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1. Ong K, Tan KB, Putti TC: Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma. Singapore Med J; 2007 Jul;48(7):e200-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • Myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma is a very rare cause of adrenal incidentaloma, and only nine cases have been reported in the English and Japanese literature.
  • Clinical history, physical examination and laboratory results did not show any evidence to suggest metabolic disorder such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism or catecholamine hypersecretion.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma reported; in the nine cases of myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma reported previously, all the patients had Cushing's syndrome.
  • The literature on synchronous myelolipoma with adrenal adenoma, and myelolipoma within functional adrenal adenoma, is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17609815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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2. Lu HS, Gan MF, Chen HS, Huang SQ: Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2008 Jun;9(6):500-5
The Weizmann Institute of Science GeneCards and MalaCards databases. gene/protein/disease-specific - MalaCards for conn's syndrome .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome.
  • The coexistence of myelolipoma within adrenal cortical adenoma is extremely rare, for both tumors present usually as separate entities.
  • To the best of our knowledge, the case we reported here is the first one of myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma associated with myelolipoma reported.
  • Clinical history and laboratory results suggest a metabolic disorder as Conn's syndrome.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • In the present case report, we also discuss the etiology of simultaneous myelolipoma and adrenal adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome, and the methods of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications

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  • (PMID = 18543405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 21
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408705
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3. Shigematsu K, Nishida N, Sakai H, Igawa T, Toriyama K, Nakatani A, Takahara O, Kawai K: Synaptophysin immunoreactivity in adrenocortical adenomas: a correlation between synaptophysin and CYP17A1 expression. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Dec;161(6):939-45
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synaptophysin immunoreactivity in adrenocortical adenomas: a correlation between synaptophysin and CYP17A1 expression.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: The adrenal cortex is not considered to be an intrinsic part of the diffuse neuroendocrine system, but adrenocortical neoplasms possess neuroendocrine properties.
  • In this study, we examined synaptophysin (SYP) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression in adrenocortical adenomas in relation to adrenal function.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis showed that 50.7 and 98.6% of the cortical adenomas showed SYP and NCAM immunoreactivities respectively.
  • There was no apparent difference in NCAM immunoreactivity among the adenomas.
  • However, the immunostaining for SYP was significantly stronger in cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) than in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA), nonfunctioning adenomas (NFA), showing no clinical or endocrinological abnormality, or adenomas associated with preclinical Cushing's syndrome (preCS).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We propose that SYP expression in adrenocortical cells may be involved in some aspect of adrenal function such as transport or secretion of glucocorticoids.

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  • (PMID = 19755404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 1.14.99.9 / CYP17A1 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase
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4. Bagwan IN, Cook G, Mudan S, Wotherspoon A: Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:116
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases.
  • Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known.
  • In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 x 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 x 3 cm in size.
  • Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The present case highlights the unusual behaviour of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma causing metastasis to an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17949483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2100056
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5. Schittenhelm J, Jacob SN, Rutczynska J, Tsiflikas I, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma.
  • Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is composed of both adipose tissue and normal haematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare.
  • We present the case of a 63-year-old female patient with adenoma of the adrenal gland and an additional paravertebral lesion in the thoracic spine.
  • Post-mortem histopathology showed the incidental finding of a paravertebral myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 21686745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027965
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6. Shigematsu K, Nakagaki T, Yamaguchi N, Kawai K, Sakai H, Takahara O: Analysis of mRNA expression for steroidogenic enzymes in the remaining adrenal cortices attached to adrenocortical adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Jun;158(6):867-78

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of mRNA expression for steroidogenic enzymes in the remaining adrenal cortices attached to adrenocortical adenomas.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We have recently demonstrated that the adrenal cortices attached to aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) contained microscopic subcapsular micronodules suggestive of active aldosterone production.
  • In this study, we used in situ hybridization to investigate the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the adrenal cortices attached to cortisol-producing adenoma (CPA) and clinically silent adenoma (non-functioning adenoma; NFA), in addition to APA.
  • Most of the cortical nodules in zona fasciculata to zona reticularis showed a suppressed steroidogenesis in the cortices attached to adenoma, but some expressed intensely all necessary steroidogenic enzyme mRNAs for cortisol synthesis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is thus necessary to keep in mind, on the occasion of subtotal adrenalectomy, that lesions with the potential to later develop into functional adrenocortical nodules may be present in other parts of the ipsilateral or contralateral adrenal cortices.

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  • (PMID = 18505908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SPATA7 protein, human; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme; EC 1.14.99.9 / CYP17A1 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases; EC 2.8.2.2 / alcohol sulfotransferase
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7. Lubikowski J, Umiński M, Andrysiak-Mamos E, Pynka S, Fuchs H, Wójcicki M, Szajko M, Moleda P, Post M, Zochowska E, Kiedrowicz B, Safranow K, Syrenicz A: From open to laparoscopic adrenalectomy: thirty years' experience of one medical centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):94-101
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Disorders.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the standardized treatment of benign adrenal lesions over the last two decades, making the indications to open adrenalectomy (OA) limited.
  • The purpose of this study was to show the thirty years of experience in open (OA) and laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) gained in one medical centre as well as to compare the results of OA and LA performed for benign adrenal lesions.
  • Analyzed factors included patients demographic data, ASA score, indication for surgery, tumour size and side, characteristics of the removed tumours, intraoperative and postoperative outcome of LA and OA, postoperative pain sensation, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and conversion rate from LA to OA.
  • The mean operative time was longer in the LA group (137 v. 82 min., p < 0.0001) and the blood loss was lower in LA group (110 v. 254 mL, p < 0.0001).
  • The mean time until resumption of normal diet was shorter after LA (22 v. 44 h), as was the mean time until ambulation (17 v. 36 h), mean length of the hospital stay (4.6 v. 6.8 days), and mean time until return to normal activities (14 v. 23 days, p < 0.0001 for each difference).
  • The analgesic requirement on the first and the second day postoperatively was lower in the LA group (p < 0.0001).
  • The rate of the conversion from LA to OA was 16%.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was adenoma of the adrenal gland in the majority of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that LA is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated procedure.
  • It may be recommended as a "gold standard" surgery in a case of benign functioning or non-functioning adrenal tumours with diameter less than 8 cm. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 94-101).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Poland. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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8. Blanco C, Maqueda E, Rubio JA, Rodriguez A: Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy secondary to adrenal adenoma: metyrapone treatment and laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Feb;29(2):164-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METYRAPONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy secondary to adrenal adenoma: metyrapone treatment and laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is a rare and difficult to diagnose disorder.
  • We describe the case of a 30-yr-old woman presenting with symptoms and signs of mild hypercortisolism, in which ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed.
  • An abdominal computed tomography scan confirmed a left adrenal mass.
  • While diagnosis work-up was still in progress, the patient became pregnant and wanted to carry her pregnancy to full-term.
  • Pathologic examination of the gland showed a benign adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The patient developed secondary adrenal insufficiency and was discharged on 20 mg hydrocortisone daily dose.
  • No apparent metyrapone-induced teratogenic effects were observed and there was no clinical or biochemical suppression of adrenocortical function.
  • In conclusion, in adrenal Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy, medical treatment with metyrapone as soon as the diagnosis is made, in combination with laparoscopic surgery during the second trimester, are useful in preventing complications secondary to hypercortisolism and safe both for the mother and infant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / therapy. Metyrapone / therapeutic use. Pregnancy Complications / therapy


9. Ouzounian S, Tissier F, Gouya H, Kujas M, Louvel A, Legmann P, Bertagna X: [Cushing's syndrome and adrenal adenoma. Two surprising associations]. Presse Med; 2005 Apr 09;34(7):511-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cushing's Syndrome.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cushing's syndrome and adrenal adenoma. Two surprising associations].
  • [Transliterated title] Maladie de Cushing et adénome cortico-surrénalien. Deux associations étonnantes.
  • CASES: In the first case, we describe the case of a patient with an adrenal adenoma 20 years before the occurrence of Cushing's disease related to the pineal gland.
  • In the second case, two members of the same family were diagnosed almost simultaneously with adrenal cortical adenoma (mother) and Cushing's disease (daughter).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15903005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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10. Ziaja J, Cholewa K, Mazurek U, Cierpka L: [Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jul-Aug;59(4):330-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCORTISONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Molekularne podstawy syntezy aldosteronu i kortyzolu w prawidlowych nadnerczach i w gruczolakach kory nadnerczy.
  • The aim of the study is to present genes encoding enzymatic proteins of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis pathway, methods of their transcriptional activity measurement, mRNA expression of the genes in normal adrenal cortex, in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients with Conn and Cushing syndromes, as well as in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients, in which hormonal activity of the tumour was not confirmed.
  • According to presented papers mRNA expression of analyzed genes is best known in tissue obtained from tumours excised from patients with Conn syndrome.
  • On the other hand transcriptional activity of the genes within the other adrenocortical adenomas is documented in lesser degree.
  • It concerns particularly analyses of tissue material obtained from patients, in which hormonal activity of adrenal tumours was not confirmed with biochemical tests.
  • It should be also considered, that the frame of reference for the majority of molecular analyses of adrenocortical tumour tissues was material obtained from little number of normal adrenals, what decreases in some degree credibility of obtained results.
  • Mentioned above remarks may be the basis for conduction of further investigations based on larger material, obtained both from normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / enzymology. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis. Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reference Values. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18777504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.- / Mixed Function Oxygenases; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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11. Wu Z, Ni D, Yan Y, Li J, Wang B, Ouyang J, Zhang G, Ma X, Li H, Zhang X: Expression of angiotensin II receptors in aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland and their clinical significance. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2010 Aug;30(4):486-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of angiotensin II receptors in aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland and their clinical significance.
  • The expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) of the adrenal gland was detected, and their relationship with clinical indexes of APA was analyzed.
  • The mRNA expression of AT1R and AT2R in 50 cases of APA and tissues adjacent to tumors and 12 cases of normal adrenal tissues was detected by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • The expression of AT1R in adenoma, tissues adjacent to tumor, and normal tissues of the adrenal gland showed no significant differences.
  • The expression of AT2R in APA tissue was lower than that in normal adrenal gland tissues (P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Aldosterone / blood. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / metabolism. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20714875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AGTR1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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12. Hennings J, Sundin A, Hägg A, Hellman P: 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):963-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate whether dexamethasone suppression treatment can improve (11) C-metomidate positron emission tomography (MTO-PET) detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism (PA).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven patients with proven PA and two patients with non-hyperfunctioning adrenocortical incidentalomas and small adrenocortical tumours observed on CT underwent MTO-PET before and 3 days after administration of oral dexamethasone suppression treatment.
  • RESULTS: All tumours were detected and categorised as adrenocortical by MTO-PET.
  • SUVhs as well as SUVmax were higher in PA compared to nonfunctional adenomas.
  • Normal adrenal cortex was suppressed after dexamethasone (p < 0.05), but tumour SUV was not significantly decreased after suppression in either PA or nonfunctional tumours (p > 0.05).
  • However, these changes caused no significant increase in the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio (p > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a highly sensitive method for detecting and categorising even small adrenocortical tumours in PA.
  • In this series, dexamethasone-suppressed MTO-PET was unable to increase the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio to further facilitate detection of small adenomas in PA as an alternative to adrenal venous sampling.

