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1. Bakhtiar Y, Arita K, Hirano H, Habu M, Fujio S, Kitajima S, Tanimoto A: Prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma with abundant spherical amyloid deposition masquerading as extensive calcification. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(11):1023-6
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  • [Title] Prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma with abundant spherical amyloid deposition masquerading as extensive calcification.
  • A 53-year-old male presented with a case of prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma with abundant spherical amyloid depositions masquerading as extensive calcification and manifesting as visual disturbance.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously enhanced large pituitary tumor reaching lateral ventricle.
  • Blood prolactin level was elevated to 5971 ng/ml.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor was strongly positive for prolactin.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloid / metabolism. Calcinosis / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Plaque, Amyloid / pathology. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21123991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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2. Sikoski P, Trybus J, Cline JM, Muhammad FS, Eckhoff A, Tan J, Lockard M, Jolley T, Britt S, Kock ND: Cystic mammary adenocarcinoma associated with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Comp Med; 2008 Jun;58(3):297-300
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  • [Title] Cystic mammary adenocarcinoma associated with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
  • Pituitary adenoma in a rabbitA 44-mo-old, female, nulliparous New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) presented with bilaterally diffusely enlarged mammary glands with enlarged, discolored teats that exuded brown, mucoid discharge.
  • Computed tomography and serum prolactin levels supported the diagnosis of mammary gland dysplasia, possibly due to a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Histologic evaluation confirmed the presence of a pituitary adenoma, mammary hyperplasia, dysplasia, and cystic mammary adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of abundant prolactin secreting cells in the pituitary adenoma.
  • This is the second report of hyperprolactinemia with mammary dysplasia in rabbits, and the first report of cystic mammary adenocarcinoma associated with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a rabbit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / secretion. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Prolactin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 18589874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0820
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2704120
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3. Ahtiainen P, Sharp V, Rulli SB, Rivero-Müller A, Mamaeva V, Röyttä M, Huhtaniemi I: Enhanced LH action in transgenic female mice expressing hCGbeta-subunit induces pituitary prolactinomas; the role of high progesterone levels. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):611-21
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  • [Title] Enhanced LH action in transgenic female mice expressing hCGbeta-subunit induces pituitary prolactinomas; the role of high progesterone levels.
  • The etiology of pituitary adenomas remains largely unknown, with the exception of involvement of estrogens in the formation of prolactinomas.
  • We have examined the molecular pathogenesis of prolactin-producing pituitary adenomas in transgenic female mice expressing the human choriongonadotropin (hCG) beta-subunit.
  • Curiously, despite normal estrogen levels, large prolactinomas developed in these mice, and we provide here several lines of evidence that the elevated P(4) levels are involved in the growth of these estrogen-dependent tumors.
  • Evidence for direct growth-promoting effect of P(4) was obtained from cultures of primary mouse pituitary cells and rat somatomammotroph GH3 cells.
  • If extrapolated to humans, and given the importance of endogenous P(4) and synthetic progestins in female reproductive functions and their pharmacotherapy, it is relevant to revisit the potential role of these hormones in the origin and growth of prolactinomas.

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  • (PMID = 20453081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 063552; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 082101
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2881531
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4. Pierantoni GM, Finelli P, Valtorta E, Giardino D, Rodeschini O, Esposito F, Losa M, Fusco A, Larizza L: High-mobility group A2 gene expression is frequently induced in non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), even in the absence of chromosome 12 polysomy. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Dec;12(4):867-74
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  • [Title] High-mobility group A2 gene expression is frequently induced in non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), even in the absence of chromosome 12 polysomy.
  • By previous fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcriptase PCR analyses on human prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas we detected rearrangement of the HMGA2 gene and amplification of its native region associated with activated expression.
  • These data indicated a role for the HMGA2 gene in the development of human pituitary prolactinomas, since they are consistent with the appearance of prolactin/growth hormone adenomas in transgenic mice overexpressing the HMGA2 gene.
  • To assess a more general role for HMGA2 in pituitary oncogenesis, we investigated HMGA2 amplification and expression in a panel of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) which account for 25% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • We provide evidence that out of 18 NFPA tumors tested, 12 expressed HMGA2, but, different from prolactinomas, only in two cases the upregulation of the gene could be associated with amplification and/or rearrangement of the HMGA2 locus.
  • A role for chromosome 12 polysomy to promote structural instability of HMGA2 is confirmed, but the mechanism via trisomy is less prevalent in the frequently diploid NFPAs than in the usually hyperdiploid prolactinomas.
  • Micro-rearrangements of HMGA2 gene not detectable by FISH analysis and/or sequence alterations could contribute to upregulation of HMGA2 gene in pituitary adenomas of the NFPA subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics. Gene Amplification. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16322327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein
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5. Fedele M, De Martino I, Pivonello R, Ciarmiello A, Del Basso De Caro ML, Visone R, Palmieri D, Pierantoni GM, Arra C, Schmid HA, Hofland L, Lombardi G, Colao A, Fusco A: SOM230, a new somatostatin analogue, is highly effective in the therapy of growth hormone/prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 May 1;13(9):2738-44
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  • [Title] SOM230, a new somatostatin analogue, is highly effective in the therapy of growth hormone/prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • PURPOSE: We have previously shown that transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing the HMGA2 gene develop growth hormone/prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • This animal model has been used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of SOM230, a somatostatin analogue with high affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtypes 1, 2, 3, and 5, on the growth of the pituitary adenomas.
  • The development of the tumor before and after therapy was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary region and evaluation of the serum prolactin levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results clearly support the efficacy of the SOM230 treatment in human pituitary adenomas secreting prolactin based on the dramatic tumor shrinkage and fall in prolactin levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17473207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
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6. Cristina C, Díaz-Torga GS, Goya RG, Kakar SS, Perez-Millán MI, Passos VQ, Giannella-Neto D, Bronstein MD, Becu-Villalobos D: PTTG expression in different experimental and human prolactinomas in relation to dopaminergic control of lactotropes. Mol Cancer; 2007;6:4
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  • [Title] PTTG expression in different experimental and human prolactinomas in relation to dopaminergic control of lactotropes.
  • BACKGROUND: Pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg) is a novel oncogene that is expressed at higher level in most of the tumors analyzed to date compared to normal tissues.
