.
  • However, surgical resection might be contraindicated if the primary tumor is stage II or III.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adult. Aged. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16580442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-685X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Pfannschmidt J, Dienemann H: Surgical treatment of oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2010 Sep;69(3):251-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Patients with stage IV metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are generally believed to have an incurable disease.
  • This article discusses the biology of the oligometastatic state in patients with lung cancer and the selection of patients for surgery, as well as the prognostic factors that influence survival of the patient.
  • Patients with resected brain metastasis achieve 5-year survival rates between 11% and 30%, and those with adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis achieve 5-year survival rates of 26%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Prognosis. Survival Rate


62. Giordano TJ, Kuick R, Else T, Gauger PG, Vinco M, Bauersfeld J, Sanders D, Thomas DG, Doherty G, Hammer G: Molecular classification and prognostication of adrenocortical tumors by transcriptome profiling. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Jan 15;15(2):668-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 oligonucleotide arrays, transcriptional profiles were generated for 10 normal adrenal cortices (NC), 22 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), and 33 ACCs.
  • Cluster analysis of the ACCs revealed two subtypes that reflected tumor proliferation, as measured by mitotic counts and cell cycle genes.
  • Multivariate Cox modeling using stage, mitotic rate, and gene expression data as measured by the first principal component for ACC samples showed that gene expression data contains significant independent prognostic information (P < 0.017).

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  • (PMID = 19147773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-209023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-219023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-199023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-219023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-199023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-209023
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin E
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS78831; NLM/ PMC2629378
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63. Khorram-Manesh A, Ahlman H, Nilsson O, Friberg P, Odén A, Stenström G, Hansson G, Stenquist O, Wängberg B, Tisell LE, Jansson S: Long-term outcome of a large series of patients surgically treated for pheochromocytoma. J Intern Med; 2005 Jul;258(1):55-66
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  • Four patients with sporadic disease died of malignant PC and six with hereditary disease of associated neuroectodermal tumours.
  • At diagnosis 85% of the patients were hypertensive; one year after surgery more than half were still hypertensive.
  • Death of malignant PC/PG was unusual, but the patients as a group had an increased risk of death.
  • This strategy would also be helpful in diagnosing cardiovascular disease at an early stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adult. Aged. Blood Pressure / physiology. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Hypertension / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paraganglioma / mortality. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / surgery. Postoperative Period. Preoperative Care / methods. Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15953133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6820
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha
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64. Nuver J, Smit AJ, Wolffenbuttel BH, Sluiter WJ, Hoekstra HJ, Sleijfer DT, Gietema JA: The metabolic syndrome and disturbances in hormone levels in long-term survivors of disseminated testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3718-25
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  • [Title] The metabolic syndrome and disturbances in hormone levels in long-term survivors of disseminated testicular cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The metabolic syndrome may be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in long-term survivors of testicular cancer (TC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included TC patients cured by orchidectomy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy, stage I TC patients after orchidectomy only, and healthy men of comparable age.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-six chemotherapy patients (median follow-up, 7 years) were compared with 44 stage I patients and 47 controls.
  • Adrenal and thyroid hormone production were unaffected.
  • CONCLUSION: We found gonadal dysfunction, but normal adrenal and thyroid function.

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3663-5 [15738543.001]
  • (PMID = 15738540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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65. Bauditz J, Quinkler M, Wermke W: Radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer--a case report and review of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Jul;117(7):316-9
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  • [Title] Radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer--a case report and review of the literature.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the literature, and report the case of a patient with stage 4 ACC who received intraoperative and percutaneous RFA of two liver metastasis according to a standard ablation protocol.
  • RESULTS: Post-interventional imaging in our patient demonstrated that after both interventions, a stellar-like structure of vital tumor tissue had remained within the coagulation necrosis.
  • This was the starting point of a fast and progressive tumor recurrence.
  • We suspect heat-sink effects of blood vessels in the highly vascularized metastasis to cause the tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Catheter Ablation. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19053031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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66. Ohta S, Lai EW, Morris JC, Bakan DA, Klaunberg B, Cleary S, Powers JF, Tischler AS, Abu-Asab M, Schimel D, Pacak K: MicroCT for high-resolution imaging of ectopic pheochromocytoma tumors in the liver of nude mice. Int J Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;119(9):2236-41
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  • Successful outcomes for patients with cancer often depend on the early detection of tumor and the prompt initiation of active therapy.
