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1. Castro DG, Cecílio SA, Canteras MM: Radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas: evaluation of its efficacy and safety. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:109
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  • [Title] Radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas: evaluation of its efficacy and safety.
  • OBJECT: To assess the effects of radiosurgery (RS) on the radiological and hormonal control and its toxicity in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 42 patients out of the first 48 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas treated with RS between 1999 and 2008 with a 6 months minimum follow-up.
  • There were 14 patients with non-secretory adenomas and, among functioning adenomas, 9 were prolactinomas, 9 were adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting and 10 were growth hormone-secreting tumors.
  • The median dose was 12,5 Gy (9 - 15 Gy) and 20 Gy (12 - 28 Gy) for non-secretory and secretory adenomas, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RS is an effective and safe therapeutic option in the management of selected patients with pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 21083925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994872
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2. Kreutzer J, Buslei R, Wallaschofski H, Hofmann B, Nimsky C, Fahlbusch R, Buchfelder M: Operative treatment of prolactinomas: indications and results in a current consecutive series of 212 patients. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Jan;158(1):11-8
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  • [Title] Operative treatment of prolactinomas: indications and results in a current consecutive series of 212 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Medical therapy with dopamine agonists (DA) is the primary treatment of choice in most patients with prolactinomas.
  • Focusing on a possible shift of recent indications, we retrospectively analyzed our results of surgical treatment in prolactinomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 2005, we have operated on 212 consecutive patients with prolactinomas.
  • Surgical indications were divided into 'classical' indications and 'modern' indications defined as cystic prolactinomas or patients with microprolactinomas who individually decided on a primary surgical treatment.
  • RESULTS: Initial overall remission was accomplished in 53.2% including giant prolactinomas.
  • Overall remission at the latest follow-up was 42.7%, but 72.5% in intrasellar tumors, 80% in cystic prolactinomas, and 84.8% in microprolactinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Remission rates after surgical treatment of prolactinomas remain excellent, particularly in microadenoma and intrasellar macroadenomas, whereas morbidity of transsphenoidal surgery is low in the hands of experienced pituitary surgeons.

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  • (PMID = 18166812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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3. Yang QH, Xu JN, Zhang R, Gao L, Xu RK: [Melatonin suppressing the proliferation of E2-induced pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor in rat involves the effects of estrogen receptor]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 May;22(2):174-8
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  • [Title] [Melatonin suppressing the proliferation of E2-induced pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor in rat involves the effects of estrogen receptor].
  • AIM: To investigate effects of melatonin on estrogen receptor at the primary stage of melatonin (MLT) inhibiting the proliferation of 17-beta-estradiol (E2)-induced pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor (prolactinoma) and its mechanisms in the rat.
  • METHODS: MLT inhibiting the proliferation of 17-beta-E2-induced prolactinoma was created by administrating different concentration of melatonin subcutaneously at 18:00 in every group of SD rat in vivo.
  • We also examined the expression of MLT receptor in prolactinoma cells and the effects of MLT on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) by in situ hybridization and the effects of MLT on the binding of ER to estrogen response element (ERE) by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)in primary culture cells iv vitro.
  • RESULTS: The results showed that the weights of prolactinomas in MLT groups, in which 0.25 mg or 0.50 mg/day/rat melatonin was administrated subcutaneously at 18:00, were decreased significantly (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05).
  • The expression of MLT1a and MLT1b were shown in pituitary prolactinoma cells.
  • Compared with the prolactinoma, the expression of ER and the bind of ER to ERE in prolactinoma treated with 0.25 mg/day/rat or 0.50 mg/day/rat MLT was decreased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: These data indicate that some dosage of MLT inhibit the development of E2-induced prolactinoma in SD rat.
  • [MeSH-major] Estradiol / pharmacology. Melatonin / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21162234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-6834
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo ying yong sheng li xue za zhi = Zhongguo yingyong shenglixue zazhi = Chinese journal of applied physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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4. Dekkers OM, Lagro J, Burman P, Jørgensen JO, Romijn JA, Pereira AM: Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia after withdrawal of dopamine agonists: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jan;95(1):43-51
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  • CONTEXT: Dopamine agonists are the treatment of choice for prolactinomas and symptomatic idiopathic hyperprolactinemia.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dopamine agonist withdrawal in patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / complications. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome. Withholding Treatment


5. Lourenço DM Jr, Toledo RA, Mackowiak II, Coutinho FL, Cavalcanti MG, Correia-Deur JE, Montenegro F, Siqueira SA, Margarido LC, Machado MC, Toledo SP: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in Brazil: MEN1 founding mutation, clinical features, and bone mineral density profile. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;159(3):259-74
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  • Here, we aimed to investigate the clinical features of a seven-generation Brazilian pedigree, which included 715 at-risk family members.
  • Very high frequencies of functioning and non-functioning MEN1-related tumors were documented and the prevalence of prolactinoma (29.6%) was similar to that previously described in prolactinoma-variant Burin (32%).


6. Uccella S, Tibiletti MG, Bernasconi B, Finzi G, Oldrini R, Capella C: Aneuploidy, centrosome alteration and securin overexpression as features of pituitary somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2005 Oct;27(5):241-52
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  • [Title] Aneuploidy, centrosome alteration and securin overexpression as features of pituitary somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To verify the presence of numerical chromosomal aberrations (NCAs) in different types of pituitary adenomas (PAs) and to investigate 2 of the mechanisms that are possibly related to aneuploidies in PAs: securin overexpression and centrosome alterations.
  • RESULTS: At interphase FISH analysis, growth hormone (GH)-cell and prolactin (PRL)-cell PAs showed multiple chromosome gains and a low frequency of chromosome losses, suggesting a hyperdiploid chromosome assessment.
  • In addition, when compared to other types of PAs, GH-cell and PRL-cell adenomas showed overexpression of securin and a higher number of both cells with abnormal nuclear shape and cells with centrosomes.
  • CONCLUSION: Somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas are characterized by aneuploidy, abnormal nuclear shape and centrosome amplification, which are possibly related to securin overexpression.

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  • (PMID = 16447816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human
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7. Drutel A, Caron P, Archambeaud F: [New medical treatments in pituitary adenomas]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Sep;69 Suppl 1:S16-28
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  • [Title] [New medical treatments in pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Actualités thérapeutiques dans la prise en charge médicale des adénomes hypophysaires.
  • Currently, the role of dopaminergic and somatostatinergic agonists in the treatment of pituitary adenomas is quite well established.
  • Nevertheless, a clearer understanding of the expression of dopaminergic and somatostatinergic receptors at the cellular level of pituitary adenomas as well as the development of newer analogues compounds may drastically change current therapeutic modalities.
  • In the midst of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas, a positive correlation exists between the expression of Sst2 mRNA and the inhibition of GH release by somatostatin analogues.
  • The involvement of Sst5 subtype in adenomas resistant to preferential Sst2 agonists has recently been proved.
  • Besides, the use of a chimeric molecule presenting a binding affinity to both Sst2 and D2 subtypes (BIM-23A287) inhibits the secretion of GH in ways similar to the Sst2 or D2 agonists used alone or concurrently but however in a concentration 50 times lower than that of the latter.
  • The discovery of Sst5 and D2 subtypes at the level of corticotropic adenomas reveals newer therapeutic perspectives with promising preliminary results with the use of SOM-230 ; these finding lead to a rise in interest in cabergoline.
  • In the midst of non-functioning pituitary adenomas, the expression of Sst2, Sst3 and D2 receptors will perhaps allow the use of combined therapies associating the new somatostatin analogues to the dopaminergic agonists or even use dopastatin (BIM-23A760, chimeric molecule Sst2-Sst5-D2).
  • Finally, concerning prolactinomas the discovery of Sst5 receptors lead to consider the use of somatostatinergic agonists specific to the Sst5 receptor, SOM-230 in particular.
  • Nevertheless, it seems that adenomas resistant to dopaminergic agonist due to a lack of expression of D2 receptor fail to express Sst5 receptors as well.
  • On the other hand, dopastatin appears to be more efficient than cabergoline in the management of this type of adenomas.
  • Therefore, the growing awareness concerning the mechanisms involved in the control of pituitary secretions as well as cellular proliferation will perhaps allow physicians to treat the pathology of pituitary adenomas, macroadenomas in particular, using solely pharmacological means instead of invasive surgical procedures and/or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18954854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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8. Giorgi RR, Chile T, Bello AR, Reyes R, Fortes MA, Machado MC, Cescato VA, Musolino NR, Bronstein MD, Giannella-Neto D, Corrêa-Giannella ML: Expression of neurotensin and its receptors in pituitary adenomas. J Neuroendocrinol; 2008 Sep;20(9):1052-7
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  • [Title] Expression of neurotensin and its receptors in pituitary adenomas.
  • The neurotensin (NT) produced in the hypothalamus and in pituitary gonadotrophs and thyrotrophs participates in neuroendocrine regulation.
  • Recently, the involvement of this peptide in normal and neoplastic cell proliferation has been postulated.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the expression of NT and its receptors (NTR1, 2 and 3) in a series of 50 pituitary adenomas [11 growth hormone (GH)-, eight prolactin (PRL)-, four adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- and 27 nonfunctioning adenomas].
  • NT mRNA expression was significantly higher in functioning compared to nonfunctioning adenomas and with normal pituitary.
  • Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas showed lower expression of NT mRNA than normal pituitary.
  • In the immunohistochemical study of functioning adenomas, NT was colocalised with GH, PRL and ACTH secreting cells.
  • In nonfunctioning adenomas, the NT immunoreactivity intensity was variable among the samples.
  • NTR3 mRNA expression was observed in all examined samples and was higher in the adenomas, both functioning and nonfunctioning, compared to normal pituitary.
  • By contrast, NTR1 and NTR2 mRNA were not detected in either pituitary adenomas or normal tissue.
  • The higher expression of NTR3, as well as the expression of NT by tumoural corticotrophs, lactotrophs and somatotrophs, which are cells types that do not express this peptide in the normal pituitary, suggests that NT autocrine and/or paracrine stimulation mediated by NTR3 may be a mechanism associated with the tumourigenesis of functioning adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Neurotensin / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Neurotensin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18624930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Neurotensin; 39379-15-2 / Neurotensin
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9. Gallagher J, Lynch FW, Barragry J: A prolactinoma masked by a herbal remedy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Apr;137(2):257-8
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  • [Title] A prolactinoma masked by a herbal remedy.
  • [MeSH-major] Materia Medica / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Galactorrhea / chemically induced. Galactorrhea / diagnosis. Humans. Hyperprolactinemia / blood. Hyperprolactinemia / complications. Hyperprolactinemia / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Plant Extracts / adverse effects. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Prolactin / blood. Vitex

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  • (PMID = 17298863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Materia Medica; 0 / Plant Extracts; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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10. Naliato EC, Farias ML, Violante AH: [Prolactinomas and bone mineral density in men]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Apr;49(2):183-95
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  • [Title] [Prolactinomas and bone mineral density in men].
  • [Transliterated title] Prolactinomas e densidade mineral óssea em homens.
  • In this paper, we analyze aspects related to bone loss in men with hyperprolactinemia due to prolactinomas: prevalence, clinical relevance, physiopathology, diagnosis and the consequences of the treatment of hyperprolactinemia and hypogonadism on bone mineral density.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density. Hyperprolactinemia / complications. Osteoporosis / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prolactinoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 16184246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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11. Lania AG, Ferrero S, Pivonello R, Mantovani G, Peverelli E, Di Sarno A, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A, Colao A: Evolution of an aggressive prolactinoma into a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor coincident with GNAS gene mutation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jan;95(1):13-7
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  • [Title] Evolution of an aggressive prolactinoma into a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor coincident with GNAS gene mutation.
  • CONTEXT: Mixed PRL- and GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are relatively common because somatotrophs and lactotrophs share the common somato-mammotroph progenitor lineage.
  • Conversely, the occurrence of a prolactinoma evolving into clinically and biochemically active acromegaly is a rare phenomenon.
  • OBJECTIVE AND RESULTS: We report a patient with a prolactinoma who after 15 yr of disease control by bromocriptine became resistant to dopaminergic drugs and due to the rapid tumor growth was submitted to four neurosurgeries and two stereotactic radiotherapies in the subsequent 5 yr.
  • Although samples from the initial surgery were positive for prolactin and negative for GH, about 10% of GH-positive cells were detected in tissue from the last surgery, consistent with the observed clinical shift to acromegaly.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that 1)treatment of prolactinomas resistant to dopaminergic drugs is still a challenge, and 2) the appearance of gsp oncogene in a prolactinoma evolving into acromegaly might be the underlying mechanism of this rare transition, further confirming that this mutational change is associated with somatotroph growth and transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Mutation / physiology. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19890024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
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12. Ferone D, de Herder WW, Pivonello R, Kros JM, van Koetsveld PM, de Jong T, Minuto F, Colao A, Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ: Correlation of in vitro and in vivo somatotropic adenoma responsiveness to somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists with immunohistochemical evaluation of somatostatin and dopamine receptors and electron microscopy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Apr;93(4):1412-7
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  • [Title] Correlation of in vitro and in vivo somatotropic adenoma responsiveness to somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists with immunohistochemical evaluation of somatostatin and dopamine receptors and electron microscopy.
  • OBJECTIVE AND PATIENTS: Twenty-four pituitary adenomas from acromegalic patients (13 females, 11 males; age range 19-65 yr) were characterized for somatostatin receptor subtype 2A (sst(2A)), dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)R), GH, and prolactin (PRL) expression by immunohistochemistry, and results correlated with the in vitro and in vivo hormone responses to octreotide and quinagolide.
  • In nine cases, GH and PRL content was further studied by immunoelectron microscopy.
  • Sst(2A) was scored as 2 in 13 cases, 1 in 10, and 0 in one; D(2)R was scored as 2 in 13 cases, 1 in nine, and 0 in 2; GH was 2 in 15 cases and 1 in nine; PRL was 2 in six cases, 1 in 13, and 0 in 5.
  • D(2)R was positively correlated with in vitro percent GH (P =0.000) and PRL (P =0.005) suppression by quinagolide.
  • Electron microscopy revealed two pure somatotroph adenomas, five somatomammotrophs with a variable coexpression of GH and PRL in the same cells, and two tumors consisting of mixed cell types, which were less sensitive to quinagolide and octreotide.
  • CONCLUSION: Sst(2A) and D(2)R are frequently coexpressed in adenomas from acromegalic patients, and immunohistochemistry may be helpful in characterizing receptor expression in pituitary adenomas to select patients responsive to different treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / analysis. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Middle Aged. Prolactin / blood

