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1. Miller MA, Pardo ID, Jackson LP, Moore GE, Sojka JE: Correlation of pituitary histomorphometry with adrenocorticotrophic hormone response to domperidone administration in the diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Vet Pathol; 2008 Jan;45(1):26-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation of pituitary histomorphometry with adrenocorticotrophic hormone response to domperidone administration in the diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.
  • Functional evaluation of the pars intermedia (PI) is required for the early diagnosis of equine pituitary PI dysfunction (PPID), yet most assays target the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which regulates the pars anterior.
  • In the 33 horses, median age, plasma ACTH concentration 8 hours after domperidone, and PI area in median sagittal sections were associated with histologic grade as follows: pituitary grade 1 (normal), n = 3, 7.5 years, 20.0 pg/ml, 0.16 cm(2); grade 2 (focal hypertrophy or hyperplasia), n = 9, 14.5 years, 27.1 pg/ml, 0.27 cm(2); grade 3 (diffuse adenomatous hyperplasia), n = 5, 21.0 years, 64.4 pg/ml, 0.48 cm(2); grade 4 (microadenomas), n = 12, 23.3 years, 128.0 pg/ml, 0.87 cm(2); grade 5 (adenoma), n = 4, 24.9 years, 720.5 pg/ml, 2.1 cm(2).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Domperidone. Horse Diseases / diagnosis. Pituitary Diseases / veterinary. Pituitary Gland, Intermediate / pathology


2. Molino C, Fabbian F, Russo G, Cantelli S, Bortot A, Galdi A, Catizone L: [MEN type 1 and chronic renal failure: a rarely reported association]. G Ital Nefrol; 2007 Jan-Feb;24(1):79-82
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  • [Title] [MEN type 1 and chronic renal failure: a rarely reported association].
  • Association between MEN 1 and nephrocalcinosis is well known, though data published in medical literature regarding Wermer's syndrome and chronic renal failure relation are still rare.
  • CASE: A 70-year-old Caucasian female patient had a history of primitive hyperparathyroidism, prolactinoma, glucagonoma, adrenal adenoma and pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasia.
  • During the eight-year follow-up she developed chronic renal failure (serum creatinine 1.8 mg/dL, glomerular clearance 35 mL/min) and partial thrombosis of abdominal aortic wall.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although the association between renal failure and MEN 1 is rarely reported, patients affected by Wermer's syndrome have several risk factors of decreasing renal function such as hypertension, nephrolithiasis and diabetes mellitus.
  • Moreover, hyperparathyroidism in MEN 1 is clinically similar to the kidney failure condition; indeed, diffuse hyper-plasia of more than one gland is common.

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  • (PMID = 17342698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-5590
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di nefrologia : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Nefrol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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3. Perraudin V, Delarue C, Lefebvre H, Do Rego JL, Vaudry H, Kuhn JM: Evidence for a role of vasopressin in the control of aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism: in vitro and in vivo studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1566-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence for a role of vasopressin in the control of aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism: in vitro and in vivo studies.
  • CONTEXT: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulates steroid secretion from the normal human adrenal gland and some cortisol-producing adrenocortical tumors or hyperplasia through activation of the V(1a) receptor.
  • DESIGN: The design of the study included immunohistochemical, pharmacological, and molecular studies on aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), followed by a monocentric, crossover trial of the orally active V(1a) receptor antagonist, SR 49059, in a double blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled fashion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cross-Over Studies. Double-Blind Method. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Hormone Antagonists / pharmacology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Indoles / pharmacology. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pyrrolidines / pharmacology. RNA / biosynthesis. RNA / genetics. Receptors, Vasopressin / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16449345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / Receptors, Vasopressin; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; C1GL8G6G0O / relcovaptan
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4. Yu R, Furmark L, Wong C: Cardiac abnormalities associated with pheochromocytoma and other adrenal tumors. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):10-6
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  • [Title] Cardiac abnormalities associated with pheochromocytoma and other adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: In this case-control study, we reviewed pathology records of patients seen at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 1997 and 2007; patients with adrenal or extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma and those with nonfunctioning benign or malignant adrenal tumors were identified.
  • Patients with functioning adrenal adenomas that secreted cortisol or aldosterone were excluded.
  • Clinical history, imaging, pathology, biochemical test results, electrocardiographic findings, and echocardiographic findings were compared between patients with pheochromocytoma and patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • RESULTS: The charts of 22 patients with pheochromocytoma and 35 patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors were included.
  • The average age of patients with pheochromocytoma was similar to that of control patients (51.9 +/- 3.9 years vs 60.2 +/- 2.5 years, respectively), as was the number of patients with known cardiovascular diseases (2 [9%] in the pheochromocytoma group vs 5 [14%] in the control group).
  • Coronary artery disease should be excluded in patients with significant ST-T changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Heart / physiopathology. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology. Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology. Case-Control Studies. Echocardiography. Electrocardiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Norepinephrine / blood. Normetanephrine / blood. Retrospective Studies. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / etiology. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19211391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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5. John M, Lila AR, Bandgar T, Menon PS, Shah NS: Diagnostic efficacy of midnight cortisol and midnight ACTH in the diagnosis and localisation of Cushing's syndrome. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):48-53
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  • [Title] Diagnostic efficacy of midnight cortisol and midnight ACTH in the diagnosis and localisation of Cushing's syndrome.
  • Classical tests for diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) like urine free cortisol and dexamethasone suppression tests have limitations in various clinical settings.
  • A simultaneously done midnight plasma ACTH level was used to classify the disease as ACTH dependent or independent.
  • We evaluated 43 patients with CS comprising of 34 patients with Cushing's disease (CD), 2 patients with thymic carcinoid producing ectopic CS, 5 patients with adrenal carcinoma and 2 with adrenal adenoma.
  • SMNC achieved 100% sensitivity in the diagnosis of endogenous CS at cut offs of 138 nmol/l and below.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Diagnosis. Female. Histocytochemistry / standards. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sleep. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19714471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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6. Hahner S, Fassnacht M, Hammer F, Schammann M, Weismann D, Hansen IA, Allolio B: Evidence against a role of human airway trypsin-like protease--the human analogue of the growth-promoting rat adrenal secretory protease--in adrenal tumourigenesis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Jan;152(1):143-53
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  • [Title] Evidence against a role of human airway trypsin-like protease--the human analogue of the growth-promoting rat adrenal secretory protease--in adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: A serine protease from rat adrenal cortex was recently characterized and named adrenal secretory protease (AsP).
  • AsP is expressed in the adrenal cortex and is capable of cleaving pro-gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (1-76 N-terminus of pro-opiomelanocortin) into fragments that act as adrenal mitogens.
  • AsP may therefore play a crucial role in adrenal growth and tumourigenesis.
  • The aim of this study was to further characterize the human homologue of AsP and its possible role in adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • Further analysis revealed that the HAT gene is the human homologue of a long splice variant of AsP, which we recently described as rat airway trypsin-like serine protease 1.
  • In contrast to rodents, no short isoform of HAT was found in humans due to a stop codon in exon 6 which prevents the expression of a short isoform.
  • While high expression of HAT mRNA was found in the trachea and in the gastrointestinal tract, expression in the adrenal was only very weak.
  • We further investigated HAT expression in five normal adrenal glands, 15 adrenocortical adenomas (five hormonally inactive adenomas, five aldosterone-producing adenomas and five cortisol-producing adenomas), nine adrenocortical carcinomas, five phaeochromocytomas and two adrenal hyperplasias.
  • Weak HAT expression was detectable in only two out of five normal adrenal glands, in one out of twenty-four adrenocortical tumours and four out of five phaeochromocytomas.
  • However, the expression in the adrenal tissue was several orders of magnitude lower than in the trachea.
  • In addition, we could not detect any HAT transcripts in a sample of fetal adrenal.
  • CONCLUSION: Gene structure and tissue distribution of HAT, the human homologue of the rat adrenal secretory protease AsP, reveal major interspecies differences.
  • The observation of very low expression levels in normal adrenal tissue and adrenocortical tumours casts doubt about a role for HAT in the physiological and pathological growth of adrenocortical cells.

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  • (PMID = 15762198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / human airway trypsin-like protease
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7. Waalkes MP, Liu J, Diwan BA: Transplacental arsenic carcinogenesis in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2007 Aug 1;222(3):271-80
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  • In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood.
  • Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct.
  • Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes.

