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1. Hörkkö TT, Tuppurainen K, George SM, Jernvall P, Karttunen TJ, Mäkinen MJ: Thyroid hormone receptor beta1 in normal colon and colorectal cancer-association with differentiation, polypoid growth type and K-ras mutations. Int J Cancer; 2006 Apr 1;118(7):1653-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid hormone receptor beta1 in normal colon and colorectal cancer-association with differentiation, polypoid growth type and K-ras mutations.
  • The precursors for colorectal cancer include polypoid (conventional), flat and serrated adenomas.
  • Polypoid growth in polypoid adenomas and serrated adenomas is associated with K-ras mutations.
  • The regulation of polypoid or nonpolypoid growth is not well known, but could be related to trophic stimuli, such as thyroid hormones.
  • Hence, we investigated the expression pattern of thyroid hormone receptor TRbeta1 in colorectal mucosa and in colorectal tumours and its relationship to tumour growth type.
  • Nuclear TRbeta1 was almost always present in normal epithelium (96%), but less frequent in adenomas (83%) and in cancer (68%; p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively).
  • TRbeta1 was associated with polypoid growth, presence of K-ras mutations and also with a higher WHO histological grade and advanced Dukes' stage.
  • Association of TRbeta1 expression with growth pattern and the presence of K-ras mutations suggest that abnormalities in thyroid hormone signalling involving TRbeta1 play a role in the development of some types of colorectal adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Genes, ras. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / biosynthesis. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16231318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta
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2. Kołomecki K, Maciaszczyk P, Stepień H, Cywiński J, Cielecka J, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):320-5
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors].
  • INTRODUCTION: Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is the best described mode of physiological cell death.
  • The first is external protein signal originating from other cell--also named as "death signal".
  • Another one is specific cell reaction for external stress factors.
  • Blood concentration of proteins regulating both pathways of apoptosis may be useful in early diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors.
  • The aim of study was evaluation of p53 and sFasL blood concentration in patients with benign follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was composed of 28 patients: 14 with thyroid carcinoma and 14 patients with follicular neoplasm (NF).
  • P53 and sFasL levels were evaluated before surgery and related to the histopathological diagnosis obtained post-surgery.
  • RESULTS: The analysis revealed high sFasL blood concentration in patients with follicular thyroid cancer in comparison with the group with follicular adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of sFasL serum level concentration may be useful in preoperative diagnosis of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fas Ligand Protein / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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3. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of cumene (CAS No. 98-82-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2009 Feb;(542):1-200
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  • Adenomas of the respiratory epithelium of the nose were observed in male and female rats, and male rats had increased incidences of renal tubule adenoma or carcinoma (combined) and interstitial cell adenoma of the testis.
  • Adenomas and carcinomas of the lung were markedly increased in male and female mice exposed to cumene.
  • The rate of liver neoplasms was also increased in exposed female mice, and a few hemangiosarcomas of the spleen and follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid gland were seen in male mice exposed to the highest concentration of cumene.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the increased occurrences of adenomas of the epithelium of the nose in male and female rats, of renal tubule adenoma or carcinoma (combined), of adenomas and carcinomas of the lung in male and female mice, and of liver neoplasms in female mice were caused by exposure to cumene.
  • The occurrence of interstitial cell adenoma of the testis in male rats and hemangiosarcomas of the spleen and follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid gland in male mice may also have been associated with exposure to cumene.

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  • (PMID = 19340095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzene Derivatives; 8Q54S3XE7K / cumene
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4. Zhu X, Zhai H, Tang SF, Cheng Y: Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma presenting with neuromuscular manifestation. Neurol India; 2009 May-Jun;57(3):340-3
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  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma presenting with neuromuscular manifestation.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is not an uncommon endocrine disorder.
  • Neck computerized tomography scan showed a parenchymatous tumor in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • The right lobectomy examination confirmed the diagnosis of an intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma of the right gland.

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  • (PMID = 19587481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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5. Iakovou IP, Konstantinidis IE, Chrisoulidou AI, Doumas AS: Synchronous parathyroid adenoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9121
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  • [Title] Synchronous parathyroid adenoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma: a case report.
  • Ultrasonography showed a multinodular goiter with a prominent solid nodule in the lower left thyroid lobe and a solid hypoechoic nodule outside this area.Tc99m-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy was performed to investigate a primary hyperparathyroidism, revealing an area with increased uptake in the lower left thyroid lobe and another area with marked uptake lower than this level.
  • Thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc showed a cold nodule of the left lower pole.
  • FNA of the thyroid nodule was positive for papillary carcinoma later verified by postoperative histopathology.This case underlines the need for a clinical high index of suspicion for synchronous hyperparathyroidism and thyroid cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20062698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803918
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6. Yoshizawa K, Walker NJ, Nyska A, Kissling GE, Jokinen MP, Brix AE, Sells DM, Wyde ME: Thyroid follicular lesions induced by oral treatment for 2 years with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol Pathol; 2010 Dec;38(7):1037-50
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular lesions induced by oral treatment for 2 years with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats.
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and structurally-similar dioxin-like compounds affect thyroid function and morphology and thyroid hormone metabolism in animals and humans.
  • Administration of these compounds was associated with increased incidences of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy, variably observed in the 14-, 31-, and 53-week interim and 2-year sacrifice groups.
  • In all studies, the incidences of follicular cell adenoma and carcinoma were not increased.
  • TCDD, PCB126, PCB126/PCB153, and PCB126/PCB118 increased levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone almost in a dose-dependent manner in the 14-week groups.
  • These data suggest that although dioxin-like compounds alter thyroid hormones and increase follicular cell hyperplasia, there is not an increase in thyroid adenoma or carcinoma in female Sprague-Dawley rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Environmental Pollutants / toxicity. Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin / toxicity. Thyroid Diseases / chemically induced. Thyroid Gland / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinogenicity Tests. Cell Enlargement / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Hypertrophy / chemically induced. Hypertrophy / pathology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyroxine / blood. Toxicity Tests, Chronic. Triiodothyronine / blood

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  • (PMID = 20924081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-1601
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; DO80M48B6O / Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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7. Wang SL, Li SH, Chen WT, Chai CY: Expression of D2-40 in adjunct diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. APMIS; 2007 Aug;115(8):906-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of D2-40 in adjunct diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The clinical pathologic criteria for nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma are subjective and sometimes cannot distinguish carcinoma from adenomatous goiter and follicular neoplasms.
  • Controls included 36 follicular adenomas, 36 follicular carcinomas, and 20 adenomatous goiters with papillary hyperplasia.
  • Cytoplasmic D2-40 immunoreactivity was present in 60 of 72 papillary carcinomas, 2 cases of follicular adenoma and 2 cases of follicular carcinoma, whereas no adenomatous goiter or normal thyroid glands contained positive epithelial cells.
  • Overexpression of D2-40 in papillary thyroid carcinomas thus has potential diagnostic utility in differentiating these tumors from their potential histologic mimics.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17696946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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8. Iliszko M, Kuźniacka A, Łachiński A, Babińska M, Kobierska-Gulida G, Limon J: Karyotypic characterization of 64 nonmalignant thyroid goiters. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2005 Sep;161(2):178-80
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  • [Title] Karyotypic characterization of 64 nonmalignant thyroid goiters.
  • Cytogenetic analyses were performed on 64 nonmalignant thyroid goiters (11 common and 53 multinodular goiters) after short-term culture.
  • Selection and clonal evolution of aneuploid cells present in nonmalignant goiters could underlie progression into adenoma formation.