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  • (PMID = 18211974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor sst2A; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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13. Yan G, Hou R, Zhuang D, Chen L, Pang Q, Zhu J: Proteomic analysis of prolactinoma cells by immuno-laser capture microdissection combined with online two-dimensional nano-scale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Proteome Sci; 2010 Jan 29;8:2
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of prolactinoma cells by immuno-laser capture microdissection combined with online two-dimensional nano-scale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.
  • BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenomas, the third most common intracranial tumor, comprise nearly 16.7% of intracranial neoplasm and 25%-44% of pituitary adenomas are prolactinomas.
  • Prolactinoma represents a complex heterogeneous mixture of cells including prolactin (PRL), endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and other stromal cells, making it difficult to dissect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of prolactin cells in pituitary tumorigenesis through high-throughout-omics analysis.
  • Our newly developed immuno-laser capture microdissection (LCM) method would permit rapid and reliable procurement of prolactin cells from this heterogeneous tissue.
  • Thus, prolactin cell specific molecular events involved in pituitary tumorigenesis and cell signaling can be approached by proteomic analysis.
  • RESULTS: Proteins from immuno-LCM captured prolactin cells were digested; resulting peptides were separated by two dimensional-nanoscale liquid chromatography (2D-nanoLC/MS) and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry.
  • All MS/MS spectrums were analyzed by SEQUEST against the human International Protein Index database and a specific prolactinoma proteome consisting of 2243 proteins was identified.
  • This collection of identified proteins by far represents the largest and the most comprehensive database of proteome for prolactinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This manuscript described a more comprehensive proteomic profile of prolactinomas compared to other previous published reports.
  • Thanks to the application of immuno-LCM combined with online two-dimensional nano-scale liquid chromatography here permitted identification of more proteins and, to our best knowledge, generated the largest prolactinoma proteome.
  • This enlarged proteome would contribute significantly to further understanding of prolactinoma tumorigenesis which is crucial to the management of prolactinomas.

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  • (PMID = 20205839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-5956
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteome science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteome Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2825229
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14. Sadideen H, Swaminathan R: Macroprolactin: what is it and what is its importance? Int J Clin Pract; 2006 Apr;60(4):457-61
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  • Monomeric prolactin (PRL) of molecular weight 23 kDa constitutes up to 95% of adult serum PRL.
  • Macroprolactin is a large antigen-antibody complex of molecular weight greater than 100 kDa and constitutes less than 1% of circulating PRL.
  • Thus, in most cases, hyperprolactinaemia is usually a result of high levels of monomeric PRL, which may be due to excess production as with a prolactinoma or due to disinhibition by compression of the pituitary stalk.
  • The presence of macroprolactin should always be suspected when a patient's clinical history and/or radiological data are incompatible with his/her PRL value.
  • Thus, it may be useful to screen all patients with high sera PRL levels in order to prevent unnecessary investigations into the cause for hyperprolactinaemia.
  • It is hoped that macroprolactinaemia is included in the differential diagnosis of hyperprolactinaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia / etiology. Prolactin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16620360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / prolactin, polymeric; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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15. Schaller B: Gender-related differences in prolactinomas. A clinicopathological study. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2005 Apr;26(2):152-9
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  • [Title] Gender-related differences in prolactinomas. A clinicopathological study.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prolactinomas are the most common tumors of the pituitary gland.
  • PATIENTS & METHODS: Twenty-six patients with prolactinomas, that met strict immunohistochemical and electron microscopic criteria and were surgically treated between January 1990 and June 1997, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Men were significantly older, both at diagnosis and surgery.
  • Men had a significantly shorter preoperative duration of symptoms and higher preoperative serum prolactin levels than women.
  • The preoperative prolactin levels and proliferative activities (mitotic index, MIB-1 labeling index) were lower in women compared to men and showed a direct correlation to postoperative outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: The biology and the clinical course of prolactinomas seem to differ in women and men.
  • Our findings may justify a more aggressive therapeutic approach to prolactinomas in men than in women.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology. Sex Characteristics

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  • [ErratumIn] Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Dec;26(6):628
  • (PMID = 15855888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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16. Pesatori AC, Baccarelli A, Consonni D, Lania A, Beck-Peccoz P, Bertazzi PA, Spada A: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein and pituitary adenomas: a population-based study on subjects exposed to dioxin after the Seveso, Italy, accident. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Dec;159(6):699-703
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  • [Title] Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein and pituitary adenomas: a population-based study on subjects exposed to dioxin after the Seveso, Italy, accident.
  • OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of sporadic pituitary tumors is unknown.
  • Loss-of-function mutations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) have been identified in patients with familial pituitary tumors.
  • DESIGN: We investigated the incidence of pituitary tumors in the Seveso population exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin following an industrial accident in 1976.
  • METHODS: Through the hospital discharge registration system of Lombardy Region, we identified incident cases of pituitary adenomas between 1976 and 1996 in the Seveso population, subdivided in zone A (n=804), B (n=5.941), and R (n=38.624) according to high, intermediate, and low exposure to dioxin respectively, and in the surrounding non-contaminated area, as reference (n=232 745).
  • RESULTS: We identified 42 pituitary adenomas in the reference area, 1 prolactinoma in zone A (rate ratio (RR) 6.2; 95% CI 0.9-45.5, P=0.07), 2 nonfuctioning pituitary tumors (NFPAs) in zone B (RR 1.9; 95% CI 0.5-7.7, P=0.39), and 3 prolactinomas and 2 NFPAs in zone R (RR 0.7; 95% CI 0.3-1.8, P=0.48).
  • The study indicates no statistically significant increase of incident pituitary tumors in this area, although the tendency toward a higher risk (three cases in zones A and B) of pituitary tumors in subjects exposed to high-intermediate dioxin concentrations in comparison with nonexposed population suggests the need for extended follow-up.


17. Osa LE, Horjen J, Aanderud S, Lund-Johansen M: [Surgical treatment of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2006 May 11;126(10):1330-2
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas].
  • BACKGROUND: Transsphenoidal surgical treatment is established as a treatment of hormonally active pituitary tumours, except prolactinomas.
  • METHODS: We did a retrospective survey evaluating the operative results of one surgeon operating hormonally active pituitary tumours from 1993 through 2002 at Haukeland University Hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Clinical Competence. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Sphenoid Bone / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16691270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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18. Cho EH, Lee SA, Chung JY, Koh EH, Cho YH, Kim JH, Kim CJ, Kim MS: Efficacy and safety of cabergoline as first line treatment for invasive giant prolactinoma. J Korean Med Sci; 2009 Oct;24(5):874-8
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  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of cabergoline as first line treatment for invasive giant prolactinoma.
  • Although cabergoline is effective in the treatment of micro- and macro-prolactinoma, little is known about its efficacy in the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma.
  • We investigated the efficacy and safety of cabergoline in 10 male patients with invasive giant prolactinoma.
  • Before treatment, mean serum prolactin level was 11,426 ng/mL (range, 1,450-33,200 ng/mL) and mean maximum tumor diameter was 51 mm (range, 40-77 mm).
  • Three months after initiation of cabergoline treatment, serum prolactin concentrations decreased more than 97% in 9 patients; at last follow-up (mean treatment duration, 19 months), the mean decrease in serum prolactin concentrations was 98%, with 5 patients having normal serum prolactin levels.
  • These findings indicate that cabergoline treatment led to a significant and rapid reduction in serum prolactin concentrations and tumor size in patients with giant prolactinoma.
  • Therefore, cabergoline represents an effective and well-tolerated treatment for invasive giant prolactinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prolactin / blood. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19794986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ergolines; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2752771
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cabergoline / Invasive Giant Prolactinoma / Male / Prolactin / Tumor Size
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19. Ahtiainen P, Sharp V, Rulli SB, Rivero-Müller A, Mamaeva V, Röyttä M, Huhtaniemi I: Enhanced LH action in transgenic female mice expressing hCGbeta-subunit induces pituitary prolactinomas; the role of high progesterone levels. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):611-21
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  • [Title] Enhanced LH action in transgenic female mice expressing hCGbeta-subunit induces pituitary prolactinomas; the role of high progesterone levels.
  • The etiology of pituitary adenomas remains largely unknown, with the exception of involvement of estrogens in the formation of prolactinomas.
  • We have examined the molecular pathogenesis of prolactin-producing pituitary adenomas in transgenic female mice expressing the human choriongonadotropin (hCG) beta-subunit.
  • Curiously, despite normal estrogen levels, large prolactinomas developed in these mice, and we provide here several lines of evidence that the elevated P(4) levels are involved in the growth of these estrogen-dependent tumors.
  • Evidence for direct growth-promoting effect of P(4) was obtained from cultures of primary mouse pituitary cells and rat somatomammotroph GH3 cells.
  • If extrapolated to humans, and given the importance of endogenous P(4) and synthetic progestins in female reproductive functions and their pharmacotherapy, it is relevant to revisit the potential role of these hormones in the origin and growth of prolactinomas.

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  • (PMID = 20453081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 063552; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 082101
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2881531
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20. Bonneville JF, Bonneville F, Cattin F: [MRI of the pituitary gland: indications and results in gynaecology and in obstetrics]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2005 Mar;33(3):147-53
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  • [Title] [MRI of the pituitary gland: indications and results in gynaecology and in obstetrics].
  • [Transliterated title] L'IRM hypophysaire: indications et résultats en gynécologie et en obstétrique.
  • MRI is the sole radiological examination to be obtained if abnormal menses, galactorrhea or anovulation evokes the diagnosis of prolactinoma.
  • Nevertheless, iatrogenic hyperprolactinemia or presence of big prolactin has to be ruled out before MRI is asked for.
  • MRI of the pituitary gland must be technically optimal; analysis of the images has to be directed by clinical and biological data.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Amenorrhea / diagnosis. Amenorrhea / etiology. Female. Galactorrhea / diagnosis. Galactorrhea / etiology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15848087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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21. Ceylan S, Koc K, Anik I: Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus. J Neurosurg; 2010 Jan;112(1):99-107
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  • [Title] Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus.
  • METHODS: The authors used an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach in 192 patients with pituitary adenomas between September 1997 and January 2008, adding a cavernous sinus approach in 20 patients with invasive tumors during the last 5 years of this period [corrected].
  • RESULTS: The tumors included nonsecretory adenomas in 5 cases (25%), growth hormone-secreting adenomas in 7 (35%), prolactin-secreting adenomas in 4 (20%), and adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenomas in 4 cases (20%).
  • Normal growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels were achieved in 4 patients (57%) with growth hormone adenomas, and remission criteria were obtained in 3 patients with prolactinomas and 3 patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Compared with transcranial and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery, endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery offers a wide exposure for cavernous sinus medial wall adenomas that enables removal of the adenoma from the medial cavernous sinus wall.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Cavernous Sinus / surgery. Neuroendoscopy / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Sphenoid Bone / surgery

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  • [ErratumIn] J Neurosurg. 2010 Jan;112(1):210
  • (PMID = 19480546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Hereñú CB, Morel GR, Bellini MJ, Reggiani PC, Sosa YE, Brown OA, Goya RG: Gene therapy in the neuroendocrine system. Front Horm Res; 2006;35:135-42
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  • In rats, aging brings about a progressive degeneration and loss of hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, which are involved in the tonic inhibitory control of prolactin secretion and lactotropic cell proliferation.
  • Spontaneous intermediate lobe pituitary tumors in a retinoblastoma (Rb) gene mutant mouse were corrected by injection of an adenoviral vector expressing the human Rb cDNA and experimental prolactinomas in rats were partially reduced by intrapituitary injection of an adenoviral vector expressing the HSV1-thymidine kinase suicide gene.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aging / genetics. Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Genes, Transgenic, Suicide. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Mice. Mutant Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Rats. Rats, Brattleboro. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Receptors, Leptin. Retinoblastoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16809929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-3073
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Horm Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / 1R21 TW 006665
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Leptin
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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23. Hansen KA, Zhang Y, Colver R, Tho SP, Plouffe L Jr, McDonough PG: The dopamine receptor D2 genotype is associated with hyperprolactinemia. Fertil Steril; 2005 Sep;84(3):711-8
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  • Previous studies of lactotrophs from prolactinomas have found normal DRD2 receptors but differing isoform density.
  • Homozygosity of polymorphism 1 may influence the distribution of the DRD2 isoforms on the lactotroph.
  • Other potential mechanisms include an association with a molecular defect in a postreceptor signaling mechanism, such as a somatic inactivating mutation in a G1 protein, which could result in autonomous function of the lactotroph.
  • Mutations could also result in different receptor-G protein interactions, such as a Gs instead of Gi, and result in autonomous lactotroph function.

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  • (PMID = 16169407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2
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24. Dekkers OM, Romijn JA, de Boer A, Vandenbroucke JP: The risk for breast cancer is not evidently increased in women with hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary; 2010 Sep;13(3):195-8
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  • We aimed to assess the risk of breast cancer in a previously defined large cohort of patients treated for idiopathic hyperprolactinemia or prolactinomas.
  • In conclusion, there is no clear evidence for increased breast cancer risk in female patients treated for either idiopathic hyperprolactinemia or prolactinomas.