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  • (PMID = 17306315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC005488-21; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Estrogens; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; N712M78A8G / Arsenic; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS28781; NLM/ PMC1995036
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8. Boscaro M, Ronconi V, Turchi F, Giacchetti G: Diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Aug;15(4):332-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: It is now widely accepted that primary aldosteronism represents the most common form of endocrine hypertension and its early diagnosis is crucial for hypertensive patients who can be cured by the surgical removal of an aldosterone-secreting adenoma or benefit from a specific medical treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.
  • Recent evidence indicates that hyperaldosteronism is indeed associated with detrimental consequences on cardiovascular system, renal function and glucose metabolism.
  • Finally, although it is technically difficult and the cut-off levels for acceptance of the success are not standardized, the subtype forms should be identified using a selective adrenal venous sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18594273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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9. Yoon JH, Kim SH, Kim MA, Han JK, Choi BI: MDCT and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI findings of adrenal adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Korean J Radiol; 2010 Jan-Feb;11(1):126-30
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  • [Title] MDCT and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI findings of adrenal adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • We report a case of an adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland mimicking a hepatocellular carcinoma in a heavy alcohol abuser.
  • A tumorectomy was performed and adrenal adenoma from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver was confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Gadolinium DTPA. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20046505.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799643
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal adenoma / Ectopic adrenal gland / Liver / Magnetic resonance (MR) / Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT)
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10. Leitolf H, Dixit KC, Higham CE, Brabant G: Licorice - or more? Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Apr;118(4):250-3
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  • Abdominal imaging with US and MRI showed a 2.7 cmx2.2 cmx1.7 cm left adrenal mass.
  • He underwent laparoscopic left adrenalectomy and histology confirmed aldosterone producing adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / ultrasonography. Aldosterone / blood. Glycyrrhiza / adverse effects. Hypokalemia / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Potassium, Dietary. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.
  • (PMID = 20213599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Potassium, Dietary; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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11. Mohaupt MG: The role of adrenal steroidogenesis in arterial hypertension. Endocr Dev; 2008;13:133-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of adrenal steroidogenesis in arterial hypertension.
  • Adrenal aldosterone production, the major regulator of salt and water retention, is discussed with respect to hypertensive diseases.
  • Physiological aldosterone production is tightly regulated, either stimulated or inhibited, in the adrenal zona glomerulosa by both circulating factors and/or by locally derived endothelial factors.
  • Excessive aldosterone production is seen in adenomatous disease of the adrenals.
  • The balance between stimulatory/proliferative and antagonistic signaling is disturbed by expression of altered receptor subtypes in the adenomas.
  • Increased aldosterone production without a detectable adenoma is the most frequent form of primary aldosteronism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Hypertension / etiology. Steroids / biosynthesis. Steroids / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18493138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-7082
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoids; 0 / Steroids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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12. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1333-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls.
  • The adrenal gland is involved by a range of neoplasms, including primary and metastatic malignant tumors; however, the most common tumor detected is the incidental benign adenoma.
  • Although computed tomographic (CT) findings will not always yield a definitive diagnosis, attention to these findings provides a road map to guide image interpretation.
  • Adenomas typically demonstrate rapid washout, which is defined as an absolute percentage washout (APW) of more than 60% and a relative percentage washout (RPW) of more than 40% on delayed images.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma typically has an RPW of less than 40%; however, large size and heterogeneity are more reliable indicators of the diagnosis than are washout values.
  • Washout characteristics of pheochromocytoma are variable; in conjunction with high levels of dynamic enhancement, pheochromocytomas may mimic adenoma (ie, APW > 60%, RPW > 40%).
  • After contrast material administration, metastases usually demonstrate slower washout on delayed images (APW < 60%, RPW < 40%) than do adenomas, although hypervascular metastases may enhance similarly to pheochromocytoma.
  • Finally, a number of nonadrenal pathologic conditions have been reported to mimic adrenal masses at CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19755599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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13. Roggenland D, Schneider S, Klein HH, Kann PH: [Endosonography -- an additional diagnostic possibility in the differentiation between the two common types of primary hyperaldosteronism]. Med Klin (Munich); 2006 Jan 15;101(1):65-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Endosonographie -- eine zusätzliche diagnostische Möglichkeit bei der Differenzierung der beiden häufigsten Formen des primären Hyperaldosteronismus.
  • The distinction between aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IHA) may be difficult, but establishing the correct diagnosis is essential because surgery is only effective in patients with adrenal adenoma.
  • CASE REPORT: The case of a 65-year-old man with long-term hypertension due to an APA is reported.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the adrenal glands revealed no abnormalities.
  • Because of the unusual combination of laboratory findings and radiologic results an endosonographic examination of the adrenal glands was performed which yielded a unilateral adrenal adenoma.
  • With establishing this diagnosis, curative surgery became possible.
  • CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates that in the differential diagnosis of primary aldosteronism, endosonography is more important than previously discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endosonography. Hyperaldosteronism / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / secretion. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Posture. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16418816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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14. Slee PH, Verzijlbergen FJ, van Leeuwen JH, van der Waal RI: CASE 2. Acquired hypertrichosis: a rare paraneoplastic syndrome in various cancers. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jan 20;24(3):523-4
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Hypertrichosis / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Colectomy. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16421430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Demura M, Yoneda T, Karashima S, Higashikata T, Mabuchi H, Kawano M, Yamagishi M, Takeda Y: A possible new syndrome with double endocrine tumors in association with an unprecedented type of familial heart-hand syndrome: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:347
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  • INTRODUCTION: The combination of a pituitary prolactinoma and an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma is extremely rare.
  • A large pituitary adenoma with an increased level of serum prolactin was apparent by computed tomography.
  • Computed tomography showed a mass in the right adrenal gland.
  • Similar digital and cardiac abnormalities were detected in our patient's father, and a clinical diagnosis of hereditary heart-hand syndrome was made.
  • Her father had no obvious endocrine tumors, implying that the parent of transmission determined variable phenotypic expression of the disease: heart-hand syndrome with multiple endocrine tumors from the paternal transmission or no endocrine tumor from the maternal transmission.
  • This suggests that the gene or genes responsible for the disease may be under tissue-specific imprinting control.

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  • (PMID = 21034446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2987961
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16. Tauchmanovà L, Pivonello R, De Martino MC, Rusciano A, De Leo M, Ruosi C, Mainolfi C, Lombardi G, Salvatore M, Colao A: Effects of sex steroids on bone in women with subclinical or overt endogenous hypercortisolism. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Sep;157(3):359-66
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  • PATIENTS: Seventy-one consecutive women were enrolled: 36 with overt hypercortisolism (26 with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma and 10 with cortisol-secreting adrenal tumor) and 35 with subclinical hypercortisolism due to adrenal incidentalomas.
  • METHODS: At diagnosis, we measured serum cortisol, FSH, LH, estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione and DHEAS, and urinary cortisol excretion.

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  • (PMID = 17766720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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17. Assié G, Auzan C, Gasc JM, Baviera E, Balaton A, Elalouf JM, Jeunemaitre X, Plouin PF, Corvol P, Clauser E: Steroidogenesis in aldosterone-producing adenoma revisited by transcriptome analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Dec;90(12):6638-49
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  • [Title] Steroidogenesis in aldosterone-producing adenoma revisited by transcriptome analysis.
  • DESIGN: Genomewide gene expression was compared in two tissues differentiated for aldosterone production, both nonstimulated by circulating angiotensin II and differing in their autonomy to produce aldosterone: aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and its adjacent dissected zona glomerulosa (ZG).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Steroids / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16204365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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18. Novitsky YW, Kercher KW, Rosen MJ, Cobb WS, Jyothinagaram S, Heniford BT: Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for lateralizing nodular hyperplasia. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1009-16; discussion 1016-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia (NAH) may mimic the biochemical characteristics of an aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • All patients underwent adrenal venous sampling (94% successfully), which revealed an average adjusted aldosterone ratio of 17.6 (range, 1.2 to 75.9).
  • When lateralization of aldosterone production is noted, laparoscopic adrenalectomy provides significant clinical improvement even in patients with a pathologic diagnosis of NAH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Hypertension / prevention & control. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16360385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Wagner S, Kiupel M, Peterson RA 2nd, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB: Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Pathol; 2008 Jul;45(4):439-42
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  • [Title] Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).
  • Whereas the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets produce only limited amounts of androgenic steroids, adrenocortical neoplasms that arise in neutered ferrets typically secrete androgens or their derivative, estrogen.
  • The 17,20-lyase activity of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) must increase to permit androgen biosynthesis in neoplastic adrenal tissue.
  • We screened ferret adrenocortical tumor specimens for expression of cytochrome b(5) (cyt b(5)), an allosteric regulator that selectively enhances the 17,20-lyase activity of P450c17.
  • Cyt b(5) immunoreactivity was evident in 24 of 25 (96%) adrenocortical adenomas/carcinomas from ferrets with signs of ectopic sex steroid production.
  • Normal adrenocortical cells lacked cyt b(5), which may account for the low production of adrenal androgens in healthy ferrets.
  • We concluded that cyt b(5) is upregulated during gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia and is a marker of androgen synthetic potential in these tumors.

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  • [Cites] Vet Pathol. 2003 Mar;40(2):136-42 [12637752.001]
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  • (PMID = 18587089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574-09; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK52574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9035-39-6 / Cytochromes b5
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS45245; NLM/ PMC2497446
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20. Ronchi CL, Ferrante E, Rizzo E, Giavoli C, Verrua E, Bergamaschi S, Lania AG, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A: Long-term basal and dynamic evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in acromegalic patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Oct;69(4):608-12
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  • [Title] Long-term basal and dynamic evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in acromegalic patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Long-term effects of trans-naso-sphenoidal surgery (TNS) or long-acting somatostatin analogs (SSA) on the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been poorly investigated.
  • Aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis integrity during the follow-up in patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and preserved HPA function post-TNS or prior SSA.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / physiopathology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Basal Metabolism / physiology. Delayed-Action Preparations. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Somatostatin / administration & dosage. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18410544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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21. Volpe C, Enberg U, Sjögren A, Wahrenberg H, Jacobsson H, Törring O, Hamberger B, Thorén M: The role of adrenal scintigraphy in the preoperative management of primary aldosteronism. Scand J Surg; 2008;97(3):248-53
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  • [Title] The role of adrenal scintigraphy in the preoperative management of primary aldosteronism.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Differentiation between the two major subgroups of primary aldosteronism, bilateral hyperplasia and aldosterone producing adenoma is essential since therapy in the former is medical and in the latter surgical.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of adrenocortical scintigraphy in the management of primary aldosteronism.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: [131I] norcholesterol (NP-59) scintigraphy with dexamethasone suppression for subclassification and lateralization of primary aldosteronism was evaluated in 49 patients with long-term follow-up after diagnosis and treatment.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with the diagnosis of aldosterone producing adenoma were operated with adrenalectomy.
  • Fourteen patients with a probable diagnosis of bilateral hyperplasia had normal scintigraphies.
  • Scintigraphy may be used as an adjunct in cases where adrenal venous sampling is inconclusive.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenalectomy / methods. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnostic imaging. Preoperative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18812275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1457-4969
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of surgery : SJS : official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Lad SP, Patil CG, Laws ER Jr, Katznelson L: The role of inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the diagnostic localization of Cushing's disease. Neurosurg Focus; 2007;23(3):E2
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  • [Title] The role of inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the diagnostic localization of Cushing's disease.
  • Cushing's syndrome can present a complex problem of differential diagnosis.
  • Of cases in which hypercortisolemia results from an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent process, approximately 80% are due to a pituitary adenoma (Cushing's disease [CD]), 10% are due to adrenal lesions, and the remaining 10% are secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion.
  • For patients with CD, surgical removal of the pituitary adenoma is the treatment of choice.
  • A number of other techniques are discussed including sampling from the cavernous sinus, the jugular vein, and multiple sites to aid the diagnosis and lateralization of ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Petrosal Sinus Sampling / methods. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17961020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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23. Hunger-Battefeld W, Gajda M, Hansch A, Mandecka A, Müller UA, Wolf G: [Diagnostic pitfalls with Cushing's syndrome]. Internist (Berl); 2010 Mar;51 Suppl 1:293-302
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  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare diagnosis and may present with hormone secretion.
  • A histological differentiation between an adrenal cortical adenoma and carcinoma can be very difficult.
  • However, a fast diagnosis including staging and complete surgical resection is pivotal for the prognosis of an adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Metastasing adrenal cortical carcinoma should be treated with a mitotane based chemotherapy, and inclusion in the "firm-act study" is highly recommended.
  • The present case report demonstrates the diagnostic pitfalls in a female patients with Cushing's syndrome who suffered from metastasing adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Obesity, Morbid / etiology. Weight Gain

