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Items 1 to 100 of about 1992
1. Schteingart DE, Doherty GM, Gauger PG, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD, Korobkin M, Worden FP: Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):667-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare, highly malignant tumors that account for only 0.2% of deaths due to cancer.
  • Given the limited number of patients seen in most medical centers with this diagnosis, series usually reported are small and clinical trials not randomized or blinded.
  • In an attempt to answer important questions concerning the management of patients with adrenal cancer, a consensus conference was organized and held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, MI, 11-13 September 2003, with the participation of an international group of physicians who had reported on the largest series of patients with this disease and who had recognized basic and clinical research expertise in adrenal cortical cancer.
  • In addition to setting up guidelines in specific areas of the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal cancer, the conference recommended and initiated the planning of an international prospective trial for treatment of patients with adrenal cancer in stages III and IV.
  • In terms of new therapies, first trials of dendritic cell therapy in human subjects with adrenal cancer have been started, but it is too early to comment on efficacy.
  • There are no clinical gene therapy trials for human adrenal cortical cancer.
  • The adrenals are a preferred target for adenovirus and the results of gene therapy in preclinical studies are promising.
  • In addition, there is evidence that histone deacetylase inhibitors can further enhance the rate of adenoviral infectivity in human adrenal cancer cells.
  • The use of these and other agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer should be hypothesis-driven and based on a thorough analysis of tumor biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16172199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M 01-RR000 42
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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2. Yoon M, Kim S: Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT. Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Sep;44(3):230-1

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT.
  • We present the case of a 42-year-old man who had experienced intermittent left flank pain for a month.
  • Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) showed intense uptake in the retroperitoneal mass, which mimicked an adrenal cancer.
  • The patient underwent left radical nephroadrenalectomy, and the tumor was revealed to be a pleomorphic liposarcoma upon pathological examination.
  • When there is a large retroperitoneal mass with intense F-18 FDG activity, the possibility of a pleomorphic liposarcoma should be considered.

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  • (PMID = 24899957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1869-3474
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4042936
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal cancer / F-18 FDG / Liposarcoma / PET/CT / Pleomorphic / Retroperitoneal
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3. Wu PP, Kuo SC, Huang WW, Yang JS, Lai KC, Chen HJ, Lin KL, Chiu YJ, Huang LJ, Chung JG: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway. Anticancer Res; 2009 Apr;29(4):1435-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway.
  • Nevertheless, there are no reports to date about the molecular mechanisms and signal pathways of EGCG on the induction of apoptosis in human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect and molecular mechanisms of EGCG on human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • When NCI-H295 cells were treated with 20 microM EGCG, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased and intracellular free Ca(2+) increased in a time-dependent manner as analysed by flow cytometry.
  • Based on the above findings, it was confirmed that EGCG may be a drug candidate for the treatment of human adrenal cancer in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Catechin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Calcium / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured


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4. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Zgliczynski W, Slapa RZ, Cichocki A: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from adrenocortical carcinoma as a poor prognostic factor. Int J Biomed Sci; 2008 Mar;4(1):78-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In most patients, adrenocortical carcinoma is diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease.
  • A sudden retroperitoneal hemorrhage may sometimes be the first symptom of the adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 23675071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9702
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical science : IJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3614665
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal cancer / retroperitoneal hemorrhage / steroids
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5. Mokos I, Bernat MM, Mareković Z, Pasini J: Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy. Coll Antropol; 2005 Dec;29(2):753-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy.
  • We report a rare case of virilizing adrenal cancer with tumorous invasion of the left renal vein in which a retroperitoneal adrenalectomy with bail-out nephrectomy was performed.
  • A tumor thrombus infiltrated the wall of the left adrenal vein and extended into the left renal vein.
  • Initially, a kidney sparing procedure with partial tangential excision of the involved renal vein wall was performed.
  • To the authors' awareness, this is the first report of a virilizing adrenal cancer with a tumor thrombus infiltration of the renal vein and surgical tendency for kidney preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Nephrectomy. Renal Veins / pathology. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16417195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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6. Tsuru N, Suzuki K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Minim Access Surg; 2005 Oct;1(4):165-72

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors.
  • We also reviewed the results separately for aldosteronoma, pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, and primary or metastatic adrenal cancer.Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and effective treatment for adrenal disorders, excluding primary adrenal cancer.
  • It is important for the surgeon to remove the tumor and the surrounding fat en bloc, especially in the case of large or irregular tumors because of the potential for malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 21206659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-9941
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimal access surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Access Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3004118
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cushing's syndrome / adrenal cancer / adrenalectomy / aldosteronoma / pheochromocytoma
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7. Gross MD, Korobkin M, Bou-Assaly W, Rubello D: Incidentally-discovered adrenal masses. Discov Med; 2010 Jan;9(44):24-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidentally-discovered adrenal masses.
  • Unanticipated adrenal masses are frequently encountered in modern, high resolution diagnostic imaging.
  • Most often, these masses are benign adrenal adenomas, but when detected they necessitate a clinical evaluation sufficient to exclude subclinical endocrine disease, primary adrenal cancer, and remote metastases to the adrenal glands from other malignancies.
  • These "incidentally-discovered" adrenal masses or so-called "adrenal incidentalomas" can be further evaluated with CT, MRI, and nuclear medicine imaging techniques.
  • A substantial literature supports the use of each of these modalities to non-invasively characterize these neoplasms that have been considered by some as a 'disease' of modern imaging technology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20102682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7930
  • [Journal-full-title] Discovery medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Discov Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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8. Hirai T, Tsujihata M, Ueda T, Nonomura N, Okuyama A: A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2007 Oct;14(10):952-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma.
  • The association between idiopathic inflammatory myositis and cancer is well recognized.
  • Most descriptions have been of dermatomyositis-associated cancer, however, a few have been of polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer.
  • Here, we report a 69-year-old man in whom polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer was diagnosed.
  • Imaging studies showed a solid tumor measuring 14 x 9 cm in the retroperitoneum.
  • After surgical excision of the tumor, including the left kidney, the serum levels of creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase normalized, and symptoms of myositis disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Polymyositis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17880299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase
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9. Lawnicka H, Kowalewicz-Kulbat M, Sicinska P, Altmann KH, Hofmann T, Stepien H: Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2009 Oct-Dec;22(4):889-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro.
  • However, the role of this compound in the regulation of endocrine-related cancer cell growth and tumor progression remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Lactones / pharmacology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Resorcinols / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50

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  • (PMID = 20074452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / L 783277; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Resorcinols; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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10. Kirschner LS: Editorial: paradigms for adrenal cancer: think globally, act locally. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Nov;91(11):4250-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Editorial: paradigms for adrenal cancer: think globally, act locally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4501-4 [16895957.001]
  • (PMID = 17088440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Schteingart DE: Adjuvant mitotane therapy of adrenal cancer - use and controversy. N Engl J Med; 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2415-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane therapy of adrenal cancer - use and controversy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 20;357(12):1257-8; author reply 1259 [17891838.001]
  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80 [17554118.001]
  • (PMID = 17554125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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12. Imataki O, Makimoto A, Kojima R, Sakiyama M, Hosono A, Takaue Y: Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr;11(2):156-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy in adolescents and young adults.
  • The prognosis of unresectable/metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma remains very poor because the rarity of the tumor has made it difficult to establish treatment guidelines, and diagnosis and the resultant treatment can be greatly delayed.
  • We treated a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma of the right adrenal gland which extended to the inferior vena cava.
  • Although she underwent surgical resection of the extensive tumor as the primary treatment, the disease recurred in the lung and liver as multiple metastases shortly after surgery.
  • A prolonged survival of 39 months after the onset of the disease was achieved.
  • Although this experience is limited, we suggest that TIP chemotherapy was effective for adrenocortical carcinoma, and a graft-versus-tumor effect after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation may have contributed to the prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Graft vs Host Disease. Humans


13. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Cichocki A: Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up. J Exp Ther Oncol; 2005;5(2):125-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up.
  • Metastatic or regional stage was diagnosed in 15 patients, while localized disease in three patients.
  • Mitotane has been administered in daily doses of 3.0 to 10.0 g in metastatic and regional stages, and 1.5 to 4.0 g in the localized disease, simultaneously with hydrocortisone, prednisolone and fludrocortisone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / blood. Mitotane / analogs & derivatives. Mitotane / blood

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  • (PMID = 16471038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-4117
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental therapeutics & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Ther. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 34113-46-7 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)acetic acid; 3424-82-6 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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14. Owecki M, Baszko-Błaszyk D, Waśko R, Sowiński J: [Non-small cell lung cancer presenting under the mask of a primary adrenal cancer--case report]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Feb;18(104):216-8
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  • [Title] [Non-small cell lung cancer presenting under the mask of a primary adrenal cancer--case report].
  • Adrenal carcinoma is a malignant disease that often results in distant metastases to different organs, including the lungs.
  • While diagnosing patients with suspected adrenal carcinoma, metastases to the lungs should always be considered.
  • The opposite clinical situation also should be considered, i.e. lung cancer metastases to the adrenal gland.
  • Both conditions may have a very similar course and their differential diagnosis may be sometimes very difficult.
  • However, proper diagnosis is of great importance because both diseases are treated by different means.
  • We present a case of a 50-year-old female patient with a small primary focus of non-small cell lung carcinoma and its large metastasis to the left adrenal gland, accompanied by SIADH and paraneoplastic hypercalcemia.
  • In the presented case adrenal carcinoma and its lung metastasis were primarily misdiagnosed which led to unnecessary laparotomy.
  • The proper diagnosis was enabled by CT guided biopsy of the lung tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Diagnostic Errors. Lung Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Unnecessary Procedures


15. Paliutko IuI, Gakhramanov AD: [Successful surgical treatment of adrenal cancer with repeated metastasis]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2008;(12):51-3
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  • [Title] [Successful surgical treatment of adrenal cancer with repeated metastasis].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy / methods. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19938263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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16. Srinivas S, Harshman L, Hauke RJ: Sorafenib monotherapy in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell cancer: preliminary results of a phase II intra-patient dose-escalation study. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e14564

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sorafenib monotherapy in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell cancer: preliminary results of a phase II intra-patient dose-escalation study.
  • METHODS: Patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell with clear cell histology were enrolled at Stanford University and the University of Nebraska Medical Center.
  • Sites of metastases included lung, nodes, liver, adrenal glands, and bone.
  • One pathologic complete response was obtained after a patient underwent metastectomy of adrenal gland after 4 cycles.
  • One patient achieved a partial response and seven experienced disease stabilization.

