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1. YASUNO K, NISHIYAMA S, SUETSUGU F, OGIHARA K, MADARAME H, SHIROTA K: Cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma in a dog: special reference to cytokeratin expression. J Vet Med Sci; 2009 Nov;71(11):1513-7
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  • [Title] Cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma in a dog: special reference to cytokeratin expression.
  • A 5-year-old, male Bichon-Frise dog presented with a cutaneous mass in the basal region of the auricle.
  • Histologically, the cutaneous neoplasm was comprised of lobules with solid cellular proliferation separated by thin fibrous septa.
  • Immunohistochemical examinations showed that tumor cells were positive for pan-cytokeratin (CK) (AE1/AE3 and CAM5.2), CK8 and CK18, but negative for pan-CK (KL1), CK7, CK14, CK16 and CK20.
  • Double-labeled immunofluorescence testing indicated that neoplastic cells frequently co-expressed CK and vimentin, suggesting divergent differentiation of tumor cells.
  • Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as canine clear cell adnexal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19959904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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2. Thomas CJ, Wood GC, Marks VJ: Mohs micrographic surgery in the treatment of rare aggressive cutaneous tumors: the Geisinger experience. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Mar;33(3):333-9
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  • [Title] Mohs micrographic surgery in the treatment of rare aggressive cutaneous tumors: the Geisinger experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) offers high cure rates and maximum tissue preservation in the treatment of more common cutaneous malignancies, but its effectiveness in rare aggressive tumors is poorly defined.
  • OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness of MMS in the treatment of six rare aggressive cutaneous malignancies as seen by Mohs surgeons working at a referral center.
  • METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 26,000 cases treated with MMS at the Geisinger Medical Center Department of Dermatology during a 16-year period with the following diagnoses: poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (PDSCC), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD), Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), and sebaceous carcinoma (SEB CA).
  • Patient demographic data, tumor measurements, treatment characteristics, and marginal recurrence rates were compiled and evaluated.
  • RESULTS: The mean numbers of cases identified per year for each tumor type were as follows: PDSCC, 6.19; DFSP, 2.44; MAC, 1.63; and EMPD, 0.63.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data on PDSCC, DFSP, MAC, and EMPD, combined with other studies in the literature, show that MMS is the most effective therapy for these rare aggressive cutaneous malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Dermatofibrosarcoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17338692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Dubb M, Michelow P, Grayson W: Cytologic features of trichoblastoma in fine needle aspiration biopsies. Acta Cytol; 2009 Nov-Dec;53(6):679-82
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  • OBJECTIVE: To review the cytologic features of trichoblastoma in order to define criteria that may aid in identification of these tumors at the time of aspiration and allow a definitive diagnosis.
  • On fine needle aspiration, the patient was diagnosed as having a benign skin adnexal tumor.
  • RESULTS: The cytologic features of trichoblastoma resembled a cellular fibroadenoma/phyllodes tumor on aspiration, not previously described in the literature.
  • If the cytomorphology of a skin or subcutaneous aspirate appears to resemble that of a fibroadenoma, the diagnosis of a trichoblastoma should be entertained.
  • Peripheral palisading of nuclei at the edges of the basaloid cell sheets and squamous eddy formation are clues to the diagnosis but may be very focal and could be overlooked.
  • If the tumor occurs in the region of the breast, distinction from a fibroadenoma would be difficult if these additional features were not prominent.

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  • (PMID = 20014558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Pulitzer M, Desman G, Busam KJ: CK7 expression in primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Sep;37(9):966-72
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  • [Title] CK7 expression in primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIM: To evaluate cytokeratin 7 (CK7) immunoreactivity in invasive primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs).
  • METHODS: Twenty-seven primary cutaneous SCCs from 25 patients were evaluated for tumor grade using hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides and for percentage and intensity of immunoreactivity for CK7.
  • No glandular or tubular differentiation was present.
  • Of immunoreactive cases, percentage of tumor staining and distribution of immunoreactivity was documented.
  • The remaining immunoreactive tumor was moderately differentiated, with 1+ intensity and 5% staining in an area of microinvasion.
  • CONCLUSION: A subset of cutaneous SCCs, in particular, poorly differentiated tumors, may show focal-to-partial immunoreactivity for CK7.
  • This is important to bear in mind when immunohistochemistry is used to distinguish SCC from simulants, such as porocarcinoma, or other adnexal carcinomas with squamous metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Count. Diagnosis, Differential. Eccrine Porocarcinoma / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20528966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-7
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5. Kazakov DV, Vanecek T, Nemcova J, Kacerovska D, Spagnolo DV, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Spectrum of tumors with follicular differentiation in a patient with the clinical phenotype of multiple familial trichoepitheliomas: a clinicopathological and molecular biological study, including analysis of the CYLD and PTCH genes. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Dec;31(8):819-27
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  • [Title] Spectrum of tumors with follicular differentiation in a patient with the clinical phenotype of multiple familial trichoepitheliomas: a clinicopathological and molecular biological study, including analysis of the CYLD and PTCH genes.
  • We report a patient with multiple trichoepitheliomas whose biopsy material also demonstrated a range of other neoplasms with follicular differentiation, including small nodular trichoblastoma, small nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and areas resembling infundibulocystic BCC/basaloid follicular hamartoma.
  • Peripheral blood and tumor tissues of the patient and his 2 daughters, who apparently had a milder phenotype, were studied for alterations in the CYLD and PTCH genes, but mutations or loss of heterozygosity was not found in either gene.
  • The occurrence of multiple follicular neoplasms within a single lesion adds evidence that, although in most cases BCC and trichoblastoma are distinct lesions, the 2 neoplasms do encompass a morphological spectrum of follicular differentiation, which is probably more overtly expressed in syndromic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Differentiation. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Pedigree. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 19730223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / patched receptors
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6. Erwin WD, Esmaeli B: Estimation of yttrium-90 Zevalin tumor-absorbed dose in ocular adnexal lymphoma using quantitative indium-111 Zevalin radionuclide imaging. Nucl Med Commun; 2009 Sep;30(9):681-6
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  • [Title] Estimation of yttrium-90 Zevalin tumor-absorbed dose in ocular adnexal lymphoma using quantitative indium-111 Zevalin radionuclide imaging.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to estimate radiation-absorbed dose in orbital tumors from yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) radioimmunotherapy of ocular adnexal lymphoma.
  • METHODS: Three patients participating in a prospective research protocol involving treatment of ocular adnexal lymphoma with yttrium-90 Zevalin consented to quantitative radionuclide imaging to estimate tumor radiation-absorbed doses.
  • Each patient received 185 MBq of indium-111 Zevalin, followed by serial planar whole-body scanning, to derive an activity versus time curve for the tumor.
  • Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) imaging, including a calibration source, were performed at 24 h on a SPECT/CT scanner, to obtain a SPECT estimate of the radioactivity (in megabequerels) in the tumor and correct the planar curve, as well as estimate the tumor mass (M) from CT.
  • RESULTS: A right orbital tumor in one patient was visualized in both the planar and SPECT/CT images, with an estimated absorbed dose of 3.57 Gy.
  • Tumor uptake in the other two patients was not visualized.
  • CONCLUSION: The radiation dose to the orbit and ocular structures during radioimmunotherapy of ocular adnexal lymphoma is well below the threshold for significant radiation-induced ocular toxicity and about 10 times lower than that delivered during external beam radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Eye Neoplasms. Lymphoma. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage. Radiation Dosage. Yttrium / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19528874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5628
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / ibritumomab tiuxetan; 58784XQC3Y / Yttrium
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7. Schad K, Baumann Conzett K, Zipser MC, Enderlin V, Kamarashev J, French LE, Dummer R: Mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase inhibition results in biphasic alteration of epidermal homeostasis with keratinocytic apoptosis and pigmentation disorders. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Feb 1;16(3):1058-64
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  • [Title] Mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase inhibition results in biphasic alteration of epidermal homeostasis with keratinocytic apoptosis and pigmentation disorders.
  • We focus on associated cutaneous toxicity and we attempt to understand the underlying pathophysiology and design treatment strategies.
  • Thirteen patients received AZD6244 initially, and nine patients were treated with AZD6244 following tumor progression with temozolomide.
  • Biopsies were compared with matched controls in normal skin.
  • Half-side treatment of acute skin toxicity compared therapeutic options.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen of 22 (86%) AZD6244-treated patients presented with cutaneous eruptions.
  • Chronic skin changes included xerosis, paronychia, and fissured fingertips, resembling cutaneous toxicity of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition.
  • In addition, we observed reduced pigmentation of hair and skin.
  • Histology of acute skin lesions revealed a significant increase of apoptotic keratinocytes (P = 0.0008), focal neutrophilic infiltrates, destruction of the adnexal structures by neutrophils, and reduced cytokeratins.
  • Corticosteroids plus antibacterial topical therapy ameliorate acute skin toxicity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AZD6244-associated skin reactions partly overlap with those observed upon epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition.
  • Additionally, pigmentation of skin and hair is affected.
  • The interruption of the MEK signaling pathway results in an acute keratinocyte stress response with disturbed epidermal homeostasis, inflammation, and tissue damage.
  • Chronic adaptation controls inflammatory tissue damage but leads to cutaneous malfunctions that explain chronic skin toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzimidazoles / adverse effects. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Melanoma / drug therapy. Pigmentation Disorders / chemically induced. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy


8. Kazakov DV, Mikyskova I, Kutzner H, Simpson RH, Hes O, Mukensnabl P, Bouda J, Zamecnik M, Kinkor Z, Michal M: Hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases, including detection of human papillomavirus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):102-10
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  • Each presented clinically with a small, solitary tumor in the anogenital region.
  • The exact role of the HPV in etiology and pathogenesis of this neoplasm has yet to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adult. Aged. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15798433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Khachemoune A, Olbricht SM, Johnson DS: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: report of four cases treated with Mohs' micrographic surgical technique. Int J Dermatol; 2005 Jun;44(6):507-12
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: report of four cases treated with Mohs' micrographic surgical technique.
  • BACKGROUND: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor of the sweat glands.
  • On histology, MAC exhibits both pilar and sweat duct differentiation with a stroma of dense collagen.
  • The accumulated data continue to confirm that, if the diagnosis of MAC is made early, and if the anatomic location is accessible to excision by MMS, a favorable outcome can be expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Scalp / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15941444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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10. Matsushita S, Uemura T, Imayama S, Sugihara H, Yamasaki M: Giant microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the scalp. J Dermatol; 2008 Nov;35(11):726-8
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  • [Title] Giant microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the scalp.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is an uncommon, locally aggressive tumor.
  • Microscopically, the tumor showed both pilar and sweat gland differentiation.
  • Resection included the cranium; for reconstruction we used a titan mesh allograft and covered it with a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap and a mesh skin graft.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] J Dermatol. 2008 Dec;35(12):808
  • (PMID = 19120767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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11. Kim YH, Lee YK, Choi KW, Lee CY, Kim KH: A Case of Trichilemmal Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery. Ann Dermatol; 2008 Sep;20(3):157-61
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  • Trichilemmal carcinoma is a cutaneous adnexal tumor originating from the outer root sheath of hair follicle, and it was first described by Headington in 1976.
  • This neoplasm is a malignant counterpart of trichilemmoma, and it has been reported in the literature as trichilemmal carcinoma, tricholemmal carcinoma, malignant trichilemmoma, and tricholemmocarcinoma.
  • We think Mohs micrographic surgery is a useful treatment modality in trichilemmal carcinoma because the final skin defect is smaller than a wide excision.