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  • (PMID = 20012255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1289
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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24. Miller FH, Wang Y, McCarthy RJ, Yaghmai V, Merrick L, Larson A, Berggruen S, Casalino DD, Nikolaidis P: Utility of diffusion-weighted MRI in characterization of adrenal lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Feb;194(2):W179-85
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  • [Title] Utility of diffusion-weighted MRI in characterization of adrenal lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for characterizing adrenal lesions and determine if diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can distinguish lipid-rich from lipid-poor adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 160 adrenal lesions in 156 patients (96 women and 60 men; mean age, 63 years).
  • ADCs and signal intensity (SI) decrease on chemical shift imaging were measured in adrenal lesions with a wide variety of pathologies.
  • Lipid-rich and lipid-poor adenomas were identified by unenhanced CT.
  • RESULTS: ADCs of adrenal malignancies (median, 1.67 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; interquartile range, 1.41-1.84 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) were not different compared with those of benign lesions (1.61 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; 1.27-1.96 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; p > 0.05).
  • Cysts (2.93 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; 2.70-3.09 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) showed higher ADCs than the remaining adrenal lesions (p < 0.05).
  • The median ADCs of lipid-rich adenomas did not differ from those of lipid-poor ones (p > 0.05).
  • The CT attenuation had no negative or positive correlation with the ADCs of adrenal adenomas (r = -0.05, p = 0.97).
  • CONCLUSION: Unlike lesion size and percentage decrease in SI, the ADCs were not useful in distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal lesions.
  • Lipid-poor adenomas could not be distinguished from lipid-rich adenomas and all other nonfatty lesions of the adrenal gland with DWI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Lipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20093571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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25. Ammoury RF, Heptulla RA, Tatevian N, Elenberg E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient. Pediatr Nephrol; 2006 Mar;21(3):433-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient.
  • Adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma is extremely rare in pediatrics.
  • A 16-year-old patient was diagnosed with severe hypertension associated with a right adrenal mass.
  • MRI of the abdomen showed a heterogeneous adrenal mass 4.2x3.3 cm.
  • Laparoscopic resection of the mass was done, and the pathology revealed an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • This is a case in which an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma, a benign and usually asymptomatic tumor, presented as severe hypertension resolving with surgical resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery


26. Eller-Vainicher C, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Torlontano M, Coletti F, Iorio L, Cuttitta A, Ambrosio A, Vicentini L, Carnevale V, Beck-Peccoz P, Arosio M, Ambrosi B, Scillitani A, Chiodini I: Post-surgical hypocortisolism after removal of an adrenal incidentaloma: is it predictable by an accurate endocrinological work-up before surgery? Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):91-9
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  • [Title] Post-surgical hypocortisolism after removal of an adrenal incidentaloma: is it predictable by an accurate endocrinological work-up before surgery?
  • OBJECTIVE: Few data are available regarding the need of steroid substitutive therapy after unilateral adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma (AI).
  • It is unknown whether, before surgery, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis secretion parameters can predict post-surgical hypocortisolism.
  • A steroid substitutive therapy is indicated after unilateral adrenalectomy for SH or size of the adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 19797503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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27. Mac Gregor Gooch AL, Guillermina Velasco Diaz G, Carranza Lira S: [Virilizing adrenal adenoma: a report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 May;73(5):261-4
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  • [Title] [Virilizing adrenal adenoma: a report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma suprarrenal virilizante: comunicación de un caso.
  • Androgen excess can be due to different entities such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, ovarian tumors or adrenal tumors.
  • It is presented the case of a 26 year-old woman that suffered from amenorrhea, hirsutism, voice deepening, reduction of mammary volume and 10 kg weight loss, without response to different treatments.
  • The CAT scan and nuclear magnetic imaging of adrenal glands showed an oval retroperitoneal image of 7.2 x 6.5 x 8.4 cm at the right adrenal gland.
  • Surgery was performed and the right adrenal gland excised.
  • The histopathologic report indicated a benign cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21966765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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28. Plouin PF, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Bertagna X: [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):73-82; discussion 83-5
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  • [Title] [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Le réseau national COMETE sur les tumeurs de la surrénale.
  • Patients with adrenal tumors are at risk of the consequences of tumor growth (including metastasis) and of hormone hypersecretion.
  • Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas arise from the adrenal medulla and produce catecholamines; they may be benign or malignant, and sporadic or familial.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas arise from the adrenal cortex.
  • Patients with adrenocortical tumors may develop ACTH-independent hypercortisolism, mineralocorticoid excess, and androgen hypersecretion.
  • In 1993, the heads of these departments created the COMETE network (COrtico et MEdullo-surrénale, les Tumeurs Endocrines).
  • The overall objective of COMETE is to promote basic and clinical research into adrenal tumors.
  • This implies - in cross-sectional studies: collecting adrenal tumors, maintaining a collection of tumor and leukocyte DNA samples, keeping a computerized record of relevant biological and clinical data, and distributing biological samples and bioclinical information anonymously to collaborating research laboratories; in prospective studies: ensuring indefinite follow-up of patients with tumors at risk of malignancy or recurrence, which means establishing and maintaining a cohort of patients with large adrenocortical tumors or carcinomas anda cohort of patients with pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Societies, Medical / organization & administration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. France. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Research

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  • (PMID = 18663983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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29. Rossi GP, Pessina AC: Blood pressure outcome of adrenalectomy in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism with or without unilateral adenoma. J Hypertens; 2009 Mar;27(3):656-7; author reply 657-8
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  • [Title] Blood pressure outcome of adrenalectomy in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism with or without unilateral adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Hypertension / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adult. Aldosterone / urine. Blood Pressure. Cohort Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome


30. Marcondes JA, Curi DD, Matsuzaki CN, Barcellos CR, Rocha MP, Hayashida SA, Baracat EC: Ovarian hyperthecosis in the context of an adrenal incidentaloma in a postmenopausal woman. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2008 Oct;52(7):1184-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian hyperthecosis in the context of an adrenal incidentaloma in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma is not infrequent and can be found in hirsute women.
  • We report a case of a 54-year-old woman with amenorrhea and hirsutism of abrupt onset and mild signs of virilization that had an adrenal incidentaloma coexisting with ovarian hyperthecosis.
  • Pelvic ultrasonography disclosed a right ovary with 10.3 cc and a left ovary with 9.8 cc without nodules or cysts, and computerized tomography of the abdomen disclosed a normal right adrenal gland.
  • On the left adrenal gland a solid nodule with 0.8 cm was seen.
  • In view of a suppression of testosterone by GnRHa, the patient was submitted to a hystero-oophorectomy by laparoscopy.
  • No hilar cell hyperplasia was seen.
  • In conclusion, the presence of an adrenal mass in a hirsute woman can lead to a wrong diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Hirsutism / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19082308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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31. Libé R, Fratticci A, Coste J, Tissier F, Horvath A, Ragazzon B, Rene-Corail F, Groussin L, Bertagna X, Raffin-Sanson ML, Stratakis CA, Bertherat J: Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) and genetic predisposition to adrenocortical tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jun 15;14(12):4016-24
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  • [Title] Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) and genetic predisposition to adrenocortical tumors.
  • PURPOSE: We have reported previously nonsense inactivating mutations of the phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) gene in patients with micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia and Cushing syndrome.
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of somatic or germ-line PDE11A mutations in various types of adrenocortical tumors: ACTH-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH), adrenocortical adenoma (ACA), and adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: PDE11A was sequenced in 117 adrenocortical tumors and 192 controls subjects; immunohistochemistry for PDE11A and tumor cyclic AMP levels were studied in a subgroup of adrenocortical tumors.
  • RESULTS: One PDE11A inactivating mutation (R307X) was found in one ACA, 22 germ-line missense variants (18.8%) were found in adrenocortical tumors, and only 11 missense variants (5.7%) were found in controls.
  • By comparing the common mutations, a higher frequency of mutations in adrenocortical tumors than in age/sex-matched controls were observed [16% versus 10% in ACC, 19% versus 10% in ACA, and 24% versus 9% in AIMAH; odds ratio (OR), 3.53; P = 0.05].
  • Somatic DNA from adrenocortical tumors with missense variants showed a wild-type allelic loss.
  • A significant difference between ACC and controls was observed for a polymorphism in exon 6 (E421E; OR, 2.1; P = 0.03) and three associated polymorphisms located in intron 10-exon 11-intron 11 (OR, 0.5; P = 0.01).
  • In AIMAH/ACA, cyclic AMP levels were higher than in normal adrenals and decreased PDE11A immunostaining was present in adrenocortical tumors with PDE11A variants.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present investigation of a large cohort of adrenocortical tumors suggests that PDE11A sequence defects predispose to a variety of lesions (beyond micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia) and may contribute to the development of these tumors in the general population.

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  • (PMID = 18559625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS306040; NLM/ PMC3134879
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32. Paik KY: [Paraganglioma of the pancreas metastasized to the adrenal gland: a case report]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2009 Dec;54(6):409-12
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  • [Title] [Paraganglioma of the pancreas metastasized to the adrenal gland: a case report].
  • Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from the neural crest, which includes tissues such as the adrenal medulla, carotid and aortic body, organs of Zuckerkandl, and other unnamed paraganglia.
  • We report our experience of this rare disease.
  • A 70-year old female patient admitted for a pancreas tail mass detected by computed tomography (CT) scan checked for vague left flank pain.
  • A well defined ovoid shape mass in left adrenal gland was suggested adenoma.
  • Microscopic examination with pancreas and adrenal gland revealed that the cells were arranged in a characteristic Zellballen pattern.
  • On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed the tumor as a paraganglioma of the pancreas and adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aged. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Female. Humans. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20026898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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33. Johnson SP, Bagrosky BM, Mitchell EL, McIntyre RC Jr, Grant NG: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of an aldosterone-secreting primary adrenal tumor in a surgically unfit patient. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2008 Jul;19(7):1115-7
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  • [Title] CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of an aldosterone-secreting primary adrenal tumor in a surgically unfit patient.
  • Because of the speed and efficiency of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, alternative surgical procedures for adrenal adenomas are uncommon.
  • The present report outlines the case of a young patient with an adrenal adenoma causing Conn syndrome who was a poor candidate for surgical treatment.
  • Computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation of the adenoma was performed with a paraspinal approach and injection of dextrose 5% in water.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Catheter Ablation. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Radiography, Interventional. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18589330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-0443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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34. Contesse V, Reznik Y, Louiset E, Duparc C, Cartier D, Sicard F, Laquerriere A, Parmentier F, Kuhn JM, Vaudry H, Lefebvre H: Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2843-50
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  • [Title] Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies.
  • Two patients with incidentally discovered adrenocortical adenomas underwent a series of pharmacological and physiological tests after pretreatment with dexamethasone.
  • In the two cases, 5-HT stimulated cortisol secretion from tumor cells with increased efficacy and/or potency to activate steroidogenesis by comparison with normal adrenocortical cells.
  • In the two adenoma tissues, immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of 5-HT-like immunoreactivity within clusters of steroidogenic cells, suggesting that 5-HT acted through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism to stimulate steroidogenesis.
  • In conclusion, this study provides the first observation of adrenocortical cortisol-producing adenomas hypersensitive in vivo and in vitro to serotonergic agonists.
  • Our results also show that cortisol-producing adenomas can express simultaneously several illegitimate receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Serotonin / pharmacology

