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Items 1 to 100 of about 187
1. Fernandes GC, Gupta RK, Kandalkar BM: Giant adrenal myelolipoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):325-6
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • We report a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma weighing 2200 gms which was diagnosed on radiology as a liposarcoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, not more than 10 giant adrenal myelolipoma cases have been reported in literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Male. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Radiography, Abdominal

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  • (PMID = 20551546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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2. Pérez Martínez J, Llamas F, López Rubio E, Serrano A, Salinas Sánchez A, Ruiz Mondéjar R, Virseda Rodríguez JA, Gómez Roldán C: [Giant adrenal myelolipoma: hypertension, renal failure and spontaneous rupture]. Nefrologia; 2006;26(1):132-5
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  • [Title] [Giant adrenal myelolipoma: hypertension, renal failure and spontaneous rupture].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma suprarrenal gigante: hipertensión, insuficiencia renal y rotura espontánea.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, slow-growing tumor composed of adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements.
  • The condition has been associated with obesity, high blood pressure and adrenal dysfunction.
  • We present a patient with retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of a myelolipoma, hypertension, and renal failure secondary to nephroangiosclerosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hemorrhage / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology. Myelolipoma / complications. Nephrosclerosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 16649435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0211-6995
  • [Journal-full-title] Nefrología : publicación oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nefrologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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3. Schittenhelm J, Jacob SN, Rutczynska J, Tsiflikas I, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

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  • [Title] Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma.
  • Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is composed of both adipose tissue and normal haematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare.
  • We present the case of a 63-year-old female patient with adenoma of the adrenal gland and an additional paravertebral lesion in the thoracic spine.
  • Post-mortem histopathology showed the incidental finding of a paravertebral myelolipoma.

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  • [Cites] Radiographics. 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1):69-85 [15653588.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 1982 Jun;6(4):363-74 [7051876.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1994 Sep;118(9):895-6 [8080359.001]
  • [Cites] Radiographics. 1997 Nov-Dec;17(6):1373-85 [9397452.001]
  • (PMID = 21686745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027965
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4. Arzanian MT, Khaleghnejad-Tabari A, Shamsian BS, Jadali F, Gharib A, Esfahani H: Generalized myelolipoma. Arch Iran Med; 2006 Jul;9(3):274-6
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  • [Title] Generalized myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor originating from hematopoietic and adipose tissue.
  • This tumor usually develops in the adrenal gland, but rare presentations of extraadrenal myelolipoma are also reported, which usually arise from the presacral region.
  • Herein, we present a 6-year-old girl with myelolipoma with generalized involvement of her abdomen, pelvis, chest, and retroorbital region.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thoracic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16859067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of Iranian medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Iran Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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5. Wani NA, Kosar T, Rawa IA, Qayum A: Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association. Urol Ann; 2010 Sep;2(3):130-3

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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an unusual, benign and biochemically inactive tumor that is composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is usually unilateral and asymptomatic, though known to be associated with obesity, hypertension, endocrinological disorders and some malignancies.
  • We report herein two cases of right-sided giant adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed by multidetector-row CT.
  • One patient was symptomatic because of a large mass in the right upper abdomen, which on imaging with CT was seen to be right adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Another patient had a large left side Bochdalek hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma was incidentally discovered on CT.

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  • (PMID = 20981204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-7834
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology annals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol Ann
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955231
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal gland / Bochdalek hernia / multidetector-row CT / myelolipoma
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6. Bartumeus Martínez P, Ripollés González T: [Extraadrenal retroperitoneal myelolipoma]. Actas Urol Esp; 2009 Apr;33(4):439-42

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  • [Title] [Extraadrenal retroperitoneal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma extraadrenal retroperitoneal.
  • Extraadrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors and differentiating them from other soft tissue tumors containing fat can be difficult.
  • A retroperitoneal myelolipoma adjacent to right renal helium is presented in this case-report.
  • Initially oriented as liposarcoma, the final diagnosis was obtained after surgery.
  • MRI with fat suppression and opposed-phase imaging are the best imaging tools to demonstrate the adipose tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelolipoma. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19579898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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7. Suzuki T, Uetsuka K, Kusanagi K, Hirai T, Nunoya T, Doi K: Hepatic Myelolipoma with systemic amyloidosis in a goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus). J Vet Med Sci; 2010 May;72(5):669-71
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  • [Title] Hepatic Myelolipoma with systemic amyloidosis in a goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus).
  • We report here a case of hepatic myelolipoma with systemic amyloidosis in a goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus), which died suddenly following the short history of weakness and greenish diarrhea.
  • Histologically, there were multiple foci of adipose tissue admixed with myeloid elements in various proportions in the liver as well as amyloid deposition in several organs including the liver, intestine, spleen, kidney, and ovary.
  • These findings shared characteristics of hepatic myelolipoma which is very rare in birds.

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  • (PMID = 20526044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Pareja Megía MJ, Barrero Candau R, Medina Pérez M, Valero Puerta JA: [Giant adrenal myelolipoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 May;58(4):362-5
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  • [Title] [Giant adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma adrenal gigante.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland METHODS/RESULTS: A case of a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland, an uncommon non-functioning tumour of the adrenal cortex comprised of haematopoietic and adipose tissue, that had been detected incidentally during evaluation with CT because of its characteristic fatty composition.
  • The clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15989103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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9. Sagan D, Zdunek M, Korobowicz E: Primary myelolipoma of the chest wall. Ann Thorac Surg; 2009 Oct;88(4):e39-41
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  • [Title] Primary myelolipoma of the chest wall.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare neoplasm composed of an admixture of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements.
  • It typically occurs in adrenal glands as a solitary, well-circumscribed mass, and the thoracic location is extremely unusual.
  • Thoracoscopic resection and subsequent histopathologic examination of the lesion revealed myelolipoma with bony spicules, which are an unusual component in this neoplasm.
  • We discuss the etiology, histopathology, differential diagnosis, and recommended management of extra-adrenal myelolipoma, and we conclude that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subpleural chest wall tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thoracoscopy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19766776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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10. Ide H, Terado Y, Nakagawa T, Saito K, Kamiyama Y, Muto S, Okada H, Imamura T, Horie S: Incidentally discovered adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperthyroidism. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct;12(5):379-81
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  • [Title] Incidentally discovered adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperthyroidism.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are uncommon, nonfunctioning tumors that tend to be discovered incidentally on imaging.
  • Such tumors are composed of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements, but their etiology is still unknown.
  • We report a case of adrenal myelolipoma in a patient with hyperthyroidism; this benign tumor expressed both thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperthyroidism / complications. Incidental Findings. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17929121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta
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11. Chakraborty J, Paul PCh, Gumta MK, Ghosh G, Goswami B: Adrenal myelolipoma--report of a case. J Indian Med Assoc; 2006 Mar;104(3):148-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma--report of a case.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, non-secreting tumour composed of adipose and haematopoietic tissue.
  • Histological examination revealed the features of myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Low Back Pain / diagnosis. Lumbosacral Region / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16910340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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12. Olivar Roldán J, Molina Baena B, Pavón de Paz I, Iglesias Bolaños P, Montoya Álvarez T, Fernández Martínez A: Giant adrenal myelolipoma: case report and literature review. Endocrinol Nutr; 2008 Mar;55(3):139-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma: case report and literature review.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors comprising mature adipose tissue and diverse hematopoietic elements.
  • Diagnosis is usually provided by ultrasonography or computed tomography.
  • We present a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma and provide a review of the literature.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22967880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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13. Cobanoglu U, Yaris N, Cay A: Adrenal myelolipoma in a child. Pediatr Surg Int; 2005 Jun;21(6):500-2
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma in a child.
  • A case of adrenal myelolipoma is reported in a 14-year-old girl.
  • Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed a left-sided ovarian cyst 13 cm in diameter and an 8 x 8-cm hyperechoic heterogenous solid mass localized in the right adrenal gland.
  • The ovarian cyst and adrenal mass were removed surgically.
  • Histological examination of the adrenal mass revealed a proliferation of mature adipose tissue with bone marrow-like hematopoietic elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Myelolipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15809845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. López Martín L, García Cardoso JV, Gómez Muñoz J, González Enguita C: Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 Dec;63(10):880-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the case of adrenal gland myelolipoma.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: The patient was a 29 year old who is diagnosed with an adrenal adenoma during an endocrinology review.
  • The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The myelolipoma is a rare tumor composed of hematopoietic elements in different maturation stages and without histological changes, combined with mature adipose tissue in varying proportions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 21187573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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15. Al Harthi B, Riaz MM, Al Khalaf AH, Al Zoum M, Al Shakweer W: Adrenal myelolipoma a rare benign tumour managed laparoscopically: Report of two cases. J Minim Access Surg; 2009 Oct;5(4):118-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma a rare benign tumour managed laparoscopically: Report of two cases.
  • Adrenal Myelolipoma is a rare benign neoplasm composed of mature adipose tissue and a variable amount of haemopoietic elements.
  • Two cases of myelolipoma are presented here, where the tumours were hormonally inactive, but presented with abdominal symptoms and were managed by laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