  • Despite major advances in the treatment of many cancers, early-stage lesions often go undetected due to the suboptimal resolution of current anatomical and functional imaging modalities.
  • This limitation also applies to preclinical animal tumor models that are crucial for the evaluation and development of new therapeutic approaches to cancer.
  • Furthermore, we show that in vivo microCT imaging enhanced using a hepatobiliary-specific contrast agent, glyceryl-2-oleyl-1,3-di-7-(3-amino-2,4,6-triiodophenyl)-heptanoate (DHOG), detected tumors as small as 0.35 mm as early as 4 weeks after the injection of the tumor cells.
  • This model may be useful for in vivo studies of tumor biology and for development of new strategies to treat metastatic pheochromocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 16841334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037685; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS 37685
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS43416; NLM/ PMC2288741
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67. Chuang KL, Liaw CC, Ueng SH, Liao SK, Pang ST, Chang YH, Chuang HC, Chuang CK: Mixed germ cell tumor metastatic to the skin: case report and literature review. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:21
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  • [Title] Mixed germ cell tumor metastatic to the skin: case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer is the most common cancer for males aged 15 to approximately 35 years old.
  • Other metastatic sites include the lung, liver, brain, adrenal glands, gastrointestinal tract and spleen.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year old male was diagnosed testicular mixed germ cell tumor with initial presentation of cutaneous metastasis at scalp and upper abdomen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For advanced stage testicular cancer, cisplatin-based chemotherapy is still effective to achieve partial response.

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  • (PMID = 20331874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851696
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68. Basic-Jukic N, Kes P, Bubic-Filipi L, Brunetta B: Treatment of thrombotic microangiopathies with plasma exchange. Hematology; 2007 Feb;12(1):63-7
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  • Four patients developed chronic relapsing TMA, and three of them progressed to end-stage renal disease.
  • A 74-year old male who developed TMA after prostate cancer died from disseminated malignant disease.
  • Development of end-stage renal disease was associated with poor prognosis.
  • Further studies, long term follow-up and establishment of international registries are needed to clarify many dilemmas associated with the diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of patients with TMA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Aged. Anaphylaxis / etiology. Catheters, Indwelling / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Confusion / etiology. Disease Progression. Escherichia coli Infections / complications. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Kidney Diseases / etiology. Kidney Transplantation. Male. Middle Aged. Plasma. Postoperative Complications / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Retrospective Studies. Syndrome. Thrombosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17364995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8454
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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69. Dubois SG, London WB, Zhang Y, Matthay KK, Monclair T, Ambros PF, Cohn SL, Pearson A, Diller L: Lung metastases in neuroblastoma at initial diagnosis: A report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) project. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Nov;51(5):589-92
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  • [Title] Lung metastases in neuroblastoma at initial diagnosis: A report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) project.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial pediatric solid cancer.
  • We aimed to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with lung metastasis at initial diagnosis using a large international database.
  • PROCEDURE: The subset of patients from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group database with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma and known data regarding lung metastasis at diagnosis was selected for analysis.
  • Cox proportional hazards methods were used to determine the independent prognostic value of lung metastasis at diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Of the 2,808 patients with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed between 1990 and 2002, 100 patients (3.6%) were reported to have lung metastasis at diagnosis.
  • Lung metastasis was more common among patients with MYCN amplified tumors, adrenal primary tumors, or elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (P < 0.02 in each case).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lung metastasis at initial diagnosis of neuroblastoma is associated with MYCN amplification and elevated LDH levels.
  • Although lung metastasis at diagnosis was not independently predictive of outcome in this analysis, it remains a useful prognostic marker of unfavorable outcome.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 18649370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; None / None / / U10 CA098543-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-07
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MYCN protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS123413; NLM/ PMC2746936
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70. Kim YS, Kim N, Kim SY, Cho KS, Park MJ, Choi SH, Lim SH, Yim JY, Cho KR, Kim CH, Kim DH, Kim SS, Kim JH, Choi BI, Jung HC, Song IS, Shin CS, Cho SH, Oh BH: Extracolonic findings in an asymptomatic screening population undergoing intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography colonography. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 Jul;23(7 Pt 2):e49-57
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  • New extracolonic cancer was detected in 0.5% (12/2230), and the majority of them (83.3%) were not metastasized.