  • Nevertheless, its expression in prolactinomas and its relation with the pituitary dopamine receptor 2 (D2R) are not well defined.
  • We sought to determine the pituitary level of pttg in three different experimental models of prolactinomas with altered dopaminergic control of the pituitary: the dopaminergic D2R knockout female mouse, the estrogen-treated rat, and the senescent female rat.
  • These three models shared the characteristics of increased pituitary weight, hyperprolactinemia, lactotrope hyperplasia and reduced or absent dopaminergic action at the pituitary level.
  • In senescent rats no difference in pituitary PTTG protein expression was found when compared to young rats.
  • Therefore, in the three experimental models of prolactinomas, pituitary size was increased and there was hyperprolactinemia, but PTTG levels followed different patterns.Patients with macroprolactinomas were divided in those in which dopaminergic therapy normalized or failed to normalize prolactin levels (responsive and resistant, respectively).
  • When pituitary pttg mRNA level was analyzed in these macroprolactinomas, no differences were found.
  • We next analyzed estrogen action at the pituitary by measuring pituitary estrogen receptor alpha levels.
  • The D2R knockout female mice have low estrogen levels and in accordance, pituitary estrogen receptors were increased (P = 0.047).
  • Finally, in patients with dopamine resistant or responsive prolactinomas no significant differences in estrogen receptor alpha levels were found.
  • Therefore, pituitary PTTG was increased only if estrogen action was increased, which correlated with a decrease in pituitary estrogen receptor level.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that PTTG does not correlate with prolactin levels or tumor size in animal models of prolactinoma, and its pituitary content is not related to a decrease in dopaminergic control of the lactotrope, but may be influenced by estrogen action at the pituitary level.
  • Therefore it is increased only in prolactinomas generated by estrogen treatment, and not in prolactinomas arising from deficient dopamine control, or in dopamine resistant compared with dopamine responsive human prolactinomas.
  • These results are important in the search for reliable prognostic indicators for patients with pituitary adenomas which will make tumor-specific therapy possible, and help to elucidate the poorly understood phenomenon of pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine / metabolism. Lactotrophs / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Prolactinoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, Dopamine / genetics. Securin

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  • (PMID = 17222350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1779802
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7. da Costa LB, Riva-Cambrin J, Tandon A, Tymianski M: Pituitary adenoma associated with intraventricular meningioma: case report. Skull Base; 2007 Sep;17(5):347-51
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenoma associated with intraventricular meningioma: case report.
  • Although rare, the association of intracranial meningiomas and pituitary adenomas has been reported.
  • We report a patient who harbored a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma and a fourth ventricle meningioma who was treated with surgical resection of the latter and medical treatment for the former.

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  • (PMID = 18330434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5010
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2095121
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Intraventricular tumor / meningioma / pituitary tumor / prolactinoma
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8. Mikami S, Kameyama K, Takahashi S, Yoshida K, Kawase T, Sano T, Mukai M: Combined gangliocytoma and prolactinoma of the pituitary gland. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):117-21
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  • [Title] Combined gangliocytoma and prolactinoma of the pituitary gland.
  • Gangliocytomas of the pituitary gland are rare lesions that often occur in combination with pituitary adenomas, which are frequently associated with the hypersecretion of pituitary hormones, particularly growth hormones.
  • We report a case of combined gangliocytoma and prolactinoma of the pituitary gland.
  • Histologically, the tumor was composed of adenoma cells, mature ganglion cells and cells with features intermediate between those of adenoma cells and ganglion cells (intermediate cells).
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the ganglion cells and intermediate cells as well as adenoma cells to be positive for prolactin.
  • The first is that adenoma cells transform into ganglion cells, and the second is that both components originate from the embryonal pituitary cell rests, showing intermediate features between ganglion cells and adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Coloring Agents. Eosine Yellowish-(YS). Fluorescent Dyes. Headache / etiology. Hematoxylin. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Paraffin Embedding. Pituitary Hormones / blood. Tissue Fixation. Vertigo / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18651251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS); YKM8PY2Z55 / Hematoxylin
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9. Tanaka S, Link MJ, Brown PD, Stafford SL, Young WF Jr, Pollock BE: Gamma knife radiosurgery for patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. World Neurosurg; 2010 Jul;74(1):147-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gamma knife radiosurgery for patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients with prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary adenomas that were refractory to medical management.
  • The median serum PRL concentration before SRS was 88.4 ng/mL (range, 25-943).
  • Serum PRL concentration was significantly lower (median, 28.4 ng/mL) (P = 0.006) at last follow-up, but the 4-year actuarial rate of biochemical remission off medications was only 17%.
  • Overall, four patients (18%) had biochemical remission off medications and clinical improvement, three patients (14%) had normal serum PRL concentrations and clinical improvement on dopamine agonist therapy, seven patients (32%) had improved symptoms off medications but continued to have elevated serum PRL levels, and eight patients (36%) continued to be symptomatic with elevated PRL levels either on (n = 3) or off (n = 5) dopamine agonist therapy.
  • The incidence of new anterior pituitary deficits was 42% at 4 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SRS was effective in controlling tumor growth for patients with PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas, and the majority of patients were clinically improved.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactinoma / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adult. Aged. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypopituitarism / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / blood. Prolactin / blood. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] World Neurosurg. 2010 Jul;74(1):103-4 [21299992.001]
  • (PMID = 21300006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-8769
  • [Journal-full-title] World neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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10. Filopanti M, Lania AG, Spada A: Pharmacogenetics of D2 dopamine receptor gene in prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol; 2010 Jan;6(1):43-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacogenetics of D2 dopamine receptor gene in prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Dopamine-agonists are the treatment of choice of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas (PRL-omas).
  • AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: PRL-omas are well-differentiated endocrine tumors expressing DRD2.
  • The dopamine-agonist cabergoline (CB), normalizes prolactin and reduces tumor size in about 80 - 90% of patients.
  • One study carried out in patients with PRL-omas found a correlation between NcoI and TaqIA and resistance to CB.
  • WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: This review deals with the connection between DRD2 polymorphisms and PRL-oma treatment and suggests hypotheses for further studies.
