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51. Vaziri M, Sadeghipour A, Pazooki A, Shoolami LZ: Primary mediastinal myelolipoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2008 May;85(5):1805-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary mediastinal myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor composed of an admixture of fat and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells.
  • It is typically an adrenal lesion, and mediastinal location is extremely unusual.
  • We describe a 56-year-old man with nonspecific symptoms of cough and dyspnea and no underlying disease whose chest computed tomography showed a huge (25 x 15 cm) mediastinal tumor containing calcification.
  • Surgical removal and subsequent pathologic examination of the tumor revealed myelolipoma.
  • Primary myelolipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of large posterior mediastinal tumors containing calcification.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcinosis / diagnosis. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / surgery. Cough / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Dyspnea / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Mediastinum / pathology. Mediastinum / surgery. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18442597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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52. Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Crosta F, Arnaldi G, Boscaro M, Lezoche G, Campagnacci R: Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Mar;30(3):200-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update.
  • Nowadays, the role of surgery in the treatment of adrenal incidentalomas (AI), considering their biologic behavior, is still debated.
  • Surgery is mandatory in cases of hyperfunctioning adrenal masses, in the presence of suspect radiological malignancy, in cases of discordant computed tomography (CT) and scintigraphy findings and when the maximum diameter is 4 cm or more.
  • Twenty-one large adrenal lesions (exceeding 6 cm) were removed (27%).
  • Definitive histology resulted as follows: adrenocortical adenoma (63), pheochromocytoma (5), nodular hyperplasia (4), myelolipoma (3), cysts (2), and adrenocortical carcinoma (1, with a size of 3 cm).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17505152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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53. Hagiwara H, Usui T, Kimura T, Tagami T, Naruse M, Minamiguchi S, Kato T, Okuno H, Shimatsu A: Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):122-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Myelolipomas of the adrenal gland are benign, nonfunctioning tumors.
  • Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia sometimes develop large and bilateral myelolipomas.
  • Although the precise pathogenesis of myelolipomas remains unclear, prolonged stimulation with high levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or adrenal androgens are assumed to have a causative role.
  • To clarify the role of ACTH and androgen in the pathogenesis of myelolipoma, we report a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma in a patient with poorly controlled congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • A 43-year-old female was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia at 6 years of age because of ambiguous genitalia.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a huge mass on the left adrenal gland, and an enlarged right adrenal mass.
  • Histological study revealed that the tumor consisted of fat cells and myeloid components, findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Our finding that the tumor did not over-express ACTH or androgen receptor suggests a limited direct role for these hormones in the development of the myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Myelolipoma / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Female. Genitalia, Female / abnormalities. Genitalia, Female / surgery. Humans. Receptors, Melanocortin / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18618087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Melanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.14.16 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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5
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4. Suárez G, Valera Z, Gómez MA, Docobo F, Alamo JM: [Etiology and diagnosis of severe retroperitoneal hematoma: therapeutic options and surgical indication]. Cir Esp; 2005 Nov;78(5):328-30
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  • [Title] [Etiology and diagnosis of severe retroperitoneal hematoma: therapeutic options and surgical indication].
  • Although the literature on the subject describes a wide variety of causes, in all three patients the etiology was tumoral, consisting of one suprarenal myelolipoma, one renal adenocarcinoma and one suprarenal metastasis from bronchogenic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematoma / diagnosis. Hematoma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16420851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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55. Daneshmand S, Quek ML: Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management. Urol J; 2006;3(2):71-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal myelolipomas are benign lesions that contain hematopoietic and fatty elements.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive review of the literature using the PubMed database containing the key word adrenal myelolipoma.
  • In this review, we highlighted the salient diagnostic features of adrenal myelolipomas and offered a guide for management of these benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal myelolipomas may grow over time, but they can usually be followed without surgical excision.
  • In some cases, very large myelolipomas can present with pain and can be confused with necrotic adrenal carcinomas, thus necessitating their surgical removal.

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  • (PMID = 17590837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-1308
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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56. Sandoval MA, Anel-Quimpo J: A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation.
  • A 51-year-old Filipino woman presenting with hypertension was unexpectedly found to have a large right adrenal mass by ultrasound.
