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1. Ferru A, Fromont G, Gibelin H, Guilhot J, Savagner F, Tourani JM, Kraimps JL, Larsen CJ, Karayan-Tapon L: The status of CDKN2A alpha (p16INK4A) and beta (p14ARF) transcripts in thyroid tumour progression. Br J Cancer; 2006 Dec 18;95(12):1670-7
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  • We used real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to assess both transcripts and proteins levels in 60 tumours specimens.
  • Overexpression of p14ARF and pl6INK4A was observed in follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas and papillary carcinomas, while downregulation was found in oncocytic adenomas compared to nontumoral paired thyroid tissues.
  • These deregulations were statistically significant for pl6INK4a (P=0.006) in follicular adenomas and close to statistical significance for p14ARF in follicular adenomas (P=0.06) and in papillary carcinomas (P=0.05).
  • Our data are consistent with involvement of CDKN2A transcript upregulation in thyroid follicular tumorigenesis as an early event.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17117177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360765
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2. Sapio MR, Posca D, Troncone G, Pettinato G, Palombini L, Rossi G, Fenzi G, Vitale M: Detection of BRAF mutation in thyroid papillary carcinomas by mutant allele-specific PCR amplification (MASA). Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Feb;154(2):341-8
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  • However, its prevalence is varyingly reported in different studies, and its expression in the follicular variant PTC is controversial, reducing its potential usefulness as diagnostic marker.
  • Then, we used MASA 78 to analyze 78 archival thyroid tissues, including normal samples, follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas and PTC.
  • BRAF mutation was found by MASA in 19/43 (44.2%) of PTC, including 14/31 (45.2%) classic forms and 5/12 (41.7%) follicular variants.
  • No mutations of BRAF were detected in the normal thyroid tissues, nor in follicular adenomas or follicular carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BRAF(V600E) is present in PTC, both in the classic form and in follicular variant with similar prevalence.

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  • (PMID = 16452550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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3. Harsh M, Dimri P, Nagarkar NM: Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Jul-Sep;52(3):377-8
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  • [Title] Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland.
  • Follicular adenomas of the thyroid may be subjected to degenerative changes like hemorrhagic and cystic changes, fibrosis, and calcification.
  • We describe a case of follicular adenoma with histologically proven osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with EMH in a middle- aged woman, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in English language literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary. Ossification, Heterotopic. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19679966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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4. Giorgadze TA, Baloch ZW, Pasha T, Zhang PJ, Livolsi VA: Lymphatic and blood vessel density in the follicular patterned lesions of thyroid. Mod Pathol; 2005 Nov;18(11):1424-31
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  • [Title] Lymphatic and blood vessel density in the follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.
  • The histologic distinction of follicular patterned lesions of thyroid, that is follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma can be extremely difficult.
  • Although papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasizes mainly via lymphatic vessels, whereas follicular carcinoma spreads mostly hematogenously, there are no data regarding utility of objective quantitative criteria such as lymphatic and general blood vessel density for the differential diagnosis of these lesions.
  • In this study, 35 follicular patterned lesions of thyroid (14 follicular adenomas, 10 follicular carcinomas, and 11 of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas) were evaluated immunohistochemically.
  • There were no significant differences in the intra- and/or peritumoral general vessel densities, and peritumoral lymphatic vessel densities among follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In contrast, the intratumoral lymphatic vessel density was significantly higher in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma than in either follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma (34.63, 15.04, and 0.11 respectively; P<0.0001).
  • The results of the study show that intratumoral lymphatic vessel density may serve as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD31. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [Copyright] Modern Pathology (2005) 18, 1424-1431. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800452; published online 27 May 2005.
  • (PMID = 15920537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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5. Bukhari U, Sadiq S, Kehar SI: Differential expression of CK 19 in follicular adenoma, well-differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. J Pak Med Assoc; 2009 Jan;59(1):15-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of CK 19 in follicular adenoma, well-differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To see the expression of cytokeratin 19, a proven helpful marker for the differential diagnosis of neoplastic follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.
  • On the basis of the recent recommendations by Chemobyl Pathologists Group, encapsulated follicular patterned lesions with questionable nuclear changes were categorized as well - differentiated tumours of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP).
  • Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues of follicular adenoma, WDT-UMP and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma were obtained for CK 19 immunostaining.
  • RESULTS: All (16) cases of follicular adenoma were negative for CK19.
  • There were 43 cases of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma with 4+ CK 19 positivity, 14 were 3+ positive and 3 were 2+ positive.
  • CONCLUSION: CK19 is a good and useful diagnostic marker for differential diagnosis of follicular adenoma, WDT-UMP and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. Keratin-19

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  • (PMID = 19213370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-19
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6. Mansoor I, Zalles C, Zahid F, Gossage K, Levenson RM, Rimm DL: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular adenoma versus parathyroid adenoma: the utility of multispectral imaging in differentiating lesions with subtle cytomorphologic differences. Cancer; 2008 Feb 25;114(1):22-6
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular adenoma versus parathyroid adenoma: the utility of multispectral imaging in differentiating lesions with subtle cytomorphologic differences.
  • Herein, the authors used fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of follicular adenoma (FA) and parathyroid adenoma (PA) as a test case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 18085636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R44 CA0088684
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Ganguly R, Mitra S, Datta AK: Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):337-9

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  • [Title] Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland.
  • Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis.
  • Accordingly, anaplastic carcinomas have been seen to coincide with simultaneous papillary and follicular cancers.
  • We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years.
  • The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma.
  • The common follicular cell origin will explain the concurrent presence of all these cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):434-5 [21623130.001]
  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):414-5; author reply 415 [21623114.001]
  • (PMID = 20551551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Poloz TL, Shkurupiy VA: Potentialities of differential immunohistochemical diagnosis of some follicular tumors of the thyroid gland. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2008 Dec;146(6):794-6
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  • [Title] Potentialities of differential immunohistochemical diagnosis of some follicular tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • Differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular adenomas, follicular cancer, and papillary cancer with follicular structure was carried out.
  • Significant differences between all the studied tumors of the thyroid grand with follicular structure were detected.