  • Further studies, including pituitary and hypothalamus in vivo determination of DRD2 binding according to DRD2 genotypes, investigation of possible post-receptorial mechanisms involved, as well as population studies in collaboration with psychiatrists and neurologists, are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / pharmacokinetics. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / genetics. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / drug effects. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19929252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7607
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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11. Jamjoom BA, Sharab MA, Nasser TA, Jamjoom AB: Pseudotumor cerebri and prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma. Association or coincidence? Neurosciences (Riyadh); 2010 Jul;15(3):200-3
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  • [Title] Pseudotumor cerebri and prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma. Association or coincidence?
  • The occurrence of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) and hyperprolactinemia related to a prolactinoma are extremely rare, and the link between these pathologies has not been examined adequately in the post-MRI era.
  • We report a patient with a small intrasellar prolactinoma who also developed PTC.
  • However 9 months later, her PTC symptoms recurred despite a normal serum prolactin level and a mild reduction of the pituitary tumor size on MRI.
  • We conclude that the findings in our patient do not support an association between PTC and hyperprolactinemia or prolactinoma.
  • However, the case supports the need for clinicians to consider the diagnosis of PTC when patients with small pituitary lesions exhibit raised intracranial pressure features.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prolactinoma / complications. Pseudotumor Cerebri / complications

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  • (PMID = 20831031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-6138
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosciences (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosciences (Riyadh)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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12. Yoneoka Y, Isogawa M, Terumitsu M, Matsuzawa H, Fujii Y: Insidious extension of pituitary prolactinoma: two can't-miss findings depicted on a 3.0-T MR system. J Neuroimaging; 2010 Jul;20(3):267-71
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  • [Title] Insidious extension of pituitary prolactinoma: two can't-miss findings depicted on a 3.0-T MR system.
  • BACKGROUND: In this article, we present two can't-miss findings on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 3.0-T MR system resulting in a better surgical option in prolactinoma treatment after emergent of dopamine agonists.
  • METHODS: We reviewed six cases of pituitary prolactinoma; each had vague or occult bulk of adenoma on 1.5-T MR imaging, which were finally confirmed by surgery.
  • With the 3.0-T MR system, 3-dimension-anisotropy-contrast (3DAC) MR imaging and 3-dimension fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (3D-FSPGR) imaging were used for depiction of the adenoma.
  • RESULTS: 3DAC imaging revealed cavernous sinus (CS) pathology in three cases, and multiplanar reconstruction of 3D-FSPGR imaging revealed normal pituitary gland and invasive adenoma into the CS in three cases and creeping extension up to the contralateral side of the CS invasion in four cases.
  • (1) intrasellar creeping extension up to the opposite side of the adenoma main body and (2) intracavernous-localized adenoma with indistinct intrasellar mass should be carefully considered when neurosurgeons perform adenomectomy for patients with prolactinoma, even in cases of microprolactinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19453836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6569
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroimaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Filopanti M, Barbieri AM, Angioni AR, Colao A, Gasco V, Grottoli S, Peri A, Baglioni S, Fustini MF, Pigliaru F, Monte PD, Borretta G, Ambrosi B, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Gasperi M, Brogioni S, Cannavò S, Mantovani G, Beck-Peccoz P, Lania A, Spada A: Dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms and response to cabergoline therapy in patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Pharmacogenomics J; 2008 Oct;8(5):357-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms and response to cabergoline therapy in patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Dopamine-agonist cabergoline (CB) reduces prolactin (PRL) secretion and tumor size in 80% of patients with prolactin-secreting adenomas (PRL-omas) by binding type 2 dopamine receptor (DRD2).
  • To assess the association of DRD2 with sensitivity to CB, TaqI-A1/A2, TaqI-B1/B2, HphI-G/T and NcoI-C/T genotypes were determined in a cross-sectional retrospective study, including 203 patients with PRL-oma.
  • Conversely, NcoI-T allele frequency was higher in resistant rather than responsive patients, considering both PRL normalization (56.6 vs 45.3%, P=0.038) and tumor shrinkage (70.4 vs 41.4%, P=0.006).
  • Finally, [TaqI A1-/TaqI B1-/HphI T-/NcoI T-] haplotype was found in 34.5% of patients normalizing PRL with < or =3 mg/week of CB vs 11.3% of resistants (P=0.021).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Polymorphism, Genetic. Prolactin / secretion. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18332900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-1150
  • [Journal-full-title] The pharmacogenomics journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacogenomics J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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14. Ke C, Deng Z, Lei T, Zhou S, Guo DS, Wan J, Wu S: Pituitary prolactin producing adenoma with ossification: a rare histological variant and review of literature. Neuropathology; 2010 Apr;30(2):165-9
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  • [Title] Pituitary prolactin producing adenoma with ossification: a rare histological variant and review of literature.
  • Pituitary adenoma with ossification is a rare histological variant.
  • Here a case of pituitary prolactin-producing adenoma with bone formation in a 21-year-old woman is described.
  • The pre-operative prolactin serum level was 258.78 ng/mL.
  • The cytoplasm of the adenoma cells was slightly eosinophilic and the myelo-adipose metaplastic foci were also found within the parenchyma.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells showed positive expressions of prolactin, synaptophysin and chromogranin A in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells.
  • Meanwhile, negative expressions of S-100, epithelial membrane antigen, GFAP and other pituitary hormones were also demonstrated.
  • As a rare histological variant of pituitary adenoma, the current case of pituitary prolactin producing adenoma with ossification is reported.
  • It is speculated that the ossification may be derived from the osteo-metaplasia of mesenchymal fibroblasts resulting from the effects of both secondary ischemia by the outgrowth of the tumor and/or the autocrine effect of prolactin in this case.
  • The bony shell structure may limit the growth of pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ossification, Heterotopic / pathology. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19737358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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15. Coiré CI, Smyth HS, Rosso D, Horvath E, Kovacs K: A double pituitary adenoma presenting as a prolactin-secreting tumor with partial response to medical therapy. Case report. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):135-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A double pituitary adenoma presenting as a prolactin-secreting tumor with partial response to medical therapy. Case report.
  • Double pituitary adenomas are difficult to recognize pre-operatively as only a single mass may be appreciated on imaging.
  • We present herein a giant prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a middle-aged man that had responded partially to dopamine agonist therapy.
  • The excised specimen demonstrated a double adenoma.
  • The prolactin-producing one displayed the expected morphological changes resulting from medical therapy, while the other, a gonadotroph adenoma, did not.