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  • [Cites] Radiology. 1998 Jul;208(1):87-95 [9646797.001]
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  • (PMID = 20407573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3921
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimal access surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Access Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2843128
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Angiomyelolipoma / laparoscopic adrenalectomy / myelolipoma
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16. Muzaffar N, Hashmi A, Mubarak M, Mohsin R, Shazad A, Sultan G, Hashmi A, Rizvi AH: Adrenal myelolipoma: a report of three cases and review of literature. J Pak Med Assoc; 2009 Jul;59(7):491-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: a report of three cases and review of literature.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare and benign tumour composed of mature adipose tissue and haematopoietic elements that resemble bone marrow.
  • It is mostly discovered incidentally on imaging of abdomen done for non adrenal related reasons or at autopsy.
  • Myelolipoma was confirmed in all three on histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 19579745.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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17. Gheith S, Boulay R, Cornfield D: Small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a pelvic myelolipoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;2(1):95-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a pelvic myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and normal hematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are extremely rare, with approximately 50% of cases occurring in the presacral region.
  • Histologic examination showed a myelolipoma with dense lymphoid aggregates.
  • Molecular evaluation confirmed the presence of a clonal B-cell lymphocytic proliferation that did not harbor BCL-2 or BCL-1 gene rearrangements.
  • This case represents the first report of a myelolipoma involved by a non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The likeliest scenario is that an unusual benign tumor (myelolipoma) was colonized by a relatively common systemic hematopoietic neoplasm SLL/CLL, producing a collision tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18830383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Extra adrenal myelolipoma / chronic lymphocytic leukemia / lymphoma / non-Hodgkin lymphoma / small lymphocytic lymphoma
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18. Timonera ER, Paiva ME, Lopes JM, Eloy C, van der Kwast T, Asa SL: Composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma of adrenal gland: report of 2 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Feb;132(2):265-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma of adrenal gland: report of 2 cases.
  • Adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma are benign, hormonally inactive tumors that are often incidental findings in the adrenal glands.
  • Myelolipoma is more common than adenomatoid tumor in this location but both are rare, and as yet, the pathogenesis of both remains unclear.
  • We report 2 cases of composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma, incidentally found in the adrenal gland on investigation for other diseases.
  • To our knowledge, composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma of adrenal gland has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18251587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Talwalkar SS, Shaheen SP 2nd: Extra-adrenal myelolipoma in the renal hilum: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jul;130(7):1049-52

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extra-adrenal myelolipoma in the renal hilum: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Myelolipoma most commonly arises in the adrenal gland.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare; to our knowledge, approximately 37 previous cases have been reported.
  • We report a myelolipoma presenting as a localized mass in perirenal adipose tissue juxtaposed to the renal hilum in a 65-year-old Caucasian man who presented with back pain, weight loss, hematuria, and flank pain.
  • However, histology revealed mainly mature adipose tissue along with multiple scattered islands of hematopoietic precursor cells.
  • Perirenal masses such as morphologically identified myelolipomas are rarely, if ever, considered in differential diagnosis.
  • The purpose of this report is to elicit consideration of extra-adrenal myelolipoma when formulating a differential diagnosis for perirenal and retroperitoneal tumors.
  • Although primary and secondary malignant retroperitoneal tumors are much more common and aggressive neoplasms, establishing the correct diagnosis has important therapeutic and prognostic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lipomatosis / diagnosis. Liposarcoma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Nephrectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16831034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Gamss C, Chia F, Chernyak V, Rozenblit A: Giant hemorrhagic myelolipoma in a patient with sickle cell disease. Emerg Radiol; 2009 Jul;16(4):319-22
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  • [Title] Giant hemorrhagic myelolipoma in a patient with sickle cell disease.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign tumor consisting of adipose tissue and hematopoetic elements.
  • It is generally diagnosed as an incidental finding due to its nonfunctioning, asymptomatic nature (Meaglia and Schmidt J Urol 147:1089, 1992).
  • With increasing size, however, as seen in this case, myelolipomas can cause flank pain and abdominal distention.
  • This lesion was diagnosed in a young male with sickle cell disease during a vaso-occlusive crisis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anemia, Sickle Cell / complications. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Hemoglobin, Sickle. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18665404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-1435
  • [Journal-full-title] Emergency radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Emerg Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Hemoglobin, Sickle
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21. Dell'Avanzato R, Castaldi F, Giovannini C, Mercadante E, Cianciulli P, Carlini M: Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report. Chir Ital; 2009 Mar-Apr;61(2):231-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, usually unilateral, frequently associated with hypertension and obesity, with a benign biological behaviour and without hormonal activity, first described in 1905.
  • The neoplasm consists of adipose tissue and myelopoietic cells of the bone marrow.
  • These tumours have a very slow but continued growth and their volume and weight vary significantly from small lesions of a few grams to huge masses weighing up to several kilograms.
  • If symptoms occur, surgery should be performed without delay, especially for large myelolipomas that are at high risk of spontaneous rupture with haemorrhage and life-threatening shock.
  • In this report a case of a 43-year-old male with a 22 x 18 x 9 cm giant myelolipoma, weighing 3500 g and originating from the right adrenal gland is described.
  • The different aetiological hypotheses of this rare neoplasm and its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19536999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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22. Sawhney R, McRae B, Lazarchick J: A rare case of a multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma with markedly hypocellular bone marrow. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2006;36(2):208-11
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  • [Title] A rare case of a multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma with markedly hypocellular bone marrow.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare, generally solitary, non-functioning tumors consisting of adipose tissue and hematopoetic elements.
  • We describe the extremely rare occurrence of multifocal, extra-adrenal myelolipomas in a 35-yr-old male.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a markedly abnormal marrow examination in a patient with extra-adrenal myelolipoma, and implicates the extra-osseous masses as the driving force behind his normal hematopoesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary / physiology. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16682520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-7370
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Bovo G, Picozzi SC, Viganò P, Giuberti A, Casu M, Manganini V, Mazza L, Strada GR: Giant adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2007 Dec;59(4):455-8
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is a benign, endocrinologically inactive neoplasm composed of mature adipose tissue and a variable amount of hematopoietic elements.
  • Rarely giant adrenal myelolipomas have been reported in literature and they are very unusual clinical entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 17947963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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24. Wouda RM, Chalkley MD, Fraser AR, Moses PA: Hepatic myelolipoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat. Aust Vet J; 2010 Jun;88(6):231-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatic myelolipoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat.
  • Hepatic myelolipoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed in an 11-year-old, desexed female Persian cat.
  • Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a common incidental finding in cats and is usually asymptomatic.
  • Myelolipoma is an extremely rare benign tumour, composed of extramedullary haematopoietic cells and adipose tissue.
  • Myelolipomas are hypothesised to result from metaplastic alteration, rather than a neoplastic process, although this theory cannot be substantiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiac Tamponade / veterinary. Cat Diseases / pathology. Hernia, Diaphragmatic / veterinary. Liver Diseases / veterinary. Myelolipoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20553572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-0813
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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25. Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Tupikowski K, Akinpelumi BF: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Jan;18(103):107-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Myelolipoma nadnerczy.
  • This paper is a review of the literature about adrenal myelolipoma.
  • It is a rare, benign, hormonally inactive tumor of the adrenal gland composed of mature fat tissue and hematopoietic tissue in varying amounts.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is usually small (< 4 cm), unilateral and causes no clinical disorders.
  • Etiology of myelolipoma is unclear.
  • It is usually hormonally inactive but there were several cases in which adrenal myelolipoma coexisted with various endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, hirsutism, hermaphroditism, inborn deficiencies of 17- and 21-hydroxylase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15859562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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26. Doddi S, Singhal T, Leake T, Sinha P: Management of an incidentally found large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8414