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  • (PMID = 27303183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1013-9087
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4903970
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mohs micrographic surgery / Trichilemmal carcinoma
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12. Schulman FY, Lipscomb TP, Atkin TJ: Canine cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma: histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and biologic behavior of 26 cases. J Vet Diagn Invest; 2005 Sep;17(5):403-11
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  • [Title] Canine cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma: histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and biologic behavior of 26 cases.
  • Thirty tumors including 27 distinctive cutaneous neoplasms and 3 metastatic tumors from 26 dogs were collected from diagnostic submissions to 3 laboratories.
  • A sparsely cellular mucinous stroma and stromal cartilaginous differentiation were uncommon.
  • One tumor recurred, 1 metastasized to a regional lymph node, and 1 metastasized to regional lymph nodes twice.
  • The findings are consistent with a poorly differentiated, low-grade, adnexal carcinoma of the skin.
  • Similar canine cutaneous neoplasms have been reported as "clear-cell hidradenocarcinoma" and "follicular stem cell carcinoma."
  • The authors propose the designation "cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / veterinary. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16312230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Kamiya H, Kitajima Y, Ban M: Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma: the pluripotential nature of Bowen's disease cells. J Dermatol; 2006 Dec;33(12):858-64
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  • [Title] Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma: the pluripotential nature of Bowen's disease cells.
  • Bowen's disease rarely exhibits multiple combinations of premalignant and/or malignant skin lesions.
  • Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma was originally described by Kao, but is not well recognized by clinicians due to its rarity and lack of specific clinical features of this condition.
  • Herein, we describe three unusual cases of Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma.
  • In cases 1 and 3, we confirmed the adnexal tumor within tumors of Bowen's disease, the diagnosis of which is eccrine porocarcinoma.
  • The tumor in case 2 was characteristic to trichilemmal carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells of Bowen's disease and the adnexal carcinoma differed in antigenicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrospiroma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17169090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Tan D, Kraybill W, Cheney RT, Khoury T: Retiform hemangioendothelioma: a case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Oct;32(9):634-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Retiform hemangioendothelioma (RH) is a rare, recently described vascular neoplasm of low malignant potential.
  • Histologically, the tumor grew as numerous elongated vessels resembling the shape of rete testis with involvement of the skin adnexal structures and subcutaneous adipose tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioendothelioma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16176302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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15. DeMartelaere SL, Roberts D, Burgess MA, Morrison WH, Pisters PW, Sturgis EM, Ho V, Esmaeli B: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy-specific and overall treatment outcomes in patients with cutaneous angiosarcoma of the face with periorbital involvement. Head Neck; 2008 May;30(5):639-46
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy-specific and overall treatment outcomes in patients with cutaneous angiosarcoma of the face with periorbital involvement.
  • The goal of this report was to investigate the overall treatment outcomes and the neoadjuvant chemotherapy-specific outcomes in patients with cutaneous angiosarcoma of the face with periorbital involvement.
  • METHODS: Our tumor database was searched for patients with angiosarcoma and periorbital involvement seen at our institution between 1981 and 2005.
  • CONCLUSION: On the basis of this series, the authors conclude that neoadjuvant chemotherapy for periorbital angiosarcoma is a potentially attractive option and in some patients may obviate the need for major surgery, thereby preserving the eye and/or ocular adnexal structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / therapy. Facial Neoplasms / therapy. Hemangiosarcoma / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18213722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Saadat P, Doostan A, Vadmal MS: Folliculosebaceous smooth muscle hamartoma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Jun;56(6):1021-5
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  • Cutaneous hamartomas are a group of heterogenous benign skin conditions demonstrating epithelial and mesenchymal components in varying proportions.
  • Folliculosebaceous (cystic) hamartomas comprise a distinct group of uncommon cutaneous tumor-like malformations.
  • Histologically, these lesions demonstrate varying proportions of adnexal and stromal tissues.

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  • (PMID = 17504719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Patton A, Page R, Googe PB, King R: Myxoid atypical fibroxanthoma: a previously undescribed variant. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Nov;36(11):1177-84
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  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) are dermal-based cutaneous tumors typically found in sun-damaged skin of the elderly.
  • A junctional component was absent and the tumors did not arise from the epidermis or adnexal structures.
  • Tumor cells were negative for melanocytic and epithelial markers.
  • Myxoid change may be a prominent finding in benign and malignant cutaneous tumors and awareness of this variant of AFX will avoid misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19320792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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18. Güerrissi JO, Quiroga JP: Adnexal carcinomas of the head and neck. Indian J Plast Surg; 2008 Jul;41(2):229-34
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  • [Title] Adnexal carcinomas of the head and neck.
  • Adnexal carcinomas of the skin are rare and they derive from structures such as sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles.
  • Adnexal tumors represent 1-2% of skin cancers.
  • Between 1998 and 2004, eight patients with malignant adnexal tumors of the head and neck were treated in the Plastic Surgery Service in Argerich Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Tumor resection and local flaps were made in all cases.

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  • [Cites] Dermatologica. 1980;160(6):361-70 [6248388.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Plast Surg. 1990 Nov;43(6):702-5 [2175228.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996 Jun;25(3):196-8 [8872222.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Plast Surg. 1996 Feb;36(2):194-6 [8919387.001]
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  • (PMID = 19753272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of plastic surgery : official publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740523
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adnexal carcinomas / adnexal tumors / skin cancer
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19. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • [Title] Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • Several cases of trichoblastoma showed multiple differentiation toward more than one type of adnexal structure.
  • A histologic examination indicated that the specimen had features of multiple differentiation.
  • In addition, there were occasional germinative cells in the palisade, and scattered hair papilla-like structures showing follicular differentiation.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • This is an unusual case of a trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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20. Kazakov DV, Vittay G, Michal M, Calonje E: High-grade trichoblastic carcinosarcoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):62-4
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  • Here we present the second case of this tumor, which, in contrast to the original example, may be classified as a high-grade neoplasm.
  • The tumor was excised, and the patient had no evidence of recurrence or metastasis 6 years after surgery.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm demonstrated a fenestrated growth pattern with a slightly myxoid matrix in the background.
  • Despite the close association throughout the tumor, the epithelial and the stromal cells were sharply separated, without transition between both elements.
  • This conclusion is reached after analyzing the embryological development of the hair follicle, its normal histology and the morphology of cutaneous adnexal tumors with follicular differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Ear / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18212548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Plaza JA, Ortega PF, Bengana C, Stockman DL, Suster S: Immunolabeling pattern of podoplanin (d2-40) may distinguish basal cell carcinomas from trichoepitheliomas: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 49 cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Oct;32(7):683-7
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  • Their distinction is clinically important because the risk of progressive disease in BCC can be problematic, and trichoepitheliomas misinterpreted as BCC burdens the patient with an inaccurate diagnosis and consequential inappropriate surgery.
  • Podoplanin (D2-40) is a well-known lymphatic endothelial surface marker that has been postulated to be upregulated in the outer root sheath of hair follicles and cutaneous neoplasms, such as adnexal tumors, squamous cell carcinomas, etc.
  • A total of 49 cutaneous tumors, including 22 cases of trichoepitheliomas and 27 cases of BCC were examined.
  • Our results also suggest that BCC can show differentiation toward the outer root sheath of hair follicles.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 20559122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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22. Rütten A, Kutzner H, Mentzel T, Hantschke M, Eckert F, Angulo J, Rodríguez Peralto JL, Requena L: Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases of an under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Oct;61(4):644-51
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases of an under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: Cribriform carcinoma is the histopathologic variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma characterized by interconnected solid aggregations of neoplastic cells that are punctuated by small round spaces.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of this under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six cases of primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma were clinically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma is a distinctive but little-known variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Epithelial Cells / ultrastructure. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Microvilli / pathology. Microvilli / ultrastructure. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Mar;64(3):599-601 [21315957.001]
  • (PMID = 19751882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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23. Riedlinger WF, Hurley MY, Dehner LP, Lind AC: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the skin: a distinct entity from adenosquamous carcinoma: a case study with a review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jan;29(1):131-5
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  • [Title] Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the skin: a distinct entity from adenosquamous carcinoma: a case study with a review of the literature.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an exceedingly rare but distinctive neoplasm with respect to its histopathologic features.
  • It is similar if not identical in most respects to MEC of the salivary gland, a neoplasm whose prognosis is correlated with the pathologic grade.
  • We report a case of MEC of the skin in a 79-year-old white woman who presented with an axillary mass.
  • Beneath an unremarkable epidermis, a circumscribed, cystic neoplasm, unattached to the surface, was characterized by the presence of vague lobules of low-grade-appearing squamous cells accompanied by mucigenic and clear cells.
  • Inconsistency was encountered in the literature where some confusion existed as to whether MEC is synonymous with adenosquamous carcinoma of the skin.
  • Elsewhere in the body, the latter tumor type is a squamous and gland-forming neoplasm with intermediate- to high-grade features rather than a tumor with mucigenic cells intermingled among intermediate and squamous cells.
  • As in the case of MEC and adenosquamous carcinoma elsewhere in extracutaneous sites, we would propose that a pathologic distinction should be made in the skin for the sake of consistency and for prognostic purposes.
  • Additionally, the immunophenotype of our case is similar to at least two other cases of cutaneous MEC, as well as MEC of the salivary gland, to support the hypothesis that this neoplasm is adnexal rather than epidermal in origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15613868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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24. Mahalingam M, Srivastava A, Hoang MP: Expression of stem-cell markers (cytokeratin 15 and nestin) in primary adnexal neoplasms-clues to etiopathogenesis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):774-9
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  • [Title] Expression of stem-cell markers (cytokeratin 15 and nestin) in primary adnexal neoplasms-clues to etiopathogenesis.
  • METHODS: We evaluated expression of follicular stem-cell markers, cytokeratin (CK) 15 and nestin, in 78 benign and 23 malignant adnexal neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: CK15 and nestin expression were noted in 39 of 78 (50%) and 36 of 78 (46%) cases in the benign group, respectively (8 cutaneous mixed tumor, 10 hidradenoma papilliferum, 9 apocrine cystadenoma, 11 cylindroma and/or spiradenoma, and 9 poroma/dermal duct tumor).
  • CK15 and nestin expression were noted in 11 of 23 (48%) and 7 of 23 (30%) cases in the malignant group, respectively (6 microcystic adnexal carcinoma, 7 porocarcinoma, and 9 eccrine carcinoma).
  • Except 1, both markers were negative in 4 syringocystadenoma papilliferum, 10 hidradenoma, 1 syringofibroadenoma, 10 syringoma, 1 eccrine adenoma, 8 poroma/dermal duct tumor, 5 eccrine hidrocystoma, and 1 apocrine carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given that follicular germinative cells give rise to the folliculosebaceous apocrine unit, expression of CK15 and nestin in the majority of cutaneous mixed tumor, hidradenoma papilliferum, apocrine cystadenoma, and cylindroma/spiradenoma is suggestive of an apocrine origin/differentiation of these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Eccrine Glands / chemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Keratin-15 / analysis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / chemistry. Neoplastic Stem Cells / chemistry. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Boston. Cell Lineage. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Nestin. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 20700038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT15 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-15; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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25. Terushkin E, Leffell DJ, Futoryan T, Cowper S, Lazova R: Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 May;32(3):287-92
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  • Eccrine ductal carcinoma is a rare adnexal tumor.
  • This neoplasm is deeply infiltrative and may provide a diagnostic challenge in superficial shave biopsies of skin.
  • We present a case of SEDC in an immunocompromised patient, who, after an initial shave biopsy for diagnostic purposes, underwent a complete excision of his tumor by Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male. Middle Aged. Mohs Surgery