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  • (PMID = 16102591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Listewnik MH, Birkenfeld B, Chosia M, Elbl B, Niedziałkowska K, Sawrymowicz M: The occurrence of malignant thyroid lesions in patients after radioiodine treatment due to benign thyroid diseases. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):454-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The occurrence of malignant thyroid lesions in patients after radioiodine treatment due to benign thyroid diseases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Radioiodine treatment (RT) of benign thyroid diseases is a well-known, safe, and effective treatment.
  • In a group of patients after RT, who remained in long-term follow-up, sporadic cases of malignant thyroid lesions occurred.
  • Apart from thyroid function estimation, if needed, fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid or neck focal lesions was performed based on ultrasonographic or clinical examination.
  • Suspicious thyroid lesion results were found in 9 patients (8 F, 1 M), aged 46-73 (average 56 years) followed up for 3-57 months after RT: papillary cancer in two patients, Hürthle cell tumour in one patient, and suspicious cells in two patients (with benign lesions on postoperative histopathology).
  • A follicular tumour in FNAB was suspected in two cases (no data about the first, and the second with lung cancer was not operable).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant thyroid lesions in patients after RT due to benign thyroid diseases are seldom detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma. Causality. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 21049457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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10. Pelizzo MR, Merante Boschin I, Toniato A, Piotto A, Bernante P, Paggetta C, De Salvo GL, Carpi A, Rubello D, Casara D: Sentinel node mapping and biopsy in thyroid cancer: a surgical perspective. Biomed Pharmacother; 2006 Sep;60(8):405-8
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  • [Title] Sentinel node mapping and biopsy in thyroid cancer: a surgical perspective.
  • The clinical role of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in thyroid cancer remains an open matter in literature.
  • The main reason of this fact is that nodal disease is considered a non-relevant prognostic factor by some authors in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • Forty-one consecutive pts with a small thyroid nodule highly suspected for malignancy at fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and without clinical and ultrasonographic (US) evidence of lymph node involvement entered the study.
  • A papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was diagnosed in 39 cases, a mixed papillary-medullary carcinoma in one case and a micro-follicular adenoma in one case.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16962736.001).
  • [ISSN] 0753-3322
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine & pharmacothérapie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Pharmacother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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11. Ide F, Obara K, Enatsu K, Mishima K, Saito I: Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity. J Oral Pathol Med; 2005 Mar;34(3):187-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMEC) with eosinophilia is a rare but distinctive tumor usually affecting the thyroid.
  • SMEC involvement of salivary gland is exceptional, with only six cases in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Gingival Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Eosinophils / pathology. Humans. Hyalin / ultrastructure. Male. Sclerosis. Secretory Vesicles / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 15689234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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12. Sippel RS, Elaraj DM, Khanafshar E, Zarnegar R, Kebebew E, Duh QY, Clark OH: Tumor size predicts malignant potential in Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):702-7
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  • [Title] Tumor size predicts malignant potential in Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: A fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of a Hürthle cell neoplasm is associated with a 20% risk of malignancy.
  • We sought to determine if the primary tumor size correlated with the risk of malignancy in patients with a preoperative FNA diagnosis of a Hürthle cell neoplasm.
  • METHODS: Between January 2000 and November 2006, 57 patients underwent a thyroidectomy with a preoperative FNA diagnosis of a Hürthle cell neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: The overall rate of malignancy in patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms was 21%.
  • The average tumor size was 3.2 cm, with malignant tumors being significantly larger than benign tumors (5.0 vs. 2.7 cm, p<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor size correlates directly with malignant potential in patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18224463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Losa M, Mortini P, Minelli R, Giovanelli M: Coexistence of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jun;29(6):555-9
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  • [Title] Coexistence of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism.
  • OBJECTIVE: TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas account for about 1-2% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • Their diagnosis may be very difficult when coexistence of other diseases masquerades the clinical and biochemical manifestations of TSH-hypersecretion.
  • Eight yr before, the patient had been given a diagnosis of subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism because of slightly elevated TSH levels and low-normal free T4 (FT4).
  • The tumor was surgically removed and histological examinations revealed a pituitary adenoma strongly positive for TSH.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Coexistence of autoimmune hypothyroidism and TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma may cause further delays in the diagnosis of the latter.
  • In patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism, one should be aware of the possible presence of a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma when TSH levels do not adequately suppress in the face of high doses of L-T4 replacement therapy and elevated serum thyroid hormone levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / secretion. Autoimmune Diseases / complications. Hypothyroidism / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16840835.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Blank W, Braun B: Sonography of the thyroid--Part 1. Ultraschall Med; 2007 Dec;28(6):554-68; quiz 570-4
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  • [Title] Sonography of the thyroid--Part 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / ultrasonography. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Organ Size. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18074309.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Lindholm J, Nielsen EH, Bjerre P, Christiansen JS, Hagen C, Juul S, Jørgensen J, Kruse A, Laurberg P, Stochholm K: Hypopituitarism and mortality in pituitary adenoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jul;65(1):51-8
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  • [Title] Hypopituitarism and mortality in pituitary adenoma.
  • PATIENTS AND DESIGN: One hundred and sixty consecutive patients (99 men and 61 women) with functionless, suprasellar pituitary adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Postoperatively 30% of the patients had normal pituitary function (normal adrenocortical, thyroid and gonadal function), 26% were panhypopituitary and 36% had partial pituitary insufficiency.
  • CONCLUSION: Pituitary surgery for nonfunctioning adenoma and subsequent pituitary insufficiency had no effect on mortality in men, but was associated with significantly increased mortality in women.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / mortality. Hypopituitarism / mortality. Pituitary Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16817819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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16. Metze K, Ferreira RC, Adam RL: Classification of thyroid follicular lesions based on nuclear texture features--lesion size matters. Cytometry A; 2010 Dec;77(12):1101-2
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  • [Title] Classification of thyroid follicular lesions based on nuclear texture features--lesion size matters.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Carcinoma / classification. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Nucleus / pathology. Humans. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 20972968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4930
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3051835
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17. Arnaldi LA, Borra RC, Maciel RM, Cerutti JM: Gene expression profiles reveal that DCN, DIO1, and DIO2 are underexpressed in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Thyroid; 2005 Mar;15(3):210-21
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiles reveal that DCN, DIO1, and DIO2 are underexpressed in benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • To investigate the molecular events involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of thyroid tumors, we compared the gene expression profiles of three thyroid carcinoma cell lines, which represent major tumor subtypes of thyroid cancer and normal thyroid tissue.
  • We found that 505 transcripts were differentially expressed in the thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • Using a more stringent criterion, transcripts underexpressed or overexpressed more than fivefold in 1 of 3 or 3 of 3 carcinoma cell lines, a list of 55 ESTs were detected.
  • Five candidate genes were further validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in an independent set of 52 thyroid tumors and 22 matched normal thyroid tissues.
  • DCN was found underexpressed in a high percentage of the follicular thyroid adenomas, follicular thyroid carcinomas, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • DIO1 and DIO2 were underexpressed in nearly all papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • These genes not only could help to better define a tumor signature for thyroid tumors, but may, in part, also become useful as potential targets for thyroid tumor treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Iodide Peroxidase / genetics. Proteoglycans / genetics. Thyroid Gland / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Primers. Decorin. Extracellular Matrix Proteins. Female. Humans. Isoenzymes / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Open Reading Frames. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15785240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DCN protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Decorin; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Proteoglycans; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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18. Castro P, Eknaes M, Teixeira MR, Danielsen HE, Soares P, Lothe RA, Sobrinho-Simões M: Adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid display two major patterns of chromosomal changes. J Pathol; 2005 Jul;206(3):305-11
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  • [Title] Adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid display two major patterns of chromosomal changes.
  • It was recently shown by flow and static cytometry that a large sub-group of follicular adenomas of the thyroid--fetal/embryonal adenomas--display an aneuploid phenotype.
  • It was also shown that thyroid lesions with a DNA content within the triploid range were either fetal adenomas or follicular carcinomas with a fetal adenoma growth pattern.
  • Follicular tumours with growth patterns other than the so-called fetal adenoma-like pattern were usually diploid or near-diploid.
  • In an attempt to clarify the pattern of chromosomal imbalances in follicular tumours, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was performed in a series of 18 follicular neoplasms (ten fetal/embryonal and four common follicular adenomas and four minimally invasive follicular carcinomas).
  • With the exception of the single diploid fetal adenoma, all fetal adenomas displayed several DNA copy number changes, with frequent gains of several chromosomes, which were found to be either tetrasomic or trisomic by FISH.
  • This genetic pattern was also present in the single case of follicular carcinoma with aneuploidy and fetal adenoma-like growth pattern.
  • Follicular adenomas other than fetal adenomas, and the remaining follicular carcinomas, showed more losses than gains of chromosomes.
  • These results suggest that follicular tumourigenesis may follow at least two pathways: one characterized by prominent aneuploidy and numerous gains, in which the tumours display a fetal adenoma-like growth pattern; and another accompanied by less obvious aneuploidy or even quasi-diploidy and dominant chromosome losses, in which the tumours display a common follicular architecture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aneuploidy. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Diploidy. Fetal Diseases / genetics. Fetal Diseases / pathology. Flow Cytometry / methods. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nucleic Acid Hybridization / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15852498.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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19. Liu Y, Chun KJ, Freeman LM: 'Shine through' on dual tracer parathyroid scintigraphy: a potential pitfall in interpretation. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Mar;30(3):145-9
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  • Dual tracer scintigraphy has become the procedure of choice for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas.
  • This is followed by a thyroid-specific Tc-99m pertechnetate study.
  • To differentiate a parathyroid adenoma from a thyroid adenoma, it may be necessary to repeat the thyroid-specific pertechnetate scan on a separate day after the dual tracer study.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Artifacts. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 15722816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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20. Zhang P, Zuo H, Nakamura Y, Nakamura M, Wakasa T, Kakudo K: Immunohistochemical analysis of thyroid-specific transcription factors in thyroid tumors. Pathol Int; 2006 May;56(5):240-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of thyroid-specific transcription factors in thyroid tumors.
  • Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), thyroid transcription factor 2 (TTF2) and paired box gene 8 (Pax8) are demonstrated to play a crucial role for the differentiation and organogenesis of thyroid follicular cells.
  • Their roles in thyroid carcinogenesis are not very clear.
  • Because dedifferentiation is a common process in thyroid carcinogenesis, thyroid-specific transcription factors seem also to be involving in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • The purpose of the present paper was to investigate their expression in a broad spectrum of follicular cell tumors in different degrees of differentiation, from well-differentiated benign follicular adenoma to anaplastic carcinoma.
  • Medullary (C cell) carcinoma was also included in the investigation.
  • Results of immunohistochemical staining showed that nuclear localization of these transcription factors was gradually decreased corresponding to the progressive dedifferentiation of thyroid tumors.
  • In conclusion, abnormal expression of TTF1, TTF2 and Pax8 was closely related to thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphatases. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16669872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / TTF2 protein, human
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21. Szyfter W, Wierzbicka M, Balcerowiak A: [Is endoscopic neck surgery the future direction in neck treatment?]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2007;61(4):378-82
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  • The endoscopic surgery offered a valuable approach for chosen lesions of the neck (solitary parathyroid adenoma, thyroid nodules less then 35 mm, submandibular gland sialolithiasis or tumors).

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  • (PMID = 18260217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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22. Gurleyik E, Pehlivan M, Gokpinar I: Surgery is the procedure of choice for the treatment of patients with toxic adenoma in an endemic goitre area. Acta Chir Belg; 2005 Aug;105(4):373-7
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  • [Title] Surgery is the procedure of choice for the treatment of patients with toxic adenoma in an endemic goitre area.
  • PURPOSE: Toxic adenoma is one of the main causes of hyperthyroidism.
  • We investigated the efficacy of surgery in the treatment of toxic adenoma.
  • METHODS: Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement, ultrasound and scintigraphy of the thyroid were made for diagnostic purpose.
  • The efficacy of surgery was determined by the function of the remaining thyroid tissue.
  • The cause of thyrotoxicosis was toxic adenoma in 15 patients (14%).
  • Solitary solid adenoma was found by ultrasonographic examination, and solitary autonomous hot nodule by thyroid scintigraphy.
  • Thirteen patients who had surgery as primary treatment had normal thyroid function postoperatively contrary to other two patients who became hypothyroid after having unsuccessful radioiodine therapy, and surgery as the secondary treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of hyperthyroidism and toxic adenoma is high in our surgically treated patients with nodular goitre.
  • The diagnosis of toxic adenoma is not difficult by serum TSH measurements, and ultrasound and nuclear imaging of the thyroid.
  • Surgery is effective and safe, and the treatment of choice for patients with toxic adenoma in order to control radically the hyperthyroidism and to achieve the goal of providing the euthyroid status.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Goiter, Endemic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16184719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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23. Chen W, Parsons M, Torigian DA, Zhuang H, Alavi A: Evaluation of thyroid FDG uptake incidentally identified on FDG-PET/CT imaging. Nucl Med Commun; 2009 Mar;30(3):240-4
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  • [Title] Evaluation of thyroid FDG uptake incidentally identified on FDG-PET/CT imaging.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize the prevalence and malignancy of thyroid F-flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake incidentally identified on FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) scan in a relatively large population.
  • Images with incidental focal or diffuse thyroid FDG uptake were identified.
  • Data of the PET findings, thyroid functional assay, and pathological diagnosis were collected and analyzed.
  • Incidental thyroid FDG uptake was defined as a new thyroid lesion initially identified on PET scan in a patient without a previous known history of thyroid disease.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of incidental thyroid FDG uptake (including both focal and diffuse lesions) was 3.8% (99 of 2594) on FDG-PET/CT, of which 1.8% (46 of 2594) were diffuse and 2.0% (53/2594) were focal.
  • Of the 46 cases with diffuse uptake, 21 had thyroid functional assay and/or ultrasound study, and a diagnosis of chronic thyroiditis was made in all of the 21 cases.
  • Eleven of the 53 patients with focal uptake had fine-needle aspiration or postsurgical pathological diagnosis, four benign lesions (four of 11=36.4%: two thyroid adenomas and two hyperplastic lesions); seven malignancies (seven of 11=63.6%: three papillary carcinomas, two follicular carcinoma, and two metastases).
  • There was overlapping of the lesion SUVmax between the benign and malignant cases, with no statistical difference of the mean SUVmax between the two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Thyroid FDG uptake incidentally identified on FDG-PET/CT occurred at a frequency of 3.8%, with about half of focal and half of diffuse lesions.
  • The risk of thyroid malignancy was 63.6% in lesions with focal uptake, whereas the majority of diffuse uptake cases represents chronic thyroiditis.
  • More data are needed to elucidate the role of SUV in the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / metabolism. Incidental Findings. Thyroid Gland / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19262287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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24. Kozak OV, Muzichenko LV, Trembach AM, Voit NU, Turicina VV: First treatment activity and outcome of radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer patients with metastases in lymph nodes: mathematical correlation and clinical implications. Exp Oncol; 2006 Mar;28(1):75-9
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  • [Title] First treatment activity and outcome of radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer patients with metastases in lymph nodes: mathematical correlation and clinical implications.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 68 adult patients with differentiated thyroid cancer have been treated with radioiodine after thyroidectomy.
  • Logistic function has been used to describe the probability of the total ablation of metastases and thyroid remnants after the first course.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Aged. Humans. Middle Aged. Models, Theoretical. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16614713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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25. Ball E, Bond J, Franc B, Demicco C, Wynford-Thomas D: An immunohistochemical study of p16(INK4a) expression in multistep thyroid tumourigenesis. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Jan;43(1):194-201
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  • [Title] An immunohistochemical study of p16(INK4a) expression in multistep thyroid tumourigenesis.
  • Normal human thyroid follicular epithelial cells exhibit a very low proliferative rate which in vitro is dramatically increased by RAS oncogene activation, resulting in clones displaying a phenotype consistent with that of a ras-induced follicular adenoma in vivo.
  • We therefore hypothesised that p16 expression would also increase in vivo in follicular adenomas, and further that escape from growth control in follicular cancers would be accompanied by loss of p16 expression.
  • This was tested using tissue microarrays, representing multiple stages of thyroid tumourigenesis.
  • Whereas the majority of normal thyroids showed no immunostaining, p16 protein was readily detectable in follicular adenomas.
  • Unexpectedly, however, p16 expression was also observed in follicular and papillary carcinomas.
  • We conclude that loss of p16 is not necessary for malignant transformation in thyroid follicular cells, but that it may form one of two or more events needed for progression to more aggressive forms of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cyclin A / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17046239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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26. Itoh T, Kojimoto A, Nibe K, Uchida K, Shii H: Functional thyroid gland adenoma in a dog treated with surgical excision alone. J Vet Med Sci; 2007 Jan;69(1):61-3
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  • [Title] Functional thyroid gland adenoma in a dog treated with surgical excision alone.
  • Hormonal study revealed high levels of serum thyroid hormones, and a tentative diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to a thyroid tumor was made.
  • The tumor was removed surgically and diagnosed histopathologically as thyroid gland adenoma.
  • Serum thyroid hormone levels decreased after surgery with improved clinical signs.