  • The failure of tumor shrinkage can be attributed to the presence of a double adenoma, a previously unreported cause of failure of medical therapy in prolactinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Gonadotrophs / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20058099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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16. Wiesner TD, Trantakis C, Meixensberger J, Koch CA, Zimmer C, Paschke R: [Structure of an interdisciplinary pituitary outpatient care unit at the University Hospital of Leipzig and results for treatment of prolactin and growth hormone secreting pituitary tumors]. Med Klin (Munich); 2005 Apr 15;100(4):173-9
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  • [Title] [Structure of an interdisciplinary pituitary outpatient care unit at the University Hospital of Leipzig and results for treatment of prolactin and growth hormone secreting pituitary tumors].
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients with pituitary adenomas is complex and involves several medical specialties.
  • At the Medical Center of the University of Leipzig, Germany, an interdisciplinary pituitary outpatient care unit has been established for 6 years.
  • METHODS: The interdisciplinary collaboration and the outcome of patients with growth hormone-(GH-) and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are described.
  • Moreover, therapeutic strategies for patients with hormonally active pituitary adenomas are presented and discussed.
  • RESULTS: In patients suffering from GH-producing adenomas, a remission could be achieved in 80% (microadenomas) and 40% (macroadenomas) of the cases, respectively.
  • Furthermore, prolactinomas decreased in size during treatment in at least 75% of all cases depending on the initial size of the lesion which is also comparable to data from other groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Taken together, an interdisciplinary approach improves outcome and quality of care of patients with hormonally active pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / surgery. Acromegaly / therapy. Adult. Age Factors. Combined Modality Therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Growth Hormone / blood. Growth Hormone / secretion. Hospital Units. Humans. Interdisciplinary Communication. Male. Middle Aged. Outpatients. Patient Care Team. Prolactin / blood. Prolactin / secretion. Sex Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15834525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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17. Uccella S, Tibiletti MG, Bernasconi B, Finzi G, Oldrini R, Capella C: Aneuploidy, centrosome alteration and securin overexpression as features of pituitary somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2005 Oct;27(5):241-52

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  • [Title] Aneuploidy, centrosome alteration and securin overexpression as features of pituitary somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To verify the presence of numerical chromosomal aberrations (NCAs) in different types of pituitary adenomas (PAs) and to investigate 2 of the mechanisms that are possibly related to aneuploidies in PAs: securin overexpression and centrosome alterations.
  • RESULTS: At interphase FISH analysis, growth hormone (GH)-cell and prolactin (PRL)-cell PAs showed multiple chromosome gains and a low frequency of chromosome losses, suggesting a hyperdiploid chromosome assessment.
  • In addition, when compared to other types of PAs, GH-cell and PRL-cell adenomas showed overexpression of securin and a higher number of both cells with abnormal nuclear shape and cells with centrosomes.
  • CONCLUSION: Somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas are characterized by aneuploidy, abnormal nuclear shape and centrosome amplification, which are possibly related to securin overexpression.

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  • (PMID = 16447816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human
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18. Balci H, Akgun-Dar K, Gazioglu N, Kapucu A, Bolayirli M, Oz B: The relationship between prolactin (PRL), leptin, nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary; 2009;12(3):170-6
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  • [Title] The relationship between prolactin (PRL), leptin, nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines in patients with hyperprolactinemia.
  • The study consists of 16 consecutive patients with high prolactin (PRL) levels (group I) and a control group of 11 normoprolactinemic patients (group II).
  • Pituitary tumor tissues of patients in groups I and II were analyzed for immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of prolactin and leptin.
  • There is a strong correlation between PRL and leptin concentrations in group I.
  • IHC staining showed that there was strong immunoreactivity for leptin protein in PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Double immunostaining of adenoma tissues with PRL and leptin showed that the adenoma cells expressed both.
  • These findings together are suggestive that leptin co-secretion from a prolactinoma may be the cause of increased serum leptin concentration, independently from the peripheral action of prolactin.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia / blood. Interleukin-6 / blood. Leptin / blood. Nitric Oxide / blood. Prolactin / blood. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18752070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Leptin; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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19. Kontogeorgos G, Horvath E, Kovacs K, Coire C, Lloyd RV, Scheithauer BW, Smyth HS: Morphologic changes of prolactin-producing pituitary adenomas after short treatment with dopamine agonists. Acta Neuropathol; 2006 Jan;111(1):46-52
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  • [Title] Morphologic changes of prolactin-producing pituitary adenomas after short treatment with dopamine agonists.
  • Treatment of patients with prolactin (PRL)-producing pituitary adenomas with dopamine agonists has proved successful for most cases.
  • Dopamine agonists inhibit PRL secretion, suppress cell proliferation, and may induce apoptosis to adenoma cells.
  • Dopamine agonists induce striking morphologic changes in the majority of treated PRL-producing adenomas.
  • To date, these morphologic effects have been primarily described only after long-term treatment.
  • The purpose of this report is to describe the morphologic changes seen in PRL-producing adenomas after short-term dopamine agonist treatment.
  • We present two cases of PRL-producing macroadenomas, both from male patients who received treatment with dopamine agonists, the first for 5 and the second for 8 days.
  • In contrast to long-term treatment, no striking reduction of PRL immunoreactivity was noted.
  • In addition to typical apoptotic cells, numerous "dark" cells representing another common form of cell death were also noted.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Fibrosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prolactin / analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16328513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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20. Radaelli E, Arnold A, Papanikolaou A, Garcia-Fernandez RA, Mattiello S, Scanziani E, Cardiff RD: Mammary tumor phenotypes in wild-type aging female FVB/N mice with pituitary prolactinomas. Vet Pathol; 2009 Jul;46(4):736-45
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  • [Title] Mammary tumor phenotypes in wild-type aging female FVB/N mice with pituitary prolactinomas.
  • Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are common spontaneous lesions in aging FVB females.
  • Prolactin-secreting pituitary proliferations play a significant role in mouse mammary tumorigenesis generally producing adenosquamous carcinomas.
  • Since genetically engineered FVB mice are frequently used to study mammary tumor biology, we have examined a cohort of 64 aging wild-type FVB/N females to establish the prevalence and the nature of spontaneous mammary and pituitary tumors.