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of an incidentally found large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign neoplasm composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • Cross-sectional imaging is helpful in making a pre-operative diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] Int J Urol. 2004 Jun;11(6):416-8 [15157212.001]
  • [Cites] World J Surg Oncol. 2008;6:72 [18601731.001]
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  • (PMID = 19918428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769438
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27. Papapietro N, Martinelli N, Ippolito M, Amato C, Denaro V: Intraosseous myelolipoma within proximal femoral metaphysis in a patient with previous prostate cancer: a case report. Hip Int; 2009 Jul-Sep;19(3):283-6
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  • [Title] Intraosseous myelolipoma within proximal femoral metaphysis in a patient with previous prostate cancer: a case report.
  • Computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed mature adipose tissue along with hematopoietic precursor cells.
  • This is the third case of intraosseous myelolipoma reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Osteoarthritis, Hip / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19876886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6067
  • [Journal-full-title] Hip international : the journal of clinical and experimental research on hip pathology and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hip Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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28. Haouas N, Sahraoui W, Saidi R, Lefi M, Saad H: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Prog Urol; 2005 Jun;15(3):532-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a benign, non-secreting tumour, which can be complicated by pain or retroperitoneal haemorrhage.
  • The diagnosis is based on CT or preferably MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16097167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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29. Castillo Lario MC, Carro Alonso B, Gimeno Peribáñez MJ, Freile García E, Villavieja Atance JL: [Giant right adrenal myelolipoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Nov;59(9):911-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant right adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma suprarrenal derecho gigante.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor, well limited, variable in size, composed of fatty and hematopoietic tissues, the finding of which is usually incidental.
  • METHODS: We report the case of a 57-year-old male admitted to the hospital with acute abdominal pain.
  • CT scan with i.v. contrast and adrenal biopsy were performed.
  • RESULTS: Radiological findings: 9 x 10 cm right adrenal mass, well defined, hypodense, with a small calcification in its posterior area.
  • Pathologic findings: benign tumor, encapsulated, with a mixture of mature fatty tissue and hematopoietic cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of fat within an adrenal mass is essential for the diagnosis.
  • Differential diagnosis should be done with all adrenal tumors with a fat component.
  • When no radiological diagnosis is made, pathologic confirmation is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17190217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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30. Amendolara M, Barbarino C, Bucca D, Guarnieri F, Novello GB, Romano FM, Stevanato G, Ranzato R: [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report]. G Chir; 2008 Mar;29(3):85-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma surrenalico bilaterale gigante. Caso clinico.
  • The adrenal myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumour of adipose cell and bone marrow elements, non functioning and asymptomatic.
  • Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma is quite rare.
  • The Authors report a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma, a giant one (> 15 cm) on the left side and a small one (> 4 cm) on the right with constant pain in a 57-year-old man, shown by computerized tomography.
  • Surgical excision was performed for large left symptomatic mass, by open laparotomy, and biopsy for right minor adrenal lesion.
  • Histology confirmed diagnosis of myelolipoma for both masses.
  • Follow-up to 6-12 months did'nt show any change of the right myelolipoma.
  • The authors agree with the need to remove the giant adrenal myelolipoma, because the lesion > 10 cm have a high risk of cancer and hemorrhagic complication, while for small myelolipoma (< 6 cm) 6-12 months follow-up is the appropriate choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparotomy. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18366886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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31. Temizoz O, Genchellac H, Demir MK, Unlu E, Ozdemir H: Bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipomas: CT features. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e198-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipomas: CT features.
  • Myelolipomas are rare benign tumours composed of adipose tissue and haematopoietic cells that are typically found in adrenal glands but have also appeared in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Distinguishing between extra-adrenal myelolipomas and malignant tumours, such as liposarcomas, is crucial to avoid an invasive procedure.
  • To this end, we present a comprehensive report of the CT imaging characteristics of a pathologically proven bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • [Cites] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004 Sep;183(3):833-6 [15333378.001]
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  • (PMID = 20846975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3473743
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32. Pavón CJ, Llodra GP, Cuadrado JF, Artero SM, Rodríguez AC, Cao RB, Fernández FP: [Hepatic myelolipoma. Diagnosis and treatment]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 May;32(5):349-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Hepatic myelolipoma. Diagnosis and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma hepático: diagnóstico y tratamiento.
  • Myelolipoma is a very uncommon tumor and is extremely rare in the liver.
  • Patients are usually asymptomatic and preoperative diagnosis is often difficult.
  • We report a new case of hepatic myelolipoma and review all the cases previously reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 19457591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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33. Pascual García X, Bujons Tur A, Rodríguez Faba O, Gómez Ruiz JJ, Palou Redorta J, Villavicencio Mavrich H: [Extraadrenal perirenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature]. Actas Urol Esp; 2007 Sep;31(8):932-4
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  • [Title] [Extraadrenal perirenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma extraadrenal perirenal: aportación de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare bening tumours that are componed of mature fat cells and myeloid elements.
  • We report a case of extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 18020221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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34. Spizzirri A, Napolitano V, La Mura F, Cattorini L, Farinella E, Del Monaco P, Migliaccio C, Pressi E, De Sol A, Bravetti M, Coccetta M, Cirocchi R, Sciannameo F: [Presacral myelolipoma: a case report]. G Chir; 2010 Oct;31(10):451-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Presacral myelolipoma: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma presacrale: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Presacral tumors are more frequently benign, and only occasionally malignant, showing a slow growth and an incidence of 1:40.000.
  • CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 69-year old woman with a lower abdominal pain associated with paresthesia and ipostenia of the right inferior limb.
  • Final histological diagnosis was myelolipoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The Authors' opinion is that the en-bloc resection of these tumors with an anterior surgical approach allows a histological diagnosis of the nature, representing the best treatment for potentially malignant lesions, which are frequently radio and chemo-resistant.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelolipoma. Sacrococcygeal Region

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  • (PMID = 20939954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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35. Romano G, Cocchiara G, Calderone F, Buscemi G, Gioè FP, Alongi G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature]. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):228-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Trattamento laparoscopico del mielolipoma surrenalico: caso clinico e revisione della letteratura.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign, non-functioning tumor consisting of fat and hematopoietic tissues.
  • In January 2005 we had observed an adrenal myelolipoma in 70 year old man.
  • During the follow-up for bladder urothelioma, an abdominal CT revaled a well delineated 4x4 cm homogeneous fatty mass in the right suprarenal area with negative attenuation values.
  • The functional study of adrenal gland was normal.
  • The istological diagnosis showed adrenal myelolipoma.
  • We conclude that videolaparoscopic adrenalectomy should be considered the gold standard treatment for benign adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16857113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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36. Ares Valdés Y: [Adrenal myelolipoma. Case report and bibliographic review]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Jan-Feb;59(1):71-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma. Case report and bibliographic review].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma de la glándula suprarrenal. Informe de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report one case of adrenal myelolipoma in a female patient presenting with right lumbar pain over six months.
  • RESULTS: The patient underwent right adenomectomy with the working diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Myelolipoma may present hematopoietic, fat and bone components.
  • It continues being an incidental finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16568696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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37. Bishop E, Eble JN, Cheng L, Wang M, Chase DR, Orazi A, O'Malley DP: Adrenal myelolipomas show nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation in hematopoietic elements and fat: support for a clonal origin of myelolipomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jul;30(7):838-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipomas show nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation in hematopoietic elements and fat: support for a clonal origin of myelolipomas.
  • Myelolipomas are defined as mature fat associated with hematopoietic elements, often found in the adrenal gland.
  • In this study, we evaluated histologic, immunohistochemical features and comparisons of X-chromosome inactivation patterns in 19 myelolipomas.
  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 19 myelolipomas was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunostained with monoclonal antibodies against CD138, CD34, CD117, CD42a, hemoglobin, myeloperoxidase, collagen IV, and nerve growth factor receptor.
  • Histologic evaluation included estimates of overall cellularity of hematopoietic tissue, estimates of cellularity in the areas of highest concentration of hematopoietic tissue, myeloid to erythroid ratio, and numbers of megakaryocytes.
  • X-chromosome inactivation analysis was performed on myelolipomas from 11 female patients by polymerase chain reaction.
  • Myelolipomas showed wide variation in cellularity within the lesion (5% to 90%) with no correlation with the patient's age.
  • All the myelolipomas demonstrated normal trilineage hematopoiesis and cellular morphology, with few early myeloid precursors, as evidenced by negativity for CD117 and only rare positivity for CD34 antibodies.
  • Most of the myelolipomas (14/18) had markedly increased megakaryocytes compared with normal marrows.
  • The majority of myelolipomas also had a stromal composition and vascular patterns that were different from those of normal bone marrow.
  • X-chromosome inactivation studies demonstrated nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation in 8/11 myelolipomas from female patients.
  • Myelolipomas are morphologically different from the normal bone marrow.
  • The majority of myelolipomas also have nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation, suggesting a clonal origin for these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. Gene Silencing. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary / genetics. Myelolipoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / chemistry. Adipose Tissue / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Clone Cells. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Microdissection. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16819325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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38. Morandi F, Mays JL, Newman SJ, Adams WH: Imaging diagnosis--bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2007 May-Jun;48(3):246-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging diagnosis--bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas in a dog.
  • A 10-year-old neutered female Pug was evaluated for a left adrenal mass detected previously by ultrasonography.
  • Using computed tomography, a fat-attenuating, rim-enhancing left adrenal mass and a homogeneous, soft-tissue attenuating, intensely enhancing right adrenal mass were found.
  • A left adrenalectomy and right adrenal biopsy were performed and the final diagnosis was bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas.
  • Myelolipomas are rare, benign, endocrinologically inactive tumors composed of well-differentiated adipose tissue and a variable amount of hematopoietic cells of both lymphatic and myeloid lineages, which may account for the different appearance on tomographic images.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / radiography. Myelolipoma / veterinary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Female. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17508512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Mahe E, El-Shinnawy I: A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Malays J Pathol; 2010 Dec;32(2):123-8
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  • [Title] A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • We present an intriguing case of adrenal myelolipomata occurring within an adrenocortical adenoma in concert with an ipsilateral clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • Computed tomography indicated a 2.5 cm right renal mass as well as a 5 cm right adrenal mass.
  • The adrenal mass was a cortical adenoma with solid and nested patterns, with discrete zones consisting of erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic cells intermixed with mature adipocytes.
  • We also present a relevant review of the literature pertaining to adrenal lesions.
  • In particular, we emphasize the epidemiological, histological and immunohistochemical features that are helpful in determining the origin and malignant potential of adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology


40. Adachi S, Kawamura N, Hatano K, Kakuta Y, Takada T, Hara T, Yamaguchi S: Lipomatous ganglioneuroma of the retroperitoneum. Pathol Int; 2008 Mar;58(3):183-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Because of the fat element, CT and magnetic resonance imaging suggested myelolipoma inside or outside the right adrenal gland.
  • The laparotomy indicated that the tumor was located on the right adrenal gland.
  • Microscopically, ganglioneuromatous component was scattered in the background of a large amount of adipose tissue.
  • Because the presence of such a large amount of adipose tissue seems to be rare in ganglioneuromas, its histogenesis is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromogranins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. S100 Proteins / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18251782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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41. Sundaram M, Bauer T, von Hochstetter A, Ilaslan H, Joyce M: Intraosseous myelolipoma. Skeletal Radiol; 2007 Dec;36(12):1181-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraosseous myelolipoma.
  • Radiographs on the first patient showed a sclerotic benign appearing acetabular lesion reminiscent of a fibro-osseous lesion while MRI showed the entire lesion to contain fat.
  • The histological features were neither of a fibro-osseous lesion nor a lipoma, but only normal to mildly hypercellular marrow elements.
  • Neither the radiographic nor MRI features were consistent with that diagnosis.
  • The spectrum of imaging findings and microscopic appearances in both patients best fit the diagnosis of intraosseous myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetabulum / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Femur / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17618431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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42. Vaziri M, Sadeghipour A, Pazooki A, Shoolami LZ: Primary mediastinal myelolipoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2008 May;85(5):1805-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary mediastinal myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor composed of an admixture of fat and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells.
  • It is typically an adrenal lesion, and mediastinal location is extremely unusual.
  • We describe a 56-year-old man with nonspecific symptoms of cough and dyspnea and no underlying disease whose chest computed tomography showed a huge (25 x 15 cm) mediastinal tumor containing calcification.
  • Surgical removal and subsequent pathologic examination of the tumor revealed myelolipoma.
  • Primary myelolipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of large posterior mediastinal tumors containing calcification.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcinosis / diagnosis. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / surgery. Cough / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Dyspnea / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Mediastinum / pathology. Mediastinum / surgery. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18442597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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43. Karam AR, Nugent W, Falardeau J, Desai D, Khan A, Shankar S: Multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma arising in the greater omentum. J Radiol Case Rep; 2009;3(11):20-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma arising in the greater omentum.
  • Myelolipomas are rare benign tumors composed of mature fat and hematopoietic elements.
  • They are most often discovered incidentally within the adrenal glands, with extra-adrenal myelolipomas being extremely rare tumors.
  • We report a case of multifocal omental extra-adrenal myelolipoma in a patient who had undergone bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intraperitoneal extra-adrenal myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 22470626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3303281
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Myelolipoma / extra-adrenal / omentum / peritoneum
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44. Kalidindi RS, Hattingh L: Bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas. Abdom Imaging; 2006 Jan-Feb;31(1):125-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors that comprise mature adipose cells and hematopoietic elements.
  • Although they are not hormonally active, there is very rarely an association with functional adrenal disorders such as Cushing syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • We report the imaging appearances of bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas in a patient known to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • To our knowledge, these are the largest bilateral adrenal myelolipomas reported in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / epidemiology. Adult. Comorbidity. Humans. Male. Radiographic Image Enhancement

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  • [ErratumIn] Abdom Imaging. 2011 Oct;36(5):632
  • (PMID = 16245020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Meyer A, Behrend M: Presentation and therapy of myelolipoma. Int J Urol; 2005 Mar;12(3):239-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presentation and therapy of myelolipoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare and benign, hormonally inactive tumor frequently discovered incidentally.
  • Because of the increasing rate of detection of adrenal myelolipoma, use of the correct diagnostic examination and treatment, with respect to surgical excision or regular controls, is continually gaining importance.
  • We report herein on the largest series of surgically treated patients with adrenal myelolipoma from a single institute.
  • METHODS: The clinical charts of 12 patients who underwent adrenal surgery for myelolipoma were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma was made incidentally in seven patients, and during examination for reasons of unspecific abdominal or flank pain in five patients.
  • No recurrence could be seen; however, in one patient a contralateral adrenal myelolipoma had developed.
  • A close follow up should be maintained in the case of patients free of symptoms, and for those with a definite diagnosis from imaging procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15828949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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46. Cox A, Offman SL, Merrimen JL, Kew A, Norman RW: Bilateral renal sinus myelolipomas. Can Urol Assoc J; 2010 Dec;4(6):E164-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral renal sinus myelolipomas.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are benign neoplasms consisting of hematopoietic cellular elements and adipose tissue.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas (EM) are extremely rare with fewer than 50 cases reported.
  • Management options include both conservative and surgical approaches depending upon the certainty of the diagnosis, progression of the patient's symptoms and evidence of growth.

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  • [Cites] Surgery. 1973 May;73(5):665-70 [4697085.001]
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  • (PMID = 21749813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-1214
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3038377
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47. Lu HS, Gan MF, Chen HS, Huang SQ: Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2008 Jun;9(6):500-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome.
  • The coexistence of myelolipoma within adrenal cortical adenoma is extremely rare, for both tumors present usually as separate entities.
  • To the best of our knowledge, the case we reported here is the first one of myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma associated with myelolipoma reported.
  • Clinical history and laboratory results suggest a metabolic disorder as Conn's syndrome.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • In the present case report, we also discuss the etiology of simultaneous myelolipoma and adrenal adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome, and the methods of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications

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  • (PMID = 18543405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 21
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408705
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48. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Cortes O, Sánchez-Salas R, Arellano L: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal myelolipoma. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Mar;60(2):217-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal myelolipoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: [corrected] To evaluate the results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal myelolipoma in a single center.
  • 19 specimens corresponded with adrenal myelolipomas (8%).
  • RESULTS: Nineteen adrenal myelolipomas were laparoscopically treated in eighteen patients.
  • 16 lesions were located on the right adrenal gland (84%).
  • Pathology reports confirmed all specimens as myelolipomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal myelolipoma is an infrequent, benign entity which can occasionally become symptomatic due to spontaneous hemorrhage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Myelolipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17484497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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49. Nermoen I, Følling I, Vegge K, Larmo A, Nedrebø BG, Husebye ES, Løvås K: Two adults with adrenal myelolipoma and 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Case Rep Med; 2009;2009:916891

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Two adults with adrenal myelolipoma and 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • We present incidentally discovered adrenal myelolipomas in two adult males with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • The masses were not removed since myelolipomas are considered benign tumors, and the tumor size did not increase during four- and nine-year observation periods.
  • An adrenal myelolipoma is an important exception to the rule that large tumours should be removed.
  • Untreated CAH with prolonged excessive ACTH stimulation might contribute to the growth of adrenal masses.
  • CAH should be considered as a differential diagnosis of patients with adrenal masses or adrenal myelolipomas.

