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1. Sicinska J, Rakowska A, Czuwara-Ladykowska J, Mroz A, Lipinski M, Nasierowska-Guttmejer A, Sikorska J, Sklinda K, Slowinska M, Kowalska-Oledzka E, Walecka I, Walecki J, Rudnicka L: Cylindroma transforming into basal cell carcinoma in a patient with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome. J Dermatol Case Rep; 2007 Dec 29;1(1):4-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is a rare condition with a predisposition to develop cutaneous adnexal neoplasms, especially cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas and spiradenomas.
  • Histopathology confirmed cylindromas and basal cell carcinoma within the ulcerating tumor.
  • Surgical excision of largest cylindroma tumors led to cosmetic and functional improvement.
  • Magnetic resonance and computed tomography showed tumor infiltration into the skull lamina externa.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome should be followed-up for malignant transformation of skin tumors to prevent deep penetration and possible metastases.

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  • (PMID = 21886698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1898-7249
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dermatological case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3157764
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; basal cell carcinoma / computed tomography / cylindroma / magnetic resonance imaging / syringoma / trichoepithelioma / turban tumor
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2. Lee KB, Ki KD, Lee JM, Lee JK, Kim JW, Cho CH, Kim SM, Park SY, Jeong DH, Kim KT: The risk of lymph node metastasis based on myometrial invasion and tumor grade in endometrioid uterine cancers: a multicenter, retrospective Korean study. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Oct;16(10):2882-7
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  • [Title] The risk of lymph node metastasis based on myometrial invasion and tumor grade in endometrioid uterine cancers: a multicenter, retrospective Korean study.
  • This study was designed to determine the risk of LNM based on myometrial invasion and tumor grade in endometrioid uterine cancer.
  • Tumor grade, myometrial invasion, tumor diameter, cervical extension, lymphovascular space invasion, and adnexal involvement were found to be significant predictors of LNM.
  • Of 215 patients with no myometrial invasion and tumor grade I/II, only 1 (0.47%) had LNM.
  • Furthermore, the risk of LNM was found to be well correlated with increases in myometrial invasion and tumor grade based on subgroup analyses, when patients with no myometrial invasion and tumor grade I/II were used as a reference group (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with endometrioid uterine cancers with no myometrial invasion and tumor grade I/II might have minimal risk of LNM, whereas others might require complete pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for surgical staging.

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  • (PMID = 19484311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Timmerman D, Van Calster B, Jurkovic D, Valentin L, Testa AC, Bernard JP, Van Holsbeke C, Van Huffel S, Vergote I, Bourne T: Inclusion of CA-125 does not improve mathematical models developed to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Sep 20;25(27):4194-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inclusion of CA-125 does not improve mathematical models developed to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To test the value of serum CA-125 measurements alone or as part of a multimodal strategy to distinguish between malignant and benign ovarian tumors before surgery based on a large prospective multicenter study (International Ovarian Tumor Analysis).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with at least one persistent ovarian mass preoperatively underwent transvaginal ultrasonography using gray scale imaging to assess tumor morphology and color Doppler imaging to obtain indices of blood flow.
  • RESULTS: Data from 809 patients recruited from nine centers were included in the analysis; 567 patients (70%) had benign tumors and 242 (30%) had malignant tumors-of these 152 were primary invasive (62.8%), 52 were borderline malignant (21.5%), and 38 were metastatic (15.7%).
  • Results were very similar when the models were prospectively tested on a group of 345 new patients with adnexal masses of whom 126 had malignant tumors (37%).
  • CONCLUSION: Adding information on CA-125 to clinical information and ultrasound information does not improve discrimination of mathematical models between benign and malignant adnexal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / blood. Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. CA-125 Antigen / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jan 20;26(3):512; author reply 513 [18202431.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2007 Sep 20;25(27):4159-61 [17698803.001]
  • (PMID = 17698805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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4. Tinelli FG, Tinelli R, La Grotta F, Tinelli A, Cicinelli E, Schönauer MM: Pregnancy outcome and recurrence after conservative laparoscopic surgery for borderline ovarian tumors. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2007;86(1):81-7
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  • [Title] Pregnancy outcome and recurrence after conservative laparoscopic surgery for borderline ovarian tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of conservative laparoscopic management of borderline ovarian tumors, and to assess pregnancy outcome and recurrence after fertility-sparing surgery.
  • METHODS: From 1995 to 2005, 43 patients of reproductive age presented with adnexal mass, which was subsequently diagnosed as a borderline tumor of the ovary.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our opinion, conservative laparoscopic treatment of borderline ovarian tumors is an appropriate and reasonable therapeutic option for young women with low-stage disease who wish to preserve their childbearing potential, because the fertility results are encouraging.

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  • (PMID = 17230294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6349
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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5. Schwab KV, O'Malley DM, Fowler JM, Copeland LJ, Cohn DE: Prospective evaluation of prognostic significance of the tumor-free distance from uterine serosa in surgically staged endometrial adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jan;112(1):146-9
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of prognostic significance of the tumor-free distance from uterine serosa in surgically staged endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if tumor-free distance (TFD) from the uterine serosa predicts surgicopathologic factors and outcome in surgically staged endometrial cancer, and to compare TFD with the traditional estimate of depth of myometrial invasion (DOI).
  • Tumor-free distance (TFD) was defined as distance from deepest myometrial invasion to the serosal surface, whereas DOI was defined as the distance between the endomyometrial junction and deepest myometrial invasion.
  • Tumor grade was distributed as 68, 21 and 10 for grades 1, 2, and 3 respectively.
  • Univariate analysis demonstrated DOI to be a significant predictor of death, grade, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI), stage, lower uterine segment (LUS) involvement and adnexal involvement.

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  • (PMID = 18937970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Patton A, Page R, Googe PB, King R: Myxoid atypical fibroxanthoma: a previously undescribed variant. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Nov;36(11):1177-84
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  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) are dermal-based cutaneous tumors typically found in sun-damaged skin of the elderly.
  • Histologically all tumors demonstrated a well-circumscribed, cellular lesion centered in the dermis and composed of a mix of atypical pleomorphic and spindle cells in a prominent myxomatous background.
  • A junctional component was absent and the tumors did not arise from the epidermis or adnexal structures.
  • Tumor cells were negative for melanocytic and epithelial markers.
  • Myxoid change may be a prominent finding in benign and malignant cutaneous tumors and awareness of this variant of AFX will avoid misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19320792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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7. Pickhardt PJ, Hanson ME: Incidental adnexal masses detected at low-dose unenhanced CT in asymptomatic women age 50 and older: implications for clinical management and ovarian cancer screening. Radiology; 2010 Oct;257(1):144-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental adnexal masses detected at low-dose unenhanced CT in asymptomatic women age 50 and older: implications for clinical management and ovarian cancer screening.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence, work-up, and outcomes of indeterminate adnexal masses identified at low-dose unenhanced computed tomography (CT) in asymptomatic women age 50 and older undergoing colonography screening.
  • The fate of indeterminate adnexal lesions identified at unenhanced CT in 2869 consecutive women (mean age, 57.2 years; age range, 50-97 years) undergoing colonography screening between April 2004 and December 2008 was evaluated.
  • RESULTS: One hundred eighteen women (mean age, 56.2 years), representing 4.1% of the screening cohort, had an indeterminate adnexal mass (108 unilateral, 10 bilateral; mean size, 4.1 cm) at prospective CT interpretation.
  • Final pathologic findings of surgically excised lesions were cystadenoma or cystadenofibroma (n = 14; 11 serous, three mucinous); nonneoplastic cysts (n = 5; two endometriomas); mature teratoma (n = 3); hydrosalpinx (n = 2); fibroma (n = 1); and benign Brenner tumor (n = 1).
  • No ovarian cancers were prospectively identified, although four cases of ovarian cancer developed subsequent to a negative adnexal finding at CT examination during a 15-44-month interval among the remaining 2751 women.
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental indeterminate adnexal lesions were relatively common at unenhanced CT (4.1%), but subsequent work-up revealed no ovarian cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Colonography, Computed Tomographic. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Mass Screening. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Postmenopause. Prevalence

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  • [CommentIn] Radiologe. 2011 Jan;51(1):8 [21153800.001]
  • (PMID = 20663974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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8. Ramos-Vara JA, Miller MA: Immunohistochemical detection of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) in canine epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). Vet Pathol; 2007 Jan;44(1):74-9
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  • Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a ubiquitin COOH-terminal hydrolase initially considered specific for neural and neuroendocrine tissues, is expressed in a variety of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors.
  • During immunohistochemical evaluation of a cutaneous epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides [MF]) in a dog, strong reactivity for PGP 9.5 was observed.
  • All tumors were confirmed as T-cell epitheliotropic lymphoma by histopathology and immunohistochemistry for CD3.
  • Immunoreactivity did not correlate with location (epidermal, dermal, and adnexal) of tumor cells.
  • Disease outcome did not vary between PGP 9.5-positive and negative tumors.
  • Although PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity in MF did not predict tumor behavior in these dogs, it has had prognostic value in certain human carcinomas.
  • This unexpected staining of lymphocytes in mycosis fungoides with an antibody to PGP 9.5 demonstrates its presence in nonneuroendocrine tumors and precludes its use as the sole diagnostic marker in discrete cell tumors in the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Dog Diseases / enzymology. Mycosis Fungoides / enzymology. Mycosis Fungoides / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary. Ubiquitin Thiolesterase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17197626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.2.15 / Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
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9. Alexander MP, Makhija P, Jayaseelan E: Fine needle aspiration cytology of trichofolliculoma: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):870-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The cytomorphology of skin adnexal tumours has not been described extensively in literature.
  • Cytology is a useful tool in the diagnosis of skin adnexal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Follicle / pathology. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18306593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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10. Rütten A, Hantschke M, Angulo J, Requena L: Clear-cell dermal duct tumour: another distinctive, previously underrecognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):805-13
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  • [Title] Clear-cell dermal duct tumour: another distinctive, previously underrecognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • AIMS: To describe 13 examples of clear cell dermal duct tumour, a neoplasm previously underrecognized in the literature.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen examples of a neoplasm that we have named clear-cell dermal duct tumour were studied histopathologically and immunohistochemically.
  • In contrast to some other clear cell neoplasms of the skin, which may be associated with diabetes mellitus, none of our cases of clear cell dermal duct tumour developed in a diabetic patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We consider these neoplasms to be clear cell dermal duct tumours for the following reasons: (i) the neoplasms were mostly composed of multiple solid aggregations of epithelial clear cells;.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology


11. Canis M, Jardon K, Niro J, Rabischong B, Bourdel N, Botchorishvili R, Pouly JL, Mage G: [Endoscopic management of gynecological malignancies: an update. 2007]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2007 Oct;191(7):1357-65; discussion 1365-6
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  • Animal studies suggest that the risk of tumor dissemination in the non traumatized peritoneum may be higher after pneumoperitoneum than after laparotomy, and they also show the importance of the surgeon's experience and technique.
  • By controlling these parameters we may, in future, be able to create a peritoneal environment suitable for oncologic indications and thereby prevent or minimize the risk of peritoneal dissemination and postoperative tumor growth.
  • Laparoscopy is the gold standard for surgical diagnosis of adnexal masses, but puncture should be avoided whenever possible.
  • In contrast, restaging of early ovarian cancer initially managed as a benign mass is a good indication for the laparoscopic approach.
  • Laparoscopic management of tumors with low malignant potential should include complete staging of the peritoneum.