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  • (PMID = 27963689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Pineda C, Cadogan KV, Cadogan MA: Distribution of metastases in NSCLC: Economic impact of imaging. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e19036

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This compares with 42 patients with adrenal metastases, 81 with liver metastases, 80 with bone metastases, 112 with hilar adenopathy, and 159 with mediastinal adenopathy. (See Table ) Conclusions: The cost of a CT of the pelvis varies, but is estimated at approximately $2000[Fred, Herbert L., MD, MACP.
  • SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2005.
  • National Cancer Institute. 03JAN2009. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2005/ .].

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  • (PMID = 27962121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Krsek M: [Adrenal cancer]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Jan;55(1):54-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinom kůry nadledvin.
  • Adrenal cancer is a rare disease which is often diagnosed at a late stage and usually has a poor prognosis.
  • Further, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and current treatment options in patients with adrenal cancer are summarized.
  • The multidisciplinary approach as well as centralized care is necessary for successful management of patients with adrenal cancer and for improvement of their poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms

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  • [CommentIn] Vnitr Lek. 2009 Jan;55(1):6 [19227948.001]
  • (PMID = 19227956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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19. Schteingart DE, Benitez R, Bradford C, Narayan A, Wang S: Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4805-9
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  • [Title] Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that response of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) to pro-apoptosis drugs depends on expression of anti-apoptosis genes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins was determined in two human adrenal cancer cell lines, NCI-H-295 and RL-251.
  • Profiling adrenal tumors for expression of anti-apoptosis genes may provide clues to their potential response to drugs that induce apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. bcl-X Protein / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Genes, bcl-2. Gossypol / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Taxoids / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 21187456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
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20. Dahlberg SE, Sandler AB, Brahmer JR, Schiller JH, Johnson DH: Clinical course of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (pts) experiencing hypertension (HTN) during treatment (TX) with bevacizumab (B) in combination with carboplatin (C) and paclitaxel (P) on E4599. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):8042

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical course of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (pts) experiencing hypertension (HTN) during treatment (TX) with bevacizumab (B) in combination with carboplatin (C) and paclitaxel (P) on E4599.
  • Results for high BP remained statistically significant after adjusting for sex, PS, histology, adrenal, liver and bone mets.

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  • (PMID = 27962851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Presant CA, Bosserman L, Howard F, Emilio B: Patterns of metastatic (met) disease sites in breast cancer (BrCa): Implications for availability of fresh tumor tissue (FTT) for personalized BrCa treatment (Rx) planning (TP) in met disease. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e12004

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patterns of metastatic (met) disease sites in breast cancer (BrCa): Implications for availability of fresh tumor tissue (FTT) for personalized BrCa treatment (Rx) planning (TP) in met disease.
  • This study was performed to determine the availability of FTT in a multi-site cancer center.
  • Single site was the pattern in only 9% of liver, 7% of lung, 32% of bone, 0% of adrenal 6% of skin, but 71% of brain mets.
  • In order to theoretically obtain FTT for development of a personalized TP based on an algorithm preferring in order local bx > para/thoracentesis, > non-osseous needle bx > video-assisted tissue bx > osseous bx, 18% of PTs would have had a local bx, 3% para/thoracentesis, 23% liver bx, 19% lung bx, 17% bone bx, and 12% would not have had a bx because of brain-only mets.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most BrCa PTs in oncology practices have only locoregional disease.
  • FTT acquisition would be feasible for 88% of PTs with mets for personalized TP, and in most the bx would be simple and non-invasive.

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  • (PMID = 27964266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Golshayan AR, Elson P, Wood LS, Garcia JA, Dreicer R, Rini BI: Association of tumor burden characteristics with outcomes in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with sunitinib. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):5043

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association of tumor burden characteristics with outcomes in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with sunitinib.
  • : 5043 Background: An important goal of non-curative therapy for mRCC is tumor burden (TB) control.
  • However, the impact of tumor burden characteristics on clinical outcome has not been studied in mRCC pts treated with VEGF-targeted therapy.
  • CT scan images were re-reviewed from baseline, at the time of maximal tumor burden shrinkage (TS), at time of disease progression and at time of last assessment prior to death.
  • The majority (54%) were favorable risk based on CCF TKI risk group classification.
  • Sites of metastases included: lung (87%), mediastinal lymph nodes (52%), retroperitoneal lymph nodes (36%), adrenal (29%), bone (38%), liver (22%), pancreas (14%), kidney (7%), and brain (6%).
  • In multivariable analysis, disease confined to above the diaphragm (p = 0.03) and total TB <13cm (p = 0.09) prior to sunitinib were independent positive predictors of PFS.
  • Total number of metastases <10 (p < 0.001) and tumor volume above the diaphragm <6.5 cm (p = 0.05) were independent positive predictors of OS.
  • At time of disease progression (PD), tumor location and pattern of progression were not associated with OS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor burden shrinkage and tumor burden at time of disease progression are associated with overall survival in pts with mRCC treated with sunitinib.

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  • (PMID = 27962954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Kato M, Higashihara E: [Urological cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Sep;32(9):1255-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Urological cancer].
  • We reported laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer, our experience of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, radical prostatectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Nephrectomy. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16184920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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24. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • New therapeutic options are tumor vaccination and treatment with antiangiogenic drugs.
  • Metaiodobenzylguanidine as a radiotherapeutic drug or chemotherapeutic combination therapies that include cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine are applied for systemic treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas.. However, the clinical efficacy of the latter regimen needs further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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25. Haleblian GE, Wilson C, Haddad D, Albala DM: Adrenocortical carcinoma: role of laparoscopic surgery in treatment. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2007 Sep;7(9):1295-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disorder with a prevalence of one case per 1.7 million people and a generally poor prognosis.
  • It accounts for 0.02% of all cancer cases and 0.2% of cancer deaths.
  • Within the past three decades, accurate diagnosis, precise radiologic localization, satisfactory preoperative medical management, appropriate anesthesia and refined surgical techniques have come together to render the surgical management of adrenal abnormalities a safe endeavor with predictable outcomes.
  • While there is a general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions, controversy remains regarding the use of laparoscopy for suspected adrenal malignancies.
  • This paper provides an overview of adrenal cancer and reviews the literature on laparoscopic adrenalectomy for cancer, including the operative techniques, indications and contraindications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17892430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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26. Murray SA, Nickel BM, Gay VL: Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):51-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis.
  • In the adrenal gland, as in most other tissues, intercellular communication provides the potential for regulation of a number of complex interactive cell processes including differentiation, steroidogenesis, migration, and proliferation.
  • This review is concerned with the regulation of gap junctions and cell function in cortical cells of the adrenal gland and in pathological disorders such as adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Cell Proliferation. Gap Junctions / metabolism. Steroids / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Animals. Cell Movement / physiology. Connexins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18973789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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27. Strosberg JR, Hammer GD, Doherty GM: Management of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Jul;7(7):752-8; quiz 759
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors that arise from the cortex of the adrenal gland with an incidence 1 to 2 per million.
  • The rarity of this tumor translates into a paucity of experience in managing patients in most medical centers.
  • This article describes the basic diagnostic and prognostic issues in adrenal cancer management, and presents detailed rationales for therapeutic management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Catecholamines / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Metanephrine / analysis. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19635227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Catecholamines; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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28. Gazymov MM, Filipov DS: [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes]. Urologiia; 2005 Sep-Oct;(5):9-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes].
  • A total of 128 adrenalectomies were made for catechol-producing tumor (n = 69), mineralocorticism (n = 27), primary and metastatic adrenal cancer (n = 20), other tumors (n = 12).
  • The rest patients improved, i.e. their malignant hypertension converted to a benign one.
  • If cancer involves the upper segment of the kidney, the tumor often invades the adrenal.
  • Therefore, pre- and intraoperative search for adrenal tumor must be made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hypertension / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16281831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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29. Pawlikowski M, Winczyk K, Sledź B: Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(1):51-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors.
  • Angiotensin II is well known to affect the adrenal cell growth and function.
  • Angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 were found to be present in the normal adrenal gland.
  • However, the data on the expression of the angiotensin receptors in the adrenal tumors are very scarce.
  • To overcome this gap, the paraffin sections of the adrenal cortical tumors and of pheochromocytomas from the archival material were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 (sc-1173) and AT2 (sc-9040) receptor proteins.
  • In hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and in benign adrenocortical adenomas, both functioning and non-functioning, the AT1 immunostaining was present mainly in the cell membranes.
  • In the adrenal cancer, as well as in pheochromocytomas, neither cell membranes nor cell nuclei were immunostained with anti-AT1 antibody.
  • Our data indicates that the expression of AT1 receptors is altered in adrenal cancer and in pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18296263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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30. Montoya M, Brown JW, Fishman LM: Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):302-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that is usually fatal within a short time after diagnosis.
  • We have investigated the effects on the growth and survival of SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture of some currently used and some potentially new agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer.
  • All the other agents tested required much higher doses for effect, including mitotane, the current most commonly used chemotherapy for adrenal cancer, with an EC (50) of 3.3x10 (-4) M.
  • These data suggest that paclitaxel, 2-methoxyestradiol, and cytosine arabinofuranoside should be further evaluated for their potential in the chemotherapy of adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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31. Haghpanah V, Soliemanpour B, Heshmat R, Mosavi-Jarrahi AR, Tavangar SM, Malekzadeh R, Larijani B: Endocrine cancer in Iran: based on cancer registry system. Indian J Cancer; 2006 Apr-Jun;43(2):80-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocrine cancer in Iran: based on cancer registry system.
  • BACKGROUND: A population-based registry of endocrine cancer cases in four Iranian provinces, was performed for the years 1996-2000.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in each province were grouped according to age, gender and tumor specifics (site, morphology, behavior) and the data was coded according to the international classification of diseases for oncology.
  • RESULTS: A total of 319 cases of primary endocrine cancer were found and registered, including 313 cases of thyroid carcinoma and 6 cases of adrenal cancer.
  • For the 6 cases of adrenal cancer, 4 were neuroblastoma and 2 were pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Iodine / metabolism. Iran / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16790945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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32. Narimoto K, Mizokami A, Izumi K, Mihara S, Sawada K, Sugata T, Shimamura M, Miyazaki K, Nishino A, Namiki M: Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen. Int J Urol; 2010 Apr;17(4):337-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical effects of flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen for combined androgen blockade in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) initially treated with bicalutamide as a first-line anti-androgen.
  • Furthermore, adrenal androgen levels in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line were also measured.
  • In vitro, 3 micromol/L flutamide suppressed DHEA, androstenedione and androstenediol synthesis compared with bicalutamide in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that flutamide suppresses the adrenal androgens in comparison with bicalutamide.
  • Metabolites from adrenal androgens contribute to the progression of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Androgens / blood. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / secretion. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy


33. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Rosłonowska E, Kochman M, Jeske W, Otto M, Cichocki A, Słapa RZ, Zgliczyński W: Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):69-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre.
  • INTRODUCTION: During the last 22 years we registered 1790 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumours (AI, adrenal incidentalomas).
  • The group of patients with bilateral adrenal tumours included 258 women and 93 men, 25-83 years old.
  • Hormonal investigations and imaging examinations were performed to search for subclinical adrenal hyperfunction and to define the malignant potential of the tumours.
  • Histological findings included malignant tumours: metastases - 9, adrenal cancer - 7, and lymphomas - 5; and non-malignant tumours: adenomas - 24, nodular hyperplasia - 14, myelolipomas - 4, and pheochromocytomas - 4.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Indications for surgery were recommended in 20% of patients with bilateral AI, most frequently for adenomas, nodular hyperplasia, and oncological pathologies, with a good prognosis in the non-malignant group. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 69-73).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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34. Otsuki H, Ito K, Kosaka T, Mikami H, Yoshii H, Asakuma J, Kaji T, Asano T, Hayakawa M: [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Dec;53(12):879-82
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report].
  • Right adrenal tumor was found by computed tomography and he was referred to our hospital.
  • Imaging studies revealed right adrenal tumor (8 cm) with marked swelling of surrounding lymph nodes and synchronous left renal tumor (2 cm) that was weakly enhanced by contrast media.
  • Needle biopsy of the left kidney proved to be clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the preoperative diagnosis was left RCC and right primary adrenal cancer with lymph node metastasis.
  • Pathological findings of right adrenal tumor and lymph nodes were both metastatic adenocarcinoma, which was not consistent with RCC or adrenal-derived carcinoma.
  • According to pathological findings and an elevation of carcinoembryogenic antigen, the adrenal lesion was diagnosed as adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary


35. Mezhir JJ, Song J, Piano G, Testa G, Raman J, Al-Ahmadie HA, Angelos P: Adrenocortical carcinoma invading the inferior vena cava: case report and literature review. Endocr Pract; 2008 Sep;14(6):721-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a man with a right-sided adrenocortical carcinoma that invaded the inferior vena cava and was managed by radical resection and vein patch repair.
  • RESULTS: In a 34-year-old man with new-onset abdominal pain, abdominal imaging disclosed a large right adrenal mass with invasion into the inferior vena cava.
  • Laboratory values revealed that the adrenal mass was likely nonfunctional.
  • At surgical intervention with use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the mass was removed en bloc with the adrenal gland, right kidney, and the wall of the inferior vena cava, and the inferior vena cava was reconstructed with bovine pericardium.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite direct invasion or extension of tumor thrombus into the inferior vena cava (or both), complete (R0) resection can be obtained.
  • Thus, this scenario should not preclude attempted curative resection in patients with adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18996792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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36. Giordano TJ: Adrenocortical tumors: an integrated clinical, pathologic, and molecular approach at the University of Michigan. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Oct;134(10):1440-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: The University of Michigan Health System has a rich tradition in the study and treatment of endocrine neoplasia.
  • Recently, an integrated clinical and research program focused on primary cancer of the adrenal gland has been developed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the foundation of the University of Michigan Adrenal Cancer Program that consists of 3 components:.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20923297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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37. Maru S, Yamashita N, Shinno Y: [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 May;98(4):643-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report].
  • A 79-year-old man was consulted to our hospital for further examination of right adrenal tumor shown by computed tomography.
  • 131I-adosterol scintigram showed decreased uptake on the right adrenal.
  • Right adrenalectomy was done in consider to adrenal cancer.
  • By the pathological findings and the serological tests (ELISA, and Western Blot examination), the tumor was diagnosed as an adrenal multilocular echinococcosis.
  • In Europe, the primary hydatid cyst is found in the adrenal in only 0.05% of the total case.
  • Moreover, adrenal multilocular echinococcosis is extremely rare case, and is not presented yet in the world.
  • By the patient' s residential history, echinococcosis shoud be considered to differential diagnosis of the adrenal tumor in urology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Echinococcosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aged. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Echinococcus multilocularis / isolation & purification. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17564109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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38. Ramírez Plaza CP, Santoyo Santoyo J, Domínguez López ME, Eloy-García Carrasco C, Cobo Dols M, Suárez Muñoz MA, Fernández Aguilar JL, de la Fuente Perucho A: [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 Mar;58(2):115-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarrenal: supervivencia a 7 años libre de enfermedad tras resección completa del tumor primario y resecciones repetidas de recidivas locorregional y a distancia. Revisión a raiz de un caso con una pobre esperanza de vida inicial.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a female patient with adrenal carcinoma who had undergone surgery and presented with local-regional and distant recurrences, emphasizing the importance of the aggressive surgical treatment to achieve long-term survival which is unexpected sometimes.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who consulted for left flank pain, being diagnosed of an adrenal tumor by radiological tests; she underwent surgical excision of a left adrenal carcinoma (stage II).
  • Currently, the patient is alive and free of disease 7 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal cancer recurrences have been considered lethal in the short-term.
  • Nevertheless, an aggressive surgical approach of local recurrences and metastasic disease may significantly prolong patient's survival and, sometimes, leave the patient disease free several years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15847268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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39. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Adrenal imaging with multidetector CT: evidence-based protocol optimization and interpretative practice. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1319-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal imaging with multidetector CT: evidence-based protocol optimization and interpretative practice.
  • Computed tomography (CT) is an integral tool in the assessment of adrenal masses.
  • Dedicated adrenal CT is performed for a range of indications, including hormonal abnormalities suggestive of a functional adrenal mass and adrenal cancer staging.
  • Whether an adrenal mass is identified serendipitously or is being imaged for further characterization, there are several CT findings that contribute to the diagnosis, such as lesion size, precontrast attenuation, level of enhancement at 60 seconds and on delayed images, percentage washout on delayed images, histogram analysis, and extent (involvement of the inferior vena cava and bilaterality).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Evidence-Based Medicine. Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • [ErratumIn] Radiographics. 2009 Nov;29(7):2198
  • (PMID = 19755598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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40. Butler C, Butler WM, Rizvi AA: Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):441-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • An 8-cm left adrenal lesion was found on computed tomography, removed surgically, and confirmed as adrenal carcinoma on pathologic examination.
  • Postoperative scanning revealed metastases to both lungs and the liver that were confirmed by fine-needle biopsy, thus establishing stage IV disease.
  • Treatment with the adrenolytic agent mitotane failed to halt disease progression.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib provide targeted oncologic treatment and may be effective in treating advanced adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20061282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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41. Stell A, Sinnott R, Jiang J: Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research. Stud Health Technol Inform; 2010;159:259-63

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research.
  • One such collaboration, which spans several specialist centres across France, Germany, Italy and the UK, is ENSAT - the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors.
  • We describe the architecture, implementation and use to date of this facility to support the ENSAT adrenal cancer research network.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Biomedical Research. Cooperative Behavior. Neoplasms. Public Health Informatics