  • Tissues from mammary and pituitary glands were studied by histopathology and immunohistochemistry.
  • Of the 64 examined mice, 20 had pituitary tumors and 20 had mammary tumors.
  • Mammary and pituitary tumors were associated in 17 mice.
  • All pituitary tumors were prolactin-positive by immunohistochemistry and classified as prolactinomas.
  • Fourteen mammary tumors, including 12 cases with and 2 without concurrent prolactinomas, were adenocarcinomas with different combinations of epithelial growth patterns.
  • Five mice with prolactinomas had mammary tumors characterized by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype.
  • This study confirms that spontaneous prolactinomas and mammary tumors are both common and significantly associated lesions in FVB mice.
  • Compared with previous reports, prolactinoma-associated mammary tumors displayed a broader morphologic spectrum, including cases with the EMT phenotype.
  • The elevated number of prolactinoma-associated and ERalpha-positive mammary tumors opens intriguing possibilities concerning the role of ERalpha cytoplasmic localization during EMT tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 19276050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141582; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA55909
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Ciccarelli A, Guerra E, De Rosa M, Milone F, Zarrilli S, Lombardi G, Colao A: PRL secreting adenomas in male patients. Pituitary; 2005;8(1):39-42
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  • [Title] PRL secreting adenomas in male patients.
  • Prolactinomas are the most frequent pituitary tumors and their frequency varies with age and sex, occurring most frequently in females between 20-50 yr-old.
  • Prolactin (PRL) plays a role in the process of spermatogenesis, and normal serum PRL levels are required for normal testicular function.
  • Cabergoline treatments is able to induce normalization of PRL levels and a reduction of tumor mass in the majority of patients and consequently restoring the normal semen quality and ameliorating the quality of life of men with pituitary PRL-secreting adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16411067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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22. Mucha SA, Meleń-Mucha G, Godlewski A, Stepień H: Inhibition of estrogen-induced pituitary tumor growth and angiogenesis in Fischer 344 rats by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat. Virchows Arch; 2007 Mar;450(3):335-41
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  • [Title] Inhibition of estrogen-induced pituitary tumor growth and angiogenesis in Fischer 344 rats by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat.
  • The development of estrogen-induced pituitary prolactinoma in Fischer 344 (F344) rats is associated with enhanced neovascularization.
  • Based on the significance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for tumor growth and angiogenesis, we have studied the effect of batimastat (BB-94), a synthetic MMPs inhibitor (MMPI) on the progression of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in rats.
  • Pituitary tumors were induced in male F344 rats by s.c. implantation of Silastic tubes containing diethylstilbestrol (DES).
  • The effects of chronic treatment with BB-94 (30 mg/kg b.w.) on pituitary weight, cell proliferation, apoptosis and vascular density were evaluated.
  • We have stated that chronic treatment with batimastat caused a significant reduction in the pituitary weight.
  • Batimastat has been found to decrease cell proliferation evaluated by a number of PCNA-positive stained cell nuclei.
  • A marked increase in the apoptotic index within the pituitary was observed in the study group.
  • The results of our study provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of batimastat, a synthetic MMPI, on the growth and angiogenesis in an experimental model of human prolactinoma.
  • The ability of BB-94 to suppress established pituitary tumor growth suggests a possible application of MMPIs in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Phenylalanine / analogs & derivatives. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / blood supply. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Thiophenes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Diethylstilbestrol / toxicity. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Drug Therapy, Combination. Estrogens / toxicity. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Metalloendopeptidases / antagonists & inhibitors. Organ Size / drug effects. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344

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  • (PMID = 17235567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Thiophenes; 47E5O17Y3R / Phenylalanine; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; BK349F52C9 / batimastat; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases
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23. Alves C, Alves AC: Primary hypothyroidism in a child simulating a prolactin-secreting adenoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Dec;24(12):1505-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hypothyroidism in a child simulating a prolactin-secreting adenoma.
  • OBJECTS: To report a case of primary hypothyroidism associated to hyperprolactinemia mimicking a prolactin secreting adenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A girl (10 years and 10 months old) was evaluated for hyperprolactinemia (prolactin: 317 ng/mL [1.9-25]).
  • Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intrasellar and suprasellar mass measuring 1.9 x 1.7 x 1.7 cm, impinging on the optic chiasm.
  • Due to the possibility of a pseudoprolactinoma caused by hyperplasia of the TSH and prolactin-producing cells, she was treated for the primary hypothyroidism with levothyroxine.
  • After 2 months, F-T4, TSH, and prolactin returned to normal values.
  • A new pituitary MRI, 8 months later, demonstrated a complete resolution of the pituitary mass confirming the initial suspicion of thyrotroph hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: This paper illustrates the importance of thyroid function investigation in patients with hyperprolactinemia and possible prolactinoma in order to avoid unnecessary surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hypothyroidism / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperprolactinemia / blood. Hyperprolactinemia / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Thyroxine / administration & dosage. Thyroxine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18690463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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24. Fedele M, Palmieri D, Fusco A: HMGA2: A pituitary tumour subtype-specific oncogene? Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Sep 15;326(1-2):19-24
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  • [Title] HMGA2: A pituitary tumour subtype-specific oncogene?
  • The high mobility group AT-hook (HMGA) proteins, a family of DNA architectural factors, are highly expressed during embryogenesis and play a crucial role in several different biological processes, as well as in tumorigenesis of a wide range of tissues, including pituitary.
  • Indeed, HMGA2 has been found rearranged and amplified in human prolactinomas, and transgenic mice overexpressing either Hmga1 or Hmga2 develop pituitary adenomas secreting prolactin and growth hormone.
  • Here, we overview HMGA proteins in human tumours, focusing on pituitary adenomas and the mechanisms by which the HMGA proteins are involved in their onset and development.
