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1. Yilike X, Kuerban G, Yang X, Wu S, Abudula A: Expression of MGMT and its clinopathological significance in thyroid carcinoma. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2010 Dec;35(12):1219-24
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  • [Title] Expression of MGMT and its clinopathological significance in thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and its clinicopathological significance in thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of MGMT in 61 thyroid cancer tissues, 21 thyroid adenomas, 15 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 8 nodular goiter, and 12 peri-tumor tissues.
  • RESULTS: There was statistic difference in the expression of MGMT between the normal tissues and thyroid cancers (P<0.05).
  • Expression of MGMT increased from the normal tissue (16.67%, 10/12), nodular goiter (25.00%, 2/8), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (60.00%, 9/15), and thyroid adenoma (52.38%, 11/21)to thyroid cancer (60.66%, 38/61).
  • Expression of MGMT in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) had significant difference (P<0.05), and the expression level of MGMT decreased with the malignancy of thyroid cancer, such as in PTC (72.22%, 26/36), and FTC (50.00%, 8/16).
  • CONCLUSION: High expression of MGMT might be related to the malignancy of thyroid cancer, which may be one of the diagnosis indexes for thyroid cancer.
  • It will be a common clinical index in diagnosing thyroid cancer since there is no difference in MGMT expression among sexes, ages, and nationalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21200087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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2. Sakurai K, Amano S, Enomoto K, Matsuo S, Kitajima A: Primary hyperparathyroidism with thyroid hemiagenesis. Asian J Surg; 2007 Apr;30(2):151-3
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism with thyroid hemiagenesis.
  • Thyroid hemiagenesis is a very rare anomaly.
  • We herein report a case with right thyroid lobe agenesis, which was incidentally found during the assessment of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Both computed tomography and ultrasonography demonstrated the absence of right thyroid lobe and a mass of 1 cm in diameter at the left lower pole of the thyroid.
  • The patient underwent lower left parathyroidectomy, which confirmed the right thyroid hemiagenesis, as well as the absence of both upper and lower right parathyroid glands.
  • The resected left lower parathyroid gland was pathologically diagnosed as adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 17475589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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3. Galgano MT, Mills SE, Stelow EB: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma of the thyroid revisited: a histologic and immunohistochemical study of thyroid lesions with prominent trabecular architecture and sclerosis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Oct;30(10):1269-73
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma of the thyroid revisited: a histologic and immunohistochemical study of thyroid lesions with prominent trabecular architecture and sclerosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Since its description, hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) of the thyroid has been a controversial entity.
  • Some have considered it a unique entity, some have considered it a variant of papillary carcinoma (PC), and still others have considered it a nonspecific pattern that may be seen with a variety of thyroid lesions.
  • This study reviews our experience with thyroid lesions that showed at least some histologic features of HTA and presents the immunohistochemical findings for these lesions using antibodies employed for the diagnosis of PC.
  • DESIGN: Our files were reviewed for all thyroid resection reports describing lesions with hyalinized or sclerotic stroma and a trabecular architecture within the diagnosis or diagnostic comment.
  • RESULTS: Eighteen thyroid lesions with prominent sclerosis or hyalinization and trabecular architecture were identified.
  • The other cases showed histologic features more compatible with other diagnoses including cellular adenomatoid nodule (5), follicular adenoma (4), follicular variant of PC (FVPC) (3), and epithelial neoplasm with features of FVPC (2).
  • All cases deemed to be adenomatoid nodules, follicular adenomas and epithelial neoplasms showed no immunoreactivity for HBME1 and CK19 and, of these, only a single AN showed immunoreactivity for p63.
  • Of control PCs and other thyroid lesions, reactivity for HBME1, CK19, and p63 was observed in 8/8, 7/7, and 7/8 and 3/27, 7/27, and 7/27 cases, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A sclerotic or hyalinized stroma with a trabecular growth pattern may be seen in a number of different thyroid lesions and, when seen, is usually a focal feature of a lesion other than HTA.
  • Immunohistochemistry may be of assistance as cases of FVPC with prominent hyalinization and trabeculation will show immunoreactivity for HBME1 and CK19, whereas HTAs and other thyroid lesions with hyalinization and trabeculation will not.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Hyalin / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Sclerosis / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Keratins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17001158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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4. Yang JH, Bae SJ, Park S, Park HK, Jung HS, Chung JH, Min YK, Lee MS, Kim KW, Lee MK: Bilateral pheochromocytoma associated with paraganglioma and papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of an unusual case. Endocr J; 2007 Apr;54(2):227-31
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  • [Title] Bilateral pheochromocytoma associated with paraganglioma and papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of an unusual case.
  • Ultrasonograms and computed tomograms revealed tumors in both of the adrenal glands, anterior aspect of the inferior vena cava, and the right lobe of the thyroid gland.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The final pathological diagnosis was bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and either parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia.
  • This is the first report of a combination of bilateral pheochromocytoma, abdominal paraganglioma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and either parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia without hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis


5. Kraas J, Clark PB, Perrier ND, Morton KA: The scintigraphic appearance of subcapsular parathyroid adenomas. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Apr;30(4):213-7
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  • [Title] The scintigraphic appearance of subcapsular parathyroid adenomas.
  • PURPOSE: Approximately 5 to 10% of parathyroid adenomas are located within the thin, fibrous capsule of the thyroid gland.
  • These subcapsular adenomas can complicate minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Palpation is less sensitive when the adenoma is covered by the thyroid capsule.
  • If a subcapsular parathyroid adenoma can be identified on preoperative parathyroid scintigraphy, nuclear medicine physicians can recommend exploration of the thyroid capsule early, leading to an easier, more efficient operation.
  • The objective of this observational study was to identify the scintigraphic appearance of subcapsular parathyroid adenomas.
  • Retrospective chart review identified 16 surgically proved subcapsular parathyroid adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Subcapsular parathyroid adenomas tend to conform to the expected shape of the thyroid gland.
  • In this small series, subcapsular parathyroid adenomas followed 1 of 3 patterns on lateral images:.
  • (1) focal convex distortion of the posterior wall of the thyroid, (2) polar lentiform configuration, and (3) compression of the posterior thyroid parenchyma.
  • CONCLUSION: Subcapsular parathyroid adenomas often have a distinct appearance on scintigraphy.
  • Preoperative identification of this type of parathyroid adenoma can direct a subcapsular surgical approach, optimizing the efficiency of the minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Preoperative Care / methods. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 15764873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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6. Van den Bruel A, Vauterin T, Poorten VV, Decallonne B: Advances in the medical management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and their impact on the surgical approach. Acta Chir Belg; 2007 Jun;107(3):271-8
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  • [Title] Advances in the medical management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and their impact on the surgical approach.
  • The introduction of recombinant human TSH and neck ultrasonography has refined the management of differentiated thyroid cancer, leading to the publication of new guidelines by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and a consensus report by the European Thyroid Association (ETA) in 2006.
  • In this paper, we give an overview of the current medical management of differentiated thyroid cancer (pre-surgical, post-surgical), of how the advances have been integrated into the recent 2006 ATA guidelines and ETA consensus and finally, of the impact on the surgical management (first surgery, treatment of cervical lymph nodes) of differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Consensus. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17685252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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7. Foschini MP, Ragazzi M, Parmeggiani AL, Righi A, Flamminio F, Meringolo D, Castaldini L: Comparison between echo-color Doppler sonography features and angioarchitecture of thyroid nodules. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;15(2):135-42
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  • [Title] Comparison between echo-color Doppler sonography features and angioarchitecture of thyroid nodules.
  • This study compared echo-color Doppler sonography features of thyroid nodules with the 3-dimensional reconstruction to find parameters useful for the preoperative diagnosis.
  • After histologic diagnosis, blocks were deparaffinized and prepared for 3-dimensional examination using a stereomicroscope.
  • Type II and III nodules corresponded to colloid goiter with intralesional hemorrhage or were associated with hyperplastic nodules, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma minimally invasive, papillary carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma.
  • Of interest was that 9 of 11 follicular lesions were characterized by a large central vessel, which was also evident in echo-color Doppler images.
  • This architectural pattern is not seen in benign nodules or in papillary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17478766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. van Staveren WC, Solís DW, Delys L, Venet D, Cappello M, Andry G, Dumont JE, Libert F, Detours V, Maenhaut C: Gene expression in human thyrocytes and autonomous adenomas reveals suppression of negative feedbacks in tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Jan 10;103(2):413-8
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  • [Title] Gene expression in human thyrocytes and autonomous adenomas reveals suppression of negative feedbacks in tumorigenesis.
  • The cAMP signaling pathway regulates growth of many cell types, including somatotrophs, thyrocytes, melanocytes, ovarian follicular granulosa cells, adrenocortical cells, and keratinocytes.
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor and Gsalpha activating mutations have been detected in thyroid autonomous adenomas, Gsalpha mutations in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas, and PKAR1A mutations in Carney complex, a multiple neoplasia syndrome.
  • This result suggests a progressive sequential process leading to a change of cell program.
  • The gene expression profile of the long-term stimulated cultures resembled the autonomous adenomas, but not papillary carcinomas.
  • The molecular phenotype of the adenomas thus confirms the role of long-term stimulation of the TSH-cAMP cascade in the pathology.
  • Some were down- or nonregulated in adenomas, suggesting a loss of negative feedback control in the tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16381821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1326163
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9. Machiavelli GA, Pauni M, Heredia Sereno GM, Szijan I, Basso A, Burdman JA: T3 receptors in human pituitary tumors. Neurol Res; 2009 Nov;31(9):928-30
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  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to investigate the synthesis of T3 receptors in human tumors of the anterior pituitary gland, its relationship with the hormone synthesized and/or secreted by the tumor and the post-surgical evolution of the patient.
  • METHODS: Patients were evaluated clinically and by magnetic nuclear resonance to classify the adenoma according to their size.
  • DISCUSSION: The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in pituitary tumors is in line with two important characteristics of these tumors: they are histologically benign and well differentiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19138463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyroid Hormone; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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10. Fournie JW, Wolfe MJ, Wolf JC, Courtney LA, Johnson RD, Hawkins WE: Diagnostic criteria for proliferative thyroid lesions in bony fishes. Toxicol Pathol; 2005;33(5):540-51
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  • [Title] Diagnostic criteria for proliferative thyroid lesions in bony fishes.
  • Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions.
  • To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion regarding lesion interpretation, we propose specific criteria for distinguishing hyperplastic from neoplastic lesions.
  • Development of these criteria was based on the examination of a large series of proliferative lesions from Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), lesions from other small fish species, and a reexamination of the 97 cases of proliferative thyroid lesions from bony fishes deposited in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals.
  • Specific diagnostic criteria are provided for all lesion categories including follicular cell hyperplasia (simple, nodular, or ectopic), adenoma (papillary or solid), and carcinoma (well- or poorly differentiated).
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Fishes. Hyperplasia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16076769.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Nakamura N, Erickson LA, Jin L, Kajita S, Zhang H, Qian X, Rumilla K, Lloyd RV: Immunohistochemical separation of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):213-23
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical separation of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • The accurate diagnosis of differentiated thyroid tumors is very important for clinical management of patients.
  • The histopathological distinction between some types of differentiated thyroid tumors can be very difficult even for experienced pathologists.
  • We used immunohistochemical markers from published data obtained from DNA expression profiling, tissue microarray analysis, and immunohistochemistry to analyze a series of 157 thyroid tumors and 5 normal thyroids.
  • These analyses showed that several antibodies were useful in distinguishing follicular adenomas from follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas including HBME-1, CITED1, galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, and S100A4 (p < 0.0001).
  • A combination of markers consisting of a panel of HBME-1, galectin-3, and CK19 or a panel of HBME-1, CITED1, and galectin-3 was usually most effective in distinguishing follicular adenoma from follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • These results indicate that some individual antibodies or a panel of antibodies combined with histopathological analysis can be useful in separating follicular adenoma (FA) from follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blotting, Western. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17308358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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12. Zhao J, Leonard C, Gemsenjäger E, Heitz PU, Moch H, Odermatt B: Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling. Oncol Rep; 2008 Feb;19(2):329-37
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  • [Title] Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling.
  • It is difficult to distinguish benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors by histological or cytological examination.
  • The goal of this study was to reveal gene expression variations between benign and malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • We investigated gene expression profiles from 24 follicular thyroid tumors (12 carcinomas and 12 adenomas) and 13 normal thyroid tissues using high-density human cDNA arrays.
  • The identification of gene expression changes was based on signal intensity ratios of tumor versus normal thyroid parenchyma.
  • Expression patterns of a set of known genes were found to be significantly different between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas.
  • Our results demonstrate a potential use of gene expression profiling for differentiating benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • A detailed investigation of the differentially expressed genes could give new insights into molecular pathways of malignant transformation of thyroid follicular neoplasm and may help to develop a molecular tool for the preoperative differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Gene Expression Profiling. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18202778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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13. Elsheikh TM, Asa SL, Chan JK, DeLellis RA, Heffess CS, LiVolsi VA, Wenig BM: Interobserver and intraobserver variation among experts in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions with borderline nuclear features of papillary carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Nov;130(5):736-44
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  • [Title] Interobserver and intraobserver variation among experts in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions with borderline nuclear features of papillary carcinoma.
  • Distinguishing follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) from follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma can be difficult if nuclear features of papillary carcinoma are not well developed or only focally present.
  • We assessed interobserver and intraobserver agreement among 6 thyroid experts by using 15 cases in which original pathologists suspected FVPC.
  • Unanimous agreement on benign and malignant diagnoses was seen in 4 cases (27%) and majority agreement on malignancy in 8 cases (53%).
  • This considerable interobserver and intraobserver variability in the diagnosis of FVPC seems to result from lack of agreement on the minimal criteria needed to diagnose FVPC, even among experts.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Pathology, Surgical / standards