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  • (PMID = 20644954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5377-20-8 / metomidate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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13. Hirose A, Okada Y, Fukushima A, Tanaka Y: [A rare case of primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas with renal cell carcinoma]. J UOEH; 2005 Dec 1;27(4):315-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A rare case of primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas with renal cell carcinoma].
  • We report a rare case of bilateral primary aldosteronism with renal cell carcinoma.
  • Abdominal CT and MRI revealed tumor masses in both adrenal glands, and a large left renal mass.
  • The preoperative diagnosis was primary aldosteronism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas and left renal cell carcinoma.
  • The Pathological diagnosis was left renal cell carcinoma and bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Primary aldosteronism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas is relatively rare and its complication with renal cell carcinoma is an extremely rare case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications


14. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Oncocytás mellékvese-adenoma.
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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15. Garduno-García Jde J, Reza-Albarrán A, Márquez MA, Pérez FJ: [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Nov;57(9):421-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma adrenal como etiología de síndrome de Cushing: veinte años de experiencia en un centro mexicano de tercer nivel.
  • Adrenal adenomas are an uncommon cause of adult CS.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcome of patients with CS caused by adrenal adenomas in a referral center.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional observational study of patients with a diagnosis of CS caused by adrenal adenomas managed in our center over a 20-year period.
  • Our clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of this entity was analyzed.
  • The results of dynamic testing with dexamethasone suggested adrenal adenoma in 100% of the patients.
  • Seventy percent of adenomas were found in the left gland.
  • ACTH measurement in our center was not reliable in identifying adrenal adenoma as a cause of CS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20863774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2021
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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16. Mete O, Asa SL: Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):182-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions.
  • We report an interesting morphological alteration in the adrenal of a 72-year-old woman suffering from severe hypertension due to primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • The laparoscopic left adrenalectomy specimen revealed an adrenal cortical adenoma composed of varying proportions of oncocytic and clear cells, predominantly showing central oncocytic change.
  • Oncocytes also exhibited numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globular inclusions, which are not commonly observed in aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Aldosterone / secretion. Inclusion Bodies / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19462261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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17. Jeong BC, Park YH, Han DH, Kim HH: Laparoendoscopic single-site and conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a matched case-control study. J Endourol; 2009 Dec;23(12):1957-60

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe our initial clinical experience and assess the feasibility of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in the treatment of benign adrenal adenoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine patients undergoing LESS adrenalectomy for benign adrenal adenoma were compared with 17 patients undergoing conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LESS adrenalectomy for benign adrenal adenoma is comparable to the conventional laparoscopic approach with regard to the operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, and degree of complication, and has demonstrated more desirable cosmetic outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 19909074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Lee R, Storr M, Hershfield NB: A case of Conn's syndrome revealed after oral sodium phosphate (Fleet) preparation for colonoscopy. J Dig Dis; 2010 Apr;11(2):111-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of Conn's syndrome revealed after oral sodium phosphate (Fleet) preparation for colonoscopy.
  • The patient was subsequently diagnosed with primary aldosteronism secondary to an adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Bilateral adrenal venous sampling revealed excessive levels of aldosterone in the left adrenal vein prior to definitive surgery.
  • This case indicates that an oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation, though safe for most patients, can be complicated by a previously not diagnosed endocrine disease like the primary aldosteronism (Conn's syndrome) reported here.
  • This is the first report of a Conn's syndrome diagnosed after bowel cleansing with a sodium phosphate solution.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonoscopy / methods. Hyperaldosteronism / chemically induced. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Phosphates / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Administration, Oral. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aldosterone / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Renin / blood

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  • (PMID = 20402838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of digestive diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dig Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; SE337SVY37 / sodium phosphate
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19. Contesse V, Reznik Y, Louiset E, Duparc C, Cartier D, Sicard F, Laquerriere A, Parmentier F, Kuhn JM, Vaudry H, Lefebvre H: Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2843-50
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  • [Title] Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies.
  • Two patients with incidentally discovered adrenocortical adenomas underwent a series of pharmacological and physiological tests after pretreatment with dexamethasone.
  • In the two cases, 5-HT stimulated cortisol secretion from tumor cells with increased efficacy and/or potency to activate steroidogenesis by comparison with normal adrenocortical cells.
  • In the two adenoma tissues, immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of 5-HT-like immunoreactivity within clusters of steroidogenic cells, suggesting that 5-HT acted through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism to stimulate steroidogenesis.
  • In conclusion, this study provides the first observation of adrenocortical cortisol-producing adenomas hypersensitive in vivo and in vitro to serotonergic agonists.
  • Our results also show that cortisol-producing adenomas can express simultaneously several illegitimate receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Serotonin / pharmacology

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  • [CommentIn] Horm Metab Res. 2005 Aug;37(8):528-9 [16138268.001]
  • (PMID = 15705918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 158165-40-3 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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20. Inoue T, Ishiguro K, Suda T, Ito N, Suzuki Y, Taniguchi Y, Ohgi S: Laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy for adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(1):94-7
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy for adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome: report of a case.
  • Laparoscopic total adrenalectomy has become a standard technique for small adrenal tumors; however, bilateral adrenalectomy results in postoperative adrenal insufficiency, necessitating lifelong steroid replacement.
  • To preserve adrenocortical function in a 41-year-old woman with bilateral adrenocortical adenoma (BAA) causing Cushing's syndrome, we performed laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy.
  • We based our preoperative diagnosis of bilateral adrenocortical tumors causing Cushing's syndrome on the results of endocrinological investigations and imaging findings.
  • Thus, we performed lateral transperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy, preserving the adrenal glands, which were normal.
  • Pathological examination of both tumors confirmed the diagnosis of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The patient had no postoperative complications, and her adrenocortical function was normal without steroid replacement at her 10-month follow-up.
  • This report shows that Cushing's syndrome resulting from bilateral adenomas can be effectively treated by laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy as a minimally invasive, adrenocortical-preserving operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16378204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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21. Monjero-Ares I, Gegundez-Gómez C, Couselo-Villanueva JM, Moreda-Pérez M, Jorge-Iglesias M, Torres-García I, Alvarez-Gutiérrez AE, Arija-Val JF: [Association of pheochromocytoma with contralateral nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma]. Cir Esp; 2006 Feb;79(2):126-8
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  • [Title] [Association of pheochromocytoma with contralateral nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Asociación de feocromocitoma con adenoma suprarrenal contralateral no funcionante.
  • A 52-year-old woman complaining of abdominal pain, headaches and palpitations was admitted to our hospital for investigation of a bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • The definitive diagnosis was right pheochromocytoma and left adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Only four cases of pheochromocytoma associated with nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma have previously been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pheochromocytoma

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  • (PMID = 16539953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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22. Song JH, Lee KH, Kim SD, Cho BS: Long-term Follow up of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients with Hyponatremia. Electrolyte Blood Press; 2007 Dec;5(2):140-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term Follow up of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients with Hyponatremia.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease, which leads to cortisol and aldosterone deficiency and hyperandrogenism.
  • Typical medical treatment includes oral glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid administration to suppress adrenal androgens and to compensate for adrenal steroid deficiencies.
  • Among these patients, four cases of CAH patients showing the presence of hyponatremia as an initial electrolyte disorder were found with adrenal adenoma.
  • Hypersecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and chronic poor compliance to therapy appears to be associated with the development of the adrenal tumor.
  • Two cases were managed with adrenalectomy because of increasing adrenal tumor size and virilization.
  • Therefore, it is important that patients with CAH maintain steroid medication to avoid the appearance of adrenal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 24459514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-5997
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrolyte & blood pressure : E & BP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrolyte Blood Press
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3894515
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 21-hydroxylase deficiency / Adrenal tumor / Congenital adrenal hyperplasia / Hyponatremia
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23. Spinazzi R, Rucinski M, Neri G, Malendowicz LK, Nussdorfer GG: Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;90(6):3544-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells.
  • We previously found that orexin-A, via the OX1-R, stimulates cortisol secretion from dispersed human adrenocortical cells.
  • In this study, we demonstrate that six of eight cortisol-secreting adenomas expressed preproorexin mRNA, and seven of 10 adenomas contained measurable amounts of orexin-A but not orexin-B.
  • Normal adrenal cortexes neither expressed preproorexin nor contained orexins.
  • All adenomas expressed OX1-R and OX2-R mRNAs, and real-time PCR showed that the expression of both receptors was up-regulated in adenomas, compared with normal adrenal cortex.
  • Orexin-A concentration-dependently raised basal cortisol secretion from freshly dispersed normal and adenomatous cells, minimal and maximal effective concentrations being 10(-10) and 10(-8) m, and the peptide efficacy (percent increase elicited by 10(-8) m orexin-A) was significantly higher in adenomas than in the normal adrenal cortex.
  • Collectively, our findings allow us to conclude that the orexin system is overexpressed in cortisol-secreting adenomas and suggest that orexin-A may act as an autocrine-paracrine regulator of the secretory activity and growth of some of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15797953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / HCRT protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Orexin Receptors; 0 / Orexins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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24. Guthoff M, Schnauder G, Kirchhoff K, Kurth R, Horger M, Müssig K: [Normokalaemic primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma--Case 06/2009]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2009 Jul;134(31-32):1582
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  • [Title] [Normokalaemic primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma--Case 06/2009].
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Ultrasound displayed no evidence of renal artery stenosis.
  • Renal function was normal.
  • MRI revealed an adenoma of the right adrenal gland.
  • DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND COURSE: The results were consistent with primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • The histological findings confirmed an adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / secretion. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Renin / blood

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  • (PMID = 19629922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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25. Chen KT: Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jul-Aug;49(4):449-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: The fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic evaluations of most adrenal lesions are straightforward.
  • After delivery, computed tomography-guided FNA showed bland epithelial cells, and a diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma was made.
  • However, subsequent resection showed a myelolipoma of the adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: This case illustrated 2 cytodiagnostic pitfalls in adrenal fine needle aspirates.
  • First, the myeloid cells characteristic of a myelolipoma were not present in the FNA smears because a large portion of the lesion was composed of fibroadipose tissue.
  • Second, extraneous, benign cells of hepatic origin were misinterpreted as adrenal cortical adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hepatocytes / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16124179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Denzinger S, Burger M, Hartmann A, Hofstaedter F, Wieland WF, Ganzer R: Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma. APMIS; 2007 Apr;115(4):381-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma.
  • We report on a 50-year-old patient with a giant benign adenoma of the adrenal cortex, which ruptured spontaneously, leading to life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
  • Following emergency adrenalectomy with sparing of the ipsilateral kidney, an adenoma of the adrenal cortex with a diameter of 18 cm and a weight of 1400 g was found.
  • A detailed literature search showed this to be the largest benign tumor of the adrenal cortex described so far.
  • We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this unusual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Middle Aged. Rupture, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous / pathology. Rupture, Spontaneous / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17504308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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27. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses.
  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • There were 43 cortical adenomas, 11 cortical adrenocarcinomas and 20 PHEOs (including 5 malignant lesions).
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • There was no expression of Ki67 or p53 protein above the assumed level in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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28. Tan HS, Thai AC, Nga ME, Mukherjee JJ: Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):271-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • INTRODUCTION: At times, it may be difficult to differentiate early stage, low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma from benign adrenal adenoma.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: A 53-year-old lady underwent right adrenalectomy for a 4-cm adrenocortical tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Histology revealed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Sixteen years later, she presented with a 14-cm adrenal tumour, again on the right side.
  • Histology confirmed adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OUTCOME: She died of metastatic disease 17 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of long-term, systematic follow-up of patients treated for benign adrenal adenomas, especially if the tumour size exceeds 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15902349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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29. Rohana AG, Ming W, Norlela S, Norazmi MK: Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Med J Malaysia; 2007 Jun;62(2):158-9
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  • [Title] Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • We report a case of a young hypertensive male who was first seen in 1998 with a right thalamic haemorrhage and uncontrolled hypertension.
  • CT abdomen showed a right adrenal tumour and a hyperplastic left adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed followed by histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.
  • This was confirmed to be due to partial or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • We discuss the association of partial CAH and adrenal tumours and the unmasking of the mineralocorticoid deficiency following adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications


30. Yip L, Tublin ME, Falcone JA, Nordman CR, Stang MT, Ogilvie JB, Carty SE, Yim JH: The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Mar;17(3):846-52
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  • [Title] The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging.
  • BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help diagnose benign adrenal adenomas, but prior studies rely on nonoperative follow-up as proof of a lesion's benign nature.
  • Imaging results were considered to signify benign adrenal adenoma if one or more of the following was present: Hounsfield units <10 on unenhanced CT, contrast-enhanced CT quantifying absolute contrast washout of >60% or relative contrast washout of >40%, or MR with chemical-shift imaging demonstrating loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase images.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative imaging in predicting benign adrenal adenoma were 57 and 94%, respectively.
  • Histopathology confirmed that all 66 adrenal masses with imaging characteristics suggesting benign adenoma were indeed benign lesions and included 61 benign adrenal adenomas and 5 benign nonadenomatous lesions (3 myelolipomas, 1 composite myelolipoma/adenoma, and 1 ganglioliponeuroma).
  • Malignant adrenal lesions were diagnosed in 17/130 (13%) masses: 8 metastases, 7 adrenal cortical carcinomas, 1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CT or MR characteristics predicted the presence of benign lesions with 100% specificity.
  • Every adrenal malignancy had CT or MR results that were inconsistent with benign adenoma (100% sensitivity).
  • To exclude malignancy, adrenal masses with non-benign imaging characteristics should be resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19960266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Pittavini L, De Gaetano A, Solano G, Losito A: Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma. J Nephrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):614-6
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  • [Title] Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.
  • The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma.
  • This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications


32. Tadjine M, Lampron A, Ouadi L, Bourdeau I: Frequent mutations of beta-catenin gene in sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Feb;68(2):264-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequent mutations of beta-catenin gene in sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Molecular alterations remain largely unknown in most sporadic adrenocortical tumours and hyperplasias.
  • In our previous work, we demonstrated the differential expression of several Wnt/beta-catenin signalling-related genes implicated in ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasias (AIMAH).
  • To better understand the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in adrenocortical tumours, we performed mutational analysis of the beta-catenin gene.
  • METHODS: We studied 53 human adrenocortical samples (33 adenomas, 4 carcinomas, 13 AIMAH, 3 ACTH-dependent adrenal hyperplasias) and the human adrenocortical cancer cell line NCI-H295R.
  • RESULTS: No mutations were detected in adrenocortical carcinomas, AIMAH and ACTH-dependent hyperplasias.
  • Genetic alterations were found in 5 (15%) out of 33 adenomas: three cortisol-secreting adenomas, one aldosterone-secreting adenoma and one nonfunctional adenoma.
  • In addition, cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin was observed in mutated adenomas by immunohistochemistry.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Activating mutations of exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene are frequent in adrenocortical adenomas, and further characterization of the Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway should lead to a better understanding of adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. beta Catenin / genetics. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17854394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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33. Ors F, Lev-Toaff A, O'Kane P, Qazi N, Bergin D: Paraovarian adrenal rest with MRI features characteristic of an adrenal adenoma. Br J Radiol; 2007 Sep;80(957):e205-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paraovarian adrenal rest with MRI features characteristic of an adrenal adenoma.
  • We report MR and sonographic imaging features of an incidentally detected paraovarian adrenal rest in a 44-year-old woman who was being evaluated for menorrhagia.
  • This is the first report of chemical shift imaging identifying the presence of lipid within an adrenal rest as well as rapid washout of contrast.
  • Both of these MR characteristics are typically seen with an adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Rest Tumor / diagnosis. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17928489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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34. Kamenicky P, Houdoin L, Ferlicot S, Salenave S, Brailly S, Droupy S, Meduri G, Sasano H, Suzuki T, Young J, Chanson P: Benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas produce small amounts of androgens. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Jun;66(6):778-88
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  • [Title] Benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas produce small amounts of androgens.
  • BACKGROUND: Serum androgen levels are below normal in patients with benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, owing to ACTH suppression.
  • The objective of the study was to analyse the androgen-producing ability of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • METHODS: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), Delta4androstenedione and testosterone concentrations were measured before and after adrenalectomy and then at 6-month intervals in 20 women (eight cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, six subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and six nonfunctional adenomas).
  • RESULTS: Before adrenalectomy, serum androgen concentrations were measurable in all women with clinically apparent and subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Postoperatively, during adrenocortical insufficiency, DHEAS, Delta4androstenedione and testosterone concentrations fell to near the detection limit in all patients with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas (P = 0.008 for each marker) and showed a similar tendency to fall in all patients with subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Pre- and post-treatment androgen concentrations did not differ in patients with nonfunctional adenomas.
  • The intensity of CYP17 and SULT2A1 expression was stronger in cortisol-secreting adenomas than in their adjacent normal adrenal tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: Both clinically apparent and subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas appear to show moderate autonomous androgen production.
  • Thus, weak androgen secretion in patients with adrenocortical tumours should not necessarily be considered as a sign of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17408424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Gonadotropins, Pituitary; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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35. Makino K, Kojima R, Nakamura H, Morioka M, Iyama K, Shigematsu K, Kuratsu J: Ectopic adrenal cortical adenoma in the spinal region: case report and review of the literature. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Oct;27(2):121-5
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  • [Title] Ectopic adrenal cortical adenoma in the spinal region: case report and review of the literature.
  • Ectopic adrenal cortical neoplasms are extremely rare; few involve the central nervous system (CNS).
  • We report a 17-month-old girl with spinal adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • In addition, the nuclei stained positive for steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1), which is involved in adrenal steroidogenesis.
  • This case confirms the occurrence of adrenocortical adenoma in the CNS.
  • We suggest that this tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Choristoma. Dura Mater / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Inhibins / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / metabolism. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 21046315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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36. Yan QZ, Li HZ, Pan DL: [Causes of delaying diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma and strategy therefore]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Nov 14;86(42):3002-4
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  • [Title] [Causes of delaying diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma and strategy therefore].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the causes of delaying diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma and discuss corrective strategies.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 267 patients of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma confirmed by operation 1995 - 2005 were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Confirmed diagnosis was made after a duration of (92 +/- 64) months (3 - 40 years) after the first visit.
  • 95.9% of the patients were diagnosed as with primary hypertension at the first visit without receiving relevant imaging examination of adrenal and endocrine examination.
  • Adrenal adenoma was discovered by computed tomography with thin coat screening in 267 patients and by ultrasonography in 151 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chymosin / blood. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Male. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17288816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.4 / Chymosin
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37. Ammoury RF, Heptulla RA, Tatevian N, Elenberg E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient. Pediatr Nephrol; 2006 Mar;21(3):433-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient.
  • Adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma is extremely rare in pediatrics.
  • A 16-year-old patient was diagnosed with severe hypertension associated with a right adrenal mass.
  • MRI of the abdomen showed a heterogeneous adrenal mass 4.2x3.3 cm.
  • Laparoscopic resection of the mass was done, and the pathology revealed an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • This is a case in which an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma, a benign and usually asymptomatic tumor, presented as severe hypertension resolving with surgical resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery


38. Boyle B, Butz H, Liko I, Zalatnai A, Toth M, Feldman K, Horanyi J, Igaz P, Racz K, Patocs A: Expression of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in human adrenocortical adenomas. Steroids; 2010 Oct;75(10):695-700

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in human adrenocortical adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in the normal human adrenal gland, however, no study has been performed to evaluate the separate expression of alpha- and beta-isoforms (GRalpha and GRbeta) in normal human adrenals and in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL: GRalpha and GRbeta mRNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR in 31 adrenal tissues including 19 non-functioning adenomas (NFA), 6 cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) and 6 normal adrenocortical tissues.
  • In addition, the presence and cellular localization of GRalpha and GRbeta proteins in adrenal tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Compared to normal adrenocortical tissues, both GRalpha and GRbeta mRNAs were significantly increased in CPA but not in NFA.
  • Using anti-GRalpha antibody a strong nuclear staining was observed in NFA and CPA, and a less remarkable immunoreactivity was detected in some nuclei of normal adrenocortical cells.
  • GRbeta immunostaining was absent in normal adrenal tissues and NFA, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear immunoreaction was found in CPA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Altered expression of GRalpha and GRbeta in CPA raises their possible role in the pathophysiology of these adrenal tumors, although further studies are needed to elucidate the potential significance of these findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20438742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5867
  • [Journal-full-title] Steroids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Steroids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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39. Tian L, Guo Y, Wu YP, Liu LZ: [CT features of adrenal cortical adenoma: a report of 109 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Jan;27(1):66-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [CT features of adrenal cortical adenoma: a report of 109 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Adrenal cortical adenoma (ACA) is a common disease, and can be diagnosed easily with CT examination.
  • However, some atypical adenomas are likely to be misdiagnosed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 109 cases of ACA, 104 showed unilateral single adenoma, 1 showed unilateral 2 adenomas, and 4 showed bilateral adenomas.
  • The maximal diameter of non-functional adenomas was larger than that of Cushing's adenomas, and the latter was larger than that of Conn's adenomas.
  • The probability of degeneration was higher in large adenomas than in small adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18184467.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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40. Abdullah N, Khawaja K, Hale J, Barrett AM, Cheetham TD: Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;18(2):215-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy.
  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome).
  • The hypertension resolved following excision of the adrenal tumour.
  • Normokalaemia with potassium >4.0 mmol/l is very unusual in patients with Conn's syndrome and has not been described in childhood before.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Potassium / blood


41. Yoon JH, Kim SH, Kim MA, Han JK, Choi BI: MDCT and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI findings of adrenal adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Korean J Radiol; 2010 Jan-Feb;11(1):126-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MDCT and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI findings of adrenal adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • We report a case of an adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland mimicking a hepatocellular carcinoma in a heavy alcohol abuser.
  • A tumorectomy was performed and adrenal adenoma from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver was confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Gadolinium DTPA. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20046505.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799643
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal adenoma / Ectopic adrenal gland / Liver / Magnetic resonance (MR) / Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT)
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42. Mishra AK, Agarwal A, George RK, Gupta S, Mishra SK: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome: report of the initial six cases. Int Surg; 2009 Jan-Feb;94(1):31-4
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome: report of the initial six cases.
  • We report our experience with the initial six cases of transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome).
  • From 1997 to 2002, 6 patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome) were referred to the Department of Endocrine Surgery and underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy through the transperitoneal approach.
  • In all patients, the adrenal gland and the adenoma were successfully removed laparoscopically, and all patients were normokalemic and normotensive in the first follow-up after 6 months.