  • Different HMGA-dependent potential drives of pituitary oncogenesis are discussed as future research directions in the field.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. HMGA2 Protein / physiology. Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20347930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA1c Protein; 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 124543-08-4 / HMGA1b Protein; 124544-67-8 / HMGA1a Protein
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25. Shetty R, Babu RB, Suresh M, Samprathi AB, Shetty BK: Neuro-ophthalmic disorders presenting as a diagnostic surprise during pre-LASIK evaluation. J Cataract Refract Surg; 2007 Sep;33(9):1653-6
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  • On examination, prolactinoma of the pituitary gland was seen in one patient and multiple sclerosis was diagnosed in the other patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ. Multiple Sclerosis / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Vision Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17720088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cataract and refractive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cataract Refract Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Rubinfeld H, Hadani M, Barkai G, Taylor JE, Culler MD, Shimon I: Cortistatin inhibits growth hormone release from human fetal and adenoma pituitary cells and prolactin secretion from cultured prolactinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2257-63
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  • [Title] Cortistatin inhibits growth hormone release from human fetal and adenoma pituitary cells and prolactin secretion from cultured prolactinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: The objective of the study was to assess the direct in vitro effects of CST on human pituitary hormone secretion.
  • SETTING: This study was performed in the endocrine laboratory of a tertiary academic medical center.
  • MATERIALS: Primary cell cultures of human fetal (21-25 wk gestation) pituitary tissues and cultured hormone-secreting adenoma cells were used in this study.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Cell cultures were incubated with CST-14 or CST-17, somatostatin, GHRH, SSTR analogs, and ghrelin analogs, and hormone secretion was analyzed.
  • OUTCOME MEASURES: GH and prolactin (PRL) medium concentrations were tested by hormone assay, and SSTR mRNA was tested by RT-PCR.
  • RESULTS: CST-14 (10 nm) inhibited GH secretion by up to 65% in all fetal pituitary specimens after 4-h incubation (P < 0.05).
  • CST-14 or CST-17 (10 nm) inhibited basal GH secretion in six of the 13 GH-cell adenomas and two of the three GH-PRL mixed adenomas.
  • CST-17 (100 nm) suppressed the GH response to GHRH and ghrelin analog (10 nm each) by 30-50% in adenomas (P < 0.05).
  • Three PRL-adenomas treated with CST-17 (10 nm) showed a 20-40% inhibition of PRL release (P < 0.05), whereas in three others no suppression or mild response was achieved at this concentration.
  • A comparable inhibition of PRL secretion was obtained with SSTR5-selective analog but significantly less with SSTR2-preferential compounds.
  • RT-PCR revealed the expression of both SSTR2 and SSTR5 in all GH-cell and mixed adenomas studied and all PRL-secreting adenomas studied, except for two of the CST-resistant prolactinomas, in which SSTR5 was absent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of in vitro CST suppression of human GH and PRL in cultured pituitary tissues.
  • The regulation of PRL release from cultured adenomas appears to be primarily mediated by SSTR5.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Fetus / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Neuropeptides / pharmacology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16595604.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / cortistatin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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27. Chatfield J, Zhang L, Ramey J, Bowsher T, Loskutoff N, O'Neill K: Resolution of a hyperprolactinemia in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wildl Med; 2006 Dec;37(4):565-6
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  • [Title] Resolution of a hyperprolactinemia in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).
  • Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are one of the most common causes of infertility in women.
  • Prolactin plays an important role in lactation and is involved in producing some of the normal mammalian breeding and maternal behaviors.
  • Elevated serum prolactin concentrations can adversely affect the reproductive cycle in females by inhibiting the normal lutenizing hormone surge that stimulates ovulation.
  • An MRI confirmed a pituitary mass and treatment was initiated with cabergoline.
  • Following 8 mo of treatment, mass size decreased and serum prolactin was within normal limits.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Ape Diseases / drug therapy. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Gorilla gorilla. Pituitary Neoplasms / veterinary. Prolactinoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17315448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-7260
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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28. De Martino I, Visone R, Wierinckx A, Palmieri D, Ferraro A, Cappabianca P, Chiappetta G, Forzati F, Lombardi G, Colao A, Trouillas J, Fedele M, Fusco A: HMGA proteins up-regulate CCNB2 gene in mouse and human pituitary adenomas. Cancer Res; 2009 Mar 1;69(5):1844-50
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  • [Title] HMGA proteins up-regulate CCNB2 gene in mouse and human pituitary adenomas.
  • We have recently reported that transgenic mice carrying the Hmga1 or Hmga2 genes under transcriptional control of the cytomegalovirus promoter develop pituitary adenomas secreting prolactin and growth hormone.
  • We have shown that the mechanism of the HMGA2-induced pituitary adenoma is based on the increased E2F1 activity.
  • The expression profile of mouse normal pituitary glands and adenomas induced in HMGA transgenic mice revealed an increased expression of the ccnb2 gene, coding for the cyclin B2 protein, in the neoplastic tissues compared with the normal pituitary gland.
  • Finally, we report an increased CCNB2 expression in human pituitary adenomas of different histotypes that is directly correlated with HMGA1 and HMGA2 expression.
  • Because cyclin B2 is involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, these results taken together indicate that HMGA-induced cyclin B2 overexpression gives an important contribution to experimental and human pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Cyclin B / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. HMGA1a Protein / physiology. HMGA2 Protein / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics


29. Brown RL, Muzzafar T, Wollman R, Weiss RE: A pituitary carcinoma secreting TSH and prolactin: a non-secreting adenoma gone awry. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 May;154(5):639-43
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  • [Title] A pituitary carcinoma secreting TSH and prolactin: a non-secreting adenoma gone awry.
  • To our knowledge, only one case of a TSH-secreting carcinoma has previously been reported.
  • We describe here a second patient with a pituitary carcinoma producing TSH and prolactin (PRL).
  • Except for mildly increased PRL and elevated alpha-subunit, hormone evaluation was normal.
  • Pathologic examination revealed a chromophobe adenoma with increased mitotic forms.
  • The patient completed a course of external beam radiation to the pituitary and was prescribed l-thyroxine, bromocriptine, and hydrocortisone.
  • Emergent resection of the larger mass revealed a pituitary cancer with positive staining for PRL, but not for TSH.
  • Nine months later, the patient underwent further debulking of metastatic disease.
  • Although development of a carcinoma from a pituitary adenoma is very rare (<0.5%), macroadenomas that become hormonally active should be suspect for transformation into pituitary cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16645009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK07011; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00055; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR18372
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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30. Ma ZM, Qiu B, Hou YH, Liu YS: [Gamma knife treatment for pituitary prolactinomas]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2006 Oct;31(5):714-6
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  • [Title] [Gamma knife treatment for pituitary prolactinomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of gamma knife for prolactinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Gamma knife radiosurgery can be used as a primary treatment for selected prolactinomas,especially for pituitary microadenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypophysectomy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactinoma / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 17062937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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31. Astaf'eva LI, Kadashev BA, Kalinin PL, Kutin MA, Faĭzullaev RB, Sidneva IuG, Tenedieva VD, Tropinskaia OF: [Selection of management tactics in treatment of giant prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko; 2009 Apr-Jun;(2):23-8; discussion 28-9
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  • [Title] [Selection of management tactics in treatment of giant prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas].
