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1. de Castro DG, Salvajoli JV, Canteras MM, Cecílio SA: [Radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2006 Dec;50(6):996-1004
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  • [Title] [Radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiocirurgia nos adenomas hipofisários.
  • Pituitary adenomas represent nearly 15% of all intracranial tumors.
  • Microsurgery is the primary recommendation for nonfunctioning and most of functioning adenomas, except for prolactinomas that are usually managed with dopamine agonist drugs.
  • The goal of this review is to define the efficacy, safety and role of radiosurgery for treatment of pituitary adenomas and to present the preliminary results of our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / standards

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  • (PMID = 17221104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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2. Er U, Gürses L, Saka C, Belen D, Yiğitkanli K, Simşek S, Akin I, Bavbek M: Sublabial transseptal approach to pituitary adenomas with special emphasis on rhinological complications. Turk Neurosurg; 2008 Oct;18(4):425-30
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  • [Title] Sublabial transseptal approach to pituitary adenomas with special emphasis on rhinological complications.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this presentation is to show that the sublabial transseptal transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas is the least invasive anatomic route with the lowest postoperative complication rates.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: This study was based on a retrospective analysis of 276 patients with a diagnosis of pituitary adenoma who were surgically treated via the sublabial transsphenoidal route.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Nose Diseases / epidemiology. Nose Diseases / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Diabetes Insipidus / epidemiology. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Mucosa / injuries. Nasal Mucosa / pathology. Nasal Septum / injuries. Nasal Septum / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Prolactinoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Thyrotropin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / epidemiology. Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / etiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19107694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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3. Spallone A, Gonzàlez-Gonzàlez JL, Mostes de Oca F, Verdial-Vidal R: [Pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus. Transcranial transcavernous approach]. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2007 Aug;18(4):294-300
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  • [Title] [Pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus. Transcranial transcavernous approach].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomas hipofisarios con invasiòn intracavernosa. Resultados del abordaje trancraneal al seno cavernoso.
  • Pituitary adenomas represent a significant proportion (+o-13%) of all intracranial tumors.
  • However, a small but not insignificant subgroup of pituitary adenomas (5 to 7%) invade the lateral parasellar structures and the cavernous sinus in particular, and poses obvious problems to the therapeutic strategy, since transsphenoidal removal of these adenomas is usually incomplete.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of transcranial removal of a consecutive series of pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective study of 9 patients harbouring pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus who had been submitted to transcranial surgery was conducted.
  • These patients were operated on in the time span June 1999 - December 2003, in the Nuova Clinica Latina (now NCL- Neurological Centere of Latium), Rome Italy, and the Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras", La Habana, Cuba, using a fronto-orbitozigomatic (FOZ) craniotomy, anterior clinoidectomy and a limited dissection of the cavernous sinus through the antero-medial triangle.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transcranial transcavernous approach is an effective technique for attempting total removal of intracavernous pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Microsurgery / methods. Middle Aged. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 17882336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones
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4. Abucham J, Vieira TC: [Glycoprotein-secreting pituitary adenomas: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):657-73
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  • [Title] [Glycoprotein-secreting pituitary adenomas: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomas hipofisários produtores de glicoproteínas: patogênese, diagnóstico e tratamento.
  • The glycoprotein-secreting pituitary adenomas comprise two distinctive clinical and pathological entities, the gonadotroph and the thyrotroph cell pituitary adenomas.
  • Gonadotroph cell adenomas are among the commonest types of pituitary adenomas, corresponding to the majority of the so-called "nonfunctioning" or clinically silent adenomas, while thyrotroph cell adenomas are extremely rare and usually present with hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate TSH secretion.
  • In this article, we review the literature covering epidemiological, pathological, pathogenetic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of gonadotroph and thyrotroph cell adenomas.
  • Greater emphasis was given to the growing field of molecular pathogenesis of pituitary tumors in general, and a special effort was made to contrast molecular alterations found in these tumors with other tumor types.
  • On the practical side, the authors extensive experience for more than two decades in the diagnosis and management of these tumors at the Neuroendocrine Unit (Endocrinology Division, Unifesp) was used to balance the extensive literature on this subject.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Glycoproteins / secretion. Neoplasm Proteins / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16444349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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5. Ortiz-Pérez S, Sánchez-Dalmau BF, Molina-Fernández JJ, Adán-Civera A: [Neuro-ophthalmological manifestations of pituitary adenomas. The usefulness of optical coherence tomography]. Rev Neurol; 2009 Jan 16-31;48(2):85-90
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  • [Title] [Neuro-ophthalmological manifestations of pituitary adenomas. The usefulness of optical coherence tomography].
  • [Transliterated title] Manifestaciones neurooftalmológicas de los adenomas hipofisarios. Valor de la tomografía de coherencia óptica.
  • INTRODUCTION: Pituitary adenomas are a frequently occurring pathology that require multidisciplinary management by several different specialists.
  • DEVELOPMENT: This survey was based on the clinical experience of the neuro-ophthalmological unit at the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, with over 350 patients who had suffered from pituitary tumours.
  • A bibliographical search was also carried out on Medline for papers published on pituitary adenomas in the literature in both English and Spanish.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Improved diagnostic techniques are allowing pituitary tumours to be detected at increasingly earlier stages, but cases are still seen with neuro-ophthalmological symptoms as the presenting symptoms.
  • In addition to the clinical and visual field examination, optical coherence tomography is particularly useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Nerve Compression Syndromes / etiology. Optic Chiasm / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Tomography, Optical Coherence. Vision Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Hemianopsia / etiology. Hemianopsia / physiopathology. Humans. Ocular Motility Disorders / etiology. Ocular Motility Disorders / physiopathology. Photophobia / etiology. Photophobia / physiopathology. Pituitary Apoplexy / etiology. Prognosis. Recovery of Function. Visual Fields

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  • (PMID = 19173206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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6. Scheithauer BW, Gaffey TA, Lloyd RV, Sebo TJ, Kovacs KT, Horvath E, Yapıcıer Ö, Young WF, Meyer FB, Kuroki T, Riehle DL, Laws ER: Pathobiology of Pituitary Adenomas and Carcinomas. Neurosurgery; 2006 Aug 01;59(2):341-353

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  • [Title] Pathobiology of Pituitary Adenomas and Carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 28180650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Picozzi P, Losa M, Mortini P, Valle MA, Franzin A, Attuati L, da Passano CF, Giovanelli M: Radiosurgery and the prevention of regrowth of incompletely removed nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(s_supplement):71-74

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  • [Title] Radiosurgery and the prevention of regrowth of incompletely removed nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECT: The authors studied the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) in the prevention of regrowth of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA).
  • All patients had undergone surgery in our department and recurrent or residual adenoma was demonstrated on postoperative MR imaging.

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  • (PMID = 28306434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; gamma knife surgery / nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma / pituitary
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8. Killory BD, Kresl JJ, Wait SD, Ponce FA, Porter R, White WL: Hypofractionated Cyberknife Radiosurgery for Perichiasmatic Pituitary Adenomas: Early Results. Neurosurgery; 2009 Feb 01;64(suppl_2):A19-A25

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  • [Title] Hypofractionated Cyberknife Radiosurgery for Perichiasmatic Pituitary Adenomas: Early Results.

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  • (PMID = 28175597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Pollock BE: Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery for Hormone Secreting Pituitary Adenomas. Neurosurgery; 2010 May 01;66(5):E1030

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  • [Title] Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery for Hormone Secreting Pituitary Adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 28173407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Kobayashi T, Mori Y, Uchiyama Y, Kida Y, Fujitani S: Long-term results of gamma knife surgery for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma: is the disease difficult to cure? J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(s_supplement):119-123

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  • [Title] Long-term results of gamma knife surgery for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma: is the disease difficult to cure?
  • OBJECT: The authors conducted a study to determine the long-term results of gamma knife surgery for residual or recurrent growth hormine (GH)-producing pituitary adenomas and to compare the results with those after treatment of other pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 28306435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; gamma knife surgery / growth hormone—producing pituitary adenoma / insulin-like growth factor
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11. Tlachacova D, Schmitt M, Novotny J Jr, Novotny J, Majali M, Liscak R: A comparison of the gamma knife model C and the Automatic Positioning System with Leksell model B. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(s_supplement):25-28
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  • Data were analyzed in patients in whom the following diagnoses had been made: vestibular schwannoma, pituitary adenoma, meningioma, solitary metastasis, and other benign and malignant solitary tumors.