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  • (PMID = 20543447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9630
  • [Journal-full-title] Studies in health technology and informatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stud Health Technol Inform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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42. Stratakis CA: Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias (corticotropin- independent Cushing syndrome). Endocr Dev; 2008;13:117-32
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  • Endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) is caused by excess adrenal glucocorticoid secretion that is adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-dependent or independent; ACTH-independent adrenocortical causes of CS account for up to 20% of CS in adults, and 15% in children over age 7 years.
  • In both adults and children, adrenocortical lesions causing CS include the common, isolated and sporadic, solitary cortisol-producing adenoma, the rare adrenocortical cancer, and a spectrum of recently recognized, bilateral hyperplasias (bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias, BAHs): micronodular adrenal disease and its pigmented variant, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease are mostly genetic processes.
  • Macronodular BAHs, ACTH-independent macronodular hyperplasia or massive macronodular adrenocortical disease are less frequently genetic and almost never present in children (except in McCune-Albright syndrome); they present often with atypical CS in middle-aged or elderly adults.
  • The majority of benign adrenocortical tumors associated with CS are associated with defects of the cAMP signaling pathway, whereas adrenal cancer is linked to aberrant expression of growth factors and germline or somatic mutations of tumor suppressor genes such as TP53.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cyclic AMP / physiology. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18493137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-7082
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD000642-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307822; NLM/ PMC3132884
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43. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.
  • Conversion to an open procedure should be an early decision, prior to tumor morcellation or fracture of the tumor capsule.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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44. Kanczkowski W, Tymoszuk P, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Wirth MP, Zacharowski K, Bornstein SR: Abrogation of TLR4 and CD14 expression and signaling in human adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;95(12):E421-9
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  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis.
  • The expression of innate immunity receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was recently reported in various human tumors, and TLR4 was shown to regulate tumor immune escape processes, proliferation, and resistance to chemotherapeutical agents.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate TLR4 expression, signaling, and function in the process of tumorigenesis in the human adrenal cortex.
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Real-time PCR analysis of human ACC (n=8), adenoma (n=8), and ACC cell lines (SW13, NCI-H295R, and HAC15) revealed a significant down-regulation of TLR4, MD2 (myeloid differentiation protein-2), and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) mRNA compared with normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical cells in primary culture.
  • Restoration of TLR4 signaling by stable transfection of TLR4-CD14 plasmid into NCI-H295R cells sensitized them to lipopolysaccharide incubation as shown by nuclear factor-κB activation and decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in these cells.
  • Furthermore, our data show that reintroduction of TLR4 expression in ACCs may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Antigens, CD14 / genetics. Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adult. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reference Values

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  • (PMID = 20826579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TLR4 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4
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45. Cherifi-Gatta B, Gaye D, Laurent F, Tabarin A: [Adrenal incidentalomas]. Rev Prat; 2008 May 15;58(9):979-89
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalomes et tumeurs de la loge de la surrénale.
  • The adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass, generally more than 1 cm in diameter, that is discovered serendipitously during a radiologic examination performed for indications other than an evaluation of adrenal disease.
  • The prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas is at least 1% in patients who underwent abdominal CT examination.
  • Surgery is mandatory in patients with secretory tumours (pheochromocytoma, secreting cortical adenomas) and with adrenal cancer.
  • However, the vast majority of adrenal incidentalomas are benign cortical adenomas and surgery is mandatory only in a minority of patients.
  • Systematic aetiological investigation of adrenal incidentalomas should therefore be performed in order to guide the decision on surgical or non surgical management.
  • The optimal duration and modalities of follow-up for patients with adrenal incidentalomas are uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18672664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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46. Wolkersdörfer GW, Marx C, Brown J, Schröder S, Füssel M, Rieber EP, Kuhlisch E, Ehninger G, Bornstein SR: Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1768-74
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  • A distinctive feature of malignant adrenocortical neoplasms is decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression.
  • Therefore, MHC class II phenotype and genotype and expression patterns of the Fas/Fas ligand system were investigated in 24 adrenocortical tumors (n(Adenomas) = 14, n(Carcinomas) = 10) and an adrenal cancer cell line (NCI-H295).
  • In summary, the DRB1*01 genotype may be correlated to a higher risk for malignancy.
  • Additional studies on MHC class II genotype and phenotype and the altered Fas/Fas ligand system in adrenal neoplasms may help to identify mechanisms of immune escape and suggest new diagnostic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Fas Ligand Protein. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology. Genotype. HLA-DRB1 Chains. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15585555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DRB1 Chains; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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47. Nagase H, Yokouchi H, Ide Y, Okada K, Yanagisawa T, Mukai R, Ota H, Maruyama K, Murata K, Kinuta M: [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2747-9
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  • [Title] [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma].
  • Computed tomography revealed a tumor of right adrenal gland and a tumor of upper lobe of the right lung.
  • Adrenal tumor had rapidly increased, so we performed adrenectomy.
  • At first adrenal tumor was diagnosed as primary adrenal cancer because its histological findings did not coincide with those of common histologic types of lung cancer.
  • As there were possibilities that one of adrenal or lung tumor was primary and the other was metastatic or both of the two were double primary, we performed right upper lobectomy.
  • Lung tumor was diagnosed as primary pleomorphic carcinoma containing spindle-shaped tumor cells and adenocarcinoma, and then the diagnosis of adrenal tumor was corrected as metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Two months after the lung operation, cervical lymph node swelling, metastasis of stomach and local recurrence of adrenal tumor appeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 21224700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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48. Muehling BM, Toelkes S, Schelzig H, Barth TF, Sunder-Plassmann L: Tyrosine kinase expression in pulmonary metastases and paired primary tumors. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 Feb;10(2):228-31
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  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors against the receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and the platelet derived growth factor (PDGFR) are increasingly used in the treatment of progressive cancers.
  • Tissue specimen from 35 lung metastases of 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma (n=8), sarcoma (n=10), colorectal carcinoma (n=6), otolaryngologic carcinoma (OLC, n=4), testicular and endometrial cancer (n=1 each), malignant melanoma (n=1), adrenal cancer (n=2), malignant fibrous histiocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (n=1 each) have been immunohistochemically tested for the expression of PDGFR alpha/beta, VEGFR and EGFR.
  • Our investigation of a pilot character represents a 'biomarker-based' analysis of pulmonary metastases of different primary tumors; we conclude that an immediate 'tumor profiling' at initial diagnosis should be considered in order to guide tumor therapy individually.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19948538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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49. Advani A, Johnson SJ, Nicol MR, Papacleovoulou G, Evans DB, Vaikkakara S, Mason JI, Quinton R: Adult-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by aberrant expression of aromatase in an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma. Endocr J; 2010;57(7):651-6
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  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare, with feminizing symptoms attributed to aromatase expression in the adrenal tumor.
  • A right adrenal mass was identified on CT scanning and the patient underwent an open adrenalectomy.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the adrenal cancer confirmed aberrant expression of aromatase in most, although not all, carcinoma cells.
  • Transcripts associated with utilization of promoters II, I.1 and I.3 were prominently represented in the tumor aromatase mRNA.
  • This case highlights that clinical features of feminizing adrenocortical carcinomas can be secondary to estrogen production by aberrantly transcribed and translated aromatase within the tumor.
  • The diagnosis of adrenocortical adenocarcinoma should be considered in men presenting with low testosterone and gonadotropins, particularly in the presence of feminizing features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aromatase / genetics. Hypogonadism / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20467160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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50. Locali RF, Matsuoka PK, Cherbo T, Gabriel EA, Buffolo E: Renal and adrenal tumors with cardiac invasion: immediate surgical results in 14 patients. Arq Bras Cardiol; 2009 Mar;92(3):168-76
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  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumors with cardiac invasion: immediate surgical results in 14 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The resection of tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right atrium (RA) increases the survival rate of patients with renal/adrenal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surgical procedure in cases of IVC and RA in the treatment of renal and adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: Fourteen patients undergoing surgical intervention (during the period) between January 1997 and June 2007, for resection of IVC and/or RA thrombus due to renal or adrenal tumors, were retrospectively evaluated.
  • The patients (64.2% male) presented with Wilms' tumor, clear cell carcinoma and adrenal adenocarcinoma, and had mean age of 4.5, 60.5 and 2.5 years, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Suprahepatic IVC tumor thrombus were observed in all the patients, and in 62.4% of them the thrombus invaded the RA.
  • The duration of orotracheal intubation and length of hospital stay were different, according to the tumor type.
  • Two deaths, due to intraoperative cardiorespiratory arrest, were seen among patients with adrenal adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: IVC and RA tumor thrombi are more frequent in patients with Wilms' tumor.
  • More postoperative complications are seen in patients with adrenal adenocarcinoma, and the postoperative prognosis is better for patients with Wilms' tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Thrombectomy / methods. Vena Cava, Inferior. Venous Thrombosis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced / methods. Extracorporeal Circulation / methods. Female. Heart Atria / surgery. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19390703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4170
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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51. Wang XJ, Shen ZJ, Zhu Y, Zhang RM, Shun FK, Shao Y, Rui WB, He W: Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (&lt; or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients. BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(6):849-53
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy (RPA) for small adrenal tumours, as with modern imaging methods small adrenal lesions are being diagnosed more commonly, and retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm) can be challenging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 389 consecutive retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies from September 2005 to December 2008, 88 of which were small adrenal tumours and treated by RPA.
  • We used RPA for adrenal tumours and total adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer.
  • During the surgery, the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum was freed first, and the whole adrenal tissue was dissected completely.
  • RESULTS: There were no deaths; conversions to open surgery were necessary in four patients (4.5%), the reasons being a missing target in two, massive haemorrhage caused by central adrenal vein injury in one, and severe adhesion in one.
  • The mean (range) size of the adrenal tumours was 0.7 (0.5-1.0) cm, including 69 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 11 nonfunctional adrenal adenomas, three Cushing syndrome, two phaeochromocytomas, two myelolipomas and one melanoma.
  • Tumour size did not correlate with estimated blood loss and operative duration.
  • CONCLUSION: RPA is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with small adrenal tumours.
  • Freeing the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum first, and exploring the whole adrenal tissue during surgery are the key points of RPA.
  • The location of the small adrenal tumour can be different from that shown on imaging before surgery, and the abnormality of the adrenal gland should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19751254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Conzo G, Tricarico A, Belli G, Candela S, Corcione F, Del Genio G, Ferulano GP, Giardiello C, Livrea A, Marzano LA, Porcelli A, Sperlongano P, Vincenti R, Palazzo A, De Martino C, Musella M: Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series. Can J Surg; 2009 Dec;52(6):E281-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series.
  • We analyzed the results of a multi-centre trial that was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) to obtain a correct preoperative diagnosis.
  • METHODS: We obtained our data from the results of a questionnaire that was distributed by mail or email in May 2005 to several surgical units operating in the Campania Region, Italy.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of pathologic findings demonstrates that the number of lesions caused by cancer discovered from a preoperative indication of incidentaloma has been even smaller (1/114, 0.8%) than the previous numbers reported in the literature.
  • Moreover, whereas most patients with adrenal cancer had lesions larger than 6 cm (7/8, 87.5%), the majority of patients with adrenal metastases had lesions 6 cm or smaller (10/12, 83.3%).
  • Adrenal malignancies when metastatic are often 6 cm or smaller.
  • If they are single and they originated from a non-small lung cancer, they must be removed.
  • The endocrine surgery unit remains the best setting to evaluate and treat adrenal gland surgical pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20011165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2310
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2792399
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53. Cerquetti L, Bucci B, Marchese R, Misiti S, De Paula U, Miceli R, Muleti A, Amendola D, Piergrossi P, Brunetti E, Toscano V, Stigliano A: Mitotane increases the radiotherapy inhibitory effect and induces G2-arrest in combined treatment on both H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cell lines. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):623-34
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  • This drug and radiotherapy are used also in adrenal cancer treatment even if their biological action in this neoplasia remains unknown.
  • We investigated the effects of o,p'-DDD and ionizing radiations (IR) on cell growth inhibition and cell cycle perturbation in H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • This combination treatment induced an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Mitotane / pharmacology. Radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / radiation effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin B1. G2 Phase / drug effects. G2 Phase / radiation effects. Humans. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Steroids / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18509009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2 Protein Kinase
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54. Liang YY, Dai YP, Cao MX, Zheng KL: [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Oct;25(10):1275-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Recently, the occurrence of metastasis to the adrenal gland is increasing, while the early and differentiated diagnosis still remains difficult.
  • Whether metastasis to the adrenal gland needs to be resected and when and how the resection should be done are controversial.
  • This study was to explore the surgical indications of metastasis to the adrenal gland and the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of this disease.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 21 patients with metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland, treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Mar.
  • Literature of the diagnosis and therapy was reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The diagnosis rates of ultrasonography and spiral or thin-cut computed tomography (CT) were 70.0% (7/10) and 84.6% (11/13).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography and CT are important diagnosis methods for metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • No evidence of tumor invasion revealed by preoperative imaging studies, no adjacent lymphadenopathy and no extraladrenal metastasis are indications of adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17059775.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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55. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
SciCrunch. OMIM: Data: Gene Annotation .