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Clin Pathol. 2008 Nov;130(5):683-6 [18854259.001]
  • (PMID = 18854266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Drieschner N, Kerschling S, Soller JT, Rippe V, Belge G, Bullerdiek J, Nimzyk R: A domain of the thyroid adenoma associated gene (THADA) conserved in vertebrates becomes destroyed by chromosomal rearrangements observed in thyroid adenomas. Gene; 2007 Nov 15;403(1-2):110-7
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  • [Title] A domain of the thyroid adenoma associated gene (THADA) conserved in vertebrates becomes destroyed by chromosomal rearrangements observed in thyroid adenomas.
  • THADA, mapping to chromosomal band 2p21 is target gene of specific chromosomal rearrangements observed in thyroid benign tumors.
  • Thus, it is one of the most common gene targets in chromosomal rearrangements in benign epithelial tumors.
  • The truncations observed in human thyroid adenomas disrupt this conserved domain of the protein indicating a loss of function of THADA contributing to the development of the follicular neoplasias of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Gene Rearrangement. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17889454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-1119
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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15. Terris DJ, Gourin CG, Chin E: Minimally invasive thyroidectomy: basic and advanced techniques. Laryngoscope; 2006 Mar;116(3):350-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: Minimal access surgery in the thyroid compartment has evolved considerably over the past 10 years and now takes many forms.
  • METHODS: The authors conducted a comparison of two distinct surgical techniques with photographic and videographic documentation of two distinct minimal access approaches to the thyroid compartment termed minimally invasive thyroidectomy (MITh) and minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT).
  • The most common diagnosis was follicular or Hürthle cell adenoma (29%), followed by papillary or follicular cancer (26%).
  • The majority of patients had follicular adenoma (42.9%) or papillary carcinoma (21.4%) as their primary diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Two distinct approaches to minimal access thyroid surgery are now available.
  • Careful patient selection will result in continued safe and satisfactory performance of minimally invasive thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16540887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. de la Torre NG, Buley I, Wass JA, Turner HE: Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in thyroid proliferative lesions: relationship to type and tumour behaviour. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Sep;13(3):931-44
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in thyroid proliferative lesions: relationship to type and tumour behaviour.
  • The role of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in thyroid cancer pathogenesis has not been elucidated.
  • The angiogenic and lymphangiogenic phenotypes of a large cohort of thyroid proliferative lesions (n=191) were studied.
  • Using immunohistochemistry for CD34, lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 (LYVE-1) (specific markers for vascular and lymphatic endothelium respectively), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), VEGF-C and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), this study analyses microvascular density (MVD), lymphatic vascular density (LVD), and expression of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors in normal thyroid (NT; n=19), multinodular goitre (n=25), toxic multinodular goitre (n=8), Graves' hyperplasia (n=22), follicular adenoma (n=54), papillary carcinoma (PC; n=27), incidental papillary microcarcinoma (PMC; n=8), follicular carcinoma (FC; n=20) and medullary carcinoma (MC; n=8).
  • MVD was decreased in proliferative lesions, benign and malignant, compared with NT (P<0.0001).
  • In contrast, VEGF-A expression was increased in thyroid carcinomas (PC, FC and MC) when compared with PMC, benign lesions and NT (P<0.0001).
  • Despite higher LVD and increased expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-C in thyroid cancers, these markers were not related to poor prognosis in terms of tumour size, multifocality and/or presence of lymphatic or distant metastases.
  • In conclusion, angiogenesis is reduced in thyroid proliferative lesions compared with NT tissue.
  • However, VEGF-A expression is upregulated in thyroid cancers.
  • Lymphangiogenesis and VEGF-C expression are increased in thyroid tumours prone to lymphatic metastases.
  • This may be an important mechanism underlying the differences in metastatic behaviour between papillary and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphangiogenesis. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16954441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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17. Xu W, Wang HB, Cao HY, Fan ZM, Yue ZY, Lü ZH: [Recurrent laryngeal nerve decompression]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;41(6):408-11
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  • OBJECTIVE: To study the result of recurrent laryngeal nerve decompression in the treatment of functional disturbance of recurrent laryngeal nerve caused by thyroid surgery or thyroid benign tumors.
  • Seven cases of the nerve paralysis were caused by the surgery of benign thyroid tumors resection which were done by general surgeons.
  • One case of thyroid adenoma and 1 case of nodular goiter with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis were treated with tumor resection and nerve decompression respectively.
  • RESULTS: For the 7 cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after thyroid surgery, the motion of the paralysed vocal cord restored within 3 months in 6 cases with the interval of 1 week to 3 months between the two operations, no restoration was found in the other patient with an interval above 4 months between the two operations after 1 year follow-up.
  • For the thyroid adenoma and nodular goiter with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, the motion of paralysed vocal cord restored within 3 months respectively after decompression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exploration and decompression as soon as possible to the paralysed recurrent laryngeal nerve because of thyroid surgery are very important for the restoration of the function of the nerve.
  • For the functional disturbance of recurrent laryngeal nerve with thyroid neoplasm patient, early exploration and decompression of the nerve is imperative.

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  • (PMID = 16927793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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18. Wood MD, Huang Y, Bibbo M: Improving recognition of thyroid carcinoma in rapid-consultation specimens. Acta Cytol; 2005 May-Jun;49(3):291-6
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  • [Title] Improving recognition of thyroid carcinoma in rapid-consultation specimens.
  • OBJECTIVE: To improve recognition of thyroid carcinoma in rapid consultation on Diff-Quik-stained (Fisher Diagnostics, Middletown, Virginia, USA.) fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and rapid hematoxylin-eosin (H-E)-stained intraoperative scrape preparation (ISP) specimens by assessing 3 variables (anisokaryosis, nuclear overlap [NO] and scant/absent colloid) in cases of cellular follicular lesions (CFL), an indeterminate diagnostic category.
  • RESULTS: Over 90% of the malignant cases showed NO in both FNA and ISP, while only 22% of the benign cases did; positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 82% and 100%.
  • All malignant cases showed significant anisokaryosis in both FNA and ISP in contrast to 24% of benign cases; PPV and NPV were 74% and 100%.
  • Scant/absent colloid was seen in 87% and 39% of malignancies in FNA and ISP, respectively, as compared to 55% and 20% of the benign cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Application of these variables improves recognition of thyroid carcinoma, particularly in fine needle aspirates, while additional material may be requested.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Middle Aged. Referral and Consultation. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15966292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Dewil B, Van Damme B, Vander Poorten V, Delaere P, Debruyne F: Completion thyroidectomy after the unexpected diagnosis of thyroid cancer. B-ENT; 2005;1(2):67-72
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  • [Title] Completion thyroidectomy after the unexpected diagnosis of thyroid cancer.
  • The optimal surgical management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains a controversial topic.
  • Preoperative and peroperative investigations quite frequently fail to detect thyroid cancer in cold nodules, and only postoperative histological examination reveals malignancy.
  • We reviewed the records of 29 patients--25 women and 4 men-- who all underwent completion thyroidectomy because of an unexpected diagnosis of DTC.
  • Because of the rather low re-operation rate, we prefer to perform a completion thyroidectomy to remove potential occult malignancy and to allow for postoperative 131I-treatment in all patients with a diagnosis of malignancy in their thyroid lobectomy specimen, with the exception of papillary carcinoma < 1 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16044737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1781-782X
  • [Journal-full-title] B-ENT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] B-ENT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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20. Duprez R, Thimon S, Kerdraon R, Bonneau C, Metois D, Michenet P: [Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: report of three cases]. Ann Pathol; 2009 Dec;29(6):507-11
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  • [Transliterated title] Métastases d'une tumeur dans une autre tumeur : à propos de trois cas.
  • We report three cases of tumor metastasizing in another tumor: a clear cell renal cell carcinoma in a vesicular thyroid adenoma, a lung carcinoma in a meningioma and a neuroendocrine lung carcinoma in a clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • According to the literature, clear cell renal cell carcinoma is the most common tumor recipient of metastasis while lung carcinoma is the most common donor tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Aged. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Cell Division. Female. Hemoptysis / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy

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  • (PMID = 20005442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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21. Hemachandran M, Rajwanshi A, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R, Radotra BD: Cytology of Hürthle cell neoplasms of thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):859-61
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  • [Title] Cytology of Hürthle cell neoplasms of thyroid gland.
  • Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCN) are an uncommon group of tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important diagnostic tool in solitary nodules of the thyroid gland.
  • Four were adenomas and two were carcinomas.
  • In addition, 3 cases that were adenomas on histopathology were reported on cytology as colloid goiter with cystic degeneration in 2 cases and as follicular adenoma in 1 case.
  • There were no specific cytomorphological features that distinguished adenoma from carcinoma.
  • FNAC has a high specificity for a diagnosis of HCN, but the sensitivity is not as high because of sampling error.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18306589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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22. Magro G, Benkova K, Michal M: Meningioma-like tumor of the thyroid: a previously undescribed variant of follicular adenoma. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jun;446(6):677-9
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  • [Title] Meningioma-like tumor of the thyroid: a previously undescribed variant of follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Meningioma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [Cites] Adv Clin Path. 2000 Jan;4(1):35-9 [10936897.001]
  • [Cites] AMA Arch Pathol. 1954 Dec;58(6):554-63 [13217570.001]
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  • (PMID = 15891903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Papathanassiou D, Flament JB, Pochart JM, Patey M, Marty H, Liehn JC, Schvartz C: SPECT/CT in localization of parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia in patients with previous neck surgery. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jun;33(6):394-7
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  • [Title] SPECT/CT in localization of parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia in patients with previous neck surgery.
  • It has proved useful for localization of abnormal parathyroid glands, especially in the case of an ectopic gland.
  • Two patients had undergone surgery for hyperparathyroidism and 2 had undergone thyroidectomy, 1 for thyroid cancer and 1 for multinodular goiter.
  • RESULTS: SPECT/CT successfully localized the abnormal gland, including an uncommon anterior situation for which previous surgery guided by planar imagery failed to cure the hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18496444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Øgard CG, Vestergaard H, Thomsen JB, Jakobsen H, Almdal T, Nielsen SL: Parathyroid scintigraphy during hypocalcaemia in primary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging; 2005 May;25(3):166-70
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  • By increasing blood flow to the parathyroid adenoma before injection of a perfusion marker, we intended to improve the parathyroid scintigraphy.
  • METHODS: Twenty minutes after injection of 100 MBq (99m)Tc-pertechnetate a thyroid scintigram was performed in 25 patients with PHPT.
  • During the thyroid scintigraphy sodium citrate was infused which lowered plasma calcium by a mean of 14 +/- 1.3%.
  • Perchlorate was given at the end of the sestamibi scintigram to increase the wash-out of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate from the thyroid gland, and after 2 h a delayed scintigram was obtained.
  • A subtraction of the thyroid scintigram from the initial sestamibi scintigram was performed.
  • In nine patients the parathyroid adenoma was also localized with ultrasound and the flow pattern before and after citrate infusion was visualized with Doppler technique.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-eight per cent of the adenomas were localized correctly with the SPS technique compared with 62% at the conventional parathyroid scintigraphy.
  • Tissue perfusion of the nine adenomas increased after citrate infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Hypocalcemia / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 15888097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-0961
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical physiology and functional imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Physiol Funct Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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25. Giove E, Lavermicocca W, Merlicco D, Renzulli G, Nacchiero E: [Diagnosis, surgical treatment and follow-up of the hyalizing trabecular adenoma of the thyroid]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Nov-Dec;80(6):423-7; discussion 427-8
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis, surgical treatment and follow-up of the hyalizing trabecular adenoma of the thyroid].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnosi, trattamento chirurgico e follow-up dell'adenoma trabecolare ialinizzante della tiroide.
  • In the last twenty years, we submitted 853 patients to thyroid surgery.
  • We found only in ten patients a hyalinizing trabecular adenoma at the (histological control), as a confirmation of the rarity of this tumour.
  • In conclusion the hyalinizing trabecular adenoma represents a low malignant potential tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20476672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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26. Fischer I, Wieczorek R, Sidhu GS, Pei Z, West B, Lee P: Myxoid lipoadenoma of parathyroid gland: a case report and literature review. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Oct;10(5):294-6
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  • [Title] Myxoid lipoadenoma of parathyroid gland: a case report and literature review.
  • Myxoid lipoadenoma of the parathyroid gland is a rare variant of parathyroid adenoma.
  • We present the case of a 40-year-old man with asymptomatic hypercalcemia who underwent surgical removal of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Histologically, the tumor consisted of monomorphous round-to-oval chief cells arranged in several architectural patterns including solid sheet-like, trabecular, and follicular.
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of thyroid transcription factor and parathyroid hormone by all tumor cells and a low proliferation rate with a Ki-67 labeling index of at most 5%.
  • Although the lesion exhibited characteristics that have been previously associated with "atypical parathyroid adenoma," such as dense fibrous bands within the tumor and a trabecular growth pattern, there was no further evidence, neither histologically nor clinically, for malignant behavior of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adipose Tissue / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Hypercalcemia / complications. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / pathology. Male. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16979523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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27. Rao S, Patel A, Levin K, Lu M, Garbarino K, Myers D, Walker EM, Ryu S, Ho Kim J, Movsas B: How often are previously undetected radiographic abnormalities detected at the time of CT simulation for breast cancer patients? Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun;33(3):262-4
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  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Aged. Bone and Bones / radiography. Cysts / radiography. False Negative Reactions. Female. Granuloma / radiography. Heart Neoplasms / radiography. Humans. Kidney / radiography. Liver / radiography. Lung / radiography. Mediastinum / radiography. Middle Aged. Multiple Pulmonary Nodules / radiography. Myxoma / radiography. Thyroid Diseases / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19823073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Joseph B, Ji M, Liu D, Hou P, Xing M: Lack of mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha and beta genes but frequent hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene in differentiated thyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Dec;92(12):4766-70
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  • [Title] Lack of mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha and beta genes but frequent hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene in differentiated thyroid tumors.
  • CONTEXT: It remains inconclusive whether mutations in thyroid hormone receptor (TR) genes naturally occur in thyroid cancer and whether these genes could be suppressors of this cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to examine further mutations of TRalpha and TRbeta genes in thyroid cancer and also to examine their methylation as an epigenetic silencing mechanism in thyroid cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Instead of using a cDNA sequencing approach used in previous studies, we used genomic DNA to sequence directly the coding regions of the TRalpha and TRbeta genes to search mutations in various differentiated thyroid tumors and used methylation-specific PCR to analyze promoter methylation of these genes.
  • RESULTS: We found no TRalpha gene mutation in 17 papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) and 11 follicular thyroid cancers (FTCs), and no TRbeta gene mutation in 16 PTCs and 12 FTCs.
  • We also found no methylation of the TRalpha gene in 33 PTCs, 31 FTCs, 20 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs), and 10 thyroid tumor cell lines.
  • In contrast, we found hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene in 10 of 29 (34%) PTCs, 22 of 27 (81%) FTCs, five of 20 (25%) follicular thyroid adenomas, and three of 10 (30%) thyroid tumor cell lines, with the highest prevalence in FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mutation is not common in TR genes, whereas hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene as an alternative gene silencing mechanism is highly prevalent in thyroid cancer, particularly FTC, consistent with a possible tumor suppressor role of this gene for FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha / genetics. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17911173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta
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29. Nenkov R, Radev R, Madzhov R: [Minimally invasive open access thyoid surgery--main point, indications and effectiveness]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2009;(1):24-7
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  • Various new, minimally invasive techniques, using endoscopic, video-assisted and non-endoscopic, open access have recently appeared in the surgical treatment of nodular thyroid disease.
  • Aim of this study is to examine the feasibility, indications and efficacy of the minimally invasive open approach (MOATS) in the thyroid surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 395 patients (368 (93.2%) females and 27 (6.8%) males, age 17 to 65 years with size of the dominant thyroid nodule less than 3.5 cm have been operated on in our institution over a four years period, using minimally invasive open access thyroid surgery.
  • Preoperative ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland was performed in all patients and FNAB--in 121 (30.6%) of the cases.
  • RESULTS: Partial thyroid resection of one or both thyroid lobes has been performed in 59, respectively in 17 patients; subtotal lobar resection in 106 patients; lobectomy--in 111 patients; lobectomy with partial or subtotal resection of the opposite lobe--in 34, respectively 15 patients; subtotal bilateral thyroid resection--in 25 patients and thyroidectomy in 28 patients.
  • Pathological examination revealed nodular goiter in 168 patients (solitary variant in 99 and multinodular--in 69 patients); toxic nodular goiter--in 13 patients; follicular adenoma--in 175 patients; Hashimoto thyroiditis--in 11 and thyroid carcinoma--in 28 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our experience demonstrates that the minimally invasive open access in the thyroid surgery is a simple, safe and effective surgical technique, with very satisfactory cosmetic results in properly selected patients with small to middle-size thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20509520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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30. Snarska J, Szajda SD, Knaś M, Mroczko B, Borzym-Kluczyk M, Kamiński F, Zwierz P, Zwierz K: [Usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity and thyrotropic hormone concentration in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(5-6):332-5
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity and thyrotropic hormone concentration in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid].
  • Epidemiological studies have shown the increased incidence of malignant cancer of the thyroid gland observed in the last decade.
  • This increase is connected with the elevated number of benign tumor-like/tuberous changes in the thyroid gland.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity (CP) and thyrotropic hormone concentration (TSH) in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid gland.
  • The study included 15 patients (12 women and 3 men) with adenoma glandulae thyreoideae or nodular changes in the character of struma nodosa hyperplastica and 12 patients (11 women and 1 man) with carcinoma glandulae thyreoideae.
  • The results of our study indicate that the determination of CP activity can be used in the differential diagnosis of tumor-like changes of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cysteine Endopeptidases / blood. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Coagulation Factors / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17017477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Coagulation Factors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.26 / cancer procoagulant
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31. Ide F, Obara K, Enatsu K, Mishima K, Saito I: Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity. J Oral Pathol Med; 2005 Mar;34(3):187-9
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  • Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMEC) with eosinophilia is a rare but distinctive tumor usually affecting the thyroid.
  • SMEC involvement of salivary gland is exceptional, with only six cases in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Gingival Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Eosinophils / pathology. Humans. Hyalin / ultrastructure. Male. Sclerosis. Secretory Vesicles / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 15689234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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32. Conte-Devolx B, Niccoli P, Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines: [Clinical characteristics of multiple endocrine neoplasia]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2010 Jan;194(1):69-78; discussion 78-9
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  • The most frequent endocrine features of MEN1 are parathyroid involvement (> 95%), duodeno-pancreatic endocrine tissue involvement (80%), pituitary adenoma (30%), and adrenal cortex tumors (25%), with no clear syndromic variants.
  • Identification of the germline MEN1 mutation confirms the diagnosis, but there is no phenotype-genotype correlation.
  • All patients with MEN2 have medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • The prognosis of MEN2 is linked to the progression of MTC, which depends mainly on the stage at diagnosis and the quality of initial surgical treatment.
  • This emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and management.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Digestive System Neoplasms / genetics. Digestive System Neoplasms / surgery. Early Diagnosis. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genetic Testing. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20669560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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33. Elston MS, Conaglen JV: Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas from one New Zealand centre. Intern Med J; 2010 Mar;40(3):214-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas from one New Zealand centre.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma) are a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis and need to be distinguished from the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone.
  • Patients with TSHoma may also be misdiagnosed as having primary hyperthyroidism and receive inappropriate treatment directed towards the thyroid gland.
  • All patients had elevated free thyroid hormone levels with elevated, or inappropriately normal, TSH levels.
  • The median age at presentation was 43 years and the median time from symptom onset to correct diagnosis was 3 years (range 0.25-12 years).
  • Five patients had a macroadenoma at the time of diagnosis.
  • Three patients received octreotide as primary treatment with two of these patients later undergoing transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: With increased awareness and earlier diagnosis of TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas, management can be appropriately directed towards the pituitary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / therapy. Hospitals, Special. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19849747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-5994
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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34. Lyshchik A, Drozd V, Demidchik Y, Reiners C: Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US. Radiology; 2005 May;235(2):604-13
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively analyze the accuracy of various diagnostic criteria for cancer in solid thyroid nodules in children on the basis of gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasonographic (US) findings.
  • One hundred three consecutive pediatric patients with solid thyroid nodules were included in the study.
  • Thirty-five patients had thyroid cancer (mean age, 14.6 years +/- 2.6 [standard deviation]; range, 10-18 years), and 68 patients had benign thyroid nodules (mean age, 14.2 years +/- 2.9; range 9-18 years).
  • Three-dimensional US was used to determine the volume of thyroid gland and thyroid nodules.
  • Results of nodule cytologic and histologic examination and long-term clinical and US follow-up were used as a proof of final diagnosis.
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of US criteria for thyroid cancer in lesions with diameter of 15 mm and smaller and lesions with diameter larger than 15 mm.
  • RESULTS: In thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, the most reliable diagnostic criteria for malignancy were an irregular outline (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), subcapsular location (sensitivity, 65.2%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), and increased intranodular vascularization (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 87.9%; P < .01).
  • For thyroid nodules larger than 15 mm in diameter, the accuracy of US diagnosis was much lower than that for smaller nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Study findings indicate that US is most helpful in diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, with detection of irregular tumor outline, subcapsular location, and increased intranodular vascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood supply. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15770036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Dimov A, Petkov R, Atanasov A, Popov N, Kekhaĭov A, Lefterov E: [Surgical diseases of thyroid gland]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2008;(3):46-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgical diseases of thyroid gland].
  • Medical reports of 8,768 patients with various diseases of thyroid gland were analyzed.
  • One-nodular goiter was diagnosed at 13.85% patients, multinodular goiter - at 67.2%, diffuse toxic goiter - at 5.85%, thyreotoxic adenoma - at 4.91%, Hashimoto's thyroiditis - at 8.16% patients.
  • Thyroid cancer was revealed at 1.56 patients with nodular goiter, at 8.45% - with multinodular goiter, at 2.72% - with diffuse toxic goiter, at 3.71% - with thyreotoxic adenoma, and at 27.09% patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • Totally thyroid cancer was diagnosed at 741 (8.45%) patients including 71.12% papillary cancer, 26.47% follicular cancer and 2.42% medullar (anablastic) cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18427531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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36. Kopczyńska E, Junik R, Tyrakowski T: [BRAF gene mutation in thyroid cancer]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2006 Feb;20(116):210-3
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  • [Title] [BRAF gene mutation in thyroid cancer].
  • Mutations of genes coding effectors of signaling pathway RET/PTC-RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, involved in cell growth and proliferation, are important in papillary thyroid cancer development.
  • Mutation of BRAF gene appears in various types of carcinomas, but most frequently in malignant melanomas (66%) and papillary thyroid cancer (average 44%).
  • The relation between mutations of BRAF, RAS and RET/PTC genes has not been found, although they together exist in two thirds of papillary thyroid cancers.
  • BRAF(TI796A) oncogene appears in papillary thyroid cancer, whereas it has not been found in follicular thyroid cancer and benign thyroid adenomas.
  • For this reason mutated BRAF gene could be specific molecular marker, with relatively high sensitivity in diagnostics of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Point Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


37. Bogazzi F, Manetti L, Tomisti L, Rossi G, Cosci C, Sardella C, Bartalena L, Gasperi M, Macchia E, Vitti P, Martino E: Thyroid color flow Doppler sonography: an adjunctive tool for differentiating patients with inappropriate thyrotropin (TSH) secretion due to TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma or resistance to thyroid hormone. Thyroid; 2006 Oct;16(10):989-95
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  • [Title] Thyroid color flow Doppler sonography: an adjunctive tool for differentiating patients with inappropriate thyrotropin (TSH) secretion due to TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma or resistance to thyroid hormone.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) and resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) are two forms of inappropriate TSH secretion.
  • Thyroid blood flow is largely TSH dependent.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess whether thyroid blood flow may help to differentiate TSHoma and RTH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Hyperpituitarism / ultrasonography. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Hormones / physiology. Thyrotropin / secretion. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • (PMID = 17042684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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38. Lo CY, Chan WF, Leung P, Luk JM: Applicability of tissue aspirate for quick parathyroid hormone assay to confirm parathyroid tissue identity during parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. Arch Surg; 2005 Feb;140(2):146-9; discussion 150
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  • PATIENTS: Quick PTH assay for aspirate obtained from suspected parathyroid gland excised during parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • RESULTS: Quick PTH assay was performed for aspirate from at least 1 excised parathyroid gland in 122 (98%) of 125 patients while 13 patients (10%) had PTH aspirate for nonparathyroid tissues including thyroid (n = 10), thymic (n = 2) and lymphatic (n = 1) tissues.
  • The median size of abnormal parathyroid gland was 70 to 15,000 mg (median, 775 mg).
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the availability of quick PTH assay, tissue aspirate for PTH assay can be adopted as an alternative to traditional frozen section examination to confirm parathyroid gland identity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Immunoassay. Intraoperative Period. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15723995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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39. Puntambekar SP, Palep RJ, Patil AM, Rayate NV, Joshi SN, Agarwal GA, Joshi M: Endoscopic thyroidectomy: Our technique. J Minim Access Surg; 2007 Jul;3(3):91-7
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  • Minimally invasive surgery is widely employed for the treatment of thyroid diseases.
  • Several minimal access approaches to the thyroid gland have been described.
  • Four patients had multinodular goiter and underwent near-total thyroidectomy; four patients had follicular adenoma and underwent hemithyroidectomy.