  • As she did not have symptoms of adrenal disease, this was labelled an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Ultrasound and CT imaging demonstrated a large adrenal mass on the right measuring 15 cm at its greatest diameter, with both benign and malignant features.
  • Histopathological examination revealed myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 22802369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027410
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57. Alberti C: [Adrenal incidentalomas: etiologic diagnostics and basic therapeutic management. A mini-review]. G Chir; 2009 May;30(5):243-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas: etiologic diagnostics and basic therapeutic management. A mini-review].
  • Since the late 1970s, the number of serendipitously discovered adrenal masses has progressively increased through the widespread use of great sensitivity/high resolution diagnostic imaging while abdomen scanning for extra-adrenal lesions.
  • The majority of these masses are benign and without evidence of endocrine activity.
  • Most adrenal incidentalomas are cortical adenomas whereas the prevalence of adrenocortical carcinomas and other adrenal masses (lipomas, myelolipomas, angio-myelo-lipomas, sarcomas, hamartomas, lymphomas) is relatively low.
  • An accurate management of adrenal incidentalomas requires an agreement among radiologist, endocrinologist, oncologist and surgeon.
  • Arguments for benign incidentalomas are mainly small size (< 4 cm), low CT attenuation coefficients and/or typical features on RM imaging.
  • Surgery is mandatory for secretory tumours (functioning cortical adenomas, pheochromocytoma) and for adrenal malignancies.
  • In accordance with international literature, the size of adrenal incidentalomas may be a discriminant criterion for their management: surgery is recommended for masses of large (> 6 cm) diameter or increasing at CT/RM follow-up reevaluation whereas the masses between 4/6 cm form an indeterminate group where the management varies from institution to institution.
  • Laparoscopic transperitoneal as well as retro-peritoneoscopic procedures are gaining more and more attention for less invasive treatment of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • According to 2002 USA-National Institutes of Health guidelines, further studies are necessary to better define natural history, CT and RM malignant features, functional aptitudes of adrenal incidentalomas in order to propose optimal modalities of follow-up and proper surgical strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prevalence. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19505420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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58. Zografos GN, Farfaras A, Vasiliadis G, Pappa T, Aggeli C, Vassilatou E, Kaltsas G, Piaditis G: Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2010 Jul-Sep;14(3):364-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has rapidly replaced open adrenalectomy as the procedure of choice for benign adrenal tumors.
  • The largest laparoscopically excised tumors were a ganglioneuroma with a mean diameter of 13 cm and a myelolipoma of 14 cm.
  • In the large adrenal tumor group, operative time for laparoscopic resection ranged from 150 minutes to 240 minutes.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of large (≥ 8 cm) adrenal tumors is feasible and safe.

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  • [ErratumIn] JSLS. 2012 Jan-Mar;16(1):189. Vasilatou, Evagelina [corrected to Vassilatou, Evangeline]
  • (PMID = 21333189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3041032
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59. Lezoche E, Guerrieri M, Crosta F, Lezoche G, Baldarelli M, Campagnacci R: Flank approach versus anterior sub-mesocolic access in left laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a prospective randomized study. Surg Endosc; 2008 Nov;22(11):2373-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy is commonly recognized as the gold standard in adrenal surgery.
  • Mean overall OpT was 76.4 min (54-96 min) versus 65.6 min (45-95 min) in group A and B, respectively (p = 0.001), while the OpT required to tie the adrenal vein was 42.8 min (26-55 min) and 24.5 min (16-41 min) (p = 0.000).
  • A myelolipoma and an adrenogenital adenoma were observed in group A and one carcinoma was observed in group B.
  • Identification and early closure of the adrenal vein by means of a really minimal dissection and no-touch gland technique resulted in the main benefits of this approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18288528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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60. Cindolo L, Gidaro S, Neri F, Tamburro FR, Schips L: Assessing feasibility and safety of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery adrenalectomy: initial experience. J Endourol; 2010 Jun;24(6):977-80
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three patients with nonfunctional adrenal masses underwent TriPort adrenalectomy.
  • Pathology examination confirmed one adenoma, one lung cancer metastasis, and one myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 20367086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Hagspiel KD: Manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an adrenal myelolipoma. Eur Radiol; 2005 Aug;15(8):1757-9
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  • [Title] Manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are benign tumors histologically consisting of fat and bone marrow.