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  • (PMID = 20099423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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43. Hosogi H, Nagayama S, Kanamoto N, Yoshizawa A, Suzuki T, Nakao K, Sakai Y: Biallelic APC inactivation was responsible for functional adrenocortical adenoma in familial adenomatous polyposis with novel germline mutation of the APC gene: report of a case. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Dec;39(12):837-46
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  • [Title] Biallelic APC inactivation was responsible for functional adrenocortical adenoma in familial adenomatous polyposis with novel germline mutation of the APC gene: report of a case.
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients develop various extracolonic lesions, among which functional adrenocortical neoplasms are infrequent.
  • Furthermore, bilateral adrenocortical adenomas were detected, and functional analyses showed a hormonal secretion pattern consistent with Cushing's syndrome.
  • At 10 months post-operative with no detectable metastatic lesions, the residual colorectum and the larger, left adrenal gland were resected, and the hormonal hypersecretion was normalized.
  • Biallelic APC inactivation due to loss of the normal allele was evident in the adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunostaining for beta-catenin revealed diffuse cytoplasmic expression in resected tissues including adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Biallelic APC inactivation may play a role in developing cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma in FAP patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / metabolism. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Genes, APC / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19684041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein
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44. Park SH, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Lim JS, Kim KW: Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation. Korean J Radiol; 2007 Jul-Aug;8(4):328-35
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  • [Title] Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal threshold for the attenuation values in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and assess the value of the size criteria for differentiating between an adrenal adenoma and a nonadenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The unenhanced CT images of 45 patients at our institution, who underwent a surgical resection of an adrenal masses between January 2001 and July 2005, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Forty-five adrenal masses included 25 cortical adenomas, 12 pheochromocytomas, three lymphomas, and five metastases confirmed by pathology were examined.
  • The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test.
  • RESULTS: The twenty-five adenomas showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) attenuation values (mean+/-SD; 16.3+/-14.9) than the nonadenomas (38.1+/-6.8).
  • The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were 36%, 100%, 100%, 56%, and 64%, respectively, at a threshold of 10 HU; 60%, 100%, 100%, 67%, and 78%, respectively, at a threshold of 20 HU; and 72%, 95%, 95%, 73%, and 82%, respectively, at a threshold of 25 HU.
  • The adenomas had a significantly (p < 0.05) smaller diameter (2.44+/-1.24 cm) than the nonadenomas (5.09+/-2.37 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: The threshold attenuation values of 20 or 25 HU in the unenhanced CT appear optimal for discriminating an adrenal adenoma from a nonadenoma.
  • The size criteria are of little value in differentiating adrenal masses because of their low specificity or low sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17673844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627166
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45. Tissier F, Cavard C, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Hagneré AM, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Gicquel C, Bertagna X, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Perret C, Bertherat J: Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 1;65(17):7622-7
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  • [Title] Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a rare cancer with a very poor prognosis.
  • The genetic alterations identified to date in adrenocortical tumors are limited.
  • We investigated whether Wnt pathway activation is involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • In a series of 39 adrenocortical tumors, immunohistochemistry revealed abnormal cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in 10 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 11 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • An activating somatic mutation of the beta-catenin gene was shown in 7 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 4 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas; these mutations were observed only in adrenocortical tumors with abnormal beta-catenin accumulation and most were point mutations altering the Ser45 of exon 3 (in the consensus GSK3-beta/CK1 phosphorylation site).
  • Functional studies showed that the activating Ser45 beta-catenin mutation found in the adrenocortical cancer H295R cell line leads to constitutive activation of T-cell factor-dependent transcription.
  • This is the first molecular defect to be reported with the same prevalence in both benign (27%) and malignant (31%) adrenocortical tumors. beta-Catenin mutations are also the most frequent genetic defect currently known in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • In adrenocortical adenomas, beta-catenin alterations are more frequent in nonfunctioning tumors, suggesting that beta-catenin pathway activation might be mostly involved in the development of nonsecreting adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The very frequent and substantial accumulation of beta-catenin in adrenocortical carcinomas suggests that other alterations might also be involved.
  • This finding may contribute to new therapeutic approaches targeting the Wnt pathway in malignant adrenocortical tumors, for which limited medical therapy is available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16140927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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46. Schittenhelm J, Ebner FH, Harter P, Bornemann A: Symptomatic intraspinal oncocytic adrenocortical adenoma. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(1):73-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Symptomatic intraspinal oncocytic adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Benign epithelial tumors are rarely found at this site.
  • We here present the case of a 44-year-old woman with a lesion in the cauda equina that fulfilled the radiologic criteria of schwannoma and caused clinical symptoms for 3 years.
  • This immunoprofile indicated adrenocortical origin.
  • The diagnosis of an oncocytic adrenal cortical adenoma was made.
  • These extraadrenal tumors are thought to arise from heterotopic adrenocortical tissue in the spinal cavity.
  • Oncocytic tumors are rare neoplasms and they comprise non-functioning variants of adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Immunohistochemistry excluded oncocytic paraganglioma, oncocytic meningioma, renal cell carcinoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, and granular cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19039533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Qiao ZW, Xia CM, Zhu YB, Shi WP, Miao F: First-pass perfusion computed tomography: initial experience in differentiating adrenal adenoma from metastasis. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Mar;73(3):657-63
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  • [Title] First-pass perfusion computed tomography: initial experience in differentiating adrenal adenoma from metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To differentiate adrenal adenoma from metastasis in patients using perfusion computed tomography (PCT) imaging.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two patients with adrenal masses underwent first-pass PCT imaging.
  • Of these patients, twenty-one were diagnosed with adrenal adenoma, and the others with metastases.
  • RESULTS: The perfusion parameters such as BV, BF and PS were statistically significant different between the two groups, with adenomas showing higher mean BV (12.18 versus 3.86), BF (97.51 versus 45.99) and PS (21.73 versus 10.93) compared with metastases (p<0.05).
  • For BV, a cutoff point of 7.30 was found to have a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 100% to differentiate between adenoma and metastasis.
  • The sensitivity and specificity were 81.0 and 80.0%, respectively, for BF with a cutoff point of 71.96; and 85.7 and 86.7%, respectively, for PS with a cutoff point of 12.70 to differentiate adenoma and metastasis.
  • A comparison of MVD counts from adenomas with those from metastases showed a significant difference (p<0.05).
  • However, no significant differences were observed in the four perfusion parameters and MVD between lipid rich and lipid poor adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: PCT may be useful for evaluating the neovascularization of adrenal masses and differentiating adenoma from metastasis on the basis of PCT parameters.
  • Adenomas show higher BV, BF and PS compared with metastases.
  • According our data, the optimal threshold BV is 7.30, resulting in a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 100% for the differentiation of adenoma from metastasis.
  • Adrenal adenomas have similar hemodynamic profiles, which are apparently independent of the lipid content of an adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Male. Microcirculation. ROC Curve. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19200677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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48. Carney JA: Carney triad: a syndrome featuring paraganglionic, adrenocortical, and possibly other endocrine tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Oct;94(10):3656-62
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  • [Title] Carney triad: a syndrome featuring paraganglionic, adrenocortical, and possibly other endocrine tumors.
  • One also had an adrenal cortical adenoma and the other pulmonary chondroma.
  • Twenty percent of the patients had adrenocortical adenoma(s), and 10% had esophageal leiomyoma(s).
  • The pulmonary tumors were asymptomatic and benign.
  • CONCLUSION: The Carney triad is a chronic, persistent, indolent but sometimes fatal disorder of unknown etiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Chondroma. Esophageal Neoplasms. Leiomyoma. Lung Neoplasms. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Paraganglioma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carotid Body Tumor / pathology. Chronic Disease. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Male. Pheochromocytoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19723753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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49. Adissu HA, Hayes G, Wood GA, Caswell JL: Cardiac myxosarcoma with adrenal adenoma and pituitary hyperplasia resembling Carney complex in a dog. Vet Pathol; 2010 Mar;47(2):354-7
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  • [Title] Cardiac myxosarcoma with adrenal adenoma and pituitary hyperplasia resembling Carney complex in a dog.
  • The pathological evaluation revealed a left atrial ossifying myxosarcoma, bilateral adrenocortical adenomas, multifocal pituitary hyperplasia with expression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and multiple pituitary Rathke's cleft cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / veterinary. Myxosarcoma / veterinary. Pituitary Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Fatal Outcome. Female

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  • (PMID = 20110224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Alam MM, Rahman MA, Naser MF, Hossain MS, Islam MA: Testosterone secreting adrenal adenoma in an adult female patient. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Oct;19(4):632-5
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  • [Title] Testosterone secreting adrenal adenoma in an adult female patient.
  • Adrenal tumours that secrete testosterone are extremely rare and we describe such a case in a 35 years old female with virilization.
  • She had left adrenal adenoma 7.5 X 6.4 cm in size, her ovaries were normal.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20956912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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51. Dinleyici EC, Dogruel N, Acikalin MF, Tokar B, Oztelcan B, Ilhan H: An additional child case of an aldosterone-producing adenoma with an atypical presentation of peripheral paralysis due to hypokalemia. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Nov;30(10):870-2
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  • [Title] An additional child case of an aldosterone-producing adenoma with an atypical presentation of peripheral paralysis due to hypokalemia.
  • Aldosterone-producing adenoma, which is characterized by hypertension, hypokalemia, and elevated aldosterone levels with suppressed plasma renin activity, is a rare condition during childhood and is also potentially curable.
  • To the best of our knowledge, nearly 25 cases of childhood aldosterone-secreting adenoma have been reported in the literature to date.
  • Here we describe a 13-yr-old girl with primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to aldosterone-secreting adenoma.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed left adrenal mass.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and histopathological examinations showed benign adrenal adenoma.
  • This case demonstrates the importance of a systemic evaluation including blood pressure monitorization of children with hypokalemia as intermittent hypertension episodes may be seen; cases without hypertension may be misdiagnosed as rheumatological or neurological disorders such as hypokalemic periodic paralysis, as in our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Paralysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18075291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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52. Karikari IO, Uschold TD, Selznick LA, Carter JH, Cummings TJ, Friedman AH: Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Nov;59(5):E1144; discussion E1144
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  • [Title] Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: The authors report a primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma in a patient with spinal dysraphism presenting with bilateral leg pain and urinary frequency.
  • METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging, L2 laminectomy with resection of mass, and pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of resected mass revealed the diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Microscopic and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis as a primary intramedullary tumor of adrenal cortical origin.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of a primary adrenal tumor in the spinal cord is rare and difficult to explain based on our understanding of embryology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Dysraphism / complications

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  • (PMID = 17143207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Pena FJ, Quirce R, Allende RH, Banzo I, Carril JM: Bilateral adrenocortical uptake of Ga-67 SPECT during septicemia in a heart transplant patient. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 May;30(5):349-50
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenocortical uptake of Ga-67 SPECT during septicemia in a heart transplant patient.
  • Ga-67 SPECT showed bilateral abnormal adrenal gland uptake that disappeared after intensive antibiotic therapy as assessed by a new Ga-67 scintigraphy obtained 3 months later.
  • Unilateral and bilateral adrenal uptake of gallium has been reported in several clinical settings, ranging from adrenocortical adenomas to malignant disease such as lymphoma or adrenal metastases.
  • Only one similar case, septicemia with transient adrenal uptake of gallium, has been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / radionuclide imaging. Bacteremia / radionuclide imaging. Citrates. Gallium. Heart Transplantation / adverse effects. Heart Transplantation / radionuclide imaging. Staphylococcal Infections / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Fever of Unknown Origin / diagnosis. Fever of Unknown Origin / etiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Sepsis. Staphylococcus haemolyticus

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  • (PMID = 15827412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Citrates; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 27905-02-8 / gallium citrate; CH46OC8YV4 / Gallium
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54. Vesin C, Chabre O, Mallion JM, Chaffanjon P, Sturm N, Baguet JP: [Diagnosis and post-operative evolution of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome). A 12-years retrospective study]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss; 2007 Feb;100(2):121-5