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  • [CommentIn] Horm Metab Res. 2005 Aug;37(8):528-9 [16138268.001]
  • (PMID = 15705918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 158165-40-3 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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35. Wang WJ, Zhang F, Xu GX, Chen C: [Calcium-binding protein secretagogin is a novel neuroendocrine marker]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Sep;39(9):627-8
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21092592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins
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36. Emeriau D, Vallee V, Tauzin-Fin P, Ballanger P: [Morbidity of unilateral and bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy according to the indication. Report of a series of 100 consecutive cases]. Prog Urol; 2005 Sep;15(4):626-31
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  • [Title] [Morbidity of unilateral and bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy according to the indication. Report of a series of 100 consecutive cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Morbidité de la surrénalectomie laparoscopique uni et bilatérale selon l'indication: a propos de 100 cas consécutifs.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the reference technique for the treatment of adrenal tumours.
  • Histology revealed 25 Conn adenomas, 20 cortisol-secreting adenomas and Cushing syndrome, 22 phaeochromocytomas, 20 metastases, 2 adrenal cortical adenomas, and 11 incidentalomas.
  • Four patients in the group with secondary adrenal tumours were alive without recurrence 18, 20, 44 and 48 months after adrenalectomy.
  • Antihypertensive treatment was stopped in 16 of the 25 patients operated for Conn adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 16459675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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37. Legmann P: [Adrenal incidentaloma: management approaches: CT - MRI]. J Radiol; 2009 Mar;90(3 Pt 2):426-43
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma: management approaches: CT - MRI].
  • The adrenal gland may be affected by several pathologies, and the detection of an adrenal nodule may occur during the work-up of a biological abnormality, oncologic work-up, or be incidental.
  • Cross-sectional imaging has had a great impact on the diagnostic work-up of adrenal nodules.
  • CT, without and with intravenous contrast, is the first line imaging study for evaluation of adrenal nodules.
  • A spontaneous density below 10 HU confirms the benign nature of a nodule.
  • When lesions cannot be characterized, postcontrast CT or MR imaging, including in and out of phase imaging, may allow diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / radiography. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Ewing / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Algorithms. Biopsy. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / radiography. Hematoma / diagnosis. Hematoma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / radiography


38. Rockwell J, Monroe WE, Tromblee TC: Spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism in a dog after a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med; 2005 May-Jun;19(3):299-300
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  • [Title] Spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism in a dog after a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism.

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  • [CommentOn] J Vet Intern Med. 2005 Mar-Apr;19(2):255-8 [15822572.001]
  • (PMID = 15954541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Papotti M, Volante M, Duregon E, Delsedime L, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Rosai J: Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jul;34(7):973-83
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior.
  • Myxoid changes have been rarely reported both in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • The recent observation by our group of an adrenal myxoid tumor with morphologically borderline features, but aggressive clinical behavior prompted us to review a series of 196 adrenocortical lesions, comprising 122 carcinomas and 74 adenomas, to define the morphologic, phenotypical and clinical characteristics of adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features.
  • Fourteen cases, including 12 carcinomas and 2 borderline tumors, formed the basis of this report, and were characterized by a variably abundant myxoid component (from 5% to 90% of tumor) and 2 distinct cellular growth patterns: the first (10 cases), mostly associated with a predominant myxoid stromal component, was made of small cells with mild atypia arranged in cords and microcysts; the second (4 cases) was characterized by focal myxoid changes in tumors otherwise similar to conventional adrenocortical carcinoma, with large atypical cells having an eosinophilic cytoplasm and a diffuse or nodular architecture.
  • The above mentioned patterns were absent in all adenomas reviewed.
  • A peculiar reactivity to neurofilaments was seen, mostly associated to the presence of predominant rather that focal myxoid stromal changes, and in 40% of conventional adrenocortical carcinomas, thus representing an undescribed potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of adrenal lesions.
  • Myxoid adrenocortical tumors probably represent a rare but histologically and phenotipically distinct entity and, although rare cases of benign lesions are on record, they seem to be generally associated to morphologic and clinical features of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Mucins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. Fetal Development. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20534995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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40. Lubikowski J, Umiński M, Andrysiak-Mamos E, Pynka S, Fuchs H, Wójcicki M, Szajko M, Moleda P, Post M, Zochowska E, Kiedrowicz B, Safranow K, Syrenicz A: From open to laparoscopic adrenalectomy: thirty years' experience of one medical centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):94-101
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  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the standardized treatment of benign adrenal lesions over the last two decades, making the indications to open adrenalectomy (OA) limited.
  • The purpose of this study was to show the thirty years of experience in open (OA) and laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) gained in one medical centre as well as to compare the results of OA and LA performed for benign adrenal lesions.
  • Analyzed factors included patients demographic data, ASA score, indication for surgery, tumour size and side, characteristics of the removed tumours, intraoperative and postoperative outcome of LA and OA, postoperative pain sensation, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and conversion rate from LA to OA.
  • The mean operative time was longer in the LA group (137 v. 82 min., p < 0.0001) and the blood loss was lower in LA group (110 v. 254 mL, p < 0.0001).
  • The mean time until resumption of normal diet was shorter after LA (22 v. 44 h), as was the mean time until ambulation (17 v. 36 h), mean length of the hospital stay (4.6 v. 6.8 days), and mean time until return to normal activities (14 v. 23 days, p < 0.0001 for each difference).
  • The analgesic requirement on the first and the second day postoperatively was lower in the LA group (p < 0.0001).
  • The rate of the conversion from LA to OA was 16%.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was adenoma of the adrenal gland in the majority of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that LA is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated procedure.
  • It may be recommended as a "gold standard" surgery in a case of benign functioning or non-functioning adrenal tumours with diameter less than 8 cm. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 94-101).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Poland. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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41. Fukumitsu N, Ashida H, Ogi S, Uchiyama M, Mori Y, Ikemoto I, Sakamoto N, Tojo K, Kawakami M: A case of ganglioneuroma in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol scintigraphy showed high uptake in the adrenal gland leading to a misdiagnosis. Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;20(1):69-73
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  • [Title] A case of ganglioneuroma in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol scintigraphy showed high uptake in the adrenal gland leading to a misdiagnosis.
  • We experienced a case in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol (131I-adosterol) scintigraphy showed high uptake in the right adrenal gland.
  • We diagnosed functional cortical adenoma because of the finding of 131I-adosterol scintigraphy.
  • However, no positive findings for the existence of cortical adenoma were obtained in other examinations and we performed right adrenalectomy.
  • Unexpectedly, pathological finding showed the right adrenal gland was occupied with a large ganglioneuroma.
  • This is an instructive case in which 131I-adosterol scintigraphy showed abnormal high uptake in the adrenal gland, in spite of the fact that the adrenal gland was occupied by a tumor derived from adrenal medulla.
  • [MeSH-major] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Ganglioneuroma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16485578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 68232-36-0 / 6-iodomethylcholesterol
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42. Siddiqi AJ, Miller FH, Kasuganti D, Nikolaidis P: Adrenal hemangioma-adenoma: an exceedingly rare adrenal collision tumor. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2009 Apr;29(4):949-52
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  • [Title] Adrenal hemangioma-adenoma: an exceedingly rare adrenal collision tumor.
  • Adrenal collision tumors are rare clinical entities referring to separate coexisting adjacent tumors involving an adrenal gland with sharp demarcation between the two and without a substantial histologic admixture at the interface.
  • We report a case of a 60-year-old female patient with an exceedingly rare adrenal hemangioma-adenoma collision tumor.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor comprising an adrenal hemangioma and an adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Interventional


43. Chierigo P, Puccetti O, Visonà A, Bassan F, Rahmati M, Lazzarotto M, Franzolin N: [High alpha-fetoprotein persistence after orchiectomy. On a case of uncommon etiology]. Urologia; 2010 Oct-Dec;77 Suppl 17:27-31
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  • [Transliterated title] Persistenza di alfa-fetoproteina elevata dopo orchiectomia. Su di un caso ad etiologia inusuale.
  • From this age on, serum AFP can rise above normal in some diseases, e.g. liver disorders, and in some kind of tumors.
  • Careful evaluation for occult cancer showed no abnormality.
  • Histology showed necrotic tissue and could not make a reliable diagnosis.
  • Thinking of a hereditary trait, we decided to screen patient's blood-related family members.
  • RESULTS: AFP was found to be elevated in another four out of six relatives within three generations, unrelated to any disease.
  • The existence of this clinically benign condition needs to be considered in both children and adults with unexplained and persistent elevation of AFP, e.g. those diagnosed or suspected for germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Metabolism, Inborn Errors / diagnosis. Orchiectomy. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Genes, Dominant. Humans. Ischemia / surgery. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Postoperative Period. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testis / blood supply. Testis / pathology. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • (PMID = 21308671.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6075
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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44. Viterbo R, Greenberg RE, Al-Saleem T, Uzzo RG: Prior abdominal surgery and radiation do not complicate the retroperitoneoscopic approach to the kidney or adrenal gland. J Urol; 2005 Aug;174(2):446-50
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  • [Title] Prior abdominal surgery and radiation do not complicate the retroperitoneoscopic approach to the kidney or adrenal gland.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic renal and adrenal surgery is an accepted standard of care.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated clinical and functional parameters in 78 consecutive patients undergoing retroperitoneoscopic renal or adrenal surgery performed by a single surgeon in a 36-month period, including radical nephrectomy with or without ureterectomy in 50, nerve sparing surgery in 8, ablation in 16 and adrenalectomy in 4.
  • There were no open conversions in group 1, while there were 2 in group 2 (renal vein injury and splenorrhaphy secondary to lymphoma, respectively).
  • Pathological findings showed malignancy in 57 cases (renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, carcinoid disease and metastases) and benign disease in 21 (oncocytoma, adenoma, pyelonephritis and complex cysts).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The retroperitoneoscopic approach to the kidney and adrenal glands can be used in patients with extensive prior open abdominal surgery and/or radiation without significant increases in morbidity or convalescence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Nephrectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16006862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Yener S, Genc S, Akinci B, Secil M, Demir T, Comlekci A, Ertilav S, Yesil S: Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma. Endocrine; 2009 Jun;35(3):365-70
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  • [Title] Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Data regarding cardiovascular risk in subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma are limited.
  • The objectives of this study are to investigate carotid intima media thickness (IMT) as an indicator of atherosclerosis in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma (AI) and to evaluate the factors that could be associated with IMT.
  • Forty-nine subjects without findings of hypercortisolism or other adrenal gland disorders, 34 body mass index (BMI)-unmatched controls (C) and 18 BMI-matched controls (BC) were enrolled.
  • The correlation between morning cortisol and IMT may be associated with the effect of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis disturbances on vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carotid Arteries / pathology. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Tunica Intima / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Atherosclerosis / complications. Atherosclerosis / diagnosis. Atherosclerosis / metabolism. Atherosclerosis / pathology. Body Mass Index. Case-Control Studies. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19277910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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46. Suzuki J, Otsuka F, Inagaki K, Otani H, Miyoshi T, Terasaka T, Ogura T, Omori M, Nasu Y, Makino H: Primary aldosteronism caused by a unilateral adrenal adenoma accompanied by autonomous cortisol secretion. Hypertens Res; 2007 Apr;30(4):367-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary aldosteronism caused by a unilateral adrenal adenoma accompanied by autonomous cortisol secretion.
  • Radiological examinations revealed the presence of a 3-cm diameter left adrenal tumor. (131)I-adosterol was specifically accumulated in the left adrenal tumor, whereas the accumulation in the right adrenal was completely suppressed.
  • Upon diagnosis of left aldosteronoma with autonomous secretion of cortisol, left adrenalectomy was performed by laparoscopy.
  • In the resected adenoma tissues, clear cells expressed P450c17 protein and the ratio of CYP17/CYP11B2 mRNA evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was apparently higher than that of typical aldosteronomas.
  • Based on the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) loading tests, the contra-lateral adrenal functions were restored 3 months after surgery.
  • These results indicate that evaluation for autonomy of cortisol secretion and contra-lateral adrenal function is clinically important to avoid the risk of adrenal failure after surgery for primary aldosteronism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17541216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-9636
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertens. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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47. Nogueira EF, Gerry D, Mantero F, Mariniello B, Rainey WE: The role of TASK1 in aldosterone production and its expression in normal adrenal and aldosterone-producing adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Jul;73(1):22-9
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  • [Title] The role of TASK1 in aldosterone production and its expression in normal adrenal and aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Aldosterone production in the adrenal glomerulosa is mainly regulated by angiotensin II and K+.
  • Adrenal glomerulosa cells are uniquely sensitive to extracellular K+.
  • Genetic deletion of subunits of K+-selective leak-channels (KCNK), TASK1 and/or TASK3, in mice generates animals with hyperaldosteronism and histological changes in the adrenal cortex.
  • Herein, we studied the expression of TASK1 in human adrenocortical cells, as well as its role in aldosterone production in H295R cells.
  • DESIGN: TASK1 expression was investigated by comparative microarray analysis of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and normal adrenals (NAs).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals the predominant expression of TASK1 over other KCNK family genes in the human adrenal cortex.