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  • (PMID = 20010402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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26. Vidyavathi K, Udayakumar M, Prasad CB, Harendra KM: Glomus tumor mimicking eccrine spiradenoma on fine needle aspiration. J Cytol; 2009 Jan;26(1):46-8
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  • [Title] Glomus tumor mimicking eccrine spiradenoma on fine needle aspiration.
  • The histologic features of glomus tumor are characteristic and do not pose any diagnostic difficulty.
  • We present a case of glomus tumor which mimicked a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm - eccrine spiradenoma on fine needle aspiration.

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  • [Cites] Diagn Cytopathol. 2003 Jun;28(6):316-21 [12768637.001]
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  • (PMID = 21938152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-9371
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cytol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3167993
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Aspiration cytology / eccrine spiradenoma / glomus tumor
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27. Sarma DP, Zaman SU, Santos EE, Shehan JM: Poroma of the hip and buttock. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(5):10
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  • Poroma is a benign adnexal skin tumor seen in middle aged individuals with no sex predilection.

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  • (PMID = 19624988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Koletsa T, Hytiroglou P, Semoglou C, Drevelegas A, Karkavelas G: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma with cystic structures of sweat duct origin. Pathol Int; 2007 Aug;57(8):513-6
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  • Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is an unusual soft tissue tumor, mostly arising in the subcutaneous fibro-adipose tissue of children and young adults and measuring a few centimeters in greatest dimension.
  • This large tumor (12 cm) was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the left leg of a 28-year-old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cysts / chemistry. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leg / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17610476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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29. Preuss SF, Stenzel MJ, Hansen T, Eslick GD, Gosepath J: Inverted malignant pilomatricoma of the neck. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Apr;262(4):269-71
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  • Malignant pilomatricoma is an uncommon malignant follicular adnexal tumor with a predilection for the head and neck among older males.
  • However, the preoperative diagnostics did not provide any further information, leading to doubts concerning the initially proposed diagnosis.
  • Histology of the resected tumor revealed a malignant pilomatricoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1961 Apr;83:606-18 [13700704.001]
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  • (PMID = 15258812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Krahl D, Sellheyer K: p75 Neurotrophin receptor differentiates between morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: insights into the histogenesis of adnexal tumours based on embryology and hair follicle biology. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jul;163(1):138-45
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  • [Title] p75 Neurotrophin receptor differentiates between morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: insights into the histogenesis of adnexal tumours based on embryology and hair follicle biology.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumour development is frequently described in the basic pathology literature as a recapitulation of embryogenesis.
  • However, a link between the embryology of the skin and the histogenesis of adnexal tumours has been largely overlooked.
  • We therefore speculated that it is involved in the histogenesis of follicular adnexal tumours.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the expression pattern of p75NTR during cutaneous embryogenesis, in the adult hair follicle and in morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • In contrast, the lack of p75NTR expression in morphoeic basal cell carcinoma favours a concept of this tumour as a more primitive follicular lesion with the characteristics of a carcinoma and not a hamartoma.
  • We suggest including p75NTR as a tool in the differential diagnosis between morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Merkel Cells / metabolism. Middle Aged. Skin / embryology. Skin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20184585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor
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31. Abdulla AN, Covert AA, Grantmyre JE: Scrotal syringocystadenoma papilliferum: case report. Can J Urol; 2009 Jun;16(3):4684-6
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  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is a benign rare adnexal skin neoplasm, which in a third of cases arises from a nevus sebaceous and is most commonly found on the head and neck and in very rare instances found on the genitalia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Scrotum / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Syringoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19497181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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32. Crippa S, Di Bella C, Faravelli A: Skin adnexal neoplasm closely resembling adenomatoid tumor: a unique occurrence. Int J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;14(2):177-8
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  • [Title] Skin adnexal neoplasm closely resembling adenomatoid tumor: a unique occurrence.
  • We describe a primary skin neoplasm located in the left chest wall that closely resembled adenomatoid tumor of male and female genital tract.
  • The tumor involved the dermis and subcutaneous tissue and measured 0.7 cm in greatest diameter.
  • We are unaware of a previous description of this morphologic pattern in a primary skin tumor, which we have interpreted as of skin adnexal and specifically of eccrine sweat gland origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thoracic Wall / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16703184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Biernat W: Lipomatous mixed tumor of the skin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Jun;30(3):284-6
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  • [Title] Lipomatous mixed tumor of the skin.
  • An unusual tumor of the neck in a 56-year-old female is reported.
  • The tumor was composed of tubules and small cords of epithelial cells dispersed in the fibromyxoid and adipose stroma.
  • At the periphery, the tumor was not encapsulated and its border was intermingled with the subcutaneous fat.
  • Lack of decapitation secretion and the absence of long tubules suggested an eccrine origin; however, in some of the tumor areas, the cells showed brightly eosinophilic copious cytoplasm that may indicate an apocrine differentiation.
  • As an area of chondroid metaplasia was identified, the diagnosis of a mixed tumor was rendered.
  • This unusual type of skin adnexal neoplasm with unique relation of the epithelial component to the surrounding adipose tissue requires differentiation with the primary cutaneous and metastatic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipocytes / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18496435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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34. Lee PL, Lourduraj LT, Palko MJ 3rd, Jukic DM, English JC 3rd: Hereditary basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome. Cutis; 2006 Jul;78(1):42-6
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  • Basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome (BFHS) is a rare adnexal tumor genodermatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hand Dermatoses / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Syndrome


35. Kondoh A, Akasaka E, Yamamoto K, Mizutani K, Iwashita K, Umezawa Y, Ohta Y, Matsuyama T, Ozawa A: A case of implantation dermatosis that formed a tumor. J Dermatol; 2006 Feb;33(2):122-7
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  • [Title] A case of implantation dermatosis that formed a tumor.
  • A 51-year-old man visited our hospital complaining of a tumor located above his lip.
  • The lesion turned into a tumor and gradually enlarged.
  • The tumor was well circumscribed, smooth and covered with reddish, partially milk-white skin.
  • During surgery to remove the tumor, a piece of a chopstick was found in the subcutaneous tissue, and a diagnosis of implantation dermatosis (ID) was made.
  • On histology, the tumor appeared as an abscess that had increased fibroblasts, small vessels and a large number of neutrophils.
  • In the Japanese published work, we found 86 cases of ID; three were similar to our case and had been clinically diagnosed as adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Foreign Bodies / complications. Foreign-Body Reaction / etiology. Foreign-Body Reaction / pathology. Skin. Skin Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16556281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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36. Sellheyer K, Krahl D: Basal cell (trichoblastic) carcinoma common expression pattern for epithelial cell adhesion molecule links basal cell carcinoma to early follicular embryogenesis, secondary hair germ, and outer root sheath of the vellus hair follicle: A clue to the adnexal nature of basal cell carcinoma? J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Jan;58(1):158-67
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  • [Title] Basal cell (trichoblastic) carcinoma common expression pattern for epithelial cell adhesion molecule links basal cell carcinoma to early follicular embryogenesis, secondary hair germ, and outer root sheath of the vellus hair follicle: A clue to the adnexal nature of basal cell carcinoma?
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is still viewed by many dermatologists as a tumor of the interfollicular epidermis, although references were made early in the dermatopathologic literature to the resemblance of BCC to the hair follicle.
  • We suggest that this may be a clue to the adnexal nature of BCC and propose that BCC is the most primitive follicular tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Hair Follicle / embryology. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18158927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / tumor-associated antigen GA733
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37. Cassarino DS, Derienzo DP, Barr RJ: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive clinicopathologic classification--part two. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Apr;33(4):261-79
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  • [Title] Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive clinicopathologic classification--part two.
  • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) includes many subtypes with widely varying clinical behaviors, ranging from indolent to aggressive tumors with significant metastatic potential.
  • No definitive, comprehensive clinicopathological system dividing cutaneous SCCs into categories based upon their aggressiveness has yet been promulgated.
  • Intermediate-risk SCCs include adenoid (acantholytic) SCC, intraepidermal epithelioma with invasion, and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin.
  • High-risk subtypes include de novo SCC, SCC arising in association with predisposing factors (radiation, burn scars, and immunosuppression), invasive Bowen's disease, adenosquamous carcinoma, and malignant proliferating pilar tumors.
  • The indeterminate category includes signet ring cell SCC, follicular SCC, papillary SCC, SCC arising in adnexal cysts, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, and clear-cell SCC.
  • Subclassification of SCC into these risk-based categories, along with enumeration of other factors including tumor size, differentiation, depth of invasion, and perineural invasion will provide prognostically relevant information and facilitate the most optimal treatment for patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermatology / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplastic Processes. Pathology, Surgical / methods. Risk Factors


38. Cassarino DS, Derienzo DP, Barr RJ: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive clinicopathologic classification. Part one. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Mar;33(3):191-206
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  • [Title] Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive clinicopathologic classification. Part one.
  • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) includes many subtypes with widely varying clinical behaviors, ranging from indolent to aggressive tumors with significant metastatic potential.
  • No definitive, comprehensive clinicopathological system dividing cutaneous SCCs into categories based upon their aggressiveness has yet been promulgated.
  • Intermediate-risk SCCs include adenoid (acantholytic) SCC, intraepidermal epithelioma with invasion, and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin.
  • High-risk subtypes include de novo SCC, SCC arising in association with predisposing factors (radiation, burn scars, and immunosuppression), invasive Bowen's disease, adenosquamous carcinoma, and malignant proliferating pilar tumors.
  • The indeterminate category includes signet ring cell SCC, follicular SCC, papillary SCC, SCC arising in adnexal cysts, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, and clear-cell SCC.
  • Subclassification of SCC into these risk-based categories, along with enumeration of other factors including tumor size, differentiation, depth of invasion, and perineural invasion will provide prognostically relevant information and facilitate the most optimal treatment for patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermatology / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplastic Processes. Pathology, Surgical / methods. Risk Factors