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  • (PMID = 17283402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones
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27. Sorrentino F, Atzeni J, Romano G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):277-8
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  • [Title] [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Il microcarcinoma differenziato della tiroide.
  • BACKGROUND: The thyroid microcarcinoma is a tumor with maximum diameter of 10 mm (WHO).
  • The papillary microcarcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer, followed by follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The aim of our study is to assess the frequency of microcarcinoma, the association of benign thyroid disease himself and the controversial surgery.
  • RESULTS: 42 carcinomas were detected, of which 24 PTMC and 1 follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The PTMC was associated with cancer in only 2 cases (papillary carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma) in the remaining thyroid tissue was suffering from benign disease (20 goiters, 3 Hashimoto thyroiditis, a trabecular adenoma).
  • TALK: Controversial is still the type of surgery to be performed in case of differentiated thyroid microcarcinomas, as well as the indication is still debated to lymphadenectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid in our series, represents 57% of all thyroid cancers.
  • Microcarcinoma and benign thyroid disease association (76.92% of cases) was high.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20646369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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28. Bogdańska M, Górnicka B, Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska B, Koperski L, Morton M, Wasiutyński A: [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):314-9
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  • [Title] [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms].
  • INTRODUCTION: Estimation of malignancy in thyroid follicular neoplasms is a common diagnostic problem, thus revealing of differences in expression of some antigens in both benign and malignant lesions seems to be essential.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 in follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples of 38 follicular adenomas (23 "classical", 5 with intracapsular invasion, 10 oncocytic) and 15 follicular carcinomas (9 "classic", 6 oncocytic) were stained immunohistochemically with anti-CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1.
  • RESULTS: In the whole group we found statistically significant differences in CD15 expression between follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • "Classic" follicular carcinomas (without oncocytic tumors) showed stronger CD15 and HBME- 1 expression than "classic" adenomas.
  • Adenomas with intracapsular invasion differed from "classic" adenomas only in HBME-1 expression.
  • In the group of nonoxyphilic tumors positive reaction with HBME-1 was more common in adenomas with intracapsular invasion and carcinomas, but positive reaction with anti-CD15--only in carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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29. Cerutti JM, Latini FR, Nakabashi C, Delcelo R, Andrade VP, Amadei MJ, Maciel RM, Hojaij FC, Hollis D, Shoemaker J, Riggins GJ: Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 1):3311-8
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers.
  • PURPOSE: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, a standard method for thyroid nodule diagnosis, cannot distinguish between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).
  • The goal of this study was to determine if antibody markers used alone or in combination could accurately distinguish between a wider variety of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in fixed sections and FNA samples.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was done on 27 FTA, 25 FTC, and 75 other benign and malignant thyroid tissue sections using custom antibodies for chromosome 1 open reading frame 24 (C1orf24) and integral membrane protein 1 (ITM1) and commercial antibodies for DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and arginase II (ARG2).
  • RNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR in 33 thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We improved this diagnostic test by adding C1orf24 and ITM1 custom antibodies and showing use on a wider variety of thyroid pathology.
  • Use of one or more of these antibodies should improve diagnostic accuracy of suspicious thyroid nodules from both tissue sections and FNA samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16740752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461; United States / PHS HHS / / S98-146
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DDIT3 protein, human; 0 / FAM129A protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147336-12-7 / Transcription Factor CHOP; EC 2.4.1.- / Hexosyltransferases; EC 2.4.99.18 / STT3A protein, human; EC 3.5.3.1 / Arginase; EC 3.5.3.1 / arginase II, human
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30. Borup R, Rossing M, Henao R, Yamamoto Y, Krogdahl A, Godballe C, Winther O, Kiss K, Christensen L, Høgdall E, Bennedbaek F, Nielsen FC: Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):691-708
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  • [Title] Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia.
  • The molecular pathways leading to thyroid follicular neoplasia are incompletely understood, and the diagnosis of follicular tumors is a clinical challenge.
  • To provide leads to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the tumors, we examined the global transcriptome signatures of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FC) and normofollicular adenoma (FA) as well as fetal/microFA (fetal adenoma).
  • Validation employing public domain and cross-platform data demonstrated that the signature was robust and could diagnose follicular nodules originating from different geographical locations and platforms with similar accuracy.
  • Moreover, the described molecular pathways provide an accurate and robust genetic signature for the diagnosis of FA and FC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Proliferation. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1 / genetics. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1 / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Receptors, Steroid / genetics. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism. Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / genetics. Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / metabolism. Young Adult


31. Kimura HJ, Chen CY, Tzou SC, Rocchi R, Landek-Salgado MA, Suzuki K, Kimura M, Rose NR, Caturegli P: Immunoproteasome overexpression underlies the pathogenesis of thyroid oncocytes and primary hypothyroidism: studies in humans and mice. PLoS One; 2009 Nov 17;4(11):e7857
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  • [Title] Immunoproteasome overexpression underlies the pathogenesis of thyroid oncocytes and primary hypothyroidism: studies in humans and mice.
  • BACKGROUND: Oncocytes of the thyroid gland (Hürthle cells) are found in tumors and autoimmune diseases.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using transgenic mice chronically expressing IFNgamma in thyroid gland, we showed changes in the thyroid follicular epithelium reminiscent of the human oncocyte.
  • LMP2 was also found expressed in oncocytes from patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and Hürthle cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19924240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK055670; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK080334; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK55670; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R56 DK055670; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R21 DK080334
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2773418
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32. Albores-Saavedra J: Papillary thyroid carcinoma with prominent hobnail features: a new aggressive variant of moderately differentiated papillary carcinoma. A clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of 8 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jun;34(6):913; author reply 914
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma with prominent hobnail features: a new aggressive variant of moderately differentiated papillary carcinoma. A clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of 8 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrastructure. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrastructure

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jan;34(1):44-52 [19956062.001]
  • (PMID = 20442647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Ong SC, Ng DC, Sundram FX: Initial experience in use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in thyroid carcinoma patients with elevated serum thyroglobulin but negative iodine-131 whole body scans. Singapore Med J; 2005 Jun;46(6):297-301
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  • [Title] Initial experience in use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in thyroid carcinoma patients with elevated serum thyroglobulin but negative iodine-131 whole body scans.
  • INTRODUCTION: This study aims to examine the usefulness of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in thyroid carcinoma patients with elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) but negative iodine-131 (I-131) whole body scans.
  • METHODS: 17 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent FDG PET/CT scans were reviewed retrospectively over a period of one year from July 2003 to June 2004.
  • CONCLUSION: FDG PET/CT is a sensitive diagnostic tool to detect radioiodine-negative recurrences/metastases in patients with thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroglobulin / blood

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  • [CommentIn] Singapore Med J. 2005 Jun;46(6):257-8 [15902352.001]
  • (PMID = 15902358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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34. Naoi Y, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Kim SJ, Arai T, Maruyama N, Tamaki Y, Noguchi S: Connexin26 expression is associated with aggressive phenotype in human papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. Cancer Lett; 2008 Apr 18;262(2):248-56
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  • [Title] Connexin26 expression is associated with aggressive phenotype in human papillary and follicular thyroid cancers.
  • In the study presented here, we investigated Cx26 expression in human papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and its relationship with various clinicopathological parameters.
  • Of 69 PTCs, 33 were positive for Cx26 (47.8%), as were five of 11 FTCs (45.5%), all follicular thyroid adenomas (n=22) and normal thyroid tissues (n=20) were negative for Cx26.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Connexins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18191019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 127120-53-0 / connexin 26
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35. Michael CW, Pang Y, Pu RT, Hasteh F, Griffith KA: Cellular adequacy for thyroid aspirates prepared by ThinPrep: how many cells are needed? Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Dec;35(12):792-7
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  • [Title] Cellular adequacy for thyroid aspirates prepared by ThinPrep: how many cells are needed?
  • Although it is well established that ThinPrep introduces artifacts to thyroid aspirates, no criteria have been established for adequacy of such specimens.
  • This study evaluates the adequate number of cells needed to establish the correct diagnosis based on ThinPrep alone.
  • A total of 218 thyroid aspirates prepared by TP with surgical pathology follow-up were reviewed.
  • A minimum number of 6 clusters with 10 cells each was arbitrary established to assume adequacy for a definitive diagnosis.
  • Cytologic diagnoses were classified as: Nondiagnostic (ND), cystic contents, thyroiditis, nodular hyperplasia (NH), follicular/Hurthle (F/H) cell lesion, F/H cell neoplasm, and carcinoma: qualify.
  • Histologic diagnoses were classified as: Cyst (colloid or otherwise), thyroiditis, NH, F/H adenoma, F/H carcinoma, carcinoma: qualify.
  • The results were subjected to logistic regressions analysis and contingency tables correlating the number of cells with the cytologic and histologic diagnosis as well as with treatment triage.
  • 146 (67%) cases had cells and received a diagnosis while 72 (33%) were acellular.
  • 91/146 (62.3%) were correctly diagnosed and 123/146 (84.3%) would have been correctly triaged for treatment based upon the cytologic diagnosis.
  • A 25-cell increase in average cells per cluster increases the odds of agreement between diagnoses by 65%.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Cell Count / standards. Cytodiagnosis / standards. Pathology, Surgical / standards. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18008342.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Dzodic R, Markovic I, Inic M, Jokic N, Djurisic I, Zegarac M, Pupic G, Milovanovic Z, Jovic V, Jovanovic N: Sentinel lymph node biopsy may be used to support the decision to perform modified radical neck dissection in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):841-6
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy may be used to support the decision to perform modified radical neck dissection in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of lymph node metastases (LNM) in follicle cell-derived differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is still controversial.
  • The incidence of LNM in papillary thyroid carcinoma varies from 27% to 80%.
  • [MeSH-major] Neck Dissection. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • [ErratumIn] World J Surg. 2006 May;30(5):918. Markovic, Ivan [added]; Inic, Momcilo [added]; Jokic, Neven [added]; Djurisic, Igor [added]; Zegarac, Milan [added]; Pupic, Gordana [added]; Milovanovic, Zorka [added]; Jovic, Viktor [added]; Jovanovic, Nikola [added]
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  • (PMID = 16680598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Politz D, Norman J: Hyperparathyroidism in patients over 80: clinical characteristics and their ability to undergo outpatient parathyroidectomy. Thyroid; 2007 Apr;17(4):333-9
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  • The incidence of single adenoma, double adenoma, or hyperplasia was identical to patients less than 80 (p = NS).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Prospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17465863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Lee JK, Obrzut SL, Yi ES, Deftos LJ, Bouvet M: Incidental finding of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Pract; 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):380-3
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  • [Title] Incidental finding of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report on the management of a patient with the rare concurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism and incidentally found metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in an adjacent lymph node.
  • RESULTS: Primary hyperparathyroidism with concomitant occurrence of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma is rare, occurring in less than 4% of patients.
  • We report a case of a 53-year-old woman with no prior history of endocrine disease with primary hyperparathyroidism and an incidental finding of a concurrent thyroid carcinoma.
  • In this patient, technetium 99m scintigraphy revealed a parathyroid adenoma beneath the inferior pole of the left thyroid bed.
  • The final pathology examination showed a large parathyroid adenoma with an incidental finding of a small adjacent lymph node containing metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The patient subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy, and the pathology evaluation revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this case of concomitant primary hyperparathyroidism and papillary thyroid cancer is unique in the way in which the diagnosis of metastatic papillary thyroid cancer was made.
  • The presence of parathyroid adenoma should not exclude the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma; therefore, careful thyroid evaluation should be considered for all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17669714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Ruf J, Seehofer D, Denecke T, Stelter L, Rayes N, Felix R, Amthauer H: Impact of image fusion and attenuation correction by SPECT-CT on the scintigraphic detection of parathyroid adenomas. Nuklearmedizin; 2007;46(1):15-21
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  • [Title] Impact of image fusion and attenuation correction by SPECT-CT on the scintigraphic detection of parathyroid adenomas.
  • AIM: In addition to planar parathyroid scintigraphy, SPECT and image fusion with CT/MR improve adenoma detection in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / radiography. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17299650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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40. Ulmer C, Koch KP, Seimer A, Molnar V, Meyding-Lamadé U, Thon KP, Lamadé W: Real-time monitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve: an observational clinical trial. Surgery; 2008 Mar;143(3):359-65
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  • BACKGROUND: A variety of tools has been developed to identify nerve structures and to lower the risk of nerval injury during thyroid surgery.
  • METHODS: Nineteen consecutive patients scheduled for thyroid surgery (17 with benign, 2 with malignant disease), were enrolled in this observational trial.
  • The evoked potentials were sensed by standard thyroid electrodes.
  • In addition, this new system is compatible with existing equipment and can be used as an add-on with conventional nerve monitoring devices during thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve / physiology. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Vagus Nerve / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18291257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Saleh HA, Jin B, Barnwell J, Alzohaili O: Utility of immunohistochemical markers in differentiating benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid nodules. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:9
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  • [Title] Utility of immunohistochemical markers in differentiating benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are common among adults though only a small percentage is malignant, which can histologically mimic benign nodules.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these thyroid nodules is critical for the proper clinical management.
  • METHODS: We investigated immunoexpression in 98 surgically removed benign thyroid nodules including 52 hyperplastic nodules (HN) and 46 follicular/Hurthle cell adenomas (FA), and 54 malignant tumors including 22 follicular carcinoma (FC), 20 classic papillary carcinoma (PTC), and 12 follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC).
  • RESULTS: The staining results showed that malignant tumors express galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19 and Ret oncoprotein significantly more than benign nodules.
  • The sensitivity of these markers for the distinction between benign and malignant lesions ranged from 83.3% to 87%.
  • Immunoexpression was usually diffuse and strong in malignant tumors, and focal and weak in the benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that these immunomarkers are significantly more expressed in malignant tumors compared to benign lesions and may be of additional diagnostic value when combined with routine histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Hyperplasia. Keratin-19 / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20181018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2831001
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100524
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42. Ogilvie JB, Piatigorsky EJ, Clark OH: Current status of fine needle aspiration for thyroid nodules. Adv Surg; 2006;40:223-38
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  • [Title] Current status of fine needle aspiration for thyroid nodules.
  • When not to perform fine needle aspiration of a thyroid nodule In summary, FNA of thyroid nodules has become one of the most useful, safe, and accurate tools in the diagnosis of thyroid pathology.
  • Thyroid nodules that should be considered for FNA include any firm, palpable, solitary nodule or nodule associated with worrisome clinical features (rapid growth, attachment to adjacent tissues, new hoarseness, or palpable lymphadenopathy).
  • The management of thyroid nodules based on FNA findings is summarized in Table 2.
  • It can be argued that in certain circumstances the results of thyroid FNA do not change the surgical management of a thyroid nodule, and thus preoperative FNA may be unnecessary.
  • These cases include solitary nodules in patients who have a strong family history of thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia type II, or radiation to the head and neck.
  • These patients when they have thyroid nodules have at least a 40% risk for thyroid cancer and frequent multifocal or bilateral disease and should undergo total thyroidectomy with or without central neck lymph node dissection.
  • Patients who have multinodular goiter and compressive symptoms, patients who have Graves disease and a thyroid nodule, or patients who have large (greater than 4 cm) or symptomatic unilateral thyroid nodules could also be considered for total thyroidectomy or lobectomy as indicated without preoperative FNA.
  • Finally, patients who have a solitary hyperfunctioning nodule on radioiodine scan and a suppressed TSH have an extremely low incidence of malignancy and may be considered for therapeutic thyroid lobectomy or radioiodine ablation as indicated without undergoing FNA biopsy.