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  • (PMID = 19878209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK043140; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK043140-16S1; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KCNK1 protein, human; 0 / Kcnk1 protein, mouse; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / potassium channel subfamily K member 3; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS156002; NLM/ PMC4158746
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48. Marko NF, Hamrahian AH, Weil RJ: Immediate postoperative cortisol levels accurately predict postoperative hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumors. Pituitary; 2010 Sep;13(3):249-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immediate postoperative cortisol levels accurately predict postoperative hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumors.
  • Accurate assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critical for the appropriate management of patients with pituitary adenoma after transsphenoidal surgery.
  • We examine the role of immediate postoperative cortisol levels to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis function post-operatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Insufficiency / blood. Adrenal Insufficiency / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20339931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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49. Chiang KH, Liou JY, Shyu KG, Yeh CH, Wu CC, Chen TJ, Lo HM: Hypertension due to co-existing paraganglioma and unilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia. J Formos Med Assoc; 2007 Dec;106(12):1043-7
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  • [Title] Hypertension due to co-existing paraganglioma and unilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia.
  • A rare case of combined unilateral adrenal hyperplasia and paraganglioma is reported.
  • Computed tomography showed a microadenoma of the left adrenal gland and a well demarcated left retroperitoneal para-aortic mass.
  • Adrenal vein sampling for aldosterone and renin levels suggested left adrenal lesion.
  • Surgical removal of the left adrenal gland and para-aortic mass was performed.
  • Pathologic examination of the resected left adrenal gland showed adrenal cortical hyperplasia and the left retroperitoneal para-aortic mass showed a paraganglioma.
  • The possible relationship of these two diseases is discussed.

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  • (PMID = 18194911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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50. Hood SJ, Taylor KP, Ashby MJ, Brown MJ: The spironolactone, amiloride, losartan, and thiazide (SALT) double-blind crossover trial in patients with low-renin hypertension and elevated aldosterone-renin ratio. Circulation; 2007 Jul 17;116(3):268-75
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  • BACKGROUND: There is continuing variation in diagnosis and estimated prevalence of primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • The higher estimates encourage search for adrenal adenomas in patients with elevated ratios of plasma aldosterone to renin.
  • However, it is more likely that patients with normal plasma K+ and aldosterone belong to the polygenic spectrum of low-renin hypertension rather than have the same monogenic syndrome as classic Conn's.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In hypertensive patients with a low plasma renin but normal K+, bendroflumethiazide 5 mg was as effective as spironolactone 100 mg in lowering blood pressure, despite patients being selected for a previous large fall in blood pressure on spironolactone.
  • Because this result differs from that expected in primary hyperaldosteronism, our finding argues against low-renin hypertension including a large, undiagnosed pool of primary hyperaldosteronism.


51. Fallo F, Sonino N: Metabolic syndrome and primary aldosteronism: time for reappraisal? J Hum Hypertens; 2010 Oct;24(10):623-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Hyperaldosteronism / epidemiology. Hypertension / epidemiology. Metabolic Syndrome X / epidemiology


52. Boyle B, Butz H, Liko I, Zalatnai A, Toth M, Feldman K, Horanyi J, Igaz P, Racz K, Patocs A: Expression of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in human adrenocortical adenomas. Steroids; 2010 Oct;75(10):695-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in human adrenocortical adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in the normal human adrenal gland, however, no study has been performed to evaluate the separate expression of alpha- and beta-isoforms (GRalpha and GRbeta) in normal human adrenals and in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL: GRalpha and GRbeta mRNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR in 31 adrenal tissues including 19 non-functioning adenomas (NFA), 6 cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) and 6 normal adrenocortical tissues.
  • In addition, the presence and cellular localization of GRalpha and GRbeta proteins in adrenal tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Compared to normal adrenocortical tissues, both GRalpha and GRbeta mRNAs were significantly increased in CPA but not in NFA.
  • Using anti-GRalpha antibody a strong nuclear staining was observed in NFA and CPA, and a less remarkable immunoreactivity was detected in some nuclei of normal adrenocortical cells.
  • GRbeta immunostaining was absent in normal adrenal tissues and NFA, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear immunoreaction was found in CPA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Altered expression of GRalpha and GRbeta in CPA raises their possible role in the pathophysiology of these adrenal tumors, although further studies are needed to elucidate the potential significance of these findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20438742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5867
  • [Journal-full-title] Steroids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Steroids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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53. Prasad SR, Wang H, Rosas H, Menias CO, Narra VR, Middleton WD, Heiken JP: Fat-containing lesions of the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2005 Mar-Apr;25(2):321-31
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  • Benign liver lesions that contain fat include focal or geographic fatty change (steatosis), pseudolesions due to postoperative packing material (omentum), adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, lipoma, angiomyolipoma, cystic teratoma, hepatic adrenal rest tumor, pseudolipoma of the Glisson capsule, and xanthomatous lesions in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
  • The imaging characteristics of a lesion coupled with the pattern of intratumoral fatty change are helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Liver / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15798052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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54. Smart JL, Tolle V, Otero-Corchon V, Low MJ: Central dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neuron-specific proopiomelanocortin-deficient mice. Endocrinology; 2007 Feb;148(2):647-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Central dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neuron-specific proopiomelanocortin-deficient mice.
  • Corticotroph-derived ACTH mediates basal and stress-induced glucocorticoid secretion, but it is uncertain whether POMC peptides produced in the brain also regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • Selective restoration of pituitary POMC prevented the adrenal insufficiency and neonatal mortality characteristic of Pomc(-/-) mice.
  • However, adult Pomc(-/-)Tg/+ mice expressing the pituitary-specific transgene exhibited adrenal cortical hypertrophy, elevated basal plasma corticosterone, elevated basal but attenuated stress-induced ACTH secretion, and inappropriately elevated CRH expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.
  • In addition, Pomc(-/-)Tg/+, Pomc(+/-)Tg/+, and Pomc(+/-) mice, which all displayed varying degrees of elevated CRH, frequently developed melanotroph adenomas after 1 yr of age, whereas Pomc(-/-) mice, with maximal CRH expression and glucocorticoid disinhibition, developed corticotroph and melanotroph adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / etiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Adrenal Insufficiency / mortality. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Animals. Corticosterone / blood. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Female. Hypertrophy. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Male. Melanotrophs / pathology. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Transgenic. Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Stress, Physiological / metabolism. Stress, Physiological / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17095588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK066604; United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / HG000201
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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55. Brunt LM: Minimal access adrenal surgery. Surg Endosc; 2006 Mar;20(3):351-61
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  • [Title] Minimal access adrenal surgery.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred method for removal of most adrenal tumors.
  • An important component in selecting patients for this operation is to understand the clinical presentation and diagnostic workup for the various functioning and nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • In this review, an overview of the key clinical and diagnostic aspects of the most common adrenal tumors is presented.
  • The indications and contraindications for a laparoscopic approach are discussed and the technique for laparoscopic adrenalectomy is then presented with inclusion of video links to demonstrate the technique.
  • A current controversy in adrenal surgery is the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the management of patients with large tumors and malignant or potentially malignant adrenal lesions and the literature on this topic is reviewed in detail.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / secretion. Dissection. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Myelolipoma / diagnostic imaging. Radiography. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16437282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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56. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Buziak-Bereza M, Fedorowicz A, Kuźniarz-Rymarz S, Stochmal E, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A: [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(12):1270-5
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  • [Title] [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome].
  • In the last twenty years the introduction of new imaging techniques has caused increasing incidence of accidental detection of adrenal tumors, which are usually mild and in most cases are hormonally inactive adenomas.
  • Among hormonal disorders in patients with adrenal incidentalomas the hypercortisolism is often described, which, if not treated properly, leads to multiple organ complications, and further to the patient's death.
  • The aim of the study was the retrospective analysis of the group of patients with adrenal incidentaloma, verified by histopathology for assessment of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Among the group of 225 patients: 62 men and 163 women with incidentally detected adrenal tumors in age from 19 to 81 years diagnosed and treated in the Department of Clinical Endocrinology, University Hospital in Krakow, 59 patients was sent to surgery: 15 men and 42 women.
  • Group A consisted of patients with adrenal cortical adenoma: 38 people (11 men and 27 women).
  • In group B there were people with so-called other hormonal inactive adrenal tumors - 17 people (4 men and 13 women).
  • In group A the mean morning level of cortisol was 18.23 +/- 6.42 ug/dl and did not differ statistically significantly from the results of group B (mean morning cortisol level of 15.86 +/- 4.6 ug/dl).
  • A detailed analysis of the clinical signs, meticulously carried out and repeated hormonal diagnosis with the use of functional tests should be focused on the detection of subclinical hormonal disorders, which is crucial in preventing organ damage and making a decision of the right treatment of the patient, which is surgical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hydrocortisone / blood