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  • (PMID = 19724639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9627
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2728610
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50. Egbert N, Elsayes KM, Azar S, Caoili EM: Computed tomography of adrenocortical carcinoma containing macroscopic fat. Cancer Imaging; 2010;10:198-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The presence of macroscopic fat in an adrenal mass has classically been associated with myelolipoma.
  • The presence of macroscopic fat is not a characteristic finding in adrenocortical carcinoma or other adrenal malignancies.
  • We report a case of a newly discovered large adrenal mass containing multiple areas of macroscopic fat, which was pathologically proven to represent an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / radiography. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoma / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21067996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999409
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51. Adams S, Liermann D, Mruck S: Functional and morphological imaging of extraadrenal myelolipoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Apr;34(4):226-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functional and morphological imaging of extraadrenal myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare, hormonally inactive, benign tumor consisting of fat and hematopoietic cells.
  • It is often encountered in the adrenal gland.
  • Although myelolipoma is well defined by criteria of morphologic imaging, functional characteristics may be crucial to exclude malignancy.We present a case of histologically proven extraadrenal myelolipoma which was successfully diagnosed by bone marrow scintigraphy, using a monoclonal antibody directed against myeloid elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Marrow / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / radionuclide imaging. Radionuclide Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 19300053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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52. Tjalma WA: Myelolipoma in the paravesical space--case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(6):613-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myelolipoma in the paravesical space--case report.
  • Myelolipomas are benign tumours composed of haematopoietic tissue and mature adipocytes.
  • They occur predominantly in the adrenal glands although rarely extra adrenal sites have been described.
  • Here we present a myelolipoma in the paravesical space.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17290595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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53. Daneshmand S, Quek ML: Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management. Urol J; 2006;3(2):71-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal myelolipomas are benign lesions that contain hematopoietic and fatty elements.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive review of the literature using the PubMed database containing the key word adrenal myelolipoma.
  • In this review, we highlighted the salient diagnostic features of adrenal myelolipomas and offered a guide for management of these benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal myelolipomas may grow over time, but they can usually be followed without surgical excision.
  • In some cases, very large myelolipomas can present with pain and can be confused with necrotic adrenal carcinomas, thus necessitating their surgical removal.

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  • (PMID = 17590837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-1308
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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54. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Commonly, it is diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • In this paper, we report three cases of adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenocortical adenoma; in all three patients, the radiological appearance resembled adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Kamiie J, Fueki K, Amagai H, Ichikawa Y, Shirota K: Multicentric myelolipoma in a dog. J Vet Med Sci; 2009 Mar;71(3):371-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multicentric myelolipoma in a dog.
  • We report herein a case of multicentric myelolipoma in an 11-year-old beagle dog that presented with vomiting.
  • Laparotomy demonstrated the presence of a large mass adherent to the greater omentum and multiple small white maculae in the spleen.
  • Multicentric myelolipoma was diagnosed.
  • This is first report of multicentric myelolipoma in a dog.

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  • (PMID = 19346711.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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56. Zieker D, Königsrainer I, Miller S, Vogel U, Sotlar K, Steurer W, Königsrainer A, Lehmann TG: Simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma - an uncommon incident: case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma - an uncommon incident: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumours.
  • Other soft tissue tumours such as well-differentiated liposarcomas appear morphological almost identical.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a very seldom case of a simultaneous myelolipoma of the adrenal gland in association with an extra-adrenal myelolipoma in an 75-year-old man.
  • With a review of the literature we describe and discuss the aetiology, differential diagnosis and treatment of patients with respect to adrenal and extra-adrenal lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: The appearance of a simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma is a rare incident.
  • We conclude that such lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a fat-containing tumour in the retroperitoneal tissue/compartment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18601731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 22
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2474838
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57. Beiko D, Roldan H, Sengupta SK, George RL: Laparoscopic excision of a large extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma. Can Urol Assoc J; 2010 Apr;4(2):E39-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic excision of a large extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipoma is a very rare type of tumour.
  • Laparoscopic removal of extra-adrenal myelolipoma has not been previously reported.
  • We report the first case of laparoscopic excision of a large extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 20368880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-1214
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2845669
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58. Hagspiel KD: Manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an adrenal myelolipoma. Eur Radiol; 2005 Aug;15(8):1757-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are benign tumors histologically consisting of fat and bone marrow.
  • The computed tomography findings of Hodgkin's lymphoma manifested in an adrenal myelolipoma are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15503042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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59. Matsumoto S, Takahashi S, Goto T, Tomita K, Takeuchi T, Kitamura T: Proteus syndrome with giant myelolipoma in the pelvis. Int J Urol; 2005 Nov;12(11):1005-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proteus syndrome with giant myelolipoma in the pelvis.
  • Proteus syndrome is a very rare and complex disorder with malformations and overgrowth of multiple tissues.
  • This disorder was designated Proteus syndrome by Wiedemann et al. to denote its variable clinical expression.
  • A biopsy under laparotomy was performed, and histopathological examination revealed myelolipoma.
  • To our knowledge, no case of Proteus syndrome presenting a myelolipoma in the retroperitoneal cavity has been reported before.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Proteus Syndrome / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16351661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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60. Kiriakopoulos A, Tsakayannis D, Linos D: Surgical management of adrenal myelolipoma: a series of 10 patients and review of the literature. Minerva Chir; 2006 Jun;61(3):241-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of adrenal myelolipoma: a series of 10 patients and review of the literature.
  • AIM: Adrenal myelolipomas have been conventionally described as asymptomatic tumors that are easily diagnosed and can be managed conservatively.
  • METHODS: The clinical presentation, the operative treatment and histopathological features of 10 patients with myelolipoma over a 13-year period in a tertiary care Center are presented.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although myelolipomas are considered as innocent benign growths, they may present with acute clinical symptoms.
  • Surgical therapy is a safe and definitive treatment option for both symptomatic and ''asymptomatic'' lesions providing definitive diagnosis and alleviating the patients' symptoms along with the emotional burden due to tumor presence.

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  • (PMID = 16858306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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61. Polamaung W, Wisedopas N, Vasinanukorn P, Pak-art P, Snabboon T: Asymptomatic bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct;13(6):667-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Asymptomatic bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual case of bilateral giant adrenal masses caused by a primary adrenal myelolipoma.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic findings in a 32-year-old man with bilateral adrenal masses.
  • The previous reports of bilateral myelolipomas also were reviewed.
  • A computed tomographic scan of the abdomen disclosed bilateral adrenal masses; the one on the left was approximately 27 by 24 by 12 cm, and the one on the right side was 9 by 5 by 5 cm.
  • The computed tomographic scan characteristics showed that both masses consisted mainly of low-density tissues (-30 to -90 Hounsfield units), suggestive of fatty component.
  • An endocrinologic evaluation revealed no evidence of adrenal cortical or medullary functional abnormalities.
  • CONCLUSION: Myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumor of the adrenal glands composed of adipose cells and mature hematopoietic elements.
  • Most such lesions are small, asymptomatic, and unilateral; giant or bilateral myelolipomas are quite rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17954426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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62. Craig WD, Fanburg-Smith JC, Henry LR, Guerrero R, Barton JH: Fat-containing lesions of the retroperitoneum: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2009 Jan-Feb;29(1):261-90

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Retroperitoneal lesions represent a broad, diverse collection of entities; when they contain fat, the differential diagnosis, which ranges from benign to fully malignant lesions, substantially narrows.
  • Hibernoma is a rare benign soft-tissue tumor composed of brown fat.
  • Teratomas are neoplasms that originate in pluripotent cells--benign or malignant germ cells--that give rise to a wide spectrum of mature or immature tissues that are foreign to the location in which they arise and which demonstrate varying amounts of organ formation.
  • Myelolipoma, a benign tumor composed of mature fat and interspersed hematopoietic elements that resemble bone marrow, typically originate in an otherwise normal adrenal gland.
  • Angiomyolipoma is composed of varying admixtures of blood vessels, smooth muscle cells, and adipose tissue; any one or two of these elements may predominate.
  • [MeSH-major] Intra-Abdominal Fat / pathology. Intra-Abdominal Fat / radiography. Lipomatosis / diagnosis. Lipomatosis / pathology. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19168848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Treska V, Wirthová M, Hadravská S, Mukensnábl P, Kuntscher V, Kreuzberg B, Lisá L, Kozák K: [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia]. Zentralbl Chir; 2006 Feb;131(1):80-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia].
  • BACKGROUND: Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor formed by mature fat tissue with strata of haematopoiesis.
  • It is mainly asymptomatic, only large myelolipomas manifest themselves by abdominal discomfort, bleeding or by symptoms of oppressing adjacent organs.
  • It is usually localized in the region of the adrenal gland.
  • Myelolipomas are mostly clinically inert, only a small number of them are associated with Cushing's type of endocrine disorders, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, etc.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The authors present a rare case of a giant bilateral myelolipoma emerging out of the adrenal gland cortex in a congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in a woman with pronounced virilism.
  • The therapy available is either a surgical extirpation in the case of large or growing myelolipomas or observation in the case of small ones (< 5 cm).
  • RESULTS: The condition was resolved by bilateral adrenalectomy with extirpation of both myelolipomas and subsequent hormonal substitution treatment during which there was a gradual regression of virilising symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The coincidence of myelolipoma and congenital disorder with subsequent overproduction of the adrenocorticotropin hormone and androgens, might be explained by the incipient of myelolipoma through chronic hormonal stimulation of the adrenal gland cortex.
  • However, the etiopathogenesis of myelolipoma is still unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Myelolipoma / complications. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