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  • (PMID = 28306471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; conformity index / extracranial exposure / staff exposure / stereotactic radiosurgery
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12. Fuertes M, Gerez J, Haedo M, Giacomini D, Páez-Pereda M, Labeur M, Stalla GK, Arzt E: Cytokines and genes in pituitary tumorigenesis: RSUME role in cell biology. Front Horm Res; 2010;38:1-6
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  • [Title] Cytokines and genes in pituitary tumorigenesis: RSUME role in cell biology.
  • Cytokines of the IL-6 or gp130 family regulate many cellular responses and play regulatory roles in numerous tissues, and are placed as auto-paracrine regulators of pituitary function acting in normal and tumoral anterior pituitary cells.
  • Especially, IL-6 has a regulatory role in the hormone secretion and growth of the anterior pituitary and is involved in adenoma pathogenesis.
  • IL-6 might participate in such a process in adenomas pituitary as well.
  • From pituitary tumoral gp130 overexpressing cells, an unknown protein, RSUME, has been cloned.
  • RSUME is induced by hypoxia in pituitary tumors and regulate pathways involved in angiogenic and tumorigenic processes (NF-kappaB/IkappaB and HIF-1alpha pathways).
  • Thus, it could have an important role in the development of the pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytokine Receptor gp130 / physiology. Interleukin-6 / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Transcription Factors / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20616489.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-3073
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Horm Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / RSUME protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 133483-10-0 / Cytokine Receptor gp130
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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13. Bonneville JF, Bonneville F, Cattin F: Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary adenomas. Eur Radiol; 2005 Mar;15(3):543-8
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary adenomas.
  • Today, MR is the only method needed for the morphological investigation of endocrine-active pituitary adenomas.
  • We present the MR aspect of pituitary adenomas according to size, sex, age, endocrine activity and a few particular conditions such as hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas, pituitary adenomas during pregnancy, cavernous sinus invasion and postsurgical changes.
  • When an intrasellar mass extending out of the sella turcica is detected, the goal of the MR examination is to indicate precisely the origin of the tumor, its extension in relation to the various surrounding structures, its structure and its enhancement in order to help in the differential diagnosis.
  • Demonstration of very small pituitary adenomas remains a challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15627195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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14. Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Nikolaou P, Giannatou E, Marinou K, Safioleas M, Karamanolis D: Gastrinomas associated with MEN-1 syndrome: new insights for the diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Nov-Dec;52(66):1668-76
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  • [Title] Gastrinomas associated with MEN-1 syndrome: new insights for the diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients.
  • The diagnosis of ZES was based upon: a) clinical features and b) high serum gastrin levels, while in 7/11 pts diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically.
  • The diagnosis of MEN-1 was based upon the presence of the other two MEN-1 related endocrinopathies (hyperparathyroidism, pituitary adenomas), revealed by estimation of several hormones (PTH, Prolactin, ACTH etc.) and performance of imaging studies of the pituitary and parathyroid glands.
  • Serum gastrin levels at the time of diagnosis were greater than 1000pg/mL in 63.5% pts, while at the same time serum CgA levels were greater than 10 times the upper normal limit (<98ng/mL) in all pts.
  • Parathyroid adenomas, pituitary adenomas and bronchial carcinoids were revealed in 11, 3 and 1 pts respectively, which were treated surgically.
  • Ten out of 11 pts are alive and in a good condition, whereas 1 patient died 2.8 years after diagnosis.
  • Familiar screening revealed parathyroid adenomas in 4 children of our pts, which were treated surgically.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Digestive System Neoplasms / therapy. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Duodenal Neoplasms / complications. Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Duodenal Neoplasms / therapy. Endosonography / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16334754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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15. Sánchez-Ortiga R, Sánchez Tejada L, Peiró Cabrera G, Moreno-Pérez O, Arias Mendoza N, Aranda López FI, Picó Alfonso A: [Rol of pituitary tumour-transforming gene (PTTG) in the pituitary adenomas]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Jan;57(1):28-34
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  • [Title] [Rol of pituitary tumour-transforming gene (PTTG) in the pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Papel de pituitary tumour-transforming gene (PTTG) en los adenomas hipofisarios.
  • The pathogenesis of pituitary tumours is far to be understood.
  • Pituitary transforming tumour gene (PTTG), a gen that induces aneuploidy, genetic instability, cellular proliferation and to stimulate angiogenesis, has been involved in neoplasic transformation and shown overexpressed in many neoplasm as lung, breast, endometrium, thyroid and colon malignant tumours.
  • On the other hand, PTTG has been inconsistently studied in pituitary tumours.
  • The goal of this review is to resume the role of PTTG in tumourogenesis and critically to revise the studies published in humans in order to advance in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas and to find clinical useful predictors of the behavior of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20172484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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16. Alameda Hernando C, Lahera Vargas M, Varela Da Costa C: [Treatment of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Feb;57(2):71-81
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  • [Title] [Treatment of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento de los adenomas hipofisarios clínicamente no funcionantes.
  • Clinically nonfunctioning adenomas are the most frequent pituitary macroadenomas in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20227355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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17. Clarke MJ, Erickson D, Castro MR, Atkinson JL: Thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg; 2008 Jul;109(1):17-22
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  • [Title] Thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECT: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, representing < 2% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with TSH-secreting or clinically silent TSH-immunostaining pituitary tumors among all pituitary adenomas followed at their institution between 1987 and 2003.
  • Of these, 10 patients had a history of clinical hyperthyroidism, of whom 7 had undergone ablative thyroid procedures (thyroid surgery/(131)I ablation) prior to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma.
  • Patients with TSH-secreting tumors were defined as in remission after surgery if they had no residual adenoma on imaging and had biochemical evidence of hypo-or euthyroidism.
  • Eleven patients (61%) ultimately required thyroid hormone replacement therapy, and 5 (24%) required additional pituitary hormone replacement.
  • Of these, 2 patients required treatment for new anterior pituitary dysfunction as a complication of surgery, and 2 patients with preoperative partial anterior pituitary dysfunction developed complete panhypopituitarism.
  • The remainder had no change in pituitary function from their preoperative state.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary lesions are often delayed in diagnosis, are frequently macroadenomas and plurihormonal in terms of their pathological characteristics, have a heterogeneous clinical picture, and are difficult to treat.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 18590428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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18. Ferreira JE, de Mello PA, de Magalhães AV, Botelho CH, Naves LA, Nosé V, Schmitt F: [Non-functioning pituitary adenomas: clinical features and immunohistochemistry]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2005 Dec;63(4):1070-8
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  • [Title] [Non-functioning pituitary adenomas: clinical features and immunohistochemistry].
  • [Transliterated title] Caracterização clínica e imunoistoquímica dos adenomas clinicamente não-funcionantes de hipófise.
  • Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas do not produce clinical signs of hormonal hypersecretion.
  • Therefore, signs and symptoms will depend on the mass effect of these adenomas over the central nervous system.
  • OBJECTIVE:. 1) Determining the clinical features of a population of 117 patients treated for clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (age, sex, tumor size, number of surgical procedures, development of hormonal deficiency and hyperprolactinemia).
  • 2) Identifying, after the patients had been clinically characterized, those with clinically non-functioning adenomas with positive immunohistochemistry for hypophyseal hormones (PRL, LH, FSH, GH, TSH and ACTH).
  • METHOD: Study of the clinical features of 117 patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (age, sex, tumor size, number of surgical procedures, development of hormonal deficiency and hyperprolactinemia).
  • CONCLUSION: The biological behavior of the clinically non-functioning adenoma is similar for both sexes.
  • However, a positive immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and protein C-erb-B2 does not seem to be a prognostic factor for clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas, as is the case with other neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / blood. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Pituitary Hormones / blood. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / blood. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Severity of Illness Index. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16400431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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19. Steele CA, MacFarlane IA, Blair J, Cuthbertson DJ, Didi M, Mallucci C, Javadpour M, Daousi C: Pituitary adenomas in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: presentation, management, endocrine and metabolic outcomes. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Oct;163(4):515-22
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: presentation, management, endocrine and metabolic outcomes.
  • OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the long-term outcomes of pituitary adenomas diagnosed in childhood and adolescence, knowledge of which remains sparse.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients aged ≤21 years at diagnosis of pituitary adenoma, attending a neuroendocrine service in Liverpool, UK, between 1984-2009.
  • RESULTS: There were 41 patients (33 female), mean age at diagnosis 17.3 years (range 11-21) and mean follow-up 9.6 years; 29 patients had prolactinomas (15 macroprolactinomas), 6 non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), 5 Cushing's disease (CD) and 1 acromegaly.
  • All prolactinoma patients received dopamine agonists (DAs) and three also underwent pituitary surgery.
  • Thirteen patients gained significant weight (body mass index (BMI) increase >2 kg/m(2)) since diagnosis and 16 in total are now obese (BMI>30 kg/m(2)).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the largest reviews of patients aged 21 or younger at diagnosis of pituitary adenoma followed up by a single service.

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  • (PMID = 20685833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
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20. Pollard RE, Reilly CM, Uerling MR, Wood FD, Feldman EC: Cross-sectional imaging characteristics of pituitary adenomas, invasive adenomas and adenocarcinomas in dogs: 33 cases (1988-2006). J Vet Intern Med; 2010 Jan-Feb;24(1):160-5
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  • [Title] Cross-sectional imaging characteristics of pituitary adenomas, invasive adenomas and adenocarcinomas in dogs: 33 cases (1988-2006).
  • BACKGROUND: Pituitary tumors in dogs can be adenomas, invasive adenomas, or adenocarcinomas.
  • In people, invasive adenomas and pituitary adenocarcinomas carry a worse prognosis than adenomas.
  • HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To identify differentiating features on cross-sectional imaging in dogs with pituitary adenomas, invasive adenomas, and adenocarcinomas.
  • ANIMALS: Thirty-three dogs that had computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed and a necropsy diagnosis of pituitary adenoma (n = 20), invasive adenoma (n = 11), or adenocarcinoma (n = 2).
  • METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for signalment, history, and diagnosis.
  • CT and MR images were reviewed for characteristics of pituitary tumors.
  • RESULTS: Mean (+/- standard deviation) age for dogs with pituitary adenomas (10.6 +/- 2.9 years) was greater than that of those with invasive adenomas (8.3 +/- 2.7 years, P = .04).
  • Eighteen out of 20 (90%) dogs with adenomas had contrast-enhancing masses.
  • Mean adenoma height was 1.2 +/- 0.7cm.
  • Eight out of 20 (40%) adenomas were round and 8/20 (40%) compressed surrounding brain.
  • Eleven out of 11 dogs (100%) with invasive adenomas had contrast-enhancing masses.
  • Mean invasive adenoma height was 1.8 +/- 0.7 cm, which was significantly greater than adenomas (P = .03).
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Invasive adenoma should be suspected if a dog with a pituitary tumor is <7.7 years of age and has a mass > 1.9 cm in vertical height.