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  • [Cites] J Endocrinol Invest. 2001 Jun;24(6):454-9 [11434671.001]
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  • (PMID = 20012697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913002
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25. Raverot G, Arnous W, Calender A, Trouillas J, Sassolas G, Bournaud C, Pugeat M, Borson-Chazot F: Familial pituitary adenomas with a heterogeneous functional pattern: clinical and genetic features. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Oct;30(9):787-90
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  • [Title] Familial pituitary adenomas with a heterogeneous functional pattern: clinical and genetic features.
  • Familial pituitary adenoma is a rare syndrome which may present either as isolated lesions, or in association with other endocrine tumors, for example in the frame of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN-1) or Carney complex (CNC).
  • The most frequently described forms of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) are familial somatotropinomas or prolactinomas.
  • Recently, some cases of familial isolated somatotropinoma have been associated with germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene.
  • The present report shows heterogeneous FIPA with 3 subtypes of tumor in 3 individuals of the same family: somatotropinoma in the proband, giant prolactinoma in a brother, and gonadotroph cell macroadenoma in the father.
  • A prospective survey also suggested the occurrence of a silent microadenoma in the proband's sister.
  • In conclusion, these data suggest that familial pituitary adenomas can occur with a heterogeneous functional pattern that is distinguished from MEN-1 or CNC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Genetic Testing. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17993773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon
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26. Raitila A, Georgitsi M, Karhu A, Tuppurainen K, Mäkinen MJ, Birkenkamp-Demtröder K, Salmenkivi K, Orntoft TF, Arola J, Launonen V, Vahteristo P, Aaltonen LA: No evidence of somatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations in sporadic endocrine neoplasia. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):901-6
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  • Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene were recently observed in patients with pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP).
  • Though AIP mutation-positive individuals with prolactin-, mixed growth hormone/prolactin-, and ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas as well as non-secreting pituitary adenomas have been reported, most mutation-positive patients have had growth hormone-producing adenomas diagnosed at relatively young age.
  • Pituitary adenomas are also component tumors of some familial endocrine neoplasia syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC).
  • Genes underlying MEN1 and CNC are rarely mutated in sporadic pituitary adenomas, but more often in other lesions contributing to these two syndromes.
  • Thus far, the occurrence of somatic AIP mutations has not been studied in endocrine tumors other than pituitary adenomas.
  • Here, we have analyzed 32 pituitary adenomas and 79 other tumors of the endocrine system for somatic AIP mutations by direct sequencing.
  • However, two out of nine patients with prolactin-producing adenoma were shown to harbor a Finnish founder mutation (Q14X) with a complete loss of the wild-type allele in the tumors.
  • These results are in agreement with previous studies in that prolactin-producing adenomas are component tumors in PAP.
  • The data also support the previous finding that somatic AIP mutations are not common in pituitary adenomas and suggest that such mutations are rare in other endocrine tumors as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation. Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17914118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
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27. Raverot G, Sturm N, de Fraipont F, Muller M, Salenave S, Caron P, Chabre O, Chanson P, Cortet-Rudelli C, Assaker R, Dufour H, Gaillard S, François P, Jouanneau E, Passagia JG, Bernier M, Cornélius A, Figarella-Branger D, Trouillas J, Borson-Chazot F, Brue T: Temozolomide treatment in aggressive pituitary tumors and pituitary carcinomas: a French multicenter experience. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):4592-9
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  • [Title] Temozolomide treatment in aggressive pituitary tumors and pituitary carcinomas: a French multicenter experience.
  • CONTEXT: To date only 18 patients with aggressive pituitary tumors or carcinomas treated with temozolomide have been reported.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to describe the antitumoral efficacy and toxicity of temozolomide in patients with aggressive pituitary tumors or carcinomas and evaluate the possible prognostic value of MGMT promoter methylation and protein expression.
  • PATIENTS: Eight patients, five with pituitary carcinomas (three prolactin (PRL) and two ACTH) and three with aggressive pituitary tumors (one PRL and two ACTH), all treated with temozolomide administered orally for four to 24 cycles, were included in our French multicenter study.
  • RESULTS: Three of the eight patients (two ACTH adenomas and one PRL carcinoma) responded to temozolomide as demonstrated by significant tumor shrinkage and reduced hormone secretion.
  • CONCLUSION: Temozolomide treatment may be an effective option for some aggressive pituitary tumors or carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. DNA Methylation. Female. France. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / genetics. Prolactinoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sequence Analysis, DNA


28. Castinetti F, Nagai M, Morange I, Dufour H, Caron P, Chanson P, Cortet-Rudelli C, Kuhn JM, Conte-Devolx B, Regis J, Brue T: Long-term results of stereotactic radiosurgery in secretory pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Sep;94(9):3400-7
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  • [Title] Long-term results of stereotactic radiosurgery in secretory pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine long-term efficacy and adverse effects of SR in secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • PATIENTS: A total of 76 patients were treated by SR for acromegaly (n = 43), Cushing's disease (CD; n = 18), or prolactinoma (n = 15) as a primary (n = 27) or adjunctive postsurgical treatment (n = 49).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: After withdrawal of antisecretory drugs, patients were considered in remission if they had mean GH levels below 2 ng/ml and normal IGF-I (acromegaly), normal 24-h urinary free cortisol, and cortisol less than 50 nmol/liter after low-dose dexamethasone test (CD) or two consecutive normal samplings of prolactin levels (prolactinoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SR is an effective and safe primary or adjunctive treatment in selected patients with secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / surgery. Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies


29. Wan H, Chihiro O, Yuan S: MASEP gamma knife radiosurgery for secretory pituitary adenomas: experience in 347 consecutive cases. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2009;28:36
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  • [Title] MASEP gamma knife radiosurgery for secretory pituitary adenomas: experience in 347 consecutive cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Secretory pituitary adenomas are very common brain tumors.
  • Historically, the treatment armamentarium for secretory pituitary adenomas included neurosurgery, medical management, and fractionated radiotherapy.
  • In recent years, MASEP gamma knife radiosurgery (MASEP GKRS) has emerged as an important treatment modality in the management of secretory pituitary adenomas.
  • The goal of this research is to define accurately the efficacy, safety, complications, and role of MASEP GKRS for treatment of secretory pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: Between 1997 and 2007 a total of 347 patients with secretory pituitary adenomas treated with MASEP GKRS and with at least 60 months of follow-up data were identified.
  • Of the 68 patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting(ACTH) adenomas, 89.7% showed tumor volume decrease or remain unchanged and 27.9% experienced normalization of hormone level.
  • Of the 176 patients with prolactinomas, 23.3% had normalization of hormone level and 90.3% showed tumor volume decrease or remain unchanged.
  • Of the 103 patients with growth hormone-secreting(GH) adenomas, 95.1% experienced tumor volume decrease or remain unchanged and 36.9% showed normalization of hormone level.
  • CONCLUSION: MASEP GKRS is safe and effective in treating secretory pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 19284583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2660297
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30. Camihort GA, Hereñú CB, Luna GC, Rodríguez SS, Bracamonte MI, Goya RG, Cónsole GM: Morphological changes induced by insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy in pituitary cell populations in experimental prolactinomas. Cells Tissues Organs; 2010;191(4):316-25
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  • [Title] Morphological changes induced by insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy in pituitary cell populations in experimental prolactinomas.
  • In previous studies, we assessed the effects of intrapituitary injection of a recombinant adenoviral vector (RAd) harboring the cDNA for rat insulin-like growth factor type I (RAd-IGF-I) on the lactotrope and somatotrope populations in estrogen-induced prolactinomas.
  • In the present study, we aimed to confirm these findings and further analyze the effect of transgenic RAd-IGF-I on the other pituitary cell populations in female rats.
  • The RAd-IGF-I group showed a significant decrease in serum growth hormone and prolactin levels and lactotrope and somatotrope cell size induced by estrogen treatment.
  • Cell density was not affected by 7 days of IGF-I gene therapy.
  • Estrogen had an inhibitory effect on thyrotrope cell density, whereas with RAd-IGF-I there was a nonsignificant trend towards restoration of cell density, without changes in cell size.
  • RAd-IGF-I treatment decreased corticotrope cell size without changing cell density.
  • Estrogen decreased gonadotrope cell size and density, which was reversed by RAd-IGF-I.
  • We conclude that in estrogen-induced pituitary tumors, IGF-I gene therapy has inhibitory effects on the lactotrope, somatotrope and corticotrope populations, while reversing the effect of estrogen on gonadotropic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology. Prolactinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19923782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1422-6421
  • [Journal-full-title] Cells, tissues, organs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG029798
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3696382
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31. Colao A: Pituitary tumours: the prolactinoma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Oct;23(5):575-96
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  • [Title] Pituitary tumours: the prolactinoma.
  • This review focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of prolactinomas.
  • The diagnosis of hyperprolactinaemia has been simplified in recent years, and only prolactin (PRL) assay and magnetic resonance imaging of the sella are required.
  • Nonetheless, macroprolactinaemia should be assessed in patients with hyperprolactinaemia in the absence of clinical symptoms of elevated PRL levels.
  • The patients achieving disappearance of the tumours and suppression of PRL levels during treatment are those showing the highest likelihood to have persistent remission of hyperprolactinaemia after treatment withdrawal.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Prolactinoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Treatment Outcome. Withholding Treatment

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  • (PMID = 19945024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dopamine Agonists
  • [Number-of-references] 157
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32. Colao A, Galderisi M, Di Sarno A, Pardo M, Gaccione M, D'Andrea M, Guerra E, Pivonello R, Lerro G, Lombardi G: Increased prevalence of tricuspid regurgitation in patients with prolactinomas chronically treated with cabergoline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Oct;93(10):3777-84
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  • [Title] Increased prevalence of tricuspid regurgitation in patients with prolactinomas chronically treated with cabergoline.
  • BACKGROUND: Cabergoline, a dopamine receptor-2 agonist used to treat prolactinomas, was associated with increased risk of cardiac valve disease in Parkinson's disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate prevalence of cardiac valve regurgitation in cabergoline-treated patients with prolactinomas.
  • PATIENTS: Fifty treated patients (44 women and six men) and 50 sex- and age-matched control subjects participated; 20 de novo patients were also studied.
  • RESULTS: In de novo patients, treated patients, and controls, the prevalence of mild regurgitation of mitral (35, 22, and 12%, P = 0.085), aortic (0, 4, and 2%, P = 0.59), tricuspid (55, 30, and 42%, P = 0.13) or pulmonic (20, 12, and 6%, P = 0.22) valves was similar.
  • Conversely, the prevalence of moderate tricuspid regurgitation was higher in the treated patients (54%) than in de novo patients (0%) and controls (18%, P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Moderate tricuspid regurgitation is more frequent in patients taking cabergoline (at higher cumulative doses) than in de novo patients and control subjects, but the clinical significance of this finding has not been established.
  • [MeSH-major] Ergolines / administration & dosage. Ergolines / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency / chemically induced. Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Case-Control Studies. Chronic Disease. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18682513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00460616
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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33. Chatfield J, Zhang L, Ramey J, Bowsher T, Loskutoff N, O'Neill K: Resolution of a hyperprolactinemia in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wildl Med; 2006 Dec;37(4):565-6
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  • [Title] Resolution of a hyperprolactinemia in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).
  • Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are one of the most common causes of infertility in women.
  • Prolactin plays an important role in lactation and is involved in producing some of the normal mammalian breeding and maternal behaviors.
  • Elevated serum prolactin concentrations can adversely affect the reproductive cycle in females by inhibiting the normal lutenizing hormone surge that stimulates ovulation.
  • An MRI confirmed a pituitary mass and treatment was initiated with cabergoline.
  • Following 8 mo of treatment, mass size decreased and serum prolactin was within normal limits.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Ape Diseases / drug therapy. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Gorilla gorilla. Pituitary Neoplasms / veterinary. Prolactinoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17315448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-7260
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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34. Bangaru ML, Woodliff J, Raff H, Kansra S: Growth suppression of mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells by curcumin: a model for treating Cushing's disease. PLoS One; 2010;5(4):e9893
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  • [Title] Growth suppression of mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells by curcumin: a model for treating Cushing's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Pituitary corticotroph tumors secrete excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) resulting in Cushing's disease (CD).
  • Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, has potent growth inhibitory effects on cell proliferation.
  • Our laboratory recently demonstrated that curcumin inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in prolactin- and growth hormone-producing tumor cells.
  • Subsequently, Schaaf et.al. confirmed our findings and also showed the in vivo effectiveness of curcumin to suppress pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the mouse corticotroph tumor cells, AtT20 cells, we report that curcumin had a robust, irreversible inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and clonogenic property.
  • Further, curcumin down-regulated the pro-survival protein Bcl-xL, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, increased PARP cleavage, which led to apoptotic cell death.
  • CONCLUSION: The ability of curcumin to inhibit NFkappaB and induce apoptosis in pituitary corticotroph tumor cells leads us to propose developing it as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of CD.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Curcumin / pharmacology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Mice. NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 20405005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / NF-kappa B; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2854133
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35. Peker S, Sun I, Kurtkaya-Yapicier O, Elmaci I, Pamir MN: Ectopic pituitary adenoma located at the pituitary stalk. Case report. J Neurosurg Sci; 2005 Mar;49(1):25-9
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  • [Title] Ectopic pituitary adenoma located at the pituitary stalk. Case report.
  • Suprasellar located ectopic pituitary adenomas are unusual tumors.
  • We report a rare case of suprasellar prolactinoma arising from the pars tuberalis in a 37-year-old woman.
  • The pituitary stalk was preserved.
  • Histopathologic diagnosis was a pituitary adenoma immunoreactive for prolactin.
  • Pituitary hormonal functions returned to normal at 6 months postoperatively.
  • An ectopic adenoma should be suspected in a patient with suprasellar tumor and hyperprolactinemia.
  • Surgical excision of this tumor may result with normal pituitary functions and normal visual acuity.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 15990716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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36. Kubo T, Furujo M, Mori S, Imai K, Ueda Y, Tsukahara K, Morita H, Ogura K, Fukuhara S, Shimizu J, Koyama T, Kanadani T, Shiraga H, Shinozuka M, Terasaki T, Hattori N: An infant case of macroprolactinemia with transient idiopathic central precocious puberty. Endocr J; 2007 Dec;54(5):825-8
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  • At that time, the unexpected finding of high PRL level was also observed.
  • Four months later, she was referred to our clinic for persistently high PRL level.
  • At this time, other endocrinological data showed prepubertal stage and we demonstrated macroprolactinemia and the presence of anti-PRL autoantibody.
  • After other causes of hyperprolactinemia such as prolactinoma and stress were ruled out, we finally diagnosed her with hyperprolactinemia due to macroprolactinemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia / complications. Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis. Puberty, Precocious / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive / complications. Female. Humans. Infant. Prolactin / blood