  • Computed tomography colonography missed eight potentially important extracolonic findings in eight subjects (0.4%, 8/2230): 0.8-cm early-stage prostatic cancer, six adrenal mass and one intraductal papillary mucinous tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Intravenous contrast-enhanced CTC could safely detect asymptomatic early-stage extracolonic malignant diseases without an unreasonable number of additional work-ups, thus reducing their morbidity or mortality.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biliary Tract / radiography. Blood Vessels / pathology. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Early Diagnosis. Esophagus / radiography. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Kidney / radiography. Liver / radiography. Lung / radiography. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Pancreas / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Stomach / radiography. Time Factors. Urogenital System / pathology


71. Turkbey B, Basaran C, Karcaaltincaba M, Akpinar E, Oguz B, Akata D, Ozmen MN, Akhan O: Peritoneal carcinomatosis in urinary bladder cancer. Clin Imaging; 2008 May-Jun;32(3):192-5
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  • [Title] Peritoneal carcinomatosis in urinary bladder cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to describe the computed tomography findings of peritoneal carcinomatosis of urinary bladder cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Patients with urinary bladder cancer were reviewed from patient database of our hospital, and 384 patients with urinary bladder cancer were identified.
  • Computed tomography scans of 105 patients with urinary bladder cancer were retrospectively reviewed.
  • In two patients, liver metastases were detected; additionally, one patient had accompanying pleural implants and one patient had adrenal gland metastases.
  • Peritoneal involvement was detected in the preoperative stage in five patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis in cancer patients is an indicator of poor prognosis.
  • Detection of peritoneal involvement in urinary bladder cancer patients can alter treatment strategy and may prevent unnecessary aggressive surgical interventions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radiography. Carcinoma / surgery. Contrast Media / pharmacology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18502346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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72. Rodriguez-Galindo C, Figueiredo BC, Zambetti GP, Ribeiro RC: Biology, clinical characteristics, and management of adrenocortical tumors in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):265-73
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  • In recent years, however, new information has been derived from the International Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumor Registry (IPACTR), and new clues to its pathogenesis have emerged.
  • In childhood ACT, age, tumor size, and tumor resectability are the most important prognostic indicators.
  • Outcome is stage-dependent; patients with small, resectable tumors have survival rates in excess of 80%, whereas the outcome for patients with unresectable disease is dismal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Genes, p53 / genetics. Humans. Infant. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Mutation. Neoplasm Staging. Research. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15747338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 71907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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73. Yin ZH, Liu XY, Huang RL, Ren SP: Expression of TNF-alpha and VEGF in the esophagus of portal hypertensive rats. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Feb 28;11(8):1232-6
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  • AIM: To investigate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the development of esophageal varices in portal hypertensive rats.
  • METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in the model group in which a two-stage ligation of portal vein plus ligation of the left adrenal vein was performed, were divided into three subgroups (M(7), M(14), and M(21)) in which the rats were kiued on the seventh day, the 14(th) d and the 21 d after the complete portal ligation.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal and Gastric Varices / metabolism. Esophagus / metabolism. Hypertension, Portal / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15754412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4250721
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74. Loria P, Carulli L, Bertolotti M, Lonardo A: Endocrine and liver interaction: the role of endocrine pathways in NASH. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 Apr;6(4):236-47
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  • Hypothyroidism, for example, might lead to NASH, cirrhosis and potentially liver cancer via the development of hyperlipidemia and obesity.