  • Surgical treatment of giant pituitary adenomas is one of the most complicated problems of modern neurosurgery.
  • Advances in modern pharmacology allowed to approach the alternative way of management of giant prolactinomas (GP).
  • Assessment of neurological status, visual functions, hypopituitary disorders and prolactin level was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19569545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8817
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal voprosy neĭrokhirurgii imeni N. N. Burdenko
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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32. De Martino I, Visone R, Palmieri D, Cappabianca P, Chieffi P, Forzati F, Barbieri A, Kruhoffer M, Lombardi G, Fusco A, Fedele M: The Mia/Cd-rap gene expression is downregulated by the high-mobility group A proteins in mouse pituitary adenomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):875-86
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  • [Title] The Mia/Cd-rap gene expression is downregulated by the high-mobility group A proteins in mouse pituitary adenomas.
  • These mice developed pituitary adenomas secreting prolactin and GH mainly due to an increased E2F1 activity, directly consequent to the HMGA2 overexpression.
  • To identify other genes involved in the process of pituitary tumorigenesis induced by the HMGA2 gene, in this study we have analyzed the gene expression profile of three HMGA2-pituitary adenomas in comparison with a pool of ten normal pituitary glands from control mice, using the Affymetrix MG MU11K oligonucleotide array representing approximately 13,000 unique genes.
  • We have identified 82 transcripts that increased and 72 transcripts that decreased at least four-fold in all the mice pituitary adenomas analyzed compared with normal pituitary glands.
  • Among these genes, we focused our attention on the Mia/Cd-rap gene, whose expression was essentially suppressed in all of the pituitary adenomas tested by the microarray.
  • In order to understand a possible role of Mia/Cd-rap in pituitary cell growth, we performed a colony assay in GH3 and GH4 cells.
  • Interestingly, Mia/Cd-rap expression inhibits their proliferation, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor role of Mia/Cd-rap in pituitary cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. HMGA Proteins / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Cluster Analysis. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Profiling. Mice. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Rats. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17914116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / HMGA Proteins; 0 / Mia1 protein, mouse
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33. Borodkin K, Ayalon L, Kanety H, Dagan Y: Dysregulation of circadian rhythms following prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenoma. Chronobiol Int; 2005;22(1):145-56
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  • [Title] Dysregulation of circadian rhythms following prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenoma.
  • A patient who developed an irregular sleep-wake pattern following prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenoma is described.
  • The dysregulation of circadian rhythms occurred concomitantly, but not beforehand, with the onset of pituitary disease, thus suggesting an association between the two phenomena.
  • This case also highlights the need to raise the awareness to circadian rhythm sleep disorders and to consider disruptions of sleep-wake cycle in patients with pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / metabolism. Circadian Rhythm. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Prolactin / secretion. Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm / complications

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  • (PMID = 15865328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / 5T32 MH18399-17
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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34. Corona G, Mannucci E, Jannini EA, Lotti F, Ricca V, Monami M, Boddi V, Bandini E, Balercia G, Forti G, Maggi M: Hypoprolactinemia: a new clinical syndrome in patients with sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med; 2009 May;6(5):1457-66
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  • INTRODUCTION: The physiological role of prolactin (PRL) in male sexual behavior is poorly understood.
  • Conversely, the association between PRL pathological elevation in both reproductive and sexual behavior is well defined.
  • AIM: The aim of the present study is to assess the correlates of normal PRL (PRL < 735 mU/L or 35 ng/mL), in male subjects consulting for sexual dysfunction.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Several hormonal (testosterone, thyroid stimulation hormone, and PRL) and biochemical parameters (glycemia and lipid profile) were studied, along with penile Doppler ultrasound (PDU) and SIEDY items.
  • RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders anxiety symptoms decreased across PRL quartiles (I: <113 mU/L or 5 ng/mL; II: 113-156 mU/L or 5.1-7 ng/mL; III: 157-229 mU/L or 7.1-11 ng/mL; IV: 229-734 mU/L or 11.1-34.9 ng/mL).
  • Patients in the lowest PRL quartile showed a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS; odds ratio [OR] = 1.74 [1.01-2.99], P < 0.05), arteriogenic ED (peak systolic velocity at PDU < 35 cm/sec; OR = 1.43 [1.01-2.03], P < 0.05), and premature ejaculation (PE; OR = 1.38 [1.02-1.85]; P < 0.05).
  • Conversely, comparing subjects with PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas (N = 13) with matched controls, no significant difference was observed, except for a higher prevalence of hypoactive sexual desire in hyperprolactinemia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that, in subjects consulting for sexual dysfunction, PRL in the lowest quartile levels are associated with MetS and arteriogenic ED, as well as with PE and anxiety symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prolactin / deficiency. Prolactinoma / complications. Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / blood. Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / etiology


35. Vera-Lastra O, Jara LJ, Medina G, Rojas JL, Veláquez F, Ariza R, Normandía A, Fuentes M: Functional hyperprolactinemia and hypophyseal microadenoma in systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol; 2006 Jun;33(6):1108-12
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  • However, the association with pituitary adenoma and the status of hypothalamic dopaminergic tone using metoclopramide (MTC) test has not been studied.
  • We investigated the prevalence of prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary adenoma and evaluated production of PRL by dynamic testing with MTC in SSc.
  • Serum PRL concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay in all subjects, and PRL response was measured 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after injection of 10 mg of MTC.
  • RESULTS: The mean basal serum PRL levels before and after stimulation with MTC in SSc patients versus controls were: basal 18.2 +/- 5.4 versus 8.7 +/- 1.6 ng/ml, p = NS; 30 min: 175.0 +/- 5.4 versus 61.0 +/- 42 ng/ml, p < 0.001; 60 min: 160 +/- 64 versus 52 +/- 30 ng/ml, p < 0.001; 90 min: 125 +/- 57 versus 42 +/- 21.0 ng/ml, p < 0.05; 120 min: 108.0 +/- 57 versus 30.0 +/- 10 ng/ml, p < 0.005.