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  • (PMID = 17163105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-3411
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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43. Mahdi N, Faia LJ, Goodwin J, Nussenblatt RB, Sen HN: A case of autoimmune retinopathy associated with thyroid carcinoma. Ocul Immunol Inflamm; 2010 Aug;18(4):322-3
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  • [Title] A case of autoimmune retinopathy associated with thyroid carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report a case of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) associated with a thyroid carcinoma.
  • Continued surveillance for malignancy revealed a thyroid adenoma, and later a thyroidectomy revealed a thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights the unique presentation of AIR associated with a thyroid carcinoma, the need for continued surveillance for malignancy in cases of AIR, and the possible new use of rituximab for the treatment of AIR.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Autoimmune Diseases / etiology. Carcinoma / complications. Retinal Diseases / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20662664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5078
  • [Journal-full-title] Ocular immunology and inflammation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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44. Cichoń S, Anielski R, Konturek A, Baczyński M, Cichoń W, Orlicki P: Surgical management of mediastinal goiter: risk factors for sternotomy. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2008 Sep;393(5):751-7
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  • Aberrant adenomas were diagnosed in 32 (36.4%) individuals.
  • In the majority of cases, these were individuals with goiters showing additional blood supply originating from the mediastinal vessels, patients with aberrant adenomas in the mediastinum, especially in recurrent goiters, or else subjects with goiters situated in the posterior mediastinum as compared to anterior mediastinal goiters.
  • Statistically significant risk factors for sternotomy are as follows: recurrent goiter, primary mediastinal goiter, posterior mediastinal location of goiter, and the presence of an aberrant adenoma situated in the mediastinum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Recurrence. Reoperation. Risk Factors. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18488246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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45. Troncone G, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Palmieri EA, Volante M, Papotti M, Viglietto G, Palombini L: Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Apr;60(4):377-81
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  • [Title] Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The down regulation of protein p27(kip1) (p27) in most cases of thyroid cancer has relevant diagnostic and prognostic implications.
  • However, the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma expresses more p27 than benign oxyphilic lesions do.
  • METHODS: Because high levels of cyclin D3 lead to p27 accumulation in cell lines and clinical samples of thyroid cancer, the immunocytochemical pattern of cyclin D3 in oxyphilic (n = 47) and non-oxyphilic (n = 70) thyroid neoplasms was investigated.
  • The expression of cyclin D3 and p27 was significantly higher in the oxyphilic variant of follicular carcinomas than in non-oxyphilic carcinomas (p<0.001).
  • In co-immunoprecipitation experiments, the level of p27-bound cyclin D3 was much higher in oxyphilic neoplasias than in normal thyroids and other thyroid tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These results show that increased p27 expression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma results from cyclin D3 overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cyclin D3. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16798934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCND3 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D3; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2001124
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46. Chang YJ, Mittal V, Remine S, Manyam H, Sabir M, Richardson T, Young S: Correlation between clinical and histological findings in parathyroid tumors suspicious for carcinoma. Am Surg; 2006 May;72(5):419-26
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  • Carcinoma of the parathyroid is a rare malignancy that can be cured surgically if the proper diagnosis and treatment is given initially.
  • Our goal is to review the correlation between clinical and final histopathological findings that can arouse the suspicion of such malignancy and their true predictive value in the diagnosis.
  • Among 168 patients who underwent parathyroid excision, 14 (8.3%) had hyperplasia of the parathyroid, 121 (72%) had benign adenoma, 25 (14.8%) had other benign lesions, and 8 (4.7%) patients had primary carcinoma of the parathyroid confirmed by pathology.
  • Our mean serum calcium level was 11.57 mg/dL, which was lower than the mean level (12 mg/dL) for benign hyperparathyroidism.
  • The mean tumor size was 2.18 cm, smaller than the proposed for malignant criteria, and none of the eight patients (0%) had any symptoms of hypercalcemia at the time of diagnosis.
  • Seven of eight patients (87.5%) had frank signs of invasion together with other histological features, and two patients had associated papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • On the other hand, 17 patients with benign histology had tumors greater than 3 cm, and an additional 18 had palpable masses on physical examination.
  • The patients with diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma, their kindred, and those with large adenomas may benefit from genetic screening for HRTP2 gene mutations in search of early detection of tumors suspicious for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aged, 80 and over. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16719197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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47. Endo K: [Clinical use of nuclear medicine in the management of thyroid diseases]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2009-15
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  • [Title] [Clinical use of nuclear medicine in the management of thyroid diseases].
  • Radionuclides are widely used for the diagnosis and therapy of many diseases.
  • Among them, 131I has the longest history of more than 60 years of clinical use, and has been still used for the therapy of Graves' disease, Plummer disease (hyperfunctional adenoma) and thyroid cancer.
  • Radiodine is specifically taken into thyroid cells and organized.
  • Recently PET using 18F-FDG(glucose analogue) is applied to know the extent of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / therapeutic use. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroid Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Diseases / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18018563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 0
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48. Tichomirowa MA, Daly AF, Beckers A: Treatment of pituitary tumors: somatostatin. Endocrine; 2005 Oct;28(1):93-100
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  • In the pituitary gland, somatostatin regulates the secretion of hormones such as growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone in healthy and pathological states.
  • The short half-life of somatostatin makes it unsuitable for clinical use in chronic diseases, which led to the development of long-acting somatostatin analogs for the treatment of acromegaly and thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting adenomas, which were administered by intermittent injection twice or three times a day.
  • This review assesses the efficacy of somatostatin analogs in the treatment of pituitary adenomas, including acromegaly, thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting tumors, non-functioning adenomas, and Cushing's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16311415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0G3DE8943Y / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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49. Al-Shraim MM, Hussein MR, Musalam AO, Al-Ghandi T, Al-Zahramit H, Mahrouz AA, Abu-Eshy SA: Hurthle cell neoplasms of thyroid in south-western region of Saudi Arabia. West Afr J Med; 2010 Nov-Dec;29(6):398-402
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell neoplasms of thyroid in south-western region of Saudi Arabia.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid Hurthle cell neoplasm (THCN) is relatively rare.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of all thyroid Hurthle cell neoplasms diagnosed at Aseer Central Hospital (ACH), Saudi Arabia during the period from October 1998 to April 2007.
  • Three cases were Hurthle cell carcinomas and six cases were Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • Adenomas presented as solitary nodules (two cases), as multinodular goiter (three cases) and as diffuse swelling (one case).
  • Total thyroidectomy was also done in one case of adenoma.
  • Hemithyroidectomy was performed in two cases of adenoma in which FNAC showed benign lesion and in one case of carcinoma based on clinical and ultrasonographic impression of benign MNG in the involved lobe and inconclusive FNAC result.
  • Subtotal thyroidectomy was performed in one case of adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative diagnosis and management of THCN is still a dilemma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Saudi Arabia. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21465448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] West African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell
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50. Deandrea M, Ragazzoni F, Motta M, Torchio B, Mormile A, Garino F, Magliona G, Gamarra E, Ramunni MJ, Garberoglio R, Limone PP: Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation. Thyroid; 2010 Oct;20(10):1077-83
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has proved to be an effective diagnostic tool in patients with thyroid nodules.
  • To date, however, among lesions showing a follicular pattern, FNAC is still unable to differentiate between benign and malignant ones.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate whether a subclassification of follicular cytologic specimens, based on cytoarchitectural patterns, could differentiate categories with a different risk of malignancy, thus improving the clinical management of patients harboring follicular nodules.
  • METHODS: We report a cohort of 927 consecutive cases who underwent thyroid surgery in our hospital between 2000 and 2008.
  • All the cytologic specimens were divided into five categories (Thy 1: inadequate material, Thy 2: benign, Thy 3: indeterminate, Thy 4: suspicious for malignancy, Thy 5: malignant).
  • Thy3 specimens were further divided into three subcategories (Thy 3a, or "follicular lesions of indeterminate significance": scant colloid, microfollicular pattern, or small clusters of thyrocytes with round nuclei usually without, but sometimes with, minimal cellular pleomorphism; Thy 3b, or "follicular neoplasm": absence of colloid, small clusters, or microfollicles of medium-large sized cell populations arranged in cohesive groups with nuclear overlapping, crowding, and pleomorphisms; and Thy 3c or "Hurthle-cell neoplasm": scant colloid, sheets or clusters of oxyphilic cells).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the National Cancer Institute consensus showing a different risk of malignancy for "follicular lesions of undetermined significance” compared with "follicular neoplasms" and "Hurthle cells neoplasms," which are more suspect for malignancy.
  • This subclassification could improve clinical management of thyroid nodules, helping to better select patients for surgery or follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Humans. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20883171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Kung SP, Lee CH, Yang AH, Chi CW, Tseng LM, Wu CW: Expression of c-kit, Flk-1, and Flk-2 receptors in benign and malignant tumors of follicular epithelial origin. J Chin Med Assoc; 2006 Feb;69(2):74-9
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  • [Title] Expression of c-kit, Flk-1, and Flk-2 receptors in benign and malignant tumors of follicular epithelial origin.
  • The response of VEGF to endothelial cell mitogenesis and survival, as well as angiogenesis and microvascular permeability, is mainly mediated through its receptor-2, VEGFR2 (kinase domain receptor or fetal liver kinase-1, KDR or Flk-1).
  • This study aimed to detect the expression of VEGFR2 in various forms of thyroid tumors.
  • In addition, the expression of Flk-2 (receptor for Flt-3) and c-Kit (receptor for steel locus factor), which shows strong similarity to Flk-1, was also examined in thyroid tumors.
  • METHODS: RT-PCR analyses of c-Kit and immunohistochemical staining of c-Kit, Flk-1, and Flk-2 were performed in archived samples of 18 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 9 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), 12 follicular adenoma (FA), and 7 nodular goiter (NG) samples.
  • An inverse relationship of thyroid cancer size with Flk-2 expression was found.
  • CONCLUSION: Flk-2 expression was detected in various forms of thyroid tumors and increased Flk-2 expression was correlated with thyroid tumors with increased transforming activity, suggesting that Flk-2 is involved in pathogenic development of thyroid malignancy.
  • Similarly, Flk-1 expression was also found in some thyroid tumors, while the expression of c-Kit-mediated pathways may not play a major role in thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / analysis. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16570574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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52. Zhang XW, Li Y, Wang ZL, Li P: Glucocorticoid receptor subunit gene expression in thyroid gland and adenomas. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(8):1073-8
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  • [Title] Glucocorticoid receptor subunit gene expression in thyroid gland and adenomas.
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the glucocorticoid receptor -alpha (GR-alpha) and -beta (GR-beta) mRNA may be expressed in thyroid gland.
  • Ten normal thyroid gland and 14 follicular adenomas were studied using a real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR (FQ-RT-PCR) method.
  • The results demonstrated that there was a lower expression of GR-alpha mRNA (x10(6) GR-alpha cDNA copies/microg total RNA) in thyroid adenoma (1.27+/-0.26) than that in normal thyroid gland (3.53+/-1.22) (p < 0.001).
  • The expression of GR-beta mRNA was lower in all the thyroid tissues.
  • Of note, there was a significant difference in GR-beta mRNA expression (x10(4) GR-beta cDNA copies/microg total RNA) between thyroid adenoma (80.8+/-13.9) and thyroid gland (1.78+/-0.59) (p < 0.001).
  • The GR-alpha/GR-beta ratios in thyroid adenoma and normal thyroid gland were 1.67+/-0.68 and 207.57+/-84.41 respectively (p < 0.001).
  • These results revealed, for the first time, that both GR-alpha and GR-beta mRNA expression were detectable in both thyroid gland and adenomas tissues.
  • We therefore conclude that down-regulation of GR-alpha and up-regulation of GR-beta mRNA expression may play an important role in the thyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17118842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 0 / glucocorticoid receptor alpha; 0 / glucocorticoid receptor beta
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53. Blankenship DR, Chin E, Terris DJ: Contemporary management of thyroid cancer. Am J Otolaryngol; 2005 Jul-Aug;26(4):249-60
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  • [Title] Contemporary management of thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer is a relatively common and frequently curable malignant neoplasm, accounting for nearly 2% of all new cancers diagnosed annually in the United States.
  • We sought to review the epidemiology and pathology of the several types of thyroid cancer and to present our evidence-based management algorithm.
  • In addition to reviewing well-established approaches to diagnosis and management, emphasis is placed on newer techniques, including minimally invasive thyroidectomy, molecular detection of disease propensity, and the use of recombinant thyrotropin prior to radioiodine ablation.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / therapy. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / embryology. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15991091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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54. Went PT, Sauter G, Oberholzer M, Bubendorf L: Abundant expression of AMACR in many distinct tumour types. Pathology; 2006 Oct;38(5):426-32
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  • AIMS: Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), a mitochondrial and peroxisomal enzyme, is a valuable tool to confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer, especially if combined with basal cell markers.
  • RESULTS: Microarray analysis revealed that tumours with prominent AMACR expression included adenocarcinomas of the prostate (72%), hepatocellular carcinomas (77%), papillary renal cell carcinomas (70%), and colorectal adenocarcinomas (71%).
  • AMACR expression was equally frequent in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas.
  • In the thyroid, AMACR expression was found in 42% of the follicular carcinomas but in only 16% of follicular adenomas.
  • However, a more detailed analysis on a thyroid tissue microarray did not confirm a significant difference of AMACR expression in follicular adenoma and carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 17008281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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55. Little JW: Thyroid disorders. Part III: neoplastic thyroid disease. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2006 Sep;102(3):275-80
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  • [Title] Thyroid disorders. Part III: neoplastic thyroid disease.
  • This paper is part III of the series on thyroid disorders.
  • Thyroid tumors are the most common endocrine neoplasms.
  • Most of these tumors are benign hyperplastic or colloid nodules or benign follicular adenomas.
  • A major clinical challenge is establishing which nodules are hyperplastic, benign, or malignant.
  • History, clinical findings, ultrasonography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy are the mainstays for diagnosis.
  • There are 3 main histologic types of thyroid cancer: differentiated, medullary, and anaplastic.
  • Differentiated lesions are subdivided into papillary, follicular, and Hurthle cell carcinomas.
  • In addition, primary lymphoma may occur in the thyroid gland and other cancers may metastasize to the thyroid.
  • An important neoplastic syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), involves medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • In 2002 there were 10 cases of thyroid cancer per 100 000 population.
  • During the past 10 years the rate of thyroid cancer has been increasing 5% per year.
  • The overall 10-year survival for papillary carcinoma is 80% to 90%, follicular carcinoma 65% to 75%, and medullary carcinoma 60% to 70%.
  • The dentist by inspection and palpation of the neck in the area of the thyroid gland may detect single or multiple lesions that may be benign or malignant.
  • Patients with identified nodules or enlarged thyroid glands should be referred for diagnosis and treatment.
  • Patients with thyroid cancer will benefit from the early detection and treatment of their lesions as early detection can lead to a cure or prolongation of their life.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / blood. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16920533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Obregón-Guerrero G, Martínez-Ordaz JL, Peña-García JF, Ramírez-Martínez ME, Pérez-Álvarez C, Hernández-Avendaño V: Factors associated with malignancy in patients with thyroid nodules. Cir Cir; 2010 Nov-Dec;78(6):479-84
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  • [Title] Factors associated with malignancy in patients with thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Due to the development of diagnostic techniques, the incidence of thyroid nodule reporting is increasing.
  • The aim of this study was to identify factors that relate to malignancy in patients with thyroid nodule.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the files of all patients with thyroid nodule who underwent surgical treatment in a Head and Neck Surgery Department in a third-level hospital during a 3-year period.
  • In 64 patients, the final diagnosis was benign, adenoma being the most common diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that clinical characteristics and ultrasonography results may be used to identify high risk patients with thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21214983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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57. Papathanassiou D, Flament JB, Pochart JM, Patey M, Marty H, Liehn JC, Schvartz C: SPECT/CT in localization of parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia in patients with previous neck surgery. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jun;33(6):394-7
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  • [Title] SPECT/CT in localization of parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia in patients with previous neck surgery.
  • It has proved useful for localization of abnormal parathyroid glands, especially in the case of an ectopic gland.
  • Two patients had undergone surgery for hyperparathyroidism and 2 had undergone thyroidectomy, 1 for thyroid cancer and 1 for multinodular goiter.
  • RESULTS: SPECT/CT successfully localized the abnormal gland, including an uncommon anterior situation for which previous surgery guided by planar imagery failed to cure the hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18496444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Zivaljević VR, Diklić AD, Krgović KLj, Zorić GV, Zivić RV, Kalezić NK, Kazić MT, Tatić SB, Havelka MJ, Paunović IR: [The incidence rate of thyroid microcarcinoma during surgery benign disease]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2008;55(1):69-73
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  • [Title] [The incidence rate of thyroid microcarcinoma during surgery benign disease].
  • Thyroid microcarcinoma are well-differentiated tumors less than 1 cm in diameter.
  • A retrospective analysis was performed on patients operated of benign thyroid disease at the Center for endocrine surgery, Institute of endocrinology, Clical Center of Serbia in Belgrade, from January 1st to December 31st 2004, in order to establish the incidence of microcarcinoma.
  • Indications for surgery were euthyroid multinodular goiter in 201 patients, thyroiditis in 31, thyroid adenoma in 178, Graves disease in 89 and Plummers disease in 79 patients.
  • The results of this study, demonstrate that in 13.4% of the patients operated for goiter, 6.4% operated for thyroiditis, 5.6% for thyroid adenomas, 9.0% for Graves disease and 7.0% of the patients operated for Plumers disease, the presence of a microcarcinoma was noticed in the definitive histopathologic examination.
  • The results obtained are in line with the current knowledge of high incidence of thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Incidental Findings. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18510064.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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59. Cheung YS, Poon CM, Mak SM, Suen MW, Leong HT: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules--how well are we doing? Hong Kong Med J; 2007 Feb;13(1):12-5
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules--how well are we doing?
  • OBJECTIVES: To review the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing non-toxic thyroid nodules and determine what factors are predictive of malignancy in patients with indeterminate cytology results.
  • PATIENTS: Patients with non-toxic thyroid nodules undergoing thyroidectomy from December 1999 to December 2003.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology has high positive predictive value for thyroid cancer, enabling us to 'rule-in' malignant lesions with confidence.
  • Among those with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration cytology, atypical cell lesions and age greater than 40 years conferred increased risk of malignancy.