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  • (PMID = 21591352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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57. Iorio L, Rigolini R, Costa E, Cotta O, Cannavò S, Ambrosi B: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide determination as a possible marker of cardiac dysfunction in patients with adrenal disorders. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jul-Aug;33(7):509-10
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  • [Title] N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide determination as a possible marker of cardiac dysfunction in patients with adrenal disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / etiology. Insulin Resistance / physiology. Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / blood. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • [CommentOn] J Endocrinol Invest. 2009 Nov;32(10):805-9 [19468263.001]
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  • (PMID = 20671412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / pro-brain natriuretic peptide (1-76); 114471-18-0 / Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
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58. Bocca G, Voorhoeve PG, de Delemarre-van Wall HA: [Cushing's syndrome in children]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2345-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Het syndroom van Cushing bij kinderen.
  • In addition, the first showed a decrease in linear growth and weight gain; a pituitary adenoma was found, which was surgically excised.
  • The second girl was examined because of a male body-hair pattern and weight increase.
  • She had an adrenal adenoma, visible on MRI, which was excised during laparoscopy.
  • Cushing's syndrome is a rare disease in childhood.
  • Arriving at an aetiological diagnosis may be difficult and is based on the performance and interpretation of endocrinologic function and laboratory tests such as determination of the cortisol level in blood, saliva and urine, a dexamethasone-suppression test, and a corticotropin assay in blood drawn from the cerebral cavernous sinuses.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Dexamethasone. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Growth. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Treatment Outcome. Weight Gain

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007 Mar 3;151(9):560; author reply 560-1 [17375397.001]
  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2365-9 [17100127.001]
  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2390-3 [17100132.001]
  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2359-64 [17100126.001]
  • (PMID = 17100122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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59. Srimanee D, Bhidayasiri R, Phanthumchinda K: Extrapontine myelinolysis in preoperative sellar region tumor: report of two cases. J Med Assoc Thai; 2009 Nov;92(11):1548-53
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  • Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a well-known disorder caused by rapid correction of serum sodium.
  • Many conditions including hormonal abnormality are associated with this syndrome.
  • The authors describe two cases of preoperative sellar region tumor associated with hypopituitarism and secondary adrenal insufficiency.
  • The second case was a 24-year-old man with gonadotroph pituitary adenoma who developed generalized dystonia, dysarthria, and dysphagia in the course of hyponatremia.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Myelinolysis, Central Pontine / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Insufficiency / complications. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Hyponatremia / complications. Hypopituitarism / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19938750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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60. Li P, Sun F, Cao HM, Ma QY, Pan CM, Ma JH, Zhang XN, Jiang H, Song HD, Chen MD: Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2009 Dec 25;390(4):1208-13
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  • [Title] Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis.
  • Obesity is frequently associated with malfunctions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hyperaldosteronism, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear.
  • Since the adrenal glands are embedded in adipose tissue, direct cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland has been proposed.
  • A previous study found that adiponectin receptor mRNA was expressed in human adrenal glands and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).
  • However, the expression of adiponectin receptors in adrenal glands has not been confirmed at the protein level or in other species.
  • Furthermore, it is unclear whether adiponectin receptors expressed in adrenal cells are functional.
  • We found, for the first time, that adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) mRNA and protein were expressed in mouse adrenal and adrenocortical Y-1 cells.
  • However, adiponectin itself was not expressed in mouse adrenal or Y-1 cells.
  • Thus, adiponectin is likely to have physiological and/or pathophysiological significance as an endocrine regulator of adrenocortical function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adiponectin / physiology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis. Receptors, Adiponectin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line. Humans. Male. Mice

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  • (PMID = 19878661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / Receptors, Adiponectin; 0 / adiponectin receptor 1, mouse; 0 / adiponectin receptor 2, mouse; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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61. Weickert MO, Schöfl-Siegert B, Arafat AM, Pfeiffer AF, Möhlig M, Schöfl C: A reverse postural test as a screening tool for aldosterone-producing adenoma: a pilot study. Endocrine; 2009 Aug;36(1):75-82
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  • [Title] A reverse postural test as a screening tool for aldosterone-producing adenoma: a pilot study.
  • An ambulatory case finding test to separate surgically remediable aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) from other forms of PA, however, is currently not available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Mass Screening / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Exercise. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Renin / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Supine Position

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  • (PMID = 19399649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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62. Garduno-García Jde J, Reza-Albarrán A, Márquez MA, Pérez FJ: [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Nov;57(9):421-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma adrenal como etiología de síndrome de Cushing: veinte años de experiencia en un centro mexicano de tercer nivel.
  • Adrenal adenomas are an uncommon cause of adult CS.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcome of patients with CS caused by adrenal adenomas in a referral center.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional observational study of patients with a diagnosis of CS caused by adrenal adenomas managed in our center over a 20-year period.
  • Our clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of this entity was analyzed.
  • The results of dynamic testing with dexamethasone suggested adrenal adenoma in 100% of the patients.
  • Seventy percent of adenomas were found in the left gland.
  • ACTH measurement in our center was not reliable in identifying adrenal adenoma as a cause of CS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20863774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2021
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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63. Desmarchelier M, Lair S, Dunn M, Langlois I: Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2008 Oct 15;233(8):1297-301
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  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • CLINICAL FINDINGS: On initial examination, nonregenerative anemia, mild azotemia, and a large left adrenal gland mass were identified.
  • Plasma aldosterone concentration was >3329 pmol/L, confirming a provisional diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism.
  • Histologic examination revealed a large left adrenal gland adenoma, progressive chronic nephropathy, severe pulmonary edema, and focal fibrosis in the left ventricle.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of the adrenal gland mass revealed aldosterone within neoplastic adrenocortical cells.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that primary hyperaldosteronism should be considered as a possible cause in ferrets with hypokalemia, hypertension, and an adrenal gland mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenocortical Adenoma / veterinary. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Fatal Outcome. Female. Ferrets. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / blood. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Hypertension / veterinary. Hypokalemia / blood. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / etiology. Hypokalemia / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19180717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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64. Al-Wahhabi B: Parathyroid adenoma and bilateral pheochromocytoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis. Ann Saudi Med; 2005 May-Jun;25(3):255-7
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  • [Title] Parathyroid adenoma and bilateral pheochromocytoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics


65. Weng SW, Yang CH, Huang WT, Chen MC, Wang PW: Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour. N Z Med J; 2005 Jun 3;118(1216):U1498
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  • [Title] Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • Adrenal cortical tumour-induced malignant hypertension is rare, except for some documented aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • This case in Taiwan is only the second reported case with malignant hypertension secondary to a cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15937532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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71. Lehnert H, Scholz T, Schäfer M, Klose S: [Endocrine hypertension]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2007 Feb 2;132(5):207-17; quiz 219-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / therapy. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / complications. Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / diagnosis. Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2007 Mar 23;132(12):634
  • (PMID = 17252364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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72. Nishimoto K, Nakagawa K, Li D, Kosaka T, Oya M, Mikami S, Shibata H, Itoh H, Mitani F, Yamazaki T, Ogishima T, Suematsu M, Mukai K: Adrenocortical zonation in humans under normal and pathological conditions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;95(5):2296-305
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical zonation in humans under normal and pathological conditions.
  • CONTEXT: Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) catalyze the terminal steps for aldosterone and cortisol syntheses, respectively, thereby determining the functional differentiation of human adrenocortical cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the localization of CYP11B2 and -B1 in human adrenal specimens by using developed antibodies capable of distinguishing the two enzymes from each other.
  • Adrenocortical cells lacking both enzymes were observed in the outer cortical regions.
  • In addition to conventional zonation, we found a variegated zonation consisting of a subcapsular cell cluster expressing CYP11B2, which we termed aldosterone-producing cell cluster, and a CYP11B1-expressing area.
  • Aldosterone-producing adenomas differed in cell populations expressing CYP11B2 from one another, whereas CYP11B1-expressing and double-negative cells were also intermingled.
  • Adenomas from patients with Cushing's syndrome expressed CYP11B1 entirely but not CYP11B2, resulting in atrophic nontumor glands.
  • The nontumor portions of both types of adenomas bore frequently one or more aldosterone-producing cell clusters, which sustained CYP11B2 expression markedly under the conditions of the suppressed renin-angiotensin system.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry of the human normal adrenal cortex for CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 revealed a variegated zonation with cell clusters constitutively expressing CYP11B2.
  • This technique may provide a pathological confirmatory diagnosis of adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antibodies. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / enzymology. Corticosterone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / enzymology. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / deficiency. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / enzymology. Mammals. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Rabbits. Reference Values. Rodentia. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Zona Fasciculata / enzymology. Zona Glomerulosa / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20200334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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73. Tamura Y, Adachi J, Chiba Y, Mori S, Takeda K, Kasuya Y, Murayama T, Sawabe M, Sasano H, Araki A, Ito H, Horiuchi T: Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal microadenoma in an elderly patient: efficacy of selective adrenal venous sampling. Intern Med; 2008;47(1):37-42
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  • [Title] Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal microadenoma in an elderly patient: efficacy of selective adrenal venous sampling.
  • Computed tomography imaging appeared normal for a long duration with a left-sided nodule appearing far later; adrenal scintigraphy was first normal, and the second test showed right-sided uptake.
  • However, a repeat selective adrenal venous sampling (SAVS) indicated a left-sided lateralization of the hypersecretion of aldosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / blood