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  • (PMID = 17785914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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37. Kubo S, Hasegawa H, Inui T, Tominaga S, Yoshimine T: Endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal chiasmapexy with silicone plates for empty sella syndrome: technical note. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Aug;45(8):428-32; discussion 432
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  • A 36-year-old woman had been treated for prolactinoma for about 19 years with bromocriptine and then presented with left visual disturbance.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Atrophy / chemically induced. Atrophy / pathology. Atrophy / surgery. Bromocriptine / adverse effects. Female. Hormone Antagonists / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Nasal Cavity / anatomy & histology. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / pathology. Silicones / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Vision Disorders / etiology. Vision Disorders / physiopathology. Vision Disorders / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2005 Sep;45(9):491 [16195653.001]
  • (PMID = 16127264.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Silicones; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine
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38. Buurman H, Saeger W: Subclinical adenomas in postmortem pituitaries: classification and correlations to clinical data. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 May;154(5):753-8
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  • [Title] Subclinical adenomas in postmortem pituitaries: classification and correlations to clinical data.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine pituitary adenomas in a series of postmortem pituitaries by use of modern technologies of immunostaining, to classify the adenomas according to the current WHO classification and to analyse the possible associations to the available clinical data.
  • RESULTS: A total of 334 pituitary adenomas were found in 316 pituitaries.
  • One hundred and thirty-two sparsely granulated prolactin cell adenomas (39.5%), 75 null cell adenomas (22.5%) and 31 oncocytomas were diagnosed.
  • Forty-six ACTH cell adenomas (13.8%, 27 densely granulated, 19 sparsely granulated) and one adenoma composed of Crooke's cells were detected.
  • Twenty-two gonadotroph cell adenomas (6.6%), seven GH cell adenomas (four sparsely granulated, three densely granulated), one mixed GH cell-PRL cell adenoma, two TSH cell adenomas, five plurihormonal adenoma type I, four plurihormonal adenoma type II and two alpha-subunit-only adenomas were seen.
  • Six adenomas remained unclassified because the tissue was not contained in all sections for immunohistochemistry.
  • Among 76 adenomas (22.7%), which had a tumour size of > or = 3 mm, only three tumours were macroadenomas corresponding to a tumour size of more than 10 mm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adenomas in postmortem pituitaries differ from those in surgical series in proportion of adenoma types and biological behaviour.

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  • (PMID = 16645024.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit; 0 / Gonadotropins; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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39. Molitch ME: Medication-induced hyperprolactinemia. Mayo Clin Proc; 2005 Aug;80(8):1050-7
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  • Medication use is a common cause of hyperprolactinemia, and it is important to differentiate this cause from pathologic causes, such as prolactinomas.
  • It is Important to ensure that hyperprolactinemia in an Individual patient is due to medication and not to a structural lesion in the hypothalamic/pituitary area; this can be accomplished by (1) stopping the medication temporarily to determine whether prolactin levels return to normal, (2) switching to a medication that does not cause hyperprolactinemia (in consultation with the patient's psychiatrist for psychoactive medications), or (3) performing magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography of the hypothalamic/pituitary area.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents / adverse effects. Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects. Gastrointestinal Agents / adverse effects. Hyperprolactinemia / chemically induced. Prolactin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16092584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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40. Rivera J, Alves S, Bianchi CC, Al-Mutawa N, Guiot MC, Zeitouni A: An unusual collision tumor comprising a prolactinoma and a plasmocytoma originating from the sellar region. Pituitary; 2010 Jun;13(2):189-93
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  • [Title] An unusual collision tumor comprising a prolactinoma and a plasmocytoma originating from the sellar region.
  • MR imaging showed a large sellar mass with significant destruction of the pituitary fossa.
  • Laboratory tests revealed very high serum prolactin (2,483 ng/dl, reference range 3-13 ng/dl).
  • Dopamine agonist therapy was initiated with significant decline in PRL levels; however, nausea, fatigue, and anorexia developed.
  • A transsphenoidal excisional biopsy was performed which demonstrated two distinct populations of cells, corresponding to a plasma cell tumor and a lactotroph adenoma.
  • Only a few cases of solitary plasmocytomas of the pituitary region have been reported.
  • Few cases of prolactinomas coexisting with other sellar tumors has been described.
  • We suggest that in the presence of extensive cranial nerve involvement, atypical imaging findings for a pituitary adenoma and severe hyperprolactinemia, the possibility of a collision tumor should lead the physician to consider excisional tumor biopsy or surgery in addition to dopamine agonist therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Plasmacytoma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Sella Turcica / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18846427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Vlotides G, Siegel E, Donangelo I, Gutman S, Ren SG, Melmed S: Rat prolactinoma cell growth regulation by epidermal growth factor receptor ligands. Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 1;68(15):6377-86
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  • [Title] Rat prolactinoma cell growth regulation by epidermal growth factor receptor ligands.
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates pituitary development, hormone synthesis, and cell proliferation.
  • Although ErbB receptor family members are expressed in pituitary tumors, the effects of EGF signaling on pituitary tumors are not known.
  • Immunoprecipitation and Western blot confirmed EGF receptor (EGFR) and p185(c-neu) protein expression in GH3 lacto-somatotroph but not in adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting AtT20 pituitary tumor cells.
  • EGF (5 nmol/L) selectively enhanced baseline ( approximately 4-fold) and serum-induced (>6-fold) prolactin (PRL) mRNA levels, whereas gefitinib, an EGFR antagonist, suppressed serum-induced cell proliferation and Pttg1 expression, blocked PRL gene expression, and reversed EGF-mediated somatotroph-lactotroph phenotype switching.
  • Tumors in athymic mice implanted s.c. with GH3 cells resulted in weight gain accompanied by increased serum PRL, growth hormone, and insulin growth factor 1.
  • Mice treated with gefitinib exhibited decreased tumor tissue ERK1/2 phosphorylation and down-regulated tumor PRL and Pttg1 mRNA abundance.
  • These results show that EGFR inhibition controls tumor growth and PRL secretion in experimental lacto-somatotroph tumors.
  • EGFR inhibitors could therefore be useful for the control of PRL secretion and tumor load in prolactinomas resistant to dopaminergic treatment, or for those prolactinomas undergoing rare malignant transformation.

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  • (PMID = 18676863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA075979-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075979; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 075979; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075979-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS56463; NLM/ PMC2497431
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42. Minniti G, Esposito V, Piccirilli M, Fratticci A, Santoro A, Jaffrain-Rea ML: Diagnosis and management of pituitary tumours in the elderly: a review based on personal experience and evidence of literature. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Dec;153(6):723-35
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of pituitary tumours in the elderly: a review based on personal experience and evidence of literature.
  • An increasing proportion of pituitary adenomas are recognized in the elderly, raising the question of their optimal diagnosis and management.
  • About 80% of pituitary adenomas in this age group are non-secreting, requiring careful differential diagnosis with non-adenomatous sellar lesions.
  • Recognized secreting tumours are mainly GH-secreting, most of them intrasellar, followed by prolactinomas, which present as clinically non-secreting and are usually invasive.
  • Cushing's disease appears as a very rare eventuality in the elderly.
  • Optimal therapeutic management should aim to control the disease while preserving or improving patient's quality of life.
  • Transsphenoidal surgery has proved to be an efficient and well-tolerated option for non-secreting adenomas with visual defects and intrasellar GH-secreting adenomas, being able to improve metabolic and cardiovascular complications of acromegaly even in this age group.
  • In contrast, dopamine-agonist drugs can be proposed as a primary therapy for prolactinomas even in the presence of severe neurological complications.

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  • (PMID = 16322376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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43. Kajiwara K, Saito K, Yoshikawa K, Kato S, Akimura T, Nomura S, Ishihara H, Suzuki M: Image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery with the CyberKnife for pituitary adenomas. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2005 Apr;48(2):91-6
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  • [Title] Image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery with the CyberKnife for pituitary adenomas.
  • Twenty-one patients with pituitary adenomas received image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery with the CyberKnife, and were followed up for more than 18 months.
  • The patients consisted of 14 with non-functioning adenomas, 3 with prolactinomas, 2 with acromegaly, and 2 with ACTH-producing tumors.
  • The mean volumes of the non-functioning and functioning adenomas were 13.3 cm (3) and 7.5 cm (3), respectively.
  • The marginal irradiation dose ranged from 6.4 Gy to 27.7 Gy (mean: non-functioning adenomas 12.6 Gy, functioning adenomas 17.5 Gy), as a dose of a single fraction.
  • Hormonal function improved in all of the 7 functioning adenomas.
  • The hormone level normalized in 1 prolactinoma, and decreased to less than normal in 1 ACTH-producing adenoma.
  • Image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery with the CyberKnife is effective and safe against relatively large pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 15906203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Mukdsi JH, De Paul AL, Petiti JP, Gutiérrez S, Aoki A, Torres AI: Pattern of FGF-2 isoform expression correlated with its biological action in experimental prolactinomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2006 Oct;112(4):491-501
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  • [Title] Pattern of FGF-2 isoform expression correlated with its biological action in experimental prolactinomas.
  • Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) synthesized in the pituitary is involved in the formation and progression of pituitary tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern expression of two FGF-2 isoforms at different subcellular levels and to determine its correlation with prolactinoma development.
  • Estrogen administration to male rats for 7, 20, and 60 days generated pituitary tumors, with lactotrophs being the prevalent cell type.
  • The 18 kDa isoform observed in cytosol extracts reached the highest levels after 60 days of hormonal stimulation and this was related to lactotroph proliferation.
  • However, the 22 kDa FGF-2 isoform was only detected in the nuclear compartment and achieved the maximum expression at 7 days of estrogen treatment, without any correlation with lactotroph proliferation.
  • These results suggest that the 18 kDa FGF-2 may play a role in the modulation of lactotroph proliferation in prolactinomas induced by estrogen.
  • The overproduction of both FGF-2 isoforms appears to be implicated in autocrine-paracrine-intracrine mitogenic loops; this FGF-2 activity could lead to uncontrolled cell growth, angiogenesis, and tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Prolactinoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western / methods. Disease Models, Animal. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission / methods. Molecular Weight. Prolactin / metabolism. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Radioimmunoassay / methods. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Reticulin / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16823503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Reticulin; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 1S4CJB5ZGN / estradiol 3-benzoate; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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45. Winczyk K, Pawlikowski M: Immunohistochemical detection of PPARgamma receptors in the human pituitary adenomas: correlation with PCNA. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2005;43(3):137-41
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of PPARgamma receptors in the human pituitary adenomas: correlation with PCNA.
  • The occurrence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARgamma) was investigated in 51 human pituitary adenomas and in 6 non-tumoral human pituitary tissue samples.
  • The mean percentage of cells with positive nuclear reaction was 3-fold higher in pituitary adenomas in comparison with non-tumoral pituitary tissues.
  • It was clearly stronger in pituitary adenomas than in non-tumoral pituitary tissues.
  • A slight, statistically insignificant tendency towards negative correlation between PPARgamma and PCNA was found in somatotropinomas, prolactinomas, corticotropinomas and gonadotropinomas.
  • On the other hand, in null cell adenomas and "silent" corticotropinomas, a strong positve correlation between the expression of PPARgamma and PCNA was observed.
  • The strong expression of PPARgamma in human pituitary adenomas and its possible involvement in control of cell proliferation in these tumors give a good reason for the attempts of their treatment with PPARgamma ligands.

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  • (PMID = 16201313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
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46. Kawabata Y, Ueno Y, Horikawa F, Miyake H, Miki N, Ono M: Remarkable effects of cabergoline in a patient with huge prolactinoma resistant to high-dose bromocriptine: case report. Surg Neurol; 2008 Jan;69(1):85-8; discussion 88
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  • [Title] Remarkable effects of cabergoline in a patient with huge prolactinoma resistant to high-dose bromocriptine: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Cabergoline (CAB) has been proposed as the first-line treatment in the management of prolactin (PRL)-secreting tumors (prolactinoma [PRLoma]), including those resistant to standard dopamine agonist (DAA) therapy.
  • Nonetheless, the tumor grew up to more than 8 cm in diameter, serum PRL increased over 60000 ng/mL, and his visual acuity deteriorated.
  • Cabergoline normalized serum PRL level, shrank the tumor mass remarkably, and caused marked improvement of visual acuity.
  • CONCLUSION: Prolactin normalization and significant tumor shrinkage could be achieved with CAB even in extremely BRC-resistant PRLomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17967478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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47. Deepak D, Daousi C, Javadpour M, MacFarlane IA: Macroprolactinomas and epilepsy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Apr;66(4):503-7
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  • PATIENTS: A case note analysis of all patients with a diagnosis of macroprolactinoma attending a neuroendocrine clinic between 1996 and 2006.
  • Those with epilepsy at diagnosis of macroprolactinoma were examined in detail.
  • Six of these 29 patients (four men), had a history of seizures at the time of diagnosis, five of whom had features suggestive of temporal lobe epilepsy.
  • All six patients with epilepsy had invasive prolactinomas on cranial imaging and marked hyperprolactinaemia (median prolactin 369 000 mU/l, range 28 000 to > 750 000).
  • Seizures had been present for a median of 2 years (range 1-23 years) before the diagnosis of macroprolactinoma.
  • It is essential to enquire about epileptic symptoms, as the seizure disorder may have been undiagnosed/untreated for years.
  • [MeSH-major] Epilepsy / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prolactinoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 17371466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 6158TKW0C5 / Phenytoin; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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48. Kunishio K, Okada M, Matsumoto Y, Nagao S, Nishiyama Y: Technetium-99m sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography findings correlated with P-glycoprotein expression in pituitary adenoma. J Med Invest; 2006 Aug;53(3-4):285-91
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  • [Title] Technetium-99m sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography findings correlated with P-glycoprotein expression in pituitary adenoma.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the technetium-99m sestamibi ((99m)Tc-MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) characteristics of pituitary adenomas might be correlated with cavernous sinus invasion, proliferative potential or the multidrug-resistance (MDR-1) gene product P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression in pituitary adenomas.
  • Fifteen patients with pituitary adenomas, including 10 nonfunctioning adenomas, two prolactinomas, two GH producing adenomas, and one ACTH producing adenomas was investigated for this study.
  • The pituitary adenomas specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry using anti-Pgp and MIB-1 monoclonal antibodies.(99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT findings were not related to MIB-1 labeling index or cavernous sinus invasion. (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT RI (-38.55+/-20.77) of the Pgp-positive group was significantly lower than that (-15.78+/-19.40) of Pgp-negative group (p=0.0494).
  • Our study suggests that although (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT is not useful to evaluate the proliferative potential or cavernous sinus invasion of pituitary adenomas. (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT could predict anti-cancer drug resistance related to the expression of Pgp in pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] P-Glycoprotein / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, MDR. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 16953066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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49. Grotas AB, Nagler HM: Presentation of a functional pituitary adenoma as a significant decrease in prostate-specific antigen level in a patient followed for prostate cancer. Can J Urol; 2006 Dec;13(6):3346-7
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  • [Title] Presentation of a functional pituitary adenoma as a significant decrease in prostate-specific antigen level in a patient followed for prostate cancer.
  • Testosterone production by the testes is dependent on a functional hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.
  • High prolactin levels have been shown to disrupt this axis, resulting in decreases in gonadotropins and testosterone levels.
  • The patient was found to have an asymptomatic prolactin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism


50. Molitch ME: The cabergoline-resistant prolactinoma patient: new challenges. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Dec;93(12):4643-5
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  • [Title] The cabergoline-resistant prolactinoma patient: new challenges.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Resistance. Echocardiography. Female. Heart Valve Diseases / chemically induced. Heart Valve Diseases / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Prolactin / blood. Receptors, Dopamine / drug effects. Young Adult

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Dec;93(12):4721-7 [18812485.001]
  • (PMID = 19056842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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51. Biller BM, Colao A, Petersenn S, Bonert VS, Boscaro M: Prolactinomas, Cushing's disease and acromegaly: debating the role of medical therapy for secretory pituitary adenomas. BMC Endocr Disord; 2010;10:10
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  • [Title] Prolactinomas, Cushing's disease and acromegaly: debating the role of medical therapy for secretory pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas are associated with a variety of clinical manifestations resulting from excessive hormone secretion and tumor mass effects, and require a multidisciplinary management approach.
  • This article discusses the treatment modalities for the management of patients with a prolactinoma, Cushing's disease and acromegaly, and summarizes the options for medical therapy in these patients.First-line treatment of prolactinomas is pharmacotherapy with dopamine agonists; recent reports of cardiac valve abnormalities associated with this class of medication in Parkinson's disease has prompted study in hyperprolactinemic populations.
  • Patients with resistance to dopamine agonists may require other treatment.First-line treatment of Cushing's disease is pituitary surgery by a surgeon with experience in this condition.
  • Current medical options for Cushing's disease block adrenal cortisol production, but do not treat the underlying disease.
  • Pituitary-directed medical therapies are now being explored.
  • The multi-receptor targeted somatostatin analogue pasireotide (SOM230) shows promise as a pituitary-directed medical therapy in Cushing's disease; further studies will determine its efficacy and safety.
  • Radiation therapy, with medical adrenal blockade while awaiting the effects of radiation, and bilateral adrenalectomy remain standard treatment options for patients not cured with pituitary surgery.In patients with acromegaly, surgery remains the first-line treatment option when the tumor is likely to be completely resected, or for debulking, especially when the tumor is compressing neurovisual structures.
  • Pegvisomant is indicated in patients who have not responded to surgery and other medical therapy, although there are regional differences in when it is prescribed.In conclusion, the treatment of patients with pituitary adenomas requires a multidisciplinary approach.
  • Dopamine agonists are an effective first-line medical therapy in most patients with a prolactinoma, and somatostatin analogues can be used as first-line therapy in selected patients with acromegaly.
  • Current medical therapies for Cushing's disease primarily focus on adrenal blockade of cortisol production, although pasireotide and cabergoline show promise as pituitary-directed medical therapy for Cushing's disease; further long-term evaluation of efficacy and safety is important.

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  • (PMID = 20478050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6823
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC endocrine disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Endocr Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2887860
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52. de la Torre NG, Turner HE, Wass JA: Angiogenesis in prolactinomas: regulation and relationship with tumour behaviour. Pituitary; 2005;8(1):17-23
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis in prolactinomas: regulation and relationship with tumour behaviour.
  • In the pituitary, unlike other tissues, vascularization is lower in adenomas compared to the normal gland.
  • Despite this finding, a relationship between increased vascularity and several aspects of prolactinoma behaviour such as size, invasiveness, surgical outcome and malignancy, has been demonstrated.
  • The process of angiogenesis is the result of a balance of stimulating and inhibiting factors.
  • It is likely that an interaction between gene expression (such as pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG) and a novel gene located within the Edpm5 quantitative trait locus), hormonal stimuli including oestrogens, dopamine, 16 kDa fragments of prolactin and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic growth factors (for example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), determine the final angiogenic phenotype of prolactinomas, and thus subsequent tumour behaviour.
  • The elucidation of all the factors involved in the regulation of angiogenesis and their interactions might open new possibilities in the treatment of prolactinomas, especially in those cases with resistance or intolerance to dopamine agonists.
  • [MeSH-major] Neovascularization, Pathologic. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood supply. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Prolactinoma / blood supply. Prolactinoma / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dopamine / genetics. Dopamine / physiology. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Estrogens / genetics. Estrogens / physiology. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / genetics. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Prolactin / genetics. Prolactin / physiology. Securin. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16411064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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53. Prabhakar VK, Davis JR: Hyperprolactinaemia. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2008 Apr;22(2):341-53
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  • A variety of pathophysiological conditions can lead to hyperprolactinaemia; therefore, pregnancy, drug effects, hypothyroidism and polycystic ovary syndrome should be excluded before investigating for prolactin-secreting pituitary tumours.
  • Prolactinomas are mainly diagnosed in women aged 20-40 years.
  • Pituitary surgery and radiotherapy currently have very limited indications.
  • Pregnancies in patients with prolactinomas need careful planning and close monitoring.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance. Female. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / complications. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17889620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dopamine Agonists
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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54. Samson WK: Putting the brakes on lactotrope hyperplasia. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jan-Feb;17(1):2-3
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  • [Title] Putting the brakes on lactotrope hyperplasia.
  • Although much is known about the mechanisms by which dopamine, the major regulator of lactotrope function, controls hormone production and secretion, its growth inhibiting actions have remained less well characterized.
  • Recent research has uncovered an important role for endogenously produced transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and TGFbeta receptors in dopamine's ability to put the brakes on lactotrope proliferation.
  • These novel findings promise increased knowledge of the genesis and potential therapeutic control of human prolactinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine / metabolism. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactin / metabolism. Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16307891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-2760
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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55. Mantovani G, Asteria C, Pellegrini C, Bosari S, Alberti L, Bondioni S, Peverelli E, Spada A, Beck-Peccoz P: HESX1 expression in human normal pituitaries and pituitary adenomas. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2006 Mar 9;247(1-2):135-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HESX1 expression in human normal pituitaries and pituitary adenomas.
  • As gastrulation proceeds, Hesx1 is expressed in the ventral prosencephalon and, subsequently, at E9.0 appears in the ventral diencephalon and in the thickened layer of oral ectoderm that give rise to Rathke's pouch, the primordium of the anterior pituitary gland.
  • Hesx1 continues to be expressed in the developing anterior pituitary until E11.5 when its transcripts disappear in a spatiotemporal sequence corresponding to progressive pituitary cell differentiation, becoming undetectable by E15.5.
  • In the present study, we investigated whether HESX1 is expressed during adult life in human normal pituitaries and in different types of human pituitary adenomas.
  • We analysed, using quantitative RT-PCR method, three normal pituitaries, seven GH-, two TSH-, two PRL-, one ACTH-secreting adenomas, and seven nonfunctioning pituitary tumors.
  • HESX1 mRNA was found to be expressed in normal pituitaries and in all the pituitary tumors that we have analysed.
  • Thus, HESX1 in humans might play a role in the maintenance of the anterior pituitary cell types and function, as well as in the differentiation of pituitary adenomas, whose pathogenetic mechanisms remain to be further investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Female. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prolactin / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyrotropin / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006 Jun 22;251(1-2):112
  • (PMID = 16414177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HESX1 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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56. Vallette S, Serri K, Serri O: Cabergoline therapy for prolactinomas: is valvular heart disease a real safety concern? Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther; 2010 Jan;8(1):49-54
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  • [Title] Cabergoline therapy for prolactinomas: is valvular heart disease a real safety concern?
  • Recent studies reported cardiac valve regurgitations in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with high doses of DA, raising concerns about the safety of cabergoline in patients with hyperprolactinemia.
  • Patients in all the studies were asymptomatic without clinical signs of cardiac disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / agonists

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  • (PMID = 20014934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8344
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of cardiovascular therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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57. Verma S, Shah D, Faridi MM: Breastfeeding a baby with mother on Bromocripine. Indian J Pediatr; 2006 May;73(5):435-6
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  • Prolactinomas, the most common pituitary adenomas, are important causes of infertility.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Counseling. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prolactinoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 16741332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-7693
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine
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58. Pisarek H, Pawlikowski M, Kunert-Radek J, Radek M: Expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human pituitary adenomas -- immunohistochemical studies. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jul-Aug;60(4):240-51
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  • [Title] Expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human pituitary adenomas -- immunohistochemical studies.
  • BACKGROUND: The highly variable expression of SSTR subtypes in pituitary adenomas (PA) may partially explain why the subgroup of somatotropinomas or other adenomas do not respond to the therapeutic action of currently used long-acting somatostatin analogues like octreotide or lanreotide.
  • RESULTS: The pattern of SSTR immunostaining (estimated according to the percentage frequency of appearance) was in acromegaly: SSTR 5 > SSTR 1 > SSTR 2A = SSTR 3 > SSTR 2B, in prolactinomas: SSTR 2B = SSTR 3 = SSTR 5 > SSTR 1 = SSTR 2A, in gonadotropinomas: SSTR 3 > SSTR 2B > SSTR 1 = SSTR 2A > SSTR 5, in corticotropinomas: SSTR 2A > SSTR 1 = SSTR 3 > SSTR 5 > SSTR 2B.
  • In PA immunonegative for pituitary hormones, we noticed only a weak staining of all receptor subtypes including SSTR 4.
  • In plurihormonal adenomas with positive GH phenotype the staining pattern was: SSTR 5 > SSTR 1 = SSTR 2B and in plurihormonal PA with negative GH phenotype: SSTR 1 = SSTR 5 > SSTR 2A = SSTR 2B = SSTR 3.
  • In plurihormonal adenoma with ACTH immunopositivity, the staining pattern was: SSTR = SSTR 2A = SSTR 3 = SSTR 5.
  • SSTR 1 and SSTR 5 were the most frequent subtypes of somatostatin receptor in plurihormonal adenomas without ACTH expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19753537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0G3DE8943Y / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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59. Sharma A, Sharma MS, De Padua M, Jha UP, Jha AN: Synchronous endometrial carcinoma and a macroprolactinoma: exploring a causal relationship. Oncology; 2007;72(1-2):139-42
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  • BACKGROUND: While unopposed estrogen hormone secretion is most commonly implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma, the role of prolactin has only recently been highlighted.
  • The authors present a case of a synchronous endometrial carcinoma in a patient with a prolactin-secreting macroadenoma.
  • Hormonal evaluation revealed elevated prolactin and subnormal luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) serum concentrations.
  • The MRI of the brain confirmed a pituitary macroadenoma.
  • The patient underwent a resectoscopic polypectomy and dilation and curettage followed by transnasal transsphenoidal excision of the pituitary macroadenoma.
  • RESULTS: The biopsy of the endometrium revealed a well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma while that of the pituitary tumor confirmed a prolactinoma.
  • Patients with prolactinomas and irregular menstrual bleeding should undergo endometrial sampling to rule out this possibility.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / etiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prolactinoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drosophila Proteins / blood. Egg Proteins / blood. Female. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / blood. Humans. Prolactin / secretion

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18025806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Egg Proteins; 0 / dec-1 protein, Drosophila; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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60. Jennings JE, Georgitsi M, Holdaway I, Daly AF, Tichomirowa M, Beckers A, Aaltonen LA, Karhu A, Cameron FJ: Aggressive pituitary adenomas occurring in young patients in a large Polynesian kindred with a germline R271W mutation in the AIP gene. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Nov;161(5):799-804
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  • [Title] Aggressive pituitary adenomas occurring in young patients in a large Polynesian kindred with a germline R271W mutation in the AIP gene.
  • OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) were recently shown to confer a pituitary adenoma predisposition in patients with familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA).
  • We report a large Samoan FIPA kindred from Australia/New Zealand with an R271W mutation that was associated with aggressive pituitary tumors.
  • RESULTS: This previously unreported kindred consisted of three affected individuals that either presented with or had first symptoms of a pituitary macroadenoma in late childhood or adolescence.
  • The index case, a 15-year-old male with incipient gigantism and his maternal aunt, had somatotropinomas, and the maternal uncle of the index case had a prolactinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This kindred exemplifies the aggressive features of pituitary adenomas associated with AIP mutations, while genetic analyses among three R271W FIPA families indicate that R271W represents a mutational hotspot that should be studied further in functional studies.