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  • (PMID = 18447057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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12. Sengar AR, Kulkarni JN: Growing teratoma syndrome in a post laparoscopic excision of ovarian immature teratoma. J Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Jun;21(2):129-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In May 2008, she presented with large adnexal mass and high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, 265.7 ng/mL; normal range, 0 to 10).
  • Post-chemotherapy AFP normalized but tumor size increased.
  • Growing teratoma syndrome is a clinico-pathological presentation during/post-chemotherapy in malignant ovarian germ cell tumor where mature teratoma grows and requires complete surgical excision.
  • Our case highlights the safety and adequacy concerns of laparoscopic management of malignant ovarian tumor.

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  • [Cites] Gynecol Oncol. 1992 Jul;46(1):111-4 [1634130.001]
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  • (PMID = 20613905.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2895713
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chemotherapy / Growing teratoma syndrome / Immature teratoma / Laparoscopy / Malignant ovarian germ cell tumor / Salpingo-oophorectomy
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13. Navi D, Fung M, Lynch PJ: Poromatosis: the occurrence of multiple eccrine poromas. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(1):3
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  • Eccrine poromas are rare, benign adnexal tumors derived from the intraepidermal portion of sweat ducts.
  • They usually appear as solitary, slow-growing, skin-colored papules on acral surfaces.
  • Here we present the unusual situation of a patient with multiple poromas only three of which are located near the distal extremities.

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  • (PMID = 18319020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Sima R, Vanecek T, Kacerovska D, Trubac P, Cribier B, Rutten A, Vazmitel M, Spagnolo DV, Litvik R, Vantuchova Y, Weyers W, Pearce RL, Pearn J, Michal M, Kazakov DV: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of 10 patients from 8 families with novel germline mutations: evidence of diverse somatic mutations in the same patient regardless of tumor type. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2010 Jun;19(2):83-91
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  • [Title] Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of 10 patients from 8 families with novel germline mutations: evidence of diverse somatic mutations in the same patient regardless of tumor type.
  • Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS) is an inherited autosomal dominant disease characterized by the development of multiple adnexal cutaneous neoplasms including spiradenoma, cylindroma, spiradenocylindroma, and trichoepithelioma (cribriform trichoblastoma).
  • BSS patients have various mutations in the CYLD gene, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 16q.
  • In addition, 19 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples were analyzed for somatic mutations, including loss of heterozygosity studies.
  • A total of 38 tumors were available for histopathologic review.
  • The substitution mutation in a single case was also predicted to disrupt protein function and seems causally implicated in tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Disorders. Germ-Line Mutation. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20502185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4066
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Codon, Nonsense; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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15. Fischer S, Breuninger H, Metzler G, Hoffmann J: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor. J Craniofac Surg; 2005 Jan;16(1):53-8
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) belongs to the spectrum of locally aggressive adnexal carcinomas and most commonly occurs in the head and neck region.
  • Recently it has been proposed that MAC is an apocrine tumor.
  • In 1982, Goldstein and colleagues first reported MAC to be a distinct histologic entity characterized by a combination of keratinous cysts in the upper dermis, islands and strands of small basaloid, benign-appearing keratinocytes or squamous cells in the deeper dermis within a dense desmoplastic stroma, and areas of ductular differentiation.
  • The authors report the case of a 78-year-old woman in whom a diagnosis of MAC was made when a tumor on the right cheek recurred for the second time.
  • Local recurrences of the tumor occurred, despite histographic surgery because in hematoxylin and eosin stains, small islands of the deceptively benign-appearing small basaloid cells of MAC were not recognized as tumor cells.
  • The reported case demonstrates the difficulties in diagnosing MAC and indicates that MAC should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of slowly growing tumors in the head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15699645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Yazbek J, Raju KS, Ben-Nagi J, Holland T, Hillaby K, Jurkovic D: Accuracy of ultrasound subjective 'pattern recognition' for the diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumors. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2007 May;29(5):489-95
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  • [Title] Accuracy of ultrasound subjective 'pattern recognition' for the diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the value of pattern recognition for the preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs).
  • METHODS: This was a prospective study of women who were referred to our regional cancer center with the diagnosis of an adnexal mass on a Level II (routine) gynecological ultrasound scan.
  • The tumor pattern recognition method was used to differentiate between various types of ovarian tumors.
  • RESULTS: A total of 224 women with an adnexal mass of uncertain nature were referred for an expert scan, 166 (74.1%) of whom underwent surgery.
  • In this group of women the final histological diagnoses were: 99 (60%) benign lesions, 32 (19%) invasive ovarian cancer and 35 (21%) BOTs.
  • However, typical features are absent in one-third of cases, which are typically misdiagnosed as benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adnexa Uteri / pathology. Adnexa Uteri / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Area Under Curve. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pattern Recognition, Visual. Preoperative Care / methods. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 ISUOG.
  • (PMID = 17444554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Thomassin-Naggara I, Daraï E, Cuenod CA, Fournier L, Toussaint I, Marsault C, Bazot M: Contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses. Eur Radiol; 2009 Jun;19(6):1544-52
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  • [Title] Contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses.
  • The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for characterizing complex adnexal masses.
  • Seventy-seven women (22-87 years old) with complex adnexal masses (30 benign and 47 malignant) underwent MR imaging including DWI before surgery.
  • ADC measurements did not contribute to differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses.
  • All masses that displayed simultaneously low signal intensity within the solid component on T2-weighted and on b(1,000) diffusion-weighted images were benign.
  • Alternatively, the presence of a solid component with intermediate T2 signal and high b(1,000) signal intensity was associated with a PLR of 4.5 for a malignant adnexal tumour.
  • DWI signal intensity is an accurate tool for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 19214523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Sultana N, Kiyani N: Histopathological features of endometrial carcinoma. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2005 Sep;15(9):539-42
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  • Tumor involved < and > half of the myometrium in nearly half of the patients each.
  • Vascular invasion, endocervical invasion and adnexal involvement were evident in a small number of cases.
  • In 85% tumor was invading to < half of myometrium.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with endometrial carcinoma presented in early stage (stage-1) and tumor well differentiated (grade-1).
  • In patients of more than 50 years of age even with stage-1, an increased frequency of deep myometrial invasion and less differentiated tumors, adnexal involvement, endocervical invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, vascular invasion and lymph nodes metastasis found.

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  • (PMID = 16181572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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19. Bacchi CE, Silva TR, Zambrano E, Plaza J, Suster S, Luzar B, Lamovec J, Pizzolitto S, Falconieri G: Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a study of 18 cases with emphasis on its clinicopathologic spectrum and unusual morphologic features. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Sep;34(9):1334-43
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  • [Title] Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a study of 18 cases with emphasis on its clinicopathologic spectrum and unusual morphologic features.
  • In elderly patients scalp or facial lesions and cutaneous lesions arising within irradiated breast skin predominated.
  • Microscopically, the tumors were composed of packed polygonal cells with focal evidence of endothelial differentiation.
  • Diverging phenotypes included syncytial growth of large cells with clear nuclei and prominent nucleoli, micronodules of tumor cells scattered in dermis, predominance of discohesive plasmacytoid polygonal cells with abundant bright eosinophilic cytoplasm, sheets of clear cells with coarse granular cytoplasm, trabecular and cord arrangement of tumor cells splaying the dermal collagen, or a pseudoglandular appearance owing to clear cell tubular arrangement with open lumina.
  • These cases posed further diagnostic challenges simulating lymphoma, melanoma, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, adnexal carcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Of the 9 patients available for follow-up, 5 were alive and apparently well, 2 had recurrent disease, and 2 had died of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20697249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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20. Falkenhagen KM, Braziel RM, Fraunfelder FW, Smith JR: B-Cells in ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions express B-cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13). Am J Ophthalmol; 2005 Aug;140(2):335-7
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  • [Title] B-Cells in ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions express B-cell attracting chemokine 1 (CXCL13).
  • We investigated the cellular expression of this chemokine in the spectrum of ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions.
  • METHODS: CXCL13 expression in paraffin-embedded adnexal biopsy specimens was determined by indirect immunohistochemistry with antigen retrieval.
  • CONCLUSIONS: B-cells in ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions demonstrate expression of CXCL13, a chemokine that may participate in tumor pathogenesis and is a potential target for novel therapies.

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  • (PMID = 16086967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY014909
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / CXCL13 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL13; 0 / Chemokines, CXC
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21. Das D, Deka P, Bhattacharjee K, Das JK, Kuri G, Deka AC, Bhattacharjee H: Ocular adnexal lymphoma in the Northeast Indian population. Indian J Ophthalmol; 2008 Mar-Apr;56(2):153-5
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  • [Title] Ocular adnexal lymphoma in the Northeast Indian population.
  • We present the clinical profile of biopsy and immunohistochemistry-proven ocular adnexal lymphomas in the Northeast Indian population.
  • Nineteen patients between October 2004 and June 2006 with ocular adnexal lymphoma were analyzed retrospectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. India. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18292630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4738
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
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22. Salani R, Goodrich K, Song C, Grumbine FC: Three case reports of laparoscopic management of granulosa cell tumor with intraoperative rupture and subsequent upstaging. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2008 Jul-Aug;15(4):511-3
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  • [Title] Three case reports of laparoscopic management of granulosa cell tumor with intraoperative rupture and subsequent upstaging.
  • Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary account for 2% to 5% of all ovarian tumors and typically demonstrate an indolent clinical course.
  • Three patients with clinical presumptive stage IA GCT of the ovary were initially treated with conservative laparoscopic surgery with intraoperative rupture of the tumor.
  • Several important aspects of laparoscopic management of adnexal masses are highlighted by these 3 case reports.
  • Complete and clean removal of an unknown adnexal mass is imperative.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18602055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q1J152VB1P / Bromhexine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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23. Choi YD, Cho NH, Park YS, Cho SH, Lee G, Park K: Lymphovascular and marginal invasion as useful prognostic indicators and the role of c-erbB-2 in patients with male extramammary Paget's disease: a study of 31 patients. J Urol; 2005 Aug;174(2):561-5
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  • PURPOSE: Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm arising in skin that bears apocrine glands.
  • We analyzed clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical staining patterns in 31 cases of EMPD to assess possible predictors of outcome, including patient age, sex, involved organs, surgical margin status, invasion depth, lymphovascular invasion, adnexal invasion, and immunoreactivity for cytokeratin 7 and 20, carcinoembryonic androgen, androgen receptor, p53, c-erbB-2 (Dako, Carpinteria, California) and Ki67.
  • Dermal invasion depth, tumor margin status, adnexal invasion and lymphovascular invasion were determined from the hematoxylin and eosin stained slides of each case.