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  • [CommentIn] Hong Kong Med J. 2007 Apr;13(2):168-9 [17406052.001]
  • [CommentIn] Hong Kong Med J. 2007 Feb;13(1):5-7 [17277384.001]
  • [CommentIn] Hong Kong Med J. 2007 Apr;13(2):169 [17406053.001]
  • (PMID = 17277386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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60. McCabe CJ: Moving towards the use of targeted therapies in thyroid cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Nov;4(11):604-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Moving towards the use of targeted therapies in thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Targeting / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / therapy. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18725907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Mirallié E, Guillan T, Bridji B, Resche I, Rousseau C, Ansquer C, Bodet-Milin C, Curtet C, Carnaille B, Murat A, Charbonnel B, Kraeber-Bodéré F: Therapeutic impact of 18FDG-PET/CT in the management of iodine-negative recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgery; 2007 Dec;142(6):952-8; discussion 952-8
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  • [Title] Therapeutic impact of 18FDG-PET/CT in the management of iodine-negative recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: 18-F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) is useful in the detection of iodine-negative differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • RESULTS: Forty-five patients (31 women, 14 men), with a mean age of 55 years, with 36 papillary, 5 follicular, and 4 Hürthle carcinomas, were studied.
  • All patients had previously undergone total thyroidectomy and postoperative thyroid remnant ablation with 131-I.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiography. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radiography. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Patient Selection. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18063081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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62. Boguszewski CL, Bianchet LC, Raskin S, Nomura LM, Borba LA, Cavalcanti TC: Application of genetic testing to define the surgical approach in a sporadic case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Nov;54(8):705-10
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  • Parathyroid scintigraphy showed tracer uptake in the inferior region of the left thyroid lobe, and cervical ultrasound showed a heterogeneous nodule in the same area, suggestive of a parathyroid adenoma (PA).
  • Genetic testing detected mutation in the MEN 1 gene and total parathyroidectomy with the implantation of a fragment of one gland in the forearm was performed.
  • Pathology showed a PA and 3 normal parathyroid glands, without hyperplasia, despite the diagnosis of MEN 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Genetic Testing / standards. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics


63. Stolf BS, Santos MM, Simao DF, Diaz JP, Cristo EB, Hirata R Jr, Curado MP, Neves EJ, Kowalski LP, Carvalho AF: Class distinction between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland on the basis of their signature expression. Cancer; 2006 May 1;106(9):1891-900
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  • [Title] Class distinction between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland on the basis of their signature expression.
  • BACKGROUND: Nodules of the thyroid gland are observed frequently in patients who undergo ultrasound studies.
  • The majority of these nodules are benign, corresponding to goiters or adenomas, and only a small fraction corresponds to carcinomas.
  • Among thyroid tumors, the diagnosis of follicular adenocarcinomas by preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a major challenge, because it requires inspection of the entire capsule to differentiate it from adenoma.
  • METHODS: Using data from gene expression analysis, the authors applied Fisher linear discriminant analysis and searched for expression signatures of individual samples of adenomas and follicular carcinomas that could be used as molecular classifiers for the precise classification of malignant and nonmalignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenoma / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 16565969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Abdel Khalek M, Zhong X, Moroz K, Kandil E: Kikuchi disease and thyroid follicular adenoma. Ear Nose Throat J; 2010 Sep;89(9):412-4
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  • [Title] Kikuchi disease and thyroid follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / complications. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neck / radiography. Thyroid Gland / radiography. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Trachea / radiography