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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and post-operative evolution of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome). A 12-years retrospective study].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostic et évolution postopératoire des patients opérés d'un adénome de Conn. Etude rétrospective sur 12 ans.
  • The prevalence and characteristics of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome) as well as their post-operative arterial pressure evolution are varying through literature.
  • From 1993 to 2005, 24 patients (mean age = 46 +/-11 years) presented the biological criteria of primary hyperaldosteronism and benefited from adrenalectomy with confirmation of adrenal adenoma.
  • All adenomas measured more than 10 mm in scanner imaging.
  • Post-operative spontaneous normotensive patients had, at the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma, a more recent and non-refractory hypertension, with a lower number of antihypertensive drugs, a better response to spirinolactone and higher aldosterone plasmatic levels.
  • 1) Whether 70% of patients operated for adrenal adenoma are normotensive (with or without treatement) post-operatively, only 25% are definitely cured after 4 years.
  • Factors associated to a post-operative cure highlight the interest of an ealy diagnosis.
  • 2) There is probably an underdiagnosis of adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome) because neither adenomas with normokaliemia, nor adenomas <10 mm in scanner imaging have ever been diagnosed or at least, sent to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17474497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9683
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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55. Bourdeau I, Lampron A, Costa MH, Tadjine M, Lacroix A: Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2007 Jun;14(3):219-25
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  • Primary Cushing's syndrome is most often secondary to adrenocortical adenomas or carcinomas, and more rarely to bilateral adrenal hyperplasias.
  • Corticotropin-independent cortisol-producing hyperplasia is caused by micronodular diseases, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and nonpigmented micronodular hyperplasia and adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease can be found either alone or in the context of Carney complex, a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, the pathophysiology of adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias became better understood following the identification of genes responsible for syndromes associated with corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome and the demonstration of aberrant expression and function of various hormone receptors in adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • This article reviews findings on the molecular and genetic aspects of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome including recent gene expression profiling studies of adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias and animal models that provided clues on the pathogenesis of primary Cushing's syndrome.
  • SUMMARY: A better understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias may lead to improved diagnostic and prognostic markers and treatment strategies to assist clinicians in the management of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17940443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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56. Danilovic DL, Freire DS, Paraíba DB, Brandão Neto RA, Lucon AM, Pereira MA: [Primary aldosteronism caused by aldosteronoma: problems in the etiologic diagnosis]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Apr;51(3):478-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary aldosteronism caused by aldosteronoma: problems in the etiologic diagnosis].
  • We present a case of PA caused by an aldosteronoma associated with a contralateral nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma, which resulted in difficulties in the final diagnosis.
  • We discuss the most appropriated tests to screen, confirm the diagnosis of PA and define the etiology of the disorder, especially the adrenal veins sampling to distinguish the aldosteronoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism and to guide successful treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Middle Aged. Renin / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17546249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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57. Gockel I, Heintz A, Kentner R, Werner C, Junginger T: Changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome. Surg Endosc; 2005 Nov;19(11):1491-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland is regarded as the most common type of endocrine hypertension.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy recorded in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to patients with hormone-inactive incidentaloma and its possible influence by the surgical approach.
  • METHODS: From February 1994 to March 2004, 40 patients underwent endoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome.
  • RESULTS: The adrenal gland was resected using the retroperitoneal in 25 and the transperitoneal approach in 15 patients with Conn's syndrome.
  • The increase in intraoperative blood pressure in patients with Conn's syndrome was significantly higher, for both systolic (p < 0.0001) and diastolic (p = 0.0037) readings, compared to that in patients with incidentaloma undergoing endoscopic adrenalectomy during the same period of time.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that relevant intraoperative increases in blood pressure occur in patients with Conn's syndrome despite prior therapy with an aldosterone antagonist, necessitating specific precautionary measures during anesthesia.

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  • [ErratumIn] Surg Endosc. 2006 Jan;20(1):180. Wetner, C [corrected to Werner, C]
  • (PMID = 16222471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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58. Mahadevia S, Rozenblit A, Milikow D, Marinovich A: Renal-adrenal fusion: instance of an adrenal adenoma mimicking a solid renal mass at CT--case report. Radiology; 2009 Jun;251(3):808-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Renal-adrenal fusion: instance of an adrenal adenoma mimicking a solid renal mass at CT--case report.
  • The authors report an unusual case of unilateral renal-adrenal fusion with a concurrent adrenal adenoma.
  • At computed tomography, this abnormality appeared as a solid enhancing lesion in the upper pole of the kidney, mimicking a renal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Kidney / abnormalities. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Kidney Diseases / radiography. Nephrectomy

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  • (PMID = 19261923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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59. Velázquez-Fernández D, Laurell C, Geli J, Höög A, Odeberg J, Kjellman M, Lundeberg J, Hamberger B, Nilsson P, Bäckdahl M: Expression profiling of adrenocortical neoplasms suggests a molecular signature of malignancy. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1087-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression profiling of adrenocortical neoplasms suggests a molecular signature of malignancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas is often difficult.
  • Our aim was to investigate the differences in transcriptional profiles between benign and malignant adrenocortical neoplasms using complementary DNA microarray techniques.
  • METHODS: We studied 7 patients with adrenocortical carcinomas and 13 with adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Transcriptional profiles were homogeneous among adenomas, while carcinomas were much more heterogeneous.
  • Hierarchical clustering and self-organizing maps could separate clearly carcinomas from adenomas.
  • Among genes that were most significantly downregulated in carcinomas were a cytokine gene (CXCL10), several genes related to cell metabolism (RARRES2, ALDH1A1, CYBRD1 and GSTA4), and the cadherin 2 gene (CDH2).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Through the use of cDNA arrays, adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas appear to be clearly distinguishable on the basis of their specific molecular signature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16360395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Herrera JD, Davidson JA, Mestman JH: Hyperandrogenism due to a testosterone-secreting Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor associated with a dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-secreting adrenal adenoma in a postmenopausal woman: case presentation and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):149-52
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  • [Title] Hyperandrogenism due to a testosterone-secreting Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor associated with a dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-secreting adrenal adenoma in a postmenopausal woman: case presentation and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of hyperandrogenism attributable to the presence of an adrenal adenoma secreting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and an ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor secreting testosterone in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Laboratory tests showed elevated levels of total testosterone (348 ng/dL) and DHEA-S (2,058 microg/dL), and a left adrenal tumor (3 by 4 cm) was detected on abdominal computed tomographic scan.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, and the pathologic diagnosis was adrenal adenoma.
  • Bilateral oophorectomy was performed, and an ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor was diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSION: After extensive review of the literature, we believe that this is the first reported case of a coincidental DHEA-S-secreting adrenal adenoma and a testosterone- secreting ovarian Leydig cell tumor causing signs of virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / metabolism. Hyperandrogenism / diagnosis. Hyperandrogenism / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Testosterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19289327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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61. Morita S, Otsuki M, Izumi M, Asanuma N, Izumoto S, Saitoh Y, Yoshimine T, Kasayama S: Reduced epinephrine reserve in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with pituitary adenoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Sep;157(3):265-70
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  • [Title] Reduced epinephrine reserve in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with pituitary adenoma.
  • Insulin-induced hypoglycemia is used for evaluating GH-IGF-I and ACTH-adrenal axes in patients with pituitary disorders.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether the response of catecholamine secretion to hypoglycemia is disrupted in patients with pituitary adenoma.
  • METHODS: The study population comprised 23 patients with pituitary adenoma (non-functioning adenoma or prolactinoma).
  • With the cutoff level of peak epinephrine for defining severe impairment set at 400 pg/ml, more patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency showed severe impairment of the epinephrine response than did those without it.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Impaired epinephrine secretion in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia was frequently observed in patients with pituitary adenoma.
  • This disorder was especially severe in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency.

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  • (PMID = 17766707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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62. De Padua M, Rajagopal V: Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern. Indian J Med Sci; 2008 May;62(5):199-203

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern.
  • Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors.
  • To our knowledge, only 22 cases have been described so far in literature, which include 13 carcinomas and 9 adenomas.
  • We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor.
  • Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18579979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5359
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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63. Baba Y, Hokotate H, Nakajo M: Comparison of adrenal vein sampling value between aldosterone producing adrenal adenoma and non-functioning adrenal adenoma: evaluation using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Acta Radiol; 2005 Nov;46(7):750-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of adrenal vein sampling value between aldosterone producing adrenal adenoma and non-functioning adrenal adenoma: evaluation using receiver operating characteristic analysis.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate adequate criteria for adrenal vein sampling values in patients with aldosterone producing adrenal adenoma (APA), retrospectively.
  • During the same period, 23 patients with non-functioning adrenal adenoma (11 M and 12 F aged 53.56 +/- 11.76 years) were diagnosed based on computed tomography and laboratory data.
  • Bilateral adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for measurement of plasma aldosterone (A) and cortisol (C) was performed, and a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was conducted to establish the best criteria from the AVS-derived index in patients with APA.
  • The Az values for A (APA side)/A (contralateral side) were 0.8948 and 0.9260 for right and left APA, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The A (APA side)/A (contralateral side) value was the best compromise for sensitivity and false-positive rate for lateralization of APA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Aldosterone / blood. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. ROC Curve

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  • (PMID = 16372697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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64. Bezerra MG, Latronico AC, Fragoso MC: [Endocrine tumors associated to protein Gsalpha/Gi2alpha mutations]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):784-90

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The G proteins couple an array of seven transmembrane receptors at the cell surface with a variety of intracellular effectors, which produce second messenger molecules.
  • A subset of endocrine tumors, such as GH- or ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, functioning thyroid adenomas, adrenocortical and gonadal tumors were associated with somatic activating mutations in the highly conserved codons of the Gs (Arg201 and Gln227) and Gi (Arg179 and Gln205) proteins.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Oncogenes / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16444361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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65. Nomikos IN, Zizi-Serbetzoglou A, Matsakis G, Elemenoglou J, Vamvakopoulos NC: Association of an oversized adrenal cortical adenoma with expression of pheochromocytoma-like neurosecretory features. J BUON; 2008 Jul-Sep;13(3):425-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association of an oversized adrenal cortical adenoma with expression of pheochromocytoma-like neurosecretory features.
  • Abnormal stimulation of adrenal function may be either direct, affecting similarly cortical and medullary secretion, or indirect affecting primarily the medulla.
  • Indirect activation of clinically detectable adrenomedullary function may develop as a physical consequence of a non-functional adrenal tumor exerting pressure on the medulla by its size, location and direction of growth.
  • Our case of an oversized and overweight adrenal tumor associated with expression of late-onset pheochromocytoma-like clinical symptoms may be explained by the physical indirect rather than the biological direct activation of adrenomedullary function like hyperplasia or cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18979561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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66. Tadjine M, Lampron A, Ouadi L, Horvath A, Stratakis CA, Bourdeau I: Detection of somatic beta-catenin mutations in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Sep;69(3):367-73

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of somatic beta-catenin mutations in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).
  • BACKGROUND: Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) leads to Cushing syndrome (CS) and is often associated with Carney complex (CNC).
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that beta-catenin mutations are frequent in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas and that the Wnt-signalling pathway is involved in PPNAD tumorigenesis.
  • We hypothesized that adrenocortical adenomas that form in the context of PPNAD may harbour beta-catenin mutations.
  • Tumor DNA was extracted from pigmented adrenocortical adenoma and nodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • In both cases, the mutations occurred in relatively large adenomas that had formed in the background of PPNAD.
  • Nuclear translocation of beta-catenin protein in the PPNAD adenoma suggests activation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway in PPNAD.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report, for the first time, beta-catenin mutations in adenomas associated with PPNAD, further implicating Wnt-beta-catenin signalling in tumorigenesis linked to bilateral adrenal hyperplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Genetic Testing. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / complications. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18419788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307371; NLM/ PMC3138207
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67. Mac Gregor Gooch AL, Guillermina Velasco Diaz G, Carranza Lira S: [Virilizing adrenal adenoma: a report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 May;73(5):261-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Virilizing adrenal adenoma: a report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma suprarrenal virilizante: comunicación de un caso.
  • Androgen excess can be due to different entities such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, ovarian tumors or adrenal tumors.
  • It is presented the case of a 26 year-old woman that suffered from amenorrhea, hirsutism, voice deepening, reduction of mammary volume and 10 kg weight loss, without response to different treatments.
  • The CAT scan and nuclear magnetic imaging of adrenal glands showed an oval retroperitoneal image of 7.2 x 6.5 x 8.4 cm at the right adrenal gland.
  • Surgery was performed and the right adrenal gland excised.
  • The histopathologic report indicated a benign cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21966765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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68. Vezzosi D, Bertherat J, Groussin L: Pathogenesis of benign adrenocortical tumors. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):893-905