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  • [ErratumIn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1505. Park, Kyoungmee [added]
  • (PMID = 16006892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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24. Chang HC, Bhatt S, Dogra VS: Pearls and pitfalls in diagnosis of ovarian torsion. Radiographics; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5):1355-68
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  • Ovarian torsion is usually associated with a cyst or tumor, which is typically benign; the most common is mature cystic teratoma.
  • Common CT features of ovarian torsion include an enlarged ovary, uterine deviation to the twisted side, smooth wall thickening of the twisted adnexal cystic mass, fallopian tube thickening, peripheral cystic structures, and ascites.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Ovarian Diseases / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Torsion Abnormality / diagnosis. Ultrasonography / methods


25. Bagga S: A corpus luteal cyst masquerading as a lymph node mass on PET/CT scan in a pregnant woman with an anterior mediastinal lymphomatous mass. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Aug;32(8):649-51
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  • Additionally, PET/CT demonstrated focal uptake in the right adnexal region.
  • A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis after surgery showed no residual tumor in the mediastinum.
  • An enhancing 1.2-cm round lesion was noted in the right adnexal region.
  • An ultrasound examination revealed a corpus luteal cyst in the right adnexa and an intrauterine pregnancy thus discounting pelvic lymph node involvement.


26. Giron J, Perez Blair E, Hunter Mellado R: A clinico-pathologic presentation of a 23-year old-female with lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Wilm's tumor. Bol Asoc Med P R; 2006 Jul-Sep;98(3):196-202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A clinico-pathologic presentation of a 23-year old-female with lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Wilm's tumor.
  • The patient's past medical history also includes a Wilm's tumor, resulting in left nephrectomy at age 6, left adnexal abscess requiring surgery in 2002, complicated with iliac and femoral vein thrombophlebitis and left iliac artery stenosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Wilms Tumor / surgery. Young Adult


27. Vidyavathi K, Udayakumar M, Prasad CB, Harendra KM: Glomus tumor mimicking eccrine spiradenoma on fine needle aspiration. J Cytol; 2009 Jan;26(1):46-8
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  • [Title] Glomus tumor mimicking eccrine spiradenoma on fine needle aspiration.
  • Glomus tumors are usually small painful nodules situated most commonly in the subungual region, and subcutis of upper and lower extremities.
  • The histologic features of glomus tumor are characteristic and do not pose any diagnostic difficulty.
  • We present a case of glomus tumor which mimicked a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm - eccrine spiradenoma on fine needle aspiration.

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  • [Cites] Diagn Cytopathol. 2003 Jun;28(6):316-21 [12768637.001]
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  • (PMID = 21938152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-9371
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cytol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3167993
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Aspiration cytology / eccrine spiradenoma / glomus tumor
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28. Arteaga-Gómez AC, Aranda-Flores C, Márquez-Acosta G, Colín-Valenzuela A: [Adnexal tumor and pregnancy: diagnosis and treatment]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2010 Mar;78(3):160-7
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  • [Title] [Adnexal tumor and pregnancy: diagnosis and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor anexial y embarazo: diagnóstico y tratamiento.
  • BACKGROUND: The finding of adnexal masses during pregnancy is an exceptional event.
  • OBJECTIVE: Describe a case series of patients with adnexal mass and pregnancy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had diagnosis of pregnancy and adnexal over a period of five years.
  • The diagnosis was established by ultrasound (USG) in 95% of cases, 48% had cystic characteristics, the mean diameter of the tumor was 99 +/- 42 mm.
  • The mean tumor size was 118 mm (range 2 a 40 mm), weight 1,370 g (range 10 a 5,800 g).
  • Tumor markers (CA-125, AFP, GCH-B,DHL, ACE), are not useful during pregnancy.
  • If the tumor doesn't achieve surgical criteria the recommended follow up is clinical observation and USG.
  • If surgery is decided, it should be performed between 16 a 23 weeks of pregnancy, and it's recommended to send the tumor to histological diagnosis, in case of malignancy the surgery will continue according to the tumor stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexa Uteri / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Genital Neoplasms, Female / ultrasonography. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adnexal Diseases / blood. Adnexal Diseases / surgery. Adnexal Diseases / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / blood. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Cesarean Section. Cystadenoma / blood. Cystadenoma / surgery. Cystadenoma / ultrasonography. Cysts / blood. Cysts / surgery. Cysts / ultrasonography. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Incidence. Incidental Findings. Infant, Newborn. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / blood. Teratoma / surgery. Teratoma / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Prenatal. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20939220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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29. Chittacharoen A, Wangpusayavisut A, O-Prasertsawat P: Adnexal masses in pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai; 2005 Oct;88 Suppl 2:S37-40
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  • [Title] Adnexal masses in pregnancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnant women undergoing surgical management for adnexal mass.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: A cohort study was performed in patients who presented with adnexal masses in pregnancy that required surgical management during April, 1986 to March, 2001.
  • RESULTS: One hundred eighteen patients of 116,323 deliveries were identified with adnexal masses that required surgical management.
  • A malignant tumor or a tumor of low malignant potential was found in 3 cases (2.9%).
  • CONCLUSION: The incidence of an adnexal mass during pregnancy in our population was consistent with what has been reported in the literature.
  • The percentage of malignant tumors or tumors of low malignant potential was 2.9%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / surgery. Pregnancy Complications / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17722315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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30. Robert Y, Bazot M: [Meno-metrorrhagia imaging]. J Radiol; 2008 Jan;89(1 Pt 2):115-33
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  • It is the first-line technique examination for the identification of an etiology: benign endometrium lesion (polyp, endometrium atrophy or hypertrophy) or malignant tumor, myometrial lesions (adenomyosis, leiomyoma), adnexal tumors, and first trimester pregnancy complication.

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  • (PMID = 18288038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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31. Geomini PM, Kluivers KB, Moret E, Bremer GL, Kruitwagen RF, Mol BW: Evaluation of adnexal masses with three-dimensional ultrasonography. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Nov;108(5):1167-75
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  • [Title] Evaluation of adnexal masses with three-dimensional ultrasonography.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether three-dimensional ultrasonography and three-dimensional power Doppler investigation can contribute to the differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian masses.
  • METHODS: Women scheduled for surgical treatment of an adnexal mass were included in a multicenter prospective study.
  • All parameters were compared in women with benign tumors, borderline tumors, and malignant tumors using receiver operating characteristic analysis and likelihood ratios.
  • RESULTS: We included 181 women; 144 had a benign mass, 26 had a malignancy, and 11 had a borderline tumor.
  • At three-dimensional ultrasonography, the most striking difference was found in the presence of central vessels in an adnexal mass.
  • Central vessels assessed by three-dimensional ultrasonography were present in 15% (21 of 144) of the benign masses, 69% (18 of 26) of the malignant masses, and 27% (3 of 11) of the masses of borderline malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: The central localization of vessels in an adnexal mass, as observed by three-dimensional ultrasonography, the mean gray index, and the flow index are potentially important parameters for distinguishing benign from malignant adnexal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Adnexal Diseases / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Middle Aged. Postmenopause. Premenopause. Preoperative Care. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17077239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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32. Gerber PA, Schulte KW, Ruzicka T, Bruch-Gerharz D: Eccrine porocarcinoma of the head: an important differential diagnosis in the elderly patient. Dermatology; 2008;216(3):229-33
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  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the sweat gland, characterized by a broad spectrum of clinicopathologic presentations.
  • Surprisingly, unlike its benign counterpart eccrine poroma, eccrine porocarcinoma is seldom found in areas with a high density of eccrine sweat glands, like the palms or soles.
  • Instead, eccrine porocarcinoma frequently occurs on the lower extremities, trunk and abdomen, but also on the head, resembling various other skin tumors, as illustrated in the patients described herein.
  • All patients were initially diagnosed as having epidermal or melanocytic skin tumors.
  • Only after histopathologic examination were they classified as eccrine porocarcinoma, showing features of epithelial tumors with abortive ductal differentiation.
  • CONCLUSION: Eccrine porocarcinomas are potentially fatal adnexal malignancies, in which extensive metastatic dissemination may occur.
  • Porocarcinomas are commonly overlooked, or misinterpreted as squamous or basal cell carcinomas as well as other common malignant and even benign skin tumors.
  • Knowledge of the clinical pattern and histologic findings, therefore, is crucial for an early therapeutic intervention, which can reduce the risk of tumor recurrence and serious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18182815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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33. Parma P, Dall'Oglio B, Samuelli A, Bondavalli C, Bellomi A: [Laparoscopic removal of voluminous right seminal vesicle neoplasm]. Urologia; 2010 Oct-Dec;77 Suppl 17:46-9
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  • INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a male adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin occurred to the right seminal vesicle of a 47-year-old man.
  • RESULTS: The right seminal vesicle, along with the tumor and the right vas deferens, were excised and clear margins were ensured by frozen section.
  • The histologic examination demonstrated a male adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin, which is a rare low-grade malignant neoplasm that has been previously described in the broad ligament, ovaries and retroperitoneum of females.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adnexal Diseases / complications. Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Adnexal Diseases / surgery. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Hemospermia / etiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vas Deferens / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21308675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6075
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Wolffian tumor
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34. Sicilia V, Earle J, Mezitis SG: Multiple ovarian cysts and oligomenorrhea as the initial manifestations of a gonadotropin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. Endocr Pract; 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):417-21
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  • [Title] Multiple ovarian cysts and oligomenorrhea as the initial manifestations of a gonadotropin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma, which manifested with oligomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and multiple bilateral ovarian cysts.
  • METHODS: We present a case report of a 29-year-old woman, including detailed laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings, who was diagnosed as having an FSH-secreting pituitary tumor.
  • Ultrasonography revealed multicystic ovaries >15 cm in maximal diameter, causing bilateral adnexal torsion.
  • Transsphenoidal removal of the mass was performed, and pathology studies were positive for FSH-secreting adenoma.
  • Repeated MRI at 3 months showed an 0.8-cm residual tumor.
  • Almost 3 years after treatment, the patient remained asymptomatic, results of pituitary function tests were normal, and follow-up MRI showed no signs of tumor regrowth.
  • Furthermore, we propose that it may be acceptable to withhold adjuvant radiotherapy in patients who are asymptomatic after transsphenoidal surgical excision of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adult. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / secretion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Luteinizing Hormone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16901798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadotropins; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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35. Regauer S, Nogales FF: Vulvar trichogenic tumors: a comparative study with vulvar basal cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Apr;29(4):479-84
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  • [Title] Vulvar trichogenic tumors: a comparative study with vulvar basal cell carcinoma.
  • Trichogenic tumors are very rare in genital skin and often cause diagnostic problems because they are mitotically active and they share some histologic features with basal cell carcinomas (BCCs).
  • We present the clinical and histologic features of 16 vulvar trichogenic tumors (6 plaque-like, 10 nodular; average age, 65 years) in comparison with 16 BCCs (11 plaque-like, 5 nodular; average age, 78 years).
  • All trichogenic tumors, except 1 case with HSV infection, were nonulcerated tumors.
  • Superficial plaque-like trichogenic tumors featured basal keratinocyte proliferations with peripheral nuclear palisading but no clefting at the epithelial-stromal interface.
  • Nodular trichogenic tumors consisted of solid lobules of squamous cells and anastomosing cords and reticulations of follicular germinative cells with mitoses and apoptosis.
  • The well-defined mesenchymal component of trichogenic tumors was pale and mucinous, and contained fibrocytes and fibrillary collagen bundles.
  • BCCs showed no trichogenic differentiation and lacked an organized mesenchymal tumor component.
  • The tumor stroma of BCCs was paucicellular, mucinous, or granulation tissue-like with an inflammatory infiltrate.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15767801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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36. Moszyński R, Szpurek D, Pawlak M, Englert-Golon M, Sajdak S: [The influence of ovarian tumour histopathological diagnosis on prognostic values of the sonomorphological index]. Ginekol Pol; 2006 Jul;77(7):516-22
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  • [Title] [The influence of ovarian tumour histopathological diagnosis on prognostic values of the sonomorphological index].
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the helpfulness of sonomorphological index in preoperative diagnosis of ovarian tumours.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: 686 patients diagnosed and treated because of adnexal tumours were analyzed.
  • At the admission day the patient underwent an ultrasonographical examination that stated morphology of tumour using the sonomorphological index (SM).
  • During the study, histopathological types of ovarian tumours with the lowest prognostic values were appointed.
  • Among malignant tumours the lowest sensitivity of the test corresponded with: dysgerminoma and folliculoma.
  • Among benign tumours the lowest helpfulness in preoperative diagnosis of ovarian tumours the sonomorphological index demonstrated in following histopathological types: mucinouse cystadenoma and adult teratoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In all histopathological types of malignant and benign tumours mentioned above, the use of the sonomorphological index require caution.