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  • [ErratumIn] Ear Nose Throat J. 2010 Oct;89(10):486. Khalek, Mohamed Abdel [corrected to Abdel Khalek, Mohamed]
  • (PMID = 20859864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Drieschner N, Belge G, Rippe V, Meiboom M, Loeschke S, Bullerdiek J: Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin. Thyroid; 2006 Nov;16(11):1091-6
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  • [Title] Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin.
  • Epithelial tumors of the thyroid are cytogenetically well-investigated tumors.
  • Recently, we have been able to describe the involvement of a novel gene called THADA in benign thyroid lesions with 2p21 rearrangements.
  • Other fusion genes found in thyroid lesions are RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR(gamma).
  • The latter occurs in follicular thyroid carcinomas with a t(2;3)(q13;p25).
  • Here we present molecular-cytogenetic and cytogenetic investigations on a follicular thyroid adenoma with a t(2;20;3)(p21;q11.2; p25).
  • Our findings suggest that the close surrounding of PPAR(gamma) is a breakpoint hot spot region, leading to recurrent alterations of this gene in thyroid tumors of follicular origin including carcinomas as well as adenomas with or without involvement of PAX8.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Chromosome Breakage. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17123335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / THADA protein, human
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66. Besic N, Hocevar M, Zgajnar J, Petric R, Pilko G: Aggressiveness of therapy and prognosis of patients with Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2006 Jan;16(1):67-72
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  • [Title] Aggressiveness of therapy and prognosis of patients with Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma (HCPTC) has been studied separately from other types of thyroid carcinoma in relatively few studies.
  • A total of 1552 patients with thyroid carcinoma were seen at our institute during the period of 1976-2003; of them, 42 patients (33 females, 9 males; age 10-85 years, median 56.5 years) had histopathologically verified HCPTC.
  • Primary treatment consisted of total or near-total thyroidectomy (39 patients), lobectomy (2 patients), radioiodine ablation of the thyroid remnant (37 patients), external irradiation (14 patients), and chemotherapy (3 patients).
  • Three patients died of thyroid carcinoma during the follow-up period.
  • Long-term survival and locoregional control of disease are likely after the radical tumor resection, radioiodine ablation of the thyroid remnant, and external irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytoplasm / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Iodine / deficiency. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Slovenia / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16487016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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67. Rago T, Di Coscio G, Ugolini C, Scutari M, Basolo F, Latrofa F, Romani R, Berti P, Grasso L, Braverman LE, Pinchera A, Vitti P: Clinical features of thyroid autoimmunity are associated with thyroiditis on histology and are not predictive of malignancy in 570 patients with indeterminate nodules on cytology who had a thyroidectomy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Sep;67(3):363-9
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  • [Title] Clinical features of thyroid autoimmunity are associated with thyroiditis on histology and are not predictive of malignancy in 570 patients with indeterminate nodules on cytology who had a thyroidectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: The relationship between thyroid autoimmunity and cancer is still uncertain.
  • Thyroid autoimmunity was defined as positivity of circulating thyroid autoantibodies (TAb), autoimmune hypo- or hyperthyroidism, thyroid hypoechogenicity on ultrasound, and lymphocytic infiltration on histology.
  • The three features of thyroid autoimmunity were highly concordant: hypoechogenicity was observed in 71/448 (15.8%) patients with negative TAb and in 44/122 (36%) with positive TAb (P < 0.0001); lymphocytic infiltration was found in 53/448 (11.8%) patients with negative TAb and in 64/122 (52.4%) with positive TAb (P < 0.0001); hypoechogenicity on ultrasound was observed in 73/453 (16.1%) patients without, and in 42/117 (35.9%) with lymphocytic infiltration (P < 0.0001).
  • TAb were found in 32/135 (23.7%) patients with carcinoma and in 90/435 (20.6%) with a benign lesion (P = NS); hypoechogenicity was observed in 26/135 (19.2%) patients with carcinoma and in 89/435 (20.4%) patients with benign lesions (P = NS); lymphocytic infiltration was present in 28/135 (20.7%) patients with carcinoma and in 89/435 (20.4%) with benign lesions (P = NS).
  • The frequency of cancer in 11 patients with clinically overt thyroid autoimmune disease did not differ from that observed in the whole study group.
  • CONCLUSION: In this group of patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules at cytology, clinical and pathological criteria of thyroid autoimmunity were strongly concordant and not associated with malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17555501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies
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68. Morita SY, Brownlee NA, Dackiw AP, Westra WH, Clark DP, Zeiger MA: An unusual case of recurrent hyperparathyroidism and papillary thyroid cancer. Endocr Pract; 2009 May-Jun;15(4):349-52
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  • [Title] An unusual case of recurrent hyperparathyroidism and papillary thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual occurrence of recurrent hyperparathyroidism due to papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In 1994, she presented with nephrolithiasis and underwent resection of a right superior parathyroid adenoma that resulted in clinical and biochemical cure.
  • Imaging studies suggested a parathyroid adenoma near the right inferior pole of the thyroid.
  • No obvious parathyroid adenoma was found and a right thyroid lobectomy was performed, which resulted in normalization of intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone levels, and the incision was closed.
  • Final pathology demonstrated no parathyroid adenoma, but instead, a 1-cm papillary thyroid carcinoma that stained positive for parathyroid hormone.
  • This case demonstrates the challenge a surgeon faces in managing recurrent disease and highlights a rare phenomenon of papillary thyroid cancer causing recurrent hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19454395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Camargo RS, Maeda MY, di Loreto C, Shirata NK, Anselmo Garcia E, Filho AL: Is agNOR and DNA ploidy analysis useful for evaluating thyroid neoplasms? Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2005 Jun;27(3):157-61
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  • [Title] Is agNOR and DNA ploidy analysis useful for evaluating thyroid neoplasms?
  • OBJECTIVE: To correlate the subjective AgNOR counting method and DNA content with histologic diagnoses of thyroid cancer and invasion.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Eighty-one consecutive cases of thyroid carcinoma were selected for DNA and AgNOR analysis.
  • The diagnoses were: papillary carcinoma (n = 40), follicular carcinoma (n = 31), Hürthle cell adenocarcinoma (n = 4), and undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 6).
  • RESULTS: DNA ploidy analysis showed all Hürthle cell adenocarcinomas, 21 (67%)follicular tumors, 23 (57%) papillary tumors and 4 (67%) undifferentiated carcinomas to be aneuploid.
  • Statistical analysis showed correlation between ploidy and histologic diagnosis, but not AgNOR counting, to have prognostic value.
  • CONCLUSION: DNA ploidy is more useful than subjective counting of NORs as an adjunct method for thyroid lesion analysis.

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  • (PMID = 16121637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / nucleolar organizer region associated proteins
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70. Kienitz T, Quinkler M, Strasburger CJ, Ventz M: Long-term management in five cases of TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a single center study and review of the literature. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Jul;157(1):39-46
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  • [Title] Long-term management in five cases of TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a single center study and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: TSH-secreting pituitary tumors (TSH-omas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism and account for <1% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • Failure to recognize the presence of a TSH-oma may result in dramatic consequences such as thyroid ablation that may cause further growth in pituitary tumor.
  • All the patients are females with an age range from 54 to 65 years at diagnosis.
  • Four of the five patients had at least one event of thyroid surgery due to goiter or nodule of unknown dignity.
  • Three of the five patients had a stroke before the diagnosis of TSH-oma, probably due to hypertension, or smoking and contraceptive treatment.
  • A normalization of circulating thyroid hormone levels was achieved in all patients.

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  • (PMID = 17609400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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71. Yegen G, Demir MA, Ertan Y, Nalbant OA, Tunçyürek M: Can CD10 be used as a diagnostic marker in thyroid pathology? Virchows Arch; 2009 Jan;454(1):101-5
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  • [Title] Can CD10 be used as a diagnostic marker in thyroid pathology?
  • CD10-common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen is a membrane-bound zinc metalloproteinase that is expressed by different hematopoietic cell types at unique stages of lymphoid and myeloid differentiation.
  • Recently, it has been found to be useful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the staining pattern of CD10 in various thyroid lesions, including 14 benign and 61 malignant cases, as well as in adjacent thyroid tissue.
  • CD10 was negative in normal thyroid tissue, adenomatous nodules, minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, and well-differentiated carcinoma.
  • It was expressed in nine of 14 (64.2%) conventional papillary carcinomas, four of 24 (16.6%) follicular variant of papillary carcinomas, three of six (50%) papillary microcarcinomas, one of nine (11.1%) widely invasive follicular carcinomas, and three of ten (30%) follicular adenomas.
  • In contrast to results of previous studies, CD10 is not useful in the classification of thyroid follicular lesions as benign or malignant, but it shows strong positivity in conventional papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19031085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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72. Pino Rivero V, González Palomino A, Trinidad Ruíz G, Keituqwa Yáñez T, Marcos García M, Pardo Romero G, Pantoja Hernández CG, Blasco Huelva A: [Hürthle cells carcinoma. Report of two operated cases and review of the literature]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2005;32(5):467-73
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  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma de células de hürthle. Descripción de dos casos intervenidos y revisión de la literatura.
  • Hürthle cells carcinomas are considered a variant of folicular carcinomas and represent about 2% of all malignant thyroid tumours.
  • The presence of capsular and vascular invasion is the most important criteria to distinguish this entity from the Hürthle cells adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16318090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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73. Hunt JL, Yim JH, Carty SE: Fractional allelic loss of tumor suppressor genes identifies malignancy and predicts clinical outcome in follicular thyroid tumors. Thyroid; 2006 Jul;16(7):643-9
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  • [Title] Fractional allelic loss of tumor suppressor genes identifies malignancy and predicts clinical outcome in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • Thyroid follicular tumors can be challenging diagnostically and clinically, because the cytologic and histologic features can be subtle and prognosis is also difficult to predict.
  • In this study, we analyzed thyroid follicular tumors with known long-term follow-up for a molecular panel of tumor suppressor genes to determine whether this molecular approach has prognostic significance.
  • We included eight adenomas, three minimally invasive carcinomas, four angioinvasive carcinomas, and three widely invasive carcinomas with a mean follow-up of 77 months.
  • The mean FAL for benign tumors (14%) was significantly different from that of malignant tumors (56%, p < 0.001).
  • Patients with a follicular tumor who had no evidence of disease recurrence had a mean FAL of 22% and those with disease recurrence or death from disease had a mean of 78% (p < 0.002).
  • Based on these results, a tumor suppressor gene panel for allelic imbalance in follicular-derived tumors (FTT) may correlate with both malignancy and outcome in patients with follicular-derived carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / therapy. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / therapy. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16889487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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74. Half E, Bercovich D, Rozen P: Familial adenomatous polyposis. Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2009;4:22
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  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the development of many tens to thousands of adenomas in the rectum and colon during the second decade of life.
  • Most patients are asymptomatic for years until the adenomas are large and numerous, and cause rectal bleeding or even anemia, or cancer develops.
  • FAP may present with some extraintestinal manifestations such as osteomas, dental abnormalities (unerupted teeth, congenital absence of one or more teeth, supernumerary teeth, dentigerous cysts and odontomas), congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), desmoid tumors, and extracolonic cancers (thyroid, liver, bile ducts and central nervous system).
  • A less aggressive variant of FAP, attenuated FAP (AFAP), is characterized by fewer colorectal adenomatous polyps (usually 10 to 100), later age of adenoma appearance and a lower cancer risk.
  • In a subset of individuals, a MUTYH mutation causes a recessively inherited polyposis condition, MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), which is characterized by a slightly increased risk of developing CRC and polyps/adenomas in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.
  • Diagnosis is based on a suggestive family history, clinical findings, and large bowel endoscopy or full colonoscopy.
  • Whenever possible, the clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by genetic testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / diagnosis. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19822006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 114
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2772987
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75. Liska J, Altanerova V, Galbavy S, Stvrtina S, Brtko J: Thyroid tumors: histological classification and genetic factors involved in the development of thyroid cancer. Endocr Regul; 2005 Sep;39(3):73-83
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  • [Title] Thyroid tumors: histological classification and genetic factors involved in the development of thyroid cancer.
  • Classification of thyroid tumours and their variants is described with special respect to some recent findings on somatic mutations characteristics which are associated with individual types of malignity.
  • Special attention is paid to the interrelations between thyroid nodules and malignity and predictive risk factors are listed.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 16468229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-0668
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine regulations
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Regul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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76. Nonaka D, Tang Y, Chiriboga L, Rivera M, Ghossein R: Diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2 (FoxE1) in thyroid epithelial neoplasms. Mod Pathol; 2008 Feb;21(2):192-200
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2 (FoxE1) in thyroid epithelial neoplasms.
  • Thyroid-specific transcription factors, Pax8, TTF-1, and TTF-2, are crucial for thyroid organogenesis and differentiation.
  • The goal of this study is to evaluate the expressions of these markers in thyroid tumors of the full spectrum of differentiation, with special emphasis on anaplastic carcinomas.
  • A total of 94 cases of thyroid neoplasms were studied: 17 papillary carcinomas, 18 follicular adenomas, 16 follicular carcinomas, 7 poorly differentiated carcinomas, 28 anaplastic carcinomas, and 8 medullary carcinomas.
  • All three markers were seen in papillary carcinomas, follicular adenomas and carcinomas, and poorly differentiated carcinomas in a diffuse manner, whereas their expressions in medullary carcinomas were variable.
  • Pax8 is a useful marker for the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinomas, particularly when the differential diagnosis includes pulmonary carcinoma.
  • In differentiated thyroid neoplasms, no significant difference in expression was seen in all the three transcription factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcitonin / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18084247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / TTF2 protein, human
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77. Tsilchorozidou T, Vafiadou E, Yovos JG, Romeo G, McKay J, Lesueur F, Bonora E: A Greek family with a follicular variant of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma: TCO, MNG1, fPTC/PRN, and NMTC1 excluded as susceptibility loci. Thyroid; 2005 Dec;15(12):1349-54
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  • [Title] A Greek family with a follicular variant of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma: TCO, MNG1, fPTC/PRN, and NMTC1 excluded as susceptibility loci.
  • The familial form of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) has been recognized as a distinct clinical entity and is characterized by multifocality and a more severe phenotype than its sporadic counterpart.
  • The majority of FNMTC pedigrees are small in size, show variable modes of inheritance, and may present with a variety of additional benign thyroid disorders.
  • This locus appears particular relevant to families with at least one case of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (fvPTC).
  • We describe the clinical and pathologic characteristics of a large three-generation fPTC kindred, with two of the four PTC patients presented with the follicular variant of PTC.
  • In addition, multinodular goiter (MNG) was diagnosed in seven individuals, lymphocytic thyroiditis in four, while one diagnosed with a benign adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16405407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Tita P, Ambrosio MR, Scollo C, Carta A, Gangemi P, Bondanelli M, Vigneri R, degli Uberti EC, Pezzino V: High prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in acromegaly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Aug;63(2):161-7
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  • [Title] High prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in acromegaly.
  • OBJECTIVE: Acromegaly is a chronic disease caused by increased GH secretion and associated with a greater risk of developing both benign and malignant tumours.
  • In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of thyroid disorders and thyroid malignancies in a series of acromegalic subjects.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Diagnosis and management of acromegaly were based on standardized criteria.
  • In all patients thyroid function and morphology were evaluated by serum free T4, free T3, TSH measurements and ultrasound scanning, respectively.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed in all solid-mixed thyroid nodules of diameter greater than 1 cm.
  • IGF-1 expression was assessed by semiquantitative immunohistochemical analysis in some patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: Abnormal thyroid function was found in eight cases (6%).
  • Histological examination revealed a differentiated thyroid cancer in seven of the patients.
  • No significant association of thyroid cancer with GH or IGF-1 levels was found.
  • Semiquantitative assessment of IGF-1 expression by immunohistochemistry revealed a more intense staining in thyroid cancer from acromegalic subjects than in papillary thyroid cancer from nonacromegalic subjects.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of thyroid disorders in our series of acromegalic subjects was similar to that previously observed in these patients.
  • However, the prevalence of thyroid cancer was not only strikingly elevated (5.6%) in comparison to the estimated prevalence in the general population (0.093%), but it was even higher than that reported for acromegalic subjects.
  • Sustained exposure to high serum IGF-1 levels is likely to play a role in the development of thyroid cancer in this disease.
  • Our results suggest that thyroid function and morphology should be carefully monitored in all acromegalic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chronic Disease. Female. Goiter / complications. Goiter / pathology. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16060909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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79. Weber T, Cammerer G, Schick C, Solbach C, Hillenbrand A, Barth TF, Henne-Bruns D, Blagieva R, Böhm BO, Reske SN, Luster M: C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography localizes parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Mar;42(3):209-14
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  • [Title] C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography localizes parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • We therefore conducted a study to determine the sensitivity of C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (Met-PET/CT) in localizing parathyroid adenomas in pHPT.
  • Primary HPT was caused by a single gland adenoma in 30 patients, while another 3 patients had multiglandular disease.
  • Met-PET/CT scan correctly located a single gland adenoma in 25 out of 30 (83%) patients with pHPT, among them 2 patients with persistent disease, 7 patients with prior neck surgery, and 8 patients with concomitant thyroid nodules.
  • In 3 patients with multiglandular disease, Met-PET/CT showed only one enlarged parathyroid gland in two individuals and was negative in the third patient.
  • Statistical analysis found a significant correlation between true-positive results and the weight (2.42+/-4.05 g) and diameter (2.0+/-1.18 cm) of parathyroid adenomas while the subgroup with false negative findings had significantly smaller (0.98+/-0.54 cm) and lighter (0.5+/-0.38 g) glands.
  • Sensitivity was 83% for single gland adenomas and 67% for multiglandular disease.
  • Met-PET/CT correctly localized 83% of single gland parathyroid adenomas in patients with pHPT.
  • However, preoperative localization of multiglandular disease due to double adenomas or parathyroid hyperplasia remained difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Methionine. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20013649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 58576-49-1 / carbon-11 methionine; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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80. Reimann JD, Dorfman DM, Nosé V: Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid (CASTLE): a comparative study: evidence of thymic differentiation and solid cell nest origin. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Aug;30(8):994-1001
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  • [Title] Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid (CASTLE): a comparative study: evidence of thymic differentiation and solid cell nest origin.
  • Thyroid solid cell nests (SCNs) may also be derived from branchial pouch remnants.
  • To determine whether CASTLE and SCNs derive from similar embryologic origins/lines of differentiation, and to better differentiate CASTLE from other thyroid neoplasms, we compared p63, CD5, HMWK, and CEA staining of CASTLE and SCNs with other thyroid and thymic lesions.
  • Seven CASTLE, 11 SCNs, 10 thymic carcinoma, 11 invasive thymoma, 12 thymoma, 28 papillary thyroid carcinoma, 4 thyroid squamous cell carcinoma, 2 childhood sclerosing carcinoma, 4 follicular adenoma, 6 follicular carcinoma, 4 poorly differentiated carcinoma, and 20 lymphocytic thyroiditis cases were analyzed.
  • In normal thyroid, only SCNs stained for p63, HMWK, and CEA.
  • The only CD5-positive cells in normal thyroid were T cells.
  • In contrast, none of the other thyroid neoplasms examined exhibited consistent staining for all 4 markers studied.
  • These findings provide further evidence that CASTLE is distinct from other thyroid neoplasms, is probably of thymic origin, and may arise from branchial pouch remnants, the thyroid SCNs.
  • Moreover CD5, HMWK, CEA and p63 can be used to help distinguish CASTLE from other thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Thymus Gland. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD5 / biosynthesis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / biosynthesis. Cell Lineage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / biosynthesis. Male. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16861971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD5; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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81. Page KA, Roehmholdt BF, Jablonski M, Mayerson AB: Development of thyroid storm after surgical resection of a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma. Endocr Pract; 2008 Sep;14(6):732-7
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  • [Title] Development of thyroid storm after surgical resection of a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma in whom postoperative thyroid storm developed.
  • METHODS: We present a case report with details of the initial presentation, laboratory evaluation, surgical and pathologic findings, and subsequent course in a patient with a thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH)-secreting adenoma and postoperative thyroid storm.
  • Thyroid storm developed immediately after surgical resection of the pituitary mass.
  • Results of laboratory evaluation undertaken preoperatively became available after the patient had undergone the surgical procedure and revealed thyroid hormone levels 2 to 3 times the upper limit of normal.
  • Propylthiouracil and beta-adrenergic blocking agents controlled the postoperative thyrotoxicosis and were subsequently discontinued as his TSH and thyroid hormone levels normalized.
  • CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the rare case of a TSH-secreting adenoma in a young patient, which was complicated by the development of postoperative thyroid storm.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Crisis / diagnosis. Thyroid Crisis / pathology. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 18996794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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82. Anderson CE, Graham C, Herriot MM, Kamel HM, Salter DM: CD98 expression is decreased in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Histopathology; 2009 Dec;55(6):683-6
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  • [Title] CD98 expression is decreased in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • AIMS: CD98 is a component of the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT), which is a cell surface amino acid transporter.
  • CD98 expression is increased in a variety of carcinomas but its distribution in the normal and neoplastic thyroid gland has not been reported.
  • The aim was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of CD98 in normal and diseased thyroid tissue.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and forty thyroid cases were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, including normal controls, neoplasms (follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma) and non-neoplastic conditions (multinodular goitre, Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis).
  • In normal thyroid, there was moderately strong expression of CD98 in the lateral cell membranes of follicular cells.
  • A similar pattern of expression was seen in follicular adenoma, minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, multinodular goitre and Graves' disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD98 expression is down-regulated in thyroid papillary carcinoma; this may relate to the better prognosis associated with many of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD98 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Hashimoto Disease / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Graves Disease / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19922591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD98
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83. Berker D, Aydin Y, Tutuncu YA, Isik S, Delibasi T, Berker M, Guler S, Kamel N: Somatotropin adenoma and resistance to thyroid hormone. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 Mar;32(3):284-6
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  • [Title] Somatotropin adenoma and resistance to thyroid hormone.
  • Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare disease characterized by non-suppressed TSH in spite of high free thyroid hormone levels.
  • Up to date, in the literature, there are more than 600 RTH cases, but co-incidental hypophyseal adenoma was reported in only 1 case.
  • The patient was followed with the diagnosis of RTH and incidental hypophyseal adenoma.
  • Thus, the patient was referred to surgery with the pre-diagnosis of RTH and acromegaly.
  • Post-operative thyroid hormones were still high.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome / complications