64. Ueno H, Miyake T, Kobayashi Y, Yamada K, Uzuka Y: Epidural spinal myelolipoma in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc; 2007 Mar-Apr;43(2):132-5
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  • [Title] Epidural spinal myelolipoma in a dog.
  • Epidural spinal myelolipoma was diagnosed in a 13-year-old, male Siberian husky that was referred for evaluation of progressive pelvic limb paresis and urinary incontinence.
  • The mass was removed and identified histopathologically as an epidural myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery. Epidural Neoplasms / veterinary. Myelolipoma / veterinary. Paresis / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17339292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Anim Hosp Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Sawazaki H, Segawa T, Yoshida K, Kawahara T, Inoue T, Soda T, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Takahashi T, Nakamura E, Nishiyama H, Ito N, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):785-8
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  • [Title] [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report].
  • We present a case of hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • Based on abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was a sarcoma of renal capsule origin.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 17131868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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66. Sandoval MA, Anel-Quimpo J: A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation.
  • A 51-year-old Filipino woman presenting with hypertension was unexpectedly found to have a large right adrenal mass by ultrasound.
  • As she did not have symptoms of adrenal disease, this was labelled an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Ultrasound and CT imaging demonstrated a large adrenal mass on the right measuring 15 cm at its greatest diameter, with both benign and malignant features.
  • Histopathological examination revealed myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 22802369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027410
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67. Mermejo LM, Elias Junior J, Saggioro FP, Tucci Junior S, Castro Md, Moreira AC, Elias PC: Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: unusual association mimicking an androgen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Jun;54(4):419-24
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: unusual association mimicking an androgen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The objective of this study was to describe a case of giant myelolipoma associated with undiagnosed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase (21OH) deficiency.
  • Five seven year-old male patient referred with abdominal ultrasound revealing a left adrenal mass.
  • Biochemical investigation revealed hyperandrogenism and imaging exams characterized a large heterogeneous left adrenal mass with interweaving free fat tissue, compatible with the diagnosis of myelolipoma, and a 1.5 cm nodule in the right adrenal gland.
  • Biochemical correlation has brought concerns about differential diagnosis with adrenocortical carcinoma, and surgical excision of the left adrenal mass was indicated.
  • Anatomopathologic findings revealed a myelolipoma and multinodular hyperplasic adrenocortex.
  • Further investigation resulted in the diagnosis of CAH due to 21OH deficiency.
  • Although rare, myelolipoma associated with CAH should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal gland masses.
  • Moreover, CAH should always be ruled out in incidentally detected adrenal masses to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20625655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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68. Patel VG, Babalola OA, Fortson JK, Weaver WL: Adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Am Surg; 2006 Jul;72(7):649-54
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature lipomatous and hemopoietic tissue.
  • Although it is often discovered as an incidental finding on imaging of the abdomen for some other reason or at autopsy, adrenal myelolipoma has been reported to present with symptoms such as flank pain resulting from tumor bulk, necrosis, or spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
  • Myelolipomas are hormonally inactive but have also been reported to coexist with other hormonally active tumors of the adrenal gland.
  • We report a patient with symptomatic adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed on computed tomography scan and confirmed on computed tomography-guided biopsy.
  • We also review the literature to evaluate the presentation and optimal management of this rare adrenal tumor that is not encountered by most general surgeons and therefore not well known to most surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Myelolipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16875091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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69. Tursi M, Iussich S, Prunotto M, Buracco P: Adrenal myelolipoma in a dog. Vet Pathol; 2005 Mar;42(2):232-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma in a dog.
  • Abdominal ultrasound examination in an 11-year-old, intact, female Labrador dog with hepatic disease revealed a nodular swelling of the left adrenal gland.
  • Grossly, a nodular mass protruded from the external surface of the left adrenal gland and in cut section was hemorrhagic and effaced the cortical and medullary regions.
  • The mass was composed of well-differentiated adipose cells, megakaryocytes, hematopoietic cells, and macrophages containing hemosiderin deposits.
  • A diagnosis of cortical adrenal myelolipoma was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Myelolipoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15753481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Hagiwara H, Usui T, Kimura T, Tagami T, Naruse M, Minamiguchi S, Kato T, Okuno H, Shimatsu A: Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):122-7
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  • [Title] Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Myelolipomas of the adrenal gland are benign, nonfunctioning tumors.
  • Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia sometimes develop large and bilateral myelolipomas.
  • Although the precise pathogenesis of myelolipomas remains unclear, prolonged stimulation with high levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or adrenal androgens are assumed to have a causative role.
  • To clarify the role of ACTH and androgen in the pathogenesis of myelolipoma, we report a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma in a patient with poorly controlled congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • A 43-year-old female was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia at 6 years of age because of ambiguous genitalia.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a huge mass on the left adrenal gland, and an enlarged right adrenal mass.
  • Histological study revealed that the tumor consisted of fat cells and myeloid components, findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Our finding that the tumor did not over-express ACTH or androgen receptor suggests a limited direct role for these hormones in the development of the myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Myelolipoma / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Female. Genitalia, Female / abnormalities. Genitalia, Female / surgery. Humans. Receptors, Melanocortin / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18618087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Melanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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71. Sakaki M, Izaki H, Fukumori T, Taue R, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO: Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome. Int J Urol; 2006 Jun;13(6):801-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor, occasionally reported in association with endocrine disorders.
  • We report herein a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • A diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency was confirmed by mutation analysis of the CYP21 gene.
  • Our case represents only the second case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Mutation. Myelolipoma / genetics. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16834664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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72. Jung SI, Kim SO, Kang TW, Kwon DD, Park K, Ryu SB: Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperaldosteronism: report of a case and review of the literature. Urology; 2007 Dec;70(6):1223.e11-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperaldosteronism: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature adipose cells and hematopoietic elements.
  • Although they are not hormonally active, there is very rarely an association with functional adrenal disorders.
  • We report a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first bilateral adrenal myelolipomas reported to date in association with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18158060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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73. Sun X, Ayala A, Castro CY: Adrenocortical carcinoma with concomitant myelolipoma in a patient with hyperaldosteronism. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Jun;129(6):e144-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with concomitant myelolipoma in a patient with hyperaldosteronism.
  • We present a case of aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma with concomitant myelolipoma.
  • Clinical workup revealed an increased serum aldosterone level, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis, and a left adrenal mass was found on computed tomography.
  • At the periphery of the tumor but within the capsule, microscopic areas of myelolipoma were seen.
  • Although rare, aldosterone-secreting carcinoma associated with myelolipoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal gland masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15913443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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74. Ahsan T, Kanwal S, Banu Z, Jabeen R: Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2010 Dec;20(12):819-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign and usually hormonally inactive tumour.
  • We report a case of a young female who presented with hormonally active tumour causing virilization and associated type-2 Diabetes mellitus.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done after CT finding of a large left adrenal mass that was producing large amounts of androgens.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma with cortical hyperplasia was diagnosed on histopathological examination.
  • We report this case due to its rarity, multiplicity of tumours and adrenal cortical hyperplasia-presenting as an unusual cause of severe virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Fibroadenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21205549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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75. Al-Rukibat RK, Bani Ismail ZA: Unusual presentation of splenic myelolipoma in a dog. Can Vet J; 2006 Nov;47(11):1112-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual presentation of splenic myelolipoma in a dog.
  • Cytologic and histologic evaluation of the mass revealed a mixture of fat and hematopoietic tissue, consistent with a splenic myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / veterinary. Splenic Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17147143.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5286
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue vétérinaire canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1624918
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76. Greaves WO, Khanna P, DeLellis R, Glasser L, Wang LJ: Renal sinus myelolipoma coexistent with renal pelvis papillary transitional cell carcinoma: a case report. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):437-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Renal sinus myelolipoma coexistent with renal pelvis papillary transitional cell carcinoma: a case report.
  • A unique case of renal sinus myelolipoma presenting as a mass coexistent with papillary transitional cell carcinoma is reported.
  • Pathological findings revealed an irregular myxoid fatty mass, in addition to high-grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis included myxoid liposarcoma, myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (myxofibrosarcoma), and angiomyolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma and papillary transitional cell carcinoma appear to be unrelated coexistent entities in this case.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Pelvis / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary


77. Ghatak S, Mridha AR: Laparoscopic resection of a large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9313

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of a large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report.
  • On evaluation he was found to have a large right adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Operative specimen's histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 20062636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803976
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78. Orsola A, Raventós C, Trias I, Español I, Orsola I: Urinary retention secondary to presacral myelolipoma; first reported case diagnosed by prostate TUR and requiring a cystectomy. Int Urol Nephrol; 2005;37(4):717-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Urinary retention secondary to presacral myelolipoma; first reported case diagnosed by prostate TUR and requiring a cystectomy.
  • We herein present a singular case of a 68-year-old male that presented with urinary retention and underwent prostate trans-urethral resection (TUR) with histology showing benign prostatic hyperplasia admixed with large amounts of myelolipoma tissue.
  • To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported presacral myelolipoma diagnosed at prostate trans-urethral resection (TUR).
  • Even though myelolipomas are regarded as benign, this case behaved aggressively since compressive effect evolved to severe constipation and eventually required a cystectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelolipoma / complications. Prostatic Hyperplasia / complications. Transurethral Resection of Prostate. Urinary Retention / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16362586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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79. Ersoy E, Ozdoğan M, Demirağ A, Aktimur R, Kulaçoğlu H, Kulaçoğlu S, Gündoğdu H: Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with small bowel leiomyosarcoma: a case report. Turk J Gastroenterol; 2006 Jun;17(2):126-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with small bowel leiomyosarcoma: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign and biochemically inactive tumor.
  • We report herein the association of a myelolipoma with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
  • The pathological diagnosis was reported as myelolipoma for the retroperitoneal mass and leiomyosarcoma for the jejunal mass.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor, involving mature fat and hematopoietic stem cells.
  • Myelolipomas are reported to be associated with some other malignancies (especially renal), but this is the first report showing the association with a leiomyosarcoma.
  • Therefore, leiomyosarcoma should also be one of the possible associations kept in mind by the physician in the diagnosis and treatment of myelolipomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Jejunal Neoplasms / surgery. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16830297.001).
  • [ISSN] 2148-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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80. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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81. Lamas C, López LM, Lozano E, Atienzar M, Ruiz-Mondéjar R, Alfaro JJ, Botella F: Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Sep;117(8):440-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are uncommon benign tumors, composed of mature adipose tissue and haematopoietic elements in varying proportions.
  • They are usually asymptomatic, non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas, but there have been a few reports of myelolipomatous masses associated with adrenocortical hypersecretion.
  • We report two cases of large mixed adrenal tumors, with heterogeneous appearance and areas of fat density in imaging techniques, and with autonomous cortisol production leading to Cushing's syndrome.
  • We review all the previous reported cases of hypercortisolism associated with adrenal myelolipomas.
  • We also discuss the recommended diagnostic approach and therapeutic management of adrenal masses of lipomatous appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Myelolipoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
  • (PMID = 19373749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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82. Nishio K, Tokiwa S, Saito K, Yoshii T, Ashizawa Y, Kurihara K, Kamiyama Y, Mikata N, Yasuda M, Ide H, Muto S, Okada H, Horie S: [A case of a giant adrenal myelolipoma in a man with spinal cord injury]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Jun;53(6):387-91
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  • [Title] [A case of a giant adrenal myelolipoma in a man with spinal cord injury].
  • Pathologic diagnosis was an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Between 1992 and 2006, 80 cases of adrenal myelolipoma were reported in Japan.
  • We reviewed these 80 cases and discussed the diagnosis and treatment strategy of the adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Spinal Cord Injuries / complications

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  • (PMID = 17628936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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83. Skorpil M, Tani E, Blomqvist L: Presacral myelolipoma in a patient with rectal cancer: diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and aspiration cytology. Acta Radiol; 2007 Dec;48(10):1049-51
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  • [Title] Presacral myelolipoma in a patient with rectal cancer: diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and aspiration cytology.
  • We present a case of rectal cancer with a simultaneous presacral myelolipoma that could have been misdiagnosed on MRI as a metastasis if a T1-weighted sequence had not also been used in the evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17963074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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84. Hatai H, Ochiai K, Nakamura S, Kamiya T, Ito M, Yamamoto H, Sunden Y, Umemura T: Hepatic myelolipoma and amyloidosis with osseous metaplasia in a swan goose (Anser cygnoides). J Comp Pathol; 2009 Nov;141(4):260-4
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  • [Title] Hepatic myelolipoma and amyloidosis with osseous metaplasia in a swan goose (Anser cygnoides).
  • Microscopically, the hepatic lesions were composed of a mixture of adipocytes and myeloid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloidosis / veterinary. Bird Diseases / pathology. Liver / pathology. Liver Diseases / veterinary. Liver Neoplasms / veterinary. Myelolipoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19592008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3129
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Ammoury RF, Heptulla RA, Tatevian N, Elenberg E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient. Pediatr Nephrol; 2006 Mar;21(3):433-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient.
  • Adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma is extremely rare in pediatrics.
  • A 16-year-old patient was diagnosed with severe hypertension associated with a right adrenal mass.
  • MRI of the abdomen showed a heterogeneous adrenal mass 4.2x3.3 cm.
  • Laparoscopic resection of the mass was done, and the pathology revealed an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • This is a case in which an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma, a benign and usually asymptomatic tumor, presented as severe hypertension resolving with surgical resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery


86. Ong K, Tan KB, Putti TC: Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma. Singapore Med J; 2007 Jul;48(7):e200-2

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  • [Title] Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • Myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma is a very rare cause of adrenal incidentaloma, and only nine cases have been reported in the English and Japanese literature.
  • Clinical history, physical examination and laboratory results did not show any evidence to suggest metabolic disorder such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism or catecholamine hypersecretion.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma reported; in the nine cases of myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma reported previously, all the patients had Cushing's syndrome.
  • The literature on synchronous myelolipoma with adrenal adenoma, and myelolipoma within functional adrenal adenoma, is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17609815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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87. Park BK, Kim CK, Kim B, Kwon GY: Adrenal tumors with late enhancement on CT and MRI. Abdom Imaging; 2007 Jul-Aug;32(4):515-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal tumors with late enhancement on CT and MRI.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify adrenal masses showing gradual persistent enhancement on delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computed tomography or magnetic resonance images of pathologically proven 400 adrenal tumors were retrospectively reviewed over a 10-year period.
  • We included only adrenal tumors showing gradual persistent enhancement on CT and MRI performed at 15 and 5 min, respectively, after contrast material injection.
  • These lesions were as follows: two ganglioneuromas, one myelolipoma with infarction, and one angiomyolipoma with minimal fat.
  • CONCLUSION: The differential diagnosis of adrenal tumors showing gradual persistent enhancement on delayed contrast-enhanced CT and MRI should include ganglioneuroma, myelolipoma with infarction, and angiomyolipoma with minimal fat.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17151900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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88. Roukounakis N, Dimas S, Kafetzis I, Bethanis S, Gatsulis N, Kostas H, Kyriakou V, Michas S: Is preservation of the adrenal vein mandatory in laparoscopic adrenal-sparing surgery? JSLS; 2007 Apr-Jun;11(2):215-8
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  • [Title] Is preservation of the adrenal vein mandatory in laparoscopic adrenal-sparing surgery?
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adrenal tissue-sparing or partial adrenalectomy evolved initially for patients with bilateral synchronous adrenal surgical pathology to preserve vital adrenal volume.
  • Controversy exists regarding the importance of preserving the adrenal vein, main or accessory.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to present our short series of laparoscopic tissue-sparing adrenalectomies with vein preservation.
  • METHODS: Seven patients with peripherally located either aldosterone-producing adenomas (4 cases) or myelolipomas (4 cases) underwent laparoscopic lateral partial adrenalectomy.
  • One patient harbored an aldosterone-producing adenoma and a myelolipoma as well.
  • The main adrenal vein was identified and preserved in 6 patients and the accessory vein in one.
  • Laparoscopic lateral partial adrenalectomy is a technically challenging tissue-sparing operation.
  • Meticulous dissection allows preservation of the middle artery and main or accessory vein resulting in a functioning adrenal stump.

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  • (PMID = 17761083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015730
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89. Nigawara T, Kageyama K, Sakihara S, Takayasu S, Kawahara M, Imai A, Ohyama C, Usui T, Sasano H, Suda T: A male case of nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency first manifested in his sixties with adrenocortical incidentaloma. Endocr J; 2008 May;55(2):291-7
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  • Nonclassical form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC 21OHD) as a frequent variant on the milder end of the disease spectrum has been widely acknowledged, but its potential contribution to adrenocortical tumorigenesis has not been fully elucidated.
  • The two tumors in the left adrenal, which were interpreted as myelolipoma by imaging studies, were followed by sequential observation, whereas the contralateral large solid tumor associated with inhomogeneous radiological appearance was subsequently removed.
  • 21OHD is often associated with benign adrenocortical tumors, but bilateral adrenal tumors with heterogeneous components in both adrenals have not been reported to the best of our knowledge.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aged. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18323673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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90. Chervin RA, Danilowicz K, Pitoia F, Gómez RM, Bruno OD: [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma]. Medicina (B Aires); 2007;67(4):341-50
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  • [Title] [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma].
  • Adrenal incidentaloma, a tumor discovered unexpectedly during imaging performed for non-adrenal related causes, has become a frequent clinical concern.
  • Although in most cases they are benign and hormonally nonfunctioning, it is important to appropriately identify those few cases of malignant or hyperfunctioning lesions of surgical resolution.
  • In the present retrospective study we analyzed 34 patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Of these, 32% of the patients displayed hyperfunctioning pathologies that included subclinical Cushing's syndrome in four patients, probable primary hyperaldosteronism in two, late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia in one, adrerocortical carcinoma in one and pheochromocytoma in three.
  • CT and/or MRI permitted the identification of adenomas and were crucial to decide on surgery in two patients with nonfunctioning pheochromocytomas and in a patient carrying a primitive adrenocortical carcinoma, a diagnosis also suggested by a mixed pattern of hypersecretion of androgens and cortisol.
  • Nonfunctioning tumors were mainly adenomas (87%) with individual cases of histoplasmosis, pseudocyst, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia and mielolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Androgens / secretion. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17891929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens
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91. Shin NY, Kim MJ, Chung JJ, Chung YE, Choi JY, Park YN: The differential imaging features of fat-containing tumors in the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneum: the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Korean J Radiol; 2010 May-Jun;11(3):333-45

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  • Some of these fat-containing lesions, such as liposarcoma and retroperitoneal teratoma, have to be resected, although resection can be deferred for others, such as adrenal adenoma, myelolipoma, angiomyolipoma, ovarian teratoma, and lipoma, until the lesions become large or symptomatic.
  • Identifying factors such as whether the fat is macroscopic or microscopic within the lesion, the origin of the lesions, and the presence of combined calcification is important for narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • The development and wide-spread use of modern imaging modalities make identification of these factors easier so narrowing the differential diagnosis is possible.
  • Classifying lesions in terms of the necessity of performing surgical treatment can provide important information to clinicians, and this is the one of a radiologist's key responsibilities.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / pathology. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Fat / pathology. Abdominal Fat / radiography. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Cavity / pathology. Peritoneal Cavity / radiography. Peritoneal Diseases / pathology. Peritoneal Diseases / radiography. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Retroperitoneal Space / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20461188.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 35
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2864861
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Abdominal cavity / Magnetic resonance (MR) / Neoplasm, adipose tissue / Retroperitoneal space / Tomography, spiral computed
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92. DeCastro GJ, Gupta M, Badani K, Hruby G, Landman J: Synchronous cryoablation of multiple renal lesions: short-term follow-up of patient outcomes. Urology; 2010 Feb;75(2):303-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Of the 17 lesions, 7 were found to be conventional renal cell carcinoma, 4 papillary, 2 myelolipoma, and 1 oncocytoma (unavailable for 3 lesions).

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  • [Copyright] 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 19931123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Tyritzis SI, Adamakis I, Migdalis V, Vlachodimitropoulos D, Constantinides CA: Giant adrenal myelolipoma, a rare urological issue with increasing incidence: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8863

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma, a rare urological issue with increasing incidence: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal myelolipomas are relatively rare, non-functioning benign tumours composed of mature fatty and active hematopoietic elements.
  • Diagnosis is relatively simple using ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Surgical resection through an extraperitoneal approach is advocated in cases of symptomatic or large myelolipomas exceeding 5-cm in diameter.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a giant adrenal myelolipoma in a 68-year-old Caucasian male, who was presented with left lumbar pain.
  • The differential diagnosis comprised the adrenal myelolipoma, the retroperitoneal liposarcoma and the renal angiomyolipoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple theories have been proposed for the increasing frequency and natural course of the adrenal myelolipoma, with chronic adrenal stimulation and the contemporary stressful lifestyle to be the most appealing.

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  • (PMID = 19918346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
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94. Sahdev A, Willatt J, Francis IR, Reznek RH: The indeterminate adrenal lesion. Cancer Imaging; 2010;10:102-13
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The indeterminate adrenal lesion.
  • With the increasing use of abdominal cross-sectional imaging, incidental adrenal masses are being detected more often.
  • The important clinical question is whether these lesions are benign adenomas or malignant primary or secondary masses.
  • Benign adrenal masses such as lipid-rich adenomas, myelolipomas, adrenal cysts and adrenal haemorrhage have pathognomonic cross-sectional imaging appearances.
  • The nature of incidentally detected adrenal masses can be determined with a high degree of accuracy using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone.
  • We review the performance of the established and new techniques in CT, MRI and PET that can be used to distinguish benign adenomas and malignant lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20299300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 54
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2842175
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95. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Rosłonowska E, Kochman M, Jeske W, Otto M, Cichocki A, Słapa RZ, Zgliczyński W: Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):69-73
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre.
  • INTRODUCTION: During the last 22 years we registered 1790 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumours (AI, adrenal incidentalomas).
  • The group of patients with bilateral adrenal tumours included 258 women and 93 men, 25-83 years old.
  • Hormonal investigations and imaging examinations were performed to search for subclinical adrenal hyperfunction and to define the malignant potential of the tumours.
  • Histological findings included malignant tumours: metastases - 9, adrenal cancer - 7, and lymphomas - 5; and non-malignant tumours: adenomas - 24, nodular hyperplasia - 14, myelolipomas - 4, and pheochromocytomas - 4.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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96. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1333-51
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls.
  • The adrenal gland is involved by a range of neoplasms, including primary and metastatic malignant tumors; however, the most common tumor detected is the incidental benign adenoma.
  • Although computed tomographic (CT) findings will not always yield a definitive diagnosis, attention to these findings provides a road map to guide image interpretation.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma typically has an RPW of less than 40%; however, large size and heterogeneity are more reliable indicators of the diagnosis than are washout values.
  • Myelolipomas appear as well-defined masses with variable quantities of fat and soft tissue.
  • Finally, a number of nonadrenal pathologic conditions have been reported to mimic adrenal masses at CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19755599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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97. John M, Menon SK, Shah NS, Menon PS: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency: two cases managed with bilateral adrenalectomy. Singapore Med J; 2009 Feb;50(2):e68-70
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency: two cases managed with bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • This series describes two patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • The second patient, a 23-year-old with XY genotype, presented with bilateral adrenal masses and resistant hypertension.
  • These two patients are described with a discussion on the role of bilateral adrenalectomy in the management of difficult cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The association of myelolipoma and testicular rests with this condition is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / blood. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genotype. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Karyotyping. Male. Testicular Diseases / complications. Testicular Diseases / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19296015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase
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98. Maestroni U, Ziglioli F, Dinale F, Ferretti S, Frattini A, Cortellini P: Is laparoscopy contraindicated in giant adrenal masses? Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2010 Aug;20(4):288-90
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is laparoscopy contraindicated in giant adrenal masses?
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is indicated in benign adrenal masses, and it is routinely performed in masses smaller than 5 to 7 cm.
  • Computed tomography scan (CT) suggested the diagnosis of giant adrenal myelolipoma (15x12x7 cm).
  • Complete adrenal endoclinologic evaluation showed that the lesion was not a secreting tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy / contraindications. Myelolipoma / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2011 Aug;21(4):299 [21857488.001]
  • (PMID = 20729705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Solís-López DR, Rodríguez-Hernández Z, Solís-López DH: Incidental adreno-cortical adenoma, why surgery? a case report. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Jun;29(2):130-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Incidental adrenal tumors are commonly benign, but reports demonstrate that if the characteristics of the tumor are not clear, on images surgery is the procedure of choice.
  • Our objective through this case is to show that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe approach for adrenal incidental tumor regardless of radiological findings.
  • She went for check up and a left adrenal mass on MRI described as myelolipoma was found incidentally.
  • The pathological report was adrenal cortical adenoma with central hemorrhage and not a myelolipoma as described in images on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • CONCLUSION: The use of imaging for diagnosis, clinical management and decision making is very controversial.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for adrenal masses is a safe procedure for tumors of 6 cm regardless of the radiological description.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20496530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-0658
  • [Journal-full-title] Puerto Rico health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] P R Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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100. Komorowski J, Jurczynska J, Stepien T, Kolomecki K, Kuzdak K, Stepien H: Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery. Int J Mol Sci; 2010;11(6):2281-90
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery.
  • The peripheral blood levels of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors were studied in 39 patients with malignant and benign adrenal tumors treated by adrenalectomy.
  • The concentrations of TNF alpha were significantly elevated in patients with malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex and in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to control.
  • In subjects with myelolipomas, the serum concentration of TNF alpha was lower compared to the control.
  • However, to confirm practicality of the evaluation of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors in differential diagnosis in patients with adrenal tumors, a larger study group is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / blood. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood

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  • (PMID = 20640152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1422-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Mol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2904916
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; TNF α / TNF α R1 / TNF α R2 / adrenal tumors / adrenalectomy
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20110714
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