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  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer with unknown aetiology.
  • Constitutive activation of beta-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Over a 17 months time course, transgenic adrenals developed malignant characteristics such as uncontrolled neovascularization and loco-regional metastatic invasion.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Metastasis


56. Simi L, Malentacchi F, Luciani P, Gelmini S, Deledda C, Arvia R, Mannelli M, Peri A, Orlando C: Seladin-1 expression is regulated by promoter methylation in adrenal cancer. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Seladin-1 expression is regulated by promoter methylation in adrenal cancer.
  • Adrenal glands show the highest levels of seladin-1 expression, which are significantly reduced in adrenal carcinomas (ACC).
  • Furthermore, to evaluate the presence of an epigenetic regulation also 'in vivo', seladin-1 methylation and its mRNA expression were measured in 9 ACC and in 5 normal adrenal glands.
  • In ACC, methylation density of seladin-1 promoter was higher (2682 +/- 686) than in normal adrenal glands (362 +/- 97; p = 0.02).
  • Seladin-1 mRNA expression in ACC (1452 +/- 196) was significantly lower than in normal adrenal glands (3614 +/- 949; p = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Epigenesis, Genetic. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Modification Methylases / antagonists & inhibitors. DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20465827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 1.3.- / Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors; EC 1.3.1.- / DHCR24 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2875219
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57. Zhang W, Dahlberg SE, Yang D, Sandler AB, Brahmer JR, Schiller JH, Carbone DP, Johnson DH, Lenz H: Genetic variants in angiogenesis pathway associated with clinical outcome in NSCLC patients (pts) treated with bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel: Subset pharmacogenetic analysis of ECOG 4599. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):8032

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recent studies have shown certain germline polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with clinical outcome in advanced breast cancer pts treated with paclitaxel plus bev and in advanced colorectal cancer pts treated with first line 5-FU or capecitabine in combination with oxaliplatin and bev.
  • Multivariable Cox models adjusted for gender, PS, stage, adrenal, liver and bone mets were separately fitted for each SNP to obtain estimates of hazard ratios.
  • Pts with mutant homozygote CC genotype for ICAM1 T469C had significantly higher tumor response rate (39%) than heterozygote CT (13%) and homozygote TT (20%) genotype (Fisher's test, p=0.04).

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  • (PMID = 27962832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Frysák Z: [Adrenal cancer]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Jan;55(1):6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinom kůry nadledvin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms

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  • [CommentOn] Vnitr Lek. 2009 Jan;55(1):54-61 [19227956.001]
  • (PMID = 19227948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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59. Jana S, Zhang T, Milstein DM, Isasi CR, Blaufox MD: FDG-PET and CT characterization of adrenal lesions in cancer patients. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2006 Jan;33(1):29-35
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  • [Title] FDG-PET and CT characterization of adrenal lesions in cancer patients.
  • PURPOSE: Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may differentiate benign from malignant adrenal lesions.
  • In this study, standardized uptake values (SUVs), visual interpretation, and computed tomography (CT) data were correlated with the final diagnosis to determine the contribution of adrenal FDG-PET in patients with known non-adrenal cancer.
  • METHODS: Ninety-two patients with adrenal lesions on CT underwent FDG-PET.
  • Eighty adrenals in 74 patients met the inclusion criteria (PET scan within 4 weeks of CT plus >1 year of follow-up after PET scan with repeat CT or biopsy for final diagnosis).
  • Visually, adrenal uptake exceeding liver uptake was considered PET positive (PET+).
  • Diagnosis of metastases was based on biopsy or interval CT growth (unchanged >1 year=benign).
  • CONCLUSION: PET accurately characterized adrenal lesions.
  • FDG-PET was most useful in the 52.5% of cancer patients with inconclusive adrenal lesions on CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Subtraction Technique. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16193311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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60. Kim HM, Ikeda M, Okano M, Miyoshi N, Hirose H, Yamashita S, Takemasa I, Mizushima T, Yamamoto H, Sekimoto M, Doki Y, Mori M: [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2548-50
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy].
  • We report a case of 57-year-old woman suffering from advanced sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence.
  • Sigmoidectomy was performed for sigmoid colon cancer in January 2002.
  • However, adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence was detected in February 2007, and mFOLFOX6 was performed as preoperative chemotherapy.
  • She had no recurrence for almost 3 years after a resection of adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Aorta. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Hepatectomy. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21224635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; 1-UFT protocol; Folfox protocol
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61. Katanoda K, Hayashi K, Yamamoto K, Sobue T: Secular trends in neuroblastoma mortality before and after the cessation of national mass screening in Japan. J Epidemiol; 2009;19(5):266-70
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Utilizing vital statistics data from 1980 through 2006, we analyzed the secular trends in NB mortality by using cancer of the adrenal gland as a surrogate.
  • RESULTS: The number of deaths from cancer of the adrenal gland was closely correlated with the number of deaths from NB.