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  • (PMID = 17076201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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37. Kuhnt T, Janich M: [Principles of radiation therapy for malignant tumors of the orbit and the periorbital area]. HNO; 2010 Jan;58(1):15-23
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  • [Title] [Principles of radiation therapy for malignant tumors of the orbit and the periorbital area].
  • Primary malignant tumors of the orbit and the orbital adnexal area are rare, variform and in the majority of cases need an interdisciplinary treatment.
  • According to tumor entity, tumor localization, and tumor extent the complete spectrum of radiotherapeutic therapy options is necessary.
  • In the majority of malignant tumors, such as those of the eyelids, lachrymal glands, orbit, metastases, sarcoma or lymphoma, radiotherapy is used as a high energy therapy by means of medical linear accelerators as so-called teletherapy.
  • In addition, new therapy methods, such as stereotactic highly conformal radiation or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were developed to achieve a higher local tumor control by a better configuration of the radiotherapy fields to the tumor borders and to contribute to a reduction of acute and chronic side effects in normal tissue by blurring of the dose.
  • This overview will show the options as well as important progress in the field of radiotherapy in the treatment of tumors of the orbit and periorbital area.

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  • (PMID = 20012000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. Gedikbasi A, Ulker V, Aydin O, Akyol A, Numanoglu C, Ceylan Y: Brenner tumor in pregnancy: clinical approach and pathological findings. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2009 Jun;35(3):565-8
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  • [Title] Brenner tumor in pregnancy: clinical approach and pathological findings.
  • The Brenner tumor is an uncommon ovarian tumor in pregnancy with only three previous cases in the English published reports.
  • A 35-year-old woman delivered abdominally because of distress symptoms and a Brenner tumor was resected incidentally.
  • Histological examination revealed a tumor composed of epithelial nests and areas of stromal luteinization.
  • Brenner tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adnexal masses during pregnancy.
  • These tumors are mainly benign and show typical luteinization associated with the hormonal milieu in pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brenner Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Pregnancy Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19527401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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39. Zelger BG, Stelzmueller I, Dunst KM, Zelger B: Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Mar;35(3):332-6
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  • [Title] Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma.
  • The so called 'sweat gland carcinoma' is a rare skin malignancy.
  • Skin tumors of the axilla are often suspected to be metastasis of other neoplasms in particular breast cancer.
  • After further clinical and laboratory work up including immunohistochemistry the original diagnosis of a breast cancer had to be changed to solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin.
  • Final tumor stage was pT2 N0 M0 (V0 L0).
  • Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin is a rare variant with apocrine differentiation.
  • A survey of the stereotypical presentation of this lesion and a comparison with lobular breast carcinoma and other types of apocrine carcinoma of the skin is given.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18251751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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40. Nikolić B, Mitrović A, Lazić J: Mean of CA 125 in making therapy decision in adnexal inflammatory tumors. Bosn J Basic Med Sci; 2006 May;6(2):3-6
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  • [Title] Mean of CA 125 in making therapy decision in adnexal inflammatory tumors.
  • LABORATORY FINDINGS such are white blood count and sedimentation rate are of relative value in inflammations of the upper genital tract and adnexal inflammatory tumors.
  • Inflammatory tumors can develop in endometriotic and even in cancer adnexal masses.
  • Adnexal inflammatory tumor was confirmed in 57 patients.
  • Even there is no need for routine examining of serum CA 125 in adnexal inflammatory tumors it can be examined in cases with suspected Doppler ultrasonographic findings or unclear clinical findings.
  • Inflammatory tumor can develop in endometriotic tumor as well as in necrotic malignant ovary tissue.
  • These could be reasons for making decision to do the operation in cases with inflammatory tumor followed with increased CA 125, hystological assessment and serious interpretation of final results.

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  • (PMID = 16879104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-8601
  • [Journal-full-title] Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bosn J Basic Med Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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41. Gaffar M, Thebpatiphat N, Przygodzki R, Jacobs S, Miller MM: Primary follicular lymphoma of the conjunctiva in a 6-year-old child. J AAPOS; 2010 Dec;14(6):538-40
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  • Ocular adnexal tumors are rare.
  • We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with a 3-mm conjunctival mass.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21093330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3933
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J AAPOS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Dede M, Gezginç K, Alanbay I, Fidan U, Yenen M: A sarcomatous-type peritoneal malign mixed mullerian tumor implant in association with ovarian adenocarcinoma: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(2):193-5
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  • [Title] A sarcomatous-type peritoneal malign mixed mullerian tumor implant in association with ovarian adenocarcinoma: a case report.
  • A rare case of a patient with a histopathological diagnosis of a sarcomatous-type peritoneal malign mixed müllerian tumor implant in association with ovarian adenocarcinoma is reported.
  • A 52-year-old patient was referred to our clinic for an adnexal mass.
  • At pelvic examination, an irregular, fixed, approximately 7-8 cm in size mass was detected in the right adnexal area.
  • At transvaginal ultrasonographic examination, it was observed that there was an 80 x 70 mm sized, irregularly contoured, semisolid mass with hyperechogenous areas inside originating from the ovary in the right adnexal area.
  • At laboratory examination tumor marker CA-125 was 280.4 U/ml (< 35), CA-15-3 was 146.5 U/ml (< 25), whereas other markers were within normal range.
  • The patient was operated on for a right adnexal mass.
  • Postoperative histopathological diagnosis was reported as malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary, with the ovarian component as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, and the metastatic foci over serosal surfaces as a sarcomatous component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Peritoneal Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18459565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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43. Slone SP, Moore GD, Parker LP, Rickard KA, Nixdorf-Miller AS: Glomus tumor of the ovary masquerading as granulosa cell tumor: case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):24-6
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  • [Title] Glomus tumor of the ovary masquerading as granulosa cell tumor: case report.
  • A solid right adnexal mass in a 73-year-old woman bled profusely with mobilization mimicking a granulosa cell tumor.
  • There was almost complete replacement of the ovary by a circumscribed, 4.0 cm tumor with a hemorrhagic, solid cut surface.
  • Morphologic and phenotypic correlation supported a diagnosis of glomus tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19952942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Kolusari A, Ugurluer G, Kosem M, Kurdoglu M, Yildizhan R, Adali E: Leiomyosarcoma of the broad ligament: a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(3):332-4
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  • Leiomyosarcoma of the broad ligament is a rare tumour, since only 15 cases have been reported thus far in the English literature.
  • We describe the case of a 35-year-old patient with primary leiomyosarcoma of the broad ligament.
  • The histologic diagnosis and management of this rapidly progressive and highly malignant tumour are also discussed.
  • The tumor had high mitotic activity and more than ten mitotic figures were found for ten high-power fields.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19697635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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45. Takac I: Saline infusion sonohysterography and the risk of malignant extrauterine spread in endometrial cancer. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2008 Jan;34(1):7-11
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  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of tumor cell dissemination after saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) in patients with endometrial cancer (EC).
  • The presence of positive peritoneal cytology, as well as adnexal or abdominal metastases was considered the endpoint of this analysis.
  • Adnexal metastases were present in nine (7.5%) patients after D&C and in three (5.7%) patients after D&C followed by SIS (chi(2) = 0.013; p > 0.05).
  • Upstaged because of positive cytology, adnexal or abdominal metastases were 13 patients (10.8%) after D&C and six patients (11.3%) after D&C followed by SIS (chi(2) = 0.029; p > 0.05).

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  • (PMID = 17689177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-5629
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride
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46. Verbruggen MB, Verheijen RH, van de Goot FR, van Beurden M, Dorsman JC, van Diest PJ: Serous borderline tumor of the ovary presenting with cervical lymph node involvement: a report of 3 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jun;30(6):739-43
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  • [Title] Serous borderline tumor of the ovary presenting with cervical lymph node involvement: a report of 3 cases.
  • Supradiaphragmatic lymhadenopathy is extremely rare in patients with a serous borderline ovarian tumor (BOT), and clinically difficult to recognize.
  • The primary tumor was not immediately apparent, and multiple diagnostic examinations had to be done before the definitive diagnosis of serous BOT, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IV could be made.
  • After surgical removal of the adnexal masses and full surgical staging, all the 3 patients remained free of disease after a follow-up period of 48 to 84 months.

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  • (PMID = 16723852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Ghosh SK, Bandyopadhyay D, Gupta S, Chatterjee G, Ghosh A: Rapidly growing extraocular sebaceous carcinoma occurring during pregnancy: a case report. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(8):8
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  • Sebaceous carcinoma is a very rare, aggressive, malignant tumor derived from the adnexal epithelium of sebaceous glands.
  • It is traditionally classified into two groups: tumors arising from the ocular adnexa and those arising in extra-ocular sites.
  • A case of a rapidly growing sebaceous carcinoma of the pinna occurring in a pregnant woman is reported here for its rarity.