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  • (PMID = 19684062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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61. Machado AL, Nomikos P, Kiesewetter F, Fahlbusch R, Buchfelder M: DNA-flow cytometry of 207 pituitary adenomas: ploidy, proliferation, and prognosis. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Oct;28(9):795-801
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  • [Title] DNA-flow cytometry of 207 pituitary adenomas: ploidy, proliferation, and prognosis.
  • The principal factors involved in pituitary adenoma formation are unknown.
  • DNA-flow cytometry is a useful study providing an estimation of a tumor proliferative rate.
  • Two hundred and seven fresh pituitary adenoma specimens were assessed by flow cytometry.
  • Endocrinologically inactive pituitary adenomas were predominantly euploids (50.8%).
  • The highest proliferation rates occurred in Nelson's syndrome and the lowest in Cushing's disease.
  • A significant difference in proliferation was observed with prolactinomas and acromegaly when a medical treatment was performed before primary surgery.
  • In conclusion, DNA-flow cytometry was found to be useful for determining ploidy and obtaining an overview of cell cycle status.
  • It was helpful in identifying patients requiring closer follow-up, such as those with invasive adenomas and Nelson's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / therapy. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Flow Cytometry / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Protocols. Cell Proliferation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ploidies. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 16370557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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62. Schwartz TH, Stieg PE, Anand VK: Endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurgery; 2006 Feb;58(1 Suppl):ONS44-51; discussion ONS44-51
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  • [Title] Endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging.
  • OBJECTIVE: The two most recent significant advances in pituitary surgery have been the endonasal endoscopic approach and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI).
  • METHODS: We performed endoscopic, endonasal resection of pituitary macroadenomas in 15 patients using the Polestar N-10 (0.12T) IMRI (Odin Medical Technologies, Inc., Newton, MA).
  • Eleven patients had nonfunctioning tumors, three had acromegaly, and one had a medication-resistant prolactinoma.
  • This was overcome with the use of a wall-mounted plasma screen.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Hypophysectomy / methods. Monitoring, Intraoperative / instrumentation. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neuronavigation / methods. Operating Rooms. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16479628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Basu A, Brabant G, Gnanalingham KK: More than a prolactinoma. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):87-8
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  • [Title] More than a prolactinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningioma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18461461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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64. Freeman B, Levy W, Gorman JM: Successful monotherapy treatment with aripiprazole in a patient with schizophrenia and prolactinoma. J Psychiatr Pract; 2007 Mar;13(2):120-4
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  • [Title] Successful monotherapy treatment with aripiprazole in a patient with schizophrenia and prolactinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / complications. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Quinolones / therapeutic use. Schizophrenia / complications. Schizophrenia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aripiprazole. Clonazepam / adverse effects. Clonazepam / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / adverse effects. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Ergolines / adverse effects. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Patient Care Team. Prolactin / blood

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  • (PMID = 17414690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-4160
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of psychiatric practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Psychiatr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Quinolones; 5PE9FDE8GB / Clonazepam; 82VFR53I78 / Aripiprazole; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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65. Howell DL, Wasilewski K, Mazewski CM, Hudgins RJ, Meacham LR: The use of high-dose daily cabergoline in an adolescent patient with macroprolactinoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Jun;27(6):326-9
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  • Prolactinomas are rare in children and adolescents but well studied in adults.
  • Cabergoline, a second-generation ergot derivative with a longer half-life, has been used in resistant prolactinomas and as first-line treatment in adults.
  • The authors describe an adolescent boy with a pituitary macroadenoma with an initial prolactin level of 73,777 ng/mL.
  • After failing to respond to bromocriptine and standard-dose cabergoline, he responded well to very high daily doses of cabergoline (1.5 mg daily), with a current prolactin level of 726 ng/mL and notable reduction in tumor size.
  • Escalating doses of cabergoline should be considered in pediatric patients with dopamine-resistant prolactinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15956887.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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66. Passos VQ, Fortes MA, Giannella-Neto D, Bronstein MD: Genes differentially expressed in prolactinomas responsive and resistant to dopamine agonists. Neuroendocrinology; 2009;89(2):163-70
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  • [Title] Genes differentially expressed in prolactinomas responsive and resistant to dopamine agonists.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prolactin (PRL) secretion and its gene expression are inhibited by dopamine.
  • Prolactinomas are the most common secreting pituitary adenomas, and dopamine agonists (DA) are the first choice for their treatment.
  • As the mechanisms involved in DA resistance are not fully understood, the aim of this study was to obtain new insights regarding the molecular differences between the prolactinomas that are responsive to DA and those that are resistant.
  • METHODS: Tumor tissue samples were collected from 17 patients who harbored prolactinomas, which were classified as responsive or resistant according to their clinical and laboratorial reaction to DA.
  • The expression of 6 genes was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction: dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD(2)), nerve growth factor-beta (NGFB) and its receptor (NGFR), estrogen receptor-alpha (ERA), estrogen receptor-beta (ERB) and the pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG).
  • Moreover, the expressions of DRD(2) and NGFR were positively correlated with PRL decrease during treatment (r = 0.66, p = 0.005 and r = 0.57, p = 0.044, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: DRD(2) and NGFR expressions are related to the responsiveness of prolactinoma to DA.
  • Furthermore, the response of prolactinomas to DA should be viewed as a spectrum ranging from the most responsive to the most resistant ones.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18791324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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67. Vilar L, Moura E, Canadas V, Gusmão A, Campos R, Leal E, Teixeira L, Santos V, Gomes B, Lima M, Paiva R, Albuquerque JL, Egito CS, Botelho CA, Azevedo M, Casulari LA, Naves LA: [Prevalence of macroprolactinemia among 115 patients with hyperprolactinemia]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Feb;51(1):86-91
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  • Macroprolactinemia is characterized by the predominance in the serum of macroprolactin, a prolactin (PRL) with high molecular mass and low biological activity that does not need treatment.
  • Among them, 19 (16.5%) had solely macroprolactinemia, 4 (3.5%) polycystic ovary syndrome, 7 (6.1%) acromegaly, 8 (6.9%) idiopathic hyperprolactinemia, 10 (8.6%) primary hypothyroidism, 14 (12.2%) clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas, 20 (17.4%) drug-induced hyperprolactinemia and 33 (28.7%) prolactinomas.
  • The diagnosis of macroprolactinemia was established by the demonstration of a PRL recovery < 30% after treatment of sera with polyethylene glycol.
  • Prolactin levels in cases of macroprolactin ranged from 45.1 to 404 ng/mL (mean 113.3 +/- 94.5) but in 15 (78.9%) were < 100 ng/mL.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia / epidemiology. Prolactin / blood

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  • (PMID = 17435860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / prolactin, polymeric; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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68. Balci H, Akgun-Dar K, Gazioglu N, Kapucu A, Bolayirli M, Oz B: The relationship between prolactin (PRL), leptin, nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary; 2009;12(3):170-6
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  • [Title] The relationship between prolactin (PRL), leptin, nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines in patients with hyperprolactinemia.
  • The study consists of 16 consecutive patients with high prolactin (PRL) levels (group I) and a control group of 11 normoprolactinemic patients (group II).
  • Pituitary tumor tissues of patients in groups I and II were analyzed for immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of prolactin and leptin.
  • There is a strong correlation between PRL and leptin concentrations in group I.
  • IHC staining showed that there was strong immunoreactivity for leptin protein in PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Double immunostaining of adenoma tissues with PRL and leptin showed that the adenoma cells expressed both.
  • These findings together are suggestive that leptin co-secretion from a prolactinoma may be the cause of increased serum leptin concentration, independently from the peripheral action of prolactin.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia / blood. Interleukin-6 / blood. Leptin / blood. Nitric Oxide / blood. Prolactin / blood. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18752070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Leptin; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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69. Horiguchi K, Yamada M, Umezawa R, Satoh T, Hashimoto K, Tosaka M, Yamada S, Mori M: Somatostatin receptor subtypes mRNA in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a case showing a dramatic reduction in tumor size during short octreotide treatment. Endocr J; 2007 Jun;54(3):371-8
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  • [Title] Somatostatin receptor subtypes mRNA in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a case showing a dramatic reduction in tumor size during short octreotide treatment.
  • TSH-secreting adenoma is a rare pituitary adenoma, and the expression levels of the specific subtypes of somatostatin receptors (sstr) mRNAs have remained obscure.
  • To determine the quantitative expression of the sstr1-5 mRNAs in TSH-secreting adenomas that may be related to the efficacy of treatment with a somatostatin analogue, expression of the sstr1-5 mRNAs was examined and compared in TSH-secreting adenomas and other pituitary adenomas.
  • The pituitary adenomas were obtained at transsphenoidal surgery from 4 cases of TSH-secreting adenoma, including 1 patient showing a significant shrinkage of the tumor size after only 10 days of octreotide treatment, 2 patients without tumor size reduction and 1 patient without treatment, and 5 GH-secreting adenomas, 6 prolactinomas, 5 nonfunctioning adenomas, 4 ACTH-secreting adenomas and normal pituitaries at autopsy from 4 normal subjects.
  • In comparison to the normal pituitary, sstr2A>sstr1>sstr5>sstr3 mRNAs were expressed in the TSH-secreting adenomas examined.
  • The expression level of sstr2 mRNA was significantly higher than those in normal pituitary, prolactinomas, ACTH-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • The patient with marked shrinkage of the tumor showed the highest expression of both sstr2 and sstr5 mRNAs among all the cases of pituitary adenoma.
  • A TSH-secreting tumor without shrinkage showed a similar expression level of sstr2 mRNA.
  • These findings demonstrated that TSH-secreting adenomas express sstr1, 2A, 3 and 5 mRNAs, predominantly sstr2A, and in addition to the expression of sstr2 mRNA, the expression level of sstr5 mRNA may be a factor affecting the tumor shrinkage by somatostatin analogues against TSH-secreting adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / genetics. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Thyrotrophs / pathology. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17420609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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70. Oldfield EH, Vortmeyer AO: Development of a histological pseudocapsule and its use as a surgical capsule in the excision of pituitary tumors. J Neurosurg; 2006 Jan;104(1):7-19
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  • [Title] Development of a histological pseudocapsule and its use as a surgical capsule in the excision of pituitary tumors.
  • OBJECT: The presence of a histological pseudocapsule around pituitary tumors was noted in the early 1900s.
  • Since that time there has been no emphasis on the sequence of the stages of its development or on the relationship between these stages and the capacity to identify very small pituitary tumors at surgery in patients in whom preoperative imaging has been nondiagnostic.
  • In addition, limited emphasis has been given to the pseudocapsule's use for selective and complete resection of pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: The development of the pseudocapsule was examined by performing histological analysis of portions of pituitary glands removed during 805 operations for Cushing disease.
  • Twenty-five adenomas, each measuring between 0.25 and 4 mm in maximum diameter, were detected in the excised specimens; 17 were adenocorticotropic hormone-positive adenomas and eight were incidental tumors (four prolactin-secreting and four nonsecreting lesions).
  • In 16 tumors the size of the adenoma could be established.
  • The distribution of tumor size in relation to the presence of a histological pseudocapsule indicates a transition from the absence of a reticulin capsule (tumor diameter < or =1 mm) through the initial compression of surrounding tissue (tumor diameter 1-2 mm) to the presence of a multilayered reticulin capsule observed when adenomas become larger (tumor diameter 2-3 mm).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The absence of a reticulin capsule in cases of very small tumors may contribute to limited localization of these lesions during surgical exploration of the pituitary gland.
  • In this article the authors describe surgical techniques in which the histological pseudocapsule is used as a surgical capsule during pituitary surgery.
  • In their experience, recognition of this surgical capsule and its use at surgery has contributed to the identification of microadenomas buried in the pituitary gland, aided the recognition of subtle invasion of the pituitary capsule and contiguous dura mater, and enhanced the consistency of complete tumor excision with small and large tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2006 Jan;104(1):1-2; discussison 2-3 [16509140.001]
  • (PMID = 16509142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Morita S, Otsuki M, Izumi M, Asanuma N, Izumoto S, Saitoh Y, Yoshimine T, Kasayama S: Reduced epinephrine reserve in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with pituitary adenoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Sep;157(3):265-70
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  • [Title] Reduced epinephrine reserve in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with pituitary adenoma.
  • Insulin-induced hypoglycemia is used for evaluating GH-IGF-I and ACTH-adrenal axes in patients with pituitary disorders.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether the response of catecholamine secretion to hypoglycemia is disrupted in patients with pituitary adenoma.
  • METHODS: The study population comprised 23 patients with pituitary adenoma (non-functioning adenoma or prolactinoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Impaired epinephrine secretion in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia was frequently observed in patients with pituitary adenoma.
  • This disorder was especially severe in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency.