  • In addition, adrenal failure is increasingly reported in patients with end stage liver disease and in patients who have received a liver transplant, which suggests a bidirectional relationship between liver and endocrine functions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Insufficiency / complications. Female. Growth Hormone / deficiency. Humans. Male. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / complications. Thyroid Gland / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19347015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-5053
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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75. Ravenel JG, Mohammed TL, Movsas B, Ginsburg ME, Kirsch J, Kong FM, Parker JA, Reddy GP, Rosenzweig KE, Saleh AG, Expert Panels on Thoracic Imaging and Radiation Oncology–Lung: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® noninvasive clinical staging of bronchogenic carcinoma. J Thorac Imaging; 2010 Nov;25(4):W107-11
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  • In order to appropriately manage patients with lung cancer, it is necessary to properly stage the tumor.
  • The ACR Appropriateness Criteria is designed to provide an overview of the value of different imaging techniques in the non-invasive staging of lung cancer and allow for the rational selection of imaging studies to arrive at the appropriate clinical stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Radiology / methods. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Bone and Bones / radionuclide imaging. Brain / pathology. Brain / radiography. Brain / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Liver / pathology. Lung / pathology. Lung / radiography. Lung / radionuclide imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Metastasis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Societies, Medical. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. United States


76. Rizk-Rabin M, Assie G, Rene-Corail F, Perlemoine K, Hamzaoui H, Tissier F, Lieberherr M, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Bouizar Z: Differential expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in adrenocortical tumors: autocrine/paracrine effects on the growth and signaling pathways in H295R cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Sep;17(9):2275-85
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  • There was a positive correlation with the prognostic factors, McFarlane stage and Weiss score.
  • The active synthesis of PTHrP is linked to poor prognosis in ACC, in which it may act as an autocrine/paracrine factor in tumor growth and malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism. Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18768493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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77. Yang JY, Yang MQ, Luo Z, Ma Y, Li J, Deng Y, Huang X: A hybrid machine learning-based method for classifying the Cushing's Syndrome with comorbid adrenocortical lesions. BMC Genomics; 2008;9 Suppl 1:S23
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  • BACKGROUND: The prognosis for many cancers could be improved dramatically if they could be detected while still at the microscopic disease stage.
  • It follows from a comprehensive statistical analysis that a number of antigens such as hTERT, PCNA and Ki-67 can be considered as cancer markers, while another set of antigens such as P27KIP1 and FHIT are possible markers for normal tissue.
  • Because more than one marker must be considered to obtain a classification of cancer or no cancer, and if cancer, to classify it as malignant, borderline, or benign, we must develop an intelligent decision system that can fullfill such an unmet medical need.
  • We provided statistical evidence that higher expression levels of hTERT, PCNA and Ki-67 etc. are associated with a higher risk that the tumors are malignant or borderline as opposed to benign.
  • While no significant difference was found between cell-arrest antigens such as P27KIP1 for malignant, borderline, and benign tumors, there was a significant difference between expression levels of such antigens in normal adrenal medulla samples and in adrenomedullary tumors.
  • This research has many potential applications; it might provide an alternative diagnostic tool and a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in malignant transformation as well as information that is useful for treatment planning and cancer prevention.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / classification


78. Fenske W, Völker HU, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Wortmann S, Schmidt M, Morcos M, Müller-Hermelink HK, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):919-28
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  • [Title] Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Owing to the rarity of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) no prognostic markers have been established beyond stage and resection status.
  • Accelerated glycolysis is a characteristic feature of cancer cells and in a variety of tumour entities key factors in glucose metabolism like glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and -3), transketolase like-1 enzyme (TKTL1) and pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK) are overexpressed and of prognostic value.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 167 ACCs, 15 adrenal adenomas and 4 normal adrenal glands.
  • In conclusion, GLUT1 is a highly promising stage-independent, prognostic marker in ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19465749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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79. Hirano H, Yoshida T, Sakamoto T, Yoshimura H, Fukuoka M, Tachibana S, Saito H, Ohkubo E, Nakasho K, Nishigami T: Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma producing hCG. Pathol Int; 2007 Oct;57(10):698-702
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  • An 80-year-old woman with a pleomorphic carcinoma (PC) producing hCG was admitted to Nippon Steel Hirohata Hospital because of an abnormal shadow on CT seen during a follow-up examination after surgery for breast cancer.
  • Macroscopically the tumor was a 4.8 x 4.0 cm well-circumscribed grayish-white mass.
  • On histology the tumor consisted mostly of intermingled spindle and polygonal cells, while evidence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was seen in a few areas.