39. Qureshi YA, Karp CL, Dubovy SR: Intralesional interferon alpha-2b therapy for adnexal Kaposi sarcoma. Cornea; 2009 Sep;28(8):941-3
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  • [Title] Intralesional interferon alpha-2b therapy for adnexal Kaposi sarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: To describe a case of adnexal Kaposi's sarcoma successfully treated with intralesional interferon alpha 2b injections.
  • Clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical examination yielded the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • This resulted in a dramatic reduction in tumor burden and lid edema, an improvement in lid position, and corneal healing.
  • CONCLUSION: Ocular adnexal and conjunctival Kaposi's sarcoma was successfully treated with 3 adjuvant intralesional interferon alpha-2b injections leading to a dramatic decrease in tumor mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Eyelid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19654515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4798
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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40. Gerber PA, Schulte KW, Ruzicka T, Bruch-Gerharz D: Eccrine porocarcinoma of the head: an important differential diagnosis in the elderly patient. Dermatology; 2008;216(3):229-33
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  • [Title] Eccrine porocarcinoma of the head: an important differential diagnosis in the elderly patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the sweat gland, characterized by a broad spectrum of clinicopathologic presentations.
  • Instead, eccrine porocarcinoma frequently occurs on the lower extremities, trunk and abdomen, but also on the head, resembling various other skin tumors, as illustrated in the patients described herein.
  • All patients were initially diagnosed as having epidermal or melanocytic skin tumors.
  • Only after histopathologic examination were they classified as eccrine porocarcinoma, showing features of epithelial tumors with abortive ductal differentiation.
  • CONCLUSION: Eccrine porocarcinomas are potentially fatal adnexal malignancies, in which extensive metastatic dissemination may occur.
  • Porocarcinomas are commonly overlooked, or misinterpreted as squamous or basal cell carcinomas as well as other common malignant and even benign skin tumors.
  • Knowledge of the clinical pattern and histologic findings, therefore, is crucial for an early therapeutic intervention, which can reduce the risk of tumor recurrence and serious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18182815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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41. Zaraa I, Zeglaoui F, Fazaa B, Ezzine N, Elfekih N, Zermani R, Ben Jilani S, Kamoun MR: [Brooke-Spiegler syndrome]. Tunis Med; 2006 Sep;84(9):578-80
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  • [Transliterated title] Syndrome de brooke-Spiegler.
  • Brooke Spiegler syndrome is a rare genodermatosis characterized by an association of multiple trichoepitheliomas and cylindromas, sometimes accompanied by other adnexal tumors (spiradenoma, mila), we report two family cases of Brooke Spiegler syndrome.
  • No neoplastic tumor was identified.
  • A co-existence of adnexal tumors was found in the other members of the family.
  • Brooke Spiegler syndrome is an autosomial dominant disease with variable penetrance, it's characterized by a family history of trichoepitheliomas, with other adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17263207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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42. Schulz T, Proske S, Hartschuh W, Kurzen H, Paul E, Wünsch PH: High-grade trichoblastic carcinoma arising in trichoblastoma: a rare adnexal neoplasm often showing metastatic spread. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):9-16
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  • [Title] High-grade trichoblastic carcinoma arising in trichoblastoma: a rare adnexal neoplasm often showing metastatic spread.
  • The concept was recently forwarded that basal cell carcinoma is as a malignant neoplasm of follicular germinative cells and should be named trichoblastic carcinoma to show its relationship to trichoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / secondary. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15677970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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43. Murphy M, Brierley T, Pennoyer J, Rozenski D, Grant-Kels JM: Lymphotropic adamantinoid trichoblastoma. Pediatr Dermatol; 2007 Mar-Apr;24(2):157-61
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  • This is a rarely reported skin adnexal tumor in adolescent patients.
  • The clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of this tumor are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17461815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-8046
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Carlson RM, Haddad L, Pui JC: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome with associated pegged teeth. Cutis; 2008 Nov;82(5):345-9
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  • This combination represents a rare genetic syndrome with tumors expressing adnexal differentiation.
  • Malignant transformation is rare but reported, and surgical excision is warranted to prevent turban tumor formation of the scalp.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / physiopathology. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology. Tooth Abnormalities / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / genetics. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / physiopathology. Female. Genetic Testing. Humans. Mutation. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / diagnosis. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / physiopathology. Syndrome. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19090338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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45. Kazakov DV, Sima R, Vanecek T, Kutzner H, Palmedo G, Kacerovska D, Grossmann P, Michal M: Mutations in exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene (beta-catenin gene) in cutaneous adnexal tumors. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 May;31(3):248-55
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  • [Title] Mutations in exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene (beta-catenin gene) in cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • Previous studies suggested that mutant beta-catenin gene cells in cutaneous adnexal tumors with matrical differentiation contribute to their tumorigenesis.
  • Except for pilomatricoma and pilomatrical carcinoma, only a handful of other cutaneous adnexal tumor types have been studied.
  • DNA was extracted from 86 lesions including 17 proliferating tricholemmal and trichilemmal tumors, 15 trichoblastomas, 7 trichoadenomas, 4 pilomatricomas, 1 pilomatrical carcinoma, 4 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) with shadow cells, 2 trichofolliculomas, 3 BCCs with sebaceous differentiation, 9 sebaceous adenomas, 6 sebaceomas, 14 sebaceous carcinomas (both ocular and extraocular forms), 2 gigantic horns, and 2 apocrine mixed tumors with shadow cells and subjected to polymerase chain reaction with newly designed primers encompassing glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation sites of the CTNNB1 gene.
  • These included 5 different point mutations, 3 of them identified in 2 different tumors: S23N (cribriform trichoblastoma), D32Y (pilomatricoma and craniopharyngioma), G34R (pilomatrical carcinoma and craniopharyngioma), S37F (2 BCCs with shadow cell differentiation), and G34V (craniopharyngioma).
  • This study broadens the list of cutaneous adnexal tumors harboring CTNNB1 mutations and extends the listing of the mutations occurring in these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Exons. Mutation. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence. Cell Differentiation. Child. Child, Preschool. Craniopharyngioma / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19384065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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46. Krishnamurthy J, Nagappa DK: The cytology of molluscum contagiosum mimicking skin adnexal tumor. J Cytol; 2010 Apr;27(2):74-5
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  • [Title] The cytology of molluscum contagiosum mimicking skin adnexal tumor.
  • Molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous viral infection presenting as multiple, umbilicated papules and vesicles.
  • The cytology of molluscum contagiosum in an 11-year-old boy, which presented atypically as a solitary nodule over the right cheek, mimicking a skin adnexal tumor is reported here.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology plays a vital role in establishing the correct diagnosis of clinically unsuspected cases, and hence, the proper management of such lesions.
  • The cytology of molluscum contagiosum is characterized by the presence of numerous large intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies that push the host nucleus to the periphery, giving a signet ring appearance to the superficial epidermal cells.

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  • (PMID = 21157556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5165
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cytol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3001182
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cytoplasmic inclusions / fine needle aspiration cytology / molluscum contagiosum
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47. Bacchi CE, Silva TR, Zambrano E, Plaza J, Suster S, Luzar B, Lamovec J, Pizzolitto S, Falconieri G: Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a study of 18 cases with emphasis on its clinicopathologic spectrum and unusual morphologic features. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Sep;34(9):1334-43
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  • [Title] Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a study of 18 cases with emphasis on its clinicopathologic spectrum and unusual morphologic features.
  • We report 18 cases of cutaneous angiosarcoma with predominant or exclusive epithelioid morphology.
  • In elderly patients scalp or facial lesions and cutaneous lesions arising within irradiated breast skin predominated.
  • Microscopically, the tumors were composed of packed polygonal cells with focal evidence of endothelial differentiation.
  • Diverging phenotypes included syncytial growth of large cells with clear nuclei and prominent nucleoli, micronodules of tumor cells scattered in dermis, predominance of discohesive plasmacytoid polygonal cells with abundant bright eosinophilic cytoplasm, sheets of clear cells with coarse granular cytoplasm, trabecular and cord arrangement of tumor cells splaying the dermal collagen, or a pseudoglandular appearance owing to clear cell tubular arrangement with open lumina.
  • These cases posed further diagnostic challenges simulating lymphoma, melanoma, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, adnexal carcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Of the 9 patients available for follow-up, 5 were alive and apparently well, 2 had recurrent disease, and 2 had died of tumor.
  • Our data show that epithelioid cutaneous angiosarcoma may have a broad morphological spectrum, raising interpretive challenges on microscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20697249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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48. Kalof AN, Cooper K: D2-40 immunohistochemistry--so far! Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Jan;16(1):62-4
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  • More recently, D2-40 immunoexpression has been reported in primary adrenal cortical tumors, schwannomas, and adnexal tumors of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19098468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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49. Karthikeyan P, Paulraj P: An unusual benign tumor of pinna - A case report. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Jun;62(2):195-7
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  • [Title] An unusual benign tumor of pinna - A case report.
  • This case is being reported as it is a rare skin adnexal tumor arising from an unusual site.