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  • (PMID = 19061568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Erdemoglu E, Kamaci M, Ozen S, Sahin HG, Kolusari A: Ovarian hemangioma with elevated CA125 and ascites mimicking ovarian cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(2):195-6
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  • We report a case of a very rare tumor of the ovary with an unusual presentation; an ovarian hemangioma with massive ascites and elevated CA125.
  • A 57-year-old woman presenting with elevated CA125, massive ascites and a left solid adnexal mass of 60 x 47 mm, with calcification and increased blood flow at Doppler examination, was submitted to laparotomy.
  • Pathologic examination revealed cavernous hemangioma which is an extremely rare tumor of the ovary.


49. Dvalishvili I, Charkviani L, Turashvili G, Burkadze G: Clinical characteristics of prognostic factors in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma of various grade. Georgian Med News; 2006 Mar;(132):24-7
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  • Staging and grading of primary tumor were done according to FIGO system.
  • The following factors were examined: family history of cancer, presence of obesity and vaginal bleeding, recurrence rate within the two years of the study (disease-free periods), vessel permeation, muscle invasion (<1/3, 2/3, >2/3), cervical involvement, lymph node metastasis, ascites cell analysis, parametrium invasion, adnexal metastasis, CA125 pre-surgery values.
  • The analysis of clinicopathological prognostic factors in G1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma cases has showed that about half of these patients are obese, vaginal bleeding is not common, no cervical involvement, parametrium invasion, adnexal metastasis and vessel permeation at the time of diagnosis, no recurrence within two years, pre-surgery value of CA125 is normal, and myometrial invasion is less than 1/3.
  • G3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma cases have showed family history of endometrial cancer, more than half of the patients were obese, with uncommon vaginal bleeding and positive peritoneal cytology, but cervical involvement, parametrium invasion, adnexal metastasis and vessel permeation are present at the time of diagnosis, pre-surgery value of CA125 is high, and myometrial invasion is 2/3 or more than 2/3 in majority of cases, furthermore, in some cases recurrent tumors were developed within two years.

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  • (PMID = 16636372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
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50. Forde GK, Harrison C, Doss BJ, Forde AE, Carlson JW: Bilateral and multinodular signet-ring stromal tumor of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Aug;116 Suppl 2:556-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral and multinodular signet-ring stromal tumor of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: Signet-ring stromal tumor of the ovary is a rare, benign sex cord stromal tumor that is typically unilateral.
  • Its distinction from malignant signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma metastatic to the ovary (Krukenberg tumor), is critical.
  • Ultrasonography revealed a 4-cm right adnexal mass.
  • Solid multinodular masses in both ovaries were identified that histologically corresponded to bilateral signet-ring stromal tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: We report a rare example of signet-ring stromal tumor that is bilateral and multinodular mimicking a Krukenberg tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20664453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Bordel MT, Alvarez-Fernández JC: [Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: presentation of two cases]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2006 May;97(4):260-3
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  • [Transliterated title] Tricoepitelioma desmoplásico. Presentación de dos casos.
  • Trichoepithelioma is a benign neoformation with hair follicle differentiation that may clinically present in solitary, multiple or desmoplastic form.
  • We present two cases of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, a rare adnexal tumor whose incidence is estimated at 2 per 10,000.
  • Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is a benign lesion, clinically and histologically similar to other dermatoses, and presents a true diagnostic challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16801020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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52. Vidal VP, Ortonne N, Schedl A: SOX9 expression is a general marker of basal cell carcinoma and adnexal-related neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Apr;35(4):373-9
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  • [Title] SOX9 expression is a general marker of basal cell carcinoma and adnexal-related neoplasms.
  • Here we test whether activation of SOX9 is a general feature of BCC, or whether it could be used as a biomarker to better define subtypes of these skin tumors.
  • In addition we investigated SOX9 expression in other skin epidermal tumors.
  • METHODS: Tumors sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E).
  • Staining was heterogeneous and could be detected among the basaloid cells of the palisading cell layer as well as in the tumour nest.
  • SOX9 expression was detected in all adnexal tumors analyzed and absent in Bowen's disease and Merkel tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SOX9 expression is a general feature of BCC and adnexal skin neoplasms, suggesting a contribution of SOX9 to the pathogenesis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. High Mobility Group Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18333897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / High Mobility Group Proteins; 0 / SOX9 Transcription Factor; 0 / SOX9 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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53. Kazakov DV, Vittay G, Michal M, Calonje E: High-grade trichoblastic carcinosarcoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):62-4
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  • Here we present the second case of this tumor, which, in contrast to the original example, may be classified as a high-grade neoplasm.
  • The tumor was excised, and the patient had no evidence of recurrence or metastasis 6 years after surgery.
  • Despite the close association throughout the tumor, the epithelial and the stromal cells were sharply separated, without transition between both elements.
  • This conclusion is reached after analyzing the embryological development of the hair follicle, its normal histology and the morphology of cutaneous adnexal tumors with follicular differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18212548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Veyer L, Marret H, Bleuzen A, Simon E, Body G, Tranquart F: Preoperative diagnosis of ovarian tumors using pelvic contrast-enhanced sonography. J Ultrasound Med; 2010 Jul;29(7):1041-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative diagnosis of ovarian tumors using pelvic contrast-enhanced sonography.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a contrast agent for the sonographic examination of adnexal tumors and identify discriminating parameters in the preoperative diagnosis of malignant tumors.
  • Patients included were referred for a second opinion after the discovery of a suspicious ovarian image.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-two tumors were analyzed.
  • Morphologic and Doppler criteria analyses were conducted as described in the literature.
  • When borderline tumors were eliminated, there was an inversion of this, with an AUC of 0.85 versus 0.73.
  • The inclusion of contrast results in the examiner's diagnosis in the context of a bivariate model comparing malignant and borderline tumors with benign tumors provided an AUC of 0.88.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced sonography improves preoperative diagnosis of ovarian tumors parameters.
  • The significant parameters of the enhancement curve were significantly different for malignant and benign tumors.
  • Borderline tumors contribute to a reduction of the discriminating capacity of the contrast agent.

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  • (PMID = 20587427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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55. De Francesco V, Frattasio A, Pillon B, Stinco G, Scott CA, Trotter D, Patrone P: Carcinosarcoma arising in a patient with multiple cylindromas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):21-6
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  • Familial cylindromatosis (Brooke-Spiegler syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by the development of adnexal tumors, mostly cylindromas, but also trichoepitheliomas and spiradenomas.
  • Malignant tumors may occur, usually with the features of a cylindrocarcinoma.
  • The authors describe the case of a 75-year-old woman with the Brooke-Spiegler syndrome who presented with multiple nodules of the scalp, face, and trunk.
  • In 1997 she underwent surgical excision of the entire forehead and scalp with skin grafting.
  • The lesion was excised and histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation revealed a malignant cutaneous biphasic tumor extending into the subcutis, consisting of a major portion with the features of an adnexal carcinoma and of a minor one of atypical spindle cells.
  • Biphasic malignant skin tumors are rare and only a limited number have been described, none in association with the Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.
  • The authors discuss the morphogenesis of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit from which the tumors in this syndrome derive, and the pivotal role of mesenchymal cells in determining the process.
  • Since the Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is characterized by a germline mutation in the CYLD oncosuppressor gene, a biphasic tumor in this setting may represent a true carcinosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Skin Transplantation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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56. Kazakov DV, Mikyskova I, Kutzner H, Simpson RH, Hes O, Mukensnabl P, Bouda J, Zamecnik M, Kinkor Z, Michal M: Hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases, including detection of human papillomavirus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):102-10
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  • Each presented clinically with a small, solitary tumor in the anogenital region.
  • Other histopathological findings observed in this series, analogous to benign breast disease, included sclerosing adenosis-like changes, atypical apocrine adenosis-like changes, changes corresponding to usual ductal epithelial hyperplasia, epitheliomatosis with a streaming growth pattern, lamprocyte-like changes, clear cell change of the myoepithelium, foamy histiocyte reaction, and stromal fibrosis.
  • Our observations are consistent with previous publications noting similarities between tumors of the breast and sweat glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adult. Aged. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15798433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Peitsidis P, Akrivos T, Vecchini G, Rodolakis A, Akrivos N, Markaki S: Splenosis of the peritoneal cavity resembling an adnexal tumor: case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2007;34(2):120-2
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  • [Title] Splenosis of the peritoneal cavity resembling an adnexal tumor: case report.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with symptomatic peritoneal cavity splenosis occurring ten years after traumatic splenectomy.
  • The patient was admitted to our department with the clinical presentation of an adnexal tumor.
  • US and CT confirmed an adnexal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Splenosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17629171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6663
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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58. Karaca M, Sevinc A, Aydin A, Gocmen A, Buyukberber S, Camci C, Sari I: Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin diagnosed during the staging evaluation of extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Jun;46(6):929-33
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  • [Title] Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin diagnosed during the staging evaluation of extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin (FATPWO) is a rare neoplasm arising within the leaves of broad ligament or hanging from it or a fallopian tube.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Wolffian Ducts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16019541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Mamelak AJ, Goldberg LH, Katz TM, Graves JJ, Arnon O, Kimyai-Asadi A: Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Jan;62(1):102-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (DTE) is an uncommon adnexal tumor usually found on the face of young women.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the clinical and histologic characteristics of DTE and discuss management strategies for these tumors.
  • Approximately 38% of the tumors had been present for 1 to 2 years before presentation.
  • The average size of the tumors at the time of surgery was 0.8 x 0.6 cm.
  • To date, none of the tumors have recurred.
  • CONCLUSION: DTE is a benign tumor that has a predilection for the face.
  • With its rapid growth, aggressive histologic features that may be confused with basal cell carcinoma, and tendency to arise in cosmetically and functionally sensitive areas, these tumors should be removed in a manner that assures clear surgical margins, such as Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Cheek. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mohs Surgery. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Feb;64(2):438-9 [21238832.001]
  • (PMID = 20082889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Yörük P, Dündar O, Yildizhan B, Tütüncü L, Pekin T: Comparison of the risk of malignancy index and self-constructed logistic regression models in preoperative evaluation of adnexal masses. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 Oct;27(10):1469-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of the risk of malignancy index and self-constructed logistic regression models in preoperative evaluation of adnexal masses.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate women with adnexal masses in the preoperative period by creating 2 logistic regression models, 1 including sonographic morphologic characteristics and the other including both morphologic and color Doppler characteristics, to compare the diagnostic accuracy of these 2 models with the risk of malignancy index (RMI).
  • METHODS: This prospective study included 38 malignant, 7 borderline, and 244 benign ovarian masses.
  • The menopausal status, presence of septa, presence of papillary projections, location of the tumor, presence of ascites, presence of metastases, cancer antigen 125 level, tumor volume, septa thickness, and percentage of the solid component were included in the initial analysis.
  • RESULTS: The area under the curve values for the morphologic model (model 1), Doppler model (model 2), and RMI were 0.907, 0.971, and 0.889, respectively.
  • Nevertheless, in low-resource settings, the RMI remains the method of choice for distinguishing adnexal masses and referral to gynecologic oncology clinics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / epidemiology. Adnexal Diseases / ultrasonography. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Assessment / methods. Ultrasonography / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18809957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Topalkara A, Ben-Arie-Weintrob Y, Ferry JA, Foster CS: Conjunctival marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) with amyloid and relapse in the stomach. Ocul Immunol Inflamm; 2007 Jul-Aug;15(4):347-50
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  • Ocular adnexal marginal zone B-cell MALT lymphoma is often localized at diagnosis; some relapse in typical MALT sites.
  • The authors suggest that all patients with localized ocular adnexal lymphoma be followed for an extended period.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17763134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3948
  • [Journal-full-title] Ocular immunology and inflammation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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62. Thomas CJ, Wood GC, Marks VJ: Mohs micrographic surgery in the treatment of rare aggressive cutaneous tumors: the Geisinger experience. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Mar;33(3):333-9
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  • [Title] Mohs micrographic surgery in the treatment of rare aggressive cutaneous tumors: the Geisinger experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) offers high cure rates and maximum tissue preservation in the treatment of more common cutaneous malignancies, but its effectiveness in rare aggressive tumors is poorly defined.
  • METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 26,000 cases treated with MMS at the Geisinger Medical Center Department of Dermatology during a 16-year period with the following diagnoses: poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (PDSCC), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD), Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), and sebaceous carcinoma (SEB CA).
  • Patient demographic data, tumor measurements, treatment characteristics, and marginal recurrence rates were compiled and evaluated.
  • RESULTS: The mean numbers of cases identified per year for each tumor type were as follows: PDSCC, 6.19; DFSP, 2.44; MAC, 1.63; and EMPD, 0.63.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17338692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Hamsch C, Hartschuh W: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma - aggressive infiltrative tumor often with innocent clinical appearance. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Apr;8(4):275-8
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma - aggressive infiltrative tumor often with innocent clinical appearance.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a rare sweat gland malignancy, characterized by slow, but aggressive infiltrative growth.
  • The benign histologic appearance, particularly in the upper level of the tumor, can be confused with syringoma or benign follicular neoplasm.
  • We report two patients with microcystic adnexal carcinoma, using them as a basis to discuss, pathogenesis, diagnosis, histology and therapy of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma. Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19788582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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64. Giger O, Caduff R, O'Meara A, Diener PA, Knuth A, Jäger D, Moch H, Varga Z: Frequent expression of the breast differentiation antigen NY-BR-1 in mammary and extramammary Paget's disease. Pathol Int; 2010 Nov;60(11):726-34
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  • Recently NY-BR-1, a differentiation antigen expressed in the breast and in skin adnexal structures was identified.
  • Its protein expression is restricted to normal and neoplastic breast epithelium and to adnexal tumors of the skin.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Pathology International © 2010 Japanese Society of Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20946522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / breast cancer antigen NY-BR-1, human
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65. Kapetanakis V, Karlin NJ, McCullough AE, Magtibay PM: Primary ovarian malignant lymphoma presenting as ovarian carcinomatosis: a case report and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(6):701-2
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  • CASE: We report a case of a 78-year-old woman who presented with an ovarian neoplasm suggestive of advanced ovarian carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary ovarian lymphoma presenting as an ovarian tumor is exceedingly rare.
  • Since the prognosis and treatment of lymphoma differs significantly from ovarian carcinoma, a representative tissue sample of the adnexal tumor should be obtained and sent for frozen section analysis to establish the diagnosis.