  • A diagnosis of PC was made due to hCG expression in approximately 20% of the spindle and polygonal cells on immunohistology.
  • Six months after the operation metastasis to the liver and adrenal gland was seen on CT.
  • The patient died due to metastases 1 year after the operation, even though the patient had been at stage 1B at the time of the operation and appropriate chemotherapy had been given.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Carcinosarcoma / metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17803660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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80. Berthelot C, Rivera A, Duvic M: Skin directed therapy for mycosis fungoides: a review. J Drugs Dermatol; 2008 Jul;7(7):655-66
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  • Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a rare neoplasm of epidermotropic CD4+ lymphocytes and represents a majority of all cutaneous T cell lymphomas.
  • Early stage MF is limited to cutaneous patches and plaques that can be treated with topical modalities with high response rates.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Calcineurin Inhibitors. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lasers, Excimer / therapeutic use. Retinoids / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18664158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24-CA86815
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Calcineurin Inhibitors; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Retinoids
  • [Number-of-references] 163
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81. Kremens B: [Systemic therapy in children and adolescents]. Urologe A; 2007 Oct;46(10):1404-6
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  • National and supranational treatment studies are the standard of care for pediatric cancer in Germany; they yield 5-year survival rates of almost 90% for nephroblastoma and germ cell tumors and 60% for neuroblastoma (all stages) and rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The principles of antineoplastic therapy are the same as in adult cancer medicine; the drugs used depend upon the disease.
  • In a multimodal treatment strategy, the role of chemotherapy as well as that of surgery and radiotherapy can differ, as is described for nephroblastoma, infant neuroblastoma, and stage 4 neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Infant. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / mortality. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / mortality. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / mortality. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Survival Rate. Wilms Tumor / drug therapy. Wilms Tumor / mortality. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17823786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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82. Paton BL, Novitsky YW, Zerey M, Harrell AG, Norton HJ, Asbun H, Kercher KW, Heniford BT: Outcomes of adrenal cortical carcinoma in the United States. Surgery; 2006 Dec;140(6):914-20; discussion 919-20
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  • [Title] Outcomes of adrenal cortical carcinoma in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Improvements in the sensitivity of radiographic imaging have lead to an increase in the number of adrenal masses diagnosed.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if technologic advancements have resulted in the diagnosis of earlier-staged adrenal cortical cancer (ACC) and to determine if the survival of patients with ACC has improved over the past 15 years.
  • Changes in demographics, stage, size, and treatment were analyzed by standard statistical testing.
  • RESULTS: We identified 602 patients with a mean age of 53 years and an average tumor size of 11.8 cm.
  • Age (P = .10), tumor size (P = .85), tumor stage (P = .45), and 5-year survival (P = .5) did not change over the 15-year study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Over the 15-year study, patients with ACC were not diagnosed at an earlier stage or with tumors smaller, and survival did not improve.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17188138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Goel MC, Mohammadi Y, Sethi AS, Brown JA, Sundaram CP: Pathologic upstaging after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. J Endourol; 2008 Oct;22(10):2257-61
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  • OBJECTIVE: Accurate tumor staging in renal cancer is critical for prognostic projections, follow-up schedules, clinical trials and potential systemic therapies.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients undergoing LRN for renal cell cancer was performed.
  • Histopathology reports were studied in to determine the p-stage.
  • RESULTS: One hundred twenty three patients qualified for the study; mean age was 62.14+/-13.6 years, M:F ratio was 60:63 and mean tumor size of 5.3+/-2.0 cm.
  • Clinical versus pathologic T stage distribution was T1a=41:37, T1b=43:31, T2=25:12, T3a=11:31, T3b=3:10 and T4=0:2.
  • Upstaging was due to change in tumor size in 12, renal sinus fat involvement in 8, renal or adrenal vein involvement in 14, focal perirenal fat involvement in 6, and focal renal capsule penetration in 4 patients.
  • Mean tumor size was 5.3+/-2 cms at clinical, and 5.0+/-2.6 cms at pathology staging (P=NS).
  • 5 patients had LN metastasis detected with tumor size of 5.5, 5.6, 6.8, and 7.2 cms in diameter, and one patient with LN metastasis was T1a stage (3.2 cm).