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  • (PMID = 19513386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-8221
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng; rus
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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9. Arnaldi LA, Borra RC, Maciel RM, Cerutti JM: Gene expression profiles reveal that DCN, DIO1, and DIO2 are underexpressed in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Thyroid; 2005 Mar;15(3):210-21
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  • DCN was found underexpressed in a high percentage of the follicular thyroid adenomas, follicular thyroid carcinomas, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Primers. Decorin. Extracellular Matrix Proteins. Female. Humans. Isoenzymes / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Open Reading Frames. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15785240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DCN protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Decorin; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Proteoglycans; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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10. Carling T, Udelsman R: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):583-7
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend.
  • Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid are usually diagnosed following fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of a dominant thyroid nodule.
  • An FNA diagnosis of a follicular neoplasm represents a heterogeneous group of lesions including benign follicular hyperplasia, follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Because the criteria for malignancy in both follicular and Hürthle cell neoplasms requires vascular or capsular invasion seen on permanent histology, the majority of these patients undergo surgical resection.
  • Intraoperative frozen section analysis of follicular neoplasms rarely renders informative information.
  • Postoperative treatment generally includes therapeutic doses of 131I for follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16029125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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11. Di Loreto C, Tell G, Pestrin M, Pandolfi M, Damante G, Puglisi F: PTEN and Egr-1 expression in thyroid proliferative lesions. Cancer Lett; 2005 Jun 16;224(1):105-9
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  • It was similar in nodular hyperplasia, adenoma and papillary carcinoma.
  • Follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma presented a significant decrease in the percentage of positive cells (P=0.027 and P=0.004).
  • Adenomas, follicular carcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas showed a significant decrease of nuclear positivity (P=0.001; P=0.001 and P=0.004, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Immediate-Early Proteins / biosynthesis. Immediate-Early Proteins / genetics. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / biosynthesis. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / physiopathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15911105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / EGR1 protein, human; 0 / Early Growth Response Protein 1; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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12. Chuang TC, Chuang AY, Poeta L, Koch WM, Califano JA, Tufano RP: Detectable BRAF mutation in serum DNA samples from patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas. Head Neck; 2010 Feb;32(2):229-34
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  • RESULTS.: The BRAF mutation was absent in tumor DNA samples obtained from patients with benign adenomas, follicular neoplasms or carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / blood. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19626635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / 1R01DE015939-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA96784
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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13. Nakamura N, Erickson LA, Jin L, Kajita S, Zhang H, Qian X, Rumilla K, Lloyd RV: Immunohistochemical separation of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):213-23
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical separation of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • These analyses showed that several antibodies were useful in distinguishing follicular adenomas from follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas including HBME-1, CITED1, galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, and S100A4 (p < 0.0001).
  • A combination of markers consisting of a panel of HBME-1, galectin-3, and CK19 or a panel of HBME-1, CITED1, and galectin-3 was usually most effective in distinguishing follicular adenoma from follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • These results indicate that some individual antibodies or a panel of antibodies combined with histopathological analysis can be useful in separating follicular adenoma (FA) from follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17308358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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14. Haghpanah V, Shooshtarizadeh P, Heshmat R, Larijani B, Tavangar SM: Immunohistochemical analysis of survivin expression in thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Dec;14(4):422-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of survivin expression in thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • This retrospective study of thyroid histologic samples aimed to assess the clinical usefulness of survivin immunostaining for discrimination between follicular adenoma and carcinoma of thyroid.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for survivin was performed on 41 lesions from patients who had undergone surgery for either follicular adenoma or carcinoma of thyroid.
  • Survivin expression was significantly (P < 0.005) higher in the cases that received a diagnosis of carcinoma in comparison with follicular adenomas cases.
  • Odds ratio of follicular carcinoma for survivin expression was 21.375 (95% CI: 3.283 to 139.177).
  • Our results showed potential value of survivin in discrimination between follicular thyroid adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 17122639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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15. Savin S, Cvejic D, Isic T, Paunovic I, Tatic S, Havelka M: The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Exp Oncol; 2006 Mar;28(1):70-4
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  • [Title] The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • We have evaluated immunohistochemical assay of TPO for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sections of formalin-fixed tissues obtained from 92 patients with thyroid tumors (52 follicular carcinomas and 40 follicular adenomas including the Hurthle cell type) were analyzed using a monoclonal antibody (TPO mAb 47) and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique.
  • Lesions with staining of more than 80% of the follicular cells/specimen were considered benign, while less than 80% were considered malignant.
  • RESULTS: TPO immunostaining correlated with the histopathological diagnosis in 24/40 cases of follicular adenomas and 41/52 cases of follicular carcinomas, giving a specificity of 60% and a sensitivity of 79%.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that immunohistochemical assay of TPO expression has limited value for the differential diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma from thyroid follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16614712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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16. Tajiri J: [Approach to thyroid incidentaloma and follicular adenoma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2099-105
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  • [Title] [Approach to thyroid incidentaloma and follicular adenoma].
  • Secondly, I describe the differential diagnosis of follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma that we should call the last fort of thyroid medical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / therapy. Incidental Findings. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18018577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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17. Nelson KK, Gattuso P, Xu X, Prinz RA: Expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway molecules in synchronous follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in predicting malignancy. Surgery; 2010 Oct;148(4):654-60; discussion 660
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  • [Title] Expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway molecules in synchronous follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in predicting malignancy.
  • This study determines whether 3 molecules, Patched, Smoothened, and Sonic Hedgehog, involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway are overexpressed equally in synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients with synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent thyroidectomy.
  • Patched expression was detected in 5 of 13 (38%) follicular adenomas and 5 of 12 (42%) papillary carcinomas.
  • Smoothened was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 3 of 13 (23%) papillary carcinomas.
  • Sonic Hedgehog was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 11 of 13 (85%) papillary carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of the 3 molecules involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway was similar in follicular thyroid adenoma, but Sonic Hedgehog expression was a more sensitive indicator of malignancy in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Hedgehog Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20797751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / SHH protein, human
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18. Othman NH, Omar E, Mahmood MH, Madhavan M: RET and p53 expression in thyroid follicular adenoma: a study of 52 cases with 14 years follow-up. Malays J Pathol; 2005 Dec;27(2):91-8
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  • [Title] RET and p53 expression in thyroid follicular adenoma: a study of 52 cases with 14 years follow-up.
  • We investigated the role of RET and p53 protein expressions using immunohistochemistry on 52 cases of thyroid follicular adenomas and studied the follow-up records of these patients.
  • 3 had recurrent goitre, 2 of these were diagnosed as colloid goitre while the third was a follicular lesion.
  • In conclusion, unlike papillary carcinoma in which the roles of ret and p53 oncogenes are known, their roles in influencing the behaviour of follicular adenoma has not been ascertained.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17191391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0126-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / TRIM27 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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19. Ferenc T, Lewiński A, Lange D, Niewiadomska H, Sygut J, Sporny S, Jarzab B, Satacińska-Los E, Kulig A, Włoch J: Analysis of cyclin D1 and retinoblastoma protein immunoreactivity in follicular thyroid tumors. Pol J Pathol; 2005;56(1):27-35
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  • [Title] Analysis of cyclin D1 and retinoblastoma protein immunoreactivity in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • In this study we analyzed, using immunohistochemical methods, the expression of cyclin D1 and Rb proteins in material from medical archives (12 cases of follicular thyroid carcinoma, 57 cases of follicular adenoma and 17 nodular goiter cases).
  • A positive nuclear reaction for cyclin D1 was observed in 83.3% (10/12) of the follicular carcinomas, in 96.5% (55/57) of the follicular adenomas and in 23.5% (4/17) of nodular goiters.
  • Overexpression of cyclin Dl (more than 50% of positively staining cells) was noted in 25% (3/12) of the follicular carcinomas and in 22.8% (13/57) of the follicular adenomas.
  • The number of carcinoma cases with cyclin D1 overexpression did not differ statistically in any significant way from the follicular adenoma group (p = 1.000).
  • A positive nuclear reaction for Rb protein was noted in 100% of the follicular carcinomas (12/12), in 96.5% of the follicular adenomas (55/57) and in 47.1% of the cases (8/17) of nodular goiter.
  • Rb protein overexpression (more than 50% of positively staining cells) was found in 83.3% (10/12) of the follicular carcinomas, in 68.4% (39/57) of the follicular adenomas and in 11.8% (2/17) of the nodular goiters.
  • The number of cases with Rb protein overexpression in the follicular carcinoma group did not differ significantly from that in the follicular adenoma group (p = 0.486).
  • In the follicular carcinoma group, that correlation was borderline (Rp = 0.437; p = 0.072) and, in the follicular adenoma group, it was statistically insignificant (Rs = 0.217; p = 0.105).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15921011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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20. Tabriz HM, Adabi Kh, Lashkari A, Heshmat R, Haghpanah V, Larijani B, Tavangar SM: Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 protein expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma and follicular neoplasm. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):83-7
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 protein expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma and follicular neoplasm.
  • INTRODUCTION: We aimed at assessing the significance of nm23 gene expression in papillary and follicular carcinomas, the two most common differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a cross-sectional study, 173 paraffin blocks, including 131 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 12 follicular carcinomas and 30 follicular adenomas were stained with nm23 marker by immunohistochemistry method.
  • RESULTS: nm23 was positive in 40% of the follicular adenoma, 67.2% of the papillary carcinoma and 66.7% of the follicular carcinoma. p value was more than 0.05 in the assessment of the relationship between nm23 and all of the above-mentioned parameters in differentiated thyroid carcinomas. nm23 expression did not significantly differentiate between follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • Also, nm23 cannot be considered as a useful marker for the evaluation of invasion in differentiated thyroid carcinomas or in distinctions between follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18996649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases; EC 2.7.4.6 / NME1 protein, human
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21. Kim WJ, Souillard R, Brandwein MS, Lawson W, Som PM: Follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst with papillary carcinoma in the adjacent thyroid gland. Am J Otolaryngol; 2005 Sep-Oct;26(5):348-50
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  • [Title] Follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst with papillary carcinoma in the adjacent thyroid gland.
  • After correlation with the computed tomography, the diagnosis was revised to a papillary thyroid carcinoma plus a follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroglossal Cyst / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16137536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Moon WJ, Kwag HJ, Na DG: Are there any specific ultrasound findings of nodular hyperplasia ("leave me alone" lesion) to differentiate it from follicular adenoma? Acta Radiol; 2009 May;50(4):383-8
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  • [Title] Are there any specific ultrasound findings of nodular hyperplasia ("leave me alone" lesion) to differentiate it from follicular adenoma?
  • BACKGROUND: Among benign thyroid nodules, nodular hyperplasia (NH) is the most common and represents a "leave me alone" lesion with no requirement for further treatment, while follicular adenoma (FA) is a lesion that should potentially be removed due to the difficulty of differentiation from a carcinoma on a biopsy alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19241229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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23. Westhoff CC, Hoffmann S, Barth PJ: Clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid--a challenge in intra-operative diagnostics. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Jan;118(1):19-21
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  • [Title] Clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid--a challenge in intra-operative diagnostics.
  • We report the case of a 61-year-old man with a clear cell adenoma of the thyroid.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology rendered the primary diagnosis of a follicular neoplasia, and right thyroid lobectomy was performed.
  • Based on the light microscopic findings and the immunohistochemical profile, the lesion was diagnosed as clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid.
  • A follicular thyroid lesion presenting with clear cell changes in fine needle aspiration cytology or intra-operative frozen section consultation constitutes a diagnostic challenge to every surgical pathologist.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 19235130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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24. Haynik DM, Prayson RA: Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Jun;129(6):736-41
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • However, limited data exist on the role of COX-2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • DESIGN: A retrospective clinicopathologic review with COX-2 immunohistochemical staining of 34 follicular carcinomas and 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration was performed.
  • Seven patients with follicular carcinomas developed recurrent disease: 3 patients were alive (mean follow-up, 10.1 years) and 4 patients died of metastatic disease (mean follow-up, 3.5 years).
  • Only 1 follicular adenoma with incomplete capsular penetration recurred (patient alive at 9 years).
  • The COX-2 staining was positive in 11 tumors (9 of 34 follicular carcinomas, 2 of 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration).
  • CONCLUSION: Only a few follicular carcinomas (26%) and follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration (29%) express COX-2 by immunohistochemical analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005 Dec;129(12):1522-3; author reply 1523 [16329720.001]
  • (PMID = 15913419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
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25. Fadare O, Parkash V, Fiedler PN, Mayerson AB, Asiyanbola B: Tumor-to-tumor metastasis to a thyroid follicular adenoma as the initial presentation of a colonic adenocarcinoma. Pathol Int; 2005 Sep;55(9):574-9
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  • [Title] Tumor-to-tumor metastasis to a thyroid follicular adenoma as the initial presentation of a colonic adenocarcinoma.
  • Herein is described the case of a 59-year-old woman whose thyroid nodule (a follicular adenoma) was resected and found to contain foci of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with a morphologic and immunohistochemical profile consistent with origination from the lower gastrointestinal tract.
  • In general, strikingly divergent morphologic features in an otherwise typical thyroid neoplasm should elicit a differential diagnosis that takes into consideration the possibility of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16143033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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26. Cho Mar K, Eimoto T, Nagaya S, Tateyama H: Cell proliferation marker MCM2, but not Ki67, is helpful for distinguishing between minimally invasive follicular carcinoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid. Histopathology; 2006 Jun;48(7):801-7
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  • [Title] Cell proliferation marker MCM2, but not Ki67, is helpful for distinguishing between minimally invasive follicular carcinoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid.
  • AIMS: To compare cell proliferation markers, minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) and Ki67, in minimally invasive follicular carcinoma (MIFC) and follicular adenoma (FA) of the thyroid and among MIFCs with different diagnostic criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16722928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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27. Yüksel M, Eziddin S, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ: 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Sep;25(5):316-9
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  • [Title] 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy.
  • Normal thyroid tissue and thyroid disorders, such as cancers, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and adenomas often show increased uptake of 111In-pentetreotide resulting in a possible false positive interpretation in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Adding a 48h planar image might contribute to the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant lesions, as in the present case where the uptake decreased in an adenoma after 48 hours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Indium Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17173778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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28. Stolf BS, Santos MM, Simao DF, Diaz JP, Cristo EB, Hirata R Jr, Curado MP, Neves EJ, Kowalski LP, Carvalho AF: Class distinction between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland on the basis of their signature expression. Cancer; 2006 May 1;106(9):1891-900
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  • [Title] Class distinction between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland on the basis of their signature expression.
  • The majority of these nodules are benign, corresponding to goiters or adenomas, and only a small fraction corresponds to carcinomas.
  • Among thyroid tumors, the diagnosis of follicular adenocarcinomas by preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a major challenge, because it requires inspection of the entire capsule to differentiate it from adenoma.
  • METHODS: Using data from gene expression analysis, the authors applied Fisher linear discriminant analysis and searched for expression signatures of individual samples of adenomas and follicular carcinomas that could be used as molecular classifiers for the precise classification of malignant and nonmalignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenoma / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 16565969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kakudo K, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: HBME-1 expression in follicular tumor of the thyroid: an investigation of whether it can be used as a marker to diagnose follicular carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1A):179-82
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  • [Title] HBME-1 expression in follicular tumor of the thyroid: an investigation of whether it can be used as a marker to diagnose follicular carcinoma.
  • In this study, we investigated whether it has a diagnostic value for discriminating follicular carcinoma from adenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated HBME-1 expression in 138 follicular carcinomas, 155 follicular adenomas, 98 adenomatous nodules and 37 papillary carcinomas, using anti-HBME-1 monoclonal antibody.
  • RESULTS: HBME-1 was positive in 60.9% of follicular carcinoma and the incidence was significantly higher (p<0.0001) than that of follicular adenoma, 30.3%.
  • In adenomatous nodules, only 17.3% were classified as positive, which was lower even than that of follicular adenoma (p=0.0257).
  • We calculated the positive predictive value of HBME-1 in discriminating follicular carcinoma from adenoma as 64.2%.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, although HBME-1 contributes to the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma, it could not be applied in the preoperative diagnosis of follicular carcinoma, for example, using fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15816536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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30. Nucera C, Mazzon E, Caillou B, Violi MA, Moleti M, Priolo C, Sturniolo G, Puzzolo D, Cavallari V, Trimarchi F, Vermiglio F: Human galectin-3 immunoexpression in thyroid follicular adenomas with cell atypia. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Feb;28(2):106-12
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  • [Title] Human galectin-3 immunoexpression in thyroid follicular adenomas with cell atypia.
  • Hgal-3 immunoperoxidase reaction was carried out on 133 thyroid tissue samples obtained from 113 patients; 20 of these were normal (NT), 85 were benign thyroid lesions [20 colloid nodules (CN), 21 nodular hyperplasias (NH), 7 focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT), 15 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), 22 follicular adenomas (FA)], 25 differentiated carcinomas [15 papillary carcinomas (PC), 6 follicular carcinomas (FC) and 4 Hürthle cell carcinomas (HC)] and 3 anaplastic carcinomas (AC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Adenoma / pathology. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15887854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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31. Castro P, Eknaes M, Teixeira MR, Danielsen HE, Soares P, Lothe RA, Sobrinho-Simões M: Adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid display two major patterns of chromosomal changes. J Pathol; 2005 Jul;206(3):305-11
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  • [Title] Adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid display two major patterns of chromosomal changes.
  • It was recently shown by flow and static cytometry that a large sub-group of follicular adenomas of the thyroid--fetal/embryonal adenomas--display an aneuploid phenotype.
  • It was also shown that thyroid lesions with a DNA content within the triploid range were either fetal adenomas or follicular carcinomas with a fetal adenoma growth pattern.
  • Follicular tumours with growth patterns other than the so-called fetal adenoma-like pattern were usually diploid or near-diploid.
  • In an attempt to clarify the pattern of chromosomal imbalances in follicular tumours, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was performed in a series of 18 follicular neoplasms (ten fetal/embryonal and four common follicular adenomas and four minimally invasive follicular carcinomas).
  • With the exception of the single diploid fetal adenoma, all fetal adenomas displayed several DNA copy number changes, with frequent gains of several chromosomes, which were found to be either tetrasomic or trisomic by FISH.
  • This genetic pattern was also present in the single case of follicular carcinoma with aneuploidy and fetal adenoma-like growth pattern.
  • Follicular adenomas other than fetal adenomas, and the remaining follicular carcinomas, showed more losses than gains of chromosomes.
  • These results suggest that follicular tumourigenesis may follow at least two pathways: one characterized by prominent aneuploidy and numerous gains, in which the tumours display a fetal adenoma-like growth pattern; and another accompanied by less obvious aneuploidy or even quasi-diploidy and dominant chromosome losses, in which the tumours display a common follicular architecture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15852498.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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32. Zablotska LB, Bogdanova TI, Ron E, Epstein OV, Robbins J, Likhtarev IA, Hatch M, Markov VV, Bouville AC, Olijnyk VA, McConnell RJ, Shpak VM, Brenner A, Terekhova GN, Greenebaum E, Tereshchenko VP, Fink DJ, Brill AB, Zamotayeva GA, Masnyk IJ, Howe GR, Tronko MD: A cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases after the Chornobyl accident: dose-response analysis of thyroid follicular adenomas detected during first screening in Ukraine (1998-2000). Am J Epidemiol; 2008 Feb 1;167(3):305-12
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  • [Title] A cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases after the Chornobyl accident: dose-response analysis of thyroid follicular adenomas detected during first screening in Ukraine (1998-2000).
  • To investigate the risk of follicular adenoma in relation to radiation dose after Chornobyl, the authors analyzed the baseline data from a prospective screening cohort study of those exposed as children or adolescents.
  • In conclusion, persons exposed to radioactive iodines as children and adolescents have an increased risk of follicular adenoma, though it is smaller than the risk of thyroid cancer in the same cohort.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology


33. Patel MR, Bryson PC, Shores CG, Hart CF, Thorne LB, Deal AM, Zanation AM: Trefoil factor 3 immunohistochemical characterization of follicular thyroid lesions from tissue microarray. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Jun;135(6):590-6
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  • [Title] Trefoil factor 3 immunohistochemical characterization of follicular thyroid lesions from tissue microarray.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) expression in normal thyroid tissue samples compared with that in follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays.
  • DESIGN: Immunohistochemical analysis of 83 normal thyroid tissue and of 83 follicular neoplasms (26 follicular adenomas, 25 follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 9 papillary thyroid carcinomas) was performed using an antibody to TFF3 on tissue microarray sections composed of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples.
  • Data were analyzed for semiquantitative differences in immunohistochemical intensity of antibody staining and in percentage of cells stained among normal thyroid tissue samples, follicular adenoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Semiquantitative analysis demonstrated that immunohistochemistry detects significant levels of TFF3 expression in normal thyroid tissue samples compared with that in follicular lesions based on intensity of antibody staining (P < .05).
  • Only follicular thyroid carcinoma demonstrated a significant reduction in percentage of cells stained compared with that in normal thyroid tissue samples (P = .03).
  • No significant differences in intensity of antibody staining or in the percentage of cells stained were noted among follicular adenoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, or papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Protein expression data validate gene expression findings that follicular neoplastic lesions have decreased expression of TFF3 compared with that in normal thyroid tissue samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism. Protein Array Analysis. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19528408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 0 / TFF3 protein, human
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34. Yeager N, Klein-Szanto A, Kimura S, Di Cristofano A: Pten loss in the mouse thyroid causes goiter and follicular adenomas: insights into thyroid function and Cowden disease pathogenesis. Cancer Res; 2007 Feb 1;67(3):959-66
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  • [Title] Pten loss in the mouse thyroid causes goiter and follicular adenomas: insights into thyroid function and Cowden disease pathogenesis.
  • Cowden Disease patients, who harbor germ-line PTEN mutations, often display thyroid abnormalities, including multinodular goiter and follicular adenomas, and are at increased risk of thyroid cancer.
  • Although complete loss of Pten was not sufficient to cause invasive tumors, over two thirds of the mutant females developed follicular adenomas by 10 months of age, showing that loss of Pten renders the thyroid highly susceptible to neoplastic transformation through mechanisms that include increased thyrocyte proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Goiter / genetics. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


35. Hosokawa Y, Yamada Y, Iwamoto R, Kurokawa R, Ihara A, Yamamoto K, Sakaguchi K, Nakatsuka S, Minami Y, Matsuzawa Y: Thyroid follicular adenoma producing parathyroid hormone-related protein with a normal serum calcium level. Intern Med; 2009;48(22):1957-61
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular adenoma producing parathyroid hormone-related protein with a normal serum calcium level.
  • Histological examination showed that the resected tumors were thyroid follicular adenomas, while immunohistochemistry revealed positive staining with a monoclonal antibody for PTHrP.
  • This is a rare case of thyroid follicular adenoma producing PTHrP in a patient with a normal serum calcium level despite elevation of plasma PTHrP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Calcium / blood. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / secretion. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19915296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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36. Zhao J, Leonard C, Gemsenjäger E, Heitz PU, Moch H, Odermatt B: Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling. Oncol Rep; 2008 Feb;19(2):329-37
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  • [Title] Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling.
  • It is difficult to distinguish benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors by histological or cytological examination.
  • The goal of this study was to reveal gene expression variations between benign and malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • We investigated gene expression profiles from 24 follicular thyroid tumors (12 carcinomas and 12 adenomas) and 13 normal thyroid tissues using high-density human cDNA arrays.
  • Expression patterns of a set of known genes were found to be significantly different between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas.
  • Our results demonstrate a potential use of gene expression profiling for differentiating benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • A detailed investigation of the differentially expressed genes could give new insights into molecular pathways of malignant transformation of thyroid follicular neoplasm and may help to develop a molecular tool for the preoperative differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Gene Expression Profiling. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18202778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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37. Hinsch N, Frank M, Döring C, Vorländer C, Hansmann ML: QPRT: a potential marker for follicular thyroid carcinoma including minimal invasive variant; a gene expression, RNA and immunohistochemical study. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] QPRT: a potential marker for follicular thyroid carcinoma including minimal invasive variant; a gene expression, RNA and immunohistochemical study.
  • BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis between follicular thyroid adenoma and minimal invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma is often difficult for several reasons.
  • METHODS: We performed global gene expression analysis of 12 follicular thyroid tumours (4 follicular adenomas, 4 minimal invasive follicular carcinomas and 4 widely invasive follicular carcinomas), followed by immunohistochemical staining of 149 cases.
  • The specificity of the antibody was validated by western blot analysis RESULTS: In gene expression analysis QPRT was detected as differently expressed between follicular thyroid adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • QPRT protein could be detected by immunohistochemistry in 65% of follicular thyroid carcinomas including minimal invasive variant and only 22% of follicular adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Consequently, QPRT is a potential new marker for the immunohistochemical screening of follicular thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Pentosyltransferases / genetics. Pentosyltransferases / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cluster Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19321014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE15045
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.4.2.- / Pentosyltransferases; EC 2.4.2.19 / nicotinate-nucleotide diphosphorylase (carboxylating)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2667537
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38. Lee HM, Baek SK, Kwon SY, Jung KY, Chae SW, Hwang SJ, Woo JS, Lee JY: Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 expressions in the human thyroid gland. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Mar;263(3):199-204
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  • We investigated the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in normal thyroid tissue, follicular adenoma and well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas and evaluated the difference in COX-1 and COX-2 expression.
  • Ten normal thyroid tissues, ten follicular adenomas, ten papillary carcinomas and ten follicular carcinomas were analyzed by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for expression of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA.
  • Expression of COX-1 mRNA in the normal thyroid tissues, follicular adenomas and both well-differentiated carcinomas was similar and weak.
  • However, COX-2 mRNA was strongly expressed in the well-differentiated carcinomas compared to those of normal thyroid tissue and follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Messenger. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16362262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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39. Bryson PC, Shores CG, Hart C, Thorne L, Patel MR, Richey L, Farag A, Zanation AM: Immunohistochemical distinction of follicular thyroid adenomas and follicular carcinomas. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Jun;134(6):581-6
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical distinction of follicular thyroid adenomas and follicular carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: To use immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation of proteins encoded by genes that were differentially expressed in follicular thyroid adenomas (FAs) vs follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) to distinguish benign vs malignant follicular thyroid lesions.
  • Multiple gene microarray studies suggest that benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms have different gene expression profiles.
  • DESIGN: Immunohistochemical analysis of thyroid neoplasms, including FA (n = 62), FTC (n = 62), and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (n = 58), using tissue microarrays.
  • We analyzed data for quantitative differences in IHC intensity and the percentage of positive cells between FAs and combined follicular carcinomas.
  • PATIENTS: Adults with known follicular and papillary thyroid lesions that were surgically resected during the past 15 years.
  • Future studies should focus on clinical translation of these molecular differences for the diagnosis of follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis


40. Maeda I, Yamada H, Takano T, Nishihara E, Ito Y, Matsuzuka F, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Yoshida H, Miyauchi A, Hidaka Y: Increased expression levels of tensin3 mRNA in thyroid functional adenomas as compared to non-functioning adenomas. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Apr;117(4):191-3
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  • [Title] Increased expression levels of tensin3 mRNA in thyroid functional adenomas as compared to non-functioning adenomas.
  • In fact, the expression level of tensin3 mRNA was low in most thyroid carcinomas and non-functioning thyroid follicular adenomas which do not produce thyroid hormone.
  • In the present study, we measured the expression levels of tensin3 mRNA in twelve functional adenomas and compared the results with those in normal thyroid tissues, adenomatous goiters and non-functioning thyroid follicular adenomas.
  • Tensin3 mRNA was expressed abundantly in all twelve functional adenomas at almost the same level as in normal thyroid tissues and adenomatous goiters, while its expression was significantly lower in non-functioning follicular adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Microfilament Proteins / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18561090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 0 / tensins
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41. Buergy D, Weber T, Maurer GD, Mudduluru G, Medved F, Leupold JH, Brauckhoff M, Post S, Dralle H, Allgayer H: Urokinase receptor, MMP-1 and MMP-9 are markers to differentiate prognosis, adenoma and carcinoma in thyroid malignancies. Int J Cancer; 2009 Aug 15;125(4):894-901
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  • [Title] Urokinase receptor, MMP-1 and MMP-9 are markers to differentiate prognosis, adenoma and carcinoma in thyroid malignancies.
  • The identification of high-risk patients with thyroid cancer and the preoperative differentiation between follicular adenoma and carcinoma remain clinically challenging.
  • Tumor/normal tissue was collected from 69 prospectively followed patients with thyroid carcinomas (papillary, medullary, follicular and anaplastic, PTC, MTC, FTC and ATC) or follicular adenomas.
  • Carcinomas except MTC expressed significantly more u-PAR/MMPs than adenomas/normal tissues, this being associated with advanced pT- or M-stages.
  • MMP-1 and MMP-9 were significantly higher in follicular carcinomas than in adenomas.
  • Poor survival in differentiated tumors was associated in trend (p = 0.07); poor survival of all patients (p = 0.043) and especially of patients with carcinomas of follicular origin (including ATC), but not medullary carcinomas, were significantly associated with high u-PAR-protein (p = 0.015).
  • This is the first study to suggest MMP-1/-9 as significant differentiation markers between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Luciferases. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19480010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 3.4.24.23 / MMP7 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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42. Hu MJ, Xu HD, Zhou R, Li XF, Zhang HY: [Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 3p in thyroid tumors]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 May;37(5):305-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: LOH at 11 microsatellite loci was analyzed in 74 cases of thyroid tumors (including 20 follicular adenomas, 24 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 30 papillary thyroid carcinomas) by polymerase chain reaction and silver stain.
  • RESULTS: LOH on chromosome 3p was detected in 71% of follicular thyroid carcinoma (17/24), 30% of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (9/30) and 10% of the follicular adenoma (2/20) case.
  • Two minimal common deleted regions (CDR) (3p26-pter and 3p14.2-3p22) involving significant sites of LOH has identified in follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LOH is more frequently identified in follicular thyroid carcinoma than in papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular adenoma.
  • The 3 CDR on chromosome 3p may harbor tumor suppressor genes involved in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adult. Aged. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18956647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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43. Yasuda M, Ogane N, Hayashi H, Kameda Y, Miyagi Y, Iida T, Mori Y, Tsukinoki K, Minematsu T, Osamura Y: Glucose transporter-1 expression in the thyroid gland: clinicopathological significance for papillary carcinoma. Oncol Rep; 2005 Dec;14(6):1499-504

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expression was immunohistochemically analysed in a total of 268 cases of thyroid gland disease, including 129 cases of papillary carcinoma (PC), 60 cases of follicular carcinoma (FC), 57 cases of follicular adenoma, and 22 cases of adenomatous goitre.
  • GLUT-1 expression was observed in 5% (3/60) of FC cases, but all follicular adenomas and adenomatous goitres were negative for GLUT-1 (PC vs. FC, p<0.0001).
  • Semi-quantitative analysis of glut-1 mRNA by RT-PCR showed a tendency toward higher expression in PCs compared to FCs, follicular adenomas and adenomatous goitres, and the mRNA expression in PCs with a membrane-like pattern was higher than those showing cytoplasm-predominance.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16273245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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44. Ball E, Bond J, Franc B, Demicco C, Wynford-Thomas D: An immunohistochemical study of p16(INK4a) expression in multistep thyroid tumourigenesis. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Jan;43(1):194-201
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  • Normal human thyroid follicular epithelial cells exhibit a very low proliferative rate which in vitro is dramatically increased by RAS oncogene activation, resulting in clones displaying a phenotype consistent with that of a ras-induced follicular adenoma in vivo.
  • We therefore hypothesised that p16 expression would also increase in vivo in follicular adenomas, and further that escape from growth control in follicular cancers would be accompanied by loss of p16 expression.
  • Whereas the majority of normal thyroids showed no immunostaining, p16 protein was readily detectable in follicular adenomas.
  • Unexpectedly, however, p16 expression was also observed in follicular and papillary carcinomas.
  • We conclude that loss of p16 is not necessary for malignant transformation in thyroid follicular cells, but that it may form one of two or more events needed for progression to more aggressive forms of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17046239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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45. Granados-García M, Cortés-Flores AO, del Carmen González-Ramírez I, Cano-Valdez AM, Flores-Hernández L, Aguilar-Ponce JL: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation. Cir Cir; 2010 Nov-Dec;78(6):473-8
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is useful for initial evaluation; nevertheless, malignancy is uncertain when follicular neoplasm is reported.
  • Therefore, we analyzed our follicular neoplasms in order to identify those factors associated with a higher risk of malignancy.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the clinical files of consecutive patients with cytological diagnoses of follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: From 1,005 cases of thyroid nodules, 121 were follicular neoplasms according to cytology.
  • Benign cases included 29 goiters, 11 follicular adenomas, and 5 cases of thyroiditis.
  • Malignant cases were comprised of 12 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas-follicular variant, 1 lymphoma, 1 teratoma, 5 medullary carcinomas, 2 insular carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21214982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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46. Bogdańska M, Górnicka B, Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska B, Koperski L, Morton M, Wasiutyński A: [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):314-9
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  • [Title] [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms].
  • INTRODUCTION: Estimation of malignancy in thyroid follicular neoplasms is a common diagnostic problem, thus revealing of differences in expression of some antigens in both benign and malignant lesions seems to be essential.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 in follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples of 38 follicular adenomas (23 "classical", 5 with intracapsular invasion, 10 oncocytic) and 15 follicular carcinomas (9 "classic", 6 oncocytic) were stained immunohistochemically with anti-CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1.
  • RESULTS: In the whole group we found statistically significant differences in CD15 expression between follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • "Classic" follicular carcinomas (without oncocytic tumors) showed stronger CD15 and HBME- 1 expression than "classic" adenomas.
  • Adenomas with intracapsular invasion differed from "classic" adenomas only in HBME-1 expression.
  • In the group of nonoxyphilic tumors positive reaction with HBME-1 was more common in adenomas with intracapsular invasion and carcinomas, but positive reaction with anti-CD15--only in carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17006830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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47. Lubitz CC, Gallagher LA, Finley DJ, Zhu B, Fahey TJ 3rd: Molecular analysis of minimally invasive follicular carcinomas by gene profiling. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1042-8; discussion 1048-9
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  • [Title] Molecular analysis of minimally invasive follicular carcinomas by gene profiling.
  • BACKGROUND: While the majority of minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma (MIFTC) behave like follicular adenomas, some recur or metastasize.
  • METHODS: Microarray analysis was performed on 27 follicular neoplasms.
  • Thirteen follicular adenomas (FAs) were compared with 7 widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinomas (WIFTCs) to generate a list of differentially expressed genes.
  • The MIFTCs were then compared directly against both the adenoma and WIFTC groups to investigate genetic relatedness.
  • Six of 7 of the MIFTCs were grouped with the adenomas, 4 of which created their own subgroup.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Molecular profiling illustrates that the majority of MIFTCs comprise a subclass of follicular neoplasms, and, while most MIFTCs are genetically similar to adenomas, our patient data suggest that these tumors may deserve greater suspicion of malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16360389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Fryknäs M, Wickenberg-Bolin U, Göransson H, Gustafsson MG, Foukakis T, Lee JJ, Landegren U, Höög A, Larsson C, Grimelius L, Wallin G, Pettersson U, Isaksson A: Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(4):211-20
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  • [Title] Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify molecular markers useful for the diagnostic discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • The study included tumor tissue specimens from 10 patients with benign follicular adenomas and from 10 with malignant tumors.
  • The malignant tumors mainly consisted of clinically relevant minimally invasive follicular carcinomas.
  • FHL1 was significantly underexpressed in carcinomas compared to adenomas in the independent panel of tumors.
  • The results indicate that a small number of genes can be useful to distinguish follicular adenomas from follicular carcinomas.
  • These genes have the potential for molecular classification of follicular thyroid tumors and for providing improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Genetic Markers. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. DNA Primers. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16675914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Genetic Markers
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49. Went PT, Sauter G, Oberholzer M, Bubendorf L: Abundant expression of AMACR in many distinct tumour types. Pathology; 2006 Oct;38(5):426-32