66. Karaman E, Duman C, Yagiz C: Giant trichilemmal cyst at the neck region. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 May;20(3):961-2
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  • Trichilemmal cyst (TC) is an adnexal skin tumor that usually occurs on the scalp.
  • There is a female dominance in this tumor.
  • Proliferating pilar tumors or cysts arise from this lesion, and the clinical differential diagnosis from TCs must be taken because of aggressive behavior of proliferating pilar tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Cyst / diagnosis. Neck / pathology. Skin Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19461343.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Clarke BA, Rahimi K, Chetty R: Leiomyosarcoma of the broad ligament with osteoclast-like giant cells and rhabdoid cells. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Sep;29(5):432-7
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  • A 38-year old female was found to have a rapidly enlarging adnexal mass which was resected and histologically found to be a leiomyosarcoma with marked pleomorphism.
  • The tumor now showed a prominent population of both osteoclast-like giant cells and rhabdoid cells.
  • Interestingly, the immunophenotype of the tumor had also changed with complete loss of desmin, caldesmon and only focal expression of smooth muscle actin.
  • This tumor was characterized by rapid clinical progression despite extensive surgery and chemotherapy.
  • These two cells types have individually been implicated as harbingers of a poor prognosis in leiomyosarcomas.
  • Their prominence in the recurrent tumor and the loss of muscle marker expression are in keeping with biologic progression.

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  • (PMID = 20736768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Ozan H, Oztürk Nazlioğlu H, Ozuysal S: A case of hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):556-7
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  • Ultrasonography and computerized tomography showed adnexal tumoral masses with intraperitoneal metastases but no hepatic parenchymal involvement.
  • She was operated on and histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings indicated ovarian hepatoid tumor.
  • We present this case of ovarian hepatoid tumor and discuss the two-year disease progression from diagnosis to death.

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  • (PMID = 19051837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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69. Samaila MO: Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med; 2008 Mar;7(1):6-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: Adnexal skin tumors share many features in common and differentiate along one line.
  • They may be clinically confused with other cutaneous tumors.
  • The aim of this report is to review and classify all adnexal tumors seen in a pathology department over a 16-year period.
  • METHOD: A 16-year retrospective analysis of all adnexal skin tumors seen in a large University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria from January 1991- December 2006.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-two adnexal tumors were seen, accounting for 0.9% of all cutaneous tumors seen within the same period.
  • Only two cases had a clinical diagnosis of adnexal tumor.
  • Tumours of the sweat gland were the commonest--41 (78.8%); they comprised predominantly eccrine acrospiroma (17), characterized histologically by solid nests of round to polygonal cells with clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, forming tubules in areas.
  • Tumours of sebaceous gland were 7 (13.5%); they comprised mainly Nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn (6), composed of immature sebaceous glands and pilar structures microscopically and a solitary sebaceous adenoma.
  • Tumours of hair follicle were 4 (7.7%) and included trichoepithelioma, characterized microscopically by multiple horn cysts and epithelial tracts connecting abortive pilar structures and a trichofolliculoma.
  • Forty-six lesions (88.5%) were benign and six (11.5%) malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Adnexal skin tumors have distinct histological patterns which differentiates them from other cutaneous tumors.
  • Malignant adnexal tumors are uncommon in our setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / classification. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / epidemiology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hair Follicle / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18702242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1596-3519
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of African medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Afr Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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70. Mataix J, Bañuls J, Botella R, Laredo C, Lucas A: [Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: an heterogeneous entity]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2006 Dec;97(10):669-72
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  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de Brooke-Spiegler: una entidad heterogénea.
  • The Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is a rare, autosomally dominant disease with a predisposition to develop different adnexal tumors.
  • In this article we present the case of a woman and her daughter, both affected by this rare genodermatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / genetics. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17173833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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71. Kim TJ, Lee YY, Kim MJ, Kim CJ, Kang H, Choi CH, Lee JW, Kim BG, Bae DS: Single port access laparoscopic adnexal surgery. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2009 Sep-Oct;16(5):612-5
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  • [Title] Single port access laparoscopic adnexal surgery.
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the feasibility, safety, and operative outcomes for the management of adnexal masses by single port access (SPA) laparoscopy with a wound retractor and a surgical glove.
  • PATIENTS: Twenty-four well selected patients with adnexal masses on imaging scans recruited from June 2008 through January 2009.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Single port access laparoscopic adnexal surgery.
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Single port access laparoscopic adnexal surgery was successfully completed in 22 of 24 patients.
  • The median tumor size was 5 cm (range 3-12 cm).
  • The 2 failed cases were as follow: 1 required an additional trocar for adequate adhesiolysis, and the other a staging laparotomy because of the finding of a borderline ovarian malignancy on frozen section pathologic study.
  • CONCLUSION: The single port access laparoscopic adnexal surgery was safe and feasible and provided almost no visual scar.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19835804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Koletsa T, Hytiroglou P, Semoglou C, Drevelegas A, Karkavelas G: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma with cystic structures of sweat duct origin. Pathol Int; 2007 Aug;57(8):513-6
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  • Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is an unusual soft tissue tumor, mostly arising in the subcutaneous fibro-adipose tissue of children and young adults and measuring a few centimeters in greatest dimension.
  • This large tumor (12 cm) was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the left leg of a 28-year-old woman.
  • The present case is illustrative of a mechanism of sweat duct dilatation that may occur during the growth of neoplasms involving the dermis and subcutis, resulting in formation of tumors with unusual histological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cysts / chemistry. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leg / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17610476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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73. Schulz T, Proske S, Hartschuh W, Kurzen H, Paul E, Wünsch PH: High-grade trichoblastic carcinoma arising in trichoblastoma: a rare adnexal neoplasm often showing metastatic spread. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):9-16
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  • [Title] High-grade trichoblastic carcinoma arising in trichoblastoma: a rare adnexal neoplasm often showing metastatic spread.
  • One of the tumors arose in a small nodular trichoblastoma on the right forearm of an 84-year-old male patient.
  • The other one was a trichoblastic carcinoma at the base of a trichoepithelioma on the right thigh of an 87-year-old woman with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / secondary. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15677970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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74. Huang KH, Chung SD, Huang SY, Chueh SC, Chen CA, Chen J: Coexistence of ovarian cancer and renal cell carcinoma. J Formos Med Assoc; 2007 Mar;106(3 Suppl):S15-9
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  • Computed tomography scan showed a right cystic adnexal mass measuring 10 x 10 cm, and another tumor measuring 3 x 2 cm at the right kidney.


75. Hoekstra AV, Riben MW, Frumovitz M, Liu J, Ramirez PT: Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the peritoneum: a pathological analysis and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jul;98(1):161-7
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  • CASE REPORT: A 74-year-old asymptomatic woman without significant past medical history underwent workup and subsequent surgery for an adnexal mass with a normal serum CA-125 level.
  • Patient outcomes are usually favorable after tumor-debulking surgery without adjuvant therapy.