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  • (PMID = 23120714.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3450310
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hamartoma / Skin adnexal tumor / Tricho folliculoma
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50. Donovan DJ, Person DA: Giant eccrine adenocarcinoma of the scalp with intracranial invasion: resection and reconstruction using a vacuum-assisted closure device: technical case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Apr;58(4 Suppl 2):ONS-E371; discussion ONS-E371
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  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Carcinoma of the adnexal structures of the skin is a rare malignancy, and is even more unusual in the scalp.
  • We report an unusual case of scalp adnexal carcinoma of eccrine origin that went untreated for years, resulting in a giant tumor with extension through the cranium.
  • The tumor resection and reconstruction of the cranium and scalp defects posed unique challenges.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old woman experienced a large recurrence of her scalp adnexal carcinoma after an incomplete wide local excision, which invaded through the cranium.
  • Another split thickness skin graft was used to provide a cosmetically acceptable outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: Scalp adnexal tumors of eccrine origin rarely metastasize and can be resected for cure with complete removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Vacuum Curettage
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Middle Aged. Skin Transplantation / methods. Subdural Effusion / etiology. Subdural Effusion / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Neurosurgery. 2008 Aug;63(2):E376; author reply E376 [18797336.001]
  • [CommentIn] Neurosurgery. 2008 Aug;63(2):E376; author reply E376 [18797334.001]
  • (PMID = 16575296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Kavand S, Cassarino DS: "Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma": an unusual low-grade case with follicular differentiation. Are these tumors squamoid variants of microcystic adnexal carcinoma? Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Dec;31(8):849-52
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  • [Title] "Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma": an unusual low-grade case with follicular differentiation. Are these tumors squamoid variants of microcystic adnexal carcinoma?
  • Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is a rare primary cutaneous tumor exhibiting both squamous and adnexal ductal differentiation.
  • The cell of origin of these tumors is unknown, and they have been classified both as variants of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and as a type of eccrine carcinoma.
  • We report an additional case of a slow-growing tumor, occurring on the great toe of a 61-year-old woman, which was unusual as it showed follicular differentiation in addition to squamoid and ductal areas.
  • The lesional cells were positive for cytokeratins 7 and 17, carcinoembryonic antigen (which highlighted the ductal structures), and p63 (favoring a primary cutaneous tumor) and showed low levels of staining with Ki-67 and p53, consistent with a low-grade tumor.
  • We postulate that these tumors may be closely related to microcystic adnexal carcinoma and similarly show differentiation along both follicular and ductal lines, likely indicating folliculosebaceous-apocrine, rather than eccrine, origin or differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Toes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19786851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Kazakov DV, Soukup R, Mukensnabl P, Boudova L, Michal M: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of a case with combined lesions containing cylindromatous, spiradenomatous, trichoblastomatous, and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):27-33
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  • [Title] Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of a case with combined lesions containing cylindromatous, spiradenomatous, trichoblastomatous, and sebaceous differentiation.
  • Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease with predisposition to cutaneous adnexal neoplasms, most commonly cylindromas and trichoepitheliomas.
  • The histopathological survey revealed a plethora of benign adnexal neoplasms showing apocrine, follicular, and sebaceous differentiation occurring independently and conjointly.
  • By far the most common composite tumor was spiradenocylindroma.
  • Some spiradenocylindromas demonstrated prominent sebaceous or trichoblastomatous differentiation or both.
  • The occurrence of sebaceous and trichoblastic differentiation in spiradenocylindromas is a further proof that spiradenoma and cylindroma are not eccrine tumors but neoplasms of the folliculosebaceousapocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / surgery. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Diseases / surgery. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 15677973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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53. O'Blenes CA, Lee JP, Walsh NM, Morris SF: An unusual case of turban tumor syndrome treated with total scalp excision and advancement flap and skin graft reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg; 2010 Jul;65(1):107-9
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  • [Title] An unusual case of turban tumor syndrome treated with total scalp excision and advancement flap and skin graft reconstruction.
  • We report an unusual case of aggressive turban tumor syndrome in a 38-year-old woman with nodules covering her scalp and involving her face, neck, chest, and back.
  • To address concerns regarding hygiene of the scalp and cosmetic disfigurement, she underwent total scalp excision with advancement flap and skin graft reconstruction.
  • Histologic examination of the scalp tumors revealed a predominance of spiradenomas, along with cylindromas and trichoepitheliomas, and tumors containing elements of all 3 of these adnexal neoplasms.
  • We review the literature regarding turban tumor syndrome including the genetic basis for this condition, clinical features, pathology, and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Scalp / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 20548229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3708
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Kumar B: Chondroid syringoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jan;38(1):38-40
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  • Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region.
  • It used to be previously called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components.
  • There are only few case reports describing the fine needle aspiration cytologic features of chondroid syringoma for diagnosis.
  • Overlying skin was normal, and the swelling was fixed to the skin but freely mobile over underlying structure.
  • A clinical diagnosis of dermoid cyst was entertained, and the case was subjected to FNAC.
  • On the basis of these cytologic features, a diagnosis of chondroid syringoma was made.
  • We concluded that Chondroid syringoma may be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in the swelling of head and neck region and the diagnosis can be easily confirmed or ruled out by means of fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19693940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Ishida M, Katsura K, Nagata A, Kijima K, Kushima R, Okabe H: [A case of primary mucinous carcinoma with endocrine differentiation of the skin]. Rinsho Byori; 2008 Jun;56(6):455-8
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  • [Title] [A case of primary mucinous carcinoma with endocrine differentiation of the skin].
  • Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (MCS) is a rare skin appendage tumor and only a few cases of MCS with endocrine differentiation have been reported.
  • Here we report an additional case of primary pure MCS with endocrine differentiation arising in the face.
  • Histopathologically, the tumor was located in the dermis and subcutis, and nests of slight atypical epithelial cells were floating in the mucinous pools.
  • This tumor did not accompany carcinoma in situ or invasive non-mucinous carcinoma and was difficult to differentiate from metastatic mucinous carcinoma of the skin.
  • There was no tumor in the other organs and synaptophysin and chromogranin A were sporadically shown immunohistochemically in the tumor cells; a diagnosis of primary pure MCS with endocrine differentiation was made.
  • Although endocrine differentiation is not uncommon in pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast, there have been only a few reports published on endocrine differentiation in MCS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18646630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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56. Fujiwara M, Taube J, Sharma M, McCalmont TH, Kim J: PAX8 discriminates ovarian metastases from adnexal tumors and other cutaneous metastases. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Sep;37(9):938-43
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  • [Title] PAX8 discriminates ovarian metastases from adnexal tumors and other cutaneous metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: The distinction of metastatic ovarian carcinoma from other metastatic carcinomas and primary adnexal lesions in the skin is often difficult.
  • Identification of ovarian cutaneous metastases may be of benefit in patients with familial breast-ovarian carcinoma syndrome.
  • METHODS: PAX8 immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 24 cases of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the skin and compared with 7 cases of primary adnexal lesions and also compared with p63 immunohistochemical staining results.
  • Patients with metastatic adenocarcinomas had clinically documented primary malignancies, and patients with primary adnexal carcinomas had no known history of another adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Cutaneous ovarian and renal cell carcinoma metastases (2/2 and 8/8, respectively) showed positive nuclear expression of PAX8.
  • PAX8 immunohistochemical staining in primary adnexal and other cutaneous metastases was completely negative (0/7 and 0/16, respectively).
  • The p63 expression profile supported the distinction between adnexal and metastatic adenocarcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although cutaneous ovarian metastasis is a rare phenomenon, the prognosis is extremely poor.
  • PAX8 expression is a useful marker that effectively discriminated metastatic ovarian carcinomas from metastatic breast carcinomas and primary adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20492080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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57. Coupland SE, Jaehne D, Hummel M, Stein H: The tale and molecular trail of a disseminated ocular adnexal malt lymphoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2007 Jul;245(7):1055-9
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  • [Title] The tale and molecular trail of a disseminated ocular adnexal malt lymphoma.
  • Excisional biopsy of the tumour revealed a low-grade malignant B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of MALT type.
  • Despite localized radiochemotherapy, the patient developed recurrences occurring in the pharynx, in the right orbit, in the skin of the right foot, and in the bone marrow 1, 7, 11 and 14 years, respectively, after establishment of the first diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is generally assumed that ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma is associated with an indolent clinical course.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain / genetics. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / genetics. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17219122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
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58. Nagatsuka H, Rivera RS, Gunduz M, Siar CH, Tamamura R, Mizukawa N, Asaumi J, Nagai N: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma with mandibular bone marrow involvement: a case report with immunohistochemistry. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Dec;28(6):518-22
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma with mandibular bone marrow involvement: a case report with immunohistochemistry.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a rare, locally aggressive cutaneous neoplasm with a high probability of persistence locally but a low probability of metastasis.
  • Histologically, the tumor cells invaded the subcutaneous tissue and mandibular bone.
  • The tumor consisted mainly of squamous and basaloid epithelial nests and cords embedded in a desmoplastic stroma.
  • Our results indicate that microcystic adnexal carcinoma consists of tumor cells capable of both follicular and eccrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Lip Neoplasms / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17122497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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59. Ramos-Vara JA, Miller MA: Immunohistochemical detection of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) in canine epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). Vet Pathol; 2007 Jan;44(1):74-9
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  • During immunohistochemical evaluation of a cutaneous epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides [MF]) in a dog, strong reactivity for PGP 9.5 was observed.
  • Immunoreactivity did not correlate with location (epidermal, dermal, and adnexal) of tumor cells.
  • Although PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity in MF did not predict tumor behavior in these dogs, it has had prognostic value in certain human carcinomas.
  • This unexpected staining of lymphocytes in mycosis fungoides with an antibody to PGP 9.5 demonstrates its presence in nonneuroendocrine tumors and precludes its use as the sole diagnostic marker in discrete cell tumors in the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Dog Diseases / enzymology. Mycosis Fungoides / enzymology. Mycosis Fungoides / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary. Ubiquitin Thiolesterase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17197626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.2.15 / Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
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60. Plaza JA, Ortega PF, Stockman DL, Suster S: Value of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity in the distinction between primary cutaneous tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 79 cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Apr;37(4):403-10
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  • [Title] Value of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity in the distinction between primary cutaneous tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 79 cases.
  • The distinction of metastatic carcinomas to the skin from poorly differentiated primary cutaneous carcinomas and sometimes primary benign adnexal tumors can pose a significant diagnostic challenge.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity for separating primary skin tumors vs. cutaneous metastases of carcinomas from internal organs.
  • Thirty seven primary tumors and 42 cutaneous metastatic adenocarcinomas were evaluated.
  • The 37 primary cutaneous tumors included 14 cases of benign adnexal tumors, 9 malignant skin adnexal neoplasms, and 14 primary squamous and basal cell carcinomas.
  • The 42 metastatic adenocarcinomas all corresponded to metastases from patients with a well-documented history of a primary tumor at another location.
  • We found variable positivity with podoplanin in all primary cutaneous neoplasms including spiradenoma (6/6), hidradenoma (2/4), cylindroma (3/3), desmoplastic trichilemmoma (1/1), poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (4/4), sebaceous carcinoma (1/1), basal cell carcinoma (4/10), trichilemmal carcinoma (2/2), eccrine carcinoma (3/3), microcystic adnexal carcinoma (1/1), adnexal carcinoma NOS (1/1), and porocarcinoma (1/1).
  • In regards to p63, all cases of primary cutaneous tumors were positive for p63 (37/37); in contrast, all cutaneous metastatic carcinomas were negative (0/42).
  • Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of podoplanin and p63 immunoreactivity to separate primary skin neoplasms from metastatic carcinomas were 78.4, 100.0, 100.0 and 84.0% for podoplanin, respectively, and 100.0, 100.0, 100.0 and 100.0% for p63, respectively.
  • The differences in p63 and podoplanin immunohistochemical expression between primary skin tumors and metastatic carcinomas to the skin were statistically significant (p < 0, 0001).
  • The results of our study suggest that the combined expression of p63 and podoplanin are a useful adjunct for the diagnosis of skin tumors in the clinical setting of a questionable metastasis and may be relatively specific for distinguishing primary skin tumors from metastatic carcinomas to the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 20377670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human
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61. Dalton SR, LeBoit PE: Squamous cell carcinoma with clear cells: how often is there evidence of tricholemmal differentiation? Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Aug;30(4):333-9
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma with clear cells: how often is there evidence of tricholemmal differentiation?
  • Clear-cell carcinoma of the skin was described by Kuo in 1980 as a cutaneous tumor composed of clear cells that lacked cytoplasmic glycogen or evidence of tricholemmal keratinization.
  • Tricholemmal carcinoma (TC) is conventionally considered to be a neoplasm derived from adnexal keratinocytes with glycogenated clear cells and evidence of outer root sheath or tricholemmal differentiation.
  • The existence of TC has been questioned as it has been argued that without clear immunohistochemical evidence of outer root sheath differentiation, TC cannot be distinguished from clear-cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • Our laboratory has not routinely stained the cases that appear to be carcinomas with clear keratinocytes to determine if glycogen is present and has not made the diagnosis of TC.
  • Selected cases were then stained for immunohistochemical markers (CD34, CK17, and NGFR/p75) that have been used as evidence for tricholemmal differentiation in some studies.
  • Rare cases of SCC-C met the majority of Headington's criteria for TC or showed immunohistochemical evidence of tricholemmal differentiation.
  • Thus, we also conclude that well-differentiated TC is rare and its description in the literature may overstate the case that it is a well-characterized cutaneous neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