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  • [ISSN] 1349-9092
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3924130
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62. Lakemeier S, Westhoff CC, Fuchs-Winkelmann S, Schofer MD: Odontoid process metastasis of bronchial carcinoma as a rare cause for nonmechanical neck pain: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8173

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Unknown lung cancer with adrenal and pancreatic metastases was revealed by further investigations.
  • CONCLUSION: Detailed pain characterization can already indicate the correct diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19830057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740268
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63. Fitzgerald PJ: Is elevated norepinephrine an etiological factor in some cases of epilepsy? Seizure; 2010 Jul;19(6):311-8
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • (5) pheochromocytoma, which is a rare cancer of the adrenal glands that can boost NE levels;.
  • (6) comorbidity of epilepsy with bipolar disorder, hypertension, and obesity, where all four conditions may involve elevated NE; and (7) psychological stress, which is associated with increased release of NE.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / pharmacology. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / pharmacology. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / pharmacology. Animals. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / pharmacology. Bipolar Disorder / complications. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Stress, Psychological / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20493725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2688
  • [Journal-full-title] Seizure
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Seizure
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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64. Fitzgerald PJ: Is norepinephrine an etiological factor in some types of cancer? Int J Cancer; 2009 Jan 15;124(2):257-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is norepinephrine an etiological factor in some types of cancer?
  • I examine evidence that the signaling molecule norepinephrine (NE) is an etiological factor in some types of cancer.
  • (ii) human studies of tricyclic antidepressant use and cancer rate;.
  • (iii) existence of pheochromocytoma, a cancer of the adrenal glands;.
  • (iv) cancer rate in families with individuals who have bipolar disorder;.
  • (v) hypertension and cancer risk;.
  • (vi) excessive body weight and cancer risk; and (vii) psychological stressors and cancer risk.
  • Three aspects of the body's NE system are consistent with it playing an etiological role in various types of cancer: (i) NE circulates in the blood and can thereby access organ systems throughout the body, in addition to direct peripheral release by the sympathetic nervous system and being released within the brain;.
  • Most importantly, use of existing pharmaceutical drugs that either lower the level of NE (such as clonidine) or block NE receptors may lower the probability of an individual developing cancer, and this hypothesis could be tested immediately by an epidemiologist through examination of existing medical records.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / chemically induced. Norepinephrine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Int J Cancer. 2011 Feb 1;128(3):737-8; author reply 739 [20333678.001]
  • (PMID = 19004004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic; MN3L5RMN02 / Clonidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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65. Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY, Kebebew E: Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy?
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for tumors > 6 cm is controversial because of the risk of malignancy, but data to support this position are mostly from small series.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988 to 2000) were compared with benign functional or nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas (excluding aldosteronomas) operated on at our institution between January 1, 1993, and July 1, 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 457 patients with ACC and 47 patients with adrenal cortical adenomas; 376 and 44 neoplasms, respectively, had tumor size data available.
  • Tumor size was larger in ACC (12.0 +/- 5.6 versus 4.2 +/- 1.9 cm, mean +/- SD, p < 0.05).
  • For ACC presenting with local disease, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of tumor size to predict malignancy were 96%, 52%, and 2.0, respectively, for tumors > or = 4 cm; 90%, 80%, and 4.4 for tumors > or = 6 cm; 77%, 95%, and 16.9 for tumors > or = 8 cm; and 55%, 98%, and 24.4 for tumors > or = 10 cm.
  • Assuming a pretest probability of malignancy of 5%, the likelihood ratios derived from this study yield a posttest probability of 10%, 19%, and 47% for cancer in adrenal cortical tumors > or = 4 cm, > or = 6 cm, and > or = 8 cm, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that size is useful for predicting malignancy, and that at a size threshold of > or = 4 cm, the likelihood of malignancy doubles (to 10%) and it is more than ninefold higher for tumors > or = 8 cm (47%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16500246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Benavente-Chenhalls LA, Vella A, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Richards ML: Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2710-3
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  • [Title] Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) associated with adrenal neoplasm is rare.
  • This study assesses the clinical and pathological impact of AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm to establish management strategies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted over a 25-year period with a diagnosis of AH and malignant adrenal neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Malignant adrenal neoplasms were reported in 14 of 217 patients (6.4%) presenting with AH.
  • In 10 patients the adrenal tumor was metastatic.
  • All primary adrenal tumors were unilateral.
  • Computed tomography (n = 12) demonstrated adrenal masses ranging in size from 6.8 to 11.0 cm (mean, 9 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients with AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm had metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20499282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Pittavini L, De Gaetano A, Solano G, Losito A: Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma. J Nephrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):614-6
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  • [Title] Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.
  • The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma.
  • This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications


68. Kwiatkowski F, Abrial C, Gachon F, Chevrier R, Curé H, Chollet P: [Stress, cancer and circadian rhythm of melatonin]. Pathol Biol (Paris); 2005 Jun;53(5):269-72
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  • [Title] [Stress, cancer and circadian rhythm of melatonin].
  • [Transliterated title] Stress, cancer et rythme circadien de la mélatonine.
  • More typical of adult age, hypothalamus-pineal gland axis (HP), responsible for melatonin production, may be impaired because of chronic stress, mainly through sleep disturbances or addictive behaviours.
  • Circadian cycle of melatonin is closely related to immune functions and its disturbance seems to induce, among populations undergoing frequent changes of life rhythm, a significant raise of cancer incidence: night shift workers, air pilots...
  • Stress then seems enable to increase cancer risk through its negative impact on HHS and HP axis and therefore on immunity.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Melatonin / physiology. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Stress, Physiological / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology. Pineal Gland / secretion. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15939136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0369-8114
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologie-biologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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69. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with phaeochromocytoma - specifics, potential complications and drug strategies]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2008 Jan;43(1):20-7; quiz 28
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  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia / methods. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / prevention & control. Hypertension / prevention & control. Nitroprusside / administration & dosage. Phenoxybenzamine / administration & dosage. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control


70. Karam AR, Nugent W, Falardeau J, Desai D, Khan A, Shankar S: Multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma arising in the greater omentum. J Radiol Case Rep; 2009;3(11):20-3

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  • [Title] Multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma arising in the greater omentum.
  • They are most often discovered incidentally within the adrenal glands, with extra-adrenal myelolipomas being extremely rare tumors.
  • We report a case of multifocal omental extra-adrenal myelolipoma in a patient who had undergone bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intraperitoneal extra-adrenal myelolipoma.

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2006 Jul;30(7):838-43 [16819325.001]
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  • (PMID = 22470626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3303281
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Myelolipoma / extra-adrenal / omentum / peritoneum
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71. Turner DJ, Miskulin J: Management of adrenal lesions. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Jan;21(1):34-40
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  • [Title] Management of adrenal lesions.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal lesions are commonly seen on modern imaging modalities, and although the majority are benign, potentially lethal entities necessitate exclusion.
  • The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in diagnosis and therapies for adrenal lesions.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: New tumor markers and genetic risk factors continue to be discovered, and improved diagnostic techniques have made adrenal incidentalomas more common than ever before.
  • Laparoscopic approaches for adrenal lesions continue to evolve for functional lesions, and also for lesions 12 cm and larger.
  • Open adrenalectomy continues to be the most appropriate for adrenocortical cancer.
  • SUMMARY: All adrenal lesions should prompt a functional hormonal assessment and additional imaging to determine malignancy employed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19125016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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72. Zieker D, Königsrainer I, Miller S, Vogel U, Sotlar K, Steurer W, Königsrainer A, Lehmann TG: Simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma - an uncommon incident: case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma - an uncommon incident: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumours.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a very seldom case of a simultaneous myelolipoma of the adrenal gland in association with an extra-adrenal myelolipoma in an 75-year-old man.
  • With a review of the literature we describe and discuss the aetiology, differential diagnosis and treatment of patients with respect to adrenal and extra-adrenal lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: The appearance of a simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma is a rare incident.
  • We conclude that such lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a fat-containing tumour in the retroperitoneal tissue/compartment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18601731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 22
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2474838
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73. Fung MM, Viveros OH, O'Connor DT: Diseases of the adrenal medulla. Acta Physiol (Oxf); 2008 Feb;192(2):325-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diseases of the adrenal medulla.
  • The adrenal glands are vital in the organism's response to environmental stress.
  • Pathology within the adrenal medulla and the autonomic nervous system is primarily because of neoplasms.
  • The most common tumour, called phaeochromocytoma when located in the adrenal medulla, originates from chromaffin cells and excretes catecholamines, but may be referred to as secreting paragangliomas when found in extra-adrenal chromaffin cells.
  • Neoplasms, such as neuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas, may also be of neuronal lineage.

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  • (PMID = 18021328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-1716
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta physiologica (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Physiol (Oxf)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-090004; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK060702-05; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-099006; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060702-05; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-09; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-09; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-099006; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060702; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-090004
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS57919; NLM/ PMC2576282
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74. Breton X, Lechevallier E, Coulange C: [Current place of chemotherapy in the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer]. Prog Urol; 2005 Jun;15(3):398-404
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  • [Title] [Current place of chemotherapy in the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Place actuelle de la chimiothérapie dans le traitement du cancer de la prostate métastatique hormonorésistant.
  • The current management of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer is purely palliative.
  • However, the encouraging results of these 2 studies, which will probably modify the management of hormone-refractory prostate cancer, need to be interpreted cautiously.
  • First of all, they were conducted in selected study populations (mean age less than 70 years, Kamofsky index greater than 80% in more than 85% of cases, local disease control in more than 70% of cases).
  • Furthermore, although several studies are underway, the benefit of taxols at earlier stages of the disease are unknown.
  • Urologists must be aware of the place of chemotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer in order to remain at the centre of the treatment decision.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Male. Pain / drug therapy. Quality of Life. Taxoids / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Prog Urol. 2005 Dec;15(6):1160 [16429675.001]
  • [CommentIn] Prog Urol. 2006 Jun;16(3):394-5 [16821362.001]
  • (PMID = 16097142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Taxoids
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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75. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors]. Klin Khir; 2005 Oct;(10):47-50
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  • [Title] [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors].
  • Possibilities of application of magnet-resonance tomography (MRT) for differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumors were studied up.
  • MRT was conducted to 39 patients with adrenal glands tumors, including 22 - with malignant adrenal gland tumor, 17 - with benign tumor of adrenal gland.
  • MRT constitutes the most effective method of topic diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumor, owes multipurpose possibilities, do not deliver radiation load, permits to visualize the vessels without the contrast media usage.
  • The tumor diameter more than 10,1 cm, irregular form, illegible edges, uneven contours, presence of lymphadenopathy, regional or remote metastases constitutes diagnostic criterions of the adrenal glands malignant tumors.
  • The intensity of MRT signal could not be used for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors of adrenal glands.