  • The computed tomography findings of Hodgkin's lymphoma manifested in an adrenal myelolipoma are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15503042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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62. Boujelbene N, Trimeche M, Ziadi S, Mestiri S, Mokni M, Korbi S: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Tunis Med; 2009 Apr;87(4):301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19835294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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63. Haouas N, Sahraoui W, Saidi R, Lefi M, Saad H: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Prog Urol; 2005 Jun;15(3):532-4
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  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a benign, non-secreting tumour, which can be complicated by pain or retroperitoneal haemorrhage.
  • The diagnosis is based on CT or preferably MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16097167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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64. Agrawal S, Jha MS, Khurana N, Ansari MS, Dubey D, Srivastava A, Kapoor R, Kumar A, Jain M, Mandhani A: Nephron sparing surgery: A single institution experience. Indian J Urol; 2007 Jan;23(1):23-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in managing various benign and malignant renal tumors with nephron-sparing surgery.
  • Histopathological profile revealed 13 (44.8%) benign lesions which included angiomyolipoma (eight), simple cyst (two), cortical adenoma (one), metanephric adenoma (one) and myelolipoma (one).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nephron-sparing surgery is a safe and effective alternative to nephrectomy in both benign and malignant lesions of the kidney.

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  • (PMID = 19675756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-1591
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2721489
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Kidney / kidney diseases / nephron sparing surgery
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65. Wang XJ, Shen ZJ, Zhu Y, Zhang RM, Shun FK, Shao Y, Rui WB, He W: Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (&lt; or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients. BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(6):849-53
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy (RPA) for small adrenal tumours, as with modern imaging methods small adrenal lesions are being diagnosed more commonly, and retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm) can be challenging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 389 consecutive retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies from September 2005 to December 2008, 88 of which were small adrenal tumours and treated by RPA.
  • We used RPA for adrenal tumours and total adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer.
  • During the surgery, the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum was freed first, and the whole adrenal tissue was dissected completely.
  • RESULTS: There were no deaths; conversions to open surgery were necessary in four patients (4.5%), the reasons being a missing target in two, massive haemorrhage caused by central adrenal vein injury in one, and severe adhesion in one.
  • The mean (range) size of the adrenal tumours was 0.7 (0.5-1.0) cm, including 69 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 11 nonfunctional adrenal adenomas, three Cushing syndrome, two phaeochromocytomas, two myelolipomas and one melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: RPA is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with small adrenal tumours.
  • Freeing the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum first, and exploring the whole adrenal tissue during surgery are the key points of RPA.
  • The location of the small adrenal tumour can be different from that shown on imaging before surgery, and the abnormality of the adrenal gland should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19751254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Romano G, Cocchiara G, Calderone F, Buscemi G, Gioè FP, Alongi G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature]. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):228-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Trattamento laparoscopico del mielolipoma surrenalico: caso clinico e revisione della letteratura.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign, non-functioning tumor consisting of fat and hematopoietic tissues.
  • In January 2005 we had observed an adrenal myelolipoma in 70 year old man.
  • During the follow-up for bladder urothelioma, an abdominal CT revaled a well delineated 4x4 cm homogeneous fatty mass in the right suprarenal area with negative attenuation values.
  • The functional study of adrenal gland was normal.
  • The istological diagnosis showed adrenal myelolipoma.
  • We conclude that videolaparoscopic adrenalectomy should be considered the gold standard treatment for benign adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16857113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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67. Campagnacci R, Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Sarnari J, Lezoche E: Laparoscopic radiofrequency renal ablation in patients with simultaneous visceral tumors: long-term follow-up. J Endourol; 2006 May;20(5):321-5
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  • Moreover, a simultaneous large right adrenal incidentaloma (myelolipoma) and a right colon cancer were known to be present in the second and third patient, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 16724903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Chakraborty J, Paul PCh, Gumta MK, Ghosh G, Goswami B: Adrenal myelolipoma--report of a case. J Indian Med Assoc; 2006 Mar;104(3):148-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma--report of a case.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, non-secreting tumour composed of adipose and haematopoietic tissue.
  • Histological examination revealed the features of myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Low Back Pain / diagnosis. Lumbosacral Region / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16910340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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69. Papapietro N, Martinelli N, Ippolito M, Amato C, Denaro V: Intraosseous myelolipoma within proximal femoral metaphysis in a patient with previous prostate cancer: a case report. Hip Int; 2009 Jul-Sep;19(3):283-6
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  • [Title] Intraosseous myelolipoma within proximal femoral metaphysis in a patient with previous prostate cancer: a case report.
  • Computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed mature adipose tissue along with hematopoietic precursor cells.
  • This is the third case of intraosseous myelolipoma reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Osteoarthritis, Hip / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19876886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6067
  • [Journal-full-title] Hip international : the journal of clinical and experimental research on hip pathology and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hip Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Peppa M, Dracopoulou-Vabouli M, Raptis SA: Bilateral adrenal myelolipomas associated With 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):525-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal myelolipomas associated With 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / enzymology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / enzymology. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20564792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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71. John M, Menon SK, Shah NS, Menon PS: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency: two cases managed with bilateral adrenalectomy. Singapore Med J; 2009 Feb;50(2):e68-70
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  • [Title] Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency: two cases managed with bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • This series describes two patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • The second patient, a 23-year-old with XY genotype, presented with bilateral adrenal masses and resistant hypertension.
  • These two patients are described with a discussion on the role of bilateral adrenalectomy in the management of difficult cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The association of myelolipoma and testicular rests with this condition is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / blood. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genotype. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Karyotyping. Male. Testicular Diseases / complications. Testicular Diseases / surgery. Treatment Outcome


72. Wani NA, Kosar T, Rawa IA, Qayum A: Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association. Urol Ann; 2010 Sep;2(3):130-3
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an unusual, benign and biochemically inactive tumor that is composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is usually unilateral and asymptomatic, though known to be associated with obesity, hypertension, endocrinological disorders and some malignancies.
  • We report herein two cases of right-sided giant adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed by multidetector-row CT.
  • One patient was symptomatic because of a large mass in the right upper abdomen, which on imaging with CT was seen to be right adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Another patient had a large left side Bochdalek hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma was incidentally discovered on CT.

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  • (PMID = 20981204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-7834
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology annals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol Ann
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955231
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal gland / Bochdalek hernia / multidetector-row CT / myelolipoma
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73. Hatai H, Ochiai K, Nakamura S, Kamiya T, Ito M, Yamamoto H, Sunden Y, Umemura T: Hepatic myelolipoma and amyloidosis with osseous metaplasia in a swan goose (Anser cygnoides). J Comp Pathol; 2009 Nov;141(4):260-4
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  • [Title] Hepatic myelolipoma and amyloidosis with osseous metaplasia in a swan goose (Anser cygnoides).
  • Microscopically, the hepatic lesions were composed of a mixture of adipocytes and myeloid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloidosis / veterinary. Bird Diseases / pathology. Liver / pathology. Liver Diseases / veterinary. Liver Neoplasms / veterinary. Myelolipoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19592008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3129
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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74. Nishio K, Tokiwa S, Saito K, Yoshii T, Ashizawa Y, Kurihara K, Kamiyama Y, Mikata N, Yasuda M, Ide H, Muto S, Okada H, Horie S: [A case of a giant adrenal myelolipoma in a man with spinal cord injury]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Jun;53(6):387-91
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  • [Title] [A case of a giant adrenal myelolipoma in a man with spinal cord injury].
  • Pathologic diagnosis was an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Between 1992 and 2006, 80 cases of adrenal myelolipoma were reported in Japan.
  • We reviewed these 80 cases and discussed the diagnosis and treatment strategy of the adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Spinal Cord Injuries / complications

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  • (PMID = 17628936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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75. Olobatuyi FA, Maclennan GT: Myelolipoma. J Urol; 2006 Sep;176(3):1188
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16890722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Montone KT, Rosen M, Siegelman ES, Fogt F, Livolsi VA: Adrenocortical neoplasms with myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia: report of 3 cases. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):128-33
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  • The lesion size averaged 6.8 cm (range, 3.9 to 11.0), and the mean gland weight was 128.8 g (range, 32.5 to 249).
  • Two patients showed imaging findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Imaging studies may result in a false diagnosis of a benign adrenal myelolipoma and potential undertreatment in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Lipomatosis / diagnosis. Metaplasia / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19289323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Treska V, Wirthová M, Hadravská S, Mukensnábl P, Kuntscher V, Kreuzberg B, Lisá L, Kozák K: [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia]. Zentralbl Chir; 2006 Feb;131(1):80-3
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  • [Title] [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia].
  • BACKGROUND: Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor formed by mature fat tissue with strata of haematopoiesis.
  • It is mainly asymptomatic, only large myelolipomas manifest themselves by abdominal discomfort, bleeding or by symptoms of oppressing adjacent organs.
  • It is usually localized in the region of the adrenal gland.
  • Myelolipomas are mostly clinically inert, only a small number of them are associated with Cushing's type of endocrine disorders, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, etc.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The authors present a rare case of a giant bilateral myelolipoma emerging out of the adrenal gland cortex in a congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in a woman with pronounced virilism.
  • The therapy available is either a surgical extirpation in the case of large or growing myelolipomas or observation in the case of small ones (< 5 cm).
  • RESULTS: The condition was resolved by bilateral adrenalectomy with extirpation of both myelolipomas and subsequent hormonal substitution treatment during which there was a gradual regression of virilising symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The coincidence of myelolipoma and congenital disorder with subsequent overproduction of the adrenocorticotropin hormone and androgens, might be explained by the incipient of myelolipoma through chronic hormonal stimulation of the adrenal gland cortex.
  • However, the etiopathogenesis of myelolipoma is still unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Myelolipoma / complications. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


78. Wagnerova H, Lazúrová I, Habalová V, Dudásová D, Vrzgula A: The prevalence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in adrenal incidentalomas - hormonal and mutation screening. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 May;116(5):272-5
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  • [Title] The prevalence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in adrenal incidentalomas - hormonal and mutation screening.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the response of 17 OHP to ACTH stimulation in patients with various types of adrenal incidentalomas and to examine the occurence of germline CYP21 mutation in these patients.
  • 21 of them had unilateral adrenal adenoma, 13 patients had adrenal hyperplasia (six of them unilateral) and 6 patients had CT characteristics of other tumors (myelolipomas, cysts, adrenocortical carcinoma).
  • SUMMARY: Although 12 % of patients with adrenal incidentalomas had an exaggerated response of 17 OHP after ACTH administration indicating a possible 21-hydroxylase deficiency, these findings are not associated with CYP21 mutation estimated in peripheral blood samples.
  • There was found no germline CYP21 mutation in all patients with various adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Hormones / secretion. Incidental Findings. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Cortex Function Tests. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Hyperplasia / blood. Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Hyperplasia / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 18589890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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79. López Martín L, García Cardoso JV, Gómez Muñoz J, González Enguita C: Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 Dec;63(10):880-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the case of adrenal gland myelolipoma.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: The patient was a 29 year old who is diagnosed with an adrenal adenoma during an endocrinology review.
  • The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The myelolipoma is a rare tumor composed of hematopoietic elements in different maturation stages and without histological changes, combined with mature adipose tissue in varying proportions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 21187573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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80. Sakaki M, Izaki H, Fukumori T, Taue R, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO: Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome. Int J Urol; 2006 Jun;13(6):801-2
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor, occasionally reported in association with endocrine disorders.
  • We report herein a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • A diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency was confirmed by mutation analysis of the CYP21 gene.
  • Our case represents only the second case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Mutation. Myelolipoma / genetics. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16834664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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81. Ctvrtlík F, Herman M, Student V, Tichá V, Minarík J: Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Feb;69(2):243-52
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare CT findings of adrenal incidentalomas with a definitive histological diagnosis in order to establish CT features characteristic for individual types of lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The retrospective study comprised of patients with adrenal lesions detected on abdominal CT.
  • The study consisted of 62 adrenal expansions found in 55 patients (in seven patients bilateral lesions were found).
  • According to the definitive histological diagnosis after adrenalectomy, the lesions were divided into the following six groups: primary adrenocortical carcinoma (n=4), metastasis (n=7), adrenocortical adenoma (n=37), pheochromocytoma (n=9), myelolipoma (n=2), and others (n=3).
  • CONCLUSION: Standard CT of the abdomen (not specifically aimed at adrenal glands) is a suitable method for distinguishing adrenal lesions which need to be operated on from those which are probably benign but need to be monitored.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiography, Abdominal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18226485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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82. Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Demir T, Akinci B, Kebapcilar L, Comlekci A, Bayraktar F, Yesil S: Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jan;33(1):32-6
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Because of the increased use of imaging interventions, more subjects have been diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma in recent years.
  • AIM: To evaluate the risk of mass enlargement, hormone hypersecretion and development of adrenal carcinomas during short-term followup.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: There were 317 subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors in the registry.
  • Forty subjects were excluded because of clinically overt hormone secretion at diagnosis and subjects with complete data were included in radiological (no.
  • There were 143 subjects with adrenal adenomas and 7 subjects with other tumor types (cyst or myelolipoma).
  • RESULTS: Increase in tumor size was detected in 25 subjects (17.4%) with adenomas and 1 subject with adrenal myelolipoma (14.3%).
  • Decrease in tumor size was found in 7 subjects (4.8%) with adrenal adenomas.
  • In subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma (NFA, no.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we demonstrated that, despite being infrequent, adrenal tumors may increase in size, develop overt or subclinical hormone secretion or feature malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Adult. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / diagnostic imaging. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / analysis. Dexamethasone. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / diagnostic imaging. Normetanephrine / urine. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19542759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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83. Amendolara M, Barbarino C, Bucca D, Guarnieri F, Novello GB, Romano FM, Stevanato G, Ranzato R: [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report]. G Chir; 2008 Mar;29(3):85-8
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  • [Title] [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma surrenalico bilaterale gigante. Caso clinico.
  • The adrenal myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumour of adipose cell and bone marrow elements, non functioning and asymptomatic.
  • Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma is quite rare.
  • The Authors report a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma, a giant one (> 15 cm) on the left side and a small one (> 4 cm) on the right with constant pain in a 57-year-old man, shown by computerized tomography.
  • Surgical excision was performed for large left symptomatic mass, by open laparotomy, and biopsy for right minor adrenal lesion.
  • Histology confirmed diagnosis of myelolipoma for both masses.
  • Follow-up to 6-12 months did'nt show any change of the right myelolipoma.
  • The authors agree with the need to remove the giant adrenal myelolipoma, because the lesion > 10 cm have a high risk of cancer and hemorrhagic complication, while for small myelolipoma (< 6 cm) 6-12 months follow-up is the appropriate choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparotomy. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18366886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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84. Gonzalgo ML, Su LM, Basaria S: Visual vignette. Adrenal myelolipoma. Endocr Pract; 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):109
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  • [Title] Visual vignette. Adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Tomography, Spiral Computed

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  • (PMID = 16524871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Song JH, Chaudhry FS, Mayo-Smith WW: The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 May;190(5):1163-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to determine the nature and prevalence of adrenal lesions identified on CT in patients with no known malignancy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer search of abdominal CT reports using the term "adrenal" was performed in 65,231 consecutive patients with examinations performed from January 2000 to December 2003.
  • An adrenal mass was identified in 3,307 (5%) patients.
  • Patients with no known malignancy and no suspicion for a hyperfunctioning adrenal mass were further isolated.
  • Nine hundred seventy-three patients with 1,049 adrenal masses fulfilled the study criteria.
  • RESULTS: One thousand forty-nine adrenal masses were characterized with the following methods: histopathology (n = 12), imaging characterization (n = 909), imaging follow-up (n = 87), and clinical follow-up (n = 41).
  • There were 68 myelolipomas (6%), 47 hematomas (4%), and 13 cysts (1%).
  • One hundred twenty-eight lesions (12%) were presumed to be benign by imaging or clinical stability.
  • No malignant adrenal masses were found, even among the 14 patients who later developed malignancy elsewhere.
  • CONCLUSION: In 973 consecutive patients with an incidental adrenal mass and no history of cancer, no malignant lesions were identified.
  • Adenomas (75%) and myelolipomas (6%) were the most common lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18430826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Cortes O, Kerkebe M, Pinto I, Arellano L: Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endourol; 2007 Sep;21(9):1053-8
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard in the surgical management of adrenal pathology.
  • Bilateral adrenalectomy is indicated in patients with Cushing's disease secondary to macroadenoma or hypophysial hyperplasia in whom medical treatment and transsphenoid surgery have failed.
  • Also, it is the first choice for bilateral benign tumors and metastatic neoplasia.
  • There were 6 cases of bilateral pheochromocytoma, 6 patients with Cushing's disease, 3 cases of metastasis, 3 congenital adrenal hyperplasias, 2 hyperaldosteronisms, and a single case each of adrenal adenoma and myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 17941786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Zhang DS, Li DH, Bi HX, Wu XF: [Gastric adenocarcinoma associated with myelolipoma of parietal pleura: a case report]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Jul;35(7):437
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  • [Title] [Gastric adenocarcinoma associated with myelolipoma of parietal pleura: a case report].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastric Fundus / pathology. Gastric Fundus / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17069687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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88. Goltz JP, Gattenlöhner S, Hahn D, Ritter CO: [Ruptured giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland with acute retroperitoneal hemorrhage]. Rofo; 2009 May;181(5):485-7
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  • [Title] [Ruptured giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland with acute retroperitoneal hemorrhage].
  • [Transliterated title] Rupturiertes Riesen-Myelolipom der Nebenniere mit akuter retroperitonealer Blutung.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Space. Tomography, Spiral Computed. Ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glioma / diagnosis. Humans. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 19280550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9010
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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89. Sahdev A, Willatt J, Francis IR, Reznek RH: The indeterminate adrenal lesion. Cancer Imaging; 2010;10:102-13
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  • [Title] The indeterminate adrenal lesion.
  • With the increasing use of abdominal cross-sectional imaging, incidental adrenal masses are being detected more often.
  • The important clinical question is whether these lesions are benign adenomas or malignant primary or secondary masses.
  • Benign adrenal masses such as lipid-rich adenomas, myelolipomas, adrenal cysts and adrenal haemorrhage have pathognomonic cross-sectional imaging appearances.
  • The nature of incidentally detected adrenal masses can be determined with a high degree of accuracy using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone.
  • We review the performance of the established and new techniques in CT, MRI and PET that can be used to distinguish benign adenomas and malignant lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20299300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 54
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2842175
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90. Ghatak S, Mridha AR: Laparoscopic resection of a large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9313
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of a large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report.
  • On evaluation he was found to have a large right adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Operative specimen's histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 20062636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803976
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91. Lesbats-Jacquot V, Cucchi JM, Amoretti N, Novellas S, Chevallier P, Bruneton JN: Lipomatous tumors of the adrenals--a report on 18 cases and review of the literature. Clin Imaging; 2007 Sep-Oct;31(5):335-9
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  • The lipomatous tumors of the adrenals are hormonally inactive lesions, often of a benign nature, such as myelolipomas, lipomas, angiomyolipomas, or mature teratomas, and are rarely malignant, such as liposarcomas.
  • The various imaging procedures, although not allowing to formulate a histological diagnosis, nonetheless permit to determine the volume of the tumoral mass and their evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Image Enhancement / methods. Lipoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17825742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-7071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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92. Rosenkrantz AB, Do RK, Hajdu CH: Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e204-7
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  • Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is a rare adrenal tumour that usually follows a benign clinical course.
  • Here, we present the first published case showing bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm on CT and MRI, a finding that mimics fat within an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20846977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3473746
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93. Civrilli K, Damry N, Steppé R, Efira A, Mathieu J: Bilateral adrenal myelolipomas. JBR-BTR; 2008 May-Jun;91(3):90-1
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal myelolipomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18661711.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-7430
  • [Journal-full-title] JBR-BTR : organe de la Société royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) = orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JBR-BTR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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94. Venkatasubramanian R, Wadhwa A, Sharma A, Khullar R, Soni V, Baijal M, Chowbey PK: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy - a review of initial 24 consecutive patients. Indian J Surg; 2007 Aug;69(4):129-35
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  • The indications for adrenalectomy were pheochromocytoma (13 patients), Cushing's syndrome (5 patients), myelolipoma (2 patients), adrenal cyst (2 patients), aldosteronoma (1 patient) and adrenal incidentaloma (1 patient).
  • Nineteen of our patients with functioning adrenal tumours were prepared preoperatively for periods ranging up to 2 weeks by the endocrinologist.
  • A careful preoperative preparation in functioning adrenal tumours aids in the faster recovery of these patients.

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  • (PMID = 23132964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-2068
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3452464
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenalectomy / Laparoscopy / Pheochromocytoma
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95. Ozturk E, Onur Sildiroglu H, Kantarci M, Doganay S, Güven F, Bozkurt M, Sonmez G, Cinar Basekim C: Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2009;121(11-12):372-81
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  • [Title] Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series.
  • With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons.
  • Imaging features on CT can establish a specific diagnosis of many of these lesions, including myelolipoma, hematoma and cysts.
  • Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases.
  • In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features.
  • It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions.
  • The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer.
  • Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques.
  • Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion.
  • The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19626294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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96. Ong K, Tan KB, Putti TC: Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma. Singapore Med J; 2007 Jul;48(7):e200-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • Myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma is a very rare cause of adrenal incidentaloma, and only nine cases have been reported in the English and Japanese literature.
  • Clinical history, physical examination and laboratory results did not show any evidence to suggest metabolic disorder such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism or catecholamine hypersecretion.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma reported; in the nine cases of myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma reported previously, all the patients had Cushing's syndrome.
  • The literature on synchronous myelolipoma with adrenal adenoma, and myelolipoma within functional adrenal adenoma, is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17609815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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97. Meyer A, Behrend M: Presentation and therapy of myelolipoma. Int J Urol; 2005 Mar;12(3):239-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presentation and therapy of myelolipoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare and benign, hormonally inactive tumor frequently discovered incidentally.
  • Because of the increasing rate of detection of adrenal myelolipoma, use of the correct diagnostic examination and treatment, with respect to surgical excision or regular controls, is continually gaining importance.
  • We report herein on the largest series of surgically treated patients with adrenal myelolipoma from a single institute.
  • METHODS: The clinical charts of 12 patients who underwent adrenal surgery for myelolipoma were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma was made incidentally in seven patients, and during examination for reasons of unspecific abdominal or flank pain in five patients.
  • No recurrence could be seen; however, in one patient a contralateral adrenal myelolipoma had developed.
  • A close follow up should be maintained in the case of patients free of symptoms, and for those with a definite diagnosis from imaging procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15828949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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98. Gheith S, Boulay R, Cornfield D: Small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a pelvic myelolipoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;2(1):95-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a pelvic myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and normal hematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are extremely rare, with approximately 50% of cases occurring in the presacral region.
  • Histologic examination showed a myelolipoma with dense lymphoid aggregates.
  • Molecular evaluation confirmed the presence of a clonal B-cell lymphocytic proliferation that did not harbor BCL-2 or BCL-1 gene rearrangements.
  • This case represents the first report of a myelolipoma involved by a non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The likeliest scenario is that an unusual benign tumor (myelolipoma) was colonized by a relatively common systemic hematopoietic neoplasm SLL/CLL, producing a collision tumor.

  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 18830383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Extra adrenal myelolipoma / chronic lymphocytic leukemia / lymphoma / non-Hodgkin lymphoma / small lymphocytic lymphoma
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99. Hernández-Amate A, Ríos-Martín JJ, Díaz-Delgado M, García-Escudero A, Otal-Salaverri C, González-Cámpora R: Cytological diagnosis of a presacral myelolipoma: a case report diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):921-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytological diagnosis of a presacral myelolipoma: a case report diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Sacrum

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  • (PMID = 18925570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Chen KT: Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jul-Aug;49(4):449-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: The fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic evaluations of most adrenal lesions are straightforward.
  • After delivery, computed tomography-guided FNA showed bland epithelial cells, and a diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma was made.
  • However, subsequent resection showed a myelolipoma of the adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: This case illustrated 2 cytodiagnostic pitfalls in adrenal fine needle aspirates.
  • First, the myeloid cells characteristic of a myelolipoma were not present in the FNA smears because a large portion of the lesion was composed of fibroadipose tissue.
  • Second, extraneous, benign cells of hepatic origin were misinterpreted as adrenal cortical adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hepatocytes / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16124179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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