62. Karaca M, Sevinc A, Aydin A, Gocmen A, Buyukberber S, Camci C, Sari I: Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin diagnosed during the staging evaluation of extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Jun;46(6):929-33
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  • [Title] Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin diagnosed during the staging evaluation of extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin (FATPWO) is a rare neoplasm arising within the leaves of broad ligament or hanging from it or a fallopian tube.
  • A 55-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Wolffian Ducts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16019541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Torrijos-Aguilar A, Alegre-de Miquel V, Pitarch-Bort G, Mercader-García P, Fortea-Baixauli JM: [Cutaneous granular cell tumor: a clinical and pathologic analysis of 34 cases]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Mar;100(2):126-32
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  • [Title] [Cutaneous granular cell tumor: a clinical and pathologic analysis of 34 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de células granulares cutáneo: análisis clínico-patológico de treinta y cuatro casos.
  • BACKGROUND: Granular cell tumor (GCT), also known as Abrikossoff tumor, is an uncommon benign neoplasm, probably of neural origin derived from Schwann cells.
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyze the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics associated with this tumor and to determine whether these findings correspond to those reported to date in the literature.
  • METHODS: In this retrospective study of 34 patients with histologic diagnosis of GCT, we analyzed clinical characteristics (site, age, sex, duration, and suspected diagnosis), histological findings (border, cell atypia and mitoses, involvement of adnexal structures, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, and presence of the recently described pustulo-ovoid bodies), and immunohistochemical findings (S-100 staining in 16 randomly selected cases).
  • The most frequently suspected clinical diagnosis was fibroma (17.65 %).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our series confirms the characteristics described previously for GCT, except for certain peculiarities, and supports the presence of pustulo-ovoid bodies as an additional histologic finding for diagnosis of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytoplasmic Granules / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Staining and Labeling. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19445877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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64. Pennington BE, Leffell DJ: Mohs micrographic surgery: established uses and emerging trends. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Aug;19(9):1165-71; discussion 1171-2, 1175
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  • Mohs micrographic surgery is a surgical technique that seeks to ensure the clearance of cutaneous tumors while maximizing normal tissue conservation.
  • This is accomplished through the sequential removal of thin layers of tissue in which the entire peripheral and deep margins are examined for residual tumor.
  • This approach appears to be superior to conventional surgical excision in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the two most common cancers of the skin.
  • Its efficacy in treating BCC and SCC has led clinicians to explore the role of Mohs micrographic surgery in the management of less common cutaneous neoplasms, such as melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, extramammary Paget's disease, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Dermatofibrosarcoma / surgery. Humans. Melanoma / surgery. Paget Disease, Extramammary / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16255133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Kelly BC, Koay J, Driscoll MS, Raimer SS, Colome-Grimmer MI: Report of a case: primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(6):4
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  • [Title] Report of a case: primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin.
  • Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is an extremely rare adnexal tumor that is thought to originate from eccrine sweat glands.
  • The neoplasm usually arises on the head and neck, with the most commonly involved area being the periorbital region.
  • The tumor is typically a solitary, asymptomatic nodule, cyst, or ulcer that is slow growing with low metastatic potential.
  • Since primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is such a rare neoplasm (fewer than 130 cases have been reported to date), a complete workup should be conducted to rule out other internal malignancies that may metastasize to the skin.
  • We report a case of primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin, and discuss the clinical presentation, histology, treatment, course, and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18713585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Bulliard C, Murali R, Maloof A, Adams S: Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Dec;33(12):812-6
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  • Mucinous carcinoma of skin (MCS) is an uncommon adnexal tumor of disputed differentiation.
  • In 1995, Rahilly et al. reported a case of MCS with neuroendocrine differentiation (E-MCS).
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17177942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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68. Paradela S, Castiñeiras I, Cuevas J, Almagro M, del Pozo J, Fonseca E: Mucinous carcinoma of the skin: evaluation of lymphatic invasion with D2-40. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Oct;30(5):504-8
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  • [Title] Mucinous carcinoma of the skin: evaluation of lymphatic invasion with D2-40.
  • Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma is a rare adnexal sweat gland neoplasm that mainly affects elderly people.
  • Differential diagnosis includes mammary and gastrointestinal metastatic mucinous carcinoma (MC) and secondary cutaneous involvement by underlying neoplasms.
  • She underwent partial excision of the tumor and local radiotherapy.
  • Imaging studies showed widespread cutaneous dissemination with enlargement of ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes but without evidence of underlying breast cancer.
  • A diagnosis of primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma was made.
  • Our aim was to reevaluate the differential clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical criteria for distinguishing primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma from skin metastases of visceral mucinous carcinoma, especially those arising in breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 18806501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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69. McAllister JC, Recht B, Hoffman TE, Sundram UN: CD34+ pigmented fibrous proliferations: the morphologic overlap between pigmented dermatofibromas and Bednar tumors. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Oct;30(5):484-7
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  • Pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP; Bednar tumor) constitutes 5%-10% of all cases of DFSP and shows morphologic features that overlap with melanocytic and fibrous proliferations.
  • Adnexal structures are effaced, but significant trapping of subcutaneous fat is not present.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dermis / metabolism. Dermis / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Skin Pigmentation

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  • (PMID = 18806495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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70. Dubb M, Michelow P: Fine needle aspiration cytology of pilomatrixoma and differential diagnoses. Acta Cytol; 2009 Nov-Dec;53(6):683-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: To review the cytologic features of pilomatrixoma to allow a definitive diagnosis at the time of aspiration and correct patient management.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Three patients each presented with a mass lesion and on fine needle aspiration were diagnosed as either having pilomatrixoma or a benign skin adnexal tumor.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed on histology.
  • RESULT: The most consistent and predominant features for diagnosis were basaloid cells, anucleate squamous cells and calcification in an inflammatory background, often with giant cells.
  • Therefore, lack of shadow cells does not preclude correct diagnosis in the presence of the other relevant cytologic features.
  • If all the major components of pilomatrixoma are present in an aspirate, the diagnosis should not be problematic.
  • However, if one component predominates, this may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of other benign and malignant lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the cytologic features of pilomatrixoma will allow correct patient diagnosis and management.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20014559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Manonukul J, Omeapinyan P, Vongjirad A: Mucoepidermoid (adenosquamous) carcinoma, trichoblastoma, trichilemmoma, sebaceous adenoma, tumor of follicular infundibulum and syringocystadenoma papilliferum arising within 2 persistent lesions of nevus sebaceous: report of a case. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):658-63
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  • [Title] Mucoepidermoid (adenosquamous) carcinoma, trichoblastoma, trichilemmoma, sebaceous adenoma, tumor of follicular infundibulum and syringocystadenoma papilliferum arising within 2 persistent lesions of nevus sebaceous: report of a case.
  • Nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn (SNJ) is a congenital, hamartoma of multiple skin structures and may classically evolve through several stages of maturation.
  • We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with a coexistence of trichoblastoma, trichilemmoma, sebaceous adenoma, tumor of follicular infundibulum, syringocystadenoma papilliferum, and mucoepidermoid or adenosquamous carcinoma arising in 2 separate and persistent SNJ exhibiting on her face with subsequent parotid node metastasis.
  • This report illustrates an extraordinary case of adnexal neoplasms displaying diverse lines of differentiation arising within lesions of SNJ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / pathology


72. Cobellis L, Pecori E, Rigatti F, Scaffa C, Rotondi M, Messalli EM: A rare case of female pelvic mass: angioleiomyoma of the broad ligament. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(5):418-20
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  • Angioleiomyoma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm composed of smooth muscle cells and thick-walled vessels.
  • It is usually found in the skin of the lower extremities.
  • Angioleiomyoma is a very rare tumor among the ever-expanding repertoire of growth variants described in benign uterine leiomyoma.
  • More rare is a solitary tumor of the broad ligament.
  • Thus angioleiomyoma of the broad ligament is an extremely rare benign tumor of the female pelvis.
  • Gynaecological and ultrasonography exams showed a large mass with increased vascularization in the right adnexal region.
  • On pathologic examination of the specimen, the tumor was diagnosed as angioleiomyoma.
  • We present a case of angioleiomyoma of the broad ligament because of its extreme rarity and the large size of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Angiomyoma / pathology. Broad Ligament