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  • (PMID = 17766707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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72. Kim JH, Seo JS, Lee BW, Lee SY, Jeon SH, Lee KB: The characteristics of incidental pituitary microadenomas in 120 Korean forensic autopsy cases. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Sep;22 Suppl:S61-5
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  • [Title] The characteristics of incidental pituitary microadenomas in 120 Korean forensic autopsy cases.
  • To investigate the characteristics of incidental pituitary microadenomas, we examined 120 pituitary glands from Korean forensic autopsy cases, from which eight tumors were identified (incidence 6.7%).
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of pituitary hormones revealed three growth hormone-secreting adenomas, one prolactin-producing adenoma, one gonadotropin-producing adenoma, one plurihormonal adenoma, and two null cell adenomas.
  • The microvessel density (MVD) of the pituitary microadenomas ranged from 2.3 to 11.6% (mean: 5.3%) and was significantly lower than that of nonneoplastic pituitary glands (11.9-20.1%, mean: 14.8%).
  • Our study provides reference data on incidental pituitary microadenomas in the Korean population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Autopsy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Korea / epidemiology. Male. Microcirculation / pathology. Middle Aged. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17923757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pituitary Hormones
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2694400
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73. Molitch ME: Pharmacologic resistance in prolactinoma patients. Pituitary; 2005;8(1):43-52
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  • [Title] Pharmacologic resistance in prolactinoma patients.
  • Pharmacologic resistance to dopamine agonists is defined here as failure to normalize PRL levels and failure to decrease macroprolactinoma size by >or=50%.
  • Failure to normalize PRL levels is found in about one-quarter of patients treated with bromocriptine and 10-15% of those treated with pergolide or cabergoline.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bromocriptine / pharmacology. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance. Ergolines / pharmacology. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Estrogens / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Pergolide / pharmacology. Pergolide / therapeutic use. Prolactin / secretion. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / analysis. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16411068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 24MJ822NZ9 / Pergolide; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
  • [Number-of-references] 111
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74. Fleseriu M, Lee M, Pineyro MM, Skugor M, Reddy SK, Siraj ES, Hamrahian AH: Giant invasive pituitary prolactinoma with falsely low serum prolactin: the significance of 'hook effect'. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):41-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant invasive pituitary prolactinoma with falsely low serum prolactin: the significance of 'hook effect'.
  • The authors report a case of a patient with giant, invasive skull base tumor extending to the parasellar area discovered incidentally during the work-up for decreased memory.
  • Given the large size of the tumor, the elevated prolactin (PRL) was interpreted to be secondary to stalk effect and patient underwent debulking surgery through a transcranial approach.
  • Immunostaining of the excised tumor tissue was strongly positive for prolactin.
  • His prolactin was found to be 13,144 ng/ml in our lab after surgery confirming the diagnosis of invasive giant prolactinoma.
  • He was started on Cabergoline with normalization of his prolactin level and more than 50% decrease in residual tumor size over 9 months periods.
  • This case highlights the importance of 'Hook Effect' resulting in falsely low prolactin level, which may have significant therapeutic implication.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors. Hyperprolactinemia / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactin / blood. Prolactinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology. Trochlear Nerve Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16598425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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75. Cheung D, Heaney A: Dopamine agonists and valvular heart disease. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2009 Aug;16(4):316-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dopamine agonists and valvular heart disease.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dopamine agonists are first-line therapy for prolactinomas, normalizing serum prolactin and reducing tumor size in the majority of cases.
  • Recent studies reporting cardiac valvular abnormalities in dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson's disease patients have raised concerns regarding potential cardiac effects in dopamine agonist-treated prolactinoma patients.
  • This article reviews the current literature regarding dopamine agonist use and cardiac valve disease and provides guidance for clinical practice.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Off-target action of dopamine agonists at 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B receptors is now recognized to cause cardiac valve disease in several studies in Parkinson's disease patients who received high daily dopamine agonist doses, including cabergoline and pergolide.
  • Generally, dopamine agonist doses in prolactinoma therapy are 10-fold lower than those employed in Parkinson's disease, although occasionally dopamine agonist-resistant patients require higher doses.
  • Most studies of dopamine agonist use in prolactinoma have not observed valvular abnormalities.
  • SUMMARY: Dopamine agonists are effective in treating prolactinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19506475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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76. Wang H, Wang MD, Ma WB, Yang D, Shi YF, Kong YG, Li SF, Li ZH, Wang RZ: [Expression of galectin-3 in invasive prolactinomas]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2005 Jun;27(3):380-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of galectin-3 in invasive prolactinomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in prolactinomas.
  • METHODS: Expressions of Gal-3 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibody in 16 invasive prolactinomas and 16 prolactinomas.
  • RESULTS: Gal-3 was expressed both in invasive prolactinomas and noninvasive prolactinomas while significantly higher expression seen in the invasive prolactinomas (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Gal-3 expression may be used as a useful indicator to determine the invasiveness and prognosis of prolactinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Prolactinoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16038281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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77. Buchfelder M, Schlaffer S: Surgical treatment of pituitary tumours. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Oct;23(5):677-92
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of pituitary tumours.
  • The surgical treatment of pituitary tumours underwent considerable evolution during the past centennial.
  • To date, transsphenoidal surgery is the approach of choice for over 90% of pituitary tumours, but still transcranial operations are needed even in experienced hands when asymmetrical and large pituitary tumours with minor intrasellar components present.
  • Generally speaking, patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas, acromegaly, thyrotropinomas and Cushing's disease are excellent candidates for primary surgical treatment.
  • In prolactinomas, the primary therapy is medical; however, when dopamine agonists are not well tolerated or inefficient, an operative treatment should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19945031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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78. De Bellis A, Colao A, Pivonello R, Savoia A, Battaglia M, Ruocco G, Tirelli G, Lombardi G, Bellastella A, Bizzarro A: Antipituitary antibodies in idiopathic hyperprolactinemic patients. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2007 Jun;1107:129-35
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  • To clarify the possible autoimmune pituitary involvement in patients with apparently idiopathic hyperprolactinemia we investigated the presence of antipituitary antibodies (APA) in hyperprolactinemic patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and in those with prolactinoma.
  • APA, by immunofluorescence method, and anterior pituitary function were evaluated in both groups of patients.
  • With regard to the function of other pituitary hormones, all APA-negative patients in group 1 and in group 2 showed a normal pituitary function; instead, a partial anterior pituitary impairment was observed in 6 out of 17 (35.3%) APA-positive patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Hyperprolactinemia / immunology. Pituitary Gland / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17804540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies
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79. Vourliotaki I, Bonapart IE, Stamataki C, Tsapakis EM, Saridaki C: A case of a prolactinoma resistant to dopamine agonists. Hormones (Athens); 2005 Jul-Sep;4(3):165-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of a prolactinoma resistant to dopamine agonists.
  • Dopamine agonists are the drugs of choice in the treatment of prolactinomas, the most common type of pituitary adenomas.
  • However, up to 25% of prolactinomas do not respond to these drugs and alternative treatments have to be considered.
  • We describe a 37-year old female with a microprolactinoma who, although having received all available formulations of dopamine agonists over a period of 11 years, did not respond either clinically--diminution of galactorrhea and restoration of her menstrual cycle--or hormonally through normalisation of the elevated prolactin levels.
  • Throughout the same period, the size of the adenoma remained unchanged.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16613827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
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80. Karavitaki N, Thanabalasingham G, Shore HC, Trifanescu R, Ansorge O, Meston N, Turner HE, Wass JA: Do the limits of serum prolactin in disconnection hyperprolactinaemia need re-definition? A study of 226 patients with histologically verified non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Oct;65(4):524-9
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  • [Title] Do the limits of serum prolactin in disconnection hyperprolactinaemia need re-definition? A study of 226 patients with histologically verified non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The differentiation of a pituitary non-functioning macroadenoma from a macroprolactinoma is important for planning appropriate therapy.
  • Serum PRL levels have been suggested as a useful diagnostic indicator.
  • OBJECTIVE: We wished therefore, to investigate the serum PRL values in a large series of patients presenting with apparently non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients presenting to the Department of Endocrinology in Oxford with clinically non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (later histologically verified) between 1990 and 2005 were studied.
  • Information documented in the notes on the medications and on the presence of conditions capable of affecting the serum PRL levels at the time of blood sampling was also collected.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-six patients were identified (median age at diagnosis 55 years, range 18-88 years; 146 males/80 females; 143 gonadotroph, 46 null cell, 25 plurihormonal and 12 silent ACTH adenomas).
  • At the time of blood sampling 41 subjects were taking medications capable of increasing serum PRL.
  • The median serum PRL values in the total group were 386 mU/l (range 16-3257) (males: median 299 mU/l, range 16-1560; females: median 572 mU/l, range 20-3257) and in those not taking drugs capable of increasing serum PRL 363 mU/l (range 16-2565) (males: median 299 mU/l, range 16-1560; females: median 572 mU/l, range 20-2565).
  • Serum PRL < 2000 mU/l was found in 98.7% (223/226) of the total group and in 99.5% (184/185) of those not taking drugs.
  • Among the three subjects with serum PRL > 2000 mU/l, two were taking oestrogen preparations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on a large series of histologically confirmed cases, serum PRL > 2000 mU/l is almost never encountered in nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas.
  • Values above this limit in the presence of a macroadenoma should not be surrounded by diagnostic uncertainty (after acromegaly or Cushing's disease have been excluded); a prolactinoma is the most likely diagnosis and a dopamine agonist should be considered as the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood. Prolactin / blood. Prolactinoma / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Reference Values. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 16984247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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81. Bussade I, Naliato EC, Mendonça LM, Violante AH, Farias ML: [Decreased bone mineral density in pre-menopause women with prolactinoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Dec;51(9):1522-7
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  • [Title] [Decreased bone mineral density in pre-menopause women with prolactinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Redução da densidade mineral óssea em mulheres na menacme com prolactinoma.
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy RX absorptiometry in 24 patients with prolactinoma (15 macro and 9 micro adenomas; age range = 18 to 49 years).
  • No difference was found in densitometric parameters for the comparison between macro and microprolactinoma, or those with normal prolactin versus hyperprolactinemia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Decreased bone mineral density was detected in 20.83% of our young patients with prolactinoma.
  • The great involvement of trabecular bone skeletal regions, such as vertebrae, suggests the participation of hypogonadism in the pathogenesis of bone disease.
  • Irrespective of prolactin levels, return to normal menses seems the best index of good control.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density / physiology. Hyperprolactinemia / physiopathology. Osteoporosis / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Premenopause / physiology. Prolactinoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18209896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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82. Colao A, Loche S: Prolactinomas in children and adolescents. Endocr Dev; 2010;17:146-59
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  • [Title] Prolactinomas in children and adolescents.
  • Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas in children and adolescents followed by adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting and growth hormone-secreting adenomas.
  • Diagnosis is generally based on clinical symptoms of primary or secondary gonadal failure, growth delay and/or tumor compressive symptoms.
  • Treatment is based on medical therapy with dopamine agonists, to control prolactin levels and reduce tumor size.
  • Surgery is indicated in patients with tumors resistant to dopamine agonists as well as in those showing severe neurological symptoms at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19955764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1662-2979
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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83. Rosário PW, Purisch S: Biochemical acromegaly in patients with prolactinoma during treatment with dopaminergic agonists. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Aug;54(6):546-9
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  • [Title] Biochemical acromegaly in patients with prolactinoma during treatment with dopaminergic agonists.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of subclinical acromegaly (in the absence of clinical phenotype but biochemically uncontrolled) in patients with prolactinoma during treatment with dopaminergic agonists.
  • RESULTS: Initially, the laboratory diagnosis of acromegaly was unequivocal (elevated IGF-1 for gender and age with nadir GH > 1 μg/L) in two patients, and likely (elevated IGF-1 with nadir GH > cut-off but < 1 μg/L) in another patient.
  • In two other patients, this diagnosis was possible (normal IGF-1 with nadir GH > 1 μg/L).
  • Repetition of the tests 6 months after withdrawal of the dopaminergic agonist confirmed the diagnosis of subclinical acromegaly (elevated IGF-1 for gender and age with nadir GH > 1 μg/L) in these 5 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with prolactinomas, acromegaly should be investigated not only in cases with a clinical phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / diagnosis. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20857059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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84. Larner AJ: Headache induced by dopamine agonists prescribed for prolactinoma: think SUNCT! Int J Clin Pract; 2006 Mar;60(3):360-1
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  • [Title] Headache induced by dopamine agonists prescribed for prolactinoma: think SUNCT!
  • Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) syndrome may be associated with pituitary prolactinoma and may be induced by treatment of prolactinoma with dopamine agonists.
  • Endocrinologists treating patients with prolactinoma need to be aware of this syndrome as its pathophysiology and treatment differ from that of other headache syndromes.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / adverse effects. Ergolines / adverse effects. Headache / chemically induced. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16494654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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85. Losa M, Fortunato M, Molteni L, Peretti E, Mortini P: Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas: biological and molecular features, diagnosis and therapy. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Dec;33(4):329-40
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  • [Title] Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas: biological and molecular features, diagnosis and therapy.
  • Central hyperthyroidism due to a thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is a rare cause of hyperthyroidism, representing 0.5-1.0% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • The etiopathogenesis of TSH-secreting-adenomas is unknown and no definite role for various oncogenes has been proven.
  • Patients with TSH-secreting adenoma usually present with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism milder than those in patients with hyperthyroidism of thyroid origin, in addition to symptoms secondary to mass effects of the pituitary tumour.
  • Mixed pituitary tumours co-secrete growth hormone and prolactin.
  • Measurement of markers of peripheral thyroid hormone action and dynamic tests may aid in the differential diagnosis with the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone.
  • Neuroimaging is fundamental to visualize the pituitary tumor.
  • Therapy of TSH-secreting adenomas can be accomplished by surgery, radiation therapies, and medical treatment with somatostatin analogs or dopamine agonists.
  • Nowadays, and in contrast with the first reports on this rare disease, most patients are well controlled by current therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / therapy. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperthyroidism / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Prolactin / blood. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18923369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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86. Quentien MH, Barlier A, Franc JL, Pellegrini I, Brue T, Enjalbert A: Pituitary transcription factors: from congenital deficiencies to gene therapy. J Neuroendocrinol; 2006 Sep;18(9):633-42
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  • [Title] Pituitary transcription factors: from congenital deficiencies to gene therapy.
  • Despite the existence of interspecies phenotypic variability, animal models have yielded valuable insights into human pituitary diseases.
  • Studies on Snell and Jackson mice known to have growth hormone, prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiencies involving the hypoplastic pituitary gland have led to identifying alterations of the pituitary specific POU homeodomain Pit-1 transcription factor gene.
  • Terminal differentiation of lactotroph cells and direct regulation of the prolactin gene both require interactions between Pit-1 and cell type specific partners, including panpituitary transcriptional regulators such as Pitx1 and Pitx2.
  • Synergistic activation of the prolactin promoter by Pitx factors and Pit-1 is involved not only in basal condition, but also in responsiveness to forskolin, thyrotrophin-releasing-hormone and epidermal growth factor.
  • This finding supports the idea that Tpit plays an essential role in the differentiation of the pro-opiomelanocortin pituitary lineage.
  • The effects of Pit-1 are not restricted to hormone gene regulation because this factor also contributes to cell division and protects the cell from programmed cell death.
  • Lentiviral vectors expressing a Pit-1 dominant negative mutant induced time- and dose-dependent cell death in somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas in vitro.
  • Gene transfer by lentiviral vectors should provide a promising step towards developing an efficient specific therapeutic approach by which a gene therapy programme for treating human pituitary adenomas could be based.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Genetic Therapy. Pituitary Diseases / genetics. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Transcription Factor Pit-1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Transfer Techniques. Growth Hormone / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Mice, Neurologic Mutants. Mutation / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactin / metabolism. T-Box Domain Proteins. Thyrotropin / metabolism. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16879162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / TBX19 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factor Pit-1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 184787-43-7 / homeobox protein PITX2; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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87. López-Arbolay O, Morales-Sabina O, González-González JL, Valdés-Lorenzo N: [Transsphenoidal approach to prolactinomas]. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2006 Jun;17(3):226-31
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  • [Title] [Transsphenoidal approach to prolactinomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Cirugia transeptoesfenoidal en adenomas hipofisarios productores de prolactina.
  • INTRODUCTION: Transeptal transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumors is a well established surgical technique.
  • In particular the use of medical treatment in patient with prolactinomas has induced the control of hiperprolactinemia and the shrinkage of the tumor in the great majority of the patients, for that reason the treatment of the prolactinomas is controversial.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the results of transsphenoidal microsurgical treatment of prolactin secreting adenomas at our Unit.
  • METHODS: We made a retrospective analysis of 63 patients operated on via transsphenoidal microsurgical technique for prolactin secreting adenomas between 1996 and 2003.
  • Prolactin levels were reduced to non tumoral values in 90.6% of microadenomas (29 cases) and in 67.7% of macroadenomas (21 cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transsphenoidal adenomectomy is a safe treatment option for patients with prolactin secreting adenomas with surgical indication.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactinoma / surgery. Sphenoid Bone / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16855780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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88. Fedele M, Visone R, De Martino I, Troncone G, Palmieri D, Battista S, Ciarmiello A, Pallante P, Arra C, Melillo RM, Helin K, Croce CM, Fusco A: HMGA2 induces pituitary tumorigenesis by enhancing E2F1 activity. Cancer Cell; 2006 Jun;9(6):459-71
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  • [Title] HMGA2 induces pituitary tumorigenesis by enhancing E2F1 activity.
  • HMGA2 gene amplification and overexpression in human prolactinomas and the development of pituitary adenomas in HMGA2 transgenic mice showed that HMGA2 plays a crucial role in pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • Here we show that HMGA2 interacts with pRB and induces E2F1 activity in mouse pituitary adenomas by displacing HDAC1 from the pRB/E2F1 complex-a process that results in E2F1 acetylation.
  • We found that loss of E2F1 function (obtained by mating HMGA2 and E2F1(-/-) mice) suppressed pituitary tumorigenesis in HMGA2 mice.
  • Thus, HMGA2-mediated E2F1 activation is a crucial event in the onset of these tumors in transgenic mice and probably also in human prolactinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] E2F1 Transcription Factor / physiology. HMGA2 Protein / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylation. Animals. Cell Line. Cell Proliferation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. DNA / metabolism. Enzyme Activation. Histone Deacetylase 1. Histone Deacetylases / metabolism. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Mutant Strains. Mice, Transgenic. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Protein Binding. Response Elements. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. Signal Transduction