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  • [Cites] Surg Endosc. 2006 Feb;20(2):339-42 [16362471.001]
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  • (PMID = 19789664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-9941
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimal access surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Access Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2749190
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Endoscopy / technique / thyroidectomy
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40. Jabiev AA, Ikeda MH, Reis IM, Solorzano CC, Lew JI: Surgeon-performed ultrasound can predict differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with solitary thyroid nodules. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;16(11):3140-5
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  • [Title] Surgeon-performed ultrasound can predict differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with solitary thyroid nodules.
  • INTRODUCTION: Certain surgeon-performed ultrasound (SUS) features may predict differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the SUS characteristics that are strongly associated with DTC in patients with solitary thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 115 patients with solitary thyroid nodules who had SUS before thyroid surgery was performed.
  • Patients were subdivided into two groups based on final pathology results: patients with DTC(n=61) and those with benign disease (BD) (n=54).
  • SUS characteristics of thyroid nodules were studied, including size, type, calcifications, borders, shape, and echogenicity.
  • RESULTS: Of 115 operated patients with solitary thyroid nodules, 53% (61/115) had DTC [papillary, 59%; follicular variant/papillary, 34%; Hürthle cell, 5%; and follicular, 2%] and 47% (54/115) had BD [hyperplastic, 56%; follicular adenoma, 31%; lymphocytic thyroiditis, 7%; and Hürthle cell adenoma, 6%].
  • These SUS characteristics may have additional clinical value in predicting DTC in patients with solitary thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 Dec;18 Suppl 3:S301 [20839063.001]
  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 Jan;18(1):292 [20490696.001]
  • (PMID = 19655201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Anderson CE, Graham C, Herriot MM, Kamel HM, Salter DM: CD98 expression is decreased in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Histopathology; 2009 Dec;55(6):683-6
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  • [Title] CD98 expression is decreased in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • AIMS: CD98 is a component of the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT), which is a cell surface amino acid transporter.
  • CD98 expression is increased in a variety of carcinomas but its distribution in the normal and neoplastic thyroid gland has not been reported.
  • The aim was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of CD98 in normal and diseased thyroid tissue.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and forty thyroid cases were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, including normal controls, neoplasms (follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma) and non-neoplastic conditions (multinodular goitre, Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis).
  • In normal thyroid, there was moderately strong expression of CD98 in the lateral cell membranes of follicular cells.
  • A similar pattern of expression was seen in follicular adenoma, minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, multinodular goitre and Graves' disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD98 expression is down-regulated in thyroid papillary carcinoma; this may relate to the better prognosis associated with many of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD98 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Hashimoto Disease / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Graves Disease / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19922591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD98
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42. Ardito G, Revelli L, Boninsegna A, Sgambato A, Moschella F, Marzola MC, Giustozzi E, Avenia N, Castelli M, Rubello D: Immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammatory and proliferative markers in adjacent normal thyroid tissue in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy: results of a preliminary study. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2010;29:77
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammatory and proliferative markers in adjacent normal thyroid tissue in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy: results of a preliminary study.
  • BACKGROUND: Total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice in the majority of thyroid malignancies, preventing the risk of reoperative surgery due to recurrences.
  • In order to assess the usefulness of such an approach, expression levels of inflammatory and proliferative markers were evaluated immunohistochemically in non-lesional adjacent thyroid tissues from a group of patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for different thyroid diseases.
  • METHODS: Nineteen consecutive patients treated by total thyroidectomy for different thyroid diseases entered the study.
  • IL-6Rb gp130 component of the IL-6 cytokine family members receptor complexes, STAT3 cytokine signalling transduction and transcription activation factor, p53 as tumour suppressor and CK19 cytokeratin as proliferation marker were analyzed in non-lesional thyroid tissues.
  • Cytokeratin 19 positivity was found in patients with papillary carcinoma, in one case of follicular adenoma, 3 multinodular goiters and one Basedow disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this preliminary study, it may be concluded that the presence of a persisting cytokine-mediated activation associated with cytoplasmic localization of p53 is frequently observed in different thyroid diseases.
  • Such a process seems to occur in the thyroid gland as a whole.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20565793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 133483-10-0 / Cytokine Receptor gp130
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2898684
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43. Krause K, Eszlinger M, Gimm O, Karger S, Engelhardt C, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: TFF3-based candidate gene discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid tumors in a region with borderline iodine deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Apr;93(4):1390-3
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  • [Title] TFF3-based candidate gene discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid tumors in a region with borderline iodine deficiency.
  • BACKGROUND: With the advent of microarray technology, increasing numbers of marker genes are proposed to distinguish benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • In this paper, we re-evaluate the diagnostic potential of 10 proposed candidate genes in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies in a region with borderline iodine deficiency.
  • METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed for CCND2, PLAB, PCSK2, HGD1, TFF3, B4GALT, LGALS3, ETS1, ADM3, and TG in 150 thyroid specimens, including 52 benign thyroid nodules (28 follicular adenoma and 24 adenomatous nodules), 52 corresponding normal thyroid tissues, 20 follicular carcinomas, 20 papillary carcinomas, and six undifferentiated carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: On a single-gene basis, significant differences in mRNA expression were found for TFF3, PLAB, and ADM3 in benign thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancy.
  • Using two-marker gene sets, we identified 11 combinations, which allowed both a distinction of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and a discrimination of follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • However, for cancer prediction, analysis of a minimum of six genes per sample was necessary and allowed correct prediction of a benign thyroid lesion and thyroid cancer with 94% accuracy in the most discriminative set (TFF3/PLAB/TG/ADM3/HGD1/LGALS3).
  • CONCLUSION: We confirm the applicability of a number of recently proposed marker genes for the distinction of benign and malignant thyroid tumor and suggest that their diagnostic usefulness is independent of the iodide supply.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine / deficiency. Peptides / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18198227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TFF3 protein, human; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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44. Wani S, Hao Z: Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):389-93
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  • [Title] Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course of a patient with atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma manifesting as hypercalcemic parathyroid crisis.
  • METHODS: We present a case report and review the relevant literature on parathyroid cysts and atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas.
  • Ultrasonography revealed a large cystic structure (5.8 cm) at the lower pole of the left thyroid lobe.
  • She underwent surgical exploration of the neck, total thyroidectomy for multinodular disease of the thyroid, and subtotal parathyroidectomy.
  • The final pathologic diagnosis was an atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid cysts are uncommon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass.
  • Atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas are rare and have an unpredictable clinical course.
  • [MeSH-major] Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16638726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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45. Heizmann O, Viehl CT, Schmid R, Müller-Brand J, Müller B, Oertli D: Impact of concomitant thyroid pathology on preoperative workup for primary hyperparathyroidism. Eur J Med Res; 2009 Jan 28;14(1):37-41
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  • [Title] Impact of concomitant thyroid pathology on preoperative workup for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The introduction of MIP without complete neck exploration leads to the potential risk of missing thyroid pathology.
  • The aim of the present study is to evaluate the value of MIP in respect to coexisting thyroid findings and their impact on preoperative workup for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • RESULTS: Ten patients (33%) had a concurrent thyroid finding requiring additional thyroid surgery, and two patients (7%) with negative localization results underwent bilateral neck exploration.
  • The conversion rate to a four gland exploration was 6% (1/18).
  • CONCLUSION: Coexisting thyroid pathology is relatively frequent in patients with pHPT in our region.
  • Among patients having pHPT without any thyroid pathology, the adenoma localization is correct with either ultrasonography or 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy in the majority of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19258209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3352203
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46. Tsybrovskyy O, Rössmann-Tsybrovskyy M: Oncocytic versus mitochondrion-rich follicular thyroid tumours: should we make a difference? Histopathology; 2009 Dec;55(6):665-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oncocytic versus mitochondrion-rich follicular thyroid tumours: should we make a difference?
  • AIMS: To separate true oncocytic neoplasms from mitochondrion-rich non-oncocytic lesions based on the intracellular relationship between major cell organelles, and to establish the diagnostic and clinical relevance of this distinction.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Tissue samples from 276 follicular adenomas, 194 follicular carcinomas, 162 normal thyroids and 296 non-neoplastic lesions were classified as conventional, mitochondrion-rich or oncocytic based on the immunohistochemically assessed quantity and intracellular distribution of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear position.
  • CONCLUSIONS: True oncocytic neoplasms can be distinguished from mitochondrion-rich non-oncocytic tumours based on aberrant distribution of all major cell organelles.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Mitochondria / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Count. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Electron. Regression Analysis. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20002768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Kim KH, Kim SH, Kim SH, Back JH, Park MJ, Kim JM: Cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in thyroid neoplasms and their clinicopathological correlation. J Korean Med Sci; 2006 Dec;21(6):1064-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in thyroid neoplasms and their clinicopathological correlation.
  • To evaluate the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in thyroid neoplasms in a Korean population, we studied a total of 154 cases: papillary carcinoma of classical type (PTC), 86; follicular adenoma (FA), 21; follicular carcinoma (FC), 35; medullary carcinoma (MC), 3; undifferentiated carcinoma (UC), 5; and Hurthle cell neoplasm (HN), 4.
  • These results suggest that the upregulation of COX-2 and iNOS may contribute to the tumor progression of thyroid gland, particularly in PTC and HN, and iNOS may play an adjuvant role during the tumor progression of FC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclooxygenase 2 / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 17179688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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48. Daousi C, Foy PM, MacFarlane IA: Ablative thyroid treatment for thyrotoxicosis due to thyrotropin-producing pituitary tumours. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2007 Jan;78(1):93-5
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  • [Title] Ablative thyroid treatment for thyrotoxicosis due to thyrotropin-producing pituitary tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are rare tumours that can be invasive.
  • It has been suggested that thyroid surgery or radioiodine treatment should not be considered in patients with such tumours as these treatments may facilitate rapid and aggressive tumour expansion.
  • AIM: To study the effects of thyroid ablative treatment on tumour size and thyroid status in two patients with TSHomas in whom the size of the adenoma was clearly documented before treatment was started.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ablative thyroid treatment can be a safe and successful option to treat TSHomas, but long-term and close follow-up of these patients is mandatory to ensure that the size and behaviour of the tumours do not change markedly.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology. Thyrotoxicosis / surgery. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17172570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-330X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Raitila A, Georgitsi M, Bonora E, Vargiolu M, Tuppurainen K, Mäkinen MJ, Vierimaa O, Salmela PI, Launonen V, Vahteristo P, Aaltonen LA, Romeo G, Karhu A: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations seem not to associate with familial non-medullary thyroid cancer. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 May;32(5):426-9
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  • [Title] Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations seem not to associate with familial non-medullary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Over 95% of all thyroid malignancies are non-medullary thyroid carcinomas (NMTC).
  • Recently, thyroid disorders have been observed in families with germline mutations in aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) but, due to frequent occurrence of these conditions in the population, the significance of this co-occurrence is not clear.
  • In addition, the AIP status was studied in one follicular thyroid adenoma patient with a known AIP mutation from an additional cohort.
  • AIP mutation-positive patient's follicular thyroid adenoma showed no loss of heterozygosity or lack of immunohistochemical AIP staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19794292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
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50. Wong H, Lehman-McKeeman LD, Grubb MF, Grossman SJ, Bhaskaran VM, Solon EG, Shen HS, Gerson RJ, Car BD, Zhao B, Gemzik B: Increased hepatobiliary clearance of unconjugated thyroxine determines DMP 904-induced alterations in thyroid hormone homeostasis in rats. Toxicol Sci; 2005 Apr;84(2):232-42
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  • [Title] Increased hepatobiliary clearance of unconjugated thyroxine determines DMP 904-induced alterations in thyroid hormone homeostasis in rats.
  • In subchronic toxicity studies in Sprague-Dawley rats, DMP 904 produced thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and a low incidence of follicular cell adenoma.
  • The current investigations were designed to determine the mode of action by which DMP 904 disrupts thyroid homeostasis in male rats.
  • Five-day treatment with DMP 904 (300 mg/kg/day) dramatically lowered serum thyroxine (T4) to levels below detectable limits (< 1 microg/dl) by 72 h, with concurrent decreases in triiodothyronine (T3, about a 70% decrease) and increases in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH; about a three-fold increase).
  • However, DMP 904 is distinguished from other compounds associated with similar effects on thyroid hormone homeostasis because its effects were primarily related to increased biliary excretion of unconjugated T4.
  • [MeSH-major] Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Homeostasis / drug effects. Liver / drug effects. Pyrazoles / toxicity. Pyrimidines / toxicity. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroxine / blood. Triiodothyronine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15673846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(3-pentylamino)-2,7-dimethyl-8-(2-methyl-4-methoxyphenyl)pyrazolo(1,5-a)pyrimidine; 0 / Organic Anion Transporters; 0 / Organic Cation Transport Proteins; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Slco1a4 protein, rat; 0 / Slco1c1 protein, rat; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 2.4.1.17 / Glucuronosyltransferase; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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51. Jha S, Kumar S: TSH secreting pituitary adenoma. J Assoc Physicians India; 2009 Jul;57:537-9
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  • [Title] TSH secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Thyrotropin (TSH) secreting pituitary adenomas are a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • TSH secreting tumors account for 1 percent of all pituitary adenoma.
  • They are a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis in which adenomas completely or partially lose feedback regulation of thyroid hormones and lead to sustained stimulation of thyroid gland.
  • The most definitive treatment of thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas is transsphenoidal removal of tumor after restoring euthyroidism.
  • We report a case of pituitary adenoma associated with elevated serum free thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Thyroid Function Tests. Treatment Refusal