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  • (PMID = 17966227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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73. Martorell-Calatayud A, Requena-Caballero C, Botella-Estrada R, Almenar-Medina S, Sanmartín-Jiménez O, Llombart-Cussac B, Nagore-Enguídanos E, Serra-Guillén C, Echeverría-García B, Guillén-Barona C: [Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: Mohs micrographic surgery as the treatment of choice]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Oct;100(8):693-9
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  • [Title] [Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: Mohs micrographic surgery as the treatment of choice].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma anexial microquístico: la cirugía micrográfica de Mohs como tratamiento de elección.
  • INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that manifests clinically as a subcutaneous nodule located on the head or neck.
  • The tumor can be confused clinically and histologically with other benign and malignant skin lesions, often leading to inappropriate initial treatment.
  • The chief concern with microcystic adnexal carcinoma is the elevated morbidity and the high rate of recurrence after wide local excision.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical histories of 6 consecutive patients with microcystic adnexal carcinoma who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery in our dermatology department between 1995 and 2007.
  • This would provide a rationale for definitive radical treatment of the primary tumor from the outset to avoid the complications associated with recurrence.
  • The site and the absence of recurrence in all our patients who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery support the use of this technique as the treatment of choice in microcystic adnexal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19775547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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74. Cauchi C, Visca P, Donati P, Lopez M: [Skin adnexal tumors]. Clin Ter; 2006 Jul-Aug;157(4):363-76
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  • [Title] [Skin adnexal tumors].
  • Adnexal skin tumors are rare neoplasms that develop from hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands.
  • The diagnosis in always histologic and often it is sufficient to report the lesion simply as benign or malignant.
  • When the tumor is large, the Mohs technique can be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17051975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9074
  • [Journal-full-title] La Clinica terapeutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ter
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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75. Ramos Pleguezuelos FM, Amérigo J, Vidal Puga C, Shahrour G, Rodríguez-Arias Palomo C, Márquez Lobo B: [Testicular epidermoid cyst]. Arch Esp Urol; 2008 Jun;61(5):643-6
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  • We describe a case of epidermal cyst of the testis, with the aim to contribute to the clinicopathological knowledge of this entity.
  • Ultrasound features were consistent with solid tumor.
  • RESULTS: An intraparenchymal cyst measuring 1,4 cm was observed, covered by epidermal epithelium with no other skin components.
  • Adnexal testicular pulp was normal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: When a preoperative diagnosis is made, a conservative treatment is recommendable, including frozen sections analysis of the cyst and adjacent testicular parenchyma to rule out a coexistent intratubular germ cell neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18709824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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76. Nash JW, Barrett TL, Kies M, Ross MI, Sneige N, Diwan AH, Lazar AJ: Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma with demonstration of Her-2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization: potential treatment implications. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jan;34(1):49-54
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  • Histologically, a nodular dermal proliferation composed of poorly differentiated epithelioid cells in nests and focally forming ducts with pseudopapillary architecture comprised the primary tumor.
  • Metastatic tumor involved nine of 28 nodes.
  • Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated chromosomal amplification of the Her-2/neu locus within the tumor and a nodal metastasis.
  • We believe this to be the first demonstration of Her-2/neu amplification in a malignant skin adnexal tumor.
  • In analogy to breast carcinoma, these findings suggest the applicability of trastuzumab for patients with metastatic adnexal carcinomas demonstrating Her-2/neu amplification.


77. Mahalingam M, Nguyen LP, Richards JE, Muzikansky A, Hoang MP: The diagnostic utility of immunohistochemistry in distinguishing primary skin adnexal carcinomas from metastatic adenocarcinoma to skin: an immunohistochemical reappraisal using cytokeratin 15, nestin, p63, D2-40, and calretinin. Mod Pathol; 2010 May;23(5):713-9
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  • [Title] The diagnostic utility of immunohistochemistry in distinguishing primary skin adnexal carcinomas from metastatic adenocarcinoma to skin: an immunohistochemical reappraisal using cytokeratin 15, nestin, p63, D2-40, and calretinin.
  • Often the distinction of primary adnexal carcinoma from metastatic adenocarcinoma to skin from breast, lung, and other sites can be a diagnostic dilemma.
  • Current markers purportedly of utility as diagnostic adjuncts include p63 and D2-40; however, their expression has been demonstrated in 11-22% and 5% of metastatic cutaneous metastases, respectively.
  • We performed CK15 and nestin, as well as previously reported stains (such as p63, D2-40, and calretinin) on 113 cases (59 primary adnexal carcinomas and 54 cutaneous metastases).
  • Expressions of p63, CK15, nestin, D2-40, and calretinin were observed in 91, 40, 37, 44, and 14% of primary adnexal carcinoma, respectively, and in 8, 2, 8, 4, and 10% of cutaneous metastases, respectively. p63 appeared to be the most sensitive marker (with a sensitivity of 91%) in detecting primary adnexal carcinomas.
  • Using chi(2) analysis, statistically significant P-values (<0.05) were observed for p63, CK15, nestin, and D2-40 in the distinction of primary adnexal carcinoma versus cutaneous metastases.
  • In logistic regression and stepwise selection for predicting a primary adnexal carcinoma, statistical significance was observed for p63, CK15, and D2-40 (P-values: <0.001, 0.0275, and 0.0298, respectively) but not for nestin (P-value=0.4573).
  • Positive staining with all three markers argues in favor of a primary cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Calbindin 2. Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Keratin-15 / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nestin. Regression Analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20190734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Keratin-15; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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78. Mebazaa A, Boussofara L, Trabelsi A, Denguezli M, Sriha B, Belajouza C, Nouira R: Undifferentiated sebaceous carcinoma: an unusual childhood cancer. Pediatr Dermatol; 2007 Sep-Oct;24(5):501-4
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  • Sebaceous carcinoma is an aggressive, adnexal, rare malignant tumor that may arise in ocular or extra-ocular sites.
  • We report a 12-year-old boy with an ocular sebaceous carcinoma who was first seen with an asymptomatic firm, cutaneous nodule on the right eyebrow.
  • The tumor developed slowly within 1 year.
  • Close follow-up of this tumor is recommended because of the risk of aggressive behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Eyebrows / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Child. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17958796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Wood L, Fountaine TJ, Rosamilia L, Helm KF, Clarke LE: Cutaneous CD34+ spindle cell neoplasms: Histopathologic features distinguish spindle cell lipoma, solitary fibrous tumor, and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):764-8
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  • [Title] Cutaneous CD34+ spindle cell neoplasms: Histopathologic features distinguish spindle cell lipoma, solitary fibrous tumor, and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
  • Spindle cell lipoma (SCL), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), and solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are cutaneous CD34+ spindle cell tumors that may exhibit histopathologic and immunophenotypic overlap.
  • Ten morphologic characteristics were analyzed in a group of 5 SCLs, 6 cutaneous SFTs, and 12 DFSPs.
  • However, adnexal entrapment, defined as diffuse proliferation of tumor cells around pilosebaceous and eccrine structures with minimal disruption or expansion of the dermis, was a feature seen in 10 of the 12 DFSPs and in none of the SFTs or SCLs.
  • The number of samples included in the study is relatively small, in part due to the rarity of cutaneous solitary fibrous tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Lipoma / pathology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Dermatofibrosarcoma / immunology. Dermatofibrosarcoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Pennsylvania. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 20559119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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80. Rütten A, Hantschke M, Angulo J, Requena L: Clear-cell dermal duct tumour: another distinctive, previously underrecognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):805-13
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  • [Title] Clear-cell dermal duct tumour: another distinctive, previously underrecognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • AIMS: To describe 13 examples of clear cell dermal duct tumour, a neoplasm previously underrecognized in the literature.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen examples of a neoplasm that we have named clear-cell dermal duct tumour were studied histopathologically and immunohistochemically.
  • In contrast to some other clear cell neoplasms of the skin, which may be associated with diabetes mellitus, none of our cases of clear cell dermal duct tumour developed in a diabetic patient.
  • (iv) small areas of necrosis en masse were seen in some neoplastic aggregations; and (v) the stroma of the neoplasm was scant.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology


81. Hall G, Duncan A, Azurdia R, Leonard N: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin: a case with lymph node metastases at presentation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Jun;28(3):211-5
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  • [Title] Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin: a case with lymph node metastases at presentation.
  • We report a case of a primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the skin.
  • The tumor was composed of islands of pleomorphic cells with a lymphocytic infiltrate.
  • Differential diagnoses included squamous cell carcinoma, adnexal carcinoma, Merkel cell tumors, lymphoepithelial lesions, lymphomas, and skin metastases.
  • The histopathologic and immunohistochemical features were those of a LELC of the skin.
  • Just over 30 cases of primary LELCs arising in the skin have been reported with only 1 documented fatality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Rare Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / surgery. Male

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  • (PMID = 16778488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Gatti A, di Meo N, Trevisan G: Dermoscopy of eccrine acrospiroma masquerading as nodular malignant melanoma. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2010 Dec;19(4):23-5
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  • Eccrine acrospiroma, better known as eccrine poroma, is a benign adnexal neoplasm of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Dermoscopy. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male


83. Rammeh-Rommani S, Fezaa B, Chelbi E, Kammoun MR, Ben Jilani SB, Zermani R: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum: report of 8 cases. Pathologica; 2006 Jun;98(3):178-80
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  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is a rare cutaneous adnexal neoplasm with variable clinical appearance and characteristic histology.
  • It arises in about one third of cases within a sebaceous hamartoma (SH) and in this case, multiple other benign adnexal neoplasms may be associated with it.
  • The age at the time of the diagnosis varied from 3 to 48 years with an average age of 28 years.

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  • (PMID = 17036946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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84. Petersson F, Kutzner H, Spagnolo DV, Bisceglia M, Kacerovska D, Vazmitel M, Michal M, Kazakov DV: Adenoid cystic carcinoma-like pattern in spiradenoma and spiradenocylindroma: a rare feature in sporadic neoplasms and those associated with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):642-8
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  • Spiradenoma is a benign, morphologically well-defined cutaneous adnexal neoplasm that is closely related to cylindroma.
  • Although well-developed bilayered glands with a demonstrable peripheral myoepithelial cell layer were not recognizable in the ACC-like areas, immunohistochemistry demonstrated myoepithelial differentiation in these portions of the tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 19633533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Krishnamurthy J, Saba F, Sunila: Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a rare tumor in the gluteal region. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Apr-Jun;52(2):225-7
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  • [Title] Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a rare tumor in the gluteal region.
  • Primary mucinous carcinoma (PMC) of the skin is a rare adnexal tumor of sweat gland origin.
  • An edge biopsy of the lesion revealed mucinous carcinoma of the skin.
  • Thus, the lesion in the gluteal region was diagnosed as PMC of the skin, a rare site of occurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Buttocks / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19332921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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86. Tellechea O, Reis JP: Trichogerminoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):480-3
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  • A case of distinctive benign follicular neoplasm previously reported under the designation of trichogerminoma is described.
  • Small follicle bulb-like basophilic structures, foci of sebaceous differentiation, and areas of infundibulocystic, isthmic, and outer sheath keratinization were also seen.
  • This neoplasm and the other tumors with hair germ differentiation such as trichoblastoma and panfolliculoma seem to represent the same spectrum of hair follicle neoplasms only distinguishable by their degree of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Scalp / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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87. Valenzuela AA, Whitehead KJ, Sullivan TJ: Ocular adnexal pseudo-cyst formation as a characteristic feature of perineural spread in squamous cell carcinoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2006 May-Jun;22(3):201-5
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  • [Title] Ocular adnexal pseudo-cyst formation as a characteristic feature of perineural spread in squamous cell carcinoma.
  • All cases had associated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma involving the face or scalp, and, in 4 cases, the primary tumor could be identified in the vicinity of the affected orbit.
  • The cystic tumor deposits were assessed histologically with both hematoxylin and eosin and immunoperoxidase stains (S100 protein for neural structures identification and MNF116 as a keratin marker).
  • This demonstrated malignant squamous epithelium both within and around the wall of the tumor deposit and, in continuity, within the nerve running through the lesion.
  • Some nerves showed substantial areas of fibrosis, representing obliteration of the nerve structure caused by involvement by tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a cystic lesion in association with sensory or motor deficit in the periorbital region should suggest a diagnosis of perineural spread from a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Because these patients may present to the ophthalmologist first, an awareness of this entity is of critical importance to avoid the delayed diagnosis seen in half of our cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Cysts / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16714930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Rütten A, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):195-203
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  • This report emphasizes a carcinoid-like pattern, a previously unrecognized feature in cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms.
  • The cases included 6 men and 1 woman, with their ages at the diagnosis ranging from 43 to 87 years (median age, 59).
  • Sebaceous differentiation in the form of mature sebocytes varied from almost none to approximately 10%.
  • Although the neoplasm appeared benign architecturally, the presence of cytologic atypia qualified 2 tumors as low-grade carcinomas.
  • No neuroendocrine differentiation was demonstrated immunohistochemically, histochemically, and ultrastructurally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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89. Shehan JM, Huerter CJ: Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: report of a case illustrating its natural history. Cutis; 2008 Mar;81(3):236-8
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  • First described more than 30 years ago, desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is a rare but benign adnexal neoplasm.
  • Though the tumors are benign, the possibility of malignant neoplasm may spark both clinical and histologic concern.
  • A full-thickness skin biopsy is advisable when desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is suspected.
  • A patient's clinical history may provide some clues to help guide diagnosis, as the tumors may be present for years and slow growth is commonly reported.
  • We present a patient with desmoplastic trichoepithelioma that uniquely documents and supports the typical natural history of this tumor, as demonstrated by annual school photographs.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Photomicrography. Rare Diseases