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AMACR expression was equally frequent in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas.
  • In the thyroid, AMACR expression was found in 42% of the follicular carcinomas but in only 16% of follicular adenomas.
  • However, a more detailed analysis on a thyroid tissue microarray did not confirm a significant difference of AMACR expression in follicular adenoma and carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 17008281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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50. Seo HS, Lee DH, Park SH, Min HS, Na DG: Thyroid follicular neoplasms: can sonography distinguish between adenomas and carcinomas? J Clin Ultrasound; 2009 Nov-Dec;37(9):493-500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid follicular neoplasms: can sonography distinguish between adenomas and carcinomas?
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether sonography (US) can usefully differentiate thyroid follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular carcinoma (FC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19746451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0096
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Zhang XW, Li Y, Wang ZL, Li P: Glucocorticoid receptor subunit gene expression in thyroid gland and adenomas. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(8):1073-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Glucocorticoid receptor subunit gene expression in thyroid gland and adenomas.
  • Ten normal thyroid gland and 14 follicular adenomas were studied using a real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR (FQ-RT-PCR) method.
  • The results demonstrated that there was a lower expression of GR-alpha mRNA (x10(6) GR-alpha cDNA copies/microg total RNA) in thyroid adenoma (1.27+/-0.26) than that in normal thyroid gland (3.53+/-1.22) (p < 0.001).
  • Of note, there was a significant difference in GR-beta mRNA expression (x10(4) GR-beta cDNA copies/microg total RNA) between thyroid adenoma (80.8+/-13.9) and thyroid gland (1.78+/-0.59) (p < 0.001).
  • The GR-alpha/GR-beta ratios in thyroid adenoma and normal thyroid gland were 1.67+/-0.68 and 207.57+/-84.41 respectively (p < 0.001).
  • These results revealed, for the first time, that both GR-alpha and GR-beta mRNA expression were detectable in both thyroid gland and adenomas tissues.
  • We therefore conclude that down-regulation of GR-alpha and up-regulation of GR-beta mRNA expression may play an important role in the thyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17118842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 0 / glucocorticoid receptor alpha; 0 / glucocorticoid receptor beta
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52. Parameswaran R, Brooks S, Sadler GP: Molecular pathogenesis of follicular cell derived thyroid cancers. Int J Surg; 2010;8(3):186-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular pathogenesis of follicular cell derived thyroid cancers.
  • This results in the formation of differentiated thyroid cancers like the papillary, follicular or Hurthle cell cancers.
  • Based on this theory, follicular carcinomas are generated from follicular adenomas and papillary carcinomas from precursor cells generated from thyrocytes.
  • Anaplastic carcinoma may develop from papillary or follicular carcinoma by dedifferentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / physiopathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20097316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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53. Abrosimov AIu, Dvinskikh NIu: [Morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle nodule biopsy]. Arkh Patol; 2010 Sep-Oct;72(5):39-42
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  • (a) there was total necrosis (2 cases of follicular tumor and papillary cancer from oxyphilic cells according to the data of a preoperative cytological study);.
  • (b) there were signs that mimicked those of invasive tumor growth in the proper fibrous capsules (2 cases of follicular adenomas);.
  • (c) there was abundant formation of fibrous tissue in the center of follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Preoperative Period. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21313768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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54. Castro P, Soares P, Gusmão L, Seruca R, Sobrinho-Simões M: H-RAS 81 polymorphism is significantly associated with aneuploidy in follicular tumors of the thyroid. Oncogene; 2006 Aug 3;25(33):4620-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] H-RAS 81 polymorphism is significantly associated with aneuploidy in follicular tumors of the thyroid.
  • Follicular thyroid tumors are often aneuploid.
  • In order to investigate the relationship between RAS mutational status and ploidy in thyroid tumors, we analysed RAS genes in a series of 99 follicular lesions (14 nodular goiters, 70 follicular adenomas and 15 follicular carcinomas), eight thyroid carcinoma cell lines and a control group of 102 blood donors, correlating the presence of RAS mutations with the ploidy of the tumors and evaluating the two spliced forms of H-RAS.
  • Overall, 20% of the follicular tumors harbored RAS mutations and 62% of the patients with follicular tumors (and 51% of blood donors) harbored the H-RAS 81T --> C polymorphism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Genes, ras. Polymorphism, Genetic. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16532025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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55. Haynik DM, Prayson RA: Immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-x, and Bax in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Dec;14(4):417-21
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-x, and Bax in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • There is limited data on the expression of these proteins in follicular carcinomas (FCs) of the thyroid.
  • A retrospective clinicopathologic review with bcl-2, bcl-x, and bax immunostaining of 34 FCs and 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration (FAICP) was performed.
  • The majority of follicular neoplasms were positive for bax and negative for bcl-2 by immunohistochemistry.

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  • (PMID = 17122638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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56. Maciel RM, Kimura ET, Cerutti JM: [Pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer (papillary and follicular)]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):691-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer (papillary and follicular)].
  • [Transliterated title] Patogênese dos tumores diferenciados da tiróide (papilífero e folicular).
  • Differentiated thyroid cancers (papillary--PTC and follicular--FTC) are the most common endocrine malignancies.
  • A chromosomal translocation between the transcription factor PAX8 and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma (PPARgamma) occurs in 30-50% of patients; however, the presence of PAX8-PPARgamma is also demonstrated in follicular adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Gene Rearrangement / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


57. Delbridge L: Solitary thyroid nodule: current management. ANZ J Surg; 2006 May;76(5):381-6
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  • Because it is not possible to distinguish a follicular carcinoma from a follicular adenoma on cytological grounds alone, this category must simply be interpreted as indicating a follicular tumour and up to 20% will be malignant.
  • Hemithyroidectomy via a 'collar' incision, with submission of the specimen to formal pathological examination, remains the standard of care, with completion total thyroidectomy for cancers other than low risk papillary cancer and 'minimally invasive' follicular cancer without vascular invasion.
  • The issue of whether follicular adenomas can potentially develop into follicular carcinomas has yet to be satisfactorily resolved.

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  • (PMID = 16768700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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58. Kameyama K, Ito K, Takami H: [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1973-8
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  • True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells.
  • Follicular adenoma is well-circumscribed, with no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion.
  • The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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59. Raggio E, Camandona M, Solerio D, Martino P, Franchello A, Orlandi F, Gasparri G: The diagnostic accuracy of the immunocytochemical markers in the pre-operative evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jun;33(6):378-81
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  • [Title] The diagnostic accuracy of the immunocytochemical markers in the pre-operative evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions.
  • Aim of the study was to consider the diagnostic accuracy of galectine-3 (GAL3) in the pre-operative cytological evaluation of follicular lesions.
  • Based on preoperative cytological reports, 40 patients had pre-operative malignant results, and 60 patients (46 females and 14 males) showed follicular lesions.
  • Even comparing the GAL3 positivity between the follicular adenomas (0 GAL3+ out of 20) and the group of follicular carcinomas (5 GAL3+ out of 6), we found a statistically significant difference (p<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the data from our experience, the patients with a cytological diagnosis of GAL3 positive follicular neoformation should be referred for surgery without any further immunocytological testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Keratin-19 / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19625759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19
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60. Wang W, Ozolek JA, Rohde GK: Detection and classification of thyroid follicular lesions based on nuclear structure from histopathology images. Cytometry A; 2010 May;77(5):485-94
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  • [Title] Detection and classification of thyroid follicular lesions based on nuclear structure from histopathology images.
  • Follicular lesions of the thyroid are traditionally difficult and tedious challenges in diagnostic surgical pathology in part due to lack of obvious discriminatory cytological and microarchitectural features.
  • We describe a computerized method to detect and classify follicular adenoma of the thyroid, follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, and normal thyroid based on the nuclear chromatin distribution from digital images of tissue obtained by routine histological methods.
  • We conclude that nuclear structure alone contains enough information to automatically classify the normal thyroid, follicular carcinoma, and follicular adenoma, as long as groups of nuclei (instead of individual ones) are used.
  • We also conclude that the distribution of nuclear size and chromatin concentration (how tightly packed it is) seem to be discriminating features between nuclei of follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and normal thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / classification. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20099247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4930
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R21 GM088816; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R21 GM088816-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS203309; NLM/ PMC3010854
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61. Ito Y, Arai K, Nozawa R, Yoshida H, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: S100A10 expression in thyroid neoplasms originating from the follicular epithelium: contribution to the aggressive characteristic of anaplastic carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4C):2679-83
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  • [Title] S100A10 expression in thyroid neoplasms originating from the follicular epithelium: contribution to the aggressive characteristic of anaplastic carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: S10A10 and annexin II were not expressed in normal follicular cells or any follicular adenomas.
  • Cells stained positively in 14.6% and 20.8% of follicular carcinomas for S100A10 and annexin II, respectively, but their expression levels were always low.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Epithelium / metabolism. Epithelium / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17695432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A2; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100 calcium binding protein A10
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62. Baek SK, Woo JS, Kwon SY, Lee SH, Chae YS, Jung KY: Prognostic significance of the MUC1 and MUC4 expressions in thyroid papillary carcinoma. Laryngoscope; 2007 May;117(5):911-6
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  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the expressions of mucin genes MUC1 and MUC4 and to evaluate the difference of their expressions in normal thyroid tissue, follicular adenoma, and papillary carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We performed semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for determining the MUC1 and MUC4 mRNA expressions, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the MUC1 and MUC4 protein expressions in 22 normal thyroid tissues, 22 follicular adenomas, and 15 papillary carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 17473695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC4 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-4; 0 / Mucins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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63. Mihai R, Parker AJ, Roskell D, Sadler GP: One in four patients with follicular thyroid cytology (THY3) has a thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Jan;19(1):33-7
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  • [Title] One in four patients with follicular thyroid cytology (THY3) has a thyroid carcinoma.
  • When cytology suggests a follicular neoplasm (THY3), only formal histological assessment can differentiate between benign and malignant lesions.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the factors predictive of malignancy in thyroid nodules when cytological assessment is restricted to euthyroid patients living in an area without endemic goiter who undergo routine diagnostic lobectomy once the FNA raises the suspicion of a follicular neoplasm.
  • Histology demonstrated thyroid carcinomas in 57 patients (31 follicular carcinomas, 11 Hurthle cell carcinomas, 11 papillary carcinomas, 1 medullary thyroid carcinoma, 1 poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, 1 lymphoma, and 1 metastatic renal carcinoma).
  • Benign tumors were found in 144 patients with follicular adenomas (n = 76), Hurthle cell adenomas (n = 33), multinodular goiter (n = 13), adenomatoid nodules (n = 15), colloid nodules (n = 4), and thyroiditis (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSION: One in four patients with cytological features of a follicular neoplasm has a thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18976164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Bradly DP, Reddy V, Prinz RA, Gattuso P: Incidental papillary carcinoma in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases. Surgery; 2009 Dec;146(6):1099-104
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  • The incidence of IPC was compared among patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, multinodular goiter, follicular adenoma, and Graves' disease.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 81 (12.0%) IPCs were recorded with decreasing order of frequency: Hashimoto's thyroiditis, follicular adenoma, goiter, and Graves' disease.
  • Contralateral IPC was detected in 6/15 (40%) patients with follicular adenoma.
  • IPC was encountered in the contralateral lobe in 40% of patients with follicular adenoma.
  • Total thyroidectomy may be considered an appropriate operative treatment in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular adenoma requiring operation owing to the high incidence and frequent contralateral involvement of IPC, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chicago / epidemiology. Female. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Graves Disease / complications. Graves Disease / surgery. Hashimoto Disease / complications. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19958937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Wang SL, Li SH, Chen WT, Chai CY: Expression of D2-40 in adjunct diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. APMIS; 2007 Aug;115(8):906-10
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  • The clinical pathologic criteria for nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma are subjective and sometimes cannot distinguish carcinoma from adenomatous goiter and follicular neoplasms.
  • Controls included 36 follicular adenomas, 36 follicular carcinomas, and 20 adenomatous goiters with papillary hyperplasia.
  • Cytoplasmic D2-40 immunoreactivity was present in 60 of 72 papillary carcinomas, 2 cases of follicular adenoma and 2 cases of follicular carcinoma, whereas no adenomatous goiter or normal thyroid glands contained positive epithelial cells.

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  • (PMID = 17696946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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66. Suster S: Thyroid tumors with a follicular growth pattern: problems in differential diagnosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jul;130(7):984-8
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  • [Title] Thyroid tumors with a follicular growth pattern: problems in differential diagnosis.
  • Tumors of the thyroid characterized by a follicular growth pattern constitute the most common type of lesion of this organ encountered by pathologists.
  • Thyroid tumors with a follicular growth pattern include a broad range of lesions that range from benign, hyperplastic nodules to follicular adenomas to follicular carcinomas.
  • In addition, other types of tumors belonging in separate diagnostic categories can also present histologically with a follicular growth pattern, including the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007 Mar;131(3):345; author reply 345 [17516734.001]
  • (PMID = 16831055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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67. Vitagliano D, Portella G, Troncone G, Francione A, Rossi C, Bruno A, Giorgini A, Coluzzi S, Nappi TC, Rothstein JL, Pasquinelli R, Chiappetta G, Terracciano D, Macchia V, Melillo RM, Fusco A, Santoro M: Thyroid targeting of the N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene in transgenic mice results in follicular tumors that progress to poorly differentiated carcinomas. Oncogene; 2006 Aug 31;25(39):5467-74
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  • [Title] Thyroid targeting of the N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene in transgenic mice results in follicular tumors that progress to poorly differentiated carcinomas.
  • To verify the role played by N-ras in thyroid carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice in which a human N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene (Tg-N-ras) was expressed in the thyroid follicular cells.
  • Tg-N-ras mice developed thyroid follicular neoplasms; 11% developed follicular adenomas and approximately 40% developed invasive follicular carcinomas, in some cases with a mixed papillary/follicular morphology.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Amino Acid Substitution. Animals. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Invasiveness


68. Jaffar R, Mohanty SK, Khan A, Fischer AH: Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms. Cytojournal; 2009;6:3
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  • [Title] Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity.
  • METHODS: This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells.
  • The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine needle aspiration (FNA) and histologic follow-up of either goiter (101), follicular adenoma (47), or follicular carcinoma (17).
  • RESULTS: Hemosiderin within macrophages were seen in 67% (68 of 101) of the goiters and only 6% (four of 64) of follicular neoplasms (P<.0001).
  • All four follicular neoplasms with hemosiderin in macrophages were adenomas.
  • None of the 17 follicular carcinomas had hemosiderin in macrophages (P<.12).
  • Macrophages without hemosiderin also strongly distinguished goiters from neoplasms (83% vs 17%) but appears less useful as a criterion since macrophages were present within 3 of 17 follicular carcinomas.
  • Hemosiderin within follicular epithelial cells was present in 18% (18 of 101) of goiters, whereas none of the 64 follicular neoplasms had intraepithelial hemosiderin (P<.0003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: If papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasm are ruled out, our findings indicate that the presence of hemosiderin virtually excludes a clinically significant follicular neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 19495407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2678825
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Benign colloid nodule / follicular cells / hemosiderin laden macrophages / hemosiderin within follicular neoplasms / macrophages
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69. Sarquis MS, Weber F, Shen L, Broelsch CE, Jhiang SM, Zedenius J, Frilling A, Eng C: High frequency of loss of heterozygosity in imprinted, compared with nonimprinted, genomic regions in follicular thyroid carcinomas and atypical adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jan;91(1):262-9
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  • [Title] High frequency of loss of heterozygosity in imprinted, compared with nonimprinted, genomic regions in follicular thyroid carcinomas and atypical adenomas.
  • DESIGN: In total, thyroid tissue was obtained from 72 patients with thyroid neoplasias comprising 34 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 38 follicular adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Overall LOH frequencies for the IR markers were 26% for the adenomas and 38% for the carcinomas.
  • In the NIR, the overall LOH frequency was 23 and 26% for adenomas and FTCs, respectively.
  • The difference in LOH frequencies between IR and NIR was statistically significant only for the carcinomas (P = 0.001), although there was a similar trend for the atypical adenomas (ATY, P = 0.06).
  • The fact that the ATY trended toward differential IR/NIR LOH, similar to FTC, may suggest that loss of IR might be instrumental in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in thyroid carcinogenesis and that ATY could be an important intermediate in this pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Genomic Imprinting. Loss of Heterozygosity / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16249278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P30CA16058
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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70. Weber F, Shen L, Aldred MA, Morrison CD, Frilling A, Saji M, Schuppert F, Broelsch CE, Ringel MD, Eng C: Genetic classification of benign and malignant thyroid follicular neoplasia based on a three-gene combination. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2512-21
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  • [Title] Genetic classification of benign and malignant thyroid follicular neoplasia based on a three-gene combination.
  • However, the clinical identification of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) among patients with benign thyroid nodules is still a challenge.
  • Preoperative fine needle aspiration-based cytology cannot always differentiate follicular carcinomas from benign follicular neoplasias.
  • We conducted a microarray-based study to reveal the genetic profiles unique to FTC and follicular adenomas (FAs), to identify the most parsimonious number of genes that could accurately differentiate between benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasia.
  • We confirmed our data by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in two independent validation sets with a total of 114 samples.
  • In addition, our model allowed the identification of follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma with an accuracy of 85.7%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Cyclins / genetics. Cytokines / genetics. Proprotein Convertase 2 / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15713710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA16058; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA16059
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND2 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D2; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / GDF15 protein, human; 0 / Growth Differentiation Factor 15; EC 3.4.21.94 / Proprotein Convertase 2
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71. Yang GC, Liebeskind D, Messina AV: Diagnostic accuracy of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine-needle aspirates processed by ultrafast Papanicolaou stain: histologic follow-up of 125 cases. Cancer; 2006 Jun 25;108(3):174-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic accuracy of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine-needle aspirates processed by ultrafast Papanicolaou stain: histologic follow-up of 125 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Detection of follicular variant (FV) of papillary carcinoma (PC) of the thyroid is considered difficult in cytology.
  • Of the 107 aspirates with diffuse "grape-like" watery clear nuclei, histologic follow-up showed 94 PCs, 8 follicular adenomas containing atypical nuclei, and 5 nonneoplastic lesions.
  • Of the 18 aspirates with focal clear nuclei, histologic follow-up showed 6 PCs, 8 follicular adenomas, and 4 nonneoplastic nodules.
  • As reported previously, histologic follow-up of 147 FNAs contained follicles with normal nuclei showed 107 true follicular neoplasms, 32 hyperplastic nodules, and 8 FVPC.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy in the detection of PC were 93.6%, 94.9%, 93.6%, 94.9%, and 94.3%, respectively, when follicular adenomas containing atypical nuclei were counted as encapsulated FVPC; and 92.6%, 85.6%, 80%, 94.9%, and 88.3%, respectively, when follicular adenomas containing atypical nuclei were counted as benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16541452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Takano T, Miyauchi A, Yoshida H, Kuma K, Amino N: Decreased relative expression level of trefoil factor 3 mRNA to galectin-3 mRNA distinguishes thyroid follicular carcinoma from adenoma. Cancer Lett; 2005 Feb 28;219(1):91-6
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  • [Title] Decreased relative expression level of trefoil factor 3 mRNA to galectin-3 mRNA distinguishes thyroid follicular carcinoma from adenoma.
  • The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA is a marker for distinguishing thyroid follicular adenomas from carcinomas.
  • In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of molecular-based diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by measuring the relative expression of TFF3 mRNA by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using galectin-3 mRNA as an internal control.
  • The TFF3/galectin-3 mRNA ratio (T/G ratio) was measured in 54 follicular adenomas and 29 follicular carcinomas.
  • It was markedly decreased in 7 follicular carcinomas of widely invasive type and with evident distant metastases.
  • Quantification of the T/G ratio may be a useful tool for the distinction between follicular adenomas and carcinomas, which is the most difficult in thyroid pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Mucins / biosynthesis. Muscle Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15694668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TFF3 protein, human
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73. Yeager N, Brewer C, Cai KQ, Xu XX, Di Cristofano A: Mammalian target of rapamycin is the key effector of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-initiated proliferative signals in the thyroid follicular epithelium. Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 15;68(2):444-9
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  • [Title] Mammalian target of rapamycin is the key effector of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-initiated proliferative signals in the thyroid follicular epithelium.
  • Activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade is becoming increasingly recognized as a common feature of thyroid follicular neoplasms.
  • We have recently shown that conditional loss of Pten in the mouse thyroid follicular cells is sufficient to stimulate continuous autonomous growth, leading to a homogeneously hyperplastic gland and to the development of follicular adenomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Everolimus. Humans. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives. Sirolimus / pharmacology. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18199538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97097
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / mTOR protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.48 / Pten protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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74. Castro I, Lima L, Seoane R, Lado-Abeal J: Identification and functional characterization of two novel activating thyrotropin receptor mutants in toxic thyroid follicular adenomas. Thyroid; 2009 Jun;19(6):645-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification and functional characterization of two novel activating thyrotropin receptor mutants in toxic thyroid follicular adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Two previously unreported thyrotropin (TSH) receptor mutations, A623F and I635V, were identified in toxic follicular thyroid adenoma specimens from two patients with hyperthyroidism.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A623F and I635V are two naturally occurring TSH receptor mutations that increase basal cAMP accumulation and consequently promote the development of toxic follicular thyroid adenoma. cAMP response to increasing TSH dose is retained by A623F and I635V mutated receptors and the maximal stimulation obtained is not different from that of the wild-type receptor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Hyperthyroidism / genetics. Mutation / physiology. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19499991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9007-49-2 / DNA; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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75. Belge G, Meyer A, Klemke M, Burchardt K, Stern C, Wosniok W, Loeschke S, Bullerdiek J: Upregulation of HMGA2 in thyroid carcinomas: a novel molecular marker to distinguish between benign and malignant follicular neoplasias. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2008 Jan;47(1):56-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Upregulation of HMGA2 in thyroid carcinomas: a novel molecular marker to distinguish between benign and malignant follicular neoplasias.
  • RNA from 64 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues including normal tissue (n = 3), thyroiditis (n = 2), and follicular adenomas (n = 19) as well as follicular (n = 9), papillary (n = 28), and anaplastic (n = 3) carcinomas was reverse transcribed.
  • Finally, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed.
  • Our results show that even as a stand-alone marker HMGA2 expression has a high potential to improve diagnoses of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Up-Regulation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17943974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / HMGA2 Protein
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76. Marchenko IA, Glukhov AI, Vysotskaia OV, Zimnik OV, Zhulikov DV, Ippolitov LI: [Development of a set of diagnostic test systems for analysis of expression of C-myc, mad1, max, p53, and E2F1 gene oncomarkers by the reverse transcription reaction-polymerase chain reaction alignment technique]. Klin Lab Diagn; 2010 Jan;(1):14-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • These test systems could reveal a statistically significant difference between follicular adenoma and carcinoma of the thyroid in their expression of p53 mRNA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20201372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0869-2084
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia laboratornaia diagnostika
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin. Lab. Diagn.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / E2F1 Transcription Factor; 0 / E2F1 protein, human; 0 / MAD1L1 protein, human; 0 / MAX protein, human; 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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77. Poloz TL, Shkurupiĭ VA, Poloz VV, Demin AV: [The results of quantitative cytological analysis of the structure of follicular thyroid tumors using computer and neural network technologies]. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk; 2006;(8):7-10
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  • [Title] [The results of quantitative cytological analysis of the structure of follicular thyroid tumors using computer and neural network technologies].
  • This technology was applied to studying cytological diagnostics of thyroid diseases to differentiate between follicular cancer and follicular adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 17002018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0869-6047
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii meditsinskikh nauk
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Akad. Med. Nauk SSSR
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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78. Ekinci S, Karnak I, Balci S, Tanyel FC, Büyükpamukçu N: Bannayan-riley-ruvalcaba syndrome from the point of view of the pediatric surgeon. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Jun;16(3):209-13
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  • A 9-year-old boy with BRRS who had multiple subcutaneous mesenchymal tumors and follicular adenoma of the thyroid and a 14-year-old boy with multiple subcutaneous mesenchymal tumors and gastrointestinal polyposis are presented, with special emphasis on the surgical management of these patients.

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  • (PMID = 16909363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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79. Eszlinger M, Paschke R: Molecular fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of thyroid nodules by tumor specific mutations and gene expression patterns. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Jun 30;322(1-2):29-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • While approximately 75% of FNAB reveal benign lesions and 5% already cytologically prove malignancy, up to 20% of FNAB show follicular proliferation for which follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma can only be distinguished histologically, thus requiring thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20083161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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80. Tuttle RM, Lukes Y, Onstad L, Lushnikov E, Abrosimov A, Troshin V, Tsyb A, Davis S, Kopecky KJ, Francis G: ret/PTC activation is not associated with individual radiation dose estimates in a pilot study of neoplastic thyroid nodules arising in Russian children and adults exposed to Chernobyl fallout. Thyroid; 2008 Aug;18(8):839-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: This pilot study included adults and children diagnosed with PTC (n = 76) and children diagnosed with follicular adenomas (n = 24) during May 1986 through December 1999, who were living in the Bryansk Oblast of the Russian Federation at the time of the Chernobyl accident, who had paraffin-embedded thyroid surgical samples available and for whom an individual dose to the thyroid could be estimated.
  • The frequency of ret/PTC activation was determined using RT-PCR analysis.
  • RESULTS: ret/PTC oncogene activation was detected in 23.8% (5/21) and 14.5% (8/55) of the childhood and adult PTC cases, respectively, and 8.3% (2/24) of the follicular adenoma cases.

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  • (PMID = 18690796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ret-PTC fusion oncoproteins, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2857448
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81. Lerma E, Mora J: Telomerase activity in "suspicious" thyroid cytology. Cancer; 2005 Dec 25;105(6):492-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The histopathologic diagnoses were nodular hyperplasia in 5 patients, follicular adenoma in 3 patients, papillary carcinoma in 11 patients, follicular carcinoma in 1 patient, medullary carcinoma in 2 patients, and lymphoma in 1 patient.
  • TA was detected in 6 of 18 histologically confirmed thyroid neoplasms (1 of 3 follicular adenomas, 3 of 11 papillary carcinomas, 0 of 1 follicular carcinoma, 1 of 2 medullary carcinomas, and 1 of 1 lymphoma), including 1 neoplasm with scanty atypical cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / enzymology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16104043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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82. Carroll NM, Carty SE: Promising molecular techniques for discriminating among follicular thyroid neoplasms. Surg Oncol; 2006 Aug;15(2):59-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Promising molecular techniques for discriminating among follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • To guide the extent of thyroidectomy for indeterminate follicular neoplasm (FN), clinicians have long sought ways to differentiate follicular adenoma from carcinoma pre- or intraoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16949814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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83. Pujani M, Arora B, Pujani M, Singh SK, Tejwani N: Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jul-Sep;47(3):304-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05) and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Cancer. 2011 Jul-Sep;48(3):378 [21921351.001]
  • (PMID = 20587907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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84. Ge Y, Luna MA, Cowan DF, Truong LD, Ayala AG: Thyrolipoma and thyrolipomatosis: 5 case reports and historical review of the literature. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Dec;13(6):384-9
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  • (1) fat infiltration limited to follicular adenomas (thyrolipoma);.
  • (2) fat diffusely infiltrating throughout the thyroid gland (thyrolipomatosis); or (3) fat infiltration involving both follicular adenoma and their surrounding thyroid tissue.

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  • (PMID = 19917474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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85. Denning KM, Smyth PC, Cahill SF, Finn SP, Conlon E, Li J, Flavin RJ, Aherne ST, Guenther SM, Ferlinz A, O'Leary JJ, Sheils OM: A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1095-102
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  • [Title] A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples.
  • Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a lesion that frequently causes difficulties from a diagnostic perspective in the laboratory.
  • The purpose of this study was to interrogate a cohort of archival thyroid lesions using gene expression analysis of a panel of markers proposed to have utility as adjunctive markers in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in particular.
  • HLA-DMA, HLA-DQB1, MT1X, CSNK1G2 and RAB23 were found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing follicular adenoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Comparison of follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups showed significant differential expression for MT1K, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Comparison of the papillary thyroid carcinoma group (classic and follicular variants) and the follicular adenoma group showed differential expression for CSNK1G2, HLA-DQB1, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Finally, KRAS2 was found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing the papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups.
  • This panel of molecular targets discriminates between follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma by their expression repertoires.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Gene Expression. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17660800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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86. Antico-Arciuch VG, Dima M, Liao XH, Refetoff S, Di Cristofano A: Cross-talk between PI3K and estrogen in the mouse thyroid predisposes to the development of follicular carcinomas with a higher incidence in females. Oncogene; 2010 Oct 21;29(42):5678-86
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  • [Title] Cross-talk between PI3K and estrogen in the mouse thyroid predisposes to the development of follicular carcinomas with a higher incidence in females.
  • In this study, we show that 52% of the Pten(-/-) female mice, but only 12% of the males, develop follicular adenomas by 1 year of age.
  • In addition, 50% of female mutants, but only 35% of males older than 1 year of age develop invasive, and often metastatic, follicular carcinomas.
  • Furthermore, while genetic ablation of one Cdkn1b allele accelerated the development of neoplastic lesions, it also abolished the gender differences in survival and reduced the difference in neoplastic lesion development rate, underlining a key role of p27 in mediating estrogen action in the thyroid follicular cells.
  • These data, based on a clinically relevant model of thyroid follicular carcinoma, provide, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time in vivo evidence that circulating estrogens are directly responsible for the increased female susceptibility to thyroid disease, at least on activation of the PI3K pathway, and provide new insights into the gender-based differences characterizing thyroid neoplastic disorders.

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  • (PMID = 20676139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK015070; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097097-06; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R37 DK015070; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK15070; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA128943; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA128943-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97097; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK015070-38; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128943; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097097-06; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R37 DK015070-38; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128943-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK20595; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK020595; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097097; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P60 DK020595
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / Pten protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS217275; NLM/ PMC2967724
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87. Królicka A, Kobierzycki C, Puła B, Podhorska-Okołów M, Piotrowska A, Rzeszutko M, Rzeszutko W, Rabczyński J, Domosławski P, Wojtczak B, Dawiskiba J, Dzięgiel P: Comparison of metallothionein (MT) and Ki-67 antigen expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4945-9
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  • A significant difference in MT expression was noted between different tumours of the thyroid: the highest expression was detected in follicular carcinoma and the lowest was detected in medullary carcinoma.
  • Expression of MT was also significantly elevated in follicular carcinoma as compared to follicular adenoma.
  • On the other hand, no significant differences were seen between expression of Ki-67 antigen in follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • Moreover, these investigations detected no correlation between the expression of MT and Ki-67 antigen in follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Paraffin Embedding

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  • (PMID = 21187474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein
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88. Karslioğlu Y, Celasun B, Günhan O: Contribution of morphometry in the differential diagnosis of fine-needle thyroid aspirates. Cytometry B Clin Cytom; 2005 May;65(1):22-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Cytologic discrimination of cellular nodules, follicular adenoma, and follicular carcinoma in the thyroid is problematic.
  • Some sophisticated tools, such as microarrays, offer great potential but lack accompanying morphologic information.
  • METHODS: One hundred twelve samples obtained from patients with lesions histopathologically diagnosed as nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma were used.
  • In the second, a subset of data representing the most extreme values of variables was extracted from the entire dataset to simulate the "selection procedure" performed during conventional morphologic examination.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Morphologic examination is based primarily on selection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Goiter / diagnosis. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Multivariate Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Software. Statistics as Topic / methods. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15779051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4949
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry B Clin Cytom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Dabelić N, Matesa N, Matesa-Anić D, Kusić Z: Malignancy risk assessment in adenomatoid nodules and suspicious follicular lesions of the thyroid obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):349-54
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  • [Title] Malignancy risk assessment in adenomatoid nodules and suspicious follicular lesions of the thyroid obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • Our aim was to assess malignancy risk in adenomatoid nodules and suspicious follicular lesions of the thyroid obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology.
  • Retrospective research was performed of 276 patients who underwent thyroid surgery after preoperative ultrasound-guided FNA diagnosis of either adenomatoid nodule, cellular follicular lesion, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" or follicular neoplasm.
  • Out of 276 patients, FNA reports showed 15 diagnoses (5%) of adenomatoid nodules, 73 (26%) cellular follicular lesions, 76 (28%) "suspicious for follicular neoplasm", and 112 diagnoses (41%) of follicular neoplasm.
  • In FNA reports of adenomatoid nodule (N = 15), there were seven (47%) pathohistological diagnoses (PHDs) of nodular goiter, and eight (53%) PHDs of follicular adenoma.
  • In FNA reports of cellular follicular lesion (N = 73), there were 2 (3%) PHDs of thyroiditis, 32 (44%) PHDs of nodular goiter, 38 (52%) PHDs of follicular adenoma, and one (1%) PHD of papillary carcinoma.
  • In FNA reports of "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" (N = 76), there was one (1%) PHD of thyroiditis, 24 (32%) PHDs of nodular goiter, 47 (62%) PHDs of follicular adenoma and four (5%) diagnoses of papillary carcinoma.
  • In FNA reports of follicular neoplasm (N = 112), there were 25 (22%) PHDs of nodular goiter, 72 (64%) PHDs of follicular adenoma, and 15 (14%) PHDs of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Stratification of cytologic diagnoses of follicular thyroid lesions into different subcategories with various probabilities of malignancy allows more accurate estimation of malignancy risk and individualized patient treatment, when deciding between immediate operation and close follow-ups with repeat FNA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 20698101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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90. Hemachandran M, Rajwanshi A, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R, Radotra BD: Cytology of Hürthle cell neoplasms of thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):859-61

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  • Four were adenomas and two were carcinomas.
  • In addition, 3 cases that were adenomas on histopathology were reported on cytology as colloid goiter with cystic degeneration in 2 cases and as follicular adenoma in 1 case.
  • There were no specific cytomorphological features that distinguished adenoma from carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18306589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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91. Sillery JC, Reading CC, Charboneau JW, Henrichsen TL, Hay ID, Mandrekar JN: Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jan;194(1):44-54
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate sonography of thyroid follicular neoplasms for features that would aid in distinguishing follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma and for any imaging features that distinguish the Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma from classic follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of patients with the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma and patients with the diagnosis of follicular adenoma.
  • Fifty patients (25 men and 25 women; median age, 59.5 years) with a diagnosis of follicular carcinoma (27 with classic follicular carcinoma, 22 with Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma, and one insular variant) in a 6-year period were included.
  • Fifty-two control patients (10 men and 42 women; median age, 46.5 years) were selected from a random sampling of all cases of follicular adenoma during the same time period.
  • All study patients and control patients underwent surgical resection and pathologic analysis of their thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Hypoechoic appearance (82% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 50% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; odds ratio [OR]), 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7), absence of halo (64% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 42% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9), absence of cystic change (90% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 69% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), greater patient age (median age of 59.5 years for follicular carcinoma patients vs 46.5 years for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), size of the tumor (median size of 11.75 mL for follicular carcinoma patients vs 5.95 mL for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), and male sex (50% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 19.2% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.9) were more frequently associated with follicular thyroid cancer than with benign adenoma.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, homogeneous or predominantly homogeneous echotexture (67% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 36% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1-11.4) and the presence of calcifications (22% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 4% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients [multivariate analysis including age]; p < 0.05; OR, 22.9; 95% CI, 2.0-261.9) were associated with classic follicular carcinoma.
  • Greater patient age (median age of 53 years for classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 64.5 years for Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05) was associated with Hürthle-cell variant follicular carcinoma.
  • There was no association between tumor volume, sex, sonographic halo, refractive shadowing, echogenicity, visible invasion, lymph node enlargement, adjacent nonfollicular suspicious lesions, vascularity subtype, and cystic change between the subgroups of follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The sonographic features of follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are very similar, but larger lesion size, lack of a sonographic halo, hypoechoic appearance, and absence of cystic change favored a follicular carcinoma diagnosis.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma is more often seen in older patients with nodules having a heterogeneous appearance and lacking internal calcifications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20028904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Anderson CE, Graham C, Herriot MM, Kamel HM, Salter DM: CD98 expression is decreased in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Histopathology; 2009 Dec;55(6):683-6
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  • METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and forty thyroid cases were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, including normal controls, neoplasms (follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma) and non-neoplastic conditions (multinodular goitre, Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis).
  • In normal thyroid, there was moderately strong expression of CD98 in the lateral cell membranes of follicular cells.
  • A similar pattern of expression was seen in follicular adenoma, minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, multinodular goitre and Graves' disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Graves Disease / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19922591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD98
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93. Ciobanu D, Căruntu ID, Vulpoi C, Florea N, Giuşcă SE: Morphometric parameters and silver stain used in diagnosis of thyroid follicular diseases. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2006;47(4):323-30
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  • [Title] Morphometric parameters and silver stain used in diagnosis of thyroid follicular diseases.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid is limited in distinguishing hyperplastic nodular goiter from true follicular neoplasm and in separating follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma.
  • The present study was done to evaluate if the morphologic and morphometric investigations and silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), either alone or in association would help to differentiate the thyroid follicular diseases.
  • 40 FNAB smears of thyroid follicular diseases, histopathologically diagnosed as nodular goiter, lymphocytic thyroiditis, follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, were analyzed using the standard cytological exam, quantitative analysis and NORs assessment.
  • The qualitative evaluation, correlated with the numerical results obtained from the quantitative analysis, revealed that the cellular pattern, mean nuclear diameter and NORs area are valuable criteria in the diagnosis of the benign and malign follicular lesions, respectively.
  • The results attained through morphometry increase the sensibility and the specificity of FNAB in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / diagnosis. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17392977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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94. Schmid KW, Farid NR: How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma? Virchows Arch; 2006 Apr;448(4):385-93
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  • [Title] How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma?
  • The appropriate diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) still depends on its histological discrimination from follicular adenoma (including the distinction of benign from malignant oncocytic variants), papillary thyroid carcinoma (particularly from the follicular variants) and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Protein Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16506015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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95. Veroux M, Giuffrida G, Gagliano M, Giaquinta A, Tallarita T, Sorbello M, Corona D, Zerbo D, Vizcarra D, Scriffignano V, Cannizzaro MA, Veroux P: Evaluation of thyroid disease in kidney transplantation candidates: management and follow-up. Transplant Proc; 2009 May;41(4):1142-4
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  • RESULTS: One-hundred-four patients with ESRD (44%) had functional or morphologic changes in the thyroid gland.
  • Forty-one patients (17.4%) underwent fine-needle aspiration cytology; 3 demonstrated showed papillary carcinoma; 3, follicular adenomas; 8, uncertain cytologic lesions; and 27, a nodular goiter.
  • Of the 184 transplant recipients, 10 underwent surgery to treat thyroid disease: 8 with multinodular goiter, 1 with micropapillary carcinoma, and 1 with follicular adenoma.


96. Teixeira CS, Bitar RA, Martinho HS, Santos AB, Kulcsar MA, Friguglietti CU, da Costa RB, Arisawa EA, Martin AA: Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy. Analyst; 2009 Nov;134(11):2361-70
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  • Through the discriminative linear analysis of the Raman spectra of the tissue, it was possible to establish (in percentages) the correct classification index among the groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular region, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma.
  • A relevant result was obtained in the analysis of the benign tissues (goitre and follicular adenoma) versus malignant tissues (papillary and follicular carcinomas), for which the index was 72.5% and considered good.

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  • (PMID = 19838427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5528
  • [Journal-full-title] The Analyst
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Analyst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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97. Ito Y, Arai K, Nozawa R, Yoshida H, Hirokawa M, Fukushima M, Inoue H, Tomoda C, Kihara M, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Miyauchi A: S100A8 and S100A9 expression is a crucial factor for dedifferentiation in thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Oct;29(10):4157-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, follicular adenoma and medullary carcinoma and normal follicules were negative for both proteins.

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  • (PMID = 19846966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calgranulin A; 0 / Calgranulin B
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98. Elsheikh TM, Asa SL, Chan JK, DeLellis RA, Heffess CS, LiVolsi VA, Wenig BM: Interobserver and intraobserver variation among experts in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions with borderline nuclear features of papillary carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Nov;130(5):736-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interobserver and intraobserver variation among experts in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions with borderline nuclear features of papillary carcinoma.
  • Distinguishing follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) from follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma can be difficult if nuclear features of papillary carcinoma are not well developed or only focally present.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Pathology, Surgical / standards

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Clin Pathol. 2008 Nov;130(5):683-6 [18854259.001]
  • (PMID = 18854266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Ito Y, Yabuta T, Hirokawa M, Fukushima M, Inoue H, Uruno T, Kihara M, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Amino N, Miyauchi A: Distant and lymph node metastases of thyroid nodules with no pathological evidence of malignancy: a limitation of pathological examination. Endocr J; 2008 Oct;55(5):889-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Among thyroid nodules arising from follicular cells, benign nodular goiter is thought not to metastasize to regional or distant organs.
  • On pathology, there were no detectable signs of carcinoma or follicular adenoma lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18552462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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100. Fukunari N: [Ultrasonography of thyroid cancer]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1997-2002
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The diagnosis and management of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland remains a controversial topic.
  • Color-Doppler (CD) imaging has been expected for the differential diagnosis between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • CD imaging examination of follicular tumors has revealed that high-velocity pulsative blood flow penetrating the tumor is a characteristic finding of follicular carcinoma.
  • In follicular cancer, the difference of elasticity from core of the tumor and periphery is supposed to be depend on the difference of hypercellurality.
  • RTE can provide new useful information for the differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18018561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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