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  • (PMID = 19542750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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84. Bahar G, Feinmesser R, Joshua BZ, Shpitzer T, Morgenstein S, Popovtzer A, Shvero J: Hyperfunctioning intrathyroid parathyroid gland: a potential cause of failure in parathyroidectomy. Surgery; 2006 Jun;139(6):821-6
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  • [Title] Hyperfunctioning intrathyroid parathyroid gland: a potential cause of failure in parathyroidectomy.
  • However, in rare patients, ectopic hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands may be located in the thyroid but missed on imaging studies or during surgery.
  • Their files were reviewed for clinical features, surgical approach, intraoperative findings, parathyroid gland location, and morphologic and histopathologic characteristics.
  • The diagnosis in all patients was based on an increase in serum calcium concentration (10.1-13 mg/100 mL) and parathyroid hormone level (102-320 pg/mL).
  • Adenoma was diagnosed histologically in 4 patients; 2 had a double adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Intrathyroid parathyroid gland is a rare condition in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • In these patients, imaging may miss the pathologic gland.
  • Despite its rarity, the possibility of an intrathyroid parathyroid should be kept in mind, and, when meticulous bilateral exploration of the neck fails to identity the hyperfunctioning gland, the surgeon should consider hemithyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16782440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Zeiger MA, Dackiw AP: Follicular thyroid lesions, elements that affect both diagnosis and prognosis. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;89(3):108-13
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid lesions, elements that affect both diagnosis and prognosis.
  • The precise diagnosis of follicular thyroid lesions is frequently debated because of the subjective nature of capsular invasion as well as both the histological and cytological characteristics.
  • Furthermore, several different prognostic indices have been devised to examine prognosis associated with thyroid cancer.
  • Herein, we describe how these confounding elements can affect the ability to accurately predict prognosis for patients with follicular thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Keratins / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15719377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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86. Harvey JN, Parker D, De P, Shrimali RK, Otter M: Sonographically guided core biopsy in the assessment of thyroid nodules. J Clin Ultrasound; 2005 Feb;33(2):57-62
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  • [Title] Sonographically guided core biopsy in the assessment of thyroid nodules.
  • PURPOSE: This study was conducted to assess the value of sonographically guided core biopsy in the evaluation of thyroid nodules by comparison with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) performed with and without sonographic guidance.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 645 thyroid samples obtained at a single center.
  • Samples came from 422 patients who underwent FNAC (with or without sonographic guidance), sonographically guided core biopsy, or excision of thyroid tissue with or without prior frozen sectioning.
  • Sonographically guided core biopsy and sonographically guided FNAC both had zero false-negative rates for the diagnosis of malignancy, compared with a 7.0% false-negative rate (95% confidence interval, 2.0-12.0%) for aspiration cytology when sonography was not used.
  • With core biopsy, 11% of patients required surgical confirmation of the diagnosis, compared with 43% of patients following FNAC (p <0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sonographically guided core biopsy provides an accurate and safe alternative to FNAC in the assessment of thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytodiagnosis. False Negative Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Frozen Sections. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Safety. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15674833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Yabuta T, Miyauchi A, Inoue H, Yoshida H, Hirokawa M, Amino N: A patient with primary hyperparathyroidism associated with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia induced by a novel germline CaSR gene mutation. Asian J Surg; 2009 Apr;32(2):118-22
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  • We report a patient with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and incidental papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an enlarged parathyroid gland.
  • Ultrasonography (US) and aspiration cytology revealed microcarcinoma of the left lobe of the thyroid gland.
  • The patient underwent total thyroidectomy, central node dissection and extirpation of the enlarged parathyroid gland.
  • Surgery is not indicated for FHH; however, FHH may be accompanied with parathyroid adenoma causing PHPT, as reported here, for which surgical treatment is indicated.


88. Montone KT, Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA: The thyroid Hürthle (oncocytic) cell and its associated pathologic conditions: a surgical pathology and cytopathology review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Aug;132(8):1241-50
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  • [Title] The thyroid Hürthle (oncocytic) cell and its associated pathologic conditions: a surgical pathology and cytopathology review.
  • CONTEXT: Hürthle cells are eosinophilic, follicular-derived cells that are associated with a variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic thyroid lesions.
  • The differential diagnosis of Hürthle cell lesions is quite broad.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the pathologic conditions associated with Hürthle cells in the thyroid and to discuss pathology of thyroid lesions associated with oncocytic cytology.
  • DATA SOURCES: A variety of thyroid nonneoplastic (autoimmune thyroiditis, multinodular goiter) and neoplastic conditions (Hürthle cell adenoma, Hürthle cell carcinoma) are associated with Hürthle cell cytology.
  • In addition, there are several thyroid neoplasms that should be considered when one observes a Hürthle cell neoplasm in the thyroid (oncocytic variant of medullary carcinoma, several variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oncocytic cytology is seen in a variety of thyroid conditions that are associated with a broad differential diagnosis and care must be used for accurate diagnosis.
  • Newer molecular-based techniques may be useful for further classification of thyroid neoplasms with oncocytic pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. History, 19th Century. Humans. Metaplasia. Pathology, Surgical / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18684023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 107
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89. Colognesi A, de Tullio D, Messina F, Ferrocci G, Stano R, Azzena G: Primary hyperparathyroidism related to a parathyroid adenoma: the dramatic clinical evolution of a misdiagnosed patient and its surgical solution. Minerva Chir; 2006 Feb;61(1):51-6
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism related to a parathyroid adenoma: the dramatic clinical evolution of a misdiagnosed patient and its surgical solution.
  • Parathyroid adenomas are the most important cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (80-85%).
  • A case of parathyroid adenoma observed in a patient aged 47, admitted to the Emergency Medicine Department of our Hospital with a diagnosis of hypertensive crisis, cephalea, vomiting, and a clinical history of recurrent episodes of severe abdominal and renal pain, is presented.
  • A severe neurological involvement with stupor, derangement of mind, the arising of acute respiratory depression, lethargy compelled the colleagues to transfer him to the Intensive Care Unit; a neck ultrasonography showed a poor-echogenous area under the right thyroid inferior pole, with signs of vascularization.
  • The suspect of a primary hyperparathyroidism related to a single adenoma of the parathyroid gland suggested a surgical treatment.
  • The histologycal exam reported a parathyroid adenoma with large areas with haemorrage.
  • Patients affected by primary hyperparathyroidism are often misdiagnosed because their clinical conditions can create differential diagnosis problems with other diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16568023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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90. Vitagliano D, Portella G, Troncone G, Francione A, Rossi C, Bruno A, Giorgini A, Coluzzi S, Nappi TC, Rothstein JL, Pasquinelli R, Chiappetta G, Terracciano D, Macchia V, Melillo RM, Fusco A, Santoro M: Thyroid targeting of the N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene in transgenic mice results in follicular tumors that progress to poorly differentiated carcinomas. Oncogene; 2006 Aug 31;25(39):5467-74
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  • [Title] Thyroid targeting of the N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene in transgenic mice results in follicular tumors that progress to poorly differentiated carcinomas.
  • Ras oncogenes are frequently mutated in thyroid carcinomas.
  • To verify the role played by N-ras in thyroid carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice in which a human N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene (Tg-N-ras) was expressed in the thyroid follicular cells.
  • Tg-N-ras mice developed thyroid follicular neoplasms; 11% developed follicular adenomas and approximately 40% developed invasive follicular carcinomas, in some cases with a mixed papillary/follicular morphology.
  • N-ras(Gln61Lys) expression in cultured PC Cl 3 thyrocytes induced thyroid-stimulating hormone-independent proliferation and genomic instability with micronuclei formation and centrosome amplification.
  • These findings support the notion that mutated ras oncogenes could be able to drive the formation of thyroid tumors that can progress to poorly differentiated, metastatic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, ras. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Amino Acid Substitution. Animals. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Invasiveness


