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1. Ros S, Sitges-Serra A, Pereira JA, Jimeno J, Prieto R, Sancho JJ, Pérez-Ruiz L: [Intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas: right and lower]. Cir Esp; 2008 Oct;84(4):196-200
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  • [Title] [Intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas: right and lower].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomas paratiroideos de localización intratiroidea: derechos y bajos.
  • INTRODUCTION: Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas (IPA) are a not an uncommon cause of persistent hyperparathyroidism.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective review of prospectively recorded surgical protocols of patients having had parathyroidectomy for primary (n = 437) or secondary (n = 137) hyperparathyroidism by the same surgeon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18928769.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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2. Szende B, Arvai K, Peták I, Nagy K, Végsô G, Perner F: [Changes in gene expression in the course of proliferative processes in the parathyroid gland]. Magy Onkol; 2006;50(2):137-40
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  • [Title] [Changes in gene expression in the course of proliferative processes in the parathyroid gland].
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in expression pattern of the most important genes connected with apoptosis in proliferative apoptotic lesions (hyperplasia, adenoma), applying cDNA microarray technique, in order to promote the possible diagnostic or therapeutic utilisation of any difference in gene expression compared to the healthy (normal) parathyroid gland.
  • Samples were taken from surgically removed 2 hyperplasias, 2 adenomas and 2 normal parathyroid glands.
  • The samples deriving from hyperplasia or adenoma were compared to samples from normal parathyroid glands.
  • The following genes were overexpressed in both hyperplasia and adenoma: CHEK1, ATM, BCL-XL, FAS, TNF, cIAP1, TRAIL, FADD, CASP 4,5,6,8, CD120b, CD137, LTA, TANK, TARF2, CAD, LIGHTR, DR3LG.
  • CASP1,10, BFAR, BOD, BCL2L2, TRANCE were underexpressed in both hyperplasia and adenoma.
  • Overexpressed only in adenoma: APOLLON, RIPK1, LTB, LTBR, CASP2,13, cIAP2, CIDEB.
  • Underexpressed only in adenoma: TRAF4 and FASLG.
  • As a result of this study, both pro-apoptotic and antiapoptotic genes were identified in hyperplasia and adenoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Apoptosis / genetics. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics


3. Costa-Guda J, Tokura T, Roth SI, Arnold A: Mitochondrial DNA mutations in oxyphilic and chief cell parathyroid adenomas. BMC Endocr Disord; 2007 Oct 04;7:8
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  • [Title] Mitochondrial DNA mutations in oxyphilic and chief cell parathyroid adenomas.
  • We hypothesized that benign tumorigenesis of a slowly replicating tissue like the human parathyroid might constitute an especially fertile ground on which a selective advantage conferred by mtDNA mutation could be manifested and might contribute to the oxyphilic phenotype observed in a subset of parathyroid tumors.
  • METHODS: We sought acquired mitochondrial DNA mutations by sequencing the entire 16.6 kb mitochondrial genome of each of thirty sporadic parathyroid adenomas (18 chief cell and 12 oxyphil cell), eight independent, polyclonal, parathyroid primary chief cell hyperplasias plus corresponding normal control samples, five normal parathyroid glands, and one normal thyroid gland.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven somatic mutations were identified in 15 of 30 (9 of 12 oxyphil adenomas, 6 of 18 chief cell) parathyroid adenomas studied.
  • No somatic mutations were observed in the hyperplastic parathyroid glands.
  • CONCLUSION: Features of the somatic mutations suggest that they may confer a selective advantage and contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of parathyroid adenomas.
  • Importantly, the statistically significant differences in mutation prevalence in oxyphil vs. chief cell adenomas also suggest that mtDNA mutations may contribute to the oxyphil phenotype.

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  • (PMID = 17916247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6823
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC endocrine disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Endocr Disord
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / T32 DE007302
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2099428
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4. Forsberg L, Björck E, Hashemi J, Zedenius J, Höög A, Farnebo LO, Reimers M, Larsson C: Distinction in gene expression profiles demonstrated in parathyroid adenomas by high-density oligoarray technology. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Mar;152(3):459-70
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  • [Title] Distinction in gene expression profiles demonstrated in parathyroid adenomas by high-density oligoarray technology.
  • OBJECTIVES: Somatic deletion of chromosome 11q13 is the most frequent genetic aberration in parathyroid adenoma.
  • To gain further insight into the genetic etiology of parathyroid tumor development, we examined a comprehensive gene expression profile of parathyroid adenomas and normal parathyroid tissues.
  • The results were then evaluated with respect to differences between adenomas and normal parathyroid tissue, and to the presence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosomal region 11q13.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Sporadic parathyroid adenomas and normal parathyroids were hybridized against HG-U95Av2 oligonucleotide arrays (Affymetrix) containing a total of 12,625 probe sets.
  • Quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) was performed in a larger series of parathyroid adenomas, in order to con-firm the microarray results.
  • RESULTS: Cyclin D1 and c-Jun showed increased expression in adenomas vs normal parathyroids by microarray analysis and QRT-PCR, suggesting an oncogenic role of these genes in parathyroid tumor development.
  • At unsupervised hierarchical clustering, the adenomas fell into two groups: Group I adenomas were characterized by 11q13 LOH, while Group II adenomas lacked this abnormality.
  • In addition, a t-test analysis identified largely non-overlapping genes with differential expression in the tumors subgroups; e.g. in Group I tumors the putative oncogene ENC 1 was found highly over-expressed vs Group II adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The microarray analyses revealed partly distinctive and partly common expression profiles in parathyroid adenomas with and without 11q13 LOH.

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  • (PMID = 15757864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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5. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Ayoub S, Hachem K, Smayra T, Ghorra C, Abadjian G: Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively? World J Surg; 2007 Apr;31(4):817-23
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  • [Title] Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively?
  • INTRODUCTION: The role of cervical ultrasonography (US)-guided surgery for intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism is rarely reported.
  • METHODS: From 1996 to 2003, cervical explorations were performed in 178 patients (mean age 57 years) with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Patients' characteristics were reviewed to identify predictive factors for intrathyroid adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Cervical US identified abnormal parathyroid glands in 163 of 178 patients, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%.
  • Six patients (3.4%) were found to have intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas (two in the superior parathyroid and four in the inferior parathyroid).
  • Cervical US predicted this anomaly in four of six patients (67%) in whom the thyroid gland was not nodular and allowed total enucleation of the adenoma to be performed in three and subtotal thyroid loboisthmectomy in three; these operations were performed uneventfully and rapidly.
  • On multivariable analysis, no factor predicted intrathyroid localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PPV of high-resolution cervical US for identifying an abnormal parathyroid gland was 100% in this series.
  • It was 80% for predicting intrathyroid localization of the adenoma.
  • This method allows us to shorten the operating time by guiding the exploration immediately toward the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17354026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Kamaya A, Quon A, Jeffrey RB: Sonography of the abnormal parathyroid gland. Ultrasound Q; 2006 Dec;22(4):253-62
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  • [Title] Sonography of the abnormal parathyroid gland.
  • In 80% to 90% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, a single parathyroid adenoma will be identified as the culprit, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% are caused by multiple adenomas, parathyroid hyperplasia, and rarely, parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Therefore, preoperative localization of the adenoma is critical in the clinical evaluation of the patient before surgical resection.
  • Although adenomas less than 1 cm may be difficult to visualize sonographically, knowledge of typical imaging characteristics of parathyroid adenomas and use of special sonographic techniques will facilitate identification in most patients.
  • Typical imaging characteristics of parathyroid adenomas include homogeneously hypoechoic echotexture on gray scale with an enlarged feeding artery and peripheral arc of vascularity seen on color and power Doppler.
  • Proper neck extension, unilateral graded compression techniques, and patient swallowing will improve visualization of adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17146333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-8771
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound quarterly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Q
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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7. Knezević-Obad A, Tomić-Brzac H, Zarković K, Dodig D, Stromar IK: Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):25-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology.
  • The aim of this study is to establish possibilities of using cytology in the diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • 475 patients, all suspected to have parathyroid gland disease, were examined over a three-year period (from 1 of January 2006 to 31 of December 2008) in the Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Protection, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Croatia.
  • The parathyroid hormone (PTH) analysis was made for all punctates.
  • The adenoma was diagnosed via morphological characteristics in 71 out of 288 punctates that were proven adequate for cytological analysis.
  • Increased PTH levels were later on established in all diagnosed adenomas.
  • All patients with cytology-based diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma were sent to surgery, and the cytological diagnosis was confirmed by pathohistology.
  • In three cases, the parathyroid gland adenoma was established by pathohistology, although in these cases the cytological diagnosis was negative.
  • The cytological diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma can be considered reliable in 96% of cases, provided that the echosonographic structure and localisation of the punctured node is noted, and assuming that material adequate for cytological analysis is obtained by FNAB.
  • Possible pitfalls are oncocytic types of parathyroid adenoma, intranuclear inclusions and papillary formation of epithelial cells, and cystic degeneration of nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Eosine Yellowish-(YS). Epithelial Cells / pathology. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Methylene Blue. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Reproducibility of Results. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20432729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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8. Juhlin C, Larsson C, Yakoleva T, Leibiger I, Leibiger B, Alimov A, Weber G, Höög A, Villablanca A: Loss of parafibromin expression in a subset of parathyroid adenomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Jun;13(2):509-23
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  • [Title] Loss of parafibromin expression in a subset of parathyroid adenomas.
  • Inactivation of the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT- JT) gene, HRPT2, was recently established as a genetic mechanism in the development of parathyroid tumours.
  • Inactivating HRPT2 mutations are common in HPT- JT and parathyroid carcinomas, and have been described in a few cases of parathyroid adenomas with cystic features.
  • In this study, 46 cases of cystic parathyroid adenomas previously investigated for HRPT2 mutations were characterized with regard to MEN1 gene mutations, cyclin D1 expression and parafibromin expression.
  • In the three parathyroid tumours with inactivating HRPT2 mutations parafibromin expression was not detectable, and in one of two cases with aberrantly sized parafibromin the protein was delocalized.
  • Both high and low cyclin D1 levels were found among HRPT2-mutated and -unmutated tumours, suggesting that these events are not mutually exclusive in parathyroid tumour development.
  • The presented data suggest that in the majority of benign parathyroid tumours the expression of parafibromin remains unaltered, while the loss of parafibromin expression is strongly indicative of gene inactivation through mutation of the HRPT2 gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16728578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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9. Kucera T, Veselý D, Pácová H, Martínek J, Astl J: Expression of nitric oxide synthases in parathyroid gland adenoma and parathyroid gland hyperplasia. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2005 Aug;26(4):373-6
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  • [Title] Expression of nitric oxide synthases in parathyroid gland adenoma and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the presented study was to perform the immunohistochemical detection of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) isoform of nitric oxide synthase in the adenomatous and hyperplastic parathyroid gland in relation to the apoptotic process.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Tissue samples from 12 patients with parathyroid gland adenoma (PGA) and 10 patients with secondary parathyroid gland hyperplasia (PGH) were collected during surgery at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery of The First Faculty of Medicine in Prague.
  • RESULTS: The immunoreactivity to eNOS antibody was observed in the endothelial lining of vessels in PGA, PGH and in the rim of normal parathyroid gland adjacent to PGA sample.
  • CONCLUSION: eNOS observed in the vasculature of the enlarged parathyroid glands can serve as a factor that contributes to the viability of hypertrophic pathologic tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / enzymology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16136006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS3 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
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10. Cappelli C, Pelizzari G, Pirola I, Gandossi E, De Martino E, Delbarba A, Agosti B, Agabiti Rosei E, Castellano M: Modified percutaneous ethanol injection of parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism. QJM; 2008 Aug;101(8):657-62
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  • [Title] Modified percutaneous ethanol injection of parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice for symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism; unlikely few patients do not meet established surgical criteria or have comorbid conditions that prohibit surgery.
  • It is currently in use for the treatment of secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism, however, few studies or case reports suggest it for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Solvents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18499732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2393
  • [Journal-full-title] QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] QJM
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Solvents; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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11. Schachter PP, Ayesh S, Matouk I, Schneider T, Czerniak A, Hochberg A: Differential expression of kinase genes in primary hyperparathyroidism: adenoma versus normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Jan;131(1):126-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of kinase genes in primary hyperparathyroidism: adenoma versus normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue.
  • CONTEXT: Differentiation between adenoma and hyperplasia or even normal parathyroid tissue is difficult and based mainly on the surgeon's skill.
  • Exploration of genes that express differentially in these various tissues using microarrays and other sophisticated research tools will enable identification and perhaps development of new methods of perioperative diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assemble a panel of kinase genes to differentiate parathyroid adenoma from normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue.
  • DESIGN: RNA was extracted from adenoma, hyperplasia, and normal parathyroid tissue and hybridized to a microarray containing 359 human cDNAs of known kinase genes.
  • RESULTS: The ratio values considered significant (<0.5 or >1.5) suggest that genes up-regulated in parathyroid adenoma are those responsible for blood vessel angiogenesis and genes belonging to the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor groups.
  • Genes down-regulated in parathyroid adenoma are related to cellular growth and apoptosis--genes from the mitogen-activated protein kinase group and DNA-dependent protein kinase group.
  • An interesting gene down-regulated in the parathyroid adenoma samples is related to the serine/threonine protein kinases that exert a key function in calcium handling.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The kinase genes panel presented can be used to differentiate parathyroid adenoma from normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue in particular when histopathology fails to provide a decisive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Phosphotransferases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17227113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.- / Phosphotransferases
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12. Romanchishen AF, Matveeva ZS: [Intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2007;166(4):40-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas].
  • The authors present 27 cases of intrathyroid adenomas of the parathyroid glands that made up 22.68% of 119 patients operated on for parathyroid tumors.
  • Clinical manifestations of primary hyperparathyrosis were diagnosed in 10 out of 27 patients.
  • In 17 of these patients the hormonal-inactive parathyroid adenomas, detected accidentally during operations for different diseased of the thyroid gland, were ablated.
  • The authors stress a careful revision of the thyroid to be necessary in order to exclude an intrathyroid localization of parathyroid neoplasms which can result in persistence of the disease if not ablated.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17966653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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13. Malinvaud D, Potard G, Martins-Carvalho C, Jézéquel JA, Marianowski R: [Parathyroid adenoma: surgical strategy]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2006 Dec;123(6):333-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Parathyroid adenoma: surgical strategy].
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to reach a better understanding in the handling of parathyroid adenomas, and to emphasize the importance of pre-operatory explorations in order to establish the best surgical approach and its cost.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We are using a retrospective study of 51 patients that underwent surgery in our department between the years 1997 and 2002, for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Every patient received to a pre-operatory exploration in order to localize the parathyroid tumors, including cervical echography in 51 of the cases, and a sestamibi scintigraphy in 49 of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17202992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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14. Randall GJ, Zald PB, Cohen JI, Hamilton BE: Contrast-enhanced MDCT characteristics of parathyroid adenomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Aug;193(2):W139-43