89. da Costa LB, Riva-Cambrin J, Tandon A, Tymianski M: Pituitary adenoma associated with intraventricular meningioma: case report. Skull Base; 2007 Sep;17(5):347-51
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenoma associated with intraventricular meningioma: case report.
  • Although rare, the association of intracranial meningiomas and pituitary adenomas has been reported.
  • We report a patient who harbored a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma and a fourth ventricle meningioma who was treated with surgical resection of the latter and medical treatment for the former.

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  • (PMID = 18330434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5010
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2095121
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Intraventricular tumor / meningioma / pituitary tumor / prolactinoma
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90. Levy MJ, Matharu MS, Meeran K, Powell M, Goadsby PJ: The clinical characteristics of headache in patients with pituitary tumours. Brain; 2005 Aug;128(Pt 8):1921-30
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  • [Title] The clinical characteristics of headache in patients with pituitary tumours.
  • The clinical characteristics of 84 patients with pituitary tumour who had troublesome headache were investigated.
  • SUNCT-like headache was only seen in patients with acromegaly and prolactinoma.
  • Headache appears to be a significant problem in pituitary disease and is associated with a range of headache phenotypes.
  • A proposed modification of the current classification of pituitary-associated headache is given.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Headache / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15888539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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91. Kars M, Delgado V, Holman ER, Feelders RA, Smit JW, Romijn JA, Bax JJ, Pereira AM: Aortic valve calcification and mild tricuspid regurgitation but no clinical heart disease after 8 years of dopamine agonist therapy for prolactinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Sep;93(9):3348-56
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  • [Title] Aortic valve calcification and mild tricuspid regurgitation but no clinical heart disease after 8 years of dopamine agonist therapy for prolactinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Treatment with ergot-derived dopamine agonists, pergolide, and cabergoline has been associated with an increased frequency of valvular heart disease in Parkinson's disease.
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of valvular heart disease in patients treated with dopamine agonists for prolactinomas.
  • PATIENTS: We performed two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography in 78 consecutive patients with prolactinoma (mean age 47 +/- 1.4 yr, 26% male, 31% macroprolactinoma) treated with dopamine agonists for at least 1 yr (mean 8 +/- 0.6 yr) and 78 control subjects.
  • RESULTS: Clinically relevant valvular heart disease was present in 12% of patients (nine of 78) vs. 17% of controls (13 of 78) (P = 0.141) and 17% (eight of 47) of patients treated with cabergoline vs. 3% (one of 31) of patients not treated with cabergoline (P = 0.062).
  • CONCLUSION: Several years of dopamine agonist treatment in patients with prolactinomas is associated with increased prevalence of aortic valve calcification and mild tricuspid regurgitation but not with clinically relevant valvular heart disease.
  • Therefore, additional studies on the adverse cardiac effects of dopaminergic drugs in prolactinoma are warranted, especially in patients with much longer use of these drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcinosis / chemically induced. Dopamine Agonists / adverse effects. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Heart Valve Diseases / chemically induced. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aortic Valve / drug effects. Aortic Valve / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Disease Progression. Ergolines / adverse effects. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18559921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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92. Molino C, Fabbian F, Russo G, Cantelli S, Bortot A, Galdi A, Catizone L: [MEN type 1 and chronic renal failure: a rarely reported association]. G Ital Nefrol; 2007 Jan-Feb;24(1):79-82
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  • BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), or Wermer's syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant genetic syndrome characterized by tumors or hyperplasia involving the pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet cells.
  • CASE: A 70-year-old Caucasian female patient had a history of primitive hyperparathyroidism, prolactinoma, glucagonoma, adrenal adenoma and pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasia.
  • Moreover, hyperparathyroidism in MEN 1 is clinically similar to the kidney failure condition; indeed, diffuse hyper-plasia of more than one gland is common.

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  • (PMID = 17342698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-5590
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di nefrologia : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Nefrol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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93. Levy MJ, Classey JD, Maneesri S, Meeran K, Powell M, Goadsby PJ: The relationship between neuropeptide Y expression and headache in pituitary tumours. Eur J Neurol; 2006 Feb;13(2):125-9
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  • [Title] The relationship between neuropeptide Y expression and headache in pituitary tumours.
  • Patients with pituitary tumours often present with disabling headache but there is no clear relationship between tumour size and headache.
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been identified in pituitary tumours and may serve as a biochemical marker of the propensity for headache.
  • Using immunohistochemical techniques we examined 27 consecutive pituitary adenoma specimens for NPY (including one normal postmortem control anterior pituitary specimen).
  • NPY positive immunoreactivity was seen in 13 tumour specimens (50%, 13 of 26 pituitary tumour specimens), characterized by cytoplasmic and nuclear staining patterns.
  • We did not observe NPY in the normal anterior pituitary control specimen.
  • NPY was present in four of five (80%) growth hormone-secreting tumours and two of two (100%) prolactinomas, compared with four of 11 (36%) non-functioning adenomas.
  • The mechanism of many pituitary tumour-associated headaches remains undetermined.
  • The significance of NPY positivity in pituitary tumours is unknown, although the results of this study may implicate this peptide in the control of somatotroph and lactotroph activity.
  • Our data do not support a clear role for NPY pituitary tumour-associated headache.
  • [MeSH-major] Headache / etiology. Headache / metabolism. Neuropeptide Y / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16490041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-5101
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptide Y
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94. Aui-aree N, Phruanchroen C, Oearsakul T, Hirunpat S, Sangthong R: Three years experience of suprasellar tumors in neuro-ophthalmology clinic. J Med Assoc Thai; 2010 Jul;93(7):818-23
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  • The most common tumor was pituitary adenoma (macroadenoma and prolactinoma).
  • Visual improvement was achieved in pituitary adenoma in 20 of 25 eyes (80%), meningioma in 8 of 12 eyes (67%) and other tumors in 2 of 5 eyes (40%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Vision Disorders / etiology. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 20649062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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95. Cho CB, Park HK, Joo WI, Chough CK, Lee KJ, Rha HK: Stereotactic Radiosurgery with the CyberKnife for Pituitary Adenomas. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2009 Mar;45(3):157-63
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  • [Title] Stereotactic Radiosurgery with the CyberKnife for Pituitary Adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: In recent years, CyberKnife has emerged as an important treatment modality in the management of pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six patients with pituitary adenomas received stereotactic radiosurgery with the CyberKnife (CKRS).
  • The patients consisted of 17 with non-functioning adenomas, 3 with prolactinomas and 6 with acromegaly.
  • Hormonal function was improved in all of the 9 (100%) functioning adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: CyberKnife is considered safe and effective in selected patients with pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 19352477.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2666117
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CyberKnife / Pituitary adenoma
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96. Huang C, Ezzat S, Asa SL, Hamilton J: Dopaminergic resistant prolactinomas in the peripubertal population. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jul;19(7):951-3
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  • [Title] Dopaminergic resistant prolactinomas in the peripubertal population.
  • We report two children with macroadenomas and hyperprolactinemia resistant to medical therapy using dopamine agonists, who experienced secondary pituitary dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance. Hyperprolactinemia / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Puberty / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16995577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
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97. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Marek B, Szkróbka W: [Prolactinoma]. Przegl Lek; 2009;66(4):198-205
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  • [Title] [Prolactinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Gruczolak przysadki wydzielajacy prolaktyne.
  • Prolactin-secreting tumours (prolactinomas) are benign neoplasms constituting about 40 percent of all pituitary tumours.
  • The clinical symptoms of prolactinomas are menstrual dysfunction and galactorrhea in women and loss of libido and potency in men.
  • Differential diagnosis of the disease should include the intake of various drugs, hypothyroidism, renal failure, liver cirrhosis, compression of the pituitary stalk by other pathologies, idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and other types of pituitary adenomas.
  • The authors review the diagnosis and management of prolactinomas, including progress made in recent years.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Causality. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Iatrogenic Disease / epidemiology. Male. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / epidemiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Prevalence. Sex Distribution. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19708510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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98. Müssig K, Gallwitz B, Honegger J, Strasburger CJ, Bidlingmaier M, Machicao F, Bornemann A, Ranke MB, Häring HU, Petersenn S: Pegvisomant treatment in gigantism caused by a growth hormone-secreting giant pituitary adenoma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Mar;115(3):198-202
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  • [Title] Pegvisomant treatment in gigantism caused by a growth hormone-secreting giant pituitary adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Gigantism is rare with the majority of cases caused by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Treatment options for GH-secreting pituitary adenomas have been widened with the availability of long-acting dopamine agonists, depot preparations of somatostatin analogues, and recently the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant.
  • CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old male patient presented with continuous increase in height during the past 6 years due to a GH-secreting giant pituitary adenoma.
  • At immunohistochemistry, the tumour showed a marked expression of GH and a sparsely focal expression of prolactin.
  • CONCLUSION: Pegvisomant is a potent treatment option in patients with pituitary gigantism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / surgery. Gigantism / drug therapy. Gigantism / etiology. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery


99. Jezková J, Hána V, Krsek M, Weiss V, Vladyka V, Liscák R, Vymazal J, Pecen L, Marek J: Use of the Leksell gamma knife in the treatment of prolactinoma patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 May;70(5):732-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of the Leksell gamma knife in the treatment of prolactinoma patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological treatment with dopaminergic agonists (DA) is the treatment of choice for prolactinomas.
  • We describe our 12-year experience in treating prolactinomas with the Leksell gamma knife (LGK).
  • DESIGN: We followed 35 prolactinoma patients (25.7% microprolactinomas, 74.3% macroprolactinomas) treated with LGK irradiation.
  • Pituitary function was monitored regularly at 6-month intervals.
  • The median time to prolactin normalization after discontinuation of DA was 96 months.
  • After LGK irradiation, the prolactinoma stopped growing or decreased in size in all but one patient (97.1%).
  • The size of the adenoma decreased even in those patients in whom it was not changed by previous DA treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactinoma / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Prolactin / blood. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18710463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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100. Borodkin K, Ayalon L, Kanety H, Dagan Y: Dysregulation of circadian rhythms following prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenoma. Chronobiol Int; 2005;22(1):145-56
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  • [Title] Dysregulation of circadian rhythms following prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenoma.
  • A patient who developed an irregular sleep-wake pattern following prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenoma is described.
  • The dysregulation of circadian rhythms occurred concomitantly, but not beforehand, with the onset of pituitary disease, thus suggesting an association between the two phenomena.
  • This case also highlights the need to raise the awareness to circadian rhythm sleep disorders and to consider disruptions of sleep-wake cycle in patients with pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / metabolism. Circadian Rhythm. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Prolactin / secretion. Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm / complications

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  • (PMID = 15865328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / 5T32 MH18399-17
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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