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  • (PMID = 15894368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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76. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Richards S, Paver R, Selva D: Periocular microcystic adnexal carcinoma: management and outcome with Mohs' micrographic surgery. Ophthalmologica; 2006;220(2):109-13
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  • [Title] Periocular microcystic adnexal carcinoma: management and outcome with Mohs' micrographic surgery.
  • PURPOSE: To report a series of patients with periocular microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) treated with Mohs' micrographic surgery (MMS).
  • METHODS: This series included all patients treated with MMS for periocular MAC, who were monitored by the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia between 1993 and 2002.
  • Four tumors were located in the medial canthus and one in the lower lid.
  • The tumor was initially misdiagnosed as basal cell carcinoma in 3 patients and squamous cell carcinoma in 1 patient.
  • The average number of excision levels required for complete removal of the tumor during MMS was 2.2 (range 1-6).
  • Perineural invasion was recorded in one patient.Five-year follow-up data was available for 3 patients, and there was no tumor recurrence in any of these cases.
  • CONCLUSION: The low 5-year recurrence rate of periocular MAC with MMS emphasizes the importance of margin-controlled excision of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / surgery. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 16491033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-3755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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77. Franzin CM, Marussi EF, Zeferino LC, Sarian LO, Prada MF: [Association between sonographic findings and histological diagnosis of 446 ovarian tumors]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2006 May-Jun;52(3):176-81
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  • [Title] [Association between sonographic findings and histological diagnosis of 446 ovarian tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Correlação entre as características ultra-sonográficas e o diagnóstico histológico de 446 tumores ovarianos.
  • Patients who had been submitted to surgery due to uni or bilateral ovarian tumors were included and those presenting with an ectopic pregnancy or pelvic inflammatory process were excluded.
  • The magnitude of the associations between pathology diagnoses and sonographic morphologic findings where estimated by the Odds Ratio with its respective confidence intervals of 95%.
  • RESULTS: In their majority, masses were benign tumors (88.1%).
  • CONCLUSION: Sonographic analyses of adnexal tumors having more than 7 cm of diameter, irregular and poorly delimited external borders, presenting complex or anechoic textures with thickened septa or solid mass are highly suggestive of malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 16847525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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78. Goh SG, Carr R, Dayrit JF, Calonje E: Mucinous hidradenoma: a report of three cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jun;34(6):497-502
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  • Mucinous cutaneous adnexal tumors are an uncommon occurrence.
  • Case 2, from the shoulder of a 40-year-old man, was a 2.5-cm well-circumscribed nodule composed of hyperplastic villoglandular proliferation of mucinous cells with focal squamous whorls and focal columnar glandular cells showing decapitation secretion.
  • The tumor was also interpretated as a mucinous hidradenoma, most likely of follicular-apocrine origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17518780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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79. Jarboe EA, Miron A, Carlson JW, Hirsch MS, Kindelberger D, Mutter GL, Crum CP, Nucci MR: Coexisting intraepithelial serous carcinomas of the endometrium and fallopian tube: frequency and potential significance. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):308-15
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  • Extent of the endometrial tumor and presence/absence of STIC were documented.
  • Immunostaining for p53 and Wilms tumor-1 was performed on all cases with STIC. p53 mutation analysis was performed in a subset of matched STICs and endometrial tumors.
  • Eleven cases showed concurrent endometrial and adnexal involvement, including 6 with endosalpingeal involvement; STIC was confirmed in 5.
  • In all 5, the concurrent endometrial tumor was either noninvasive, or exhibited only superficial (<5%) myometrial invasion.
  • As management of serous neoplasms is predicated on site of origin, we propose that the sectioning and extensively examining the fimbria protocol be applied to all endometrial serous carcinomas and that tumors with concurrent STIC be classified as a distinct subset of pelvic serous carcinomas pending a clearer understanding of tumor origin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microdissection. Middle Aged. Mutation. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2010 May;29(3):278-81 [20407330.001]
  • (PMID = 19483636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R21CA124688-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / KO8 CA108748; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA105009
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / WTAP protein, human
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80. Lesin J, Forko-Ilić J, Plavec A, Planinić P: Management of Wolffian duct tumor recurrence without chemotherapy. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Nov;280(5):855-7
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  • [Title] Management of Wolffian duct tumor recurrence without chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: A female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin (FATWO) is a rare neoplasm which is considered to have a low malignant potential.
  • CASE: In 2006, a 60-year-old patient was admitted to hospital with solid tumor on the vaginal cuff confirmed by abdominal/pelvic CT, 6 years after her first FATWO was diagnosed and hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy, and omentectomia were done.
  • Pelvic washings, lysis of adhesions, and excision of tumor mass were performed.
  • Pathologic examination revealed malignant epithelial neoplasm of Wolffian origin with morphologic features similar to those of the patient's prior tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19288122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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81. Mukherjee U, Thakur V, Katiyar D, Goyal HK, Pendharkar D: Uterine choriocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman. Med Oncol; 2006;23(2):301-3
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  • She presented with pain in the abdomen, and on radiological investigation a left uterine adnexal mass of 3.4 x 2.8 cm size was detected.
  • Histological features of the tumor were consistent with choriocarcinoma, and immunohistochemistry detected strong reactivity for beta-hCG in the tumor cells.

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  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004 Sep;128(9):1039-42 [15338558.001]
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  • (PMID = 16720931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMACO protocol
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82. Krahl D, Sellheyer K: Monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 reliably discriminates between microcystic adnexal carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Oct;34(10):782-7
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  • [Title] Monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 reliably discriminates between microcystic adnexal carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • In this study, we report its application in the differential diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma, desmoplastic trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Biopsy samples from 28 sclerosing and infiltrating basal cell carcinomas, 13 microcystic adnexal carcinomas and 16 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas were examined after immunohistochemical staining with Ber-EP4.
  • RESULTS: Ber-EP4 did not label any of the microcystic adnexal carcinomas, whereas all 28 basal cell carcinomas were Ber-EP4 positive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ber-EP4 reliably differentiates microcystic adnexal carcinoma from basal cell carcinoma to the same extent as it distinguishes the latter tumor from squamous cell carcinoma.
  • While it stains the majority of desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas, these tumors still have to be considered in the differential diagnosis with microcystic adnexal carcinoma, when Ber-EP4 is applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


83. Vucić M, Cupić H, Tomić K, Kruslin B: An unusual pattern of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia associated with cutaneous primary melanoma: report of two cases with analysis of p53 and bcl-2 immunoreactivity. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2007;15(2):72-5
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  • Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH) is a benign, reactive epithelial proliferation.
  • PEH is characterized by hyperplasia of the epidermis or adnexal epithelium into irregular squamous strands that extend deep down into the subjacent dermis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17631784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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84. Van Calster B, Timmerman D, Bourne T, Testa AC, Van Holsbeke C, Domali E, Jurkovic D, Neven P, Van Huffel S, Valentin L: Discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses by specialist ultrasound examination versus serum CA-125. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2007 Nov 21;99(22):1706-14
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  • [Title] Discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses by specialist ultrasound examination versus serum CA-125.
  • BACKGROUND: Subjective evaluation of gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound findings (i.e., pattern recognition) by an experienced examiner and preoperative serum levels of CA-125 can both discriminate benign from malignant adnexal (i.e., ovarian, paraovarian, or tubal) masses.
  • METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study--the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis--1066 women with a persistent adnexal mass underwent transvaginal gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasound examinations by an experienced examiner within 120 days of surgery.
  • Pattern recognition was used to classify a mass as benign or malignant.
  • RESULTS: Pattern recognition correctly classified 93% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 90.9% to 94.6%) of the tumors as benign or malignant.
  • Histologic diagnoses that were most often misclassified by CA-125 were fibroma, endometrioma, and abscess (false-positive results) and borderline tumor (false-negative results).
  • Pattern recognition correctly classified 86% (95% CI = 81.1% to 90.4%) of masses of these four histologic types as being benign or malignant, whereas a serum CA-125 at a cutoff of 30 U/mL correctly classified 41% (95% CI = 34.4% to 47.5%) of them.
  • Pattern recognition assigned a correct specific histologic diagnosis to 333 (59%, 95% CI = 54.5% to 62.8%) of the 567 benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Pattern recognition was superior to serum CA-125 for discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / immunology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Gynecology / manpower. Ovarian Neoplasms / immunology. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Pattern Recognition, Visual
  • [MeSH-minor] Adnexal Diseases / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Europe. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Postmenopause. Predictive Value of Tests. Premenopause. Prospective Studies. Research Design. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Doppler. Vagina

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  • (PMID = 18000221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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85. Manikandan R, Khafagy R, Reeve R, Agarwal M, Clarke NW: Male adnexal tumour of probable Wolffian duct origin. Scand J Urol Nephrol; 2005;39(6):520-2
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  • [Title] Male adnexal tumour of probable Wolffian duct origin.
  • Male adnexal tumours of Wolffian duct origin are very rare.
  • We report the case of a 56-year-old male who presented with a swelling in the perineum thought to be a haematoma as the result of a complication of a laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.
  • Histology revealed the lesion to be an adnexal tumour of probable Wolffian duct origin.
  • To our knowledge there have only been two previous cases of male adnexal tumour of Wolffian duct origin reported in the literature.

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  • (PMID = 16303731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5599
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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86. D'Hooghe TM, Nugent NP, Cuneo S, Chai DC, Deer F, Debrock S, Kyama CM, Mihalyi A, Mwenda JM: Recombinant human TNFRSF1A (r-hTBP1) inhibits the development of endometriosis in baboons: a prospective, randomized, placebo- and drug-controlled study. Biol Reprod; 2006 Jan;74(1):131-6
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  • Endometriosis is associated with chronic inflammation, including an increased macrophage activity with increased secretion of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or TNF superfamily member 2, previously known as TNFalpha.
  • Because of less adnexal and cul-de-sac adhesions, the number of baboons with endometriosis of stage II, III, or IV was lower among baboons treated with r-hTBP1 or Antide than among controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometriosis / drug therapy. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16177224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
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87. Bajaj MS, Pushker N, Kashyap S, Sen S, Vengayil S, Chaturvedi A: Fibrous histiocytoma of the lacrimal gland. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Mar-Apr;23(2):145-7
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  • Fibrous histiocytoma, a primary mesenchymal tumor of the orbit, is known to arise from various ocular and adnexal tissues.
  • We are unable to find a published report of this tumor originating from the lacrimal gland.
  • We report a case of a benign fibrous histiocytoma of the lacrimal gland in an 11 year old girl who presented with painless, progressive eyelid swelling and mild proptosis.
  • The tumor was completely excised by anterolateral orbitotomy.
  • Light microscopy showed a spindle cell tumor arising from the lacrimal gland.
  • The tumor cells were arranged in a characteristic storiform (cartwheel) pattern with no pleomorphism or mitotic figures.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were focally positive for CD-68 and negative for S-100, smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and CD-34, which ruled out neurofibroma, leiomyoma, solitary fibrous tumor, and hemangiopericytoma.
  • Based on these features, a diagnosis of benign fibrous histiocytoma was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17413632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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88. Lennerz JK, Perry A, Dehner LP, Pfeifer JD, Lind AC: CRTC1 rearrangements in the absence of t(11;19) in primary cutaneous mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Oct;161(4):925-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the skin is an uncommon neoplasm with a remarkable resemblance to MEC of the salivary glands.
  • Two MECs metastatic to the skin, histologically identical to primary cutaneous MEC, were included, one of which harboured the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion gene by RT-PCR, verified by interphase FISH and sequencing.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MEC of the skin harbours CRTC1 rearrangements, a molecular finding that reflects morphological similarities between glandular and cutaneous MEC.
  • The absence of oncogenic t(11;19) or MAML2 aberrations in our series, which is the largest reported, may explain the innocuous clinical behaviour of this uncommon adnexal tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / genetics. Gene Rearrangement / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19438452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRTC1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MAML2 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Transcription Factors
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89. Krishnamurthy J, Nagappa DK: The cytology of molluscum contagiosum mimicking skin adnexal tumor. J Cytol; 2010 Apr;27(2):74-5
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  • [Title] The cytology of molluscum contagiosum mimicking skin adnexal tumor.
  • The cytology of molluscum contagiosum in an 11-year-old boy, which presented atypically as a solitary nodule over the right cheek, mimicking a skin adnexal tumor is reported here.