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  • (PMID = 19925577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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21. Pawlikowski M, Kunert-Radek J, Radek M: Plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas in light of immunohistochemical studies. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):63-6
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  • [Title] Plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas in light of immunohistochemical studies.
  • INTRODUCTION: Plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas can be defined as the ability of an adenoma to express more than one pituitary hormone.
  • The application of immunohistochemistry to diagnose surgically removed pituitary tumours revealed that a great number of pituitary adenomas are in fact plurihormonal.
  • However, data on the incidence and the clinical relevance of the pituitary adenoma plurihormonality are still scarce and controversial.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hundred fifty-five pituitary adenomas, surgically removed, were studied immunohistochemically with the antibodies against pituitary hormones or their subunits.
  • Additionally, 40 adenomas were immunostained with Ki-67 antibody to evaluate the proliferative potential.
  • Even with this limitation, plurihormonality was found to be a frequent finding in both hormonally active and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • It was shown that over one-third (36.1%) of the investigated adenomas expressed more than one hormone.
  • Plurihormonal adenomas also possess higher Ki-67 indices, as compared to monohormonal tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Plurihormonality is a frequent phenomenon in both hormonally active and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Luteinizing Hormone / metabolism. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / complications. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Prolactin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20205106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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22. Kurtulmus N, Turkmen C, Yarman S, Tokmak H, Mudun A: The value of Tc-99m tetrofosmin in the imaging of pituitary adenomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Feb;30(2):86-90
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  • [Title] The value of Tc-99m tetrofosmin in the imaging of pituitary adenomas.
  • AIM: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) are used in the diagnosis and follow-up of pituitary adenoma cases.
  • It has been shown that some radionuclides were taken up by the pituitary adenomas.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the uptake of the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin (TF) in the pituitary adenoma and normal pituitary tissue and assess the ability of Tc-99m TF to predict tumor malignancy in pituitary gland.
  • METHODS: The patients with pituitary adenoma (7 invasive and 8 non-invasive) were compared with control group (no. 13).
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of pituitary gland was performed in both groups.
  • RESULTS: The average tetrofosmin uptake index of pituitary adenoma is 2.44+/-1.54 for the patients and 1.69+/-0.71 for the control group.
  • The average index was calculated as 3.04+/-2.15 for invasive adenomas and 1.92+/-0.33 for the non-invasive group, and there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding uptake of the agent (p 0.53).
  • Furthermore, it was determined that the invasive and non-invasive adenomas displayed an uptake of Tc-99m TF similar to normal pituitary tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Since the pituitary adenoma and normal pituitary tissue gave similar results regarding Tc-99m TF uptake, it was concluded that this agent would not be useful in the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Organophosphorus Compounds. Organotechnetium Compounds. Pituitary Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17392596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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23. Norberg L, Johansson R, Rasmuson T: Intracranial tumours after external fractionated radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas in northern Sweden. Acta Oncol; 2010 Nov;49(8):1276-82
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  • [Title] Intracranial tumours after external fractionated radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas in northern Sweden.
  • We analysed the incidence of second primary intracranial tumours in patients with pituitary adenomas treated with radiotherapy compared to the risk of patients not exposed to irradiation and to the general population.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study includes 298 patients with pituitary adenomas that received radiotherapy to the pituitary from 1960 to 2007.
  • Only patients with ≥12 months follow-up after diagnosis of pituitary adenoma were included.
  • A cohort of 131 patients with pituitary adenomas not treated with radiotherapy was used as reference.
  • RESULTS: The median observation time after diagnosis of pituitary adenoma in 298 patients treated with radiotherapy was 14 years, and the total number of person-years at risk was 4 784.
  • DISCUSSION: The results indicate an increased risk of second primary intracranial tumours in patients treated with radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas, compared to patients not exposed to irradiation and to the general population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20429723.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Elston MS, Conaglen JV: Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas from one New Zealand centre. Intern Med J; 2010 Mar;40(3):214-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas from one New Zealand centre.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma) are a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis and need to be distinguished from the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone.
  • Patients with TSHoma may also be misdiagnosed as having primary hyperthyroidism and receive inappropriate treatment directed towards the thyroid gland.
  • The median age at presentation was 43 years and the median time from symptom onset to correct diagnosis was 3 years (range 0.25-12 years).
  • Five patients had a macroadenoma at the time of diagnosis.
  • Three patients received octreotide as primary treatment with two of these patients later undergoing transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: With increased awareness and earlier diagnosis of TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas, management can be appropriately directed towards the pituitary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / therapy. Hospitals, Special. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19849747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-5994
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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25. Rangel Morales CR, Santos-Franco JA, Sandoval-Balanzario MA, Saavedra-Andrade R, Velázquez-Chávez F, Dávila-Romero JC: [Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. Preliminary results]. Gac Med Mex; 2010 Nov-Dec;146(6):367-75
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  • [Title] [Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. Preliminary results].
  • [Transliterated title] Abordaje endonasal endoscópico transesfenoida en adenomas hipofisiarios productores de hormona de crecimiento. Resultados preliminares.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach in the management of growth hormone-secreting adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Endoscopy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21384631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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26. Cañón Rodríguez RM, Ortiz de Urbina D, Viera JC, Beltrán C, Puebla F, García Berrocal MI, Mañas A, Peraza C, Calvo FA: [Fractionated stereotactic-guided radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas]. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 Nov;7(10):447-54
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  • [Title] [Fractionated stereotactic-guided radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Radioterapia estereotáxica fraccionada en adenomas de hipófisis: resultados y factores pronósticos.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the survival rates, prognostic factors and adverse events in patients with pituitary adenomas following fractionated stereotactic-guided radiotherapy (FSRT).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients with pituitary adenomas were treated with FSRT; 23 patients (41.1%) had primary adenomas, 33 had recurrent disease; 24 (42.9%) with non-functional and 32 (57.1%) with functional adenomas.
  • Fourteen patients (25%) had minor side-effects during treatment and 3 patients (5.4%) had late-onset events; 2 with optical neuropathy (both patients had other relevant co-existing diseases) and 1 patient had brain necrosis (re-irradiation).
  • CONCLUSION: Fractionated stereotactic-guided radiotherapy is an effective modality for the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16373053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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27. Brito J, Sáez L, Lemp M, Liberman C, Michelsen H, Araya AV: [Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas]. Rev Med Chil; 2008 Jul;136(7):831-6
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  • [Title] [Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia.
  • BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones.
  • AIM: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pituitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly.
  • To determine if the plurihormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are plurihormonal.
  • There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and plurihormonal adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18949157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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28. Sandoval-Sánchez JH, Flores-Cárdenas F, Vargas-Frutos MC, Páez-Ontiveros JM: [Complications of the direct endonasal transsphenoidal approach in the management of pituitary adenomas]. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2007 Dec;18(6):485-91
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  • [Title] [Complications of the direct endonasal transsphenoidal approach in the management of pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Complicaciones del abordaje endonasal directo transesfenoidal en el manejo de adenomas de hipófisis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of complications and complaints caused by direct endonasal transsphenoidal approach used in the resection of pituitary adenomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective way, we review patients' records with pituitary adenomas, operated by means of direct endonasal transsphenoidal approach, between August 2003 and December 2004.
  • On the other hand, postoperative complications were diabetes insipidus (24.4%) in ten cases, anterior pituitary insufficiency (4.9%) in two and sinusitis (2.4%) in one.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Supported in our results, the direct endonasal transsphenoidal approach tends to present mainly fewer nasal complications and complaints, and in the future it could be considered like the preferred approach for resection of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea / etiology. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18094907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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29. Hong J, Ding X, Lu Y: Clinical analysis of 103 elderly patients with pituitary adenomas: transsphenoidal surgery and follow-up. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Oct;15(10):1091-5
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  • [Title] Clinical analysis of 103 elderly patients with pituitary adenomas: transsphenoidal surgery and follow-up.
  • Our objective was to study the single-center clinical diagnosis and surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas in elderly patients.
  • A retrospective single-center study was performed on 103 patients aged 65 years and over with a diagnosis of pituitary adenoma and with a mean follow-up duration of 6.1+/-1.3 years.
  • The findings of this analysis support the use of TSS as a feasible treatment for pituitary adenomas in elderly patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18693113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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30. Fajardo-Montañana C, Daly AF, Riesgo-Suárez P, Gómez-Vela J, Tichomirowa MA, Camara-Gómez R, Beckers A: [AIP mutations in familial and sporadic pituitary adenomas: local experience and review of the literature]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Aug-Sep;56(7):369-77
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  • [Title] [AIP mutations in familial and sporadic pituitary adenomas: local experience and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Mutaciones de AIP en adenomas hipofisarios familiares y esporádicos: experiencia local y revisión de la literatura.
  • Clinically relevant pituitary adenomas occur 3-5 times more frequently than previously thought.
  • When 2 or more cases of pituitary adenomas occur in the same family in the absence of the above-mentioned syndromes, a diagnosis of FIPA (familial isolated pituitary adenomas) is made, which accounts for 1-2% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • Also mutations in AIP can be detected in sporadic adenomas among young populations (< 30 years of age).
  • We describe the characteristics of FIPA, detailing the study of a spanish family, in this case AIP mutation negative.
  • Also, the reported findings in sporadic adenomas in the young population are detailed, accompanied by the description of a 19- year old patient with an intronic AIP mutation.
  • Multicenter studies have provided understanding of aspects such as mutations in AIP; however, further studies are necessary to identify other genes involved in FIPA and sporadic pituitary adenomas occurring at a young age.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Mutation. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19883897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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31. Miyakoshi T, Takei M, Kajiya H, Egashira N, Takekoshi S, Teramoto A, Osamura RY: Expression of Wnt4 in human pituitary adenomas regulates activation of the beta-catenin-independent pathway. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):261-73
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  • [Title] Expression of Wnt4 in human pituitary adenomas regulates activation of the beta-catenin-independent pathway.
  • A member of the Wnt family of genes, Wnt4, has been known to regulate proliferation of anterior pituitary cell types in the mouse during embryonic development.
  • In order to elucidate the roles of Wnt signaling in human pituitary adenomas, we examined the expression of Wnt4 and its putative receptor Frizzled6 (Fzd6) by immunohistochemistry in pituitary adenomas and normal pituitaries.
  • Expression of Wnt4 was higher in growth hormone-producing adenomas (GHomas), prolactin-producing adenomas (PRLomas), and thyroid-stimulating hormone-producing adenomas (TSHomas) than in the normal pituitary.
  • Fzd6 was widely expressed in GHomas, PRLomas, TSHomas, and gonadotropin subunit (GnSU)-positive adenomas.
  • In normal pituitary glands, Wnt4 and Fzd6 were colocalized predominantly in follicle-stimulating hormone-, luteinizing hormone-, and alpha-subunits of glycoprotein hormone-positive cells.
  • The canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway was analyzed by beta-catenin immunohistochemistry. beta-Catenin was localized at the cell membrane in all pituitary adenomas, but not in the nuclei.
  • These results suggested that activation of Wnt4/Fzd6 signaling through a "beta-catenin-independent" pathway played a role in proliferation and survival of the pituitary adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Frizzled Receptors / genetics. Frizzled Receptors / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism. Signal Transduction / genetics. Wnt4 Protein. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19034702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / FZD6 protein, human; 0 / Frizzled Receptors; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / WNT4 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / Wnt4 Protein; 0 / Wnt4 protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin
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32. Kawamata T, Kubo O, Hori T: Surgical removal of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas with intensive microsurgical pseudocapsule resection results in complete remission of acromegaly. Neurosurg Rev; 2005 Jul;28(3):201-8
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  • [Title] Surgical removal of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas with intensive microsurgical pseudocapsule resection results in complete remission of acromegaly.
  • Although some investigators recommended surgical removal of the borders between pituitary adenoma and the surrounding normal pituitary gland, there is so far little documentation of how intensive dissection of the border zone affects the actual clinical remission rate of pituitary adenomas.
  • We investigated the precise histological characteristics of the boundary, using surgical specimens from patients who underwent intensive resection of "microsurgical pseudocapsule" of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Histologically, most adenomas were in direct contact with normal pituitary gland that formed an increased fibrous component facing the adenoma, without a true histological pseudocapsule.
  • It was impossible to dissect the tumor at exactly the tumor--normal pituitary interface for the whole extent of the pituitary adenoma during surgery, and complete removal of the tumor inevitably included a portion of normal tissue (microsurgical pseudocapsule).
  • The biochemical remission rate was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (90.0 vs 61.1%), and Group 1 showed no additional postoperative pituitary hypofunction.
  • The present results suggested that intensive resection of the microsurgical pseudocapsule is essential to accomplish histological and endocrinological total resection of the GH-secreting pituitary adenomas for remission of acromegaly.

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  • (PMID = 15765245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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33. Chibbaro S, Benvenuti L, Carnesecchi S, Faggionato F, Gagliardi R: An interesting case of a pituitary adenoma apoplexy mimicking an acute meningitis. Case report. J Neurosurg Sci; 2007 Jun;51(2):65-9; discussion 68-9
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  • [Title] An interesting case of a pituitary adenoma apoplexy mimicking an acute meningitis. Case report.
  • Apoplexy of a pituitary adenoma is a rare and under-diagnosed clinical occurrence.
  • It results from either infarction or haemorrhage into an adenoma of the pituitary gland.
  • A 33-year-old male suffered a pituitary macroadenoma apoplexy, clinically indistinguishable from an infectious meningitis at presentation.
  • In conclusion the authors believe that, despite many reports in the literature, encouraging conservative management in pituitary apoplexy by administering intravenous steroids, surgery should be undertaken in order to avoid eventual visual field defects, relieve pituitary gland compression and prevent a possible recurrent apoplectic episode or tumor re-growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Meningitis / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / diagnosis. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Brain Infarction / complications. Brain Infarction / etiology. Brain Infarction / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Headache / etiology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Hypopituitarism / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neck Pain / etiology. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Unconsciousness / etiology. Vomiting / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17571037.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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34. Rumboldt Z: Pituitary adenomas. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Jul;16(4):277-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas are by far the most common sellar tumor and magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for their detection and characterization.
  • One also has to be aware of common other incidental findings and normal age-related changes in the appearance of the gland.
  • For microadenomas, imaging is primarily used for lesion detection and localization, whereas with macroadenomas, the goal is to establish whether the mass represents a pituitary tumor or some other lesion and to precisely delineate its extent.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16785843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-3459
  • [Journal-full-title] Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Top Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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35. Singh SK, Aggarwal R: Pituitary adenomas in childhood. Indian J Pediatr; 2005 Jul;72(7):583-91
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas in childhood.
  • Pituitary adenomas are common tumors composed of adenohypophysial cells.
  • Pituitary adenomas are rarely diagnosed in childhood and adolescence, but their mass effect and endocrine abnormalities can compromise both quality and length of life.
  • Many signs or symptoms of pituitary adenoma, complained of in adulthood, not became evident during adolescence, suggesting true prevalence of this tumor in teenagers is higher than expected.
  • Pititury adenoma occuring during adolescence are associated with features or therapeutic needs sometimes different from those occuring in adulthood.
  • At the onset of disease, delay in growth was rarely observed in teenagers with pituitary adenomas.
  • Early diagnosis and appropriate choice of therapy are necessary to avoid permanent endocrine complications of disease and its treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Pituitary Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16077242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-7693
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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36. Tichomirowa MA, Daly AF, Beckers A: Familial pituitary adenomas. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):5-18
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  • [Title] Familial pituitary adenomas.
  • The majority of pituitary adenomas occur sporadically, however, about 5% of all cases occur in a familial setting, of which over half are due to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and Carney's complex (CNC).
  • Since the late 1990s we have described non-MEN1/CNC familial pituitary tumours that include all tumour phenotypes, a condition named familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA).
  • The clinical characteristics of FIPA vary from those of sporadic pituitary adenomas, as patients with FIPA have a younger age at diagnosis and larger tumours.
  • This review describes the clinical features of familial pituitary adenomas like MEN1, the MEN 1-like syndrome MEN-4, CNC, FIPA, the tumour pathologies found in this setting and the genetic/molecular data that have been recently reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19522822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2796
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 147
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37. Chanson P, Brochier S: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005;28(11 Suppl International):93-9
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  • [Title] Non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • The vast majority (>80%) of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are gonadotroph-cell adenomas, as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry.
  • The main problems raised by NFPA are mass effects problems, responsible for optic chiasm compression or deficient hormone secretion resulting from compression of normal anterior pituitary cells.
  • The strategy of observation only for patients with incidentally discovered pituitary adenomas may be appropriate, provided that the tumor is well-delimited, small, has no extension with risk of neurological or visual chiasm compression, and that a meticulous hormonal work-up has ruled out the possibility of a minimal hormonal hypersecretion.
  • Transsphenoidal surgery allows improvement in visual disturbances due to chiasmal syndrome in most patients, and sometimes, in pituitary function.
  • Prolonged administration of GnRH antagonist in a small number of patients with a secreting gonadotroph cell adenoma has been reported to reduce supranormal gonadotropins levels but not to produce any change in tumoral size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Pituitary Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16625856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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38. Norberg L, Johansson R, Rasmuson T: Pituitary adenomas in northern Sweden: a study on therapy choices and the risk of second primary tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 May;68(5):780-5
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas in northern Sweden: a study on therapy choices and the risk of second primary tumours.
  • OBJECTIVES: To present the incidence of pituitary adenomas in northern Sweden and to determine whether the incidence of second primary tumours differs from the incidence in the general population or might be related to radiotherapy.
  • PATIENTS: A total of 546 patients with pituitary adenomas were identified in the Cancer Registry of northern Sweden between 1958 and 2004.
  • Only patients with histopathological verification and/or endocrine activity of the adenoma and more than 12 months of follow-up were included, resulting in 376 patients in the study.
  • RESULTS: The total number of person-years at risk for a second primary tumour was 4730.
  • Forty patients had second primary tumours diagnosed more than 12 months after diagnosis of the pituitary adenoma (expected 42.6, SIR 0.94, 95% CI 0.67-1.28).
  • A significantly increased incidence of second primary tumours was seen in 42 men with GH-secreting adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No significant increase was found in the incidence of second primary tumours in general in patients with pituitary adenomas.
  • An increased incidence of second primary tumours was seen in men with GH-secreting adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17980004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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39. Galland F, Chanson P: [Classification and pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2009 Oct;193(7):1543-56; discussion 1556
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  • [Title] [Classification and pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Classification et physiopathologie des adénomes hypophysaires.
  • Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors that can be classified according to the type of hormone they produce, immunocytochemical characteristics (which generally confirm the clinical classification) or, as proposed by WHO in 2004, specific differentiation markers of the various ligneages.
  • The pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas is largely unknown.
  • Although a clonal origin is very likely, no univocal molecular abnormality (except for gsp mutations, found in 40% of somatotropic adenomas) has yet been found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Pituitary Neoplasms / classification. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 20669635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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40. Caron P: [Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas]. Presse Med; 2009 Jan;38(1):107-11
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  • [Title] [Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas].
  • TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas represent 0.5 to 1% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • They are recognized with increasing frequency due to the measurement of TSH level in patients with hyperthyroidism, the ultra sensitive TSH assays and the improvement in pituitary imaging.
  • Hormonal evaluation shows increased free thyroid hormone concentration with detectable, normal or increased serum TSH level, raising the differential diagnosis with pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging reveals pituitary adenomas in most patients.
  • Transphenoidal surgery remains the treatment of choice in patients with TSH-secreting pituitary microadenomas, while long-acting somatostatin analogs seem to be an alternative medical treatment to surgery in patients with macroadenomas or invasive pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Thyroxine / blood

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  • (PMID = 18980829.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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41. Laws ER, Jane JA Jr: Neurosurgical approach to treating pituitary adenomas. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2005 Jul;15 Suppl A:S36-41
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  • [Title] Neurosurgical approach to treating pituitary adenomas.
  • The transsphenoidal route remains the dominant surgical approach to the management of pituitary adenomas.
  • Diagnostic and treatment strategies for pituitary adenomas are reviewed.
  • In our experience, transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas is associated with low rates of morbidity, mortality, and disease recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16039890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6374
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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42. Pollock BE: Radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas. Prog Neurol Surg; 2007;20:164-71
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  • [Title] Radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas.
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery has been used to manage patients with pituitary adenomas for over 30 years.
  • Numerous studies have documented that more than 95% of pituitary adenoma patients have either tumor shrinkage or stabilization after radiosurgery.
  • Biochemical remission is possible in approximately 80% of properly selected patients with hormone-producing pituitary adenomas.
  • Factors associated with endocrine cure include the absence of pituitary suppressive medications at the time of radiosurgery and higher radiation doses.
  • Delayed anterior pituitary deficits occur in 20-50% of patients depending on the length and quality of the endocrine follow-up.
  • Since the effects of radiosurgery are gradual compared to surgical removal of pituitary adenomas, surgical resection remains the primary therapy for the majority of patients with large tumors causing visual loss or for patients with symptomatic acromegaly or Cushing's disease.
  • However, radiosurgery is effective for pituitary adenoma patients with persistent or recurrent tumors after prior surgery, or for patients considered high risk for open surgical procedures due to coexisting medical conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 17317984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6492
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Neurol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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43. Vandeva S, Vasilev V, Vroonen L, Naves L, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Daly AF, Zacharieva S, Beckers A: Familial pituitary adenomas. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Dec;71(6):479-85
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  • [Title] Familial pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that present a major clinical concern because of hormonal overproduction or compression symptoms of adjacent structures.
  • Most arise in a sporadic setting with a small percentage developing as a part of familial syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC), and the recently described familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and MEN-4.
  • While the genetic alterations responsible for the formation of sporadic adenomas remain largely unknown, considerable advances have been made in defining culprit genes in these familial syndromes.
  • Evidence suggests that, especially in MEN1 and FIPA, they are more aggressive and affect patients at younger age, therefore justifying the importance of early diagnosis.
  • In this review, we summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of these familial pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
  • (PMID = 20961530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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44. Oikonomou E, Barreto DC, Soares B, De Marco L, Buchfelder M, Adams EF: Beta-catenin mutations in craniopharyngiomas and pituitary adenomas. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jul;73(3):205-9
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  • [Title] Beta-catenin mutations in craniopharyngiomas and pituitary adenomas.
  • Craniopharyngiomas and pituitary adenomas are both tumors of the hypothalamic and pituitary region, respectively that are frequently associated with endocrine defects either because of direct involvement of hormone producing cells (most pituitary tumors) or because of secondary defects due to disturbance of hypothalamic function (some pituitary tumors and craniopharyngiomas).
  • Some studies suggest that mutant beta-catenin gene cells in craniopharyngiomas and pituitary adenomas contribute to their tumorigenesis.
  • None of the 22 pituitary adenomas and the eight papillary craniopharyngiomas analyzed presented any sequence alterations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Craniopharyngioma / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15980970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin
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45. Wolffenbuttel BH, van den Berg G, Hoving EW, van der Klauw MM: [The natural course of non-functioning pituitary adenomas]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Nov 22;152(47):2537-43
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  • [Title] [The natural course of non-functioning pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Het natuurlijke beloop van het niet-functionerende hypofyseadenoom.
  • 3 patients presented with non-functioning pituitary adenomas: a 50-year-old woman who had an adenoma that had not increased in size for 3 years; a 68-year-old man with an adenoma that was undiagnosed for 5 years and led to pituitary insufficiency and bitemporal hemianopsia; and a 64-year-old woman, who had refused therapy and follow-up after diagnosis of the adenoma 20 years earlier.
  • She was admitted with a hydrocephalus, pituitary insufficiency, and severe visual loss.
  • The clinical symptoms of pituitary adenomas are caused by the mass effects of the tumour and may vary considerably between patients.
  • The natural course of these adenomas is such that lifelong follow-up is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Quality of Life

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  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008 Nov 22;152(47):2565-70 [19174939.001]
  • (PMID = 19174932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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46. Burlacu MC, Tichomirowa M, Daly A, Beckers A: [Familial pituitary adenomas]. Presse Med; 2009 Jan;38(1):112-6
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  • [Title] [Familial pituitary adenomas].
  • Familial pituitary adenomas are found in multitumoral syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (NEM1) and type 4 (NEM4) and the Carney complex (CNC); it remains at present the only known condition in the category of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA).
  • Familial adenomas account for 3-5% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • The clinical course of familial adenoma with NEM1 or FIPA is more aggressive than that of sporadic adenoma, with more macroadenomas and more patients diagnosed younger.
  • Familial pituitary adenomas are distinguished from the sporadic forms in their genetic, epidemiologic and clinical characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Phenotype. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18990538.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / PRKRA protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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47. Alons K, Bergé SJ, Rieu PN, Meijer GJ: [Treatment of macroglossia due to acromegaly]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd; 2010 Jun;117(6):321-4
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  • At the age of 55 years she was diagnosed with acromegaly induced by a adenoma of the pituitary gland, which had been removed surgically.
  • Often, macroglossia is a secondary symptom of a systemic disease, needing causal treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20614796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2200
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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48. Dworakowska D, Grossman AB: The pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Oct;23(5):525-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas.
  • The pathogenesis of tumour formation in the anterior pituitary has been intensively studied, but the causative mechanisms involved in pituitary cell transformation and tumourigenesis remain elusive.
  • Most pituitary tumours are sporadic, but some arise as a component of genetic syndromes such as the McCune-Albright syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex and, the most recently described, a MEN1-like phenotype (MEN4) and pituitary adenoma predisposition syndromes.
  • Some specific genes have been identified that predispose to pituitary neoplasia (GNAS, MEN1, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B and AIP), but these are rarely involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic tumours.
  • Mutations of tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes, as seen in more common cancers, do not seem to play an important role in the great majority of pituitary adenomas.
  • The pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG; securin) was the first transforming gene found to be highly expressed in pituitary tumour cells, and seems to play an important role in the process of oncogenesis.
  • Cell signalling abnormalities have been identified in pituitary tumours, but their genetic basis is unknown.
  • Both Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways are over-expressed and/or over-activated in pituitary tumours: these pathways share a common root, including initial activation related to the tyrosine kinase receptor, and we speculate that a change to these receptors or their relationship to membrane matrix-related proteins may be an early event in pituitary tumourigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology


49. Georgitsi M, Raitila A, Karhu A, Tuppurainen K, Mäkinen MJ, Vierimaa O, Paschke R, Saeger W, van der Luijt RB, Sane T, Robledo M, De Menis E, Weil RJ, Wasik A, Zielinski G, Lucewicz O, Lubinski J, Launonen V, Vahteristo P, Aaltonen LA: Molecular diagnosis of pituitary adenoma predisposition caused by aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene mutations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Mar 6;104(10):4101-5
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  • [Title] Molecular diagnosis of pituitary adenoma predisposition caused by aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene mutations.
  • Pituitary adenomas are common neoplasms of the anterior pituitary gland.
  • Germ-line mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene cause pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP), a recent discovery based on genetic studies in Northern Finland.
  • Typically, PAP patients were of a young age at diagnosis but did not display a strong family history of pituitary adenomas.
  • To evaluate the role of AIP in pituitary adenoma susceptibility in other populations and to gain insight into patient selection for molecular screening of the condition, we investigated the possible contribution of AIP mutations in pituitary tumorigenesis in patients from Europe and the United States.
  • A total of 460 patients were investigated by AIP sequencing: young acromegaly patients, unselected acromegaly patients, unselected pituitary adenoma patients, and endocrine neoplasia-predisposition patients who were negative for MEN1 mutations.
  • Because many of the patients displayed no family history of pituitary adenomas, detection of the condition appears challenging.
  • Feasibility of AIP immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a prescreening tool was tested in 50 adenomas: 12 AIP mutation-positive versus 38 mutation-negative pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / genetics. Founder Effect. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Mutation. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17360484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ EF203234/ EF203235/ EF203236/ EF203237/ EF203238/ EF203239/ EF203240
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1820715
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50. Caron P: [Clinically non functioning pituitary adenomas and gonadotroph-cell adenomas]. Presse Med; 2009 Jan;38(1):103-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinically non functioning pituitary adenomas and gonadotroph-cell adenomas].
  • Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas and gonadotroph-cell adenomas are relatively common: microadenomas (< 1cm) are usually pituitary incidentalomas while most macroadenomas are revealed by mass effect and/or hypopituitarism.
  • Immunocytochemistry of pituitary tumor confirms the diagnosis of clinically non-functioning or gonadotroph-cell adenoma.
  • Pituitary MRI follow-up seems to be indicated for microadenoma.
  • Therefore postoperative treatment (pituitary radiotherapy or medical treatment with dopamine agonists or somatostatin analogs) should be discussed against close follow-up with repeated MRI scans.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18990542.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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51. Korsisaari N, Ross J, Wu X, Kowanetz M, Pal N, Hall L, Eastham-Anderson J, Forrest WF, Van Bruggen N, Peale FV, Ferrara N: Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-A inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 1;14(1):249-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-A inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • PURPOSE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is defined clinically by the combined occurrence of multiple tumors, typically of the parathyroid glands, pancreatic islet cells, and anterior pituitary gland.
  • We wished to determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in the vascularization and growth of MEN1-associated tumors, with an emphasis on pituitary adenomas.
  • RESULTS: During the treatment with mAb G6-31, a significant inhibition of the pituitary adenoma growth was observed, leading to an increased mean tumor doubling-free survival compared with mice treated with a control antibody.
  • Similarly, the growth of s.c. pituitary adenoma transplants was effectively inhibited by administration of anti-VEGF-A mAb.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that VEGF-A blockade may represent a nonsurgical treatment for benign tumors of the endocrine system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactin / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors


52. Buchfelder M, Schlaffer SM: Modern imaging of pituitary adenomas. Front Horm Res; 2010;38:109-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modern imaging of pituitary adenomas.
  • Before CT and MR imaging were available, pituitary mass lesions could not directly be depicted.
  • Conventional X-ray studies, pneumoencephalography and catheter angiography could only reveal indirect sings of a space-occupying intra-, para- or suprasellar lesion.
  • Only when CT scanning and later on low- and high-field magnetic resonance imaging were introduced into clinical practice, were the radiological diagnoses of pituitary adenomas refined, a much better morphological contribution to differential diagnosis of a lesion obtained, and the effects of therapies, such as medical treatments, irradiation and surgery, could be monitored.
  • The goal of all imaging studies is to indicate precisely the localization and nature of the sella region tumor, its extension in relation to the various surrounding structures, its structure and its enhancement in order to help in the differential diagnosis and treatment planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20616501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-3073
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Horm Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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53. Asthagiri A, Lopes MB: Neuropathological considerations of pituitary adenomas. Front Horm Res; 2006;34:206-35
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  • [Title] Neuropathological considerations of pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary tumors constitute around 15-20% of intracranial tumors.
  • The understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the functional regulation of pituitary adenoma has greatly advanced in the last decade.
  • The current WHO classification scheme of pituitary tumors reflects this progress on tumor biology knowledge, and embraces the most widely utilized diagnostic methods of evaluation of these lesions.
  • The present chapter highlights the different aspects of the tumor diagnosis and reviews the classification of pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Humans. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Hormones / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16474222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-3073
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Horm Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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54. Beckers A, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Daly AE: [Genetics of familial pituitary adenomas]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2009 Oct;193(7):1557-70; discussion 1570-1
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  • [Title] [Genetics of familial pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] De la génétique des adenomes hypophysaires familiaux.
  • Pituitary adenomas were previously thought to be rare.
  • However, a recent cross-sectional study conducted in Liège, Belgium, showed that clinically apparent pituitary adenomas were present in about 1 in 1000 inhabitants, which is 4 to 5 times the previously reported prevalence.
  • Pituitary adenomas are generally sporadic, but some are associated with familial-isolated tumoral syndromes (mainly MEN1 and Carney complex).
  • With the recent characterization of FIPA (Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenomas), familial pituitary adenomas are now thought to account for 5% to 8% of all pituitary tumors.
  • New genetic mechanisms are being identified, improving our understanding of the complex manifestations and sometimes unpredictable outcome of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20669636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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55. Vandeva S, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Daly AF, Tichomirowa M, Zacharieva S, Beckers A: The genetics of pituitary adenomas. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jun;24(3):461-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The genetics of pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors with a prevalence of clinically-apparent tumors close to 1:1000 of the general population.
  • The majority of pituitary adenomas have a sporadic origin with recognized genetic mutations seldom being found; somatotropinomas are an exception, presenting frequent somatic GNAS mutations.
  • Familial cases of pituitary adenomas represent 5% of all pituitary tumors.
  • The clinical entity of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) is characterized by genetic defects in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene in about 15% of all kindreds and 50% of homogenous somatotropinoma families.
  • Identification of familial cases of pituitary adenomas is important as these tumors may be more aggressive than their sporadic counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20833337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
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56. Chacko G, Chacko AG, Lombardero M, Mani S, Seshadri MS, Kovacs K, Scheithauer BW: Clinicopathologic correlates of giant pituitary adenomas. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 May;16(5):660-5
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic correlates of giant pituitary adenomas.
  • Giant adenomas comprise a clinical/therapeutic subset of pituitary adenomas that pose a surgical challenge.
  • The study population consisted of 28 patients who had giant pituitary adenomas, which are defined as tumors with a diameter greater than 5cm.
  • All of the tumors showed typical histological features of pituitary adenoma.
  • Of the 23 clinically non-functional adenomas, 18 were gonadotrophic tumors, four were null cell adenomas and one was a silent corticotroph adenoma.
  • The present study found giant adenomas to be invasive but slow growing, histologically benign and often gonadotrophic in subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19285407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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57. Matsko DE, Vogel G, Ulitin AIu, Oliushin VE, Moes G, Pergamenshchikov AA, Burnin KS, Safarov BI, Markova NV: [Invasive giant pituitary adenomas]. Arkh Patol; 2007 Mar-Apr;69(2):46-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Invasive giant pituitary adenomas].
  • 7 cases of pituitary adenomas with the pronounced signs of invasive growth, confirmed by MRI, clinical and intraoperative observations.
  • Invasive growth of adenomas was related to neither the structure of the tumor, the degree of anaplasia, or the nature of a generated hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17642195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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58. Scheithauer BW, Gaffey TA, Lloyd RV, Sebo TJ, Kovacs KT, Horvath E, Yapicier O, Young WF Jr, Meyer FB, Kuroki T, Riehle DL, Laws ER Jr: Pathobiology of pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Neurosurgery; 2006 Aug;59(2):341-53; discussion 341-53
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  • [Title] Pathobiology of pituitary adenomas and carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships between pituitary tumors and lesion size, invasiveness, resectability, deoxyribonucleic acid ploidy, cell cycle profile, mitotic activity, and immunoreactivity for MIB-1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p27Kip1, and p53.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred fifty-three adenomas of most pathological subtypes, including 20 medically treated and prolactin and growth hormone-containing tumors, as well as 10 premetastatic tumors and 13 pituitary carcinomas, were studied.
  • RESULTS: Significant (P < 0.05) differences were noted between functional versus nonfunctional adenomas (percent aneuploidy, percent S phase, p27Kip1 labeling indices [LI], male sex, tumor size, and frequency of visual disturbance);.
  • Cushing's versus silent adrenocorticotropin adenomas (percent hypertetraploidy, p53 LI, tumor size, visual disturbance, and resectability);.
  • untreated versus medically treated prolactin cell adenomas (MIB-1 LI, p53 LI, and resectability);.
  • untreated versus medically treated growth hormone-containing adenomas (percent diploidy, percent S phase, MIB-1 LI, p53 LI, and p27 LI);.
  • untreated prolactin cell adenomas versus premetastatic tumors (percent hypertetraploidy, PCNA LI, p53 LI, invasiveness, and resectability);.
  • untreated growth hormone-containing adenomas versus premetastatic tumors (percent diploidy, percent S phase, PCNA LI, p53 LI, invasiveness, and resectability);.
  • Cushing's adenomas versus premetastatic tumors (percent diploidy, percent hypertetraploidy, percent S phase, MIB-1 LI, p53 LI, tumor size, invasiveness, visual disturbance, and resectability);.
  • Nelson's adenomas versus premetastatic tumors (p53 LI, tumor size, invasiveness, and resectability);.
  • silent adenomas as a whole versus nonfunctional adenomas (percent nondiploid, percent S phase, invasiveness, and respectability);.
  • silent adrenocorticotropin adenomas I and II versus silent adenoma Subtype III (invasiveness);.
  • silent adrenocorticotropin adenoma Subtypes I and II versus premetastatic tumors (MIB-1 LI and invasiveness);.
  • silent adenoma Subtype III versus premetastatic tumors (PCNA and p53 LI);.
  • and premetastatic tumors versus metastatic pituitary carcinomas (MIB-1 LI).
  • CONCLUSION: Only trends toward differences were noted between Cushing's versus Nelson's adenomas and between prolactinomas of reproductive female patients versus those of menopausal female patients and male patients.
  • Too few "atypical adenomas" were encountered to permit their comparison with premetastatic tumors, but our results suggest that most pituitary carcinomas arise by malignant transformation from adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Antinuclear / analysis. Antibodies, Antinuclear / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Child. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Ploidies. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16883174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / MIB-1 antibody; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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59. Schittenhelm J, Psaras T, Meyermann R, Honegger J, Beschorner R: Pituitary adenomas and craniopharyngiomas are CDX2 negative neoplasms. Folia Neuropathol; 2010;48(2):75-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas and craniopharyngiomas are CDX2 negative neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown an inverse correlation between the expression of CDX2 (also known as CDX3) and tumour grade, stage and lymph node dissemination in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas.
  • Furthermore, only very few data are available on CDX2 expression in normal pituitary gland tissue and/or pituitary adenomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated CDX2 expression in 28 normal pituitary glands, 75 pituitary adenomas of varying hormonal activity (including 7 invasive adenomas and 7 atypical adenomas) and 23 craniopharyngiomas (17 adamantinous and 6 papillary) in tissue microarrays.
  • RESULTS: None of the pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas and normal pituitary glands showed expression of CDX2.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence for that CDX2 might play a role in tumourigenesis, invasive growth or tumour recurrence of pituitary adenomas or in tumourigenesis of craniopharyngiomas.

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  • (PMID = 20602288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-572X
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
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60. Bonneville JF, Cattin F, Bonneville F: [Imaging of pituitary adenomas]. Presse Med; 2009 Jan;38(1):84-91
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  • [Title] [Imaging of pituitary adenomas].
  • In cases of pituitary hormone hypersecretion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate the causal lesion, which is often small (microadenoma).
  • In pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension, MRI shows the tumor's relation to the surrounding structures: the optic chiasm, the internal carotid artery, the sphenoidal sinus, etc.
  • MRI usually makes it possible confirm or rule out any cavernous sinus invasion by the pituitary adenoma, a determination essential for planning treatment.
  • After pituitary surgery, MR imaging is again essential for visualizing any residual tumor tissue and - if the MRI is carefully performed to be reproducible - for assessing its development over time.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gadolinium. Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Humans. Hyperpituitarism / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Patient Care Planning. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Sex Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18990539.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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61. Sheehan J, Lopes MB, Laws E: Pathological findings following radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas. Prog Neurol Surg; 2007;20:172-9
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  • [Title] Pathological findings following radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas represent approximately 10-20% of all primary brain tumors.
  • Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for most pituitary adenomas.
  • At times, complete surgical resection may be impossible or the adenoma may recur.
  • The Gamma Knife has become an important neurosurgical tool for the treatment of recurrent or residual pituitary adenomas.
  • At the University of Virginia during a 15-year time period, 434 patients have been treated for recurrent or residual pituitary adenomas with the Gamma Knife.
  • Upon review of their follow-up neuroimaging studies, we have not observed a case of a radiation-induced neoplasm.
  • Further study must be performed to determine the histological changes that accompany the frequently beneficial effects of radiosurgery in recurrent or residual pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17317985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6492
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Neurol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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62. Salehi F, Cohen S, Syro LV, Uribe H, Horvath E, Kovacs K, Asa SL: Plurihormonality in pituitary adenomas associated with acromegaly. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):291-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Plurihormonality in pituitary adenomas associated with acromegaly.
  • Bihormonal or plurihormonal pituitary tumors produce two or more hormones different in chemical composition, immunoreactivity, and clinical significance.
  • Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic investigations and more recently molecular-genetic studies have provided conclusive evidence of the production of multiple hormones by pituitary adenomas.
  • We report the case of a 40-yr-old acromegalic man with a pituitary macroadenoma.
  • The pituitary tumor was removed by transsphenoidal surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / complications. Immunohistochemistry. Pituitary Hormones, Anterior / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17308366.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Pituitary Hormones, Anterior
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63. Tao YX, Qu QY, Wang ZL, Zhang QH: Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Dec;123(24):3519-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus.
  • BACKGROUND: Surgery of pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus has always been thought as a challenge due to the complex anatomical structures and high risk of complications.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 22 patients who admitted to Xuanwu Hospital with pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus were analyzed retrospectively.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the endoscopic transsphenoid approach is a safe, minimally invasive, and efficient surgical technique, which might be an important therapeutic strategy for the pituitary adenoms invading cavernous sinus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Endoscopy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 22166623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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64. Brada M, Jankowska P: Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Mar;37(1):263-75, xi
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas.
  • This article describes the technical aspects and the clinical results of conventional radiotherapy and modern stereotactic radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas.
  • Systematic review of the published literature provides a factual basis for the comparison and the selection of appropriate radiation technique in patients who have secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas not cured with surgery and medical therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18226740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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65. Hubina E, Ruscica M, Nanzer AM, Czirják S, Góth MI, Grossman AB, Korbonits M: Novel molecular aspects of pituitary adenomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005;28(11 Suppl International):87-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel molecular aspects of pituitary adenomas.
  • Here we show that ghrelin and desoctanoyl ghrelin stimulate cell proliferation in rat pituitary cell line (GH3), and these effects could be inhibited with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C inhibitors.
  • Somatostatin and its analogs negatively regulate the growth of pituitary cells, and we now show that they inhibit MAPK activation.
  • We hypothesised that one of the mechanisms involved in the somatostatin effect is a stimulation of cell cycle inhibitor p27, as pituitary adenomas have decreased p27 peptide content.
  • Ghrelin may play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis via an autocrine/paracrine pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Peptide Hormones / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Somatostatin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16625855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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66. Eljamel MS, Leese G, Moseley H: Intraoperative optical identification of pituitary adenomas. J Neurooncol; 2009 May;92(3):417-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative optical identification of pituitary adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: The main goals of transsphenoidal pituitary surgery are total removal of pituitary adenomas (PAs) and preservation of normal pituitary functions.
  • The endoscope was attached to photodiagnostic filters (PD) allowing switching the light from white to blue at the flick of a foot pedal.
  • After the dura of the floor of the sella was incised a laser probe was inserted into the pituitary gland to identify the ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX spectroscopy at 632 nm, using an optical biopsy system (OBS).
  • Once the adenoma was identified by the OBS it was exposed and examined by the PD system to detect fluorescence.
  • PATIENTS: Thirty consecutive patients were studied: 14 were non-functioning macroadenomas (NFA), 12 were secreting PAs and 4 pituitary cysts.
  • CONCLUSION: Intraoperative optical identification of pituitary adenomas is a feasible and reliable way to localize pituitary adenomas during transsphenoidal surgery and it may lead to improved cure rate and preservation of normal pituitary functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19357967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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67. Noh TW, Jeong HJ, Lee MK, Kim TS, Kim SH, Lee EJ: Predicting recurrence of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Nov;94(11):4406-13
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  • [Title] Predicting recurrence of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas are commonly diagnosed as large tumors.
  • The ability to predict the recurrence of a tumor at the time of the initial surgery would be helpful in deciding whether adjunctive therapy is necessary and decreasing morbidity.
  • We investigated the use of several cellular markers for predicting the recurrence of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: A tissue array block was made using tissue from 35 cases of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (16 cases with early recurrence <or=4 yr after surgery, 10 cases with late recurrence >4 yr after surgery, and nine cases without recurrence).
  • RESULTS: High Ki-67 and TUNEL labeling indexes were associated with recurrent nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology


68. Rotondo F, Scheithauer BW, Kovacs K, Bell DC: Rab3B immunoexpression in human pituitary adenomas. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 May;17(3):185-8
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  • [Title] Rab3B immunoexpression in human pituitary adenomas.
  • To shed light on its presence in the normal human pituitary and in adenomas, a detailed immunohistochemical study of 130 surgically removed human pituitary adenomas was undertaken, including 23 somatotroph, 32 lactotroph, 19 functional corticotroph, 10 silent subtype 1 and 8 silent subtype 2 corticotroph adenomas, 12 gonadotroph hormone producing, 10 thyrotroph, 7 silent subtype 3 adenomas, and 9 null cell adenomas, 5 of the latter being of oncocytic type.
  • Among the 32 prolactin lactotroph adenomas, 10 had been treated preoperatively with bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist.
  • Among the 23 somatotroph adenomas, 10 were pretreated with octreotide, a long acting somatostatin analog.
  • The results showed Rab3B immunopositivity to be strongest in corticotroph adenomas followed by thyrotroph, lactotroph, gonadotroph, null cell, and somatotroph adenomas.
  • No difference was noted between endocrinologically active and silent corticotroph adenomas.
  • Our results add new information to the view that Rab3B is involved in the regulation of pituitary hormone secretion.

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  • (PMID = 19384079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; EC 3.6.1.- / RAB3B protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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69. Akabane A, Yamada S, Jokura H: Gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas. Endocrine; 2005 Oct;28(1):87-92
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  • [Title] Gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas.
  • Although surgical extirpation by transsphenoidal microsurgery is a major remedy for pituitary adenomas, adjuvant therapy also plays an important role in achieving tumor growth control and endocrine normalization in hormone-secreting tumors.
  • Historically, the treatment options for pituitary adenomas included microsurgery, medical management, and fractionated radiotherapy, but radiosurgery has recently emerged as a practical treatment option.
  • In this paper, we will describe the indications, radiosurgical procedure, results, histological change, and complications of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for pituitary adenomas based on our experience since 1991 and a review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 16311414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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70. Webb C, Prayson RA: Pediatric pituitary adenomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Jan;132(1):77-80
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  • [Title] Pediatric pituitary adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: Pituitary adenomas are relatively rare occurrences in the pediatric population, and there are few studies documenting the profile of these tumors in this age group.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and pathologic features of pediatric pituitary adenomas in conjunction with a review of the available literature.
  • DESIGN: A retrospective clinicopathologic review of 20 pediatric patients (younger than 20 years of age) with pituitary adenomas resected during a 24.5-year period (1981-2005).
  • Tumor size based on radiographic data was known for 19 tumors; 12 adenomas were greater than 1 cm in greatest dimension, and 7 were less than 1 cm.
  • On follow-up, 2 patients with total gross tumor resections had recurrent adenomas; time to recurrence was 5 months and 17 months, respectively.
  • Nine adenomas stained solely for prolactin, 5 for adrenocorticotropic hormone, and 3 for growth hormone.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most pediatric pituitary adenomas present after the onset of puberty and present with frequent headaches, changes in visual acuity and, in females, menstrual dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Growth Hormone / metabolism. Headache / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Menstruation Disturbances / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prolactin / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Vision Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18181678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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71. Korbonits M, Carlsen E: Recent clinical and pathophysiological advances in non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Horm Res; 2009 Apr;71 Suppl 2:123-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent clinical and pathophysiological advances in non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas are being recognized and diagnosed with increasing frequency.
  • One of the most common forms of pituitary lesion is the clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), which is often diagnosed incidentally.
  • The vast majority of pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but familial adenomas can occur in the multiple pituitary adenoma type 1 syndrome, in Carney complex or in familial isolated pituitary adenoma.
  • Most often these are silent gonadotroph adenomas, with silent corticotroph or somatotroph adenomas occurring less frequently.
  • It is unclear why these silent adenomas do not release hormones at a clinically recognizable level, although it is probable that there is a continuum between fully functional and completely silent adenomas.
  • Temozolomide has been successfully used for the treatment of a few aggressive pituitary adenomas, and the response to this drug could be influenced by the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O-6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase.
  • The early diagnosis, prediction of long-term outcome and treatment of NFPAs remain a challenge for endocrinologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. Prolactinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Female. Humans. Male

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19407508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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72. Cho CB, Park HK, Joo WI, Chough CK, Lee KJ, Rha HK: Stereotactic Radiosurgery with the CyberKnife for Pituitary Adenomas. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2009 Mar;45(3):157-63

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stereotactic Radiosurgery with the CyberKnife for Pituitary Adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: In recent years, CyberKnife has emerged as an important treatment modality in the management of pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six patients with pituitary adenomas received stereotactic radiosurgery with the CyberKnife (CKRS).
  • The patients consisted of 17 with non-functioning adenomas, 3 with prolactinomas and 6 with acromegaly.
  • Hormonal function was improved in all of the 9 (100%) functioning adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: CyberKnife is considered safe and effective in selected patients with pituitary adenomas.
  • However, longer follow-up is required for a more complete assessment of late toxicity and treatment efficacy.

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  • (PMID = 19352477.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2666117
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CyberKnife / Pituitary adenoma
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73. Castinetti F, Brue T: [Radiotherapy and radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas]. Presse Med; 2009 Jan;38(1):133-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Radiotherapy and radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas].
  • There are two principal types of treatment for pituitary adenomas: fractionated conventional radiation therapy, based on biological selectivity, and radiosurgery, which is delivered in a single dose, based on anatomic selectivity and indicated preferentially for small tumors sufficiently distant from the optic chiasm.
  • This is especially useful in the case of an active residue after surgery for non-secreting adenoma, but the long-term side effects of radiation must be borne in mind.
  • The principal side effect is the onset of a pituitary deficiency (in more than 50% of cases after radiation therapy, 20% after radiosurgery).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Decision Trees. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / therapy. Pituitary Gland / radiation effects. Pituitary Gland / secretion. Postoperative Complications. Prolactinoma / radiotherapy. Prolactinoma / secretion. Prolactinoma / surgery. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18954960.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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74. Kanaan IN: Minimally invasive approach to management of pituitary adenomas. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2005 Jun;48(3):169-74
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimally invasive approach to management of pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas are the third most common benign intracranial tumor seen in neurosurgical practice.
  • Advances in biomedical assays, imaging studies support their diagnosis and tailor their management.
  • The direct endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is the recommended intervention for adenoma resection in more than 95 %.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Neuronavigation / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16015495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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75. Iwai Y, Yamanaka K, Yoshioka K: Radiosurgery for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Neurosurgery; 2005 Apr;56(4):699-705; discussion 699-705
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiosurgery for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery in the treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: Between January 1994 and December 1999, we treated 34 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 15792508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Zhou T, Wei SB, Meng XH, Xu BN: [Pure endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for 375 pituitary adenomas]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Oct 1;48(19):1443-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pure endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for 375 pituitary adenomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience with surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas via a fully transnasal endoscopic approach.
  • METHODS: Clinical records of 375 cases with pituitary adenomas underwent pure endoscopic operations between December 2006 and December 2009 were carefully assembled.
  • Among 375 pure endoscopic operations of pituitary adenomas, 201 cases were nonfunctional adenomas and 174 cases were functional adenomas.
  • There were 27 giant pituitary adenomas (7.2%) and 41 pituitary adenoma invaded cavernous sinus (10.9%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Trans-nasal endoscopy provides a new device for operation of pituitary adenomas which is effective and safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypophysectomy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21176648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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77. Wass JA, Karavitaki N: Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: the Oxford experience. Nat Rev Endocrinol; 2009 09;5(9):519-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: the Oxford experience.
  • Nonfunctioning adenomas are the second most common type of pituitary tumor.
  • Over the past few years, our knowledge of the epidemiology, natural history, diagnosis, treatment, and recurrence rates of these tumors has improved.
  • In addition, we describe our own experience in the clinical management of patients with nonfunctioning adenomas.
  • Serum prolactin levels are generally <2,000 mU/l in patients with these tumors; we propose that this level be used as the cut-off to differentiate nonfunctioning from prolactin-secreting adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19690562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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78. Taboada GF, Tabet AL, Naves LA, de Carvalho DP, Gadelha MR: Prevalence of gsp oncogene in somatotropinomas and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas: our experience. Pituitary; 2009;12(3):165-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of gsp oncogene in somatotropinomas and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas: our experience.
  • The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of the gsp oncogene in Brazilian patients harboring somatotropinomas and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA).
  • No differences were found in age, sex, GH, and IGF-I levels or tumor volume at diagnosis between gsp+ and gsp- patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Oncogenes / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18642089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Spada A, Lania A, Mantovani G: Hormonal signaling and pituitary adenomas. Neuroendocrinology; 2007;85(2):101-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hormonal signaling and pituitary adenomas.
  • In recent years the demonstration that human pituitary adenomas are monoclonal in origin provides further evidence that pituitary neoplasia arise from the replication of a single mutated cell in which growth advantage results from either activation of proto-oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes.
  • Mutations in common oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are only exceptionally involved in pituitary tumors.
  • The only mutational change so far recognized to be unequivocally associated with pituitary tumors occur in the Gs alpha gene (GNAS1) and cause constitutive activation of the cAMP-dependent pathway.
  • However, other components of pituitary-specific pathways are frequently altered in their expression and activity.
  • This review will focus on the possible impact of G proteins and other components of hormone signaling on pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Hormones / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17337884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 0 / Hypothalamic Hormones; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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80. Beck-Peccoz P, Persani L, Mannavola D, Campi I: Pituitary tumours: TSH-secreting adenomas. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Oct;23(5):597-606
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pituitary tumours: TSH-secreting adenomas.
  • Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism and account for less than 2% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • In the last years, the diagnosis has been facilitated by the routine use of ultra-sensitive TSH immunometric assays.
  • Failure to recognise the presence of a TSHoma may result in dramatic consequences, such as improper thyroid ablation that may cause the pituitary tumour volume to further expand.
  • The diagnosis mainly rests on dynamic testing, such as T3 suppression tests and TRH, which are useful in differentiating TSHomas from the syndromes of thyroid hormone resistance.
  • The first therapeutical approach to TSHomas is the pituitary neurosurgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine. Humans. Hyperpituitarism / diagnosis. Hyperpituitarism / etiology. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 19945025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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81. Osamura RY, Kajiya H, Takei M, Egashira N, Tobita M, Takekoshi S, Teramoto A: Pathology of the human pituitary adenomas. Histochem Cell Biol; 2008 Sep;130(3):495-507
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathology of the human pituitary adenomas.
  • This article describes pertinent aspects of histochemical and molecular changes of the human pituitary adenomas.
  • The discussion further extends to the unusual adenomas or carcinomas.
  • The description in this article are pertinent not only for the practicing pathologists who are in the position of making proper diagnosis, but also for the pituitary research scientists who engage in solving basic problems in pituitary neoplasms by histochemistry and molecular biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18688636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-6143
  • [Journal-full-title] Histochemistry and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadotropins; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 56
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2522328
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82. Drutel A, Caron P, Archambeaud F: [New medical treatments in pituitary adenomas]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Sep;69 Suppl 1:S16-28
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [New medical treatments in pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Actualités thérapeutiques dans la prise en charge médicale des adénomes hypophysaires.
  • Currently, the role of dopaminergic and somatostatinergic agonists in the treatment of pituitary adenomas is quite well established.
  • Nevertheless, a clearer understanding of the expression of dopaminergic and somatostatinergic receptors at the cellular level of pituitary adenomas as well as the development of newer analogues compounds may drastically change current therapeutic modalities.
  • In the midst of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas, a positive correlation exists between the expression of Sst2 mRNA and the inhibition of GH release by somatostatin analogues.
  • The involvement of Sst5 subtype in adenomas resistant to preferential Sst2 agonists has recently been proved.
  • Besides, the use of a chimeric molecule presenting a binding affinity to both Sst2 and D2 subtypes (BIM-23A287) inhibits the secretion of GH in ways similar to the Sst2 or D2 agonists used alone or concurrently but however in a concentration 50 times lower than that of the latter.
  • The discovery of Sst5 and D2 subtypes at the level of corticotropic adenomas reveals newer therapeutic perspectives with promising preliminary results with the use of SOM-230 ; these finding lead to a rise in interest in cabergoline.
  • In the midst of non-functioning pituitary adenomas, the expression of Sst2, Sst3 and D2 receptors will perhaps allow the use of combined therapies associating the new somatostatin analogues to the dopaminergic agonists or even use dopastatin (BIM-23A760, chimeric molecule Sst2-Sst5-D2).
  • Nevertheless, it seems that adenomas resistant to dopaminergic agonist due to a lack of expression of D2 receptor fail to express Sst5 receptors as well.
  • On the other hand, dopastatin appears to be more efficient than cabergoline in the management of this type of adenomas.
  • Therefore, the growing awareness concerning the mechanisms involved in the control of pituitary secretions as well as cellular proliferation will perhaps allow physicians to treat the pathology of pituitary adenomas, macroadenomas in particular, using solely pharmacological means instead of invasive surgical procedures and/or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18954854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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83. Colao A, Di Somma C, Pivonello R, Faggiano A, Lombardi G, Savastano S: Medical therapy for clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):905-15
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  • [Title] Medical therapy for clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Surgery is the first-line treatment of patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs).
  • Because of lack of clinical syndrome these tumours are diagnosed with a variable delay, when patients suffer from compression symptoms (hypopituitarism, headache and visual field defects) due to the extension of the tumour outside the pituitary fossa.
  • However, NFA cell membranes, in analogy with GH- and PRL-secreting adenomas, express somatostatin and dopamine receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18780796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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84. Greenman Y, Stern N: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Oct;23(5):625-38
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  • [Title] Non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Non-functioning pituitary tumours are mostly of gonadotroph cell origin and are devoid of humoral hypersecretory syndromes.
  • They are usually large at the time of diagnosis, commonly presenting with headaches, visual field defects and hypopituitarism.
  • Trans-sphenoidal surgery remains the treatment of choice for rapid decompression of neighbouring structures, often bringing to normalisation or improvement of visual and pituitary function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Gonadotropins, Pituitary / secretion. Humans. Hypopituitarism / diagnosis. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Neurosurgical Procedures / rehabilitation

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  • (PMID = 19945027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadotropins, Pituitary
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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85. Snead FE, Amdur RJ, Morris CG, Mendenhall WM: Long-term outcomes of radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jul 15;71(4):994-8
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  • [Title] Long-term outcomes of radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term local control and toxicity for pituitary adenomas treated with fractionated radiotherapy (RT).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The records of 100 patients with pituitary adenomas treated between 1983 and 2003 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The 10-year actuarial local control rates for nonsecreting and secreting adenomas were 98% and 73%, respectively (p = 0.0015).
  • Actuarial 10-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were 95% and 88%, and overall survival rates were 66% and 79% for nonsecreting and secreting adenomas, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the most mature series in the literature that documents excellent results with fractionated RT for pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / mortality. Adenoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Pituitary Neoplasms / mortality. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • (PMID = 18403133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Buslei R, Kreutzer J, Hofmann B, Schmidt V, Siebzehnrübl F, Hahnen E, Eyupoglu IY, Fahlbusch R, Blümcke I: Abundant hypermethylation of SOCS-1 in clinically silent pituitary adenomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2006 Mar;111(3):264-71
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  • [Title] Abundant hypermethylation of SOCS-1 in clinically silent pituitary adenomas.
  • We have investigated the CpG island methylation status of SOCS-1 in a cohort of pituitary adenomas (PA; n=57), craniopharyngiomas (CP; n=30) and normal pituitary tissue (NP; n=11) using methylation sensitive single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (MS-SSCP) and direct sequencing.
  • Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis confirmed reduced SOCS-1 expression in the majority of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Gene Silencing. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16421738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / SOCS1 protein, human; 0 / STAT Transcription Factors; 0 / Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinases
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87. Vieira JO Jr, Cukiert A, Liberman B: Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging criteria for cavernous sinus invasion in patients with pituitary adenomas: logistic regression analysis and correlation with surgical findings. Surg Neurol; 2006 Feb;65(2):130-5; discussion 135
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  • [Title] Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging criteria for cavernous sinus invasion in patients with pituitary adenomas: logistic regression analysis and correlation with surgical findings.
  • BACKGROUND: This study used high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (1.5 T) to define and evaluate preoperative imaging criteria for cavernous sinus invasion (CSI) by pituitary adenoma (PA).
  • (1) presence of normal pituitary gland between the adenoma and cavernous sinus (CS), (2) status of the CS venous compartments, (3) CS size, (4) CS lateral wall bulging, (5) displacement of the intracavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) by adenoma, (6) grade of parasellar extension (Knosp-Steiner classification), and (7) percentage of intracavernous ICA encased by the tumor.
  • (1) normal pituitary gland interposed between the adenoma and the CS (PPV, 100.0%), (2) intact medial venous compartment (PPV, 100.0%), and (3) percentage of encasement of the intracavernous ICA lower than 25% (NPV, 100.0%).
  • CONCLUSION: The preoperative diagnosis of CSI by PA is extremely important because endocrinologic remission is rarely obtained after microsurgery alone in patients with invasive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16427401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Levy A: Stem cells, hormones and pituitary adenomas. J Neuroendocrinol; 2008 Jan;20(1):139-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stem cells, hormones and pituitary adenomas.
  • We still do not understand the pathogenesis of the majority of pituitary adenomas or why, once formed, their behaviour tends to be so benign.
  • Understanding trophic activity in the normal pituitary may be the key.
  • Despite the fact that changes in indices of cell division and programmed cell death that are too small to measure can produce highly significant fluxes in cell populations, little by little, the fascinating patterns of integrated responses of pituitary cells to hormonal stimuli are now being revealed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Pituitary Hormones / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18081562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones
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89. Remick AK, Wood CE, Cann JA, Gee MK, Feiste EA, Kock ND, Cline JM: Histologic and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous pituitary adenomas in fourteen cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Vet Pathol; 2006 Jul;43(4):484-93
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  • [Title] Histologic and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous pituitary adenomas in fourteen cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).
  • Pituitary adenomas were identified in 14 of 491 (2.9%) cynomolgus macaques evaluated from 1994 to 2004.
  • Seven of the pituitary adenomas caused gross enlargement of the pituitary gland that was visible on postmortem examination, whereas the remaining 7 were multifocal microadenomas identified on histologic examination.
  • A total of 35 adenomas were identified in the 14 macaques, 6 of which were being treated for diabetes mellitus.
  • Mean (+/- SD) pituitary weight was 0.31 +/- 0.42 g, compared with 0.07 +/- 0.02 g for 430 historical control animals (P < 0.0001).
  • Immunohistochemical staining for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, human growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone was applied to pituitary tissue from all cases.
  • Immunostaining revealed 22 of 35 (62.9%) lactotroph adenomas, 5 of 35 (14.3%) plurihormonal cell adenomas, 3 of 35 (8.6%) corticotroph adenomas, 2 of 35 (5.7%) null cell adenomas, 1 of 35 (2.9%) somatotroph adenomas, 1 of 35 (2.9%) mixed corticotroph-somatotroph adenomas, 1 of 35 (2.9%) mixed lactotroph-corticotroph adenomas, 0 of 35 gonadotroph adenomas, and 0 of 35 thyrotroph adenomas.
  • This study represents the first extensive retrospective case series performed to evaluate the histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of pituitary adenomas in cynomolgus macaques.
  • Our findings indicated that macaque pituitary adenomas frequently had mixed histologic appearance and hormone expression, and that, similar to human pituitary adenomas, prolactin-secreting neoplasms were the most prevalent type.
  • [MeSH-major] Macaca fascicularis. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / veterinary. Prolactinoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16846990.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / T32 RR07009
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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90. Zatelli MC, Piccin D, Ambrosio MR, Bondanelli M, degli Uberti EC: Antiproliferative effects of somatostatin analogs in pituitary adenomas. Pituitary; 2006;9(1):27-34
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  • [Title] Antiproliferative effects of somatostatin analogs in pituitary adenomas.
  • The antisecretory effects of somatostatin (SRIF) and its analogs are widely recognised and provide the basis for treatment of hormonal hypersecretion in pituitary adenomas, especially in the settings of acromegaly.
  • This review focuses on the mechanisms transducing the antiproliferative effects of SRIF and its analogs on pituitary adenomas, and on the clinical consequences on tumor volume of pharmacological treatment of pituitary adenomas with these drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16703406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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91. Killory BD, Kresl JJ, Wait SD, Ponce FA, Porter R, White WL: Hypofractionated CyberKnife radiosurgery for perichiasmatic pituitary adenomas: early results. Neurosurgery; 2009 Feb;64(2 Suppl):A19-25
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  • [Title] Hypofractionated CyberKnife radiosurgery for perichiasmatic pituitary adenomas: early results.
  • OBJECTIVE: Radiation therapy is recommended for pituitary tumors that are refractory to surgical and medical therapies.
  • METHODS: We reviewed our first 20 patients with recurrent or residual pituitary adenomas within 3 mm of the optic chiasm treated with the CyberKnife radiosurgery system (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA).
  • CONCLUSION: This preliminary study establishes that the optic nerve and chiasm tolerate CyberKnife hypofractionated radiosurgery of 5 x 500 cGy to perichiasmatic pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / adverse effects. Vision, Ocular / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Optic Chiasm / radiation effects. Optic Chiasm / surgery. Pituitary Gland / radiation effects. Retrospective Studies. Vision Tests

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  • (PMID = 19165069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Wang EL, Qian ZR, Rahman MM, Yoshimoto K, Yamada S, Kudo E, Sano T: Increased expression of HMGA1 correlates with tumour invasiveness and proliferation in human pituitary adenomas. Histopathology; 2010 Mar;56(4):501-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased expression of HMGA1 correlates with tumour invasiveness and proliferation in human pituitary adenomas.
  • AIMS: High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) is highly expressed in various benign and malignant tumours.
  • The development of pituitary adenoma in Hmga1 transgenic mice has been reported.
  • However, no studies have investigated HMGA1 expression and its clinical significance in human pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemical expression of HMGA1 was analysed with respect to various clinicopathological factors in 95 pituitary adenomas.
  • Nuclear expression of HMGA1 was observed in 62% of pituitary adenomas, whereas normal adenohypophysial tissues were negative.
  • Although HMGA1 expression was frequently detected in clinically non-functioning adenomas - 90% of silent adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 76.2% of follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone and 100% of null cell adenomas - it was also detected in 48.1% of growth hormone (GH), 60% of mixed GH/prolactin (PRL), 62.5% of PRL, 66.6% of thyroid-stimulating hormone and 37.5% of ACTH adenomas.
  • HMGA1 expression was significantly higher in invasive adenomas or macroadenomas than in non-invasive adenomas or microadenomas (invasive versus non-invasive, P < 0.05; macroadenoma versus microadenoma, P < 0.05).
  • In addition, HMGA1 showed the highest level in grade IV, more aggressive pituitary adenomas, than in grades I, II and III (IV versus I, P = 0.01; IV versus II, P = 0.01; IV versus III, P = 0.07).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that HMGA1 up-regulation has an important oncogenic role in pituitary tumorigenesis, as well as being a novel molecular marker of tumour proliferation and invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. HMGA Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20459557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA Proteins
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93. Saveanu A, Jaquet P: Somatostatin-dopamine ligands in the treatment of pituitary adenomas. Rev Endocr Metab Disord; 2009 Jun;10(2):83-90
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  • [Title] Somatostatin-dopamine ligands in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • Somatostatin receptors (sst1-5) and dopamine receptor 2 (D2DR) are well expressed and co-localized in several human pituitary adenomas, suggesting possible functional interactions in the control of hormonal hypersecretion and tumor cell growth.
  • The present review describes the expression and functionality of these receptors in the different classes of human pituitary adenomas.
  • Such drugs are much less effective in the control of the others pituitary adenomas also expressing ssts and D2DR receptors.
  • Such ligands bearing distinct ssts and DRD2 pharmacophores may synergistically produce an increased control of secretion and/or of proliferation in the different types of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / agonists. Receptors, Somatostatin / agonists

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  • (PMID = 18651224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2606
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Endocr Metab Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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94. Raappana A, Koivukangas J, Ebeling T, Pirilä T: Incidence of pituitary adenomas in Northern Finland in 1992-2007. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Sep;95(9):4268-75
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  • [Title] Incidence of pituitary adenomas in Northern Finland in 1992-2007.
  • CONTEXT: Data on the incidence of pituitary adenomas (PAs) are scant and outdated.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the age- and sex-specific incidence of all PA subgroups, with data on incidentally found PAs, pituitary apoplexies, and time trends.
  • Pituitary apoplexy occurred as a presenting symptom in 11% of clinically nonfunctioning PA patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Finland / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Apoplexy / epidemiology. Prolactinoma / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20534753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Erridge SC, Conkey DS, Stockton D, Strachan MW, Statham PF, Whittle IR, Grant R, Kerr GR, Gregor A: Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: long-term efficacy and toxicity. Radiother Oncol; 2009 Dec;93(3):597-601
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: long-term efficacy and toxicity.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas is an effective treatment but remains controversial due to toxicity concerns.
  • Seventy-eight patients had a stroke, a RR for a matched Scottish population of 1.45 (CI 1.05-1.18, p=0.03) men and 2.22 (1.56-3.08, p<0.01) women.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19900729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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96. Matsuyama J, Kawase T, Yoshida K, Hasegawa M, Hirose Y, Nagahisa S, Watanabe S, Sano H: Management of large and giant pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extensions. Asian J Neurosurg; 2010 Jan;5(1):48-53

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of large and giant pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extensions.
  • OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: We evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of transsphenoidal surgery for large and giant pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extensions as these tumors have been therapeutic challenge.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 50 cases with 56 surgeries in patients with pituitary adenomas that were surgically treated between January 2005 and January 2010 at Fujita Health University.
  • Among those cases, 39 cases were large or giant pituitary adenomas including 11 cases of giant adenomas.
  • As endocrinological results, among the 11 cases of functioning adenomas, improvement of endocrinological examination was observed in 10 cases, and normalization of the hormonal examination and complete remission was seen in 7 cases which was 64%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transsphenoidal approach is safe and effective procedure even in large or giant pituitary adenomas, because it allows rapid and appropriate decompression of the optic nerves and chiasm with low morbidity rates.
  • Transcranial approaches were indicated only in irregular shaped adenomas or eccentric extensions that could not be reached through the transsphenoidal route.

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  • (PMID = 22028743.001).
  • [ISSN] 2248-9614
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3198654
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; pituitary adenoma / suprasellar extension / transsphenoidal surgery
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97. Arasho BD, Schaller B, Sandu N, Zenebe G: Gender-related differences in pituitary adenomas. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Nov;117(10):567-72
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gender-related differences in pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas account for about 10% of all intracranial neoplasms and for about 85% of all pituitary tumors.
  • In addition, prospective studies of normal persons and postmortem examinations reveal pituitary adenomas in up to 10% of adults indicating that not all pituitary adenomas are clinically significant.
  • With clinically significant pituitary adenomas, patients may present with hyper- or under-secretion of pituitary hormones or with symptoms and signs of space occupying intracranial tumor like headache and visual compromise.
  • Like other differentiated neuroendocrine cells, the anterior pituitary displays remarkable plasticity in response to physiological demands, as exemplified by the lactotroph differentiation and proliferation of pregnancy or the thyrotroph hyperplasia of primary hypothyroidism.
  • These reversible changes are mediated by a diverse array of signals that have been interpreted to support a role for hormonal stimulation in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas.
  • Different investigators have shown a tendency to gender-related differences not only in surgical outcome, but also in the presenting symptoms and signs, duration of symptoms, tumor size, tumor histology, and restoration of normal pituitary function in patients who are surgically treated and histologically proven pituitary adenomas.
  • In this review, we will try to give a systematic insight into gender related differences of pituitary adenomas.
  • The manuscript therefore gives new insights into the cellular understanding of the pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Sex Characteristics
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Pituitary Hormones / secretion. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 19373750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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98. Buchfelder M, Kreutzer J: Transcranial surgery for pituitary adenomas. Pituitary; 2008;11(4):375-84
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcranial surgery for pituitary adenomas.
  • Following a century of evolution and refinements in standard surgical techniques, the vast majority of operations for pituitary adenoma to date are performed utilizing transsphenoidal approaches.
  • The goal of surgical treatment is rapid eradication of the tumor mass, decompression of visual pathways and elimination of hormonal oversecretion whilst preserving the normal gland and avoiding potential surgical complications.
  • In this article current indications and limitations for transcranial surgery of pituitary adenomas, the preoperative workup, surgical techniques, results, and complications are briefly reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18421581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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99. Daems T, Verhelst J, Michotte A, Abrams P, De Ridder D, Abs R: Modification of hormonal secretion in clinically silent pituitary adenomas. Pituitary; 2009;12(1):80-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modification of hormonal secretion in clinically silent pituitary adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Silent pituitary adenomas are a subtype of adenomas characterized by positive immunoreactivity for one or more hormones classically secreted by normal pituitary cells but without clinical expression, although in some occasions enhanced or changed secretory activity can develop over time.
  • Silent corticotroph adenomas are the classical example of this phenomenon.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A series of about 500 pituitary adenomas seen over a period of 20 years were screened for modification in hormonal secretion.
  • RESULTS: Two cases were retrieved, one silent somatotroph adenoma and one thyrotroph adenoma, both without specific clinical features or biochemical abnormalities, which presented 20 years after initial surgery with evidence of acromegaly and hyperthyroidism, respectively.
  • While the acromegaly was controlled by a combination of somatostatin analogs and growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist therapy, neurosurgery was necessary to manage the thyrotroph adenoma.
  • Apparently, the mechanisms responsible for the secretory modifications are different, being a change in secretory capacity in the silent somatotroph adenoma and a quantitative change in the silent thyrotroph adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These two cases, one somatotroph and one thyrotroph adenoma, are an illustration that clinically silent pituitary adenomas may in rare circumstances evolve over time and become active, as previously demonstrated in silent corticotroph adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18350381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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100. Daly AF, Tichomirowa MA, Beckers A: The epidemiology and genetics of pituitary adenomas. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Oct;23(5):543-54
SciCrunch. Clinical Genomic Database: Data: Gene Annotation .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The epidemiology and genetics of pituitary adenomas.
  • According to data derived from autopsy and radiological imaging series, pituitary tumours occur very commonly in the general population; however, most of these tumours are incidental findings with no obvious clinical impact.
  • The historical data on the prevalence of pituitary adenomas in the clinical setting are scant and point to such tumours being relatively rare.
  • Recent studies have shown that the prevalence of clinically relevant pituitary adenomas is 3-5 times higher than previously reported, which adds impetus to research into the aetiology of these tumours.
  • Although the majority of pituitary adenomas are sporadic, approximately 5% of all cases occur in a familial setting and over half of these are due to Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN-1) and Carney's Complex (CNC) disorders.
  • Since the late 1990 s, we have described non-MEN1/CNC familial pituitary tumours that include all tumour phenotypes as a condition termed Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenomas (FIPAs).
  • The clinical characteristics of the FIPAs vary from those sporadic pituitary adenomas, as patients with FIPAs have a younger age at diagnosis and larger tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics






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