  • Renal vein/inferior venal cava/adrenal vein was involved in 14 patients, adrenal was involved in 21 patients and renal sinus was involved in 19/123 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pathologic upstaging of malignant renal neoplasms occurred in about 31% of patients following LRN.
  • Down staging was less common and mean tumor size does not significantly change.


84. Dreijerink KM, Lips CJ: Diagnosis and Management of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1). Hered Cancer Clin Pract; 2005;3(1):1-6
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and Management of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1).
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder, characterised by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, the pancreatic islets, the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands and neuroendocrine carcinoid tumours.
  • Carcinoid tumours of the thymus and pancreatic-duodenal gastrinomas are the most harmful tumour types, since these tumours have malignant potential and curative treatment is difficult to achieve.MEN1 is caused by germline mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene.
  • MEN1-associated tumours can be detected and treated at an early stage through periodical clinical monitoring of mutation carriers.

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  • (PMID = 20223025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-4287
  • [Journal-full-title] Hereditary cancer in clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hered Cancer Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2837063
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85. Nzegwu MA, Aghaji A: Neuroblastoma occurring in a 38-year old Nigerian man: a rare finding. Rare Tumors; 2009;1(1):e15
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  • Accepted unfavorable prognostic factors include age over one year, low histological grade and advanced stage, MYCN amplification, chromosomal aberrations, elevations of neuron specific enolase and lactate dehydrogenase, and increased catecholamine metabolites in urine or serum.
  • In adults, abdomen/retroperitoneum are the primary sites and in children the adrenal gland.
  • Tumor resection revealed a grade III NB.

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  • (PMID = 21139886.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994447
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adult. / neuroblastoma
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86. Hiroi N, Yanagisawa R, Yoshida-Hiroi M, Endo T, Kawase T, Tsuchida Y, Toyama K, Shibuya K, Nakata K, Yoshino G: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal metastases from lung adenocarcinoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jun;29(6):551-4
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal metastases from lung adenocarcinoma.
  • A 56-yr-old man was admitted to our university hospital for severe back pain one month after a resection for lung adenocarcinoma (stage IIIA) without evidence of the adrenal mass.
  • Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed bilateral bleeding of adrenal tumors.
  • Core-needle biopsy was performed on the right adrenal tumor and revealed adenocarcinoma cells mimicking a primary lung tumor previously examined.
  • We diagnosed retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal gland metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma with adrenal insufficiency.
  • Adrenal metastases most commonly originate from a primary lung tumor, followed by stomach, esophagus and liver/bile ducts.
  • Bilateral adrenal metastases were noted in approximately half of all adrenal metastases patients.
  • Clinically significant adrenal hemorrhage by metastasis is exceedingly rare and non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal, chest or back pain, nausea and vomiting, confusion, weakness, hypotension, shock and high fever, are often observed in these patients.
  • We present a case of massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage and adrenal insufficiency due to adrenal gland metastasis from adenocarcinoma of lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Hemorrhage / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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87. Ribatti D, Poliani PL, Longo V, Mangieri D, Nico B, Vacca A: Erythropoietin/erythropoietin receptor system is involved in angiogenesis in human neuroblastoma. Histopathology; 2007 Apr;50(5):636-41
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  • The aim of this study was to correlate microvascular density and Epo/Epo-receptor (EpoR) expression in endothelial and tumour cells to the clinical stage of NB.
  • In keeping with this observation, Epo/EpoR expression in tumour and endothelial cells, respectively, was also highly correlated with the extent of angiogenesis and higher clinical stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood supply. Erythropoietin / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / blood supply. Receptors, Erythropoietin / metabolism. Spinal Neoplasms / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Microcirculation. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17394500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Erythropoietin; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1890992
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88. Moon SB, Shin HB, Seo JM, Lee SK: Clinical features and surgical outcome of a suprarenal mass detected before birth. Pediatr Surg Int; 2010 Mar;26(3):241-6
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  • Most of these masses prove to be congenital neuroblastomas (CNB), but the diagnosis is often confused with other benign lesions and the postnatal management remains to be controversial.