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  • (PMID = 21157556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5165
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cytol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3001182
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cytoplasmic inclusions / fine needle aspiration cytology / molluscum contagiosum
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90. Carlson JA, Cribier B, Nuovo G, Rohwedder A: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated and genital-mucosal high-risk human papillomavirus DNA are prevalent in nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Aug;59(2):279-94
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  • BACKGROUND: The hamartoma nevus sebaceus (NS) presents at birth or early childhood as a yellowish plaque characterized histologically by variable acanthosis, papillomatosis, sebaceus hyperplasia, and proliferations of adnexal structures.
  • METHODS: DNA was retrieved from 44 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of NS (22 with secondary tumors [eg, trichoblastoma, verruca, syringocystadenoma papilliferum] and two epidermal nevi [EN]).
  • No differences were detected comparing frequency of HPV DNA detected with respect to age or presence of a secondary tumor.
  • By in situ hybridization, 64% (18/28) were positive, showing a low-intensity, punctate nuclear signal in epidermal and adnexal keratinocytes, indicating viral integration and low viral genome copy number.
  • LIMITATIONS: Absence of adjacent, uninvolved normal-appearing skin control samples.
  • The high frequency of oncogenic HPV types implicates maternal transmission of HPV and infection of an ectodermal stem cell leading to an epigenetic mosaic and altered skin development manifested along Blaschko's lines.


91. Dalton SR, LeBoit PE: Squamous cell carcinoma with clear cells: how often is there evidence of tricholemmal differentiation? Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Aug;30(4):333-9
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  • Clear-cell carcinoma of the skin was described by Kuo in 1980 as a cutaneous tumor composed of clear cells that lacked cytoplasmic glycogen or evidence of tricholemmal keratinization.
  • Tricholemmal carcinoma (TC) is conventionally considered to be a neoplasm derived from adnexal keratinocytes with glycogenated clear cells and evidence of outer root sheath or tricholemmal differentiation.
  • The existence of TC has been questioned as it has been argued that without clear immunohistochemical evidence of outer root sheath differentiation, TC cannot be distinguished from clear-cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • 40 cases of SCC-C were evaluated for 7 histologic and histochemical criteria (a lobular arrangement, peripheral palisading, tricholemmal keratinization, folliculocentricity, evidence of a preexisting tricholemmoma, the presence of intracytoplasmic glycogen, and a thickened basement membrane) said to characterize TC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


92. Bats AS, Larousserie F, Le Frère-Belda MA, Metzger U, Lécuru F: Usefulness of routine intraoperative staging of suspicious adnexal tumours: illustration by two cases of adult granulosa cell tumour. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(2):206-8
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  • [Title] Usefulness of routine intraoperative staging of suspicious adnexal tumours: illustration by two cases of adult granulosa cell tumour.
  • Granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) account for less than 3% of all ovarian malignancies but are among the most common sex cord-stromal tumours.
  • Symptoms related to oestrogen production by the tumour may occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20527242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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93. Adamicová K, Fetisovová Z, Mellová Y, Výbohová D: [Diagnostic procedures in skin adnexal tumours]. Cesk Patol; 2006 Apr;42(2):59-65
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic procedures in skin adnexal tumours].
  • From histogenetic, morphologic and immunohistochemical point of view the authors try to make possible algorithms that can be employed in a routine diagnosis of adnexal skin tumours.
  • They stress the importance of knowledge of clinical data necessary for orientation classification of tumour skin lesions after biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16715628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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94. Shaco-Levy R, Kachko L, Mazor M, Piura B: Ovarian signet-ring stromal tumor: a potential diagnostic pitfall. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;16(2):180-4
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  • [Title] Ovarian signet-ring stromal tumor: a potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • Signet-ring stromal tumor is a rare ovarian neoplasm with only 10 reported cases in the literature.
  • We report an unusual case of ovarian signet-ring stromal tumor in a 69-year-old woman who presented with right adnexal mass and underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
  • The main significance is to differentiate this benign tumor from the highly malignant Krukenberg tumor, and this differential diagnosis is discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18417676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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95. Liyanage SE, Saleh GM, Rose GE, Luthert PJ, Beaconsfield M, Verity DH: Delayed diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma in progressive eyelid distortion. Arch Ophthalmol; 2010 Jan;128(1):132-5
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  • [Title] Delayed diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma in progressive eyelid distortion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20065232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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96. Nezhat FR, Ezzati M, Chuang L, Shamshirsaz AA, Rahaman J, Gretz H: Laparoscopic management of early ovarian and fallopian tube cancers: surgical and survival outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Jan;200(1):83.e1-6
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  • STUDY DESIGN: Case series conducted at the University Hospital with 36 patients who had presumed early-stage adnexal cancers.
  • RESULTS: Cases included 20 invasive epithelial tumors, 11 borderline tumors, and 5 nonepithelial tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: This represents 1 of the largest series and longest follow-ups of laparoscopic staging for early-stage adnexal tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19019337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Chanudet E, Ye H, Ferry J, Bacon CM, Adam P, Müller-Hermelink HK, Radford J, Pileri SA, Ichimura K, Collins VP, Hamoudi RA, Nicholson AG, Wotherspoon AC, Isaacson PG, Du MQ: A20 deletion is associated with copy number gain at the TNFA/B/C locus and occurs preferentially in translocation-negative MALT lymphoma of the ocular adnexa and salivary glands. J Pathol; 2009 Feb;217(3):420-30
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  • [Title] A20 deletion is associated with copy number gain at the TNFA/B/C locus and occurs preferentially in translocation-negative MALT lymphoma of the ocular adnexa and salivary glands.
  • We compared the genetic profiles of 33 ocular adnexal and 25 pulmonary MALT lymphomas by 1 Mb array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and revealed recurrent 6q23 losses and 6p21.2-6p22.1 gains exclusive to ocular cases.
  • Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that A20 deletion occurred in MALT lymphoma of the ocular adnexa (8/42=19%), salivary gland (2/24=8%), thyroid (1/9=11%) and liver (1/2), but not in the lung (26), stomach (45) and skin (13).
  • In ocular cases, A20 deletion was associated with concurrent involvement of different adnexal tissues or extraocular sites at diagnosis (p=0.007), a higher proportion of relapse (67% versus 37%) and a shorter relapse-free survival (p=0.033).
  • [MeSH-major] Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Orbital Neoplasms / genetics. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6. Comparative Genomic Hybridization / methods. DNA-Binding Proteins. Female. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Interphase. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Sequence Deletion. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Stomach Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19006194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; EC 6.3.2.19 / TNFAIP3 protein, human
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98. Schulman FY, Lipscomb TP, Atkin TJ: Canine cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma: histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and biologic behavior of 26 cases. J Vet Diagn Invest; 2005 Sep;17(5):403-11
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  • [Title] Canine cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma: histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and biologic behavior of 26 cases.
  • Thirty tumors including 27 distinctive cutaneous neoplasms and 3 metastatic tumors from 26 dogs were collected from diagnostic submissions to 3 laboratories.
  • One tumor recurred, 1 metastasized to a regional lymph node, and 1 metastasized to regional lymph nodes twice.
  • The findings are consistent with a poorly differentiated, low-grade, adnexal carcinoma of the skin.
  • The authors propose the designation "cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / veterinary. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16312230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Prayaga AK, Loya AC, Gottimukkala SR, Digumarti RR, Maddali LS, Challa S: Cytologic features of primary malignant tumors of skin and adnexae. Acta Cytol; 2008 Nov-Dec;52(6):702-9
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  • [Title] Cytologic features of primary malignant tumors of skin and adnexae.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Cases of primary malignant tumors of skin and adnexae diagnosed on cytology with histopathology confirmation were retrieved from case records of 1998-2005.
  • RESULTS: Thirty primary malignant tumors of skin and adnexae were analyzed.
  • There were single cases of eccrine carcinoma, malignant trichilemmal tumor, undifferentiated carcinoma and extramedullary myeloid cell tumor.
  • All the cases of hemopoietic tumors (n=3) and the majority of the cases (4 of 7) of adnexal were seen to arise from head and neck region.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytodiagnosis of primary malignant tumors of skin and adnexae is possible based on morphology and clinical presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19068675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Verbruggen MB, Zweemer RP, Piek JM, van Unnik GA, van Diest PJ, Gille JJ, Menko FH, Dorsman JC, Verheijen RH: A case of loss of heterozygosity in the BRCA2 gene of a borderline ovarian tumor: case report and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Sep-Oct;17(5):1143-7
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  • [Title] A case of loss of heterozygosity in the BRCA2 gene of a borderline ovarian tumor: case report and review of literature.
  • Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations highly increase the risk of breast and female adnexal cancer.
  • Borderline ovarian tumors (BOT) are occasionally found in families with a strong history of breast and/or female adnexal cancer with or without proven germline mutations.
  • We investigated whether a BOT arising in a germline BRCA2 mutation carrier could be attributed to this mutation, in which case BOT should be added to the BRCA2 related tumor spectrum.
  • Tumor DNA of a serous borderline ovarian tumor (sBOT) of a 55-year-old female carrier of a pathogenic BRCA2 mutation (6085G>T) was analyzed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of BRCA2.
  • The finding that no loss of the wild-type BRCA2 allele was found in the tumor tissue but loss of the mutant allele was seen suggests that sBOT are not part of the BRCA2 related tumor spectrum.
  • Therefore, we conclude that borderline ovarian tumors are neither part of the BRCA1- nor the BRCA2- related tumor spectrum.

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  • (PMID = 17386038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NBR1 protein, human; 0 / Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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