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathogenesis of benign adrenocortical tumors.
  • Most adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are benign unilateral adrenocortical adenomas, often discovered incidentally.
  • The identification of the genetics of familial diseases associated with benign ACT has been helpful to define somatic alterations in sporadic ACT: for example, identification of PRKAR1A mutations in Carney complex or alterations of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Coli.
  • Components of the cAMP signaling pathway-for example, adrenocorticotropic-hormone receptors and other membrane receptors, Gs protein, phosphodiesterases and protein kinase A-can be altered to various degrees in benign cortisol-secreting ACT.
  • These progress have been important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of benign ACT, but already have profound implications for clinical management, for example in unraveling the genetic origin of disease in some patients with ACT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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69. Hirai H, Shibata T, Sasaki Y, Fujii H, Kubo S, Suehiro S: Simultaneous surgery for chronic aortic dissection and adrenal adenoma with primary aldosteronism. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 May;58(5):235-7; discussion 238
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous surgery for chronic aortic dissection and adrenal adenoma with primary aldosteronism.
  • Magnetic resonance images showed a 1-cm nodule in the left adrenal gland.
  • Graft replacement for aortic dissection under extracorporeal circulation and resection of the left adrenal gland were undertaken simultaneously.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aneurysm, Dissecting / surgery. Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic / surgery. Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Hypertension / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Aortography / methods. Blood Pressure. Chronic Disease. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20449714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-6713
  • [Journal-full-title] General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
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70. Gaujoux S, Tissier F, Groussin L, Libé R, Ragazzon B, Launay P, Audebourg A, Dousset B, Bertagna X, Bertherat J: Wnt/beta-catenin and 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate/protein kinase A signaling pathways alterations and somatic beta-catenin gene mutations in the progression of adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Oct;93(10):4135-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Wnt/beta-catenin and 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate/protein kinase A signaling pathways alterations and somatic beta-catenin gene mutations in the progression of adrenocortical tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The Wnt/beta-catenin and cAMP signaling pathways play an important role in adrenal cortex tumorigenesis.
  • Somatic activating mutations of the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) are the most frequent genetic defects identified both in adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and adrenocortical cancers (ACCs).
  • PRKAR1A mutations leading to cAMP pathway dysregulation are observed in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical diseases (PPNADs) and some sporadic ACAs.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the investigation was to study Wnt/beta-catenin dysregulation in adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) with cAMP pathway genetic alteration and search for secondary CTNNB1 somatic mutations in heterogeneous tumors.
  • In addition, the occurrence as an additional hit of a CTNNB1 somatic mutation is associated with larger or more aggressive ACTs.
  • This underlines the importance of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in adrenal cortex tumorigenesis and the importance of genetic accumulation in the progression of ACTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / genetics. Mutation. Signal Transduction / genetics. Wnt Proteins / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Burden / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18647815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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71. Iwase K, Nagasaka A, Kato K, Itoh A, Jimbo S, Hibi Y, Kobayashi N, Yamamoto H, Seko T, Miura K: Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors. J Surg Res; 2006 Sep;135(1):150-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors.
  • The tissue distribution of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases (SOD) in adrenal tumors was studied by an immunohistochemical technique, and the concentrations of both SODs were measured by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.
  • In the normal adrenal gland, both Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs were localized predominantly in the reticular zone of the cortex.
  • Cu/Zn-SOD was stained clearly in the inner fascicular zone of the cortex, but not in the medulla, whereas Mn-SOD was stained weakly in the medulla.
  • In different adrenal tumors, the localization of both stained SODs reflected the origin of the tumor cell.
  • Thus, in one section of a pheochromocytoma only Mn-SOD was stained clearly.
  • The concentrations of both SODs in the tissues of medullary tumors were lower than those in the normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • The concentration of Cu/Zn-SOD in the tumor tissue of Cushing's syndrome adenoma was higher, and that of Mn-SOD was lower than the concentrations in the normal adrenal gland.
  • The ratio of the tissue concentrations of Mn-SOD to Cu/Zn-SOD was lower in adrenal medullary tumors and Cushing's syndrome adenomas than in the normal adrenal gland and primary aldosteronism adenomas, indicating the predominance of Cu/Zn-SOD in the former, and Mn-SOD in the latter.
  • These data suggest that the localization of Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs in adrenal tissues reflects the specificity of the adrenal cells that produce the tissue-specific hormones.
  • An investigation of changes in these enzymes in adrenal tumors may also provide useful information on adrenal tumor cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Ganglioneuroma / metabolism. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunohistochemistry. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16780879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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72. Slater EP, Diehl SM, Langer P, Samans B, Ramaswamy A, Zielke A, Bartsch DK: Analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene expression patterns of human adrenocortical tumors. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Apr;154(4):587-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene expression patterns of human adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm with extremely poor prognosis.
  • The molecular mechanisms of adrenocortical tumorigenesis are still not well understood.
  • The comparative analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene-expression patterns of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors allows us to identify new tumor-suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes underlying adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Total RNA from fresh-frozen tissue of 10 ACC and 10 benign adrenocortical adenomas was isolated after histologic confirmation of neoplastic cellularity of at least 85%.
  • The reference consisted of pooled RNA of 10 normal adrenal cortex samples.
  • RESULTS: The comparative analysis of gene expression revealed many genes with more than fourfold expression difference between ACC and normal tissue (42 genes), cortical adenoma and normal tissue (11 genes), and ACC and cortical adenoma (21 genes) respectively.
  • As confirmed by real-time PCR, the IGF2 gene was significantly upregulated in ACCs versus cortical adenomas and normal cortical tissue.
  • Genes that were downregulated in adrenocortical tumors included chromogranin B and early growth response factor 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive expression profiling of adrenocortical tumors by the cDNA microarray technique is a very powerful tool to elucidate the molecular steps associated with the tumorigenesis of these ill-defined neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 16556722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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73. Fuller PJ, Alexiadis M, Jobling T, McNeilage J: Seladin-1/DHCR24 expression in normal ovary, ovarian epithelial and granulosa tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jul;63(1):111-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: The human DIMINUTO/DWARF1 homolog seladin-1/DHCR24 has been recently reported to be up-regulated in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Granulosa cell tumours of the ovary (GCT) as with adrenocortical adenomas arise from a steroidogenic tissue, respond to pituitary hormone stimulation and synthesize steroid hormones.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovary / metabolism. Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15963070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, LH; EC 1.3.- / Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors; EC 1.3.1.- / 3beta-hydroxysterol delta24-reductase; EC 1.3.1.- / DHCR24 protein, human
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74. Mizota M, Tamada I, Hizukuri K, Otsubo K, Arima S, Kawano Y, Ono S, Hayashida Y, Kaji T, Takamatsu H, Sasano H: Bilateral asynchronous adrenocortical adenoma in a girl with beckwith-wiedemann syndrome. Clin Pediatr Endocrinol; 2005;14(1):23-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral asynchronous adrenocortical adenoma in a girl with beckwith-wiedemann syndrome.
  • We report a case of asynchronous occurrence of bilateral adrenocortical adenoma in a 13-yr-old girl with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
  • A right virilizing adrenal adenoma was surgically removed at age 6, following clinical manifestation of virilization such as acne, voice change, clitoris hypertrophy and overgrowth.
  • Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed an adrenocortical adenoma predominantly composed of eosinophilic tumor cells expressing all the steroidogenic enzymes.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated the presence of a left adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a circumscribed and well encapsulated tumor with essentially the same histological features as the tumor previously removed, except that the tumor cells showed a more prominent morphological similarity to the fetal adrenal cortex and did not express 3β HSD.

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  • (PMID = 24790306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-5739
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical pediatric endocrinology : case reports and clinical investigations : official journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Pediatr Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4004928
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome / adrenal tumor / virilizing
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75. Barzon L, Maffei P, Sonino N, Pilon C, Baldazzi L, Balsamo A, Del Maschio O, Masi G, Trevisan M, Pacenti M, Fallo F: The role of 21-hydroxylase in the pathogenesis of adrenal masses: review of the literature and focus on our own experience. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jul-Aug;30(7):615-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of 21-hydroxylase in the pathogenesis of adrenal masses: review of the literature and focus on our own experience.
  • An exaggerated response of 17- hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) to exogenous ACTH stimulation has been found in 30 to 70% of patients with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors, supporting the concept that congenital 21- hydroxylase deficiency may be a predisposing factor for adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • Decreased expression of 21-hydroxylase gene has been observed in sporadic non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas, in agreement with the reduced steroidogenic activity found in these types of tumors.
  • Screening studies for the presence of mutations in CYP21A2 gene, encoding 21-hydroxylase, in patients with sporadic adrenocortical tumors yielded discordant results.
  • Overall, a higher frequency of germline 21-hydroxylase mutation carriers has been found among patients with adrenal tumors, including incidentalomas, than in the general population.
  • However, the presence of mutations did not correlate with endocrine test results and tumor mass features, suggesting that 21-hydroxylase deficiency does not represent a relevant mechanism in adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17848847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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76. Fukuda T, Takahashi K, Suzuki T, Saruta M, Watanabe M, Nakata T, Sasano H: Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4671-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders.
  • Recently, direct involvement of the locally synthesized CRF family in adrenocortical function has been proposed.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We examined in situ expression of Ucn and CRF receptors in nonpathological human adrenal gland and its disorders using immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization.
  • RESULTS: Ucn immunoreactivity was localized in the cortex and medulla of nonpathological adrenal glands.
  • Ucn1 immunoreactivity was marked in the medulla, whereas Ucn3 was immunostained mostly in the cortex.
  • Both CRF type 1 and CRF2 were expressed in the cortex, particularly in the zonae fasciculata and reticularis but very weakly or undetectably in the medulla.
  • Immunohistochemistry in serial tissue sections with mirror images revealed that both Ucn3 and CRF2 were colocalized in more than 85% of the adrenocortical cells. mRNA in situ hybridization confirmed these findings above.
  • In fetal adrenals, Ucn and CRF receptors were expressed in both fetal and definitive zones of the cortex.
  • Ucn and CRF receptors were all expressed in the tumor cells of pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical adenomas, and carcinomas, but its positivity was less than that in nonpathological adrenal glands, suggesting that Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors were down-regulated in these adrenal neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors are all expressed in human adrenal cortex and medulla and may play important roles in physiological adrenal functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Urocortins