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced MDCT characteristics of parathyroid adenomas.
  • In this article, we describe the CT imaging characteristics of surgically confirmed adenomas and review anatomy and embryology to aid the radiologist in successfully identifying adenomas using contrast-enhanced CT.
  • CONCLUSION: Knowledge of normal CT appearance, contrast enhancement, and expected location are critical to correct interpretation of parathyroid adenoma at CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Choristoma / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Neck / radiography. Pharynx / radiography. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19620416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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15. Krebs LJ, Shattuck TM, Arnold A: HRPT2 mutational analysis of typical sporadic parathyroid adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep;90(9):5015-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HRPT2 mutational analysis of typical sporadic parathyroid adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: Mutations of HRPT2 are frequent in sporadic parathyroid carcinomas and central to their pathogenesis.
  • However, the potential diagnostic utility of HRPT2 mutation status to distinguish between parathyroid carcinoma and adenoma hinges on the frequency of HRPT2 mutations in benign adenomas.
  • Even a low rate of HRPT2 mutation in adenomas would greatly alter diagnostic specificity, because adenomas are far more prevalent than carcinomas.
  • The issue remains open because of the limited number of typical adenomas, not subjected to additional selection criteria, examined in previous studies.
  • OBJECTIVE/DESIGN/PATIENTS: To determine the frequency of HRPT2 somatic mutations in a substantial series of typical, sporadic parathyroid adenomas, we directly sequenced coding and flanking splice junctional regions of all HRPT2 exons in solitary adenomas from 60 patients.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: No intragenic HRPT2 mutations were detected, strengthening the degree of specificity of HRPT2 mutation as a feature of sporadic parathyroid carcinoma as opposed to sporadic adenomas.
  • Our observations encourage additional study of the diagnostic potential of HRPT2 in parathyroid neoplasia and support the view that HRPT2 inactivation is not an important participant in the pathogenesis of typical parathyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Gene Frequency. Mutation. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Sep;90(9):5505-7 [16148350.001]
  • (PMID = 15956079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / 5K22-DE-015583; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32-GM-008607
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Recombinant; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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16. Kraas J, Clark PB, Perrier ND, Morton KA: The scintigraphic appearance of subcapsular parathyroid adenomas. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Apr;30(4):213-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The scintigraphic appearance of subcapsular parathyroid adenomas.
  • PURPOSE: Approximately 5 to 10% of parathyroid adenomas are located within the thin, fibrous capsule of the thyroid gland.
  • These subcapsular adenomas can complicate minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Palpation is less sensitive when the adenoma is covered by the thyroid capsule.
  • If a subcapsular parathyroid adenoma can be identified on preoperative parathyroid scintigraphy, nuclear medicine physicians can recommend exploration of the thyroid capsule early, leading to an easier, more efficient operation.
  • The objective of this observational study was to identify the scintigraphic appearance of subcapsular parathyroid adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 109 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent preoperative dual-phase Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy at our tertiary care center from October 2002 to March 2004.
  • Retrospective chart review identified 16 surgically proved subcapsular parathyroid adenomas.
  • Parathyroid scintigraphy was reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Subcapsular parathyroid adenomas tend to conform to the expected shape of the thyroid gland.
  • In this small series, subcapsular parathyroid adenomas followed 1 of 3 patterns on lateral images:.
  • CONCLUSION: Subcapsular parathyroid adenomas often have a distinct appearance on scintigraphy.
  • Preoperative identification of this type of parathyroid adenoma can direct a subcapsular surgical approach, optimizing the efficiency of the minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Preoperative Care / methods. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 15764873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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17. Doğan R, Kara M, Yazicioğlu A, Kaynaroğlu V: The use of gamma probe for the intraoperative localization of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma. Tuberk Toraks; 2009;57(2):208-11

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The use of gamma probe for the intraoperative localization of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • The most common etiologic factor of primary hyperparathyroidism is a solitary parathyroid adenoma that might be located in the mediastinum.
  • The mediastinally located ectopic parathyroid adenomas are often out of reach with a cervical incision and require a thoracic approach.
  • We present a case of 55 year-old female patient with a parathyroid adenoma located anterior to the ascending aorta within the thymus resulting in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The patient underwent an extended thymectomy with intraoperative use of a gamma probe as an adjunct to surgical resection which provided the accurate localization of the parathyroid adenoma.
  • Histologic diagnosis confirmed the tumor to be an ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • The patient showed an uneventful postoperative period with decreased levels of both calcium and parathyroid hormone.
  • We emphasize that the gamma probe serves as a very useful device to differentiate the ectopic parathyroid adenoma from surrounding tissues for complete surgical excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Mediastinal Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Radiopharmaceuticals. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19714514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0494-1373
  • [Journal-full-title] Tüberküloz ve toraks
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tuberk Toraks
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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18. Eloy JA, Mitty H, Genden EM: Preoperative selective venous sampling for nonlocalizing parathyroid adenomas. Thyroid; 2006 Aug;16(8):787-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative selective venous sampling for nonlocalizing parathyroid adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Preoperative parathyroid adenoma localization allows for a minimally invasive surgical approach.
  • Current methods used for adenoma localization include ultrasound, sestamibi scan, and occasionally magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • In cases in which an adenoma is not localized after a radiologic work-up, the surgeon must perform a four-gland exploration.
  • Preoperative selective venous sampling (SVS) has been described as a safe and clinically effective method to localize a parathyroid adenoma after failed exploration.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SVS as a primary localization technique in cases where conventional localization techniques have failed.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with nonlocalizing parathyroid adenomas after ultrasonography, sestamibi scanning, and MRI were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Eight patients underwent SVS prior to surgery and six patients underwent a four-gland neck exploration without preoperative Svs. The two groups were assessed for accuracy of the SVS in localizing the adenoma, operative time, length of hospitalization, and complications.
  • The SVS proved accurate in preoperatively localizing the adenoma in 7 of 8 patients and allowed for a minimally invasive approach in 87% of patients.
  • CONCLUSION: This study suggests that preoperative SVS may represent a safe and effective method of preoperatively localizing the nonlocalized parathyroid adenoma.
  • In cases where conventional radiologic techniques fail to localize an adenoma, SVS may obviate the need for a four-gland exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 16910882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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19. Riss P, Asari R, Scheuba C, Bieglmayer C, Niederle B: PTH secretion of "manipulated" parathyroid adenomas. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2009 Sep;394(5):891-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PTH secretion of "manipulated" parathyroid adenomas.
  • PURPOSE: Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its fragments intraoperatively may influence PTH monitoring.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether "intended intraoperative manipulation" of parathyroid adenomas through mechanical stimulation (through squeezing or manual rubbing) would lead to increased PTH excretion.
  • METHODS: The enlarged glands of six consecutive patients who underwent open minimally invasive parathyroid exploration were "manipulated" for 30 s as soon as they had been identified.
  • RESULTS: An increased PTH secretion was documented in four of six "manipulated" single adenomas (mean PTH +/- SD 312 +/- 497 pg/ml).
  • CONCLUSIONS: First, secretion of PTH varies widely after manual manipulation of adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19396458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Tükenmez M, Işsever H, Salmaslioğlu A, Adalet I, Ozarmağan S, Tezelman S: Impact of adenoma weight and ectopic location of parathyroid adenoma on localization study results. World J Surg; 2008 Apr;32(4):566-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of adenoma weight and ectopic location of parathyroid adenoma on localization study results.
  • Although the sensitivity of preoperative localization techniques is high for solitary parathyroid adenomas, negative imaging study results are inevitable.
  • The weight and location of the parathyroid adenoma may contribute to the negative results.
  • We aimed to study the impact of adenoma weight and ectopic location of the parathyroid adenoma on ultrasonography and sestamibi scan results.
  • The patients were divided into two groups according to adenoma location.
  • Parathyroid adenoma weight and the results of imaging studies were determined in all patients.
  • Of 185 patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism, 36 (19.4%) had ectopic parathyroid glands.
  • There was a positive correlation between adenoma weight and positive imaging studies, whereas ectopic location did not correlate with negative imaging study results.
  • There was no significant difference between the ectopic adenoma ratio of patients with negative and positive imaging study results.
  • The weight of the ectopic parathyroid adenoma was significantly lower in patients with negative imaging study results than in patients with positive imaging study results (p = 0.001).
  • According to the analysis of variance, patients with higher-weight adenomas have positive imaging study results irrespective of ectopic location.
  • For both normal and ectopic adenoma locations, adenoma weight was found only to be a factor that positively influences imaging study results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Calcium / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Radionuclide Imaging. Retrospective Studies. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18210183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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21. Oh SY, Kim S, Eskandar Y, Kim DW, Krynyckyi BR, Machac J, Inabnet WB 3rd, Kim CK: Appearance of intrathymic parathyroid adenomas on pinhole sestamibi parathyroid imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Jun;31(6):325-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appearance of intrathymic parathyroid adenomas on pinhole sestamibi parathyroid imaging.
  • OBJECTIVES: Ectopic inferior parathyroid adenomas (PAs) are frequently located in the anterior mediastinum, quite often in the thymus gland.
  • Clinical follow up has shown that most intrathymic adenomas were visualized on pinhole views and located closer to the thyroid than expected.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed sestamibi pinhole parathyroid imaging performed on 163 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and final diagnoses established by surgery, histology, intraoperative PTH monitoring, and clinical follow up.
  • Of the 93 foci in group A, there were 80 normally situated inferior PA, 6 descended superior PA, 3 intrathyroidal PA, one hyperplastic parathyroid gland, one thyroid adenoma, one unidentified, and one intrathymic PA.
  • CONCLUSION: Focal increased activity completely separated from the lower pole of thyroid (regardless of the distance of separation) on sestamibi pinhole images indicates a high probability of intrathymic parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 16714889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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22. Rasmuson T, Tavelin B: Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(8):1059-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine.
  • External ionizing radiation is a risk factor for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Whether exposure to radioactive iodine contributes to the risk of primary hyperparathyroidism is unknown.
  • Patients with thyrotoxicosis are often treated with radioactive iodine and its accumulation in the thyroid gland exposes the adjacent parathyroid glands to radioactivity.
  • Patients with parathyroid adenomas (ICD-9 = 195.1) were recruited from the Swedish Cancer Registry.
  • Eleven patients with parathyroid adenomas following the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis were identified.
  • The median age at exposure was 59 years and the latency period between diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and parathyroid adenoma was 7.4 years (range <1-19 years).
  • This study does not indicate that patients with thyrotoxicosis treated with radioactive iodine in adult age have increased risk of developing parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Parathyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyrotoxicosis / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17118839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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23. Beggs AD, Hain SF: Localization of parathyroid adenomas using 11C-methionine positron emission tomography. Nucl Med Commun; 2005 Feb;26(2):133-6
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  • [Title] Localization of parathyroid adenomas using 11C-methionine positron emission tomography.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: In symptomatic hyperparathyroidism, pre-surgical localization of the suspected site of adenoma is desirable.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (PET) could accurately localize parathyroid adenomas in patients in whom conventional imaging had failed.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients presenting with hyperparathyroidism, and in whom other imaging techniques had failed to definitely identify the site of adenoma, were reviewed retrospectively after 11C-methionine PET scanning.
  • RESULTS: 11C-Methionine PET scanning was found to have a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 88% in successfully locating parathyroid adenomas.
  • Most false negatives were due to adenomas in the lower mediastinum that was outside the area of scanning.
  • CONCLUSIONS: 11C-Methionine PET is a reliable and highly accurate technique for localizing parathyroid adenomas in patients in whom conventional imaging techniques have failed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperthyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Methionine. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 15657506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 58576-49-1 / carbon-11 methionine; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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24. Stalberg P, Grodski S, Sidhu S, Sywak M, Delbridge L: Cervical thymectomy for intrathymic parathyroid adenomas during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Surgery; 2007 May;141(5):626-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cervical thymectomy for intrathymic parathyroid adenomas during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: The development of an intrathymic parathyroid adenoma is common, and thymectomy is a significant component of the parathyroid surgeon's technical armamentarium.
  • Over the last decade, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) has become the standard technique for removal of an abnormal parathyroid gland, and the requirement for thymectomy should remain unchanged during the era of minimally invasive techniques.
  • The aim of this paper was to assess the feasibility and outcomes of cervical thymectomy for intrathymic parathyroid adenomas during MIP.
  • RESULTS: A total of 840 patients underwent parathyroid surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) during this period.
  • In 5 cases, only fatty tissue was identified histologically, and, in 5 cases, a small supernumerary parathyroid gland was identified in the histologic specimen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cervical thymectomy for removal of intrathymic parathyroid adenomas can be performed during lateral focused mini-incision MIP with a safety and efficacy equivalent to open bilateral neck explorations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Thymectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17462462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Wani S, Hao Z: Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):389-93

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course of a patient with atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma manifesting as hypercalcemic parathyroid crisis.
  • METHODS: We present a case report and review the relevant literature on parathyroid cysts and atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas.
  • She had severe hypercalcemia (calcium level, 18.3 mg/dL) in conjunction with an elevated parathyroid hormone level of 1,472 pg/mL.
  • Intraoperatively, 25 mL of fluid was aspirated from the cystic mass, and the parathyroid hormone level in the fluid was 7,400,000 pg/mL.
  • The final pathologic diagnosis was an atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid cysts are uncommon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass.
  • Although most parathyroid cysts are nonfunctional, 10% to 15% of such cysts are functional and can rarely manifest as acute parathyroid crisis.
  • Atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas are rare and have an unpredictable clinical course.
  • Treatment options for parathyroid cysts include aspiration, injection of sclerosing agents, and surgical excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 16638726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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26. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Yanik BT, Salmaslioğlu A, Tunaci M, Adalet I, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: Impact of gland morphology and concomitant thyroid nodules on preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Laryngoscope; 2006 Apr;116(4):580-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of gland morphology and concomitant thyroid nodules on preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a common endocrine disease.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the presence of thyroid nodules, adenoma weight, and ectopic localization on the sensitivity of different imaging studies in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • The parathyroid adenoma weight in true-positive imaging studies was significantly higher than those in false-positive and false-negative imaging studies.
  • The numbers of ectopic parathyroid adenomas were found to be higher in the group of parathyroid adenomas undetected with ultrasonography when compared with ultrasonographically detected adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with parathyroid adenoma, the sensitivity of imaging studies correlates with the presence of thyroid nodules, adenoma weight, and ectopic localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care / methods. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16585862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Liu RC, Hill ME, Ryan JA Jr: One-gland exploration for mediastinal parathyroid adenomas: cervical and thoracoscopic approaches. Am J Surg; 2005 May;189(5):601-4; discussion 605

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] One-gland exploration for mediastinal parathyroid adenomas: cervical and thoracoscopic approaches.
  • BACKGROUND: In patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism, preoperative localization studies may discover a solitary mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • In this circumstance a 1-gland mediastinal exploration, either cervical or thoracoscopic, may be curative.
  • METHODS: In an 18-month period, 5 of 120 consecutive patients underwent an initial 1-gland mediastinal exploration for a solitary mediastinal parathyroid adenoma and 2 patients had a 1-gland mediastinal exploration for persistent hyperparathyroidism.
  • RESULTS: Sestamibi scans showed a mediastinal parathyroid adenoma in all 7 patients.
  • Computed tomography provided anatomic localization of middle mediastinal parathyroid adenomas.
  • A cervical approach was used in 4 patients who had a superior mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • Thoracoscopic excision was performed in 3 patients with a middle mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • Calcium and parathyroid hormone levels normalized in all patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism caused by a solitary mediastinal parathyroid adenoma can be treated successfully with 1-gland mediastinal exploration either by a cervical or a thoracoscopic approach as indicated by localization imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15862504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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28. Somashekhar SP, Gupta P, Ballal S, Parameshwaran, Zaveri SS, Venkatachala, Udupa KV: Minimally invasive radioguided surgery for parathyroid adenomas (MIRP). Natl Med J India; 2007 Jan-Feb;20(1):13-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimally invasive radioguided surgery for parathyroid adenomas (MIRP).
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid adenoma is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Conventional surgical management includes bilateral neck exploration with removal of the adenoma(s) and biopsy of one of the other glands with visualization of all glands.
  • Radioguided excision of parathyroid adenoma is a widely accepted technique which provides accurate localization and complete excision of the lesion with low morbidity.
  • METHODS: We performed radioguided excision of parathyroid adenomas in 15 patients.
  • All of them had preoperative localization of the adenoma using a dual tracer, dual phase 99mTc-Sestamibi scan.
  • RESULTS: The 99mTc-Sestamibi scan revealed an increased uptake by the adenoma in all patients and complete excision was possible in all the patients.
  • Frozen section confirmed the diagnosis and the quick parathormone assay (within 15 minutes) revealed a drop in parathormone levels to < 50% after excision in all of them.
  • CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive radioguided excision of parathyroid adenomas is a simple, safe and effective technique associated with a low morbidity and can be done as a day-care procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17557516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-258X
  • [Journal-full-title] The National medical journal of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Med J India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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29. Marzouki HZ, Chavannes M, Tamilia M, Hier MP, Black MJ, Levental M, Payne RJ: Location of parathyroid adenomas: 7-year experience. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Oct;39(5):551-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Location of parathyroid adenomas: 7-year experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the most common location of parathyroid adenomas.
  • METHODS: Data from 147 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism in Montreal at a McGill University teaching hospital between January 2001 and January 2008 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Patients with histopathologic confirmation of parathyroid hyperplasia were excluded from the study (n = 26).
  • The 121 patients with confirmed adenomas were grouped according to the locations of the tumour into right superior, right inferior, left superior, left inferior, and ectopic.
  • RESULTS: The left inferior parathyroid glands were the most common site of adenomas.
  • The right inferior parathyroid glands were the site in 40 patients (33.06% [mean 0.33; 95% CI 0.248-0.422]).
  • The remainder of the adenomas were distributed as follows: the left superior in 19 patients (15.7% [mean 0.157; 95% CI 0.097-0.234]), the right superior in 10 patients (8.26% [mean 0.0826; 95% CI 0.040-0.147]), and the ectopic in 2 patients (1.65% [mean 0.0165; 95% CI 0.002-0.058]).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the most common site of adenoma was the left inferior parathyroid gland.
  • This information provides parathyroid surgeons with a starting point when imaging fails to localize the site of the adenoma, which allows for the possibility of minimally invasive surgery especially if used in conjunction with intraoperative parathyroid hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20828518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1916-0216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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30. Bhadada SK, Cardenas M, Bhansali A, Mittal BR, Behera A, Chanukya GV, Nahar U, Rao DS: Very low or undetectable intact parathyroid hormone levels in patients with surgically verified parathyroid adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Sep;69(3):382-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Very low or undetectable intact parathyroid hormone levels in patients with surgically verified parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report and explore potential reasons for undetectable or low-normal serum intact PTH levels in patients with surgically verified primary hyperparathyroidism with parathyroid adenomas, review the relevant literature, and offer suggestions for management of such patients occasionally encountered in clinical practice.
  • PATIENTS: We encountered two unusual patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who had suggestive biochemical and/or clinical features of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • A (99m)Tc sestamibi scan showed increased uptake in one of the parathyroid glands, suggesting a single adenoma in each case that was confirmed at surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: When the clinical suspicion is high, the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism should be pursued despite suppressed or low-normal serum intact PTH levels after carefully excluding other causes of hypercalcaemia.
  • Further research on various intact PTH molecular species secreted by parathyroid adenomas or post-translational changes in the intact PTH molecule that might interfere with in vitro measurements should be undertaken to understand the precise reason(s) for such anomalous findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / blood. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Male. Osmolar Concentration

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  • (PMID = 18284640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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31. Zald PB, Hamilton BE, Larsen ML, Cohen JI: The role of computed tomography for localization of parathyroid adenomas. Laryngoscope; 2008 Aug;118(8):1405-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of computed tomography for localization of parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT) for localization of parathyroid adenomas (PA) when first-line imaging is indeterminate.
  • METHODS: A search of operating room and radiology records identified 223 surgical explorations for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Adenoma locations on CT, ultrasound, and nuclear scintigraphy were correlated with an independent review of operative records.
  • RESULTS: The presence of adenoma in the correct side and quadrant of the neck was predicted by CT in 89% and 77% of studies, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: When first-line localization studies are indeterminate in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, CT is a valuable, rapid, and widely available imaging modality that can be used to localize PA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18528308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Herrmann K, Takei T, Kanegae K, Shiga T, Buck AK, Altomonte J, Schwaiger M, Schuster T, Nishijima K, Kuge Y, Tamaki N: Clinical value and limitations of [11C]-methionine PET for detection and localization of suspected parathyroid adenomas. Mol Imaging Biol; 2009 Sep-Oct;11(5):356-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical value and limitations of [11C]-methionine PET for detection and localization of suspected parathyroid adenomas.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of [(11)C]methionine-PET (MET-PET) for detection and localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients without prior thyroidectomy.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with suspected parathyroid adenomas undergoing imaging with MET-PET was performed.
  • Comparison of PET results to other imaging modalities including ultrasound, MIBI scintigraphy, and morphological imaging [computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging] and subgroup analysis of primary vs. secondary hyperparathyroidism was performed.
  • Validation of PET findings for detection and localization of parathyroid adenomas resulted in an overall sensitivity of MET-PET of 54%, 49%, and 35% on a lesion, side, and location basis, respectively.
  • Subgroup analysis revealed higher sensitivity for MET-PET in secondary HPT (sHPT) than primary HPT (pHPT; 62% vs. 43%; side basis).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with initial diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism and no prior thyroidectomy, the sensitivity of MET-PET for detection and localization of parathyroid adenomas is markedly lower compared to previous reports.
  • The clinical value of MET/PET in patients with hyperparathyroidism should be further investigated in a prospective study utilizing anatometabolic imaging with a PET/CT device.
  • [MeSH-major] Methionine. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 19340488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-2002
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 58576-49-1 / carbon-11 methionine; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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33. Akin M, Atasever T, Kurukahvecioglu O, Dogan M, Gokaslan D, Poyraz A, Koksal H, Taneri F: Preoperative detection of parathyroid adenomas with Tc-99m MIBI and Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy: histopathological and biochemical correlation with Tc-99m MIBI uptake. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2009;110(3):166-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative detection of parathyroid adenomas with Tc-99m MIBI and Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy: histopathological and biochemical correlation with Tc-99m MIBI uptake.
  • AIM: The objective of this study was to compare the dual phase MIBI scinitgraphy with MIBI and Tc-99m pertechnetate (MIBI + Tc-99m) study in defining the parathyroid adenomas, and to evaluate the effect of histologic and biochemical characteristics on the imaging of parathyroid adenomas with Tc-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy.
  • METHODS: Thirty-six patients with parathyroid adenomas were studied prospectively.
  • MIBI uptake of adenomas correlated with oxyphill, chief cell and tumour weight of the surgically excised glands.
  • RESULTS: A total of 38 parathyroid adenomas were surgically excised from 36 patients.
  • MIBI + Tc-99m identified 35 of the parathyroid lesions (92%).
  • Whereas, MIBI study detected 30 of the 38 parathyroid adenomas (79% sensitivity) (p=0.0001).
  • Adenoma weight showed significiant correlation with MIBI uptake (p=0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: MIBI + Tc-99m pertechnetate interpretation is more sensitive than only dual MIBI imaging for the detection of parathyroid adenoma.
  • Oxyphill cell content and weight of the lesions proved to be important determinants of 99mTc-MIBI accumulation in parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19507637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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34. Gill AJ, Clarkson A, Gimm O, Keil J, Dralle H, Howell VM, Marsh DJ: Loss of nuclear expression of parafibromin distinguishes parathyroid carcinomas and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome-related adenomas from sporadic parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Sep;30(9):1140-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Loss of nuclear expression of parafibromin distinguishes parathyroid carcinomas and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome-related adenomas from sporadic parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is notoriously difficult to diagnose with confidence in borderline cases.
  • Commonly there is a long lag time between diagnosis and clinical evidence of malignant behavior even in histopathologically straightforward lesions.
  • There is therefore a need for a novel adjunctive marker to assist in the diagnosis of carcinoma.
  • Mutations predicted to inactivate parafibromin were first detected in the germline of patients with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome.
  • We performed immunohistochemistry for parafibromin on 115 parathyroid tissues comprising 4 HPT-JT-related tumors (3 adenomas and 1 carcinoma), 11 sporadic parathyroid carcinomas, 79 sporadic adenomas, 3 multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A-related adenomas, 2 sporadic primary hyperplasias, 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-1-related hyperplasias, 6 secondary hyperplasias, 4 tertiary hyperplasias, and 4 normal parathyroid glands.
  • There was complete absence of nuclear staining in 3 of 4 (75%) HPT-JT-related tumors and 8 of 11 (73%) sporadic parathyroid carcinomas and focal weak staining in 1 of 4 HPT-JT tumors and 2 of 11 sporadic parathyroid carcinomas.
  • Only 1 parathyroid carcinoma exhibited diffuse strong nuclear expression of parafibromin.
  • We conclude that, in the correct clinical and pathologic context, complete absence of nuclear staining for parafibromin is diagnostic of parathyroid carcinoma or an HPT-JT-related tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Jaw Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16931959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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35. Guerrero MA, Vriens MR, Suh I, Khanafshar E, Clark OH: Intraoperative diagnostic strategy to distinguish parathyroid adenomas from metastatic thyroid cancer. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jul-Aug;15(5):454-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative diagnostic strategy to distinguish parathyroid adenomas from metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the limitations of frozen section examination and the value of intraoperative tissue aspiration for parathyroid hormone assay to distinguish parathyroid adenomas from metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We describe 2 patients with a biochemical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent intraoperative frozen section analysis of suspected parathyroid tumors.
  • Parathyroid gland aspiration for parathyroid hormone was also performed for confirmation.
  • RESULTS: The intraoperative frozen section examination of the suspected parathyroid tumors inaccurately identified the tumors as follicular carcinomas.
  • The parathyroid gland aspirate, however, accurately substantiated the presence of parathyroid adenomas, rather than follicular cancers.
  • CONCLUSION: Aspiration of a suspected parathyroid tumor for parathyroid hormone assay accurately determines whether a nodule is a parathyroid gland and facilitates intraoperative decision making, especially when frozen section diagnosis is misleading.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19491067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Prasad KK, Agarwal G, Mishra SK, Krishnani N: Oxyphilic cell adenoma of parathyroid resulting in primary hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa cystica--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jul;49(3):448-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oxyphilic cell adenoma of parathyroid resulting in primary hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa cystica--a case report.
  • Adenomas of the parathyroid gland, the majority of which are of the solitary chief cell type, are the most frequent cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • Parathyroid adenomas composed predominantly or exclusively of oxyphil cells are rare and most oxyphil cell adenomas of this organ remain clinically silent.
  • We present here a case of hyperfunctioning oxyphil cell adenoma of the parathyroid gland resulting in pHPT, osteitis fibrosa cystica and simultaneous bilateral fractures upper shafts of femora.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica / etiology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17001919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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37. Souza ER, Scrignoli JA, Bezerra FC, Ribeiro SL, Passos LF: Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma. J Clin Rheumatol; 2008 Oct;14(5):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disease caused by exaggerated secretion of the parathyroid gland hormone, produced by an adenoma in 80% of cases.
  • Ectopic adenomas occur in a small proportion of cases.
  • Herein, the authors report a 72-year-old woman with a delayed diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, produced by an intrathoracic adenoma, with a longstanding course, presenting with severe osteoporosis, multiple fractures, bone deformities, and neurologic impairments.
  • Persistent hypercalcemia, high levels of alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were documented and a paratracheal mass was found on a helicoidal tomography of the thorax.
  • After surgical removal, the histopathological examination confirmed an ectopic adenoma of the parathyroid gland and the patient achieved some improvement in her clinical picture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Bone Diseases, Endocrine / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Choristoma. Female. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Nephrocalcinosis / etiology. Nephrolithiasis / etiology. Osteoporosis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Tracheal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18824925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-7355
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Stephen AE, Roth SI, Fardo DW, Finkelstein DM, Randolph GW, Gaz RD, Hodin RA: Predictors of an accurate preoperative sestamibi scan for single-gland parathyroid adenomas. Arch Surg; 2007 Apr;142(4):381-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictors of an accurate preoperative sestamibi scan for single-gland parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate why some patients with single parathyroid adenomas have negative preoperative sestamibi scans.
  • All patients had single parathyroid adenomas.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Neck exploration and removal of parathyroid adenomas.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age; sex; preoperative serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels; gland weight; location; and pathologic features.
  • RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age or preoperative serum calcium or parathyroid hormone levels.
  • Gland weight was greater in the TP group compared with the FN group (mean +/- SD, 1336 +/- 1603 mg vs 475 +/- 365 mg; P = .04); 13 (62%) of the 21 glands in the FN group were located in the upper position, compared with 6 (27%) of the 22 glands in the TP group (P = .03).
  • A multivariate logistic regression model yielded the following factors that predicted an accurate scan: higher percentage of oxyphil cells (P = .03), heavier gland (P = .03), female sex (P = .04), and gland location in the lower position (P = .04).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Smaller-volume parathyroid adenomas and those in the upper position are less likely to be localized with sestamibi scans.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17441292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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39. Vu DH, Erickson RA: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with aspirate assay to diagnose suspected mediastinal parathyroid adenomas. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):437-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with aspirate assay to diagnose suspected mediastinal parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with mediastinal parathyroid adenomas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and measurement of parathyroid hormone.
  • RESULTS: Patient 1 was a 54-year-old man with persistently elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations despite removal of a right inferior parathyroid adenoma.
  • The parathyroid hormone concentration measured in the aspirated material was 1800 pg/mL.
  • Pathologic examination of the resected specimen revealed a 29.7-g parathyroid adenoma.
  • Patient 2 was an 86-year-old woman with recurrent hyperparathyroidism.
  • The parathyroid hormone concentration measured in the aspirated specimen was 6905 pg/mL.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative localization of recurrent or persistent hyperparathyroidism is often difficult.
  • This technique may be a useful adjunct in diagnosing mediastinal parathyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Mediastinum / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Anderson SR, Vaughn A, Karakla D, Wadsworth JT: Effectiveness of surgeon interpretation of technetium tc 99m sestamibi scans in localizing parathyroid adenomas. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Sep;134(9):953-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effectiveness of surgeon interpretation of technetium tc 99m sestamibi scans in localizing parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of surgeons to predict the laterality of parathyroid adenomas from technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scans and compare their results with the radiologic interpretations.
  • Inclusion criteria were biochemically proven primary hyperparathyroidism, with documented serum hypercalcemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels.
  • Only cases due to a single adenoma that were cured with a single surgical procedure were included.
  • INTERVENTION: All patients underwent resection of a parathyroid adenoma following a preoperative sestamibi localization study and serum calcium and parathyroid hormone level analysis.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Adenoma location was determined from a review of operative and pathological reports.
  • RESULTS: Of 82 adenomas, 51 (62%) were correctly lateralized in the radiology report, while the other 31 were interpreted as normal scans.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of the radiologic interpretations for parathyroid adenomas in all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were 62% and 83%, respectively.
  • The scan interpretation of the 2 surgeons produced accurate lateralization of 91% and 91% of these single adenomas.
  • Of the 31 single adenoma scans read as normal by the radiologist, the surgeons correctly lateralized 22 of 29 (76%) and 21 of 28 (75%) of the adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: The review of sestamibi scans by surgeons allows accurate localization of parathyroid adenomas that may not be identified by standard radiologic interpretations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Clinical Competence. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18794440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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41. Bleier BS, LiVolsi VA, Chalian AA, Gimotty PA, Botbyl JD, Weber RS: Technetium Tc 99m sestamibi sensitivity in oxyphil cell-dominant parathyroid adenomas. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Jul;132(7):779-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Technetium Tc 99m sestamibi sensitivity in oxyphil cell-dominant parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: A subset of parathyroid adenomas contains a relative overabundance of oxyphil cells that are capable of greater technetium Tc 99m sestamibi tracer uptake and retention than other cell types.
  • We examined whether the presence of oxyphil cells augments the sensitivity of technetium Tc 99m sestamibi preoperative localization and whether the histologic findings of a lesion could be predicted based on the adenoma mass and serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective, single-blinded comparison of technetium Tc 99m sensitivity rates, lesion mass, and preoperative serum calcium and parathyroid hormone values of patients with chief and mixed cell-dominant adenomas and those with oxyphil-dominant parathyroid adenomas.
  • PATIENTS: Sixty-three patients diagnosed as having a parathyroid adenoma.
  • INTERVENTION: All patients underwent resection of a parathyroid adenoma following a preoperative technetium Tc 99m sestamibi localization study and serum calcium and parathyroid hormone level analysis.
  • There was no correlation between histologic findings of the lesion and its size or serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oxyphil cell predominance within an adenoma augments technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan sensitivity in a statistically significant manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Oxyphil Cells / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 16847189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30-CA16520
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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42. Mallya SM, Wu HI, Saria EA, Corrado KR, Arnold A: Tissue-specific regulatory regions of the PTH gene localized by novel chromosome 11 rearrangement breakpoints in a parathyroid adenoma. J Bone Miner Res; 2010 Dec;25(12):2606-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tissue-specific regulatory regions of the PTH gene localized by novel chromosome 11 rearrangement breakpoints in a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Parathyroid adenomas can contain clonal rearrangements of chromosome 11 that activate the cyclin D1 oncogene through juxtaposition with the PTH gene.
  • Southern blot analyses of the parathyroid adenoma revealed rearrangement in the PTH gene locus.
  • Thus, PTH-cyclin D1 gene rearrangement breakpoints in parathyroid tumors can be located far from those previously recognized.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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  • (PMID = 20641034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R03 DE016337-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE016337; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE14773; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE016337-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R03 DE016337; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE014773-05; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014773; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014773-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Transcription Factors; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS301996; NLM/ PMC3119366
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43. Burger AE, Skene AI, Lagattolla NR: Thoracoscopic excision of mediastinal parathyroid adenomas: a report of two cases. Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2008 Mar;90(2):W1-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thoracoscopic excision of mediastinal parathyroid adenomas: a report of two cases.
  • Two patients with primary hyperparathyroidism caused by solitary ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas have been successfully treated by thoracoscopic excision.
  • Both had right-sided adenomas confirmed by sestamibi and computerised tomography - one adjacent to the oesophagus at the level of D3, the other anterolateral to the ascending aorta.
  • In selected cases, where an ectopic adenoma lies immediately deep to the mediastinal pleura, thoracoscopic excision offers considerable advantage over open thoracic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18325197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2443296
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44. Ogus M, Mayir B, Dinckan A: Mediastinal, cystic and functional parathyroid adenoma in patients with double parathyroid adenomas: a case report. Acta Chir Belg; 2006 Nov-Dec;106(6):736-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mediastinal, cystic and functional parathyroid adenoma in patients with double parathyroid adenomas: a case report.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by single adenoma.
  • Ectopic adenomas are a frequent cause of recurrent or persistent hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid cysts are rarely seen and most of them are non functional.
  • This case report describes a patient with double adenoma, one is solid and cervical, the other is cystic and located in mediastinum; both of them are functional.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Cystadenoma / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17290712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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45. Juhlin CC, Nilsson IL, Johansson K, Haglund F, Villablanca A, Höög A, Larsson C: Parafibromin and APC as screening markers for malignant potential in atypical parathyroid adenomas. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Sep;21(3):166-77

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parafibromin and APC as screening markers for malignant potential in atypical parathyroid adenomas.
  • The identification of parathyroid carcinomas is based upon histopathological criteria in which an invasive growth pattern or distant metastasis is demonstrated.
  • Recently, reduced expression or loss of the tumour suppressor proteins parafibromin and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) has been associated with parathyroid malignancy.
  • We report results from APC and parafibromin expression analyses by immunohistochemistry and Western blot in five cases of atypical adenoma, a single case of carcinoma and 54 adenomas without atypical features.
  • Complete loss of APC immunoreactivity and reduced expression of parafibromin was evident in two of the atypical adenomas and in the parathyroid carcinoma.
  • By contrast, all adenomas displayed APC expression, including two cases with hyperparathyroidism 2 gene (HRPT2) mutations and loss of parafibromin expression.
  • We conclude that loss of APC is a frequent molecular event in atypical adenomas and carcinomas, but not in adenomas.
  • Following verification in an independent material, APC could become a valuable tool when assessing parathyroid tumours in the clinical setting.
  • Furthermore, the molecular resemblance of atypical adenomas with carcinoma concerning parafibromin and APC expression indicates that atypical adenomas should be subjects to watchful follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20473645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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46. Rosen JE, Costouros NG, Lorang D, Burns AL, Alexander HR, Skarulis MC, Cochran C, Pingpank JF, Marx SJ, Spiegel AM, Libutti SK: Gland size is associated with changes in gene expression profiles in sporadic parathyroid adenomas. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 May;12(5):412-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gland size is associated with changes in gene expression profiles in sporadic parathyroid adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Sporadic parathyroid adenomas (SPAs) are benign neoplasms responsible for most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • At operation, tissues from SPAs were frozen in liquid nitrogen; total RNA was obtained from sections, and the diagnosis was confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin staining.
  • Control normal parathyroid RNA was age- and sex-matched.
  • Of the clinical parameters, only the mean gland volume was significantly different between group 1 (390 +/- 160 mm(3)) and group 2 (1080 +/- 615 mm(3); P = .032 by Mann-Whitney test).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Differential expression of a few critical genes may contribute to differences in gland volume in SPAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15915376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Akkaş BE, Vural GU, Tan G: Parathyroid adenomas seen in the clinical follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a diagnostic dilemma. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Feb;34(2):70-1
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  • [Title] Parathyroid adenomas seen in the clinical follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a diagnostic dilemma.
  • The coexistence of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenoma is an uncommon clinical entity.
  • In most of the previously published studies, thyroid carcinomas are diagnosed incidentally during or after the treatment of parathyroid disease, mostly in the pathology specimens.
  • Here, we report 2 cases of parathyroid adenoma who presented years after the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Neither of the patients had symptoms of hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism, and parathyroid adenomas were diagnosed on routine physical examination of the neck and on routine monitoring of serum calcium levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19352252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Norman J, Politz D, Browarsky I: Diagnostic aspiration of parathyroid adenomas causes severe fibrosis complicating surgery and final histologic diagnosis. Thyroid; 2007 Dec;17(12):1251-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic aspiration of parathyroid adenomas causes severe fibrosis complicating surgery and final histologic diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of parathyroid adenomas may cause a severe fibrotic reaction of the gland and surrounding structures, making surgery more difficult and histology more confusing.
  • DESIGN: A study was conducted over a 33-month period to compare the operative findings of 30 patients who underwent FNA of a parathyroid adenoma to those of 3000 patients who had not had their parathyroid tumor aspirated.
  • Each patient's normal parathyroid glands also served as internal controls.
  • All aspirations were performed by referring physicians under direct ultrasound guidance within 3 months of surgery, and all adenomas were located in routine positions.
  • Patients who had previous thyroid or parathyroid surgery were not included.
  • Patients with secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism were not included.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA of parathyroid adenomas can cause a severe fibrotic process that typically involves adjacent tissues.
  • FNA of parathyroid adenomas should be avoided unless absolutely necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fibrosis / diagnosis. Fibrosis / etiology. Fibrosis / pathology. Humans. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2008 May;18(5):581-2; author reply 583-4 [18466081.001]
  • (PMID = 17887929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Barczynski M, Golkowski F, Konturek A, Buziak-Bereza M, Cichon S, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Huszno B, Szybinski Z: Technetium-99m-sestamibi subtraction scintigraphy vs. ultrasonography combined with a rapid parathyroid hormone assay in parathyroid aspirates in preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas and in directing surgical approach. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jul;65(1):106-13

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Technetium-99m-sestamibi subtraction scintigraphy vs. ultrasonography combined with a rapid parathyroid hormone assay in parathyroid aspirates in preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas and in directing surgical approach.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of subtraction scintigraphy (SS) vs. ultrasonography (US) of the neck combined with rapid intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) assay in US-guided fine-needle parathyroid aspirates in preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas and in directing surgical approach.
  • DESIGN: The results of SS for localization of parathyroid adenoma were determined in 121 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and compared with findings at surgery and with the results of US alone (in patients without nodular goitre) and US in combination with the iPTH assay in US-guided fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) of suspicious parathyroid lesions (in patients with concomitant nodular goitre).
  • High-resolution US of the neck was performed by a single endocrine surgeon and combined with US-guided FNAs of suspicious parathyroid lesions in all patients with nodular goitre (n = 43).
  • The iPTH assay of US-guided FNAs of suspicious parathyroid lesions in patients with nodular goitre significantly improved both the sensitivity and PPV of US imaging (90.7% and 100%, respectively), allowing for an accurate choice of surgical approach in 118 (97.5%) of 121 patients.
  • SS was more accurate than US alone in detection of ectopic parathyroid adenomas.
  • However, US alone was characterized by a higher sensitivity in detection of small parathyroid adenomas (< 500 mg) at typical sites (P < 0.01).
  • In cases of equivocal results of US and/or in patients with concomitant goitre, an iPTH assay in US-guided FNAs of suspicious parathyroid lesions may be used to establish the nature of the mass, distinguish between parathyroid and nonparathyroid tissue (goitre, lymph nodes) and improve the accuracy of US parathyroid imaging, allowing for successful directing of surgical approach in a majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Goiter, Nodular / blood. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted. Thyroid Nodule / blood. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Jun;66(6):899 [17388797.001]
  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):214-5 [17262065.001]
  • (PMID = 16817828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PTH protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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50. Rubello D, Giannini S, De Carlo E, Mariani G, Muzzio PC, Rampin L, Pelizzo MR: Minimally invasive (99m)Tc-sestamibi radioguided surgery of parathyroid adenomas. Panminerva Med; 2005 Jun;47(2):99-107

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimally invasive (99m)Tc-sestamibi radioguided surgery of parathyroid adenomas.
  • In the last 10 to 15 years surgery of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) moved from the wide bilateral neck exploration to various types of limited neck exploration ranging from unilateral neck surgery to minimally invasive approaches as the minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy.
  • Only PHPT patients with a high probability to be affected by a solitary parathyroid adenoma showing a high (99m)TC-sestamibi uptake and with a normal thyroid gland should be offer a minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy.
  • In the different-day protocol, a double-tracer parathyroid scintigraphy is obtained some days before surgery with the aim of better planning the type and extension of intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 16210995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-0808
  • [Journal-full-title] Panminerva medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Panminerva Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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51. Benhammou A, Meziane M, Dib N, Nazih N, Boulaadas M, Essakali L, Kzadri M: [Maxilla-mandibular brown tumors as a first sign of parathyroid adenoma]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2009 Sep;126(4):216-20
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  • [Title] [Maxilla-mandibular brown tumors as a first sign of parathyroid adenoma].
  • OBJECTIVES: Through a novel observation of parathyroid adenoma revealed by brown tumors of the jaws and a review of the literature, the authors describe this rare mode of primary hyperparathyroidism discovery.
  • The etiologic search consisted of a MRI of the neck, which showed a mass behind the thyroid gland, suggesting a parathyroid adenoma.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed at surgical exploration.
  • CONCLUSION: Brown tumors are a rare mode of parathyroid adenoma discovery, and the jaw location is exceptional.
  • The diagnosis is based on the parathormone rate, and radiological exams generally find the etiology.
  • Treatment is based on surgery of the parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Mandibular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Maxillary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcium / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Phosphorus / blood. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19524874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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52. Weber T, Cammerer G, Schick C, Solbach C, Hillenbrand A, Barth TF, Henne-Bruns D, Blagieva R, Böhm BO, Reske SN, Luster M: C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography localizes parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Mar;42(3):209-14
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  • [Title] C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography localizes parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), positive preoperative localization studies enable to perform a minimally invasive approach for parathyroid surgery.
  • We therefore conducted a study to determine the sensitivity of C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (Met-PET/CT) in localizing parathyroid adenomas in pHPT.
  • Met-PET/CT scans of the neck and mediastinum of 33 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary HPT were compared with intraoperative and histological findings.
  • Primary HPT was caused by a single gland adenoma in 30 patients, while another 3 patients had multiglandular disease.
  • Met-PET/CT scan correctly located a single gland adenoma in 25 out of 30 (83%) patients with pHPT, among them 2 patients with persistent disease, 7 patients with prior neck surgery, and 8 patients with concomitant thyroid nodules.
  • In 3 patients with multiglandular disease, Met-PET/CT showed only one enlarged parathyroid gland in two individuals and was negative in the third patient.
  • Statistical analysis found a significant correlation between true-positive results and the weight (2.42+/-4.05 g) and diameter (2.0+/-1.18 cm) of parathyroid adenomas while the subgroup with false negative findings had significantly smaller (0.98+/-0.54 cm) and lighter (0.5+/-0.38 g) glands.
  • Sensitivity was 83% for single gland adenomas and 67% for multiglandular disease.
  • Met-PET/CT correctly localized 83% of single gland parathyroid adenomas in patients with pHPT.
  • However, preoperative localization of multiglandular disease due to double adenomas or parathyroid hyperplasia remained difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Methionine. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20013649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 58576-49-1 / carbon-11 methionine; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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53. Taïeb D, Hassad R, Sebag F, Colavolpe C, Guedj E, Hindié E, Henry JF, Mundler O: Tomoscintigraphy improves the determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas, especially in apparently inferior glands: imaging features and surgical implications. J Nucl Med Technol; 2007 Sep;35(3):135-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tomoscintigraphy improves the determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas, especially in apparently inferior glands: imaging features and surgical implications.
  • Identification of the embryologic origin of hyperfunctioning parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) could determine the most suitable approach for minimally invasive surgery.
  • The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the reliability of a new, combined protocol for the preoperative localization and determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas.
  • On the basis of anatomic considerations, adenomas were classified as superior (P4 derived) if they were located above the isthmus or posterior to the thyroid on SPECT images, despite their apparently middle to inferior position, and as inferior (P3 derived) if the foci were located in inferior and anterior positions or along the thyrothymic tract.
  • Parathyroid ultrasonography was performed on all patients.
  • RESULTS: A total of 36 adenomas were removed: 34 solitary adenomas and 1 double adenoma (for totals of 19 P3-derived and 17 P4-derived adenomas).
  • Pinhole subtraction imaging, SPECT, and ultrasonography sensitivities for detecting adenomas were 86%, 78%, and 77%, respectively.
  • Positive SPECT results were associated with higher gland weights.
  • Only 2 corresponded to large P3-derived adenomas (>2 g).
  • CONCLUSION: By reclassifying apparently inferior adenomas as P4-derived adenomas prolapsed behind the thyroid gland, SPECT provides information about the most suitable surgical approach for avoiding recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.
  • Additional pinhole images should increase the detection of small adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 17702904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-4916
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nucl Med Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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54. Harris L, Yoo J, Driedger A, Fung K, Franklin J, Gray D, Holliday R: Accuracy of technetium-99m SPECT-CT hybrid images in predicting the precise intraoperative anatomical location of parathyroid adenomas. Head Neck; 2008 Apr;30(4):509-17

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accuracy of technetium-99m SPECT-CT hybrid images in predicting the precise intraoperative anatomical location of parathyroid adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the accuracy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT imaging for the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas.
  • The quantitative measure was the distance between the location of the adenoma on the SPECT-CT scan and the location of the adenoma intraoperatively.
  • Qualitatively, surgeons were asked whether or not the adenoma was in the exact location predicted by the SPECT-CT scan.
  • The time from initial incision to identification of the parathyroid was recorded.
  • Patients referred to London Health Sciences Centre for a suspected parathyroid adenoma were eligible for this study.
  • Eighteen (78.3%) had a single adenoma, 2 (8.7%) had double adenomas, and 3 (13.0%) had multiglandular hyperplasia.
  • SPECT-CT correctly detected and localized 16 of 18 (88.9%) cases of single parathyroid adenomas.
  • The mean distance between the location of the adenoma on the SPECT-CT scan and the location of the adenoma intraoperatively was 16.3 mm (95% < or = 19.0 mm).
  • For single adenomas, the median time from skin incision to identification was 14 minutes (range, 8-40 minutes).
  • The preoperative detection and localization of a single focus of sestamibi uptake yielded a parathyroid adenoma in the specified location in 80.0% of cases (95% CI, 97.4-66.5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPECT-CT predicted the intraoperative location of a single parathyroid adenoma within 19.0 mm with 95% confidence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 18059012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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55. Fernandez-Ranvier GG, Khanafshar E, Jensen K, Zarnegar R, Lee J, Kebebew E, Duh QY, Clark OH: Parathyroid carcinoma, atypical parathyroid adenoma, or parathyromatosis? Cancer; 2007 Jul 15;110(2):255-64
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma, atypical parathyroid adenoma, or parathyromatosis?
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma, atypical parathyroid adenoma, and parathyromatosis can be differentiated relatively easily from typical parathyroid adenomas, but distinguishing them from each other is more difficult.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study of 28 consecutive patients with parathyroid carcinoma, 7 patients with atypical parathyroid adenoma, and 13 patients with parathyromatosis who were treated at the University of California at San Francisco Medical Center between 1966 and 2005 was performed.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid carcinoma (19 of 28 patients) and atypical adenoma (4 of 7 patients) were significantly more common in men, whereas parathyromatosis was more common in women (10 of 13 patients) (P = .02).
  • A palpable neck mass and hoarseness were almost exclusively present in patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Prior to the first parathyroid surgery, patients with parathyroid carcinoma were found to have higher blood calcium levels (>/=14 mg/dL in 16 of 26 patients [62%]), whereas only 1 of 6 patients with atypical adenoma (17%) and no patients with parathyromatosis were found to have profound hypercalcemia (P < .01).
  • Intraoperatively, patients with parathyroid carcinoma and atypical adenoma presented with single lesions, whereas patients with parathyromatosis had multiple small lesions.
  • Histopathologic findings were well defined in parathyroid carcinoma, but some findings overlapped in the 3 tumors studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with parathyroid carcinoma often differ from those with atypical parathyroid adenoma or parathyromatosis at the time of presentation because patients with parathyroid carcinoma have more profound hypercalcemia as well as invasive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17559137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Colognesi A, de Tullio D, Messina F, Ferrocci G, Stano R, Azzena G: Primary hyperparathyroidism related to a parathyroid adenoma: the dramatic clinical evolution of a misdiagnosed patient and its surgical solution. Minerva Chir; 2006 Feb;61(1):51-6
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism related to a parathyroid adenoma: the dramatic clinical evolution of a misdiagnosed patient and its surgical solution.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a clinical condition related to an excessive and abnormally regulated secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands which is responsible for an alteration of the calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
  • Parathyroid adenomas are the most important cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (80-85%).
  • A case of parathyroid adenoma observed in a patient aged 47, admitted to the Emergency Medicine Department of our Hospital with a diagnosis of hypertensive crisis, cephalea, vomiting, and a clinical history of recurrent episodes of severe abdominal and renal pain, is presented.
  • The suspect of a primary hyperparathyroidism related to a single adenoma of the parathyroid gland suggested a surgical treatment.
  • The histologycal exam reported a parathyroid adenoma with large areas with haemorrage.
  • Patients affected by primary hyperparathyroidism are often misdiagnosed because their clinical conditions can create differential diagnosis problems with other diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16568023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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57. Perrier ND, Edeiken B, Nunez R, Gayed I, Jimenez C, Busaidy N, Potylchansky E, Kee S, Vu T: A novel nomenclature to classify parathyroid adenomas. World J Surg; 2009 Mar;33(3):412-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A novel nomenclature to classify parathyroid adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: A uniform and reliable description of the exact locations of adenomatous parathyroid glands is necessary for accurate communications between surgeons and other specialists.
  • We developed a nomenclature that provides a precise means of communicating the most frequently encountered parathyroid adenoma locations.
  • The system uses the letters A-G to describe exact gland locations.
  • RESULTS: A type A parathyroid gland is a gland that originates from a superior pedicle, lateral to the recurrent laryngeal nerve compressed within the capsule of the thyroid parenchyma.
  • A type B gland is a superior gland that has fallen posteriorly into the tracheoesophageal groove and is in the same cross-sectional plane as the superior portion of the thyroid parenchyma.
  • A type C gland is a gland that has fallen posteriorly into the tracheoesophageal groove and on a cross-sectional view lies at the level of or below the inferior pole of the thyroid gland.
  • A type D gland lies in the midregion of the posterior surface of the thyroid parenchyma, near the junction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery or middle thyroidal vein; because of this location, dissection is difficult.
  • A type E gland is an inferior gland close to the inferior pole of the thyroid parenchyma, lying in the lateral plane with the thyroid parenchyma and anterior half of the trachea.
  • A type F gland is an inferior gland that has descended (fallen) into the thyrothymic ligament or superior thymus; it may appear to be "ectopic" or within the superior mediastinum.
  • An anterior-posterior view shows the type F gland to be anterior to the trachea.
  • A type G gland is a rare, truly intrathyroidal parathyroid gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A reproducible nomenclature can provide a means of consistent communication about parathyroid adenoma location.
  • If uniformly adopted, it has the potential to reliably communicate exact gland location without lengthy descriptions.
  • [MeSH-major] Interdisciplinary Communication. Parathyroid Neoplasms / classification

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  • [Cites] J Neurosurg. 2002 Mar;96(2 Suppl):145-56 [12450276.001]
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  • (PMID = 19148701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Abraham D, Sharma PK, Bentz J, Gault PM, Neumayer L, McClain DA: Utility of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid adenomas for localization before minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Endocr Pract; 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):333-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Utility of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid adenomas for localization before minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and measurement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the aspirate (FNA/PTH) as a preoperative localization procedure.
  • METHODS: The study group consisted of 34 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • All patients underwent US study of the neck, which suggested the presence of a solitary adenoma in 30 patients and of hyperplasia in 2; no adenoma or hyperplasia could be visualized in 2 patients.
  • RESULTS: On the basis of the FNA/PTH results, 28 patients with suspected adenomas underwent minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP), and 2 patients are awaiting a surgical procedure.
  • Of these 28 patients, 27 had more than a 50% decline in intraoperative PTH level after removal of the suspected adenoma, confirming surgical success.
  • The 2 study subjects with US findings of suspected hyperplasia underwent 4-gland surgical procedures.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused most commonly by a solitary adenoma and less commonly by multigland hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Preoperative Care. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17669707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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59. Turgut B, Elagoz S, Erselcan T, Koyuncu A, Dokmetas HS, Hasbek Z, Ozdemir S, Aydin C: Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile imaging: relationship with P-glycoprotein expression, oxyphilic cell content, and tumoral tissue volume. Cancer Biother Radiopharm; 2006 Dec;21(6):579-90

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile imaging: relationship with P-glycoprotein expression, oxyphilic cell content, and tumoral tissue volume.
  • In addition to tumor size, it has been suggested that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and/or oxyphilic cell content in parathyroid adenomas has an important influence on the results of technetium 99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI) parathyroid imaging.
  • AIM: In this study, we compared the results of MIBI parathyroid imaging and immunohistochemical analysis (IHA) of P-gp expression, oxyphilic cell content, and tumoral tissue volume in parathyroid adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty (40) patients (36 female and 4 male; mean age, 53.2 +/- 8.16 years) with hyperparathyroidism who had undergone surgery were included in this study.
  • Preoperatively, "double phase" parathyroid scintigraphy with Tc-99m MIBI (including imaging of the neck and mediastinum) was performed in all patients.
  • In resected parathyroid tissues, P-gp expression and percentage of oxyphilic cell content were analyzed with IHA in 34 patients.
  • RESULTS: Three (3) of the resected parathyroid tissues were hyperplastic parathyroid tissue, whereas 31 of the tissues were parathyroid adenoma (mean volume, 1.99 +/- 1.93 mL).
  • In Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy, 70% of the parathyroid adenoma/hyperplastic parathyroid tissue was detected in correct localization; at US, this rate was 46.8%.
  • According to the resected parathyroid tissue localization at surgery, sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and prevalence in scintigraphy were 82.3%, 70%, 82.3%, and 85%, respectively.
  • In 12 of 19 patients (63%) who had parathyroid tissue < 1 mL and in 15 of 24 patients (62.5%) who had oxyphilic cell content < 10%, lesions were also detected correctly with MIBI scintigraphy.
  • However, P-gp expression, oxyphilic cell content, and tumoral volume may have not a main effect on MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy results in parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Organotechnetium Compounds. Oxyphil Cells / metabolism. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. P-Glycoproteins / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17257073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1084-9785
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / P-Glycoproteins
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60. Gayed IW, Kim EE, Broussard WF, Evans D, Lee J, Broemeling LD, Ochoa BB, Moxley DM, Erwin WD, Podoloff DA: The value of 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT over conventional SPECT in the evaluation of parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia. J Nucl Med; 2005 Feb;46(2):248-52
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  • [Title] The value of 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT over conventional SPECT in the evaluation of parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia.
  • This retrospective study evaluated the clinical value of simultaneously acquired (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT versus conventional SPECT in diagnosing and locating parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Two experienced masked readers independently evaluated whether conventional SPECT images provided information beyond what was available from the planar images either by changing the diagnosis or by better locating the glands and whether the SPECT/CT images provided information beyond what was available from the planar plus conventional SPECT images.
  • Forty-eight consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism were included in the study.
  • RESULTS: Planar and SPECT imaging, with or without CT fusion, identified 89% of the surgically confirmed diseased parathyroid glands.
  • Use of SPECT/CT changed the diagnosis in only 1 patient (2%) from positive to negative and better located the glands in only 4 patients (8%).
  • SPECT/CT was particularly helpful in locating the 2 ectopic parathyroid adenomas diagnosed in this cohort.
  • CONCLUSION: SPECT/CT has no significant clinical value additional to that of conventional SPECT for parathyroid imaging except in locating ectopic parathyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism / radiography. Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Subtraction Technique. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Image Enhancement / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 15695783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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61. Costa-Guda J, Arnold A: Absence of stabilizing mutations of beta-catenin encoded by CTNNB1 exon 3 in a large series of sporadic parathyroid adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Apr;92(4):1564-6
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  • [Title] Absence of stabilizing mutations of beta-catenin encoded by CTNNB1 exon 3 in a large series of sporadic parathyroid adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of sporadic parathyroid adenomas are incompletely understood.
  • Dysfunction of the Wnt signaling pathway is an established pathogenetic contributor to human tumorigenesis and, recently, the role of stabilizing mutations in beta-catenin, a cause of abnormal Wnt signaling, has been examined in parathyroid tumors with conflicting results.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of stabilizing mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1, encoding beta-catenin, in a large series of parathyroid adenomas.
  • PATIENTS AND DESIGN: Ninety-seven sporadic parathyroid adenomas were examined for mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 by direct DNA sequencing.
  • RESULTS: No mutations were identified in any of the adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The absence of stabilizing mutations of beta-catenin, including the previously reported S37A, encoded in CTNNB1 exon 3 among 97 tumors suggests that such mutations contribute rarely if at all to the development of sporadic parathyroid adenomas.
  • A primary role for abnormal Wnt signaling in parathyroid tumor formation remains to be established.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Exons. Mutation. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Apr;92(4):1235-6 [17409343.001]
  • (PMID = 17284619.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / 5T32-DE07302
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / beta Catenin
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62. Krysiak R, Okopień B: [Parathyroid carcinoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2007 Aug;23(134):145-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Parathyroid carcinoma].
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine tumour accounting for only about one of every hundred cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Most patients with parathyroid carcinoma suffer from symptoms related to marked hypercalcemia; the incidence of associated renal, bone, gastrointestinal, neuromuscular and psychological symptoms is much more frequent than in those with benign parathyroid adenomas.
  • The course of patients with parathyroid carcinoma is variable.
  • The treatment of parathyroid malignancy is predominantly surgical, comprising an initial en bloc resection of the tumour and adjacent neck structures.
  • The aim of this paper is to summarise the present state of knowledge on the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hypercalcemia / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / complications. Neoplasm Metastasis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / secretion. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Prognosis. Radionuclide Imaging. Rare Diseases. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18044348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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63. Varoglu AO, Aksoy A, Varoglu E: Parathyroid adenoma presenting as tetraparesia. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2010;31(4):451-3
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  • [Title] Parathyroid adenoma presenting as tetraparesia.
  • OBJECTIVE: Parathyroid adenomas (PA) are benign tumors.
  • We report an unusual case of delayed diagnosis of a PA and concomitant Vitamin D deficiency presenting as tetraparesia.
  • RESULTS: Laboratory investigations showed the following: creatinine phosphokinase (CK): 37 IU/L (15-130), calcium (Ca): 11.5 mg/dL (9-11), phosphorus (P): 1.5 mg/dL (2.5-5), parathyroid hormone (PTH): 736.1 pq/mL (15-65), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHvit D): 4 ng/mL (11-43), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP): 1029.5 lU (64-300).
  • Parathyroid scintigraphy revealed PA.
  • CONCLUSION: We suggest that the physicians always keep in mind the primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and concomitant Vitamin D deficiency in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia when facing atypical neurological symptoms such as tetraparesia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Quadriplegia / etiology. Vitamin D Deficiency / complications

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  • (PMID = 20802446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
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64. Bal A, Sachdeva MU, Joshi K, Behera A, Arora S, Gupta S: Non-functioning mediastinal parathyroid adenoma with sarcoid-like granulomatous lymphadenopathy. APMIS; 2007 Jun;115(6):784-8
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  • [Title] Non-functioning mediastinal parathyroid adenoma with sarcoid-like granulomatous lymphadenopathy.
  • Non-secretory parathyroid adenomas arising in an ectopic parathyroid gland are rare.
  • We report a case of non-functioning anterior mediastinal parathyroid adenoma associated with mediastinal lymphadenopathy caused by sarcoid-like granulamatous inflammation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / complications. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17550391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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65. Dreijerink KM, Varier RA, van Nuland R, Broekhuizen R, Valk GD, van der Wal JE, Lips CJ, Kummer JA, Timmers HT: Regulation of vitamin D receptor function in MEN1-related parathyroid adenomas. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Dec 10;313(1-2):1-8
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  • [Title] Regulation of vitamin D receptor function in MEN1-related parathyroid adenomas.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a heriditary syndrome characterised by the occurrence of parathyroid, gastroenteropancreatic and pituitary tumours.
  • By immunohistochemistry we found that global levels of H3K4me3 are not affected in MEN1-related parathyroid adenomas.
  • Messenger RNA levels of VDR target genes CYP24 and KLK6 were significantly lower in MEN1 parathyroid adenomas compared to normal tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Histones. Lysine / metabolism. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1. Parathyroid Neoplasms. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19729047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; K3Z4F929H6 / Lysine
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66. Imelda F, Bandar IN, Setiyohadi B, Suwondo P, Nasar IM, Darwito: Postural shortening due to primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma. Acta Med Indones; 2006 Apr-Jun;38(2):89-91
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  • [Title] Postural shortening due to primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma.
  • Osteoporosis can be primary or secondary.
  • Secondary osteoporosis is the result of an underlying disease such as an endocrine abnormality, and an example of such is primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism is based on the following biochemical examinations: parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, creatinine clearance, 24 hour urinary calcium, and another examination such as parathyroid gland scan.
  • The patient was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • We found high levels of parathyroid hormone and low levels of serum calcium caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Body Height / physiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / physiopathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16799210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
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67. Carlson D: Parathyroid pathology: hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1639-44

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid pathology: hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common cause of hypercalcemia in the outpatient setting.
  • Parathyroid adenomas are common, unlike other parathyroid tumors.
  • This review presents a brief summary of current updates in parathyroid pathology.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review parathyroid development and discuss issues in hyperparathyroidism and diagnosis of parathyroid lesions, including the application of immunohistochemistry and molecular biology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary hyperparathyroidism is most commonly seen with sporadic adenomas, followed by hyperplasia, multiple adenomas, and carcinoma.
  • Autosomal dominant familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes should be considered in the evaluation of patients with parathyroid lesions, particularly in association with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • While the incidence of parathyroid carcinoma is quite low, it is seen with a greater frequency in those patients with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome.
  • Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene HRPT2 can be identified in a large number of parathyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21043817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. von Breitenbuch P, Iesalnieks I, Piso P, Schlitt HJ, Agha A: [Primary hyperparathyroidism: clinical symptoms, diagnostic significance and localisation--a retrospective analysis]. Zentralbl Chir; 2007 Dec;132(6):497-503
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  • [Title] [Primary hyperparathyroidism: clinical symptoms, diagnostic significance and localisation--a retrospective analysis].
  • BACKGROUND: The primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is one of the most frequent metabolic diseases.
  • Moreover, the question of the best localisation-diagnostics and the most frequent localisation of the adenoma is not yet clarified.
  • New operation strategies and more cost-efficient strategies for diagnostic and therapy could be developed due to the clinically established electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for intraoperative monitoring of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH).
  • The best preoperative diagnostic procedure for localisation of the adenoma of the parathyroid gland, in non preoperated patients, seemed to be the combination of ultrasound and scintigraphy.
  • The most common localisation of the adenoma was caudal, on the left side.
  • Today, the combination of iPTH-monitoring and minimal invasive unilateral cervical exploration should be considered as standard in the surgery of the adrenal gland.
  • Due to our data we recommend an exploration of the left caudal parathyroid gland first if the localisation of the adenoma could not be clarified preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Electrodiagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Luminescent Measurements. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / surgery. Male. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Postoperative Complications / blood. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [ErratumIn] Zentralbl Chir. 2008 Feb;133(1):85. Pompiliu, P [corrected to Piso, P]
  • (PMID = 18098076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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69. Kim SC, Kim S, Inabnet WB, Krynyckyi BR, Machac J, Kim CK: Appearance of descended superior parathyroid adenoma on SPECT parathyroid imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Feb;32(2):90-3
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  • [Title] Appearance of descended superior parathyroid adenoma on SPECT parathyroid imaging.
  • An ectopic superior parathyroid adenoma (SPA) descends inferoposteriorly and can migrate to the posterior mediastinum.
  • It often appears on sestamibi planar parathyroid imaging as an inferior lesion, which can be misleading to inexperienced surgeons.
  • METHODS: Sestamibi SPECT imaging studies performed on 103 patients who had parathyroid adenomas with their origin and locations confirmed by surgery and histology were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Abnormal foci seen on the SPECT images were grouped as to location relative to the thyroid gland as superior (S), middle (M), and inferior (I).
  • Ten foci were at the M level, including 6 SPA and 4 inferior parathyroid adenomas (IPA).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 17242559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Kiverniti E, Kazi R, Rhys-Evans P, Nippah R: Airway obstruction due to giant non-parathyroid hormone-producing parathyroid adenoma. J Cancer Res Ther; 2008 Oct-Dec;4(4):197-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Airway obstruction due to giant non-parathyroid hormone-producing parathyroid adenoma.
  • Parathyroid gland tumors are unusual in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal tumors.
  • The eventual diagnosis on histology was parathyroid adenoma.
  • The patient had no clinical evidence of metabolic abnormalities and her pre- and postoperative calcium and postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were within normal limits.
  • This case poses the interesting question of whether identification of elevated PTH levels is an absolute prerequisite for diagnosing parathyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma. Adult. Airway Obstruction. Esophagus / metabolism. Female. Humans. Mediastinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Medical Oncology / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19052395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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71. Sugi O, Kimata N, Miwa N, Otsubo S, Nitta K, Akiba T: Successful cinacalcet treatment of refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism due to multiple lung parathyroid adenomas. NDT Plus; 2010 Feb;3(1):60-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful cinacalcet treatment of refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism due to multiple lung parathyroid adenomas.
  • We describe a 56-year-old woman who presented with end-stage renal disease due to pregnancy-induced hypertension and secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT).
  • However, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels increased gradually.
  • A third PTx was performed, but no pathological parathyroid tissue was found.

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  • (PMID = 25984040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4421561
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cinacalcet / ectopic parathyroid adenoma / haemodialysis / hyperparathyroidism
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72. Târcoveanu E, Niculescu D, Cotea E, Moldovanu R, Vasilescu A, Crumpei F, Zbranca E, Zugun F, Rusu V, Ferariu D: [Parathyroid glands involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2009 Apr-Jun;113(2):482-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Parathyroid glands involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia].
  • Parathyroid gland involvement is usually noted in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) type I and type II.
  • Parathyroid glands tumor associated with endocrine pancreatic tumor, as well as pituitary tumors is the typical pattern of MEN I.
  • The parathyroid gland is the most frequent abnormality in MEN I.
  • CASES REPORTS: We presented five cases with MEN I and parathyroid glands involvement.
  • In three cases with young ages (28-33 years old) and familial setting, the MEN I syndrome was "complete" (parathyroid adenoma, gastrinoma or insulinoma and pituitary adenoma--prolactinoma or GH-secreting tumors), and, in the other two cases, with 57 and 68 years old respectively, the MEN I syndrome was "incomplete" with parathyroid glands and pituitary gland involvement.
  • Unfortunately one patients died due to severe endocrine disorder.
  • During the necropsy, the pituitary adenoma has been diagnosed.
  • The imagistic and laboratory test diagnosed a tumor situated into the pancreatic body, and an parathyroid adenoma.
  • The resection of pancreatic tumor associated with resection of the parathyroid adenoma, in the same time, were performed.
  • The other two cases with "incomplete" MEN were older then the first patients, and were diagnosed with hyperparathyrodism and pituitary gland tumor.
  • The resection of parathyroid gland adenoma has been performed in both cases, with uneventful postoperative course.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The parathyroid glands involvement in MEN is common.
  • There are two kinds of MEN associated with parathyroid gland involvement: the "complete" form, especially in young patients, with diffuse involvement of the parathyroid glands, and the subtotal parathyroidy is the best choice, and the "incomplete" form, especially in elderly, with the involvement of a single parathyroid gland; in this way, the resection of the adenoma associated with biopsy from the other parathyroid gland is the best approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Gastrinoma / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatectomy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21495355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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73. Adda G, Scillitani A, Epaminonda P, Di Lembo S, Motta F, Cecconi P, Vecchi G, Arosio M, Chiodini I: Ultrasound-guided laser thermal ablation for parathyroid adenomas: analysis of three cases with a three-year follow-up. Horm Res; 2006;65(5):231-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasound-guided laser thermal ablation for parathyroid adenomas: analysis of three cases with a three-year follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) the therapeutical choice is surgery.
  • In patients with high surgical and anesthetic risks, ultrasound-guided laser ablation (LTA) of parathyroid adenoma has been reported to reduce parathyroid hormone (PTH) hypersecretion without relevant side effects.
  • We report our 3-year follow-up experience with LTA in 3 patients affected by pHPT due to a parathyroid tumor.
  • RESULTS: In the first patient who refused to undergo the second LTA session, calcium, PTH levels and parathyroid lesion volume showed a slight reduction, returning to baseline values in a month.
  • In the second patient, no modification of parathyroid lesion was obtained even if calcium levels temporarily normalized.
  • In the third patient, LTA led to normalization of calcium and PTH levels and to a 99% reduction of parathyroid volume.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Laser Coagulation. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcium / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • [CommentIn] Horm Res. 2006;66(2):94-5; author reply 95 [16735795.001]
  • (PMID = 16569933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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74. Schmidt M, Thoma N, Dietlein M, Moka D, Eschner W, Faust M, Schröder W, von Hülst-Schlabrendorff M, Ehses W, Schicha H: 99mTc-MIBI SPECT in primary hyperparathyroidism. Influence of concomitant vitamin D deficiency for visualization of parathyroid adenomas. Nuklearmedizin; 2008;47(1):1-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 99mTc-MIBI SPECT in primary hyperparathyroidism. Influence of concomitant vitamin D deficiency for visualization of parathyroid adenomas.
  • AIM of the study was to analyse the influence of a concomitant vitamin D deficiency on the results of (99m)Tc-MIBI studies in patients (pts) with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • CONCLUSION: The likelihood of a pathological (99m)Tc-MIBI study being obtained in pts with pHPT is dependent on the parathyroid hormone level.
  • However, a negative influence of a low vitamin D level on the scintigraphic detection rate of a parathyroid adenoma could not be proven which may be due to the low number of pts with vitamin D deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Vitamin D Deficiency / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Organ Size. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18278205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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75. Sitges-Serra A, Díaz-Aguirregoitia FJ, de la Quintana A, Gil-Sánchez J, Jimeno J, Prieto R, Sancho JJ: Weight difference between double parathyroid adenomas is the cause of false-positive IOPTH test after resection of the first lesion. World J Surg; 2010 Jun;34(6):1337-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Weight difference between double parathyroid adenomas is the cause of false-positive IOPTH test after resection of the first lesion.
  • BACKGROUND: Some patients with double parathyroid adenoma show a greater than 50% decline in intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) after resection of the first lesion.
  • The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that significant adenoma weight differences may explain this inappropriate decline of IOPTH.
  • Patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of double adenoma and no familial history of hyperparathyroidism were included.
  • Diagnosis of double adenoma was confirmed either preoperatively (double uptake), intraoperatively (bilateral exploration), or at reintervention.
  • After resection of the first lesion, IOPTH failed to decline in four patients and a second adenoma was removed.
  • These patients had the largest adenoma removed first (846 +/- 226 mg), and only two had normal PTH serum concentrations 10 min after resection.
  • The second adenoma was always smaller (284 +/- 177 mg; P = 0.02) and its resection either during the same operation (7 cases) or at reoperation (2 cases) led to normalization of IOPTH at 10 min in all cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of patients with double parathyroid adenoma show a false-positive decline of IOPTH after resection of the first adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20107797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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76. Sukumar MS, Komanapalli CB, Cohen JI: Minimally invasive management of the mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Laryngoscope; 2006 Mar;116(3):482-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimally invasive management of the mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • INTRODUCTION/METHODS: Traditional surgical management of mediastinal parathyroid adenomas has required mediastinal exploration via sternotomy or thoracotomy.
  • The availability of sternal retractor systems, the rapid parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay for intraoperative confirmation of cure, recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring technique and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) instrumentation have made this possible.
  • CONCLUSION: Transcervical approaches for resection of anterior mediastinal parathyroid adenomas are possible with the use of the Rultract Skyhook Retractor without the need for sternotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16540913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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77. Muthukrishnan J, Verma A, Modi KD, Kumaresan K, Jha S: Ectopic parathyroid adenoma--the hidden culprit. J Assoc Physicians India; 2007 Jul;55:515-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic parathyroid adenoma--the hidden culprit.
  • Primary Hyperparathyroidism is known to present with protean manifestations leading to misdiagnosis in the initial stages of the disease.
  • Inability to locate the adenoma in an ectopic parathyroid gland may further delay the diagnosis of these cases.
  • Aberrant migration during development may lead to intrathyroidal or other ectopic locations of parathyroid glands.
  • Similarity in cytological picture between thyroids and parathyroids may further complicate diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • We encountered three such cases with the parathyroid gland adenomas in ectopic locations in which pre-operative nuclear imaging played a major role.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17907504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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78. Bäcklund LM, Grandér D, Brandt L, Hall P, Ekbom A: Parathyroid adenoma and primary CNS tumors. Int J Cancer; 2005 Mar 1;113(6):866-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid adenoma and primary CNS tumors.
  • Hyperparathyroidism onset at a young age is one feature in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 and MEN type 2A cancer syndromes.
  • To determine if there is an association between parathyroid adenomas and CNS tumors, we used Swedish registry data to identify all individuals operated on for parathyroid adenomas between 1958-99 (n = 12,468).
  • There were 70 observed cases of a CNS tumor diagnosed after a parathyroid adenoma, to be compared to 35 expected (standard incidence ratio [SIR] = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-2.5).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / epidemiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Sweden / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15515018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Samander EH, Arnold A: Mutational analysis of the vitamin D receptor does not support its candidacy as a tumor suppressor gene in parathyroid adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Dec;91(12):5019-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mutational analysis of the vitamin D receptor does not support its candidacy as a tumor suppressor gene in parathyroid adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: The vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) is a compelling candidate tumor suppressor gene for parathyroid adenomas based on existing evidence of the vitamin D system's antiproliferative actions in parathyroid and other tissues, its reported inhibition of PTH gene transcription, and the decreased expression of VDR mRNA and VDR protein observed in parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Because demonstration of intragenic mutations is required to establish the authenticity and primary role in pathogenesis for any candidate tumor suppressor gene, we examined the VDR gene in parathyroid adenomas for the presence of such mutations and other loss-of-function abnormalities.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Genomic DNA samples from 37 sporadic parathyroid adenomas and matched normal control DNA from the same individuals were subjected to direct sequencing of the entire VDR coding region and all intron-exon boundaries.
  • CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of allelic loss within or near the VDR locus and no mutations within the splice junctions and coding regions of the VDR gene in 37 typical sporadic parathyroid adenomas.
  • Thus, VDR is most unlikely to commonly serve as a classical tumor suppressor gene in sporadic parathyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics. Receptors, Calcitriol / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mutation. Polymorphism, Genetic. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 17003089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol
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80. Massaro A, Cittadin S, Rampin L, Banti E, Rossi F, Pelizzo MR, Muzzio PC, Rubello D: Accurate planning of minimally invasive surgery of parathyroid adenomas by means of [(99m)Tc]MIBI SPECT. Minerva Endocrinol; 2007 Mar;32(1):9-16

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accurate planning of minimally invasive surgery of parathyroid adenomas by means of [(99m)Tc]MIBI SPECT.
  • AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical role or [(99m)Tc]MIBI SPECT in selecting primary hyperparathyroid (PHPT) patients for minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS).
  • METHODS: One hundred and forty-one consecutive PHPT patients were studied by a single-session [(99m)Tc]Percethnetate/[(99m)Tc]MIBI subtraction scintigraphy, followed by [(99m)Tc]MIBI SPECT in order to localize hyperfunctioning parathyroid adenoma (PA) and plan the surgical approach.
  • Intraoperative quick parathyroid hormone (QPTH) assay demonstrated a fall >50% in respect to the baseline value in all patients, confirming successful parathyroidectomy.
  • When comparing the parathyroid to background (P/B) ratio measured at planar and SPECT preoperative scintigraphy with that measured intraoperatively with the gamma probe, a significant linear correlation was found between the SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe measurements (r = 0.91; P <0.01) while no correlation was found with planar scintigraphic data.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the P/B ratio calculated by means of [(99m)Tc]MIBI SPECT is more accurate in predicting the intraoperative measurements with the intraoperative gamma probe.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroidectomy. Preoperative Care. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Surgery, Computer-Assisted. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Intraoperative Care. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 17353862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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81. Hamidi S, Hedayat A, Esfahanian F, Kamalian N: Distribution of solitary parathyroid adenoma over the parathyroid glands and its surgical management. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2007 Oct;17(10):619-21

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distribution of solitary parathyroid adenoma over the parathyroid glands and its surgical management.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the distribution of solitary parathyroid adenoma over the parathyroid glands in a group of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism Design: A case-series.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of surgery reports of 118 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism was performed.
  • All of the patients had solitary parathyroid adenoma and the anatomical location of each adenoma was clearly defined during operation.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of adenomas over the superior and inferior parathyroid glands showed a significant higher incidence of adenoma in the lower parathyroids (p < 0.001).
  • The right to left distribution of adenomas was not significant (p=0.4).
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism should be initiated from the lower parathyroid glands provided that pre-operative localization scans are not helpful.

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  • (PMID = 17999854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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82. Vijayakumar V, Anderson ME: Detection of ectopic parathyroid adenoma by early Tc-99m sestamibi imaging. Ann Nucl Med; 2005 Apr;19(2):157-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of ectopic parathyroid adenoma by early Tc-99m sestamibi imaging.
  • Localization of Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) by parathyroid adenomas (PA) is well known.
  • However, the washout of MIBI from ectopic parathyroid adenoma (EPA) in not well reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Choristoma / radionuclide imaging. Mediastinal Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 15909497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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83. Gurney TA, Orloff LA: Otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon-performed ultrasonography for parathyroid adenoma localization. Laryngoscope; 2008 Feb;118(2):243-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon-performed ultrasonography for parathyroid adenoma localization.
  • OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the efficacy of otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon-performed ultrasonography (US) for the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients evaluated by office-based US for the localization of surgery-proven parathyroid adenomas from October 2004 through February 2007.
  • The size range of adenomas detected as measured by US was 0.5 to 2.7 cm.
  • A total of 30 parathyroid adenomas were found.
  • US identified 90% of the parathyroid adenomas to the correct side, left or right.
  • In addition, US localized the parathyroid adenomas to the correct quadrant, superior or inferior, 83% of the time.
  • For comparison, sestamibi scans performed on the same patients localized the parathyroid adenoma to the correct side only 71% of the time and to the correct quadrant 61% of the time.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon-performed US can accurately identify the location of parathyroid adenomas and is a useful tool for preoperative planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Otolaryngology / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Preoperative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18090868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Singh N, Krishna BA: Role of radionuclide scintigraphy in the detection of parathyroid adenoma. Indian J Cancer; 2007 Jan-Mar;44(1):12-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of radionuclide scintigraphy in the detection of parathyroid adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Preoperative detection of parathyroid adenoma is a diagnostic challenge.
  • AIM: We undertook a study to assess the role of radionuclide scanning in suspected cases of parathyroid adenomas.
  • The parathyroid scan was performed using either of the two techniques - Dual isotope subtraction or Sestamibi washout technique.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that parathyroid scintigraphy is a reliable and sensitive technique in the preoperative detection of parathyroid adenomas and should be the first choice of imaging modality in suspicion of parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17401219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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85. Ruf J, Seehofer D, Denecke T, Stelter L, Rayes N, Felix R, Amthauer H: Impact of image fusion and attenuation correction by SPECT-CT on the scintigraphic detection of parathyroid adenomas. Nuklearmedizin; 2007;46(1):15-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of image fusion and attenuation correction by SPECT-CT on the scintigraphic detection of parathyroid adenomas.
  • AIM: In addition to planar parathyroid scintigraphy, SPECT and image fusion with CT/MR improve adenoma detection in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • However, as TB and image contrast is measurably improved after AC there is a potential to improve the sensitivity of parathyroid SPECT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / radiography. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17299650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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86. Kirov G, Boneva Zh, Protich M, Koleva N, Paskalev V, Iovchevski P, Lozev I, Liutskanov V: [Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma and ectopic parathyroid gland in thyroid nodule - report of two cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2007;(3):64-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma and ectopic parathyroid gland in thyroid nodule - report of two cases].
  • Ectopic locations of parathyroid adenomas are a rare condition and can cause difficulty in their diagnosis and surgical treatment.
  • We report two cases of intrathyroid parathyroid lesions.
  • In the first patient, preoperative localization studies suggested the possibility of a parathyroid adenoma outside the thyroid gland.
  • When a pathological gland is not found during surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism, an ectopic parathyroid gland was found in the thyroid tissue.
  • In the second patient, in an existing thyroid nodule was found an ectopic normal parathyroid gland postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma. Goiter, Nodular. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18437114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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87. Oliveira MA, Maeda SS, Dreyer P, Lobo A, Andrade VP, Hoff AO, Biscolla RP, Smanio P, Brandão CM, Vieira JG: [Importance of parathyroid SPECT and 99mTc scintigraphy, and of clinical, laboratorial, ultrasonographic and citologic correlation in the pre-operative localization of the parathyroid adenoma - pictorial assay]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Jun;54(4):352-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Importance of parathyroid SPECT and 99mTc scintigraphy, and of clinical, laboratorial, ultrasonographic and citologic correlation in the pre-operative localization of the parathyroid adenoma - pictorial assay].
  • [Transliterated title] Importância da complementação com SPECT e 99mTc na cintilografia das paratiroides e da correlação clínica, laboratorial, ultrassonográfica e citológica na localização pré-operatória do adenoma de paratiroide - ensaio pictórico.
  • OBJECTIVE: In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, candidates for surgical intervention, the parathyroid pre-operative localization is of fundamental importance in planning the appropriate surgical approach.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The additional acquisition of SPECT and Technetium-99m images, during parathyroid scintigraphy with Sestamibi, is not common practice.
  • RESULTS: In our experience, the complete protocol in parathyroid scintigraphy increases the accuracy of pre-operative parathyroid localization.
  • CONCLUSION: The complete utilization of all available nuclear medicine methods (SPECT e 99mTc) and image interpretation in a multidisciplinary context can improve the accuracy of parathyroid scintigraphy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / standards

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  • [CommentIn] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2010 Jun;54(4):343-4 [20625644.001]
  • (PMID = 20625646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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88. Fallone E, Bourne PA, Watson TJ, Ghossein RA, Travis WD, Xu H: Ectopic (mediastinal) parathyroid adenoma with prominent lymphocytic infiltration. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 Jan;17(1):82-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic (mediastinal) parathyroid adenoma with prominent lymphocytic infiltration.
  • Parathyroid adenoma with prominent lymphocytic infiltrates is very rare, with only 8 previously reported cases in the English scientific literature.
  • Cases with prominent lymphocytic infiltrates of ectopic (mediastinal) parathyroid adenomas have not been reported.
  • The prominent lymphocytic infiltration may make the diagnosis difficult on frozen sections, even on permanent histologic sections.
  • We herein describe a case of ectopic (mediastinal) parathyroid adenoma with prominent lymphocytic infiltration in a 29-year-old man with hyperparathyroidism for 4 years.
  • Immunohistochemical studies were important in making such a diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19115487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Akin H, Gunluoglu Z, Kara V, Melek H, Dincer I: Mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenoma: report of two cases successfully treated by VATS approach. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2008 Feb;56(1):60-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenoma: report of two cases successfully treated by VATS approach.
  • Ectopic parathyroid adenomas are the cause of approximately one in four cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • Most ectopic parathyroid adenomas are located adjacent to the upper thymus gland and can be resected with a collar incision.
  • In rare cases, however, adenomas located in the chest require a transsternalor transthoracic approach.
  • We present two cases with primary hyperparathyroidism due to mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenoma that were successfully treated by VATS approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 18200473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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90. Mydlarz WK, Zhang K, Micchelli ST, Kim M, Tufano RP: Ipsilateral double parathyroid adenoma and thyroid hemiagenesis. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2010;72(5):272-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ipsilateral double parathyroid adenoma and thyroid hemiagenesis.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe a case of left thyroid dysgenesis, accompanied by ipsilateral double parathyroid adenomas in a setting of primary hyperparathyroidism, and to review the pertinent literature on the diagnosis of these rare clinical scenarios.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsies of what was thought to be two concerning thyroid nodules revealed potential double intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas.
  • Video-assisted exploration verified double parathyroid adenomas and revealed concomitant left thyroid lobe dysgenesis.
  • Intact parathyroid hormone level returned to normal and a greater than 50% drop from baseline was achieved intraoperatively with subsequent long-term cure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid dysgenesis is a rare, poorly understood and potentially confusing variety of developmental anomalies, which can be associated with thyroid as well as parathyroid disease.
  • Clinical diagnosis is highly dependent upon the clinician maintaining an index of suspicion for these anomalies, thorough physical examination and careful review of available imaging modalities, especially while investigating thyroid and parathyroid disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Dysgenesis / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 20733341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0275
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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91. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Helou E, Mansour E, Tohme C, Noun R, Sarkis R: Existence and anatomic distribution of double parathyroid adenoma. Laryngoscope; 2005 Jun;115(6):1128-31

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Existence and anatomic distribution of double parathyroid adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Double parathyroid adenomas occur in 2% to 15% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases, but the very existence of double adenomas has been controversial.
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical significance and anatomic distribution of parathyroid double adenomas.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Mono-institutional retrospective study of the medical records of 183 unselected consecutive patients who underwent intervention for primary hyperparathyroidism between 1996 and 2003.
  • RESULTS: A total of 14 (7.65%) patients were found to have double parathyroid adenomas.
  • Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were measured in every case.
  • Two enlarged parathyroid glands were identified in four possible configurations: two both superior, one both inferior, two both right, three both left, two right superior and left inferior, and three left superior and right inferior.
  • There was a preferential crossed bilateral distribution of double adenomas.
  • In all patients, intraoperative PTH levels dropped by at least 50% from baseline after removal of both abnormal parathyroid glands.
  • CONCLUSION: The drop in intraoperative PTH levels and maintenance of normocalcemia postoperatively confirm previous reports that double adenomas do exist and are not simply missed cases of four-gland hyperplasia.
  • There was a preferential crossed bilateral distribution of double adenomas in this series.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15933536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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92. Akinci B, Demir T, Yener S, Comlekci A, Binicier O, Ozdogan O, Sevinc A, Kocdor MA, Bayraktar F, Canda T, Yesil S: Beneficial effect of endocrinologist-performed ultrasonography on preoperative parathyroid adenoma localization. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):17-23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Beneficial effect of endocrinologist-performed ultrasonography on preoperative parathyroid adenoma localization.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether endocrinologist-performed ultrasonography improves the localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a single adenoma who underwent surgery at the Dokuz Eylul University Hospital in Izmir, Turkey, between January 2000 and January 2008.
  • Data regarding the localization of adenomas were obtained from surgical reports.
  • Parathyroid ultrasonography was performed by a staff radiologist between January 2000 and December 2004.
  • Beginning January 2005, parathyroid ultrasonography was performed blindly by an endocrinologist in addition to the staff radiologist.
  • RESULTS: A total of 156 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a single adenoma were included.
  • Ultrasonography localized 102 parathyroid adenomas (65%).
  • Endocrinologist-performed ultrasonography localized the adenoma correctly in 19 patients for whom the staff radiologist had reported a negative or unsuccessful localization.
  • When ultrasonography results were combined with the MIBI scan findings, parathyroid adenomas were again more likely to be localized in patients who underwent operation after January 2005 and thus had endocrinologist-performed ultrasonography.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that endocrinologist-performed ultrasonography improves the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Clinical Competence. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / standards

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  • [ErratumIn] Endocr Pract. 2009 Nov-Dec;15(7):768. Secil, Mustafa [removed]
  • (PMID = 19211392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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93. Yang ZQ, Zhu LW, Wang PZ: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of 48 cases of parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2006 Aug;28(8):625-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of 48 cases of parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience in diagnosis and surgical treatment of parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma (PTA and PTC) in our department.
  • Among the 48 cases, 46 cases were of parathyroid adenoma and 2 cases of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Serum calcium and PTH assays are both reliable methods for the diagnosis of PTA and PTC.
  • A combination of ultrasonography and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy is sufficient for locating adenomas.
  • Accompanied by intraoperative pathological examination, unilateral neck exploration is an acceptable approach for patients with definitely preoperative confirmed adenoma localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Calcium / blood. Echocardiography, Doppler, Color. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypocalcemia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17236561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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94. Tcherveniakov P, Menon A, Milton R, Papagiannopoulos K, Lansdown M, Thorpe JA: Video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) for surgical resection of ectopic parathyroid adenoma. J Cardiothorac Surg; 2007;2:41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) for surgical resection of ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia account for up to 25% of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT).
  • We present our experience with the novel use of Video-Assisted Mediastinoscopy (VAM) for resection of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid glands.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: 4 patients underwent VAM for removal of an ectopic intramediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • All of them had at least one previous unsuccessful neck exploration.In all cases histology confirmed complete resection of ectopic parathyroid glands (3 parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid hyperplasia).
  • CONCLUSION: The cervical approach for resection of ectopic parathyroid adenomas is frequently unsuccessful.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Choristoma / surgery. Mediastinoscopy / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery

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  • [Cites] Ann Thorac Surg. 2000 Jan;69(1):221-3 [10654517.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Thorac Surg. 2001 Feb;71(2):699-701 [11235732.001]
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  • (PMID = 17937802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-8090
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cardiothoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2146999
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95. Karvounaris DC, Symeonidis N, Triantafyllou A, Flaris N, Sakadamis A: Ectopic parathyroid adenoma located inside the hypoglossal nerve. Head Neck; 2010 Sep;32(9):1273-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic parathyroid adenoma located inside the hypoglossal nerve.
  • BACKGROUND: Intraneural parathyroid adenomas are extremely rare, with only 9 cases of intravagal adenomas reported.
  • We report the first case of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma located within the hypoglossal nerve.
  • Preoperative investigation with neck ultrasound and MRI did not provide a definitive diagnosis, whereas sestamibi scan showed slightly increased radiotracer accumulation in the same area.
  • Histopathology confirmed the presence of a parathyroid adenoma inside the trunk of a nerve.
  • CONCLUSION: This unique case emphasizes the variability of parathyroid anatomy and the difficulties faced by the surgeon when treating this disease process.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Hypoglossal Nerve / pathology. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19691113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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96. Hadar T, Shvero J, Yaniv E, Ram E, Shvili I, Koren R: Expression of p53, Ki-67 and Bcl-2 in parathyroid adenoma and residual normal tissue. Pathol Oncol Res; 2005;11(1):45-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of p53, Ki-67 and Bcl-2 in parathyroid adenoma and residual normal tissue.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of Ki-67, bcl-2 and p53 in parathyroid adenomas and their residual rim of normal parathyroid tissue.
  • Specimens from 26 parathyroid adenomas were studied by immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67, bcl-2 and p53 expression.
  • Positive findings were noted for p53 in 4 (15%) adenomas and none of the residual rims of normal parathyroid tissue (p = 0.055); for Ki-67 in 15 (56%) adenomas and none of the residual rims of normal parathyroid tissue (p = 0.00002); and for bcl-2 in 19 (73%) adenomas and 8 (31%) residual rims of normal parathyroid tissue (p < 0.01).
  • The high rate of Ki-67 expression may indicate susceptibility of parathyroid adenomas to clonal proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15800682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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97. Calbo L, Campennì A, Calbo E, Catalfamo A, Sciglitano P, Niceta M, Borzì R, Lizio R, Gorgone S: [Hyperparathyroidism from mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Case report]. G Chir; 2008 Jun-Jul;29(6-7):295-8

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  • [Title] [Hyperparathyroidism from mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Iperparatiroidismo da adenoma paratiroideo a localizzazione mediastinica. Caso clinico.
  • The authors, after reviewing parathyroid gland diseases, their location, and the modern strategies that can be used for their pre-operative detection, describe a case of primary hyperparathyroidism which recently came to their attention.
  • The use of a combination of instrumental techniques (US, scintigraphy and SPEcT) enabled them to establish, prior to surgery, the mediastinal ectopic site of the parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroidectomy. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18544269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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98. Rubello D, Fig LM, Casara D, Piotto A, Boni G, Pelizzo MR, Shapiro B, Sandrucci S, Gross MD, Mariani G, Italian Study Group on Radiguided Surgery and Immunoscintigraphy (GISCRIS): Radioguided surgery of parathyroid adenomas and recurrent thyroid cancer using the "low sestamibi dose" protocol. Cancer Biother Radiopharm; 2006 Jun;21(3):194-205
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radioguided surgery of parathyroid adenomas and recurrent thyroid cancer using the "low sestamibi dose" protocol.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish the clinical efficacy of the "low sestamibi dose" (LSD) protocol to perform thyroid and parathyroid radioguided surgery in a large series of patients homogeneously studied and operated on by the same surgeon.
  • The LSD protocol was initially developed in our center to cure primary hyperparathyroid (PHPT) patients with a high likelihood of a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA) by minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS).
  • MIRS was successfully performed by a 1.5-2-cm skin incision in 287 of 298 PHPT patients (96.3%) in whom such an approach was scheduled on the basis of preoperative imaging, including 41 of 57 patients (71.9%) who had previously received thyroid or unsuccessful parathyroid surgery in another center.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2006 Jun;21(3):175-80 [16918293.001]
  • (PMID = 16918295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1084-9785
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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99. Ahmad S, Jielani AA, Khan K, Fatima T, Zia N, ud Duha M, Samad A, Memon K: Dual phase MIBI scintigraphy in diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma followed by ultrasound guided percutaneous alcoholic ablation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2008 Jul-Sep;20(3):149-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dual phase MIBI scintigraphy in diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma followed by ultrasound guided percutaneous alcoholic ablation.
  • Primary Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is an inappropriate hyper secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH).
  • Primary HPT is caused by parathyroid adenoma in 80-85% of patients.
  • Ultrasonography is widely used in suspected cases for localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • There is considerable intra-observer variation and it is difficult for ultrasound alone to differentiate parathyroid lesion form that of thyroid.
  • Dual phase Tc-99m MIBI scinitigraphy for detection of parathyroid adenomas has sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 82% to 100% and from 89% to 100%, respectively.
  • Percutaneous ethanol injection for parathyroid glands can be applied effectively in selected cases when surgery is unadvisable either for technical reasons (e.g., recurrence ofhyperplastic glands in the neck after subtotal surgery or intrathyroideal parathyroid tumors or the poor clinical state of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / therapy. Catheter Ablation / methods. Ethanol / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19610543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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100. Lee LS, Canter RJ, Fraker DL: Intraoperative jugular venous sampling AIDS detection of an undescended parathyroid adenoma. World J Surg; 2006 Apr;30(4):620-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative jugular venous sampling AIDS detection of an undescended parathyroid adenoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: A missed parathyroid adenoma is an important cause of persistent or recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Despite the widespread use of preoperative localizing tests and the advent of the rapid intact blood parathyroid hormone assay (iPTH), difficult operative cases are encountered when abnormal parathyroid glands cannot be identified.
  • METHODS: Over a 5-year period, 466 neck explorations were performed for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • This retrospective report describes the use of intraoperative jugular venous sampling to locate and remove successfully undescended parathyroid adenomas in three patients.
  • RESULTS: Intraoperative jugular venous sampling for iPTH analysis was performed when a thorough neck exploration in combination with peripheral iPTH failed to reveal a source of hyperparathyroidism in patients with biochemically confirmed hyperparathyroidism.
  • In all patients, a two- to fourfold iPTH gradient was observed between the affected and unaffected sides, and an undescended adenoma was located near the carotid bifurcation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative jugular venous sampling with iPTH analysis may be a useful technique for successfully detecting an undescended adenoma when other, more routine measures have failed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Jugular Veins. Parathyroid Glands / abnormalities. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 16555025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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