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  • (PMID = 20329419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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52. Sidhu S: Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. ANZ J Surg; 2008 Mar;78(3):115
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] ANZ J Surg. 2008 Mar;78(3):139-43 [18269475.001]
  • (PMID = 18269467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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53. Pennelli N, Pennelli G, Merante Boschin I, Pelizzo MR: Thyroid intrafollicular neoplasia (TIN) as a precursor of papillary microcarcinoma. Ann Ital Chir; 2005 May-Jun;76(3):219-24
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  • [Title] Thyroid intrafollicular neoplasia (TIN) as a precursor of papillary microcarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify a spectrum of morphological changes from benign reactive follicles to suspected thyroid intrafollicular neoplasia (TIN) and papillary microcarcinoma observed in different pathological processes of the thyroid gland.
  • CASE SERIES: In a retrospective study on a total of 105 cases, occult or incidental thyroid papillary microcarcinoma was found in association with multinodular goiter (52%), chronic thyroiditis (19%), follicular adenoma (19%), parathyroid neoplasia (5%), and no evident thyroid pathology (5%).
  • RESULTS: Atypical follicles are described in various pathological conditions correlating with lymphoid inflammatory infiltration, stromal sclerosis, and hyperplastic or neoplastic follicular nodules.
  • The histological pattern of papillary carcinoma is compared with morphological changes ranging from atrophic and/or reactive thyroid follicles, potential intrafollicular thyroid neoplasia (TIN) and papillary microcarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The atypical features of follicular epithelial areas make up a wide spectrum that starts with the dispersion of nuclear chromatin.
  • Low- and high-grade TIN may represent a cytological marker of dysplastic lesions and precursors of thyroid papillary carcinoma when it is still in an early intrafollicular or pre-invasive stage in various pathological processes of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16355851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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54. Kabala JE: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Jun;66(3):480-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid.
  • This is due to a solitary functioning parathyroid adenoma.
  • The role of imaging is primarily to localise the functioning adenoma.
  • Disease of the thyroid may present with a neck mass or thyroid dysfunction.
  • This paper focuses on the approach and choice of imaging techniques in the evaluation of hypercalcaemia and thyroid masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Parathyroid Glands / abnormalities. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Thyroid Gland / abnormalities. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18502599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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55. Deiana L, Lai ML, Carta G, Mariotti S: Correspondence between ultrasonography and histological features in a single thyroid nodule with coexisting follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma. Thyroid; 2008 Jul;18(7):813-4
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  • [Title] Correspondence between ultrasonography and histological features in a single thyroid nodule with coexisting follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18631017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Jogai S, Al-Jassar A, Temmim L, Dey P, Adesina AO, Amanguno HG: Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: a cytohistologic study with evaluation of discordant cases. Acta Cytol; 2005 Sep-Oct;49(5):483-8
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: a cytohistologic study with evaluation of discordant cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the diagnostic efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, with special emphasis on discrepant cytologic diagnoses.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 192 thyroid fine needle aspirates with subsequent histopathologic follow-up were analyzed.
  • The cytologic diagnoses were divided into 4 categories: positive for malignancy, negative for malignancy, indeterminate for diagnosis and nondiagnostic.
  • The majority of these were "follicular neoplasms."
  • A false positive diagnosis was made in 1 case (0.5%), proven a follicular adenoma on histopathologic examination.
  • A false negative diagnosis was seen in 3.6% of cases.
  • CONCLUSION: FNAC is a safe, sensitive and specific technique in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules.
  • A correct cytologic diagnosis can be achieved in a majority of cases, thus obviating the need for a second surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16334023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Bondarenko VO, Depiui TI, Magomedov RB, Shapiro NA: [The role of urgent intraoperative morphological investigation in differential diagnostics of pretumor lesions and tumors of the thyroid]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2010;169(2):42-7
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  • [Title] [The role of urgent intraoperative morphological investigation in differential diagnostics of pretumor lesions and tumors of the thyroid].
  • Results of examination and treatment of 3794 patients with nodular formations of the thyroid gland were analyzed.
  • It was shown that the data of intraoperative cytological and histological diagnostics were comparable, the cytological diagnosis of atypical adenoma being an indication to urgent histological investigation.
  • Urgent cytological investigations make the detection of thyroid cancer 2 times higher and risk of reoperations 10 times less at this nozology.
  • The data obtained demonstrate effectiveness of the intraoperative cytological investigation in the present-day diagnostics of pretumor diseases and tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Precancerous Conditions. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20552789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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58. Das K, Kendall C, Isabelle M, Fowler C, Christie-Brown J, Stone N: FTIR of touch imprint cytology: a novel tissue diagnostic technique. J Photochem Photobiol B; 2008 Sep 18;92(3):160-4
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  • FTIR spectral profiles of TIC of lymph node and thyroid tissues differ visually when compared with TIC spectra of parathyroid tissue.
  • The thyroid spectra, in addition to evident strong protein peaks at 1547cm(-1) and 1659cm(-1), also demonstrated possible nucleic acid signals at 1079cm(-1) and 1244cm(-1).
  • Parathyroid adenoma showed a marginal shift to lower wavenumbers with decreased amide I and II peak intensities when compared to hyperplasia.
  • Nucleic acid peak positions at 1079cm(-1) and 1244cm(-1) were of higher intensity in adenomas compared to hyperplastic glands possibly demonstrating an increase in cell proliferation and growth.
  • This study demonstrates the feasibility of cytoimprint FTIR for the intraoperative diagnosis of tissue during surgical neck exploration for the management of hyperparathyroidism.
  • There is potential for the application of the technique in sentinel lymph node biopsy diagnosis and tumour margin evaluation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagectomy. Frozen Sections. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18640848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-1344
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Department of Health / / CSA/03/07/017
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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59. Bezerra MG, Latronico AC, Fragoso MC: [Endocrine tumors associated to protein Gsalpha/Gi2alpha mutations]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):784-90
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  • The G proteins couple an array of seven transmembrane receptors at the cell surface with a variety of intracellular effectors, which produce second messenger molecules.
  • A subset of endocrine tumors, such as GH- or ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, functioning thyroid adenomas, adrenocortical and gonadal tumors were associated with somatic activating mutations in the highly conserved codons of the Gs (Arg201 and Gln227) and Gi (Arg179 and Gln205) proteins.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Oncogenes / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16444361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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60. Lumachi F, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Marino F, Polistina F, Basso SM, Koussis H, Basso U, Fassina A: FNA cytology and frozen section examination in patients with follicular lesions of the thyroid gland. Anticancer Res; 2009 Dec;29(12):5255-7
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  • [Title] FNA cytology and frozen section examination in patients with follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • Patients with solitary thyroid nodules should have fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology as the initial screening test, but the most of those referred to a surgeon usually undergo frozen section examination (FS).
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the usefulness of FNA cytology and FS together in patients with a solitary thyroid nodule (TN).
  • Two-hundred and ten patients with a TN and FNA cytology suggesting follicular neoplasm underwent intraoperative FS and subsequent hemithyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy.
  • Final histology was follicular carcinoma in 23 (10.9%), follicular adenoma in 181 (86.2%), and hyperplasia in 6 (2.9%) patients.
  • No difference (p=NS) in age of the patients, and greatest diameter on the TN was found between groups.
  • Thus, in patients with smears suggesting follicular neoplasm, FS should be considered unnecessary because it does not affect the intraoperative decision making.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Frozen Sections. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult


61. Krause K, Karger S, Schierhorn A, Poncin S, Many MC, Fuhrer D: Proteomic profiling of cold thyroid nodules. Endocrinology; 2007 Apr;148(4):1754-63
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  • [Title] Proteomic profiling of cold thyroid nodules.
  • Cold thyroid nodules (CTNs) represent a frequent endocrine disorder accounting for up to 85% of thyroid nodules in a population living in an iodine-deficient area.
  • Benign CTNs need to be distinguished from thyroid cancer, which is relatively rare.
  • The molecular etiology of benign CTNs is unresolved.
  • To obtain novel insights into their pathogenesis, protein expression profiling was performed in a series of 27 solitary CTNs (10 follicular adenoma and 20 adenomatous nodules) and surrounding normal thyroid tissues using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry analysis, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry.
  • 1) thyroid cell proliferation, 2) turnover of thyroglobulin, and 3) H2O2 detoxification.
  • Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry confirmed the proteome data and showed that CTNs exhibit significant up-regulation of proteins involved in thyroid hormone synthesis yet are deficient in T4-containing thyroglobulin.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Proteome / analysis. Proteomics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / metabolism. Antioxidants / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Oxidative Stress / genetics. Protease Nexins. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism


62. Smith J, Cheifetz RE, Schneidereit N, Berean K, Thomson T: Can cytology accurately predict benign follicular nodules? Am J Surg; 2005 May;189(5):592-5; discussion 595
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  • [Title] Can cytology accurately predict benign follicular nodules?
  • BACKGROUND: The reliability of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy in differentiating benign from malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid has been the subject of renewed debate recently.
  • Although surgical excision has been recommended for most follicular lesions identified by cytology, this approach may not be necessary in all cases.
  • The goal of this study was to determine whether FNA could be used as a diagnostic tool to safely identify patients with follicular thyroid nodules who do not require immediate surgical intervention.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on a sample of 24 patients diagnosed with either follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma after surgical excision of a thyroid nodule.
  • The positive predictive value (PPV) of a benign diagnosis was 82%; PPV of a malignant diagnosis was 38%.
  • The PPV of a benign diagnosis was 83%; PPV of a malignant diagnosis was 42%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that in follicular lesions of the thyroid, a benign FNA biopsy report from an experienced cytopathologist has a high positive predictive value.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15862502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Abbasova SG, Vysotskii MM, Ovchinnikova LK, Obusheva MN, Digaeva MA, Britvin TA, Bahoeva KA, Karabekova ZK, Kazantzeva IA, Mamedov UR, Manuchin IB, Davidov MI: Cancer and soluble FAS. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2009 Oct;148(4):638-42
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  • A test system developed by the authors was used to measure serum concentrations of soluble Fas in patients with malignant and benign tumors of different location and morphology.
  • No appreciable differences in the concentrations of soluble Fas were detected in malignant and benign tumors of the mammary gland, bones, ovaries, and adrenals.
  • In thyroid cancer, soluble Fas levels were higher than in benign and hyperplastic processes in this organ.
  • Soluble Fas levels depended on tumor histogenesis in malignant and benign ovarian tumors.
  • High concentration of soluble Fas was detected in large tumors in patients with ovarian cancer, cancer of the corpus uteri, colorectal cancer, thyroid cancer and adenoma, and in adrenocortical cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20396760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-8221
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95
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64. Ekinci S, Karnak I, Balci S, Tanyel FC, Büyükpamukçu N: Bannayan-riley-ruvalcaba syndrome from the point of view of the pediatric surgeon. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Jun;16(3):209-13
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  • Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is an overgrowth syndrome and polyposis condition, which carries an increased risk for development of benign and malignant tumors of various tissues and organs.
  • A 9-year-old boy with BRRS who had multiple subcutaneous mesenchymal tumors and follicular adenoma of the thyroid and a 14-year-old boy with multiple subcutaneous mesenchymal tumors and gastrointestinal polyposis are presented, with special emphasis on the surgical management of these patients.