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  • (PMID = 16509086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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81. Bertagna X, Groussin L, Libe R, Bertherat J: [Adrenal cortical carcinoma: advances in the pathophysiology and management of this malignancy]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):87-102; discussion 102-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal cortical carcinoma: advances in the pathophysiology and management of this malignancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Le corticosurrénalome: progrès dans la physiopathologie et la prise en charge d'un cancer rare.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy, with only one or two new cases being diagnosed per million subjects per year.
  • The best chances of cure are obtained when a "localized" tumor can undergo "complete" surgical removal.
  • Most often, however, the diagnosis is made when the tumor is already invasive and non secretory Clinical, hormonal and imaging features, including 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET scan, can provide strong evidence of malignancy and indicate open surgical excision in expert hands.
  • Recent advances in the genetics of adrenal cortical carcinomas have identified molecular factors that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18663984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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82. Kosmidis C, Efthimiadis C, Anthimidis G, Levva S, Ioannidou G, Zaramboukas T, Emmanouilides C, Baka S, Kosmidou M, Basdanis G, Fachantidis E: Adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer: A case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):49

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer: A case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with adrenal metastasis from various primary tumours are regarded as cases of diffuse systemic spread and considered unsuitable for surgical resection.
  • We herein report an operable case of heterochronic adrenal metastasis from colorectal carcinoma in a 63-year-old woman.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Sixteen months after low anterior resection for the primary tumour, left lower pneumonectomy was performed for a solitary lung metastasis.
  • Four months later a right adrenal metastasis was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as sole evidence of metastatic disease.
  • The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy after each operation and is alive and free of disease 21 months after the adrenalectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: The possibility of adrenal metastasis should be considered in the follow-up of patients after primary surgery for colorectal cancer, even though other sites are the main metastatic sites.
  • Although the prognosis of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer is poor, we suggest that patients with solitary adrenal metastasis may benefit from complete removal of it.

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  • (PMID = 18638404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2503966
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83. Horvath A, Stratakis CA: Unraveling the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Jun;15(3):227-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unraveling the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review discusses the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • It focuses on the role of genetic defects in cyclic-AMP (cAMP) signaling-related molecules, namely PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, and PDE8B in the predisposition to tumor formation.
  • This review also discusses the involvement of cAMP signaling and related pathways and their impact on the adrenocortical tumor formation.
  • SUMMARY: Recent findings indicate the importance of cAMP signaling for normal adrenocortical functioning and the sensitivity of the adrenal gland to subtle alterations in cAMP levels.
  • The identification of low-penetrance mutations in more than one phosphodiesterase in patients with adrenocortical hyperplasia is suggestive for a complementary role of the different phosphodiesterases in adrenal gland abnormalities and possible involvement of other members of this pathway in adrenocortical tumor defects.

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  • (PMID = 18438169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101741; NLM/ PMC2671149
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84. González Villarroel P, Fernández Pérez I, Páramo C, Gentil González M, Carnero López B, Vázquez Tuñas ML, Carrasco Alvarez JA: Megestrol acetate-induced adrenal insufficiency. Clin Transl Oncol; 2008 Apr;10(4):235-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Megestrol acetate-induced adrenal insufficiency.
  • Megestrol acetate is a synthetic progestin that has been used since the 1970s for the treatment of advanced cancer and subsequently to treat anorexia, cachexia and weight loss in AIDS patients.
  • Megestrol acetate may cause suppression of the pituitary-adrenal axis due to the affinity of this compound for the glucocorticoid receptor.
  • Recognising the glucocorticoid-like activity of megestrol and its effects at the axis level is important for the diagnosis of sub-clinical adrenal insufficiency.
  • We present the case of a 74-year-old woman with infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma refractory to prolonged hormonal treatment with megestrol acetate, presenting with adrenal insufficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Insufficiency / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Megestrol Acetate / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18411198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
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85. Zografos GN, Kothonidis K, Ageli C, Kopanakis N, Dimitriou K, Papaliodi E, Kaltsas G, Pagoni M, Papastratis G: Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal ganglioneuroma. JSLS; 2007 Oct-Dec;11(4):487-92
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • We report on a 23-year-old woman with a right adrenal tumor 13 cm in diameter who was treated by laparoscopy.
  • The patient was asymptomatic, and the tumor was incidentally diagnosed on abdominal ultrasonography.
  • A subsequent computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen confirmed a 12 x 7 x 8-cm homogenous mass of the right adrenal.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a solid mass measuring 13 x 7 x 7.5 cm arising from the right adrenal.
  • Histology was consistent with an adrenal ganglioneuroma.

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  • (PMID = 18237516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015852
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86. Cho MM, Kobayashi K, Aoki T, Nishioka K, Yoshida K, Hatano N, Hirose H, Moon JH, Matsumoto T, Uemura Y, Kaneko T, Okagawa K: Surgical resection of solitary adrenal metastasis from esophageal carcinoma following esophagectomy. Dis Esophagus; 2007;20(1):79-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical resection of solitary adrenal metastasis from esophageal carcinoma following esophagectomy.
  • However, we experienced a case with good prognosis following resection of a solitary adrenal metastatic tumor.
  • The patient was a 70-year-old man diagnosed with type 2 esophageal cancer (Lt-Ae, T2N1M0, Stage IIB) who was treated with esophagectomy.
  • Eight months following surgery, solitary adrenal metastasis was detected by CT, and was resected.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only five cases with resected solitary adrenal metastases including our case, have been reported, and show a greater than 1-year survival.

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  • (PMID = 17227316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Netelenbos T, Nooij MA, Nortier JW: Diabetes insipidus and adrenal insufficiency in a patient with metastatic breast cancer. Neth J Med; 2006 Sep;64(8):310-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diabetes insipidus and adrenal insufficiency in a patient with metastatic breast cancer.
  • A patient previously treated for bilateral breast cancer with mastectomy, radiation therapy and in remission on hormonal therapy for more than five years presented with abdominal symptoms from breast cancer relapse.
  • In combination with the absence of a high signal from the posterior lobe of the pituitary on MRI , these data indicated the presence of partial central diabetes insipidus.
  • Furthermore, primary adrenal insufficiency had developed, ascribed to bilateral tumour invasion of the adrenals.
  • This rare combination of endocrinological failures in a patient with metastatic breast cancer is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


88. Hunt I, Rankin SC, Lang-Lazdunski L: Combined lung resection and transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and homolateral solitary adrenal metastasis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2006 Jul;30(1):194-5
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  • [Title] Combined lung resection and transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and homolateral solitary adrenal metastasis.
  • Surgery may offer a long-term survival benefit to a small proportion of patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and solitary adrenal metastasis.
  • We describe a technique that allows a single incision, single operation through a transdiaphragmatic approach to the ipsilateral adrenal gland following a standard lung resection through a postero-lateral thoracotomy.
  • By using this approach, along with the harmonic scalpel to aid adrenal dissection, both lobectomy and adrenalectomy can be carried out safely and effectively with minimal perioperative and postoperative morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery


89. Seif AE, Sutter JA, Rheingold SR: Secondary adrenal insufficiency in an infant after intrathecal triple chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Aug;55(2):386-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Secondary adrenal insufficiency in an infant after intrathecal triple chemotherapy.
  • While prolonged systemic administration of corticosteroids is known to suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, there have been no reports describing this effect following administration of ITT.
  • We present an infant with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia who developed clinically significant central adrenal axis suppression following six doses of ITT over 3 weeks, proven by corticorelin stimulation test.
  • As multiple pediatric leukemia protocols incorporate ITT, particularly in infants, we feel that ITT should be considered as a potential source of adrenal axis suppression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Insufficiency / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20582966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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90. Sharma KV, Venkatesan AM, Swerdlow D, DaSilva D, Beck A, Jain N, Wood BJ: Image-guided adrenal and renal biopsy. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Jun;13(2):100-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Image-guided adrenal and renal biopsy.
  • Improvements in image guidance, biopsy tools, and biopsy techniques now routinely allow for safe biopsy of renal and adrenal lesions that traditionally were considered difficult to reach or technically challenging.
  • Image-guided biopsy is used to establish the definitive tissue diagnosis in adrenal mass lesions that cannot be fully characterized with imaging or laboratory tests alone.
  • It is also used to establish definitive diagnosis in some cases of renal parenchymal disease and has an expanding role in diagnosis and characterization of renal masses before treatment.
  • Although basic principles and techniques for image-guided needle biopsy are similar regardless of organ, this paper highlights some technical considerations, indications, and complications that are unique to the adrenal gland and kidney because of their anatomic location and physiological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnostic Imaging. Kidney / pathology. Kidney Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20540919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9808
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CL999999; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CL040011-03; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZID BC011242-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS199589; NLM/ PMC2886019
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91. Lalli E, Alonso J: Targeting DAX-1 in embryonic stem cells and cancer. Expert Opin Ther Targets; 2010 Feb;14(2):169-77
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  • [Title] Targeting DAX-1 in embryonic stem cells and cancer.
  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: DAX-1 (NR0B1) is an unusual orphan nuclear receptor whose function is essential for the development of the human adrenal cortex and onset of puberty.
  • Recent data have implicated this transcription factor also in embryonic stem cell and cancer biology.
  • AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: The role of DAX-1 in the regulation of development and function of the adrenal cortex, reproductive axis, embryonic stem cells and a few types of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor / antagonists & inhibitors. Embryonic Stem Cells / physiology. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / embryology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Animals. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1 / physiology. RNA-Binding Protein EWS. Reproduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20055716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7631
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on therapeutic targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / EWS-FLI fusion protein; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1; 0 / RNA-Binding Protein EWS
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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92. Yoshikawa N, Nemoto T, Satoh S, Maruta T, Yanagita T, Chosa E, Wada A: Distinct regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2 by 90-kDa heat-shock protein in adrenal chromaffin cells. Neurochem Int; 2010 Jan;56(1):42-50
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  • [Title] Distinct regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2 by 90-kDa heat-shock protein in adrenal chromaffin cells.
  • The 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90) is an emerging target molecule of therapeutics, Hsp90 inhibitors being promising against various diseases (e.g., cancer, brain and cardiac ischemia, and neurodegenerative diseases).
  • In cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, we observed that 24-h treatment with 1 microM geldanamycin (an inhibitor of Hsp90) decreased insulin receptor substrate-1 level, while increasing insulin receptor substrate-2 level; besides, geldanamycin lowered phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, and Raf-1 levels, without changing extracellular signal-regulated kinase and its upstream kinase levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Chromaffin Cells / metabolism. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19737590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9754
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurochemistry international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochem. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzoquinones; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins; 0 / Lactams, Macrocyclic; 0 / Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.- / Phosphotransferases; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex; Z3K3VJ16KU / geldanamycin
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93. Cawood TJ, Hunt PJ, O'Shea D, Cole D, Soule S: Recommended evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas is costly, has high false-positive rates and confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal lesion becoming malignant; time for a rethink? Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Oct;161(4):513-27
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  • [Title] Recommended evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas is costly, has high false-positive rates and confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal lesion becoming malignant; time for a rethink?
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of current clinical recommendations for the evaluation of an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Eligible studies were those deemed most applicable to the clinical scenario of a patient referred to an endocrinologist for assessment of an incidentally detected adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of functional and malignant lesions presenting as adrenal incidentaloma was similar to that quoted in most reviews, other than a lower incidence of adrenal carcinoma (1.9 vs 4.7%) and metastases (0.7 vs 2.3%).
  • The development of functionality or malignancy during follow-up was rare (<1% becoming functional and 0.2% becoming malignant).
  • The average recommended computed tomography (CT) scan follow-up exposes each patient to 23 mSv of ionising radiation, equating to a 1 in 430 to 2170 chance of causing fatal cancer.
  • This is similar to the chance of developing adrenal malignancy during 3-year follow-up of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • CONCLUSION: Current recommendations for evaluation of adrenal incidentaloma are likely to result in significant costs, both financial and emotional, due to high false-positive rates.
  • The dose of radiation involved in currently recommended CT scan follow-up confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal becoming malignant.


94. Brady MJ, Thomas J, Wong TZ, Franklin KM, Ho LM, Paulson EK: Adrenal nodules at FDG PET/CT in patients known to have or suspected of having lung cancer: a proposal for an efficient diagnostic algorithm. Radiology; 2009 Feb;250(2):523-30
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  • [Title] Adrenal nodules at FDG PET/CT in patients known to have or suspected of having lung cancer: a proposal for an efficient diagnostic algorithm.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: An IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective review with waiver of informed consent of data in 1388 consecutive patients who underwent PET/CT for known or suspected lung cancer was completed, and 187 adrenal nodules were identified in 147 patients.
  • Nodules were defined histologically or by size change (malignant, n = 37) or stability for more than 1 year (benign, n = 58).
  • CONCLUSION: Definitive identification of many metastases can be accomplished by applying an SUV ratio cutoff of greater than 2.5, allowing pragmatic management of adrenal nodules that initially test positive with the combined PET/CT criteria SUV(max) > 3.1 and mean attenuation > 10 HU.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods


95. Alsultan A, Lovell MA, Hayes KL, Allshouse MJ, Garrington TP: Simultaneous occurrence of right adrenocortical tumor and left adrenal neuroblastoma in an infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Nov;51(5):695-8
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  • [Title] Simultaneous occurrence of right adrenocortical tumor and left adrenal neuroblastoma in an infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
  • We present the case of an infant with BWS who has hypomethylation of LIT1 gene in the 11p15.5 chromosomal region and at 6 months of age presented with simultaneous occurrence of neuroblastoma arising from the left adrenal gland and a right adrenocortical tumor.
  • She underwent surgical resection of both tumors and remains tumor free 18 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neuroblastoma / complications


96. Aguilera G, Subburaju S, Young S, Chen J: The parvocellular vasopressinergic system and responsiveness of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis during chronic stress. Prog Brain Res; 2008;170:29-39
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  • [Title] The parvocellular vasopressinergic system and responsiveness of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis during chronic stress.
  • Chronic stress paradigms associated with corticotroph hyperresponsiveness lead to preferential expression of hypothalamic VP over CRH and upregulation of pituitary V1bR, suggesting that VP has a primary role during adaptation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis to long-term stimulation.
  • Studies using minipump infusion of a peptide V1 antagonist in long-term adrenalectomized rats have revealed that VP mediates proliferative responses in the pituitary.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiopathology. Vasopressins / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Anesthetics / therapeutic use. Animals. Chronic Disease. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Humans. Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus / physiology. Receptors, Corticotropin / physiology. Receptors, Vasopressin / physiology. Rodentia. Stress, Psychological / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18655869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-7855
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD000631-18; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD008813-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin; 0 / Receptors, Vasopressin; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 70
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS52050; NLM/ PMC2536760
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97. Raison CL, Borisov AS, Woolwine BJ, Massung B, Vogt G, Miller AH: Interferon-alpha effects on diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity: relationship with proinflammatory cytokines and behavior. Mol Psychiatry; 2010 May;15(5):535-47
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  • [Title] Interferon-alpha effects on diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity: relationship with proinflammatory cytokines and behavior.
  • Accordingly, the impact of IFN-alpha on diurnal secretion of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones was assessed in 33 patients eligible for treatment with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin for hepatitis C.
  • Plasma ACTH and cortisol as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-6 and their soluble receptors, were measured hourly between 0900 and 2100 hours at baseline and following approximately 12 weeks of either no treatment (n=13) or treatment with IFN-alpha/ribavirin (n=20).

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  • (PMID = 18521089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5578
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Psychiatry
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR00039; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K23 MH064619; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH075102; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH070553; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000039; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL073921; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K05 MH069124; United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000454; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH060723; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025008
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS390460; NLM/ PMC3403676
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98. Liu W, Rogge CE, da Silva GF, Shinkarev VP, Tsai AL, Kamensky Y, Palmer G, Kulmacz RJ: His92 and His110 selectively affect different heme centers of adrenal cytochrome b(561). Biochim Biophys Acta; 2008 Sep;1777(9):1218-28
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. (L)-HISTIDINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] His92 and His110 selectively affect different heme centers of adrenal cytochrome b(561).
  • Adrenal cytochrome b(561) (cyt b(561)), a transmembrane protein that shuttles reducing equivalents derived from ascorbate, has two heme centers with distinct spectroscopic signals and reactivity towards ascorbate.
  • These results indicate that His92 can be considered part of the b(H) heme center, and His110 part of the b(L) heme center, in adrenal cyt b(561).

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Sodium ascorbate .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. L-Ascorbic Acid .
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  • (PMID = 18501187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM080575-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM044911; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM53508; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM044911-15; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM080575-02; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM44911; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM080575-02; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM044911-15; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM053508; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM080575; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM080575; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM080575-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytochrome b Group; 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 11130-51-1 / cytochrome b561; 42VZT0U6YR / Heme; 4QD397987E / Histidine; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS69364; NLM/ PMC2578830
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99. Tanvetyanon T, Robinson LA, Schell MJ, Strong VE, Kapoor R, Coit DG, Bepler G: Outcomes of adrenalectomy for isolated synchronous versus metachronous adrenal metastases in non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and pooled analysis. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Mar 1;26(7):1142-7
PubMed Health. DARE review .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of adrenalectomy for isolated synchronous versus metachronous adrenal metastases in non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and pooled analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Several small studies have reported that an adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), along with a surgical resection for the primary lung cancer, can be curative.
  • Studies reporting on survival outcomes and containing at least four analyzable patients who had surgery for primary lung cancer were included.
  • Synchronous metastasis was defined as a disease-free interval (DFI) of 6 months or less.
  • CONCLUSION: For an isolated adrenal metastasis from NSCLC, patients with a synchronous metastasis who underwent adrenalectomy had a shorter median overall survival than those with a metachronous metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


100. Tian L, Guo Y, Wu YP, Liu LZ: [CT features of adrenal cortical adenoma: a report of 109 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Jan;27(1):66-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [CT features of adrenal cortical adenoma: a report of 109 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Adrenal cortical adenoma (ACA) is a common disease, and can be diagnosed easily with CT examination.
  • The maximal diameter of the tumor was <5 cm in 95 patients.
  • The maximal diameter of the tumor was > 5 cm in 14 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18184467.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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