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  • (PMID = 15914529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / UCN3 protein, human; 0 / Urocortins; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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77. Takehara K, Sakai H, Shono T, Irie J, Kanetake H: Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Int J Urol; 2005 Feb;12(2):121-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine differences in biological features among different adrenal tumors, we investigated the DNA ploidy, numerical chromosomal aberration and proliferative activity in human adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Our study included six adrenal cortical adenomas with Cushing syndrome, 12 adenomas with hyperaldosteronism, three non-functioning adenomas and three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of adrenal cortical carcinomas was markedly higher than that of adrenal cortical adenomas (209.4 vs 8.7).
  • In functional adrenal cortical adenomas, the LI was significantly lower in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004), although FCM results indicated that tetraploid patterns were more frequently observed in the former type.
  • Tumor size was significantly smaller in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004).
  • Chromosome 17 showed disomy in all adrenal cortical adenomas, whereas chromosome 17 abnormalities were found in two of three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study characterized various biological features of benign and malignant adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The use of a combination of markers might provide additional information to assist our understanding of the clinical behavior of an individual adrenal cortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15733104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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78. Hwang WR, Ma WY, Tso AL, Pan CC, Chang YH, Lin HD: Pheochromocytoma and adrenocortical adenoma in the same gland. J Chin Med Assoc; 2007 Jul;70(7):289-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma and adrenocortical adenoma in the same gland.
  • A right adrenal tumor was found incidentally during abdominal computed tomography exam in a 51-year-old female patient, who had had diabetes and hypertension for more than 10 years.
  • Therefore, adrenal cortical adenoma with subclinical Cushing's syndrome was highly suspected; however, further imaging studies, including magnetic resonance image and 131I-6beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy failed to discriminate an additional tumor.
  • After right adrenalectomy, a small adrenal cortical adenoma and a large pheochromocytoma were noted.
  • This is an extremely rare case of an adrenal incidentaloma consisting of both medullary and cortical tumors in the same gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17631466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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79. Inomoto C, Sato H, Kanai G, Hirukawa T, Shoji S, Terachi T, Kajiwara H, Osamura RY: Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2010 Jul;35(2):57-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Functioning black adrenal adenoma (BAA) rarely causes preclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS).
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed that she had a 15-mm in diameter, round, left adrenal adenoma.
  • The left adrenal adenoma was laparoscopically removed.
  • Examination of the surgical specimen revealed unilateral double adrenal adenomas of the left adrenal gland, one of which was a BAA.
  • The compact cell zones remained in the adrenal cortex adjacent to the BAA showed atrophic change.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21319027.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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80. Louiset E, Gobet F, Libé R, Horvath A, Renouf S, Cariou J, Rothenbuhler A, Bertherat J, Clauser E, Grise P, Stratakis CA, Kuhn JM, Lefebvre H: ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome with bilateral micronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic adrenocortical adenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jan;95(1):18-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome with bilateral micronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic adrenocortical adenoma.
  • CONTEXT: Bilateral micronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic adrenocortical adenoma are two rare causes of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate a 35-yr-old woman with ACTH-independent hypercortisolism associated with both micronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic pararenal adrenocortical adenoma.
  • INTERVENTION: Mutations of the PRKAR1A, PDE8B, and PDE11A genes were searched for in leukocytes and adrenocortical tissues.
  • The ability of adrenal and adenoma tissues to synthesize cortisol was investigated by immunohistochemistry, quantitative PCR, and/or cell culture studies.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Detection of 17alpha-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase immunoreactivities, quantification of CYP11B1 mRNA in adrenal and adenoma tissues, and measurement of cortisol levels in supernatants by radioimmunological assays were the main outcomes.
  • RESULTS: Histological examination of the adrenals revealed nonpigmented micronodular cortical hyperplasia associated with relative atrophy of internodular cortex.
  • No genomic and/or somatic adrenal mutations of the PRKAR1A, PDE8B, and PDE11A genes were detected.
  • 17alpha-Hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase immunoreactivities as well as CYP11B1 mRNA were detected in adrenal and adenoma tissues.
  • ACTH and dexamethasone activated cortisol secretion from adenoma cells.
  • CONCLUSION: This case suggests that unknown molecular defects can favor both micronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic adrenocortical adenoma associated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Choristoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Adult. Drug Resistance / genetics. Drug Resistance / physiology. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / radiography. Kidney Diseases / complications. Kidney Diseases / genetics. Kidney Diseases / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19915020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2805485
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81. Soon PS, Libe R, Benn DE, Gill A, Shaw J, Sywak MS, Groussin L, Bertagna X, Gicquel C, Bertherat J, McDonald KL, Sidhu SB, Robinson BG: Loss of heterozygosity of 17p13, with possible involvement of ACADVL and ALOX15B, in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. Ann Surg; 2008 Jan;247(1):157-64
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  • [Title] Loss of heterozygosity of 17p13, with possible involvement of ACADVL and ALOX15B, in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimal common region of loss on 17p13 in a cohort of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) (defined by a Weiss score > or =3) and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) (defined by a Weiss score <3) and subsequently to assess 3 genes in this region that could be involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • METHODS: Using 12 microsatellite markers across 17p13, LOH analysis was performed on 37 paired blood and adrenocortical tumor samples (23 ACC and 14 ACA samples) to determine the minimal common region of loss for ACCs and ACAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 18156936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 1.13.11.31 / Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase; EC 1.3.- / Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases
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82. Ballon M, Ceral J, Solar M, Krajina A, Raupach J, Ungermann L: [Is confirmation of an adrenal adenoma in patients with primary aldosteronism sufficient for indication of adrenalectomy?]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Jun;55(6):555-9
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  • [Title] [Is confirmation of an adrenal adenoma in patients with primary aldosteronism sufficient for indication of adrenalectomy?].
  • [Transliterated title] Je průkaz adenomu nadledviny u pacientů s primárním hyperaldosteronizmem dostatecný pro indikati adrenalektomie?
  • Adrenalectomy is effective in patients with proven unilateral hypersecretion of aldosterone whereas pharmacotherapy is indicated in bilateral forms of the disease.
  • We can meet the opinion that in patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism and finding ofsuprarenal adenoma > or = 1 cm on computed tomography (CT) scanning, adrenalectomy can be recommended without further investigation.
  • On the other hand we can perform adrenal venous sampling (AVS) to prove unilateral overproduction of aldosterone.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether AVS is necessary in all patients with unilateral adenoma > or = 1 cm.
  • METHODS: We analyzed data from patients with proven primary aldosteronism, CT finding of adenoma > or = 1 cm along with normal morphology of contralateral adrenal gland, and successfully performed Avs.
  • RESULTS: Out of 107 patients with proven primary aldosteronism, indicated for AVS, we included 30 patients with CT finding of suprarenal adenoma > or = 1 cm along with normal morphology of contralateral adrenal gland and successful Avs. Unilateral overproduction of aldosterone was found only in 17 cases (56.7%), the results in remaining 13 patients (43.3%) did not confirm activity of adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results support necessity of performing AVS in all patients with primary aldosteronism in whom surgical treatment is considered, CT confirmation ofan adenoma is insufficient in this indication.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19662886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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83. Sherer DM, Dalloul M, Wagreich A, Sokolovski M, Duan H, Zinn H, Abulafia O: Prenatal sonographic findings of congenital adrenal cortical adenoma. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 Jul;27(7):1091-3
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  • [Title] Prenatal sonographic findings of congenital adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of prenatally diagnosed adrenal masses includes neuroblastoma, adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal and cortical renal cysts, adrenal adenoma and carcinoma, subdiaphragmatic pulmonary sequestration, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, duplication of the renal system, Wilms tumors, congenital mesoblastic nephroma, and mesenteric and enteric duplication cysts.
  • The worldwide annual incidence of childhood adrenal cortical neoplasms ranges between 0.3 and 0.38 per 1 million children younger than 15 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / congenital. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / congenital. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Prenatal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / surgery. Adrenal Cortex / ultrasonography. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pregnancy. Radiography, Abdominal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18577675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Martin JT, Alkhoury F, Helton S, Fiedler P, Sakharova O, Yood S: Metastatic adenocarcinoma within a functioning adrenal adenoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:7965

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  • [Title] Metastatic adenocarcinoma within a functioning adrenal adenoma: a case report.
  • We present the case of a 54-year-old woman who underwent right adrenalectomy for palliation of Cushing's symptoms.
  • Pathologic findings revealed a 5 cm adrenal adenoma with a metastatic adenocarcinoma deposit.
  • The occurrence of tumor-to-tumor metastasis is rare, and the finding of a metastasis within a functional adrenal adenoma exceptionally so.
  • Previously reported incidences of this finding in patients with lung cancer range from 0.14% to 0.63%.
  • We review the literature regarding this unusual finding.