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  • (PMID = 16909363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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65. Ogawa T, Kanauchi H, Kammori M, Mimura Y, Ota S, Kaminishi M: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the thyroid gland associated with primary hyperparathyroidism. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Feb;12(1):48-51
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  • [Title] Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the thyroid gland associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • We report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism associated with a malignant lymphoma in the thyroid gland.
  • Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) revealed a hypoechoic, multinodular tumor in the left thyroid gland.
  • A gallium-67 citrate scintigram revealed intense radioisotope uptake in the thyroid tumor.
  • Histological examination of biopsy specimens indicated that this tumor was a large B-cell lymphoma.
  • The coexistence of parathyroid adenoma in this patient was revealed by a sestamibi scintigram, performed prior to chemotherapy.
  • Following the complete remission of the lymphoma by chemotherapy, we carried out an excision of the single parathyroid adenoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe a malignant thyroid lymphoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis


66. Lynch NE, Lynch SA, McMenamin J, Webb D: Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome: a cause of extreme macrocephaly and neurodevelopmental delay. Arch Dis Child; 2009 Jul;94(7):553-4
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  • Diagnosis of BRRS is often delayed as presentation can be variable, even within families.
  • AIMS: To identify characteristics of this condition which might facilitate early diagnosis.
  • Prompt diagnosis not only avoids unnecessary investigations in the child but potentially identifies heterozygote parents who are at risk of tumour development.
  • Affected parents had extreme macrocephaly and a history of thyroid adenoma, or breast or skin lesions.
  • All six children had presented to medical attention before the age of 2.5 years (3/6 were investigated as neonates), but the median age at diagnosis was 5 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Autistic Disorder / etiology. Autistic Disorder / genetics. Child. Child, Preschool. Craniofacial Abnormalities / etiology. Craniofacial Abnormalities / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Developmental Disabilities / etiology. Developmental Disabilities / genetics. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genetic Testing. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lipoma / etiology. Lipoma / genetics. Male. Motor Skills Disorders / etiology. Motor Skills Disorders / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Skin Diseases / etiology. Skin Diseases / genetics


67. Lee SK, Rho BH: Follicular thyroid adenoma with eggshell calcification presenting as an intensely hypermetabolic lesion on 18F-FDG PET/CT. J Clin Ultrasound; 2010 Feb;38(2):107-10
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid adenoma with eggshell calcification presenting as an intensely hypermetabolic lesion on 18F-FDG PET/CT.
  • We report herein a case of follicular thyroid adenoma with an eggshell calcification presenting as an intensely hypermetabolic lesion on combined (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose whole-body PET and CT ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) performed for staging work-up in a 68-year-old woman who had undergone distal gastrectomy with Billroth II anastomosis for early gastric carcinoma.
  • Follicular adenoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a mass with an eggshell calcification on US and intense hypermetabolism on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19655340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0096
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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68. Alaedeen DI, Khiyami A, McHenry CR: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimen with a predominance of Hürthle cells: a dilemma in the management of nodular thyroid disease. Surgery; 2005 Oct;138(4):650-6; discussion 656-7
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimen with a predominance of Hürthle cells: a dilemma in the management of nodular thyroid disease.
  • BACKGROUND: A fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimen of a thyroid nodule with a predominance of Hürthle cells usually is indicative of a Hürthle cell neoplasm, but it also may occur with nonneoplastic disease.
  • METHODS: A prospective nodular thyroid disease database was used to identify patients with a FNAB specimen consisting of a predominance of Hürthle cells.
  • RESULTS: Of the 738 patients with nodular thyroid disease, 622 had a FNAB specimen.
  • The FNAB specimen was interpreted as consistent with a Hürthle cell neoplasm in 45 (7%) patients, 7 (16%) with carcinoma, 21 (47%) with adenoma, 12 (27%) with adenomatous hyperplasia, and 5 (11%) with thyroiditis.
  • No significant differences in age (x +/- SD) (51 +/- 17 vs 54 +/- 17 y), sex (female/male ratio, 6/1 vs 15/2), nodule size (3.9 +/- 1.9 vs 3.4 +/- 2.0 cm), weight of excised thyroid tissue (42 +/- 27 vs 33 +/- 30 g), or functional status of the thyroid gland was observed between patients with neoplastic (n = 28, 62%) versus nonneoplastic (n = 17, 38%) disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neoplastic disease accounts for two thirds of the pathology in patients with a predominance of Hürthle cells on FNAB specimen and neither clinical nor cytologic features reliably exclude Hürthle cell adenoma or carcinoma.
  • As a result, thyroidectomy is recommended for all patients with a thyroid nodule and a predominance of Hürthle cells on FNAB specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / pathology. Databases, Factual. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Single-Blind Method. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16269293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Temmim L, Sinowatz F, Hussein WI, Al-Sanea O, El-Khodary H: Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma: a case report with clinical and histological findings. Diagn Pathol; 2008;3:46
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  • The chance of an intrathyroidal occurrence of a parathyroid gland is about 1-3%.
  • Although parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma have disparate natural history, it can be difficult to differentiate between the two entities.
  • Clinical presentation, operative findings may raise suspicion, but may not be conclusive especially if there is no evidence of invasion or metastasis, especially if the gland was intrathyroidal.

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  • (PMID = 19032735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627811
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70. Wang SL, Chen WT, Wu MT, Chan HM, Yang SF, Chai CY: Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in thyroid follicular neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(3):211-8
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  • [Title] Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in thyroid follicular neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study.
  • Differential diagnosis of follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular carcinoma (FC) of the thyroid can be difficult in the routine practice of surgical pathology because the diagnosis of FC is strictly defined and determined by the presence of capsular and/or vascular invasion by the tumor.
  • This case-control study examined the expression of hTERT using immunohistochemistry in 36 thyroid FC and 36 FA from patients who were matched by age and sex.
  • The aim was to investigate the value of immunohistochemical staining for hTERT in the differential diagnosis of follicular neoplasms.
  • In conclusion, immunohistochemical staining for hTERT can be considered an ancillary marker for differential diagnosis of FA and FC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Adenoma / enzymology. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • [Cites] Cell. 1997 Aug 22;90(4):785-95 [9288757.001]
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  • (PMID = 16299404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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71. Olson J, Repplinger D, Bianco J, Chen H: Ex vivo radioactive counts and decay rates of tissues resected during radioguided parathyroidectomy. J Surg Res; 2006 Dec;136(2):187-91
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  • This technique is based on the principle that hypercellular parathyroid tissues have markedly higher in vivo radiotracer counts than surrounding tissue including thyroid and lymph nodes.
  • RESULTS: There is a significant difference in ex vivo counts between parathyroid adenomas, hyperplastic glands, and nonparathyroid tissue immediately after resection.
  • These tissues have similar decay rates, allowing these predictions to be made anytime up to 30 min after gland resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Hyperplasia. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Radioactivity. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 17046791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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72. Seimiya YM, Takahashi M, Furukawa T, Mizutani K, Kimura K, Haritani M: An aged bull with concurrent thyroid C cell carcinoma, adrenal pheochromocytoma and pituitary chromophobe adenoma. J Vet Med Sci; 2009 Feb;71(2):225-8
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  • [Title] An aged bull with concurrent thyroid C cell carcinoma, adrenal pheochromocytoma and pituitary chromophobe adenoma.
  • Pathological examination disclosed multiple endocrine tumors including thyroid C cell carcinoma with metastases to the cervical lymph nodes and lung, adrenal pheochromocytoma and pituitary chromophobe adenoma in the pars distalis.
  • The long-term dietary intake of moderately excessive calcium with vitamin D(3) might be related to the pathogenesis of the thyroid C cell carcinoma.


73. Widder S, Guggisberg K, Khalil M, Pasieka JL: A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery; 2008 Jul;144(1):80-5
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  • [Title] A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Histopathologic criterion for follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC) has only recently been utilized universally.
  • The purpose was to determine whether, on review, these criteria would result in a change in diagnosis of follicular neoplasm (FN).
  • METHODS: A ten-year clinical cohort included patients with a diagnosis of a follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma (FC), or FVPTC.
  • Clinical follow-up, including ultrasonography, was carried out on all patients with a change in diagnosis.
  • Initially, 118 were benign, 56 were FVPTC, and 11 were FC.
  • Overall, 46 (25%) patients had a change in diagnosis on re-review; 35 were reclassified from a benign diagnosis to a re-reviewed malignant diagnosis, with 5 reclassified as minimally invasive FC, 4 as occult PTC, and 26 (74%) as FVPTC.
  • Eleven patients were reclassified to a benign diagnosis.
  • A third independent thyroid pathologist also reviewed the histopathologic slides of these 46 patients and concurred with the change in diagnosis in 41 of the 46 patients.
  • Although there have been no clinical ramifications in the patients with a changed diagnosis, the ethical issues surrounding these 46 patients are important and present a substantive quandary to the clinicians responsible for their care.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / ethics. Ethics, Clinical. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Classification. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans


74. Grosso I, Sargiotto A, D'Amelio P, Tamone C, Gasparri G, De Filippi PG, Picciotto G, Isaia G: Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma with sonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Ultrasound; 2007 May;35(4):186-90
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  • [Title] Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma with sonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and usefulness of dual-phase 99mTc-Sestamibi scintigraphy (SS) and sonography (US) of the neck, alone and in combination, as noninvasive adenoma localizing procedures in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism prior to parathyroidectomy.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 79 patients with parathyroid (PT) adenomas and confirmed diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism who were evaluated with SS and US prior to successful parathyroidectomy.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-three adenomas were removed during bilateral neck exploration.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No benefit was gained from using both SS and US for the preoperative localization of PT adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Each technique can be negatively affected by thyroid enlargement and nodularity.
  • US, when performed by a skilled operator, is a reliable tool for PT adenoma localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Parathyroidectomy. Postoperative Complications. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17354248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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75. Haynik DM, Prayson RA: Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Jun;129(6):736-41
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • However, limited data exist on the role of COX-2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • DESIGN: A retrospective clinicopathologic review with COX-2 immunohistochemical staining of 34 follicular carcinomas and 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration was performed.
  • Seven patients with follicular carcinomas developed recurrent disease: 3 patients were alive (mean follow-up, 10.1 years) and 4 patients died of metastatic disease (mean follow-up, 3.5 years).
  • Only 1 follicular adenoma with incomplete capsular penetration recurred (patient alive at 9 years).
  • The COX-2 staining was positive in 11 tumors (9 of 34 follicular carcinomas, 2 of 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration).
  • CONCLUSION: Only a few follicular carcinomas (26%) and follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration (29%) express COX-2 by immunohistochemical analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005 Dec;129(12):1522-3; author reply 1523 [16329720.001]
  • (PMID = 15913419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
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76. Al-Khafaji F, Wiltshire M, Fuhrer D, Mazziotti G, Lewis MD, Smith PJ, Ludgate M: Biological activity of activating thyrotrophin receptor mutants: modulation by iodide. J Mol Endocrinol; 2005 Feb;34(1):209-20
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  • Epidemiological studies have revealed a significantly higher incidence of toxic adenoma (TA) and toxic multi-nodular goitre (TMNG) in regions of iodine deficiency.
  • The effect was neither due to hyper-tonicity nor was it the result of an increase in cell death either by apoptosis or necrosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenylyl Cyclases / metabolism. Animals. Apoptosis / physiology. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cells, Cultured. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism. Mutation. Necrosis / metabolism. Osmotic Pressure. Phosphorylation. Rats. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyrotropin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15691889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-5041
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Iodides; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 4.6.1.1 / Adenylyl Cyclases
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77. Segal-Lieberman G, Rubinfeld H, Glick M, Kronfeld-Schor N, Shimon I: Melanin-concentrating hormone stimulates human growth hormone secretion: a novel effect of MCH on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2006 May;290(5):E982-8
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  • Because pituitary hormones such as growth hormone (GH), ACTH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone affect body weight and composition, appetite, insulin sensitivity, and lipoprotein metabolism, we investigated whether MCH exerts direct effects on the human pituitary to regulate energy balance using dispersed human fetal pituitaries (21-22 wk gestation) and cultured GH-secreting adenomas.
  • We found that MCH receptor-1 (MCH-R1), but not MCH receptor-2, is expressed in both normal (fetal and adult) human pituitary tissues and in GH cell adenomas.
  • A milder, albeit significant, induction of GH secretion by MCH (20%) was seen in cultured GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Treatment of cultured GH adenoma cells with MCH (100 nM) induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation, suggesting activation of MCH-R1.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cells, Cultured. Fetus. Gene Expression / genetics. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / cytology. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16603725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1849
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypothalamic Hormones; 0 / MCHR1 protein, human; 0 / Melanins; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / neuropeptide EI; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67382-96-1 / melanin-concentrating hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
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78. Kung B, Winokur R, Cognetti D, O'Hara B, Rosen D: Parathyroid carcinoma: a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Sep;88(9):E10-3
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  • Most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (80 to 90%) are caused by a parathyroid adenoma; most of the rest are caused by either parathyroid gland hyperplasia or multiple adenomas.
  • When the appropriate clinical scenario is presented, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • A sestamibi scan and magnetic resonance imaging detected the presence of what appeared to be a right inferior parathyroid adenoma.
  • Following placement of bilateral ureteral stents and adequate hydration, the patient was taken to the operating room for a neck exploration and removal of a parathyroid adenoma with rapid intraoperative PTH monitoring.
  • A 4 x 2.5-cm, 10-g mass was removed from the right inferior pole of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19750462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Kim WJ, Souillard R, Brandwein MS, Lawson W, Som PM: Follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst with papillary carcinoma in the adjacent thyroid gland. Am J Otolaryngol; 2005 Sep-Oct;26(5):348-50
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  • [Title] Follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst with papillary carcinoma in the adjacent thyroid gland.
  • This patient presented with a neck mass diagnosed as a papillary thyroid carcinoma by fine-needle aspiration.
  • After surgery, the initial diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • After correlation with the computed tomography, the diagnosis was revised to a papillary thyroid carcinoma plus a follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroglossal Cyst / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16137536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Demirag F, Cakir E, Aydin E, Kaya S, Akyurek N: Ectopic primary B cell lymphoma of the thyroid presenting as an anterior mediastinal mass. A case report. Acta Chir Belg; 2009 Nov-Dec;109(6):802-4
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  • [Title] Ectopic primary B cell lymphoma of the thyroid presenting as an anterior mediastinal mass. A case report.
  • Ectopic thyroid tumours arising in the mediastinum without connection to the cervical thyroid gland are very rare.
  • Follicular adenoma, papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma in the mediastinum has been reported, but primary ectopic thyroid B cell lymphoma has not been reported previously.
  • We report mediastinal primary ectopic thyroid large B cell lymphoma in an 80-year-old man.
  • Differential diagnosis from primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma and clinicopathologic features are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20184075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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81. Lozano-Gómez MJ, Sánchez-Blanco JM, Vázquez-Morón M, Parra-Membrives P, Torres-Arcos C, Jurado-Jiménez R, Gómez-Rubio D, Recio-Moyano G: [Hemithyroidectomy in a unilateral goiter: a valid therapeutic option. Review of the contralateral hemithyroid ten years after treatment]. Cir Esp; 2006 Jul;80(1):23-6
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  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the remaining thyroid in patients with NG compared with those with follicular adenoma who underwent hemithyroidectomy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery for unilateral NG with over 10 years of postoperative follow-up and normal findings on ultrasonography of the contralateral thyroid lobe were selected to form the study group (SG).
  • Patients with follicular adenoma (with normal contralateral ultrasonography) who underwent hemithyroidectomy during the same period were selected to form the control group (CG).
  • Ultrasonographic nodules were found in the remaining thyroid lobe in 70% of patients in the SG and in 60% of those in the CG, with no statistically significant differences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After hemithyroidectomy, both groups of patients developed nodules in the remaining thyroid lobe, with no statistically significant differences.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16796949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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82. Perrier ND, Edeiken B, Nunez R, Gayed I, Jimenez C, Busaidy N, Potylchansky E, Kee S, Vu T: A novel nomenclature to classify parathyroid adenomas. World J Surg; 2009 Mar;33(3):412-6
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  • [Title] A novel nomenclature to classify parathyroid adenomas.
  • We developed a nomenclature that provides a precise means of communicating the most frequently encountered parathyroid adenoma locations.
  • It is based on quadrants and anterior-posterior depth relative to the course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the thyroid parenchyma.
  • The system uses the letters A-G to describe exact gland locations.
  • RESULTS: A type A parathyroid gland is a gland that originates from a superior pedicle, lateral to the recurrent laryngeal nerve compressed within the capsule of the thyroid parenchyma.
  • A type B gland is a superior gland that has fallen posteriorly into the tracheoesophageal groove and is in the same cross-sectional plane as the superior portion of the thyroid parenchyma.
  • A type C gland is a gland that has fallen posteriorly into the tracheoesophageal groove and on a cross-sectional view lies at the level of or below the inferior pole of the thyroid gland.
  • A type D gland lies in the midregion of the posterior surface of the thyroid parenchyma, near the junction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery or middle thyroidal vein; because of this location, dissection is difficult.
  • A type E gland is an inferior gland close to the inferior pole of the thyroid parenchyma, lying in the lateral plane with the thyroid parenchyma and anterior half of the trachea.
  • A type F gland is an inferior gland that has descended (fallen) into the thyrothymic ligament or superior thymus; it may appear to be "ectopic" or within the superior mediastinum.
  • An anterior-posterior view shows the type F gland to be anterior to the trachea.
  • A type G gland is a rare, truly intrathyroidal parathyroid gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A reproducible nomenclature can provide a means of consistent communication about parathyroid adenoma location.
  • If uniformly adopted, it has the potential to reliably communicate exact gland location without lengthy descriptions.

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  • (PMID = 19148701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Sheu SY, Vogel E, Worm K, Grabellus F, Schwertheim S, Schmid KW: Hyalinizing trabecular tumour of the thyroid-differential expression of distinct miRNAs compared with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histopathology; 2010 Apr;56(5):632-40
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumour of the thyroid-differential expression of distinct miRNAs compared with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • AIMS: To compare the expression pattern of five microRNAs (miRNAs) (146b, -181b, -21, -221, -222) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and hyalinizing trabecular tumour of the thyroid (HTT).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression pattern of five miRNAs known to be up-regulated in PTC was retrospectively analysed in 18 HTTs, adjacent normal thyroid tissue, 10 PTCs, 10 follicular adenomas and 10 non-toxic multinodular goitres (MNG) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using the TaqMan miRNA assay.
  • All miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in PTCs, whereas all miRNAs in HTT, normal thyroid tissue, adenomas, and MNGs were down-regulated.
  • It is suggested that HTTs lacking both a miRNA expression pattern characteristic for PTC and RET/PTC rearrangements are re-designated as 'hyalinizing trabecular adenomas'.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Rearrangement. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Hyalin / metabolism. Mutation. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20459574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / ret-PTC fusion oncoproteins, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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84. Jabbour SA, Davidovici BB, Wolf R: Rare syndromes. Clin Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;24(4):299-316
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  • Dermatologists may also encounter patients presenting with skin lesions that reflect an underlying endocrine disorder not commonly seen in daily practice.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A is characterized by medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary parathyroid hyperplasia.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B is characterized by medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma but not hyperparathyroidism.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an autosomal dominant predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands (four-gland hyperplasia), anterior pituitary, and pancreatic islet cells; hence, the mnemonic device of the "3 Ps"; multiple cutaneous lesions (angiofibromas and collagenomas) are frequent in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • Carney complex may be viewed as a form of multiple endocrine neoplasia because affected patients often have tumors of two or more endocrine glands, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (some with Cushing's syndrome), pituitary adenoma, testicular neoplasms, thyroid adenoma or carcinoma, and ovarian cysts.
  • Additional unusual manifestations include psammomatous melanotic schwannoma, breast ductal adenoma, and a rare bone tumor, osteochondromyxoma.
  • Mast cell diseases include all disorders of mast cell proliferation.