  • PRL may have a role in the pathogenesis of SSc.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Hyperprolactinemia / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood. Scleroderma, Diffuse / blood. Scleroderma, Limited / blood


36. Pollock BE, Brown PD, Nippoldt TB, Young WF Jr: Pituitary tumor type affects the chance of biochemical remission after radiosurgery of hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. Neurosurgery; 2008 Jun;62(6):1271-6; discussion 1276-8
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  • [Title] Pituitary tumor type affects the chance of biochemical remission after radiosurgery of hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Reported biochemical remission rates have ranged widely after stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Confounding variables include histology, radiation dose, use of pituitary-suppressive medications, and length of follow-up.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 46 patients with pituitary adenomas (growth hormone-secreting, n = 27; prolactin-secreting, n = 11; adrenocorticotropin-secreting, n = 8) undergoing radiosurgery between January 1990 and December 2003 was conducted.
  • All received a tumor margin dose of 18 Gy or more and were off pituitary-suppressive medications for at least 1 month before radiosurgery.
  • RESULTS: The 4-year remission rates were 87% for patients with Cushing's disease, 67% for patients with acromegaly, and 18% for patients with prolactinomas.
  • Patients with oversecretion of adrenocorticotropin or growth hormone were more likely to achieve remission after radiosurgery than patients with prolactinomas (hazard ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-18.2; P = 0.04).
  • Of 44 patients with normal or partial anterior pituitary function before radiosurgery, 16 (36%) developed one or more new anterior pituitary deficits.
  • The incidence of new anterior pituitary deficits was 26% at 4 years.
  • CONCLUSION: There seems to be a differential sensitivity after radiosurgery for hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Remission rates are greater for patients with Cushing's disease and acromegaly, whereas radiosurgery is less effective in achieving biochemical remission for patients with prolactinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • [CommentIn] Neurosurgery. 2010 May;66(5):E1030; author reply E1030 [20404679.001]
  • (PMID = 18824993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones
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37. Altenberger T, Bilban M, Auer M, Knosp E, Wolfsberger S, Gartner W, Mineva I, Zielinski C, Wagner L, Luger A: Identification of DLK1 variants in pituitary- and neuroendocrine tumors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2006 Feb 17;340(3):995-1005
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  • [Title] Identification of DLK1 variants in pituitary- and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • In a gene chip analysis of common pituitary tumor types, one of the genes with the most impressive tissue-specific expression regulation was delta-like 1 (DLK1), which was strongly expressed in GH-secreting (GH-S) pituitary tumors.
  • In addition to pituitary adenomas, various endocrine tumors were subjected to real-time-quantitative PCR revealing high expression of DLK1 in normal pituitary tissue, in GH-S-, in one prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma and in pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Proteins / chemistry. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / biosynthesis. Repressor Proteins / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16403460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon, Terminator; 0 / DLK1 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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38. Scarone P, Losa M, Mortini P, Giovanelli M: Obstructive hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension caused by a giant macroprolactinoma. Prompt response to medical treatment. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jan;76(1):51-4
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  • Patients with large prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary adenoma often have symptoms due to varying degree of hypopituitarism and/or mass effect on visual structures, while presentation with hydrocephalus is extremely uncommon.
  • Clinical and radiological assessment led to the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a giant macroprolactinoma.
  • The same day, after we received the result of the basal PRL level, medical treatment with cabergoline was initiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / complications. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16205966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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39. Bergamaschi S, Ronchi CL, Giavoli C, Ferrante E, Verrua E, Ferrari DI, Lania A, Rusconi R, Spada A, Beck-Peccoz P: Eight-year follow-up of a child with a GH/prolactin-secreting adenoma: efficacy of pegvisomant therapy. Horm Res Paediatr; 2010;73(1):74-9
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  • [Title] Eight-year follow-up of a child with a GH/prolactin-secreting adenoma: efficacy of pegvisomant therapy.
  • Basal hormonal evaluation revealed elevated insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels (938 ng/ml, nv 40-190), prolactin (PRL) (98.0 ng/ml, nv 1.7-24.0) and mean growth hormone (GH) nocturnal concentration (147 ng/ml).
  • The adenoma was surgically removed and histological characterization confirmed the diagnosis of GH/PRL-secreting adenoma.
  • The patient was admitted to our Endocrine Unit when 7.9 years old, because of the persistence of elevated GH, IGF-I and PRL levels, although there was a slight height velocity reduction and absence of tumor recurrence.
  • Treatment with cabergoline was initiated, but only PRL levels normalized.
  • Other anterior pituitary functions were always normal.
  • To conclude, treatment of pituitary gigantism with pegvisomant was effective and well tolerated in a young giant unresponsive to combined cabergoline and octreotide treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20190543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1663-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research in pædiatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm Res Paediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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40. Palaoğlu S, Sungur A, Cila A, Ozdemir N, Ruacan S: Diethylstilbestrol-induced prolactinoma: dose-related tumor growth and effect of catecholaminergic cells on prolactin tumor cells. Surg Neurol; 2005;64 Suppl 2:S42-7
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  • [Title] Diethylstilbestrol-induced prolactinoma: dose-related tumor growth and effect of catecholaminergic cells on prolactin tumor cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Prolactinoma is a pituitary adenoma originating from prolactin-secreting epithelial cells of the adenohypophysis.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent of involvement of the dopaminergic dysregulation hypothesis of prolactinomas.
  • We transplanted, in rats, DES-induced prolactinoma cells into the adrenal medulla or under the renal capsule, two tissues rich and poor in catecholaminergic innervation, respectively.
  • METHODS: Prolactinoma was dose-dependently induced in ovariectomized female rats implanted with 10 and 20 mg DES, and tumor cells taken from prolactinoma induced by 20 mg DES were either transplanted under the renal capsule or into the adrenal medulla.
  • RESULTS: Although the adrenal medulla, with its high dopamine content to inhibit prolactin secretion, was devoid of any tumoral development, a significant tumoral development was evident under the renal capsule, seemingly because of no inhibitory control over prolactin secretion coexisting with the dopamine deficiency of the tissