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1. Tjalma WA: Myelolipoma in the paravesical space--case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(6):613-4
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma in the paravesical space--case report.
  • Myelolipomas are benign tumours composed of haematopoietic tissue and mature adipocytes.
  • They occur predominantly in the adrenal glands although rarely extra adrenal sites have been described.
  • Here we present a myelolipoma in the paravesical space.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17290595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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2. Singh M, Mandal S, Kakkar AK, Khurana N, Garg A: Mixed corticomedullary tumour with myelolipoma: a rare coexistence. Pathology; 2010;42(6):589-91
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  • [Title] Mixed corticomedullary tumour with myelolipoma: a rare coexistence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20854083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. Bovio S, Cataldi A, Reimondo G, Sperone P, Novello S, Berruti A, Borasio P, Fava C, Dogliotti L, Scagliotti GV, Angeli A, Terzolo M: Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Apr;29(4):298-302
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  • [Title] Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas, defined as masses discovered incidentally during imaging investigation of non-adrenal disorders, have become a rather common finding in clinical practice.
  • The aim of the present study was to perform a prospective evaluation of the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas among subjects undergoing computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest in a screening program of lung cancer (Tic TAC study) in Piedmont, a region of Northwestern Italy.
  • Twenty-three patients with adrenal masses were identified: 21 adrenal adenomas, 1 myelolipoma, and 1 metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Therefore, the overall prevalence of adrenal lesions was 4.4%, and that of benign adrenal masses was 4.2%.
  • Another factor that influenced our results is that subject age is skewed towards the decades characterized by a greater occurrence of adrenal masses.
  • The outcome of this study confirms that we are presently able to identify incidentally discovered adrenal masses more often than in early years and that the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas on CT images is approaching that of autopsy series.
  • The present study provides a reliable estimate of the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma with currently used CT scanners.
  • Notwithstanding that our subjects were at increased risk of lung cancer, the rate of adrenal metastases was low.
  • We think that the present results can be generalized even if we may disclose the lack of histological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16699294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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4. Bruhn AM, Hyams ES, Stifelman MD: Laparoscopic and robotic assisted adrenal surgery. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2010 Sep;62(3):305-18
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic and robotic assisted adrenal surgery.
  • The aim of this paper is to review the current state of laparoscopic and robotic surgery in the mannagement of benign and malignant disease of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal lesions can be adenomas, pheochromocytomas, myelolipomas, ganglioneuromas, adrenal cysts, hematomas, adrenal cortical carcinomas, metastases from other cancers, or other rare causes.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the new standard of care for benign adrenal neoplasms and is being increasingly utilized for malignant disease.
  • Robotic assistance offers unique advantages in visualizing and dissecting the adrenal gland, especially considering its challenging vasculature.
  • There is also growing evidence in using minimally invasive approaches in adrenal sparing-surgery.
  • Success in these procedures depends on a firm understanding of adrenal anatomy and in careful patient selection.

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  • (PMID = 20940699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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5. Polamaung W, Wisedopas N, Vasinanukorn P, Pak-art P, Snabboon T: Asymptomatic bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct;13(6):667-71
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  • [Title] Asymptomatic bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual case of bilateral giant adrenal masses caused by a primary adrenal myelolipoma.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic findings in a 32-year-old man with bilateral adrenal masses.
  • The previous reports of bilateral myelolipomas also were reviewed.
  • A computed tomographic scan of the abdomen disclosed bilateral adrenal masses; the one on the left was approximately 27 by 24 by 12 cm, and the one on the right side was 9 by 5 by 5 cm.
  • The computed tomographic scan characteristics showed that both masses consisted mainly of low-density tissues (-30 to -90 Hounsfield units), suggestive of fatty component.
  • An endocrinologic evaluation revealed no evidence of adrenal cortical or medullary functional abnormalities.
  • CONCLUSION: Myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumor of the adrenal glands composed of adipose cells and mature hematopoietic elements.
  • Most such lesions are small, asymptomatic, and unilateral; giant or bilateral myelolipomas are quite rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17954426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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6. Dann PH, Krinsky GA, Israel GM: Case 135: presacral myelolipoma. Radiology; 2008 Jul;248(1):314-6
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  • [Title] Case 135: presacral myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelolipoma / radiography. Sacrum / radiography. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18566182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Shin NY, Kim MJ, Chung JJ, Chung YE, Choi JY, Park YN: The differential imaging features of fat-containing tumors in the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneum: the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Korean J Radiol; 2010 May-Jun;11(3):333-45
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  • Some of these fat-containing lesions, such as liposarcoma and retroperitoneal teratoma, have to be resected, although resection can be deferred for others, such as adrenal adenoma, myelolipoma, angiomyolipoma, ovarian teratoma, and lipoma, until the lesions become large or symptomatic.
  • Identifying factors such as whether the fat is macroscopic or microscopic within the lesion, the origin of the lesions, and the presence of combined calcification is important for narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • The development and wide-spread use of modern imaging modalities make identification of these factors easier so narrowing the differential diagnosis is possible.
  • Classifying lesions in terms of the necessity of performing surgical treatment can provide important information to clinicians, and this is the one of a radiologist's key responsibilities.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / pathology. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Fat / pathology. Abdominal Fat / radiography. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Cavity / pathology. Peritoneal Cavity / radiography. Peritoneal Diseases / pathology. Peritoneal Diseases / radiography. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Retroperitoneal Space / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20461188.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 35
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2864861
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Abdominal cavity / Magnetic resonance (MR) / Neoplasm, adipose tissue / Retroperitoneal space / Tomography, spiral computed
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8. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Commonly, it is diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • In this paper, we report three cases of adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenocortical adenoma; in all three patients, the radiological appearance resembled adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Liao CH, Chueh SC, Lai MK, Hsiao PJ, Chen J: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3080-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters.
  • We report a series of LA or hand-assisted LA for large (>5 cm) adrenal tumors.
  • Final pathology revealed eight malignant (four adrenocortical carcinomas and four metastatic carcinomas) and 31 benign tumors (14 cortical adenomas, eight pheochromocytomas, six myelolipomas, and three ganglioneuromas).
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is a reasonable option for selected large adrenal tumors when complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):210-1 [17262068.001]
  • (PMID = 16720665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Rossi M, Ravizza D, Fiori G, Trovato C, Renne G, Miller MJ, Tamayo D, Crosta C: Thoracic myelolipoma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Endoscopy; 2007 Feb;39 Suppl 1:E114-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thoracic myelolipoma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Endosonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17440857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9001-27-8 / Factor VIII
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11. Boyanton BL Jr, Hampel O, Ostrowski ML: A 55-year-old man with a rib fracture. Adrenal myelolipoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jan;130(1):e13-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A 55-year-old man with a rib fracture. Adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Rib Fractures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipocytes / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Ossification, Heterotopic / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16390250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Pérez Martínez J, Llamas F, López Rubio E, Serrano A, Salinas Sánchez A, Ruiz Mondéjar R, Virseda Rodríguez JA, Gómez Roldán C: [Giant adrenal myelolipoma: hypertension, renal failure and spontaneous rupture]. Nefrologia; 2006;26(1):132-5
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  • [Title] [Giant adrenal myelolipoma: hypertension, renal failure and spontaneous rupture].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma suprarrenal gigante: hipertensión, insuficiencia renal y rotura espontánea.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, slow-growing tumor composed of adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements.
  • The condition has been associated with obesity, high blood pressure and adrenal dysfunction.
  • We present a patient with retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of a myelolipoma, hypertension, and renal failure secondary to nephroangiosclerosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hemorrhage / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology. Myelolipoma / complications. Nephrosclerosis / complications


13. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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14. Morandi F, Mays JL, Newman SJ, Adams WH: Imaging diagnosis--bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2007 May-Jun;48(3):246-9
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  • [Title] Imaging diagnosis--bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas in a dog.
  • A 10-year-old neutered female Pug was evaluated for a left adrenal mass detected previously by ultrasonography.
  • Using computed tomography, a fat-attenuating, rim-enhancing left adrenal mass and a homogeneous, soft-tissue attenuating, intensely enhancing right adrenal mass were found.
  • A left adrenalectomy and right adrenal biopsy were performed and the final diagnosis was bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas.
  • Myelolipomas are rare, benign, endocrinologically inactive tumors composed of well-differentiated adipose tissue and a variable amount of hematopoietic cells of both lymphatic and myeloid lineages, which may account for the different appearance on tomographic images.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / radiography. Myelolipoma / veterinary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Female. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17508512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Gill KR, Hasan MK, Menke DM, Wallace MB: Presacral myelolipoma: diagnosis by EUS-FNA and Trucut biopsy. Gastrointest Endosc; 2010 Apr;71(4):849; discussion 849-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presacral myelolipoma: diagnosis by EUS-FNA and Trucut biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Endosonography. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / ultrasonography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / ultrasonography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Sacrococcygeal Region / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20188367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Craig WD, Fanburg-Smith JC, Henry LR, Guerrero R, Barton JH: Fat-containing lesions of the retroperitoneum: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2009 Jan-Feb;29(1):261-90
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  • Retroperitoneal lesions represent a broad, diverse collection of entities; when they contain fat, the differential diagnosis, which ranges from benign to fully malignant lesions, substantially narrows.
  • Hibernoma is a rare benign soft-tissue tumor composed of brown fat.
  • Teratomas are neoplasms that originate in pluripotent cells--benign or malignant germ cells--that give rise to a wide spectrum of mature or immature tissues that are foreign to the location in which they arise and which demonstrate varying amounts of organ formation.
  • Myelolipoma, a benign tumor composed of mature fat and interspersed hematopoietic elements that resemble bone marrow, typically originate in an otherwise normal adrenal gland.
  • Angiomyolipoma is composed of varying admixtures of blood vessels, smooth muscle cells, and adipose tissue; any one or two of these elements may predominate.
  • [MeSH-major] Intra-Abdominal Fat / pathology. Intra-Abdominal Fat / radiography. Lipomatosis / diagnosis. Lipomatosis / pathology. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19168848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Duenschede F, Bittinger F, Heintz A, Musholt T, Korenkov M, Kann P, Ewald P, Gockel I, Junginger T: Malignant and unclear histological findings in incidentalomas. Eur Surg Res; 2008;40(2):235-8
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  • There were 9 cases of adrenal hyperplasia, and two cysts and two hematomas were found in 4 patients.
  • Moreover, 1 schwannoma and 1 myelolipoma were removed.
  • In 1 patient, an adrenal cortical carcinoma of 10.0 cm in diameter was operated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18032908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9921
  • [Journal-full-title] European surgical research. Europäische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales européennes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Surg Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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18. Chervin RA, Danilowicz K, Pitoia F, Gómez RM, Bruno OD: [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma]. Medicina (B Aires); 2007;67(4):341-50
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  • [Title] [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma].
  • Adrenal incidentaloma, a tumor discovered unexpectedly during imaging performed for non-adrenal related causes, has become a frequent clinical concern.
  • Although in most cases they are benign and hormonally nonfunctioning, it is important to appropriately identify those few cases of malignant or hyperfunctioning lesions of surgical resolution.
  • In the present retrospective study we analyzed 34 patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Of these, 32% of the patients displayed hyperfunctioning pathologies that included subclinical Cushing's syndrome in four patients, probable primary hyperaldosteronism in two, late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia in one, adrerocortical carcinoma in one and pheochromocytoma in three.
  • CT and/or MRI permitted the identification of adenomas and were crucial to decide on surgery in two patients with nonfunctioning pheochromocytomas and in a patient carrying a primitive adrenocortical carcinoma, a diagnosis also suggested by a mixed pattern of hypersecretion of androgens and cortisol.
  • Nonfunctioning tumors were mainly adenomas (87%) with individual cases of histoplasmosis, pseudocyst, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia and mielolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Androgens / secretion. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17891929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens
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19. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Rosłonowska E, Kochman M, Jeske W, Otto M, Cichocki A, Słapa RZ, Zgliczyński W: Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):69-73
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  • [Title] Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre.
  • INTRODUCTION: During the last 22 years we registered 1790 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumours (AI, adrenal incidentalomas).
  • The group of patients with bilateral adrenal tumours included 258 women and 93 men, 25-83 years old.
  • Hormonal investigations and imaging examinations were performed to search for subclinical adrenal hyperfunction and to define the malignant potential of the tumours.
  • Histological findings included malignant tumours: metastases - 9, adrenal cancer - 7, and lymphomas - 5; and non-malignant tumours: adenomas - 24, nodular hyperplasia - 14, myelolipomas - 4, and pheochromocytomas - 4.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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20. Muzaffar N, Hashmi A, Mubarak M, Mohsin R, Shazad A, Sultan G, Hashmi A, Rizvi AH: Adrenal myelolipoma: a report of three cases and review of literature. J Pak Med Assoc; 2009 Jul;59(7):491-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: a report of three cases and review of literature.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare and benign tumour composed of mature adipose tissue and haematopoietic elements that resemble bone marrow.
  • It is mostly discovered incidentally on imaging of abdomen done for non adrenal related reasons or at autopsy.
  • Myelolipoma was confirmed in all three on histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 19579745.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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21. Pereira JM, Sirlin CB, Pinto PS, Casola G: CT and MR imaging of extrahepatic fatty masses of the abdomen and pelvis: techniques, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1):69-85
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  • [Title] CT and MR imaging of extrahepatic fatty masses of the abdomen and pelvis: techniques, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls.
  • The differential diagnosis of extrahepatic abdominopelvic masses is wide.
  • Demonstration of fat within a lesion at noninvasive imaging is an important clue for narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • Entities with predominantly macroscopic fat include myelolipoma, angiomyolipoma, teratoma, liposarcoma, lipoma, epiploic appendagitis, omental infarction, and mesenteric panniculitis.
  • Lesions with predominantly microscopic fat include adrenal adenoma and some teratomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Teratoma / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15653588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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22. Al-Rukibat RK, Bani Ismail ZA: Unusual presentation of splenic myelolipoma in a dog. Can Vet J; 2006 Nov;47(11):1112-4
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  • [Title] Unusual presentation of splenic myelolipoma in a dog.
  • Cytologic and histologic evaluation of the mass revealed a mixture of fat and hematopoietic tissue, consistent with a splenic myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / veterinary. Splenic Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • [Cites] Vet Pathol. 2005 Mar;42(2):232-5 [15753481.001]
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  • (PMID = 17147143.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5286
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue vétérinaire canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1624918
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23. Meyer A, Behrend M: Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors. Urol Int; 2006;77(2):173-8
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  • [Title] Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: The accidental discovery of an adrenal mass called incidentaloma has become an increasingly frequent clinical problem with the question of a correct and appropriate therapeutic approach being the subject of controversial discussions.
  • Histopathologic examination ruled out adrenal adenoma in 32 patients, adrenal myelolipoma in 12, unilateral nodular hyperplasia in 4, cystic lesion in 3, and adrenocortical carcinoma in 1 patient.
  • Evaluating the criteria for surgical treatment regarding age of the patients and size of the lesions, 25 patients (48%), including the patient with the adrenocortical carcinoma, were younger than 60 years and had an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size.
  • Especially in patients younger than 60 years with an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size, an adrenalectomy, predominantly via an endoscopic approach, should be carried out, because a repeated and life-long close follow-up of an anxious patient who has been informed of the diagnosis will in some cases exceed the cost of a single endoscopic operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy

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  • (PMID = 16888426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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24. Bartumeus Martínez P, Ripollés González T: [Extraadrenal retroperitoneal myelolipoma]. Actas Urol Esp; 2009 Apr;33(4):439-42
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  • [Title] [Extraadrenal retroperitoneal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma extraadrenal retroperitoneal.
  • Extraadrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors and differentiating them from other soft tissue tumors containing fat can be difficult.
  • A retroperitoneal myelolipoma adjacent to right renal helium is presented in this case-report.
  • Initially oriented as liposarcoma, the final diagnosis was obtained after surgery.
  • MRI with fat suppression and opposed-phase imaging are the best imaging tools to demonstrate the adipose tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelolipoma. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19579898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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25. Mermejo LM, Elias Junior J, Saggioro FP, Tucci Junior S, Castro Md, Moreira AC, Elias PC: Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: unusual association mimicking an androgen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Jun;54(4):419-24
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: unusual association mimicking an androgen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The objective of this study was to describe a case of giant myelolipoma associated with undiagnosed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase (21OH) deficiency.
  • Five seven year-old male patient referred with abdominal ultrasound revealing a left adrenal mass.
  • Biochemical investigation revealed hyperandrogenism and imaging exams characterized a large heterogeneous left adrenal mass with interweaving free fat tissue, compatible with the diagnosis of myelolipoma, and a 1.5 cm nodule in the right adrenal gland.
  • Biochemical correlation has brought concerns about differential diagnosis with adrenocortical carcinoma, and surgical excision of the left adrenal mass was indicated.
  • Anatomopathologic findings revealed a myelolipoma and multinodular hyperplasic adrenocortex.
  • Further investigation resulted in the diagnosis of CAH due to 21OH deficiency.
  • Although rare, myelolipoma associated with CAH should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal gland masses.
  • Moreover, CAH should always be ruled out in incidentally detected adrenal masses to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20625655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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26. Blake MA, Kalra MK, Sweeney AT, Lucey BC, Maher MM, Sahani DV, Halpern EF, Mueller PR, Hahn PF, Boland GW: Distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses: multi-detector row CT protocol with 10-minute delay. Radiology; 2006 Feb;238(2):578-85
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  • [Title] Distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses: multi-detector row CT protocol with 10-minute delay.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of precontrast attenuation, relative percentage washout (RPW), and absolute percentage washout (APW) in distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses at multi-detector row computed tomography (CT).
  • One hundred twenty-two adrenal masses were evaluated in 99 patients (51 men, 48 women; age range, 37-86 years) who had undergone CT performed according to the study protocol and who either were given a pathologic diagnosis or underwent follow-up imaging.
  • Analysis was first performed with the exclusion of pheochromocytomas, myelolipomas, and cysts.
  • RESULTS: By using an RPW of 37.5% and excluding cysts and myelolipomas, all malignant lesions were detected with a sensitivity of 100% (17 of 17 lesions) and a specificity of 95% (90 of 95 lesions).
  • Precontrast attenuation of less than 0 or more than 43 HU indicated benign and malignant entities, respectively.
  • Combining all the information available from the protocol yielded a sensitivity of 100% (17 of 17 lesions) and a specificity of 98% (98 of 100 lesions) for differentiating benign from malignant masses.
  • CONCLUSION: Precontrast attenuation of less than 0 HU supercedes the washout profile in the evaluation of an individual adrenal mass.
  • Noncalcified, nonhemorrhagic adrenal lesions with precontrast attenuation of more than 43 HU should be considered suspicious for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Clinical Protocols. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors


27. Osman Y, El-Mekresh M, Gomha AM, Mohsen T, Taha N, Hussein N, Eraky I: Percutaneous adrenal biopsy for indeterminate adrenal lesion: complications and diagnostic accuracy. Urol Int; 2010;84(3):315-8
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  • [Title] Percutaneous adrenal biopsy for indeterminate adrenal lesion: complications and diagnostic accuracy.
  • PURPOSE: To critically analyze the role, accuracy and safety of percutaneous adrenal biopsy for indeterminate adrenal lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adrenal biopsies were performed in 15 among 214 patients (7%) diagnosed with adrenal masses being indeterminate on preoperative imaging.
  • There were 2 nonrepresentative biopsies that were proved to be adrenocortical carcinoma and myelolipoma after adrenalectomy.
  • Results of biopsy in the remaining 13 patients provided accurate diagnosis as proved by definitive histopathology in all but 2 in whom the final diagnosis was established as adrenocortical carcinoma while biopsy was paraganglioma in one and cortical adenoma in the other.
  • Overall sensitivity and negative predictive value of adrenal biopsy was 73.3 and 60%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous biopsy is a safe procedure for the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the adrenal gland with a reasonable diagnostic aid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20389162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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28. Ares Valdés Y: [Adrenal myelolipoma. Case report and bibliographic review]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Jan-Feb;59(1):71-3
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  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma. Case report and bibliographic review].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma de la glándula suprarrenal. Informe de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report one case of adrenal myelolipoma in a female patient presenting with right lumbar pain over six months.
  • RESULTS: The patient underwent right adenomectomy with the working diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Myelolipoma may present hematopoietic, fat and bone components.
  • It continues being an incidental finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16568696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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29. Greaves WO, Khanna P, DeLellis R, Glasser L, Wang LJ: Renal sinus myelolipoma coexistent with renal pelvis papillary transitional cell carcinoma: a case report. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):437-9
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  • [Title] Renal sinus myelolipoma coexistent with renal pelvis papillary transitional cell carcinoma: a case report.
  • A unique case of renal sinus myelolipoma presenting as a mass coexistent with papillary transitional cell carcinoma is reported.
  • Pathological findings revealed an irregular myxoid fatty mass, in addition to high-grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis included myxoid liposarcoma, myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (myxofibrosarcoma), and angiomyolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma and papillary transitional cell carcinoma appear to be unrelated coexistent entities in this case.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Pelvis / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary


30. Cox A, Offman SL, Merrimen JL, Kew A, Norman RW: Bilateral renal sinus myelolipomas. Can Urol Assoc J; 2010 Dec;4(6):E164-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral renal sinus myelolipomas.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are benign neoplasms consisting of hematopoietic cellular elements and adipose tissue.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas (EM) are extremely rare with fewer than 50 cases reported.
  • Management options include both conservative and surgical approaches depending upon the certainty of the diagnosis, progression of the patient's symptoms and evidence of growth.

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  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
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31. Perretta S, Campagnacci R, Guerrieri M, Paganini AM, De Sanctis A, Sarnari J, Rimini M, Lezoche E: Sub-mesocolic access in laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. Surg Endosc; 2005 Jul;19(7):977-80
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  • BACKGROUND: This article reports an alternative laparoscopic access to left adrenal gland.
  • Indications were Conn adenoma (55 cases), incidentaloma (64), Cushing adenoma (45), pheochromocytoma (32), adreno-genital syndrome (two), mielolipoma (two), and metastatic mass(nine).
  • The identification and closure of the adrenal vein with minimal gland manipulation resulted the main benefit of this approach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Left adrenal lesions, as selected cases of pheochromocytoma, can be safely treated by laparoscopic submesocolic access.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
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32. Connor L, Craig J, Buch KE, Divino CM: Image of the month. Adrenal myelolipoma. Arch Surg; 2009 Mar;144(3):283-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Image of the month. Adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19289670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Sato K, Ueda Y, Katsuda S, Tsuchihara K: Myelolipoma of the lung: a case report and brief review. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jun;60(6):728-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myelolipoma of the lung: a case report and brief review.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17557874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 14
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955080
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34. DeCastro GJ, Gupta M, Badani K, Hruby G, Landman J: Synchronous cryoablation of multiple renal lesions: short-term follow-up of patient outcomes. Urology; 2010 Feb;75(2):303-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Of the 17 lesions, 7 were found to be conventional renal cell carcinoma, 4 papillary, 2 myelolipoma, and 1 oncocytoma (unavailable for 3 lesions).

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  • [Copyright] 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 19931123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Schittenhelm J, Jacob SN, Rutczynska J, Tsiflikas I, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Title] Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma.
  • Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is composed of both adipose tissue and normal haematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare.
  • We present the case of a 63-year-old female patient with adenoma of the adrenal gland and an additional paravertebral lesion in the thoracic spine.
  • Post-mortem histopathology showed the incidental finding of a paravertebral myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 21686745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027965
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36. Nguyen BD: Retroperitoneal extraadrenal myelolipoma: Technetium-99m sulfur colloid scintigraphy and CT imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Feb;32(2):135-8
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal extraadrenal myelolipoma: Technetium-99m sulfur colloid scintigraphy and CT imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Myelolipoma / radiography. Myelolipoma / radionuclide imaging. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid

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  • (PMID = 17242571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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37. Moreau L, Gobet F, Grise P, Perraudin V, Lefebvre H: Image in endocrinology. Marginal-zone lymphoma mimicking adrenal myelolipoma on computed tomography scan. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Sep;95(9):4173-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Image in endocrinology. Marginal-zone lymphoma mimicking adrenal myelolipoma on computed tomography scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20823468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Hasan M, Siddiqui F, Al-Ajmi M: FNA diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma: a rare entity. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):925-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FNA diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma: a rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18855887.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Roukounakis N, Dimas S, Kafetzis I, Bethanis S, Gatsulis N, Kostas H, Kyriakou V, Michas S: Is preservation of the adrenal vein mandatory in laparoscopic adrenal-sparing surgery? JSLS; 2007 Apr-Jun;11(2):215-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is preservation of the adrenal vein mandatory in laparoscopic adrenal-sparing surgery?
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adrenal tissue-sparing or partial adrenalectomy evolved initially for patients with bilateral synchronous adrenal surgical pathology to preserve vital adrenal volume.
  • Controversy exists regarding the importance of preserving the adrenal vein, main or accessory.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to present our short series of laparoscopic tissue-sparing adrenalectomies with vein preservation.
  • METHODS: Seven patients with peripherally located either aldosterone-producing adenomas (4 cases) or myelolipomas (4 cases) underwent laparoscopic lateral partial adrenalectomy.
  • One patient harbored an aldosterone-producing adenoma and a myelolipoma as well.
  • The main adrenal vein was identified and preserved in 6 patients and the accessory vein in one.
  • Laparoscopic lateral partial adrenalectomy is a technically challenging tissue-sparing operation.
  • Meticulous dissection allows preservation of the middle artery and main or accessory vein resulting in a functioning adrenal stump.

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015730
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40. Guo YK, Yang ZG, Li Y, Deng YP, Ma ES, Min PQ, Zhang XC: Uncommon adrenal masses: CT and MRI features with histopathologic correlation. Eur J Radiol; 2007 Jun;62(3):359-70
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  • [Title] Uncommon adrenal masses: CT and MRI features with histopathologic correlation.
  • Adrenal glands are common sites of diseases.
  • With dramatically increased use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, more and more uncommon adrenal masses have been detected incidentally at abdominal examinations performed for other purposes.
  • In this article, uncommon adrenal masses are classified as cystic masses (endothelial cysts, epithelial cysts, parasitic cysts, and pseudocysts), solid masses (ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), neurilemmoma, and lymphoma), fat-containing masses (myelolipoma, teratoma), and infectious masses (tuberculoma), and the imaging features of these uncommon masses are demonstrated.
  • Although most of these lesions do not have specific imaging features, some fat-containing masses and cystic lesions present with characteristic appearances, such as myelolipoma, teratoma, and hydatid.
  • Combination with histopathologic characteristic of these uncommon masses of adrenal gland, radiological features of these lesions on CT and MR imaging can be accurately understood with more confidences.
  • Moreover, CT and MRI are highly accurate in localization of uncommon adrenal masses, and useful to guide surgical treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Cysts / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Rare Diseases. Tuberculoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17532488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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41. Park BK, Kim CK, Kim B, Kwon GY: Adrenal tumors with late enhancement on CT and MRI. Abdom Imaging; 2007 Jul-Aug;32(4):515-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal tumors with late enhancement on CT and MRI.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify adrenal masses showing gradual persistent enhancement on delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computed tomography or magnetic resonance images of pathologically proven 400 adrenal tumors were retrospectively reviewed over a 10-year period.
  • We included only adrenal tumors showing gradual persistent enhancement on CT and MRI performed at 15 and 5 min, respectively, after contrast material injection.
  • These lesions were as follows: two ganglioneuromas, one myelolipoma with infarction, and one angiomyolipoma with minimal fat.
  • CONCLUSION: The differential diagnosis of adrenal tumors showing gradual persistent enhancement on delayed contrast-enhanced CT and MRI should include ganglioneuroma, myelolipoma with infarction, and angiomyolipoma with minimal fat.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17151900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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42. Ahsan T, Kanwal S, Banu Z, Jabeen R: Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2010 Dec;20(12):819-21
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  • [Title] Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign and usually hormonally inactive tumour.
  • We report a case of a young female who presented with hormonally active tumour causing virilization and associated type-2 Diabetes mellitus.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done after CT finding of a large left adrenal mass that was producing large amounts of androgens.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma with cortical hyperplasia was diagnosed on histopathological examination.
  • We report this case due to its rarity, multiplicity of tumours and adrenal cortical hyperplasia-presenting as an unusual cause of severe virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Fibroadenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21205549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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43. Kalidindi RS, Hattingh L: Bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas. Abdom Imaging; 2006 Jan-Feb;31(1):125-7
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  • [Title] Bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors that comprise mature adipose cells and hematopoietic elements.
  • Although they are not hormonally active, there is very rarely an association with functional adrenal disorders such as Cushing syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • We report the imaging appearances of bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas in a patient known to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • To our knowledge, these are the largest bilateral adrenal myelolipomas reported in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / epidemiology. Adult. Comorbidity. Humans. Male. Radiographic Image Enhancement

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  • [ErratumIn] Abdom Imaging. 2011 Oct;36(5):632
  • (PMID = 16245020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Egbert N, Elsayes KM, Azar S, Caoili EM: Computed tomography of adrenocortical carcinoma containing macroscopic fat. Cancer Imaging; 2010;10:198-200
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  • The presence of macroscopic fat in an adrenal mass has classically been associated with myelolipoma.
  • The presence of macroscopic fat is not a characteristic finding in adrenocortical carcinoma or other adrenal malignancies.
  • We report a case of a newly discovered large adrenal mass containing multiple areas of macroscopic fat, which was pathologically proven to represent an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / radiography. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoma / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1982 Oct;6(5):978-82 [7142516.001]
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  • (PMID = 21067996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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45. Nigawara T, Kageyama K, Sakihara S, Takayasu S, Kawahara M, Imai A, Ohyama C, Usui T, Sasano H, Suda T: A male case of nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency first manifested in his sixties with adrenocortical incidentaloma. Endocr J; 2008 May;55(2):291-7
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  • Nonclassical form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC 21OHD) as a frequent variant on the milder end of the disease spectrum has been widely acknowledged, but its potential contribution to adrenocortical tumorigenesis has not been fully elucidated.
  • The two tumors in the left adrenal, which were interpreted as myelolipoma by imaging studies, were followed by sequential observation, whereas the contralateral large solid tumor associated with inhomogeneous radiological appearance was subsequently removed.
  • 21OHD is often associated with benign adrenocortical tumors, but bilateral adrenal tumors with heterogeneous components in both adrenals have not been reported to the best of our knowledge.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aged. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18323673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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46. Kasalický M, Krsek M, Zelinka T, Hána V, Widimský J: [120 laparoscopic adrenalectomies with a harmonic scalpel]. Rozhl Chir; 2009 Aug;88(8):439-43
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  • Typical indication for LA is the aldosteron-secreting adenoma, Cushing's syndrome, feochromocytoma or scarcity tumors such as adrenal cyst or myelolipomas.
  • The median size of the adrenal tumor was 4.9 cm (1.5-12.5 cm) with average weight 44 g (18-421 g).
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy presently becomes as the "gold standard" for the treatment of adrenal tumors to the size 10 cm namely and in the event of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20055298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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47. Vilar L, Freitas Mda C, Canadas V, Albuquerque JL, Botelho CA, Egito CS, Arruda MJ, Moura e Silva L, Coelho CE, Casulari LA, Naves LA: Adrenal incidentalomas: diagnostic evaluation and long-term follow-up. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):269-78
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: diagnostic evaluation and long-term follow-up.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cause and the clinical and laboratory features of adrenal incidentalomas (AI) in 52 patients and to assess the evolution of nonsurgically treated lesions during long-term follow-up.
  • RESULTS: In our study group, nonfunctioning adenomas were the most frequent cause of AI (42%), followed by cortisol-secreting adenomas (15%), metastatic disease (10%), pheochromocytomas (8%), myelolipomas (6%), cysts (6%), carcinomas (4%), lymphomas (4%), tuberculosis (4%), and aldosteronoma (2%).
  • Carcinomas were the largest adrenal masses (mean diameter, 11.7 +/- 1.3 cm).
  • With the exception of 1 pheochromocytoma, 1 cyst, and 1 myelolipoma, all AI larger than 6 cm were carcinomas.
  • After 12 months of follow-up, however, a 45-year-old woman had adrenal mass enlargement from 3.2 cm to 4.4 cm; the excised lesion proved to be an adenoma.
  • Moreover, evidence of cortisol hypersecretion developed after 24 months of follow-up in a 30-year-old man with a 3.5-cm adenoma in the left adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that most AI are nonfunctioning benign lesions and emphasize the need for long-term follow-up of patients with conservatively managed lesions, in light of the potential for evolution to hormonal hypersecretion or tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Brazil. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8 [18463031.001]
  • (PMID = 18463032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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48. Bahrami A, Truong LD, Shen SS, Krishnan B: Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Feb;13(1):9-15
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  • [Title] Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases.
  • Synchronous renal and adrenal masses are uncommon.
  • Although adrenal masses in the context of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are often suspected as metastasis, other adrenal lesions with different therapeutic and prognostic implications may coexist with RCC.
  • In a retrospective review of 550 radical nephrectomies with ipsilateral adrenalectomy, 80 cases of coexisting renal and adrenal masses were identified.
  • The renal masses included 76 RCCs, 3 oncocytomas, and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland involving the kidney.
  • Although the gross pathologic impression of adrenal masses in the presence of RCC was metastasis, on histologic examination, 56% of them were found to be benign lesions (mostly adrenal adenoma/hyperplasia), whereas malignant involvement from RCC was seen in 43%.
  • The benign and malignant nature of the adrenal lesions in the context of RCC could not be discriminated based on the size of adrenal mass.
  • Because of the prognostic implication of direct or metastatic involvement of adrenal gland in the setting of RCC and the possibility of finding small metastatic foci, a meticulous gross and microscopic examination of adrenal glands is emphasized.
  • Rare unusual combinations of renal and adrenal lesions such as RCC and adrenal histoplasmosis, RCC and adrenal myelolipoma, renal oncocytoma, and adrenal pheochromocytoma are also described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19118776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Fernandes GC, Gupta RK, Kandalkar BM: Giant adrenal myelolipoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):325-6
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • We report a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma weighing 2200 gms which was diagnosed on radiology as a liposarcoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, not more than 10 giant adrenal myelolipoma cases have been reported in literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Male. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Radiography, Abdominal

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  • (PMID = 20551546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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50. Yang ZG, Guo YK, Li Y, Min PQ, Yu JQ, Ma ES: Differentiation between tuberculosis and primary tumors in the adrenal gland: evaluation with contrast-enhanced CT. Eur Radiol; 2006 Sep;16(9):2031-6
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  • [Title] Differentiation between tuberculosis and primary tumors in the adrenal gland: evaluation with contrast-enhanced CT.
  • The aim of the present study is to determine imaging criteria for differentiating tuberculosis from primary tumors in the adrenal gland on contrast-enhanced CT.
  • Non-contrast and contrast-enhanced CT features in 108 patients with adrenal tuberculosis (n = 34) and primary tumor (n = 74) were retrospectively assessed for the location, size, calcification and enhancement patterns.
  • The primary tumors included 41 adenomas, 11 pheochromocytomas, 4 carcinomas, 3 lymphomas, 6 myelolipomas, 6 ganglioneuromas, 2 neurilemmomas and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • CT findings can differentiate tuberculosis from a primary tumor of the adrenal glands with high sensitivity and an acceptable specificity when combined with the endocrinological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Tuberculosis, Endocrine / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16435135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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51. Vaziri M, Sadeghipour A, Pazooki A, Shoolami LZ: Primary mediastinal myelolipoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2008 May;85(5):1805-6
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  • [Title] Primary mediastinal myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor composed of an admixture of fat and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells.
  • It is typically an adrenal lesion, and mediastinal location is extremely unusual.
  • We describe a 56-year-old man with nonspecific symptoms of cough and dyspnea and no underlying disease whose chest computed tomography showed a huge (25 x 15 cm) mediastinal tumor containing calcification.
  • Surgical removal and subsequent pathologic examination of the tumor revealed myelolipoma.
  • Primary myelolipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of large posterior mediastinal tumors containing calcification.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcinosis / diagnosis. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / surgery. Cough / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Dyspnea / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Mediastinum / pathology. Mediastinum / surgery. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18442597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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52. Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Crosta F, Arnaldi G, Boscaro M, Lezoche G, Campagnacci R: Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Mar;30(3):200-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update.
  • Nowadays, the role of surgery in the treatment of adrenal incidentalomas (AI), considering their biologic behavior, is still debated.
  • Surgery is mandatory in cases of hyperfunctioning adrenal masses, in the presence of suspect radiological malignancy, in cases of discordant computed tomography (CT) and scintigraphy findings and when the maximum diameter is 4 cm or more.
  • Twenty-one large adrenal lesions (exceeding 6 cm) were removed (27%).
  • Definitive histology resulted as follows: adrenocortical adenoma (63), pheochromocytoma (5), nodular hyperplasia (4), myelolipoma (3), cysts (2), and adrenocortical carcinoma (1, with a size of 3 cm).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17505152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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53. Hagiwara H, Usui T, Kimura T, Tagami T, Naruse M, Minamiguchi S, Kato T, Okuno H, Shimatsu A: Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):122-7
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  • [Title] Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Myelolipomas of the adrenal gland are benign, nonfunctioning tumors.
  • Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia sometimes develop large and bilateral myelolipomas.
  • Although the precise pathogenesis of myelolipomas remains unclear, prolonged stimulation with high levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or adrenal androgens are assumed to have a causative role.
  • To clarify the role of ACTH and androgen in the pathogenesis of myelolipoma, we report a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma in a patient with poorly controlled congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • A 43-year-old female was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia at 6 years of age because of ambiguous genitalia.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a huge mass on the left adrenal gland, and an enlarged right adrenal mass.
  • Histological study revealed that the tumor consisted of fat cells and myeloid components, findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Our finding that the tumor did not over-express ACTH or androgen receptor suggests a limited direct role for these hormones in the development of the myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Myelolipoma / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Female. Genitalia, Female / abnormalities. Genitalia, Female / surgery. Humans. Receptors, Melanocortin / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18618087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Melanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.14.16 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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54. Suárez G, Valera Z, Gómez MA, Docobo F, Alamo JM: [Etiology and diagnosis of severe retroperitoneal hematoma: therapeutic options and surgical indication]. Cir Esp; 2005 Nov;78(5):328-30
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  • [Title] [Etiology and diagnosis of severe retroperitoneal hematoma: therapeutic options and surgical indication].
  • Although the literature on the subject describes a wide variety of causes, in all three patients the etiology was tumoral, consisting of one suprarenal myelolipoma, one renal adenocarcinoma and one suprarenal metastasis from bronchogenic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematoma / diagnosis. Hematoma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16420851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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55. Daneshmand S, Quek ML: Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management. Urol J; 2006;3(2):71-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal myelolipomas are benign lesions that contain hematopoietic and fatty elements.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive review of the literature using the PubMed database containing the key word adrenal myelolipoma.
  • In this review, we highlighted the salient diagnostic features of adrenal myelolipomas and offered a guide for management of these benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal myelolipomas may grow over time, but they can usually be followed without surgical excision.
  • In some cases, very large myelolipomas can present with pain and can be confused with necrotic adrenal carcinomas, thus necessitating their surgical removal.

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  • (PMID = 17590837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-1308
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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56. Sandoval MA, Anel-Quimpo J: A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation.
  • A 51-year-old Filipino woman presenting with hypertension was unexpectedly found to have a large right adrenal mass by ultrasound.
  • As she did not have symptoms of adrenal disease, this was labelled an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Ultrasound and CT imaging demonstrated a large adrenal mass on the right measuring 15 cm at its greatest diameter, with both benign and malignant features.
  • Histopathological examination revealed myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 22802369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027410
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57. Alberti C: [Adrenal incidentalomas: etiologic diagnostics and basic therapeutic management. A mini-review]. G Chir; 2009 May;30(5):243-50
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas: etiologic diagnostics and basic therapeutic management. A mini-review].
  • Since the late 1970s, the number of serendipitously discovered adrenal masses has progressively increased through the widespread use of great sensitivity/high resolution diagnostic imaging while abdomen scanning for extra-adrenal lesions.
  • The majority of these masses are benign and without evidence of endocrine activity.
  • Most adrenal incidentalomas are cortical adenomas whereas the prevalence of adrenocortical carcinomas and other adrenal masses (lipomas, myelolipomas, angio-myelo-lipomas, sarcomas, hamartomas, lymphomas) is relatively low.
  • An accurate management of adrenal incidentalomas requires an agreement among radiologist, endocrinologist, oncologist and surgeon.
  • Arguments for benign incidentalomas are mainly small size (< 4 cm), low CT attenuation coefficients and/or typical features on RM imaging.
  • Surgery is mandatory for secretory tumours (functioning cortical adenomas, pheochromocytoma) and for adrenal malignancies.
  • In accordance with international literature, the size of adrenal incidentalomas may be a discriminant criterion for their management: surgery is recommended for masses of large (> 6 cm) diameter or increasing at CT/RM follow-up reevaluation whereas the masses between 4/6 cm form an indeterminate group where the management varies from institution to institution.
  • Laparoscopic transperitoneal as well as retro-peritoneoscopic procedures are gaining more and more attention for less invasive treatment of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • According to 2002 USA-National Institutes of Health guidelines, further studies are necessary to better define natural history, CT and RM malignant features, functional aptitudes of adrenal incidentalomas in order to propose optimal modalities of follow-up and proper surgical strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prevalence. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19505420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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58. Zografos GN, Farfaras A, Vasiliadis G, Pappa T, Aggeli C, Vassilatou E, Kaltsas G, Piaditis G: Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2010 Jul-Sep;14(3):364-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has rapidly replaced open adrenalectomy as the procedure of choice for benign adrenal tumors.
  • The largest laparoscopically excised tumors were a ganglioneuroma with a mean diameter of 13 cm and a myelolipoma of 14 cm.
  • In the large adrenal tumor group, operative time for laparoscopic resection ranged from 150 minutes to 240 minutes.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of large (≥ 8 cm) adrenal tumors is feasible and safe.

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  • (PMID = 21333189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3041032
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59. Lezoche E, Guerrieri M, Crosta F, Lezoche G, Baldarelli M, Campagnacci R: Flank approach versus anterior sub-mesocolic access in left laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a prospective randomized study. Surg Endosc; 2008 Nov;22(11):2373-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy is commonly recognized as the gold standard in adrenal surgery.
  • Mean overall OpT was 76.4 min (54-96 min) versus 65.6 min (45-95 min) in group A and B, respectively (p = 0.001), while the OpT required to tie the adrenal vein was 42.8 min (26-55 min) and 24.5 min (16-41 min) (p = 0.000).
  • A myelolipoma and an adrenogenital adenoma were observed in group A and one carcinoma was observed in group B.
  • Identification and early closure of the adrenal vein by means of a really minimal dissection and no-touch gland technique resulted in the main benefits of this approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18288528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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60. Cindolo L, Gidaro S, Neri F, Tamburro FR, Schips L: Assessing feasibility and safety of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery adrenalectomy: initial experience. J Endourol; 2010 Jun;24(6):977-80
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three patients with nonfunctional adrenal masses underwent TriPort adrenalectomy.
  • Pathology examination confirmed one adenoma, one lung cancer metastasis, and one myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 20367086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Hagspiel KD: Manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an adrenal myelolipoma. Eur Radiol; 2005 Aug;15(8):1757-9
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  • [Title] Manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are benign tumors histologically consisting of fat and bone marrow.
  • The computed tomography findings of Hodgkin's lymphoma manifested in an adrenal myelolipoma are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15503042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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62. Boujelbene N, Trimeche M, Ziadi S, Mestiri S, Mokni M, Korbi S: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Tunis Med; 2009 Apr;87(4):301
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  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19835294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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63. Haouas N, Sahraoui W, Saidi R, Lefi M, Saad H: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Prog Urol; 2005 Jun;15(3):532-4
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  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a benign, non-secreting tumour, which can be complicated by pain or retroperitoneal haemorrhage.
  • The diagnosis is based on CT or preferably MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16097167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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64. Agrawal S, Jha MS, Khurana N, Ansari MS, Dubey D, Srivastava A, Kapoor R, Kumar A, Jain M, Mandhani A: Nephron sparing surgery: A single institution experience. Indian J Urol; 2007 Jan;23(1):23-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in managing various benign and malignant renal tumors with nephron-sparing surgery.
  • Histopathological profile revealed 13 (44.8%) benign lesions which included angiomyolipoma (eight), simple cyst (two), cortical adenoma (one), metanephric adenoma (one) and myelolipoma (one).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nephron-sparing surgery is a safe and effective alternative to nephrectomy in both benign and malignant lesions of the kidney.

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  • (PMID = 19675756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-1591
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2721489
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Kidney / kidney diseases / nephron sparing surgery
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65. Wang XJ, Shen ZJ, Zhu Y, Zhang RM, Shun FK, Shao Y, Rui WB, He W: Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (&lt; or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients. BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(6):849-53
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy (RPA) for small adrenal tumours, as with modern imaging methods small adrenal lesions are being diagnosed more commonly, and retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm) can be challenging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 389 consecutive retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies from September 2005 to December 2008, 88 of which were small adrenal tumours and treated by RPA.
  • We used RPA for adrenal tumours and total adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer.
  • During the surgery, the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum was freed first, and the whole adrenal tissue was dissected completely.
  • RESULTS: There were no deaths; conversions to open surgery were necessary in four patients (4.5%), the reasons being a missing target in two, massive haemorrhage caused by central adrenal vein injury in one, and severe adhesion in one.
  • The mean (range) size of the adrenal tumours was 0.7 (0.5-1.0) cm, including 69 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 11 nonfunctional adrenal adenomas, three Cushing syndrome, two phaeochromocytomas, two myelolipomas and one melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: RPA is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with small adrenal tumours.
  • Freeing the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum first, and exploring the whole adrenal tissue during surgery are the key points of RPA.
  • The location of the small adrenal tumour can be different from that shown on imaging before surgery, and the abnormality of the adrenal gland should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19751254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Romano G, Cocchiara G, Calderone F, Buscemi G, Gioè FP, Alongi G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature]. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):228-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Trattamento laparoscopico del mielolipoma surrenalico: caso clinico e revisione della letteratura.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign, non-functioning tumor consisting of fat and hematopoietic tissues.
  • In January 2005 we had observed an adrenal myelolipoma in 70 year old man.
  • During the follow-up for bladder urothelioma, an abdominal CT revaled a well delineated 4x4 cm homogeneous fatty mass in the right suprarenal area with negative attenuation values.
  • The functional study of adrenal gland was normal.
  • The istological diagnosis showed adrenal myelolipoma.
  • We conclude that videolaparoscopic adrenalectomy should be considered the gold standard treatment for benign adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16857113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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67. Campagnacci R, Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Sarnari J, Lezoche E: Laparoscopic radiofrequency renal ablation in patients with simultaneous visceral tumors: long-term follow-up. J Endourol; 2006 May;20(5):321-5
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  • Moreover, a simultaneous large right adrenal incidentaloma (myelolipoma) and a right colon cancer were known to be present in the second and third patient, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 16724903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Chakraborty J, Paul PCh, Gumta MK, Ghosh G, Goswami B: Adrenal myelolipoma--report of a case. J Indian Med Assoc; 2006 Mar;104(3):148-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma--report of a case.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, non-secreting tumour composed of adipose and haematopoietic tissue.
  • Histological examination revealed the features of myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Low Back Pain / diagnosis. Lumbosacral Region / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16910340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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69. Papapietro N, Martinelli N, Ippolito M, Amato C, Denaro V: Intraosseous myelolipoma within proximal femoral metaphysis in a patient with previous prostate cancer: a case report. Hip Int; 2009 Jul-Sep;19(3):283-6
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  • [Title] Intraosseous myelolipoma within proximal femoral metaphysis in a patient with previous prostate cancer: a case report.
  • Computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed mature adipose tissue along with hematopoietic precursor cells.
  • This is the third case of intraosseous myelolipoma reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Osteoarthritis, Hip / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19876886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6067
  • [Journal-full-title] Hip international : the journal of clinical and experimental research on hip pathology and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hip Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Peppa M, Dracopoulou-Vabouli M, Raptis SA: Bilateral adrenal myelolipomas associated With 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):525-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal myelolipomas associated With 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / enzymology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / enzymology. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20564792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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71. John M, Menon SK, Shah NS, Menon PS: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency: two cases managed with bilateral adrenalectomy. Singapore Med J; 2009 Feb;50(2):e68-70
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  • [Title] Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency: two cases managed with bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • This series describes two patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • The second patient, a 23-year-old with XY genotype, presented with bilateral adrenal masses and resistant hypertension.
  • These two patients are described with a discussion on the role of bilateral adrenalectomy in the management of difficult cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The association of myelolipoma and testicular rests with this condition is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / blood. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genotype. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Karyotyping. Male. Testicular Diseases / complications. Testicular Diseases / surgery. Treatment Outcome


72. Wani NA, Kosar T, Rawa IA, Qayum A: Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association. Urol Ann; 2010 Sep;2(3):130-3
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an unusual, benign and biochemically inactive tumor that is composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is usually unilateral and asymptomatic, though known to be associated with obesity, hypertension, endocrinological disorders and some malignancies.
  • We report herein two cases of right-sided giant adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed by multidetector-row CT.
  • One patient was symptomatic because of a large mass in the right upper abdomen, which on imaging with CT was seen to be right adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Another patient had a large left side Bochdalek hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma was incidentally discovered on CT.

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  • (PMID = 20981204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-7834
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology annals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol Ann
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955231
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal gland / Bochdalek hernia / multidetector-row CT / myelolipoma
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73. Hatai H, Ochiai K, Nakamura S, Kamiya T, Ito M, Yamamoto H, Sunden Y, Umemura T: Hepatic myelolipoma and amyloidosis with osseous metaplasia in a swan goose (Anser cygnoides). J Comp Pathol; 2009 Nov;141(4):260-4
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  • [Title] Hepatic myelolipoma and amyloidosis with osseous metaplasia in a swan goose (Anser cygnoides).
  • Microscopically, the hepatic lesions were composed of a mixture of adipocytes and myeloid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloidosis / veterinary. Bird Diseases / pathology. Liver / pathology. Liver Diseases / veterinary. Liver Neoplasms / veterinary. Myelolipoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19592008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3129
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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74. Nishio K, Tokiwa S, Saito K, Yoshii T, Ashizawa Y, Kurihara K, Kamiyama Y, Mikata N, Yasuda M, Ide H, Muto S, Okada H, Horie S: [A case of a giant adrenal myelolipoma in a man with spinal cord injury]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Jun;53(6):387-91
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  • [Title] [A case of a giant adrenal myelolipoma in a man with spinal cord injury].
  • Pathologic diagnosis was an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Between 1992 and 2006, 80 cases of adrenal myelolipoma were reported in Japan.
  • We reviewed these 80 cases and discussed the diagnosis and treatment strategy of the adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Spinal Cord Injuries / complications

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  • (PMID = 17628936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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75. Olobatuyi FA, Maclennan GT: Myelolipoma. J Urol; 2006 Sep;176(3):1188
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16890722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Montone KT, Rosen M, Siegelman ES, Fogt F, Livolsi VA: Adrenocortical neoplasms with myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia: report of 3 cases. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):128-33
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  • The lesion size averaged 6.8 cm (range, 3.9 to 11.0), and the mean gland weight was 128.8 g (range, 32.5 to 249).
  • Two patients showed imaging findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Imaging studies may result in a false diagnosis of a benign adrenal myelolipoma and potential undertreatment in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Lipomatosis / diagnosis. Metaplasia / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19289323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Treska V, Wirthová M, Hadravská S, Mukensnábl P, Kuntscher V, Kreuzberg B, Lisá L, Kozák K: [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia]. Zentralbl Chir; 2006 Feb;131(1):80-3
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  • [Title] [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia].
  • BACKGROUND: Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor formed by mature fat tissue with strata of haematopoiesis.
  • It is mainly asymptomatic, only large myelolipomas manifest themselves by abdominal discomfort, bleeding or by symptoms of oppressing adjacent organs.
  • It is usually localized in the region of the adrenal gland.
  • Myelolipomas are mostly clinically inert, only a small number of them are associated with Cushing's type of endocrine disorders, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, etc.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The authors present a rare case of a giant bilateral myelolipoma emerging out of the adrenal gland cortex in a congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in a woman with pronounced virilism.
  • The therapy available is either a surgical extirpation in the case of large or growing myelolipomas or observation in the case of small ones (< 5 cm).
  • RESULTS: The condition was resolved by bilateral adrenalectomy with extirpation of both myelolipomas and subsequent hormonal substitution treatment during which there was a gradual regression of virilising symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The coincidence of myelolipoma and congenital disorder with subsequent overproduction of the adrenocorticotropin hormone and androgens, might be explained by the incipient of myelolipoma through chronic hormonal stimulation of the adrenal gland cortex.
  • However, the etiopathogenesis of myelolipoma is still unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Myelolipoma / complications. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


78. Wagnerova H, Lazúrová I, Habalová V, Dudásová D, Vrzgula A: The prevalence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in adrenal incidentalomas - hormonal and mutation screening. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 May;116(5):272-5
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  • [Title] The prevalence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in adrenal incidentalomas - hormonal and mutation screening.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the response of 17 OHP to ACTH stimulation in patients with various types of adrenal incidentalomas and to examine the occurence of germline CYP21 mutation in these patients.
  • 21 of them had unilateral adrenal adenoma, 13 patients had adrenal hyperplasia (six of them unilateral) and 6 patients had CT characteristics of other tumors (myelolipomas, cysts, adrenocortical carcinoma).
  • SUMMARY: Although 12 % of patients with adrenal incidentalomas had an exaggerated response of 17 OHP after ACTH administration indicating a possible 21-hydroxylase deficiency, these findings are not associated with CYP21 mutation estimated in peripheral blood samples.
  • There was found no germline CYP21 mutation in all patients with various adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Hormones / secretion. Incidental Findings. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Cortex Function Tests. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Hyperplasia / blood. Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Hyperplasia / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 18589890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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79. López Martín L, García Cardoso JV, Gómez Muñoz J, González Enguita C: Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 Dec;63(10):880-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the case of adrenal gland myelolipoma.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: The patient was a 29 year old who is diagnosed with an adrenal adenoma during an endocrinology review.
  • The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The myelolipoma is a rare tumor composed of hematopoietic elements in different maturation stages and without histological changes, combined with mature adipose tissue in varying proportions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 21187573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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80. Sakaki M, Izaki H, Fukumori T, Taue R, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO: Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome. Int J Urol; 2006 Jun;13(6):801-2
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor, occasionally reported in association with endocrine disorders.
  • We report herein a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • A diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency was confirmed by mutation analysis of the CYP21 gene.
  • Our case represents only the second case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Mutation. Myelolipoma / genetics. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16834664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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81. Ctvrtlík F, Herman M, Student V, Tichá V, Minarík J: Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Feb;69(2):243-52
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare CT findings of adrenal incidentalomas with a definitive histological diagnosis in order to establish CT features characteristic for individual types of lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The retrospective study comprised of patients with adrenal lesions detected on abdominal CT.
  • The study consisted of 62 adrenal expansions found in 55 patients (in seven patients bilateral lesions were found).
  • According to the definitive histological diagnosis after adrenalectomy, the lesions were divided into the following six groups: primary adrenocortical carcinoma (n=4), metastasis (n=7), adrenocortical adenoma (n=37), pheochromocytoma (n=9), myelolipoma (n=2), and others (n=3).
  • CONCLUSION: Standard CT of the abdomen (not specifically aimed at adrenal glands) is a suitable method for distinguishing adrenal lesions which need to be operated on from those which are probably benign but need to be monitored.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiography, Abdominal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18226485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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82. Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Demir T, Akinci B, Kebapcilar L, Comlekci A, Bayraktar F, Yesil S: Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jan;33(1):32-6
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Because of the increased use of imaging interventions, more subjects have been diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma in recent years.
  • AIM: To evaluate the risk of mass enlargement, hormone hypersecretion and development of adrenal carcinomas during short-term followup.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: There were 317 subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors in the registry.
  • Forty subjects were excluded because of clinically overt hormone secretion at diagnosis and subjects with complete data were included in radiological (no.
  • There were 143 subjects with adrenal adenomas and 7 subjects with other tumor types (cyst or myelolipoma).
  • RESULTS: Increase in tumor size was detected in 25 subjects (17.4%) with adenomas and 1 subject with adrenal myelolipoma (14.3%).
  • Decrease in tumor size was found in 7 subjects (4.8%) with adrenal adenomas.
  • In subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma (NFA, no.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we demonstrated that, despite being infrequent, adrenal tumors may increase in size, develop overt or subclinical hormone secretion or feature malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Adult. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / diagnostic imaging. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / analysis. Dexamethasone. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / diagnostic imaging. Normetanephrine / urine. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19542759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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83. Amendolara M, Barbarino C, Bucca D, Guarnieri F, Novello GB, Romano FM, Stevanato G, Ranzato R: [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report]. G Chir; 2008 Mar;29(3):85-8
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  • [Title] [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma surrenalico bilaterale gigante. Caso clinico.
  • The adrenal myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumour of adipose cell and bone marrow elements, non functioning and asymptomatic.
  • Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma is quite rare.
  • The Authors report a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma, a giant one (> 15 cm) on the left side and a small one (> 4 cm) on the right with constant pain in a 57-year-old man, shown by computerized tomography.
  • Surgical excision was performed for large left symptomatic mass, by open laparotomy, and biopsy for right minor adrenal lesion.
  • Histology confirmed diagnosis of myelolipoma for both masses.
  • Follow-up to 6-12 months did'nt show any change of the right myelolipoma.
  • The authors agree with the need to remove the giant adrenal myelolipoma, because the lesion > 10 cm have a high risk of cancer and hemorrhagic complication, while for small myelolipoma (< 6 cm) 6-12 months follow-up is the appropriate choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparotomy. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18366886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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84. Gonzalgo ML, Su LM, Basaria S: Visual vignette. Adrenal myelolipoma. Endocr Pract; 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):109
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  • [Title] Visual vignette. Adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Tomography, Spiral Computed

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  • (PMID = 16524871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Song JH, Chaudhry FS, Mayo-Smith WW: The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 May;190(5):1163-8
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  • [Title] The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to determine the nature and prevalence of adrenal lesions identified on CT in patients with no known malignancy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer search of abdominal CT reports using the term "adrenal" was performed in 65,231 consecutive patients with examinations performed from January 2000 to December 2003.
  • An adrenal mass was identified in 3,307 (5%) patients.
  • Patients with no known malignancy and no suspicion for a hyperfunctioning adrenal mass were further isolated.
  • Nine hundred seventy-three patients with 1,049 adrenal masses fulfilled the study criteria.
  • RESULTS: One thousand forty-nine adrenal masses were characterized with the following methods: histopathology (n = 12), imaging characterization (n = 909), imaging follow-up (n = 87), and clinical follow-up (n = 41).
  • There were 68 myelolipomas (6%), 47 hematomas (4%), and 13 cysts (1%).
  • One hundred twenty-eight lesions (12%) were presumed to be benign by imaging or clinical stability.
  • No malignant adrenal masses were found, even among the 14 patients who later developed malignancy elsewhere.
  • CONCLUSION: In 973 consecutive patients with an incidental adrenal mass and no history of cancer, no malignant lesions were identified.
  • Adenomas (75%) and myelolipomas (6%) were the most common lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18430826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Cortes O, Kerkebe M, Pinto I, Arellano L: Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endourol; 2007 Sep;21(9):1053-8
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard in the surgical management of adrenal pathology.
  • Bilateral adrenalectomy is indicated in patients with Cushing's disease secondary to macroadenoma or hypophysial hyperplasia in whom medical treatment and transsphenoid surgery have failed.
  • Also, it is the first choice for bilateral benign tumors and metastatic neoplasia.
  • There were 6 cases of bilateral pheochromocytoma, 6 patients with Cushing's disease, 3 cases of metastasis, 3 congenital adrenal hyperplasias, 2 hyperaldosteronisms, and a single case each of adrenal adenoma and myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 17941786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Zhang DS, Li DH, Bi HX, Wu XF: [Gastric adenocarcinoma associated with myelolipoma of parietal pleura: a case report]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Jul;35(7):437
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  • [Title] [Gastric adenocarcinoma associated with myelolipoma of parietal pleura: a case report].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastric Fundus / pathology. Gastric Fundus / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17069687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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88. Goltz JP, Gattenlöhner S, Hahn D, Ritter CO: [Ruptured giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland with acute retroperitoneal hemorrhage]. Rofo; 2009 May;181(5):485-7
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  • [Title] [Ruptured giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland with acute retroperitoneal hemorrhage].
  • [Transliterated title] Rupturiertes Riesen-Myelolipom der Nebenniere mit akuter retroperitonealer Blutung.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Space. Tomography, Spiral Computed. Ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glioma / diagnosis. Humans. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 19280550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9010
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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89. Sahdev A, Willatt J, Francis IR, Reznek RH: The indeterminate adrenal lesion. Cancer Imaging; 2010;10:102-13
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  • [Title] The indeterminate adrenal lesion.
  • With the increasing use of abdominal cross-sectional imaging, incidental adrenal masses are being detected more often.
  • The important clinical question is whether these lesions are benign adenomas or malignant primary or secondary masses.
  • Benign adrenal masses such as lipid-rich adenomas, myelolipomas, adrenal cysts and adrenal haemorrhage have pathognomonic cross-sectional imaging appearances.
  • The nature of incidentally detected adrenal masses can be determined with a high degree of accuracy using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone.
  • We review the performance of the established and new techniques in CT, MRI and PET that can be used to distinguish benign adenomas and malignant lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20299300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 54
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2842175
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90. Ghatak S, Mridha AR: Laparoscopic resection of a large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9313
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of a large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report.
  • On evaluation he was found to have a large right adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Operative specimen's histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 20062636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803976
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91. Lesbats-Jacquot V, Cucchi JM, Amoretti N, Novellas S, Chevallier P, Bruneton JN: Lipomatous tumors of the adrenals--a report on 18 cases and review of the literature. Clin Imaging; 2007 Sep-Oct;31(5):335-9
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  • The lipomatous tumors of the adrenals are hormonally inactive lesions, often of a benign nature, such as myelolipomas, lipomas, angiomyolipomas, or mature teratomas, and are rarely malignant, such as liposarcomas.
  • The various imaging procedures, although not allowing to formulate a histological diagnosis, nonetheless permit to determine the volume of the tumoral mass and their evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Image Enhancement / methods. Lipoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17825742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-7071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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92. Rosenkrantz AB, Do RK, Hajdu CH: Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e204-7
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  • Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is a rare adrenal tumour that usually follows a benign clinical course.
  • Here, we present the first published case showing bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm on CT and MRI, a finding that mimics fat within an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20846977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3473746
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93. Civrilli K, Damry N, Steppé R, Efira A, Mathieu J: Bilateral adrenal myelolipomas. JBR-BTR; 2008 May-Jun;91(3):90-1
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal myelolipomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18661711.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-7430
  • [Journal-full-title] JBR-BTR : organe de la Société royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) = orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JBR-BTR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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94. Venkatasubramanian R, Wadhwa A, Sharma A, Khullar R, Soni V, Baijal M, Chowbey PK: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy - a review of initial 24 consecutive patients. Indian J Surg; 2007 Aug;69(4):129-35
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  • The indications for adrenalectomy were pheochromocytoma (13 patients), Cushing's syndrome (5 patients), myelolipoma (2 patients), adrenal cyst (2 patients), aldosteronoma (1 patient) and adrenal incidentaloma (1 patient).
  • Nineteen of our patients with functioning adrenal tumours were prepared preoperatively for periods ranging up to 2 weeks by the endocrinologist.
  • A careful preoperative preparation in functioning adrenal tumours aids in the faster recovery of these patients.

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  • (PMID = 23132964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-2068
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3452464
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenalectomy / Laparoscopy / Pheochromocytoma
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95. Ozturk E, Onur Sildiroglu H, Kantarci M, Doganay S, Güven F, Bozkurt M, Sonmez G, Cinar Basekim C: Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2009;121(11-12):372-81
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  • [Title] Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series.
  • With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons.
  • Imaging features on CT can establish a specific diagnosis of many of these lesions, including myelolipoma, hematoma and cysts.
  • Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases.
  • In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features.
  • It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions.
  • The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer.
  • Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques.
  • Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion.
  • The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19626294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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96. Ong K, Tan KB, Putti TC: Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma. Singapore Med J; 2007 Jul;48(7):e200-2
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • Myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma is a very rare cause of adrenal incidentaloma, and only nine cases have been reported in the English and Japanese literature.
  • Clinical history, physical examination and laboratory results did not show any evidence to suggest metabolic disorder such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism or catecholamine hypersecretion.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma reported; in the nine cases of myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma reported previously, all the patients had Cushing's syndrome.
  • The literature on synchronous myelolipoma with adrenal adenoma, and myelolipoma within functional adrenal adenoma, is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17609815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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97. Meyer A, Behrend M: Presentation and therapy of myelolipoma. Int J Urol; 2005 Mar;12(3):239-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presentation and therapy of myelolipoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare and benign, hormonally inactive tumor frequently discovered incidentally.
  • Because of the increasing rate of detection of adrenal myelolipoma, use of the correct diagnostic examination and treatment, with respect to surgical excision or regular controls, is continually gaining importance.
  • We report herein on the largest series of surgically treated patients with adrenal myelolipoma from a single institute.
  • METHODS: The clinical charts of 12 patients who underwent adrenal surgery for myelolipoma were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma was made incidentally in seven patients, and during examination for reasons of unspecific abdominal or flank pain in five patients.
  • No recurrence could be seen; however, in one patient a contralateral adrenal myelolipoma had developed.
  • A close follow up should be maintained in the case of patients free of symptoms, and for those with a definite diagnosis from imaging procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15828949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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98. Gheith S, Boulay R, Cornfield D: Small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a pelvic myelolipoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;2(1):95-8
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  • [Title] Small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a pelvic myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and normal hematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are extremely rare, with approximately 50% of cases occurring in the presacral region.
  • Histologic examination showed a myelolipoma with dense lymphoid aggregates.
  • Molecular evaluation confirmed the presence of a clonal B-cell lymphocytic proliferation that did not harbor BCL-2 or BCL-1 gene rearrangements.
  • This case represents the first report of a myelolipoma involved by a non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The likeliest scenario is that an unusual benign tumor (myelolipoma) was colonized by a relatively common systemic hematopoietic neoplasm SLL/CLL, producing a collision tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18830383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Extra adrenal myelolipoma / chronic lymphocytic leukemia / lymphoma / non-Hodgkin lymphoma / small lymphocytic lymphoma
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99. Hernández-Amate A, Ríos-Martín JJ, Díaz-Delgado M, García-Escudero A, Otal-Salaverri C, González-Cámpora R: Cytological diagnosis of a presacral myelolipoma: a case report diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):921-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytological diagnosis of a presacral myelolipoma: a case report diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Sacrum

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  • (PMID = 18925570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Chen KT: Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jul-Aug;49(4):449-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: The fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic evaluations of most adrenal lesions are straightforward.
  • After delivery, computed tomography-guided FNA showed bland epithelial cells, and a diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma was made.
  • However, subsequent resection showed a myelolipoma of the adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: This case illustrated 2 cytodiagnostic pitfalls in adrenal fine needle aspirates.
  • First, the myeloid cells characteristic of a myelolipoma were not present in the FNA smears because a large portion of the lesion was composed of fibroadipose tissue.
  • Second, extraneous, benign cells of hepatic origin were misinterpreted as adrenal cortical adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hepatocytes / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16124179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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