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  • (PMID = 16828412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-081X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 155
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85. Kim TY, Kim WB, Song JY, Rhee YS, Gong G, Cho YM, Kim SY, Kim SC, Hong SJ, Shong YK: The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Nov;63(5):588-93
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  • [Title] The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF(V600E) mutation, the most common genetic alteration reported in papillary thyroid carcinoma, has been associated with poor prognostic factors.
  • AIM: To determine whether the presence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation is associated with poor prognosis in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (micro-PTC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded thyroid tumour specimens taken from 60 patients with conventional micro-PTC, as well as from nine patients with follicular variant papillary carcinoma, six with nodular hyperplasia, four with follicular carcinoma (including one with Hürthle cell carcinoma), four with follicular adenoma (including two with Hürthle cell adenoma) and one each with medullary carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected in tumour samples from 31 of 60 conventional micro-PTC patients (52%), but was not detected in patients with other types of thyroid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16268813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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86. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Yanik BT, Salmaslioğlu A, Tunaci M, Adalet I, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: Impact of gland morphology and concomitant thyroid nodules on preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Laryngoscope; 2006 Apr;116(4):580-5
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  • [Title] Impact of gland morphology and concomitant thyroid nodules on preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the presence of thyroid nodules, adenoma weight, and ectopic localization on the sensitivity of different imaging studies in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • Patients were divided in two groups depending on the presence or absence of thyroid nodules.
  • The sensitivity of these imaging studies was 94%, 100%, 94%, 96%, and 100%, respectively, in our patients with no thyroid nodules but decreased to 54%, 84%, 54%, 81%, and 79%, respectively, in the presence of thyroid nodules.
  • The parathyroid adenoma weight in true-positive imaging studies was significantly higher than those in false-positive and false-negative imaging studies.
  • The numbers of ectopic parathyroid adenomas were found to be higher in the group of parathyroid adenomas undetected with ultrasonography when compared with ultrasonographically detected adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with parathyroid adenoma, the sensitivity of imaging studies correlates with the presence of thyroid nodules, adenoma weight, and ectopic localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care / methods. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16585862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Rago T, Bencivelli W, Scutari M, Di Cosmo C, Rizzo C, Berti P, Miccoli P, Pinchera A, Vitti P: The newly developed three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) thyroid ultrasound are strongly correlated, but 2D overestimates thyroid volume in the presence of nodules. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 May;29(5):423-6
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  • [Title] The newly developed three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) thyroid ultrasound are strongly correlated, but 2D overestimates thyroid volume in the presence of nodules.
  • The newly developed three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) thyroid ultrasound (US) were compared in assessing thyroid volume (TV) in 104 patients: 53 had an isolated thyroid nodule, 32 toxic diffuse goiter, 17 non-toxic multinodular goiter, 1 toxic multinodular goiter and 1 a toxic adenoma.
  • The volume of thyroid lobes by 2D was calculated according to the ellipsoid formula.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Nodule / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. False Positive Reactions. Female. Goiter, Nodular / diagnostic imaging. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16794365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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88. Westhoff CC, Hoffmann S, Barth PJ: Clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid--a challenge in intra-operative diagnostics. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Jan;118(1):19-21
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  • [Title] Clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid--a challenge in intra-operative diagnostics.
  • Pure clear cell lesions of the thyroid gland are rare and prone to pose severe diagnostic challenges.
  • We report the case of a 61-year-old man with a clear cell adenoma of the thyroid.
  • The patient presented with a hypoechoic thyroid nodule.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology rendered the primary diagnosis of a follicular neoplasia, and right thyroid lobectomy was performed.
  • By intra-operative frozen section, the diagnosis given was clear cell lesion of unknown malignant potential.
  • Based on the light microscopic findings and the immunohistochemical profile, the lesion was diagnosed as clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid.
  • A follicular thyroid lesion presenting with clear cell changes in fine needle aspiration cytology or intra-operative frozen section consultation constitutes a diagnostic challenge to every surgical pathologist.
  • As immunohistochemistry of cytologic specimens is hampered by several methodological problems, any thyroid lesion with clear cell features warrants further histologic assessment to render the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Frozen Sections. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intraoperative Care. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 19235130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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89. Diaconescu MR, Glod M, Costea I, Palade M, Grigorovici M: [Reoperations of the thyroid gland]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2007 May-Jun;102(3):297-302
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  • [Title] [Reoperations of the thyroid gland].
  • Reoperative thyroid surgery may be necessary in recurrent simple goiters, thyrotoxicosis and especially cancers of the thyroid gland.
  • The present series reviewed 33 cases representing 7.3 % from our experience consisting of 440 thyroid operations.
  • Eleven cases had benign lesions: eight with uni or bilateral nodular goiters and three thyrotoxicosis (two with Basedow-Graves'disease and one with toxic adenoma) for which nodulectomy, subtotal lobectomies or thyroidectomies were performed.
  • In twenty one cases the surgical indication was done for persistent or recurrent thyroid carcinomas (16 papillary, two follicular and one case each of medullary, anaplastic and malignant lymphoma).
  • Among these 6 patients underwent completion total thyroidectomies associated in 9 another patients with radical or modified neck dissection and in the 6 remaining cases conservative procedures (lobectomies, tumoral excision) of the gland or nodes were done.
  • Reoperative thyroid surgery constitute a valuable surgical procedure for persistence or recurrence of benign and especially malignant thyroid lesions but is associated with significant increased risk of functional and anatomic complications rate than those of the initial surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / surgery. Endocrine Surgical Procedures. Female. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Graves Disease / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyrotoxicosis / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17687858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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90. Gulwani H, Chopra P: Mucin-producing signet ring cell adenoma of the thyroid. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Oct-Dec;51(4):507-8
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  • [Title] Mucin-producing signet ring cell adenoma of the thyroid.
  • Signet ring cell adenoma of the thyroid, though rare, is well documented.
  • Awareness of this entity is important as it may closely simulate a metastatic mucin-secreting signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • We herein describe a rare case of a 46-year-old man who was hypothyroid and the mass removed from the thyroid showed a mucin-producing signet ring cell adenoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Mucins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19008577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
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91. Syrenicz A, Syrenicz M, Sworczak K, Garanty-Bogacka B: [Atypical forms of hyperthyroidism]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Sep-Oct;57(5):518-24
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  • Except from well-known the most frequent reasons of the hyperthyroidism such as the Graves-Basedow disease, multinodular goitre and the autonomous adenoma we should also remember the other rarer illnesses leading to the excess of thyroid hormones in the serum.
  • Authors presented the problem of atypical forms of thyrotoxicosis which run without the overproduction of thyroid hormones and are characterized by low 24 h 131 J uptake by the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antithyroid Agents. Autoantibodies / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid Hormones / analysis. Thyrotoxicosis / complications. Thyrotoxicosis / diagnosis. Thyrotoxicosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17133317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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92. Papotti M, Rodriguez J, De Pompa R, Bartolazzi A, Rosai J: Galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in well-differentiated thyroid tumors with follicular architecture of uncertain malignant potential. Mod Pathol; 2005 Apr;18(4):541-6
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in well-differentiated thyroid tumors with follicular architecture of uncertain malignant potential.
  • Well-differentiated encapsulated tumors of the thyroid gland with a follicular architecture may cause diagnostic difficulties.
  • Questionable vascular or capsular penetration may raise the possibility of a follicular carcinoma, while focal nuclear clearing and grooves may suggest a diagnosis of papillary carcinoma.
  • A proposal has recently been made to designate cases showing suggestive but not conclusive morphological evidence of malignancy along these lines as well-differentiated or follicular tumors of uncertain malignant potential.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and diagnostic role in well-differentiated or follicular tumors of uncertain malignant potential of Galectin-3 and HBME-1, two malignancy-related markers.
  • A total of 21 tumors fulfilling the criteria of well-differentiated or follicular tumors of uncertain malignant potential were collected from two institutions, including eight cases with questionable vascular and/or capsular invasion and 13 cases with some degree of nuclear changes in the form of clearing, grooves, and/or pseudoinclusions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15529186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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93. Talsania N, Harwood CA, Piras D, Cerio R: Paraneoplastic Acanthosis Nigricans: The importance of exhaustive and repeated malignancy screening. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(8):8
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  • After exhaustive and repeated investigations a papillary thyroid carcinoma and a follicular adenoma were identified and he improved upon its resection.
  • To our knowledge, P-AN in association with thyroid neoplasm has been reported on only one previous occasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthosis Nigricans / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20804685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Kraemer S, Rothe K, Pfaeffle R, Fuehrer-Sakel D, Till H, Muensterer OJ: Activating TSH-receptor mutation (Met453Thr) as a cause of adenomatous non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism in a 3-year-old boy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Mar;22(3):269-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Several mutations of the TSH-receptor gene have been described in a variety of thyroid diseases.
  • Particularly in children and adolescents, somatic or germ cell mutations may lead to hyperthyroidism.
  • We report a 3-year-old boy with a rare somatic TSHR mutation causing autonomous adenoma of the thyroid gland in order to illustrate how the genetic analysis of the lesion impacted on the surgical strategy.
  • The patient presented with a left neck mass, negative thyroid autoantibodies, and unifocal autonomy on thyroid scan.
  • He underwent local resection of the adenoma.
  • Exons 9 and 10 of the TSHR gene (chromosome 14q3) from peripheral blood DNA and toxic thyroid adenoma tissue DNA were amplified by PCR and analyzed by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).
  • The genetic appraisal of resected thyroid tissue in cases with nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism is important to formulate surgical and medical treatment plans.
  • In cases with somatic mutations of the TSHR, simple resection of the adenoma is sufficient, whereas total thyroidectomy should be considered in patients with germ cell mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Hyperthyroidism / genetics. Mutation. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Pedigree. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19492584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin
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95. Bukhari MH, Niazi S, Hanif G, Qureshi SS, Munir M, Hasan M, Naeem S: An updated audit of fine needle aspiration cytology procedure of solitary thyroid nodule. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Feb;36(2):104-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An updated audit of fine needle aspiration cytology procedure of solitary thyroid nodule.
  • This study was conducted to see the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for solitary thyroid nodules and to compare our experience with that of other regions of the world.
  • It was a prospective cross sectional study conducted on 76 thyroid samples submitted and reported at the Department of Pathology, King Edward Medical University, Lahore.
  • There were 30 cases (39.47%) of benign lesions, comprising of colloid goiter, follicular adenoma, and diffuse hyperplasia.
  • Only 9 cases (11.84%) were clearly committed as malignant lesions, comprising of papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma and suggestive of follicular carcinoma.
  • In conclusion, we recommend this procedure in the light of views of other experts as a primary investigation of thyroid lesions.
  • We strongly recommend the suggestion that in a patient with one or more thyroid nodule, FNAC should be advised for every patient for exclusion of cancer.
  • As FNAC is inexpensive, sensitive, specific, and an accurate procedure it should be adapted as an initial investigation of thyroid diseases in all tertiary hospitals in developing countries like Pakistan.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Clinical Audit. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pakistan. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18181183.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Abdulkader I, Pérez-Becerra R, Vázquez-Boquete A, Alberte-Lista L, Ruiz-Ponte C, Forteza J, Sobrinho-Simões M: BRAF mutation in solid cell nest hyperplasia associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma. A precursor lesion? Hum Pathol; 2009 Jul;40(7):1029-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] BRAF mutation in solid cell nest hyperplasia associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma. A precursor lesion?
  • We describe a case of solid cell nest hyperplasia associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man with goiter.
  • The entire gland was examined; in 1 section, the cells of 1 solid cell nest were in close contact with a follicular variant of papillary microcarcinoma.
  • A second follicular variant of papillary microcarcinoma, 1 follicular adenoma, hyperplastic nodules, and some lymphoid aggregates were also found.
  • After microdissection, the same BRAF(V600E) mutation was found both in a pool of 5 solid cell nests and in the adjacent papillary microcarcinoma.
  • BRAF(V600E) mutation and the previously unreported BRAF(G593D) mutation along with p.G606G silent change were found in the second papillary microcarcinoma, but no mutations were detected in the follicular adenoma or in the 2 other pools of solid cell nests screened for BRAF gene mutations.
  • These findings support a histogenetic link between the main cells of solid cell nests and papillary thyroid carcinoma, and suggest solid cell nest hyperplasia as a precursor lesion of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Goiter / etiology. Goiter / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 19269016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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97. Murua Escobar H, Winkler S, Reimann-Berg N, Drieschner N, Dolf G, Schelling C, Nolte I, Bullerdiek J: Chromosomal assignment of canine THADA gene to CFA 10q25. Mol Cytogenet; 2008 06 03;1:11
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  • BACKGROUND: Chromosomal translocations affecting the chromosome 2p21 cluster in a 450 kb breakpoint region are frequently observed in human benign thyroid adenomas.
  • THADA (thyroid adenoma associated) was identified as the affected gene within this breakpoint region.
  • In contrast to man tumours of the thyroid gland of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) constitute mainly as follicular cell carcinomas, with malignant thyroid tumours being more frequent than benign thyroid adenomas.
  • In order to elucidate if the THADA gene is also a target of chromosomal rearrangements in thyroid adenomas of the dog we have physically mapped the canine THADA gene to canine chromosome 10.A PCR was established to screen a canine genome library for a BAC clone containing the gene sequence of canine THADA.
  • CONCLUSION: We analysed whether the THADA gene locus is a hotspot of canine chromosomal rearrangements in canine neoplastic lesions of the thyroid and in addition might play a role as a candidate gene for a possible malignant transformation of canine thyroid adenomas.
  • Although the available cytogenetic data of canine thyroid adenomas are still insufficient the chromosomal region to which the canine THADA has been mapped seems to be no hotspot of chromosomal aberrations seen in canine thyroid adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 18522714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-8166
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Cytogenet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2430699
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98. Richmond BK, Eads K, Flaherty S, Belcher M, Runyon D: Complications of thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy in the rural community hospital setting. Am Surg; 2007 Apr;73(4):332-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The objective of this study was to examine the complications encountered in a series of 150 consecutive thyroid and parathyroid procedures performed by a single surgeon in a rural community hospital setting.
  • Specifically, these include intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurements, intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring, and the use of the gamma probe for detection of parathyroid adenoma.
  • A retrospective chart review was conducted on a series of 150 patients undergoing any thyroid or parathyroid operation by a single surgeon in a rural setting over a 4-year period.
  • One hundred thirty-one thyroid procedures were performed (71 lobectomies, 60 total or near total procedures) for a diverse range of patholological conditions: multinodular goiter, 76 (50.7%) patients, follicular adenoma, 9 (6.0%) patients, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 13 (8.7%) patients, papillary carcinoma, 14 (9.3%) patients, follicular carcinoma, 5 (3.3%) patients, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, 13 (8.7%) patients, and medullary carcinoma, 1 (0.7%) patient.
  • The success of identifying parathyroid adenoma was 100 per cent, despite the absence of intraoperative parathormone assays, and the decision not to perform radio-guided parathyroidectomy.
  • We conclude that outcomes and complications in thyroid and parathyroid surgical procedures are largely dependent on surgeon skill and experience, and can be performed safely in the community setting by an experienced general surgeon despite the absence of advanced technology in this setting.

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  • (PMID = 17439023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Giovanella L, Suriano S, Maffioli M, Ceriani L, Spriano G: (99m)Tc-sestamibi scanning in thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic cytology. Head Neck; 2010 May;32(5):607-11
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  • [Title] (99m)Tc-sestamibi scanning in thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic cytology.
  • BACKGROUND: Our aim in this study was to assess the relevance of (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (MIBI) scan in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic cytology.
  • In all cases thyroid nodules were cold in (99m)Tc-pertechnetate (Tc) scans.
  • Thyroid scans were also acquired 30 and 120 minutes after intravenous administration of MIBI.
  • None of 63 patients with a negative MIBI scan had a final histologic diagnosis of malignancy (ie, no false-negative results).
  • Two patients with a final histologic diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 1 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) had a positive MIBI scan.
  • Eight patients with a final histologic diagnosis of benign lesions (3 with follicular adenomas) also had MIBI-positive scans.
  • Histology is still necessary to distinguish benign from malignant disease in a MIBI-positive nodule but unnecessary surgery could have been reduced from 71 to 8 cases in our series.
  • [MeSH-major] Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 19693945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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100. Netea-Maier RT, Hunsucker SW, Hoevenaars BM, Helmke SM, Slootweg PJ, Hermus AR, Haugen BR, Duncan MW: Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms. Cancer Res; 2008 Mar 1;68(5):1572-80
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  • [Title] Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • Distinguishing between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by cytologic features alone is not possible.
  • These findings provide further insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and pathophysiology of follicular-derived thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18316623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calreticulin; 0 / Peptides
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