  • RESULTS: There were 13 cases of CNB, 1 adrenal cyst, 2 adrenal hemorrhages, and 2 pulmonary sequestrations.
  • The differential diagnosis was impossible before surgery.
  • Most of the CNBs were stage I (N = 11), with 1 stage IV and 1 stage IV-S.
  • Four patients (3 stage I and 1 stage IV-S) had more than one copy of N-myc gene.
  • The stage I patients were cured by surgery alone, and stage IV patients underwent nine cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and currently have no evidence of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: For early diagnosis and treatment, surgical excision should be considered as the primary therapy for an antenatally detected suprarenal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / congenital. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Ultrasonography, Prenatal
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / congenital. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / diagnostic imaging. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gestational Age. Hemorrhage / congenital. Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging. Hemorrhage / surgery. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19908050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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89. Moon SB, Park KW, Jung SE, Youn WJ: Neuroblastoma: treatment outcome after incomplete resection of primary tumors. Pediatr Surg Int; 2009 Sep;25(9):789-93
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  • PURPOSE: For International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stages III or IV neuroblastoma (intermediate or high risk), complete excision of the primary tumor is not always feasible.
  • Age, gender, tumor location, INSS stage, N-myc gene copy number, pre- and postoperative therapy, and treatment outcome were reviewed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Genes, myc. Humans. Infant. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Isotretinoin / therapeutic use. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / mortality. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm, Residual. Pelvic Neoplasms / mortality. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / mortality. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19629500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Interleukin-2; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
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90. Ambika S, Melton A, Lee D, Hesketh PJ: Massive retroperitoneal adrenal hemorrhage secondary to lung cancer metastasis treated by adrenal artery embolization. Clin Lung Cancer; 2009 Sep;10(5):E1-4
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  • [Title] Massive retroperitoneal adrenal hemorrhage secondary to lung cancer metastasis treated by adrenal artery embolization.
  • The development of adrenal hemorrhage from lung cancer metastasis is extremely rare.
  • A 54-year-old woman with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer and known bilateral adrenal metastasis developed severe right-sided abdominal pain while undergoing chemotherapy treatment.
  • The bleeding vessel was identified as the right middle adrenal artery.
  • The patient underwent successful transcatheter embolization (TCE) and occlusion of the right middle adrenal artery using metallic coils, with resolution of the abdominal pain and stabilization of her hemoglobin.
  • TCE can be used to control hemorrhage arising from metastatic involvement of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Catheterization, Peripheral. Embolization, Therapeutic. Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Hemorrhage / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Flank Pain. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Glutamates / adverse effects. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / adverse effects. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pemetrexed. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology


91. Delahunt B: Advances and controversies in grading and staging of renal cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2009 Jun;22 Suppl 2:S24-36
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  • Independent of tumor grade, the prognostic importance of tumor stage for RCC is well recognized.
  • The Union Internationale Contre le Cancer/American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging and End Results Reporting TNM staging system is now in its sixth edition (2002) and recent refinements have focused on defining size cut points that will identify apparently localized tumors that will develop recurrence and/or metastases despite attempted curative surgery.
  • Questions remain as to the appropriate stratification of regional extension of RCC, as defined in the T3 tumor-staging category.
  • Recent modifications to this category have been suggested combining the level of infiltration of the venous outflow tract with the presence or absence of infiltration of the adrenal gland and/or perirenal fat.
  • Similarly, the utility of classifying lymph node involvement by tumor is debated, although it is well recognized that lymph node infiltration is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / classification. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 19494851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 118
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92. Tibaldi C, Vasile E, Bernardini I, Orlandini C, Andreuccetti M, Falcone A: Baseline elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood is associated with poor survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prognostic model. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct;134(10):1143-9
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  • [Title] Baseline elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood is associated with poor survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prognostic model.
  • PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of several baseline variables in stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer to create a model based on independent prognostic factors.
  • Performance status of 2, squamous histology, number of metastatic sites >2, presence of bone, brain, liver and contralateral lung metastases and elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood were all statistically significant prognostic factors in univariate analyses whereas the other tested variables (sex, stage, age, presence of adrenal gland and skin metastases) were not.