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  • (PMID = 18176003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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74. Cham E, Watkin W, Goldschmidt R, Liu L: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jul-Aug;54(4):627-34
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (AONs) are rare tumors that typically show marked nuclear pleomorphism and eosinophilic cytoplasm and are highly cellular on fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears.
  • These features, worrisome in conventional adrenocortical tumors, are not necessarily signs of malignancy in AONs.
  • Computed tomography showed a 10-cm, solid, left adrenal mass and a 21-cm complex cystic mass in the pelvis.
  • FNA of the adrenal mass showed hypercellular smears with dyscohesive cells having pleomorphic nuclei and abundant, granular cytoplasm.
  • Resection of the adrenal mass demonstrated an AON without definite malignant features.
  • CONCLUSION: On FNA, cells from an AON can be hypercellular and cytologically atypical, which can be pitfalls for a malignant diagnosis.
  • We review criteria to classify benign vs. malignant AONs and discuss the literature on this topic.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20715669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Sbiera S, Schmull S, Assie G, Voelker HU, Kraus L, Beyer M, Ragazzon B, Beuschlein F, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Saeger W, Bertherat J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):E161-71
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  • [Title] High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors.
  • CONTEXT: No immunohistochemical marker has been established to reliably differentiate adrenocortical tumors from other adrenal masses.
  • We hypothesized that expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcription factor involved in adrenal development, is of value for the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses and predicts prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples from 167 ACC, 52 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), six normal adrenal glands, six normal ovaries and 73 neoplastic nonsteroidogenic tissues.
  • RESULTS: SF-1 protein staining was detectable in 158 of 161 (98%) evaluable ACC samples including 49 (30%) with strong SF-1 staining and in all normal and benign steroidogenic tissues.
  • In addition, SF-1 mRNA expression was present in all 91 analyzed adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: SF-1 is a highly valuable immunohistochemical marker to determine the adrenocortical origin of an adrenal mass with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20660055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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76. Popescu I, Ciurea S, Romanescu D, Boros M: Isolated resection of the caudate lobe: indications, technique and results. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 May-Jun;55(84):831-5
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: This paper reports a series of 24 isolated caudate lobe resections (ICLR), performed for 13 benign tumors (10 hemangiomas, 2 focal nodular hyperplasias, 1 adenoma) and 11 malignant tumors (3 hepatocarcinomas, 1 peripheral cholangiocarcinoma and 7 metastatic - 5 colorectal carcinomas, 1 breast carcinoma, 1 adrenal carcinoma).
  • Three patients died from generalized disease.
  • Another patient, with generalized disease, was lost from follow-up.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / mortality. Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Adenoma, Liver Cell / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / mortality. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / surgery. Hemangioma / mortality. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangioma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18705277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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77. Li Q, Zhang XQ, Nie L, Chen GS, Li H, Zhang F, Zhang LY, Hong L, Wang SF, Wang H: Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours. Br J Cancer; 2007 Aug 6;97(3):420-5
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  • [Title] Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours.
  • Our previous studies have shown that IFN-gamma-like immunoreactivity also appears in human adrenal cortical tumour and phaeochromocytoma.
  • To investigate whether human tumour cells can produce IFN-gamma, we examined 429 biopsy specimens of 30 kinds of tumour and tumour-surrounding tissues in adrenal glands and in kidneys by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation.
  • IFN-gamma immunoactivity was shown in 34.3% of the adrenal cortical adenomas, 50% of the adrenal cortical carcinomas, 26.7% of the phaeochromocytomas, 26.7% of the clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 22% of the adrenal cortexes and 40% of medullas adjacent to tumours.
  • Western blot analysis has further confirmed the immunohistochemistry results by showing a distinct IFN-gamma band corresponding to 17.4 kDa in tissue extracts from adrenal cortical adenoma, phaeochromocytoma and clear cell RCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17622250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360327
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78. Vascik T: Case of the month. JAAPA; 2009 Dec;22(12):70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Male

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  • (PMID = 24887476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-1896
  • [Journal-full-title] JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAAPA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Schön G: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy]. Aktuelle Urol; 2010 Sep;41(5):329-38; quiz 339-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Hormones / blood. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20824578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8820
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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80. Dluhy RG: Incidentaloma--role of the endocrinologist. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Incidental Findings

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  • [CommentOn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):279-84 [18463033.001]
  • [CommentOn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):269-78 [18463032.001]
  • (PMID = 18463031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Rohana AG, Ming W, Norlela S, Norazmi MK: Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Med J Malaysia; 2007 Jun;62(2):158-9
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  • [Title] Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • We report a case of a young hypertensive male who was first seen in 1998 with a right thalamic haemorrhage and uncontrolled hypertension.
  • CT abdomen showed a right adrenal tumour and a hyperplastic left adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed followed by histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.
  • This was confirmed to be due to partial or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • We discuss the association of partial CAH and adrenal tumours and the unmasking of the mineralocorticoid deficiency following adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications


82. Kalra MK, Blake MA, Boland GW, Hahn PF: CT features of adrenal pheochromocytomas: attenuation value and loss of contrast enhancement. Radiology; 2005 Sep;236(3):1112-3
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  • [Title] CT features of adrenal pheochromocytomas: attenuation value and loss of contrast enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Contrast Media. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity


83. Kamiyama T, Fukukura Y, Yoneyama T, Takumi K, Nakajo M: Distinguishing adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas: combined use of diagnostic parameters of unenhanced and short 5-minute dynamic enhanced CT protocol. Radiology; 2009 Feb;250(2):474-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distinguishing adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas: combined use of diagnostic parameters of unenhanced and short 5-minute dynamic enhanced CT protocol.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively examine the diagnostic values of individual parameters obtained from unenhanced and 35-second and 5-minute contrast material-enhanced (enhanced) computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing adenomas, particularly lipid-poor adenomas, from nonadenomas and to determine the best diagnostic method by using these parameters.
  • The study population consisted of 61 patients (20 men and 41 women; mean age, 58 years) with 68 adrenal masses (53 adenomas and 15 nonadenomas).
  • Adenomas were classified as 30 lipid-rich (<or=10 HU) and 23 lipid-poor (>10 HU) adenomas by using unenhanced attenuation.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were calculated by using a threshold level of each parameter determined by the least sum of false-positive and false-negative cases and a combination of the threshold levels with 100% specificity.
  • RESULTS: The best results were obtained by using a combination of the threshold levels with 100% (15 of 15) specificity (presence of at least one of the following criteria for diagnosing adenomas: unenhanced attenuation of <or=19 HU, 5-minute attenuation of <or=50 HU, PEW of >or=45%, and RPEW of >or=31%).
  • Sensitivity was 94% (50 of 53) or 87% (20 of 23) and accuracy was 96% (65 of 68) or 92% (35 of 38) for diagnosing total adrenal adenomas or lipid-poor adenomas, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19037020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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84. Schalin-Jäntti C: [Adrenal incidentaloma--a common dilemma]. Duodecim; 2010;126(9):1037-45
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma--a common dilemma].
  • An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal tumor larger than 1 cm, incidentally detected in imaging studies carried out for other reasons than adrenal disease.
  • The most frequent explanation is a benign, non-functional adenoma, other frequent diagnoses include cortisol- or aldosterone-secreting adenomas, pheochromocytoma, cortical carcinoma and metastatic lesions.
  • It is recommended to operate nonfunctional incidentalomas greater than 4 cm and follow-up smaller nonfunctional adenomas with a repeat CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Incidental Findings. Phenotype. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20593627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-7183
  • [Journal-full-title] Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Duodecim
  • [Language] fin
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Finland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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85. Soon PS, Gill AJ, Benn DE, Clarkson A, Robinson BG, McDonald KL, Sidhu SB: Microarray gene expression and immunohistochemistry analyses of adrenocortical tumors identify IGF2 and Ki-67 as useful in differentiating carcinomas from adenomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Jun;16(2):573-83
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  • [Title] Microarray gene expression and immunohistochemistry analyses of adrenocortical tumors identify IGF2 and Ki-67 as useful in differentiating carcinomas from adenomas.
  • The management of adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) is complex.
  • The Weiss score is the present most widely used system for ACT diagnosis.
  • However, ACTs with a score of 3 can be phenotypically benign or malignant.
  • Our objective is to use microarray profiling of a cohort of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) to identify discriminatory genes that could be used as an adjunct to the Weiss score.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19218281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IGF2 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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86. Gumy-Pause F, Bongiovanni M, Wildhaber B, Jenkins JJ, Chardot C, Ozsahin H: Adrenocortical oncocytoma in a child. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):718-21
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytoma in a child.
  • Adrenocortical oncocytoma is a rare epithelial tumor only described in adults.
  • We report the case of a 12-year-old female who presented a left adrenal mass with abdominal pain, fatigue, acne vulgaris, and elevation of the androstenedione and total testosterone.
  • A diagnosis of adrenocortical oncocytoma was made after detailed histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17091483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione
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87. Cho NH, Lee HW, Lim SY, Kang S, Jung WY, Park CS: Genetic aberrance of sporadic MEN 2A component tumours: analysis of RET. Pathology; 2005 Feb;37(1):10-3
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  • AIM: The molecular pathogenesis of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 (parathyroid adenoma with medullary thyroid carcinoma and adrenal pheochromocytoma) is associated with a germ-line mutation in the RET proto-oncogene.
  • METHODS: Direct sequencing for RET exon 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 and immunohistochemistry for RET monoclonal antibody were performed on the archival tissues of 84 cases of sporadic endocrine tumours, including 22 medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs), 35 adrenal pheochromocytomas (APCs), 18 paragangliomas (PGs), and nine parathyroid adenomas (PTAs).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adult. Base Sequence. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Paraganglioma / genetics. Paraganglioma / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Point Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15875728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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88. Auchus RJ, Chandler DW, Singeetham S, Chokshi N, Nwariaku FE, Dolmatch BL, Holt SA, Wians FH Jr, Josephs SC, Trimmer CK, Lopera J, Vongpatanasin W, Nesbitt SD, Leonard D, Victor RG: Measurement of 18-hydroxycorticosterone during adrenal vein sampling for primary aldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jul;92(7):2648-51
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  • [Title] Measurement of 18-hydroxycorticosterone during adrenal vein sampling for primary aldosteronism.
  • CONTEXT: In primary aldosteronism, elevated serum 18-hydroxycorticosterone (18OHB) suggests aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) rather than bilateral, idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA), but little is known about the relative production of 18OHB and aldosterone (A) in APAs compared with IHA.
  • OBJECTIVES: We measured 18OHB, A, and cortisol (F) in blood from adrenal vein sampling (AVS) studies.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We calculated the ratios 18OHB/A, 18OHB/F, and A/F for all specimens, and determined the adrenal vein gradients for these ratios.
  • The 18OHB/A and 18OHB/F gradients are useful adjuncts but not as reliable as A/F gradients for A lateralization during Avs.
  • [MeSH-major] 18-Hydroxycorticosterone / blood. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17473070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35-DK066141
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 561-65-9 / 18-Hydroxycorticosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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89. Assié G, Guillaud-Bataille M, Ragazzon B, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Clauser E: The pathophysiology, diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical tumors revisited by transcriptome analyses. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;21(5):325-34
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  • [Title] The pathophysiology, diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical tumors revisited by transcriptome analyses.
  • Accumulating data on adrenal cortex and adrenocortical tumor transcriptomes have already identified striking transcriptome differences not only between adenoma and carcinoma but also between two sets of carcinoma, which have very different prognoses.
  • These transcriptome data observing adrenocortical tumor phenotype in great but complex detail, combined with genomic and proteomic information, will function for future research investigating the pathophysiology of their tumorigenesis and hormonal secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Animals. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / physiopathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20097573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3061
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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90. Diab DL, Faiman C, Siperstein AE, Grossman WF, Rabinowitz LO, Hamrahian AH: Virilizing ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a woman with subclinical Cushing syndrome. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):358-61
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  • [Title] Virilizing ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a woman with subclinical Cushing syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a patient with a virilizing ovarian Leydig cell tumor and subclinical Cushing syndrome attributable to an adrenal adenoma.
  • RESULTS: A 49-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of a left adrenal mass (3.0 by 2.4 cm), which had been diagnosed by computed tomographic scan 4 years previously during a work-up for hirsutism.
  • A laparoscopic adrenalectomy revealed an adrenal adenoma.
  • At 6 months postoperatively, a normal result of a cosyntropin stimulation test indicated recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • Bilateral oophorectomy revealed a 1.3-cm right ovarian Leydig cell tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a virilizing ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a patient with subclinical Cushing syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Virilism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Testosterone / blood