91. Miccoli P: Parathyroid surgery: we only need a minimal surgical approach. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Jun;28(6):570-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Endoscopy. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Recurrence. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] J Endocrinol Invest. 2005 Jun;28(6):566-9 [16117201.001]
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  • (PMID = 16117202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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92. Roelfsema F, Biermasz NR, Frolich M, Keenan DM, Veldhuis JD, Romijn JA: Diminished and irregular thyrotropin secretion with preserved diurnal rhythm in patients with active acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jun;94(6):1945-50
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  • CONTEXT: The hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis in acromegaly may be altered.
  • On the other hand, most patients have normal thyroid hormone concentrations.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyze serum TSH profiles in relation to GH profiles in patients with untreated acromegaly, in order to delineate aberrations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid system.
  • Total TSH secretion correlated with TSH increase after TRH (R = 0.75; P = 0.0001), negatively with the log-transformed GH secretion rate (R = -0.52; P = 0.001), but not with adenoma size.
  • Unchanged T4 concentrations might reflect decreased sympathetic function in GH excess states, heightening responsiveness of the thyroid gland to TSH.

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  • (PMID = 19336512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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93. Trovisco V, Soares P, Preto A, de Castro IV, Lima J, Castro P, Máximo V, Botelho T, Moreira S, Meireles AM, Magalhães J, Abrosimov A, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Sobrinho-Simões M: Type and prevalence of BRAF mutations are closely associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma histotype and patients' age but not with tumour aggressiveness. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jun;446(6):589-95
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  • [Title] Type and prevalence of BRAF mutations are closely associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma histotype and patients' age but not with tumour aggressiveness.
  • A high prevalence of the BRAF(V600E) somatic mutation was recently reported in several series of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • Another BRAF mutation (K601E) was detected in a follicular adenoma and in some cases of the follicular variant of PTC.
  • The BRAF(V600E) mutation was exclusively detected in PTC with a papillary or mixed follicular/papillary architecture both of the conventional type (46%) and of other histotypes, such as microcarcinoma (43%), Warthin-like PTC (75%) and oncocytic variant of PTC (55%).
  • The BRAF(K601E) mutation was detected in four of the 54 cases of the follicular variant of PTC (7%).
  • The BRAF (BRAF(V600E)) mutated PTC did not exhibit signs of higher aggressiveness (size, vascular invasion, extra-thyroid extension and nodal metastasis) and were in fact less often multicentric than PTC without the mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adult. Age Factors. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 15902486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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94. Fuhrer D, Eszlinger M, Karger S, Krause K, Engelhardt C, Hasenclever D, Dralle H, Paschke R: Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 May;152(5):785-90
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  • [Title] Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated three markers (insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ets-1) of thyroid growth stimulation and cell transformation together with a thyroid-specific marker (thyroglobulin (Tg)) for their potential to differentiate benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasia (FN).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR in 100 snap-frozen thyroid samples: 36 benign thyroid nodules with different histology and function (19 cold (CTN) and 17 toxic thyroid nodules (TTN)), 36 corresponding normal thyroid tissues of the same patients, eight Graves' disease (GD) thyroids, 10 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and 10 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • RESULTS: Mean IGF-II and COX-2 levels were not significantly altered between benign and malignant thyroid nodules (IGF-II) or nodular (FTC, TTN, CTN) and normal thyroid tissues (COX-2).
  • In contrast, eight- to tenfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in PTC and three- to fourfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in FTC (and GD) compared with benign thyroid nodules and normal thyroid tissues.
  • In addition, thyroglobulin mRNA expression was markedly downregulated (50- to 100-fold) in FTC, PTC and GD samples compared with benign nodular and normal thyroid tissues.
  • Hence an ets-1/Tg ratio >20 distinguished differentiated thyroid cancer from benign nodular or normal thyroid tissue.
  • However, in a consecutive series of 40 FNAC samples only equivocal results were obtained on 38 benign and two malignant (FTC) thyroid tumour samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of ets-1 and downregulation of Tg mRNA expression occur in differentiated thyroid cancer and may facilitate pre-operative identification of thyroid malignancy depending on further evaluation of these potentially promising markers in a larger series of benign and malignant thyroid tumours and their FNAC samples.

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  • (PMID = 15879365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ETS1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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95. Elliott DD, Pitman MB, Bloom L, Faquin WC: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of Hurthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland: A cytomorphologic study of 139 cases with statistical analysis. Cancer; 2006 Apr 25;108(2):102-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of Hurthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland: A cytomorphologic study of 139 cases with statistical analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Lesions of the thyroid gland composed of Hurthle cells encompass pathologic entities ranging from hyperplastic nodules with Hurthle cell metaplasia to Hurthle cell carcinomas.
  • Many cytologic features of Hurthle cell lesions that distinguish neoplastic Hurthle cell lesions requiring surgery from those that are benign and nonneoplastic have been described, but with variable usefulness.
  • A morphologic study was made of 139 Hurthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland and statistical analysis applied to identify a set of cytomorphologic features that distinguish benign Hurthle cell lesions (BHCL) from Hurthle cell neoplasms (HCN).
  • METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of thyroid nodules with a predominant Hurthle cell component and corresponding histologic followup were included in the study.
  • Cases were divided into BHCL and HCN groups on the basis of the histologic diagnosis.
  • All cases were reviewed to assess the following 14 cytologic features: overall cellularity, cytoarchitecture, percentage of Hurthle cells, percentage of single cells, percentage of follicular cells observed as naked Hurthle cell nuclei, background colloid, chronic inflammation, cystic change, transgressing blood vessels (TBV), intracytoplasmic lumina, presence of multinucleated Hurthle cells, nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear pleomorphism/atypia, and nucleolar prominence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the current study of 139 FNAB specimens of thyroid Hurthle cell nodules, 14 cytologic features were examined and 6 were found to be statistically significant in identifying HCN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Colloids / analysis. Cytoplasm / pathology. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16453320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Colloids
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96. Chan P, Mahler J, Travlos G, Nyska A, Wenk M: Induction of thyroid lesions in 14-week toxicity studies of 2 and 4-methylimidazole in Fischer 344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Arch Toxicol; 2006 Mar;80(3):169-80
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  • [Title] Induction of thyroid lesions in 14-week toxicity studies of 2 and 4-methylimidazole in Fischer 344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.
  • In the 15-day studies, 2MI induced thyroid follicular-cell hyperplasia and pituitary pars-distalis hypertrophy in rats and thyroid follicular-cell hypertrophy and spleen hematopoietic-cell proliferation in mice; 4MI induced no histopathological changes in rats and mice.
  • In the 14-week studies, 2MI increased concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased those of thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyroxine (T(3)) in male and female rats according to the dosage.
  • Incidences of diffuse follicular-cell hyperplasia of the thyroid gland increased significantly in male rats exposed to 1,250 ppm or greater and female rats exposed to 2,500 ppm or greater.
  • Thyroid follicular-cell adenoma was diagnosed in two males in the 10,000-ppm group.
  • In mice, follicular-cell hypertrophy of the thyroid gland, anemia, splenic hematopoietic-cell proliferation, and hemosiderin in kidney tubules appeared.
  • Serum T(3), T(4), and TSH levels were not altered, and no thyroid lesions occurred.
  • Our studies demonstrated that, in rats and mice, 2MI induces thyroid hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and both 2MI and 4MI induce anemia; 2MI induces thyroid follicular-cell adenoma in male rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Imidazoles / toxicity. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Toxicity Tests, Chronic / methods

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LEVOTHYROXINE .
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  • (PMID = 16180012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5761
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Imidazoles; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 693-98-1 / 2-methylimidazole; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; Q64GF9FV4I / 4-methylimidazole
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97. Yang J, Schnadig V, Logrono R, Wasserman PG: Fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: a study of 4703 patients with histologic and clinical correlations. Cancer; 2007 Oct 25;111(5):306-15
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: a study of 4703 patients with histologic and clinical correlations.
  • BACKGROUND: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology recently proposed 6 diagnostic categories for the classification of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology.
  • METHODS: Patient cytology data were retrieved by a retrospective search of thyroid FNA in the institutional databases.
  • Cytologic diagnoses were classified as unsatisfactory, benign, atypical cellular lesion (ACL), follicular neoplasm (FN), suspicious for malignancy, and positive for malignancy.
  • RESULTS: Of 4703 FNA samples, 10.4% were classified as unsatisfactory, 64.6% were classified as benign, 3.2% were classified as ACL, 11.6% were classified as FN, 2.6% were classified as suspicious, and 7.6% were classified as malignant.
  • One thousand fifty-two patients had surgical follow-up, including 14.9% of patients with unsatisfactory FNA results, 9.8% of patients with benign results, 40.6% of patients with ACL results, 63.1% of patients with FN results, 86.1% of patients with suspicious results, and 79.3% of patients with malignant results.
  • Sources of errors included diagnoses on inadequate specimens, sample errors, and overlapping cytologic features between hyperplastic nodules and follicular adenoma.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of thyroid FNA for the diagnosis of malignancy were 94% and 98.5%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that FNA provides an accurate diagnosis of thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17680588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Tamler R, Lee AK, Lewis MS, Post KD: It's all in the head: insomnia and anxiety caused by thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma. Thyroid; 2006 Mar;16(3):317-8
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  • [Title] It's all in the head: insomnia and anxiety caused by thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / secretion. Anxiety / etiology. Hyperpituitarism / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / etiology. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16571097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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99. Pisello F, Geraci G, Sciumè C, Li Volsi F, Modica G: [Total thyroidectomy of choice in papillary microcarcinoma]. G Chir; 2007 Jan-Feb;28(1-2):13-9
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  • [Transliterated title] La tiroidectomia totale di principio nel microcarcinoma papillare.
  • INTRODUCTION: Today, the "gold standard" of surgical management of benign thyroid disease is still controversy.
  • There are different surgical approaches to the thyroid gland, from a radical, total thyroidectomy to a conservative treatment, lobectomy with or not isthmectomy.
  • In consideration of the more frequent incidence of small carcinomas accidentally founded in the context of the thyroid parenchyma removed for another pathology, the aim of this study is to bring a contribute to resolve the debate on the therapeutic choice in the surgical management of the thyroid benign disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2000 to January 2006 502 thyroidectomy were performed in the Section of General and Thoracic Surgery of University of Palermo: 458 total thyroidectomy (91.3%), 2 partial thyroidectomy (0.3%), 24 (4.8%) lobectomy with isthmectomy and 18 (3.6%) reinterventions for relapse; 34 patients (6.8%) were preoperative suspected (cytological or ultrasonography) for thyroid cancer.
  • Histologically, were 11 cases of classical papillary (64.7%), 4 cases (23.6%) of follicular and 2 (11.7%) sclerosing, in 9 cases of multinodular goiter, 3 of follicular adenoma, 3 cases of follicular carcinoma, 1 case of Graves disease and 1 case of Hashimoto thyroiditis.
  • DISCUSSION: Papillary microcarcinoma is a "thyroid papillary cancer with a diameter < or = 1 cm? ".
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our opinion, the surgical management of the all thyroid disease must be the more radical since the first time, because we think other approaches not correct to improve the complete health from the benign thyroid disease and to prevent (secondary prevention) papillary microcarcinoma not pre-operative diagnosed, because there are no preoperative pattern to make a correct diagnosis of this tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17313727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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100. Kairys JC, Daskalakis C, Weigel RJ: Surgeon-performed ultrasound for preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg; 2006 Sep;30(9):1658-63; discussion 1664
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  • Twenty-four (50%) patients had concomitant thyroid nodules which were identified by SP-US, and 4 (8.3%) patients had simultaneous thyroid operations, 2 of which were for thyroid cancer.
  • Among the patients with a single adenoma, SP-US, MIBI, and RP-US had sensitivities of 83%, 63%, and 13% respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Glands / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging

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  • (PMID = 16855801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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