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  • (PMID = 18441846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Yildiz B, Ozdemir F, Cobanoglu U, Kavgaci H, Fidan E, Aydin F: Clear cell hidradenoma of the gluteal region: a case report. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2009;17(2):144-6
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  • Clear cell hidradenoma is a rare skin appendage tumor.
  • Under the epidermis, an eosinophilic-cytoplasm, uniform-appearance, oval-round-nucleus, benign tumor with cystic and solid components was detected.

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  • (PMID = 19595274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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91. Tokyol C, Aktepe F, Yavas BD, Yildiz H, Aycicek A: Chondroid syringoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):973-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Chondroid syringoma is a benign skin adnexal tumor.
  • The reported incidence of chondroid syringoma among primary skin tumors is low and has been reported at 0.01-0.098%.
  • A diagnosis of benign appendageal tumor of the skin was made.
  • Surgical excision of tumor was done.
  • CONCLUSION: Chondroid syringoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a slowly growing nodule on the head or neck.
  • The diagnosis can be confirmed by means of fine needle aspiration cytology.

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  • (PMID = 21053580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Alonso T, Sánchez P, González A, Ingelmo J, Ruiz I, Delgado S, Rodríguez MA: [Mohs micrographic surgery: our first 100 patients]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2008 May;99(4):275-80
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  • [Transliterated title] Cirugía de Mohs: nuestros primeros cien pacientes.
  • INTRODUCTION: Mohs surgery was first described by Frederic Mohs in 1941 to eliminate high-risk cutaneous tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical findings and compare the grade and subclinical extension of the tumor as measured by the number of Mohs stages needed for complete elimination according to whether the tumor presented high-risk factors.
  • In all cases, age, sex, tumor site, tumor type, histological subtype in the case of basal cell carcinoma, size, recurrences, number of Mohs stages, and reconstruction technique were recorded.
  • Of the tumors, 80 % corresponded to basal cell carcinoma, 12.38 % to squamous cell carcinoma, 4.76 % to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 0.95 % to Merkel cell carcinoma, 0.95 % to microcystic adnexal carcinoma, and 0.95 % to lentigo maligna melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: This series is characterized by a high percentage of high-risk cutaneous tumors.
  • After assessing the risk factors independently, we found that the size of the tumor is the risk factor most closely related to grade and subclinical extension in the case of basal cell carcinoma, although similar conclusions cannot be drawn for the other types of tumor studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18394403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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93. Kini JR, Kini H: Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor: Report of a case and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Oct;37(10):744-7
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor: Report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare cutaneous neoplasm derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology is being increasingly used in the investigation of primary and metastatic cutaneous tumors.
  • We describe the cytological features of this uncommon adnexal tumor presenting as a scalp mass in a 58-year-old woman.
  • In view of its aggressive biological behavior, it is crucial for cytologists to be aware of this rare lesion and distinguish it from primary cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • The differences on fine-needle aspiration cytology can be subtle and pose problems in diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19405112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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94. Vidal VP, Ortonne N, Schedl A: SOX9 expression is a general marker of basal cell carcinoma and adnexal-related neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Apr;35(4):373-9
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  • [Title] SOX9 expression is a general marker of basal cell carcinoma and adnexal-related neoplasms.
  • Activation of the Shh pathway is a major cause of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • Here we test whether activation of SOX9 is a general feature of BCC, or whether it could be used as a biomarker to better define subtypes of these skin tumors.
  • In addition we investigated SOX9 expression in other skin epidermal tumors.
  • Staining was heterogeneous and could be detected among the basaloid cells of the palisading cell layer as well as in the tumour nest.
  • SOX9 expression was detected in all adnexal tumors analyzed and absent in Bowen's disease and Merkel tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SOX9 expression is a general feature of BCC and adnexal skin neoplasms, suggesting a contribution of SOX9 to the pathogenesis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. High Mobility Group Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Microscopy, Fluorescence. SOX9 Transcription Factor

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  • (PMID = 18333897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / High Mobility Group Proteins; 0 / SOX9 Transcription Factor; 0 / SOX9 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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95. Sakuma A, Nishiyama S, Yasuno K, Ohmuro T, Kamiie J, Shirota K: A case of canine cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma with prominent expression of smooth muscle actin. J Toxicol Pathol; 2010 Dec;23(4):265-9
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  • [Title] A case of canine cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma with prominent expression of smooth muscle actin.
  • Cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma was found in the right lip of a 14-year-old male castrated Shih Tzu.
  • Histologically, the tumor mostly consisted of neoplastic cells with clear or vacuolated cytoplasms and contained frequent tubular structures.
  • In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumor cells were positive for pan-CK (AE1/AE3, KL1, CAM 5.2), CK-7, CK-8, CK-14, CK-15, CK-18, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) with varied intensity and positivity.
  • Among these marker proteins, SMA was positive in 75% of the tumor cells.
  • On the other hand, CK-15, which is a specific marker of follicular stem cells, was expressed in less than 1% of the tumor cells.
  • Based on these findings, the tumor showed diverse differentiation in apocrine sweat glands and the inner and outer root sheaths of hair follicles, indicating the follicular stem cell to be the origin of this tumor.

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  • (PMID = 22272037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-915X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3234631
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cytokeratin / dermatopathology / dog / skin / skin tumor / stem cell
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96. Park JW, Namkoong S, Chung J, Jung KE, Oh SA, Cinn YW, Kim MH: A case of eccrine spiradenoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis. Ann Dermatol; 2010 May;22(2):191-3
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  • Neurofibromatosis is a systemic hereditary disorder with varied manifestations in bone, soft tissue, the nervous system and skin.
  • Cutaneous manifestations of neurofibromatosis are characterized by café-au-lait macules, multiple neurofibromas, Lisch nodules and intertriginous freckling.
  • Eccrine spiradenoma is a benign uncommon neoplasm of skin adnexa.

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1990 Aug;126(8):1051-6 [2166484.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995 Feb;32(2 Pt 1):277-8 [7829715.001]
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  • (PMID = 20548911.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883423
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Eccrine spiradenoma / Neurofibromatosis
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97. Mataix J, Bañuls J, Botella R, Laredo C, Lucas A: [Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: an heterogeneous entity]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2006 Dec;97(10):669-72
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  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de Brooke-Spiegler: una entidad heterogénea.
  • The Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is a rare, autosomally dominant disease with a predisposition to develop different adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / genetics. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Genes, Dominant. Humans. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 17173833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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98. Bohn AA, Wills T, Caplazi P: Basal cell tumor or cutaneous basilar epithelial neoplasm? Rethinking the cytologic diagnosis of basal cell tumors. Vet Clin Pathol; 2006 Dec;35(4):449-53
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  • [Title] Basal cell tumor or cutaneous basilar epithelial neoplasm? Rethinking the cytologic diagnosis of basal cell tumors.
  • A 1-cm-diameter, red, raised, cutaneous mass over the dorsal surface of the left third metacarpal of a 6-year-old neutered male yellow Labrador Retriever was aspirated.
  • The cytologic interpretation was malignant neoplasia with histiocytic inflammation.
  • Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a basal cell epithelioma.
  • Neoplasms that once were lumped into the broad histologic diagnosis of basal cell tumors have since been split into distinct entities, dependent on evidence of differentiation into epidermis, trichofollicular epithelium, or sweat or sebaceous glands.
  • Although histologic reclassification has resulted in removal of most of these entities from the original basal cell tumor category, a cytologic diagnosis of basal cell tumor continues to be used to represent the large, heterogeneous group of epidermal, trichofollicular, and adnexal skin tumors with basal cell characteristics.
  • The case in this report demonstrates the heterogeneity of neoplasms that may be diagnosed cytologically as basal cell tumors and supports the need for cytologic criteria and nomenclature that better reflect potential variation in tissue differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 17123253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-6382
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Weinreb I, O'Malley F, Ghazarian D: Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma: a case demonstrating skin adnexal differentiation with positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, androgen receptors, and BRST-2 by immunohistochemistry. Hum Pathol; 2007 Jul;38(7):1092-5
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  • [Title] Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma: a case demonstrating skin adnexal differentiation with positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, androgen receptors, and BRST-2 by immunohistochemistry.
  • Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma is a rare tumor of the lower neck occurring in adult men, which follows a benign course.
  • The origin of this tumor has been debated, but it is now believed to arise from remnants of the cervical sinus of His from early development.
  • We describe a case of ectopic hamartomatous thymoma with typical features, as well as multifocal areas of skin adnexal differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Thymoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Choristoma / diagnosis. Clavicle. Hamartoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 17574947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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100. Cartaginese F, Sidoni A: Melanocytic matricoma. Report of a further case with clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings, differential diagnosis and review of the literature. Histol Histopathol; 2010 06;25(6):713-7
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  • [Title] Melanocytic matricoma. Report of a further case with clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings, differential diagnosis and review of the literature.
  • It usually presents as a pigmented, dark-papular, crusted lesion on sun-damaged skin of adult patients.
  • It differs from matricomas and pilomatricomas by its lack of calcification, cyst formation, granulomas, and connections to the epidermis and other adnexal structures.
  • The clinical differential diagnosis includes hemangioma, pigmented basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma.
  • We report an additional case of melanocytic matricoma with discussion of clinicopathologic features and differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20376777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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