91. Chiodini I, Viti R, Coletti F, Guglielmi G, Battista C, Ermetici F, Morelli V, Salcuni A, Carnevale V, Urbano F, Muscarella S, Ambrosi B, Arosio M, Beck-Peccoz P, Scillitani A: Eugonadal male patients with adrenal incidentalomas and subclinical hypercortisolism have increased rate of vertebral fractures. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Feb;70(2):208-13
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  • [Title] Eugonadal male patients with adrenal incidentalomas and subclinical hypercortisolism have increased rate of vertebral fractures.
  • We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) and prevalence of vertebral fractures in eugonadal male subjects with adrenal incidentalomas (AI) and without SH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Incidental Findings. Lumbar Vertebrae / injuries. Spinal Fractures / epidemiology


92. Shiozawa M, Sata N, Endo K, Koizumi M, Yasuda Y, Nagai H, Takakusaki H: Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Jan-Feb;34(1):113-20
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  • [Title] Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy (EA) is recognized as a principal procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 11 cases comprising 10 adrenal adenomas and one ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia admitted to Jichi Medical University Hospital, Tochigi, Japan, between November 2003 and October 2006.
  • 3D PVS images of ribs, vertebrae, kidneys, and adrenal tumors were generated and compared with real images obtained during EA.
  • RESULTS: The PVS images clearly showed the relative locations of the adrenal tumor, kidney, and adjacent anatomical structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18253779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Liao CH, Chueh SC, Lai MK, Hsiao PJ, Chen J: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3080-3
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is controversial for large, potentially malignant tumors.
  • We report a series of LA or hand-assisted LA for large (>5 cm) adrenal tumors.
  • Final pathology revealed eight malignant (four adrenocortical carcinomas and four metastatic carcinomas) and 31 benign tumors (14 cortical adenomas, eight pheochromocytomas, six myelolipomas, and three ganglioneuromas).
  • Four patients (two adrenocortical carcinomas, one metastatic hepatoma, and one lymphoma) died 24, 10, 9, and 3 months after surgery, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is a reasonable option for selected large adrenal tumors when complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • Hand-assisted LA is a good alternative to open conversion if a difficult dissection is encountered intraoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):210-1 [17262068.001]
  • (PMID = 16720665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Herrera JD, Davidson JA, Mestman JH: Hyperandrogenism due to a testosterone-secreting Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor associated with a dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-secreting adrenal adenoma in a postmenopausal woman: case presentation and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):149-52
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  • [Title] Hyperandrogenism due to a testosterone-secreting Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor associated with a dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-secreting adrenal adenoma in a postmenopausal woman: case presentation and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of hyperandrogenism attributable to the presence of an adrenal adenoma secreting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and an ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor secreting testosterone in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Laboratory tests showed elevated levels of total testosterone (348 ng/dL) and DHEA-S (2,058 microg/dL), and a left adrenal tumor (3 by 4 cm) was detected on abdominal computed tomographic scan.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, and the pathologic diagnosis was adrenal adenoma.
  • Bilateral oophorectomy was performed, and an ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor was diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSION: After extensive review of the literature, we believe that this is the first reported case of a coincidental DHEA-S-secreting adrenal adenoma and a testosterone- secreting ovarian Leydig cell tumor causing signs of virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / metabolism. Hyperandrogenism / diagnosis. Hyperandrogenism / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Testosterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19289327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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95. Minniti G, Esposito V, Piccirilli M, Fratticci A, Santoro A, Jaffrain-Rea ML: Diagnosis and management of pituitary tumours in the elderly: a review based on personal experience and evidence of literature. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Dec;153(6):723-35
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of pituitary tumours in the elderly: a review based on personal experience and evidence of literature.
  • An increasing proportion of pituitary adenomas are recognized in the elderly, raising the question of their optimal diagnosis and management.
  • Age-related endocrine changes and associated diseases may significantly modify the clinical presentation and hormonal evaluation of these patients.
  • About 80% of pituitary adenomas in this age group are non-secreting, requiring careful differential diagnosis with non-adenomatous sellar lesions.
  • Cushing's disease appears as a very rare eventuality in the elderly.
  • Optimal therapeutic management should aim to control the disease while preserving or improving patient's quality of life.
  • Transsphenoidal surgery has proved to be an efficient and well-tolerated option for non-secreting adenomas with visual defects and intrasellar GH-secreting adenomas, being able to improve metabolic and cardiovascular complications of acromegaly even in this age group.
  • The clinical importance of hypopituitarism should not be underestimated, and thyroid- and adrenal-replacement therapy are mandatory in the presence of documented hormone deficiency, carefully avoiding overtreatment in order to limit possible side effects on the cardiovascular system and bone mineralization.

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  • (PMID = 16322376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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96. Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, Pani G, Maffione A, Princi P, Traini E, Galeotti T, Rossi ED, Fadda G, Bellantone R: Gene expression profiling of adrenal cortical tumors by cDNA macroarray analysis. Results of a preliminary study. Biomed Pharmacother; 2006 May;60(4):186-90
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling of adrenal cortical tumors by cDNA macroarray analysis. Results of a preliminary study.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) are highly malignant tumors with poor prognosis.
  • To verify if it is possible to assess their differential gene expression by a cDNA macroarray analysis using RNA extracted from paraffin sections, we analyzed two different cohorts of adrenal cortical adenoma (ACA) and ACC.
  • Heat shock protein 60 (HSP-60) (ratio>2), Ciclin D1 and topoisomerase I (ratio>1.5) were overexpressed in the ACC cohort, while jun proto-oncogene was down-regulated. cDNA macroarray analysis from paraffin sections of adrenal tumors is feasible, despite with a low success rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis


97. Bhansali A, Dutta P, Bhat MH, Mukherjee KK, Rajput R, Bhadada S: Rational use of glucocorticoid during pituitary surgery--a pilot study. Indian J Med Res; 2008 Sep;128(3):294-9
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  • In this study we evaluated the validity of a modified protocol for perioperative glucocorticoid replacement in non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas.
  • Post-operatively, patients on day 3 with 0800 h cortisol of < or = 100 nmol/l (< or = 3.6 microg/dl) received hydrocortisone 10 mg/m(2) per day; those between > 100-449 nmol/l (> 3.6-16 microg/dl) received hydrocortisone replacement only if they had symptoms of adrenal insufficiency (AI) or during stress; while patients with > or = 450 nmol/l (> or = 16.0 microg/dl) did not receive any glucocorticoid replacement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / surgery. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19052341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0971-5916
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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98. Rizk-Rabin M, Assie G, Rene-Corail F, Perlemoine K, Hamzaoui H, Tissier F, Lieberherr M, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Bouizar Z: Differential expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in adrenocortical tumors: autocrine/paracrine effects on the growth and signaling pathways in H295R cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Sep;17(9):2275-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in adrenocortical tumors: autocrine/paracrine effects on the growth and signaling pathways in H295R cells.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are rare and heterogeneous, but their pathogenesis is unclear.
  • We monitored the synthesis of PTHrP and PTH-R1 in a series of 25 ACT: 12 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) and 13 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), and investigated the effects of PTHrP(1-34) on H295R cells derived from an ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism. Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18768493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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99. Bouizar Z, Ragazzon B, Viou L, Hortane M, Bertherat J, Rizk-Rabin M: 8Cl-cAMP modifies the balance between PKAR1 and PKAR2 and modulates the cell cycle, growth and apoptosis in human adrenocortical H295R cells. J Mol Endocrinol; 2010 Jun;44(6):331-47
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  • [Title] 8Cl-cAMP modifies the balance between PKAR1 and PKAR2 and modulates the cell cycle, growth and apoptosis in human adrenocortical H295R cells.
  • Various types of protein kinase A (PKA) alterations have been observed in adrenocortical tumours and Carney complex (CNC).
  • A decrease in R2B protein levels has been observed in adrenal adenoma, whereas tumours from patients with CNC display a decrease in R1A protein levels.
  • Dysregulation of the balance between R1A and R2B may thus be involved in adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • We investigated the impact of the differences in the balance of PKA subunits on cell growth using specific cAMP analogues.
  • We assessed the effects of 8-chloroadenosine-cAMP (8Cl-cAMP), a site-selective activator of PKA R2B, in H295R adrenocortical cells.
  • We observed an initial accumulation of cells in the S phase, translocation of cyclin A to the nucleus, CDK2 activation, sustained DNA synthesis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen accumulation.
  • Cell cycle arrest in the G(2) phase was parallel with the accumulation of cyclin B and the inactivation of CDC2 kinase.
  • Thus, R2B is a key regulator of proliferation/differentiation in H295R cell line along with the complex balance between the PKA subunits.
  • Activation of PKA R2B and dysregulation of the R1A/R2B balance regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in adrenocortical cells by modulating cyclin production and cyclin-dependent kinase activities.
  • [MeSH-major] 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / analogs & derivatives. Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIalpha Subunit / metabolism. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 / metabolism. DNA Replication / drug effects. Humans. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20237143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6813
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIalpha Subunit; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 23583-48-4 / 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate; 41941-56-4 / 8-chloro-cyclic adenosine monophosphate; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
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100. Letavernier E, Peyrard S, Amar L, Zinzindohoué F, Fiquet B, Plouin PF: Blood pressure outcome of adrenalectomy in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism with or without unilateral adenoma. J Hypertens; 2008 Sep;26(9):1816-23
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  • [Title] Blood pressure outcome of adrenalectomy in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism with or without unilateral adenoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess blood pressure outcome in patients with primary aldosteronism, who were operated on the basis of a unilateral adenoma detected by computed tomography or a lateralized aldosterone hypersecretion detected by adrenal venous sampling, and to analyze the hormonal and nonhormonal factors associated with the outcome.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study of 168 patients with primary aldosteronism undergoing surgery: 109 patients with a unilateral adenoma detected by computed tomography and 59 without a unilateral adenoma who underwent surgery because of an aldosterone to cortisol ratio at least five times higher on the dominant side than on the nondominant side.
  • RESULTS: Patients with a unilateral adenoma were more likely to be women, had a shorter history of hypertension and had lower blood pressure levels and treatment scores than patients without a unilateral adenoma.
  • The mean systolic blood pressures of patients with and without unilateral adenomas at follow-up were 133 +/- 16 and 137 +/- 16 mmHg, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenalectomy improves blood pressure control in patients with primary aldosteronism operated on the basis of either unilateral adenoma detected by computed tomography or a lateralized aldosterone hypersecretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Hypertension / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] J Hypertens. 2009 Mar;27(3):656-7; author reply 657-8 [19262233.001]
  • (PMID = 18698217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0263-6352
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hypertens.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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