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  • (PMID = 19830028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740135
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85. Bertherat J, Bertagna X: Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):261-71
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  • [Title] Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • The study of the clonality of adrenocortical tumours (ACTs) has shown that adrenocortical cancers (ACCs) are of monoclonal origin.
  • Numerous chromosomal alterations have been observed in ACCs, and they are much more frequent than in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • This recent progress in the molecular genetics of ACC has led to the development of new molecular markers for the diagnosis of malignancy; these might also help to identify prognostic markers of ACC and may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19500768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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86. Weismann D, Fassnacht M, Weinberger F, Hamelmann W, Diehl S, Lorenz K, Baerlehner E, Reincke M, Beuschlein F, Knoefel W, Nies C, Hahner S, Allolio B: Intraoperative haemodynamic stability in patients with phaeochromocytoma--minimally invasive vs conventional open surgery. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Sep;65(3):352-8
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  • Patients undergoing MA for adrenocortical adenomas (aldosteronomas n = 15, inactive adenomas n = 13) served as controls.
  • In comparison to adrenocortical adenomas, MA in phaeochromocytomas was associated with a significantly higher maximum systolic BP (188 +/- 29 vs 154 +/- 22 mmHg, P < 0.001), more frequent hypertensive episodes (1[0-4]vs 0[0-1], P < 0.001), more episodes of systolic BP > 200 mmHg (0[0-4]vs 0[0-1], P = 0.03) and a higher demand for intraoperative fluids (3194 ml vs 1750 ml, P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: There is no significant difference in haemodynamic stability between MA and CA in phaeochromocytomas, but it is significantly inferior when compared to MA for cortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Adult. Blood Pressure. Case-Control Studies. Chi-Square Distribution. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Heart Rate. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Phenoxybenzamine / therapeutic use. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Mar;66(3):455-6 [17302884.001]
  • (PMID = 16918955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0TTZ664R7Z / Phenoxybenzamine
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87. Dubova EA, Mishnev OD, Shchegolev AI: [Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal gland]. Arkh Patol; 2007 Nov-Dec;69(6):38-9
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  • [Title] [Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal gland].
  • Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal is described in a 44-year-old female patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18290380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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88. Masi G, Lavezzo E, Iacobone M, Favia G, Palù G, Barzon L: Investigation of BRAF and CTNNB1 activating mutations in adrenocortical tumors. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 Jul;32(7):597-600
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  • [Title] Investigation of BRAF and CTNNB1 activating mutations in adrenocortical tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Activating mutations of the BRAF oncogene play a central role in the development of various cancer types, but their role in human adrenocortical tumors is unknown.
  • At variance, activating mutations of another oncogene, CTNNB1, which encodes beta-catenin, have been shown to be common events in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • AIM: To investigate the prevalence of BRAF and CTNNB1 activating mutations in sporadic adrenocortical tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue samples from 15 adrenocortical carcinomas and 41 adrenocortical adenomas were investigated for the presence of BRAF and CTNNB1 activating mutations by PCR amplification and direct sequencing.
  • RESULTS: An advanced invasive non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma carried a somatic heterozygous BRAF V600E mutation, while 4 functioning and 4 non-functioning adenomas and 3 functioning carcinomas carried different CTNNB1 activating mutations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Activating BRAF somatic mutations may be occasionally found in advanced adrenocortical carcinomas, while CTNNB1 activating mutations are early and common events in adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19498322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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89. Walz MK, Gwosdz R, Levin SL, Alesina PF, Suttorp AC, Metz KA, Wenger FA, Petersenn S, Mann K, Schmid KW: Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy in Conn's syndrome caused by adrenal adenomas or nodular hyperplasia. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):847-53
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy in Conn's syndrome caused by adrenal adenomas or nodular hyperplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: In patients with primary hyperaldosteronism, solitary adrenal adenomas are an indication for surgical intervention.
  • In contrast, adrenal hyperplasia is almost exclusively treated by drugs.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective clinical study 183 patients (81 men, 102 women; age 49.6+/-12.8 years) with Conn's syndrome were operated on using the posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach.
  • Final histology described a solitary adenoma in 127 patients and adrenal hyperplasia in 56 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneoscopic removal of adrenal glands in patients with Conn's syndrome is a safe, rapidly performed surgical procedure and can thus be considered as first choice option for treatment of both solitary adrenal adenomas and hyperplasia presenting with a clinically predominating nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Endoscopy. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] World J Surg. 2008 May;32(5):854-5 [18246389.001]
  • (PMID = 18343972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Leung AM, Sasano H, Nishikwa T, McAneny DB, Malabanan AO: Multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas in a patient with primary hyperaldosteronism. Endocr Pract; 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):76-9
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  • [Title] Multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas in a patient with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a rare case of multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas in which immunohistochemistry results confirmed primary hyperaldosteronism in each of 3 adenomas.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and pathologic findings of a case of multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Although multiple nodules in both adrenal glands are fairly common in patients with bilateral hyperplasia, multiple unilateral nodules are extremely rare.
  • A 45-year-old woman with a long-standing history of severe hypertension was found to have biochemical parameters consistent with primary hyperaldosteronism, multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas, and immunohistochemical test results confirming primary hyperaldosteronism arising from each of 3 adrenal nodules (measuring 2.2 x 2.2 cm, 1.7 x 0.7 cm, and 0.5 x 0.5 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the rare presentation of primary hyperaldosteronism as multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas in which immunohistochemistry results can confirm the suspected preoperative diagnosis as suggested by biochemical and radiographic evidence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18238744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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91. Barzon L, Pacenti M, Masi G, Stefani AL, Fincati K, Palù G: Loss of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a and overexpression of type 1b receptor transcripts in human adrenocortical tumors. Oncology; 2005;68(4-6):414-21
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  • [Title] Loss of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a and overexpression of type 1b receptor transcripts in human adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression of ghrelin and its receptors GHS-R1a and -R1b in a large series of normal and neoplastic human adrenocortical tissues.
  • Evaluation of the effects of ghrelin on GHS-R expression and proliferation of human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Ghrelin and GHS-R transcripts are expressed in normal adrenal cortex, with GHS-R1b mRNA levels being 5- to 10-fold higher than GHS-R1amRNA.
  • A significant increase in ghrelin expression was observed in adrenocortical adenomas, but not in carcinomas.
  • GHS-R1a was undetectable in about 60% of both benign and malignant tumor samples, except for cortisol-producing adenomas, which showed increased receptor expression.
  • At variance, GHS-R1b was overexpressed in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • In vitro studies in human ACC cell lines demonstrated that GHS-R1a is downregulated and GHS-R1bmRNA expression is upregulated by ghrelin, while inhibiting cell proliferation.
  • CONCLUSION: Downregulation ofGHS-R1a in adrenal tumors and the presence of high levels of GHS-R1b transcripts in adrenocortical tissue suggest a role for these receptors in adrenal function and growth.
  • In this regard, ghrelin inhibits cell proliferation and modulates GHS-R expression in ACC cells in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Ghrelin. Growth Hormone / pharmacology. Humans. Peptide Hormones / pharmacology. Peptides / genetics. Peptides / metabolism. RNA, Messenger. Receptors, Ghrelin. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16020971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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92. Soon PS, Gill AJ, Benn DE, Clarkson A, Robinson BG, McDonald KL, Sidhu SB: Microarray gene expression and immunohistochemistry analyses of adrenocortical tumors identify IGF2 and Ki-67 as useful in differentiating carcinomas from adenomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Jun;16(2):573-83
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  • [Title] Microarray gene expression and immunohistochemistry analyses of adrenocortical tumors identify IGF2 and Ki-67 as useful in differentiating carcinomas from adenomas.
  • The management of adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) is complex.
  • The Weiss score is the present most widely used system for ACT diagnosis.
  • However, ACTs with a score of 3 can be phenotypically benign or malignant.
  • Our objective is to use microarray profiling of a cohort of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) to identify discriminatory genes that could be used as an adjunct to the Weiss score.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19218281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IGF2 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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93. Inan N, Arslan A, Akansel G, Anik Y, Balci NC, Demirci A: Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant adrenal masses. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Jan;65(1):154-62
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  • [Title] Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant adrenal masses.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of dynamic MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant tumors, especially in cases with atypical adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four masses (48 adenomas, 16 malignant tumors) were included in this prospective study.
  • RESULTS: Chemical shift MR imaging was able to differentiate 44 out of 48 adenomas (91.7%) from non-adenomas.
  • The 4 adenomas (8.3%) which could not be differentiated from non-adenomas by this technique did not exhibit signal loss on out-of-phase images.
  • With a cut-off value of 30, SI indices of adenomas had a sensitivity of 93.8%, specificity of 100% and a positive predictive value of 100%.
  • On visual evaluation of dynamic MR imaging, early phase contrast enhancement patterns were homogeneous in 75% and punctate in 20,83% of the adenomas; while patchy in 56.25% and peripheral in 25% of the malignant tumors.
  • On the late phase images 58.33% of the adenomas showed peripheral ring-shaped enhancement and 10.41% showed heterogeneous enhancement.
  • At the 25th second, the SIs and wash-in rates of the adenomas were significantly higher than those of the malignant masses (p=0.010).
  • Time-to-peak enhancement of the malignant masses was significantly longer than that of the adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemical shift MR has a high sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of adenomas and malignant adrenal masses.
  • However, taking into consideration only the atypical adenomas, chemical shift MRI is of no diagnostic value.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 17466481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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94. Szajerka A, Dziegiel P, Szajerka T, Zabel M, Winowski J, Grzebieniak Z: Immunohistochemical evaluation of metallothionein, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 antigen expression in tumors of the adrenal cortex. Anticancer Res; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5B):2959-65

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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of metallothionein, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 antigen expression in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the metallothionein (MT), maintenance protein 2 (Mcm-2) and Ki-67 expressions in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in comparison to normal tissue and evaluate the correlations between these markers of proliferation and between these markers and tumor diameter.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of MT, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 was assessed by immunochemistry in forty-eight adrenocortical adenomas, six adrenocortical carcinomas and eleven normal adrenal cortex tissue samples.
  • RESULTS: The expressions of MT, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 in the adrenocortical carcinomas were significantly higher than in the adenomas and normal tissue (p<0.05).
  • The levels of Mcm-2 were also higher in the adrenocortical adenomas compared to the normal tissue (p<0.05).
  • The Mcm-2 expression showed a positive correlation to the expression of MT in the adrenocortical carcinomas (r=0.773; p<0.05) and to the expression of Ki-67 in the adrenocortical adenomas (r=0.432; p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The assessment of Mcm-2 expression seems to be of special importance as a marker of adrenocortical dysplasia and a reliable indicator of malignancy in suspicious masses of the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Metallothionein / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19031940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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95. Linder B, Hong Y, Jarrett T: Intra-renal adrenal adenoma: a compelling addition to the differential diagnosis of renal mass. Int J Urol; 2009 Nov;16(11):912-4
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  • [Title] Intra-renal adrenal adenoma: a compelling addition to the differential diagnosis of renal mass.
  • We report a case of an adrenal rest arising in the kidney of a 37-year-old male.
  • Laparoscopic renal exploration and biopsy revealed angiomyolipoma on frozen section.
  • However, final pathological analysis of the partial nephrectomy specimen revealed intra-renal adrenal adenoma.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistries and transmission electron microscopy.
  • We review the reported literature on intra-renal adrenal adenoma and highlight the aspects that raise the index of suspicion for this entity on the differential diagnosis of renal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19863627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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96. Kaspareit J, Friderichs-Gromoll S, Buse E, Habermann G: Spontaneous neoplasms observed in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during a 15-year period. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2007 Nov;59(3-4):163-9

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  • The great majority of neoplasms was benign (23 benign neoplasms versus 10 malignant tumors).
  • Most of the tumors (22) in the cynomolgus monkeys were seen in endocrine organs (adrenal cortical adenoma, adrenal hemangioma, C-cell carcinoma, follicular adenoma), respiratory system (nasal cavity adenoma, pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, bronchio-alveolar carcinoma, bronchiolar papilloma, chondromatous hamartoma) and female genital system (uterine polyp, uterine adenoma, uterine leiomyoma and teratoma of the ovary).
  • [MeSH-major] Macaca fascicularis. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17869495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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97. Tritos NA: Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism in a patient with an incidentally found adrenal mass. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jul;3(7):547-51
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism in a patient with an incidentally found adrenal mass.
  • BACKGROUND: A 50-year-old woman who was complaining of abdominal pain was referred to the endocrine clinic after a small (0.8 cm by 0.8 cm) mass was found in her right adrenal gland on CT examination of the abdomen.
  • She had a history of hypertension for 10 years, generalized anxiety disorder for 5 years and a weight increase of 18 kg over the previous 3 years.
  • In addition, measurements of urine aldosterone excretion on a high-salt diet, MRI-examination of the adrenal glands and bilateral adrenal vein sampling were conducted.
  • DIAGNOSIS: An aldosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma.
  • MANAGEMENT: The patient underwent laparoscopic resection of the right adrenal gland, which led to normalization of aldosterone excretion, lowering of her blood pressure on a single antihypertensive medication (50 mg sustained-release metoprolol daily) and resolution of hypokalemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aldosterone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17581624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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98. West AN, Neale GA, Pounds S, Figueredo BC, Rodriguez Galindo C, Pianovski MA, Oliveira Filho AG, Malkin D, Lalli E, Ribeiro R, Zambetti GP: Gene expression profiling of childhood adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2007 Jan 15;67(2):600-8
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling of childhood adrenocortical tumors.
  • Pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are rare and often fatal malignancies; little is known regarding their etiology and biology.
  • To provide additional insight into the nature of ACT, we determined the gene expression profiles of 24 pediatric tumors (five adenomas, 18 carcinomas, and one undetermined) and seven normal adrenal glands.
  • Distinct patterns of gene expression, validated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, were identified that distinguish normal adrenal cortex from tumor.
  • Differences in gene expression were also identified between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • In addition, pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas were found to share similar patterns of gene expression when compared with those published for adult ACT.
  • Our findings lay the groundwork for establishing gene expression profiles that may aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of pediatric ACT, and in the identification of signaling pathways that contribute to this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17234769.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63230; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA71907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Dundr P, Povýsil C, Zelinka T, Tvrdík D, Ciprová V, Novák K: Adrenocortical adenoma with rhabdoid features. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(3):177-81
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical adenoma with rhabdoid features.
  • We report a case of an aldosterone producing adrenocortical adenoma with rhabdoid features in a 16-year-old girl.
  • Rhabdoid features have been described in many tumors of variable histogenesis; however, to the best of our knowledge, the presence of rhabdoid phenotype has never been described in either adrenocortical adenoma or carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16448785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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100. Sereg M, Szappanos A, Toke J, Karlinger K, Feldman K, Kaszper E, Varga I, Gláz E, Rácz K, Tóth M: Atherosclerotic risk factors and complications in patients with non-functioning adrenal adenomas treated with or without adrenalectomy: a long-term follow-up study. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Apr;160(4):647-55
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  • [Title] Atherosclerotic risk factors and complications in patients with non-functioning adrenal adenomas treated with or without adrenalectomy: a long-term follow-up study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Despite the increased prevalences of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hyperlipidemy, and obesity in patients with non-functioning adrenal adenomas (NFAAs), there is a paucity of data on long-term atherosclerotic morbidity as well as the long-term cardiovascular effects of adrenalectomy in these patients.

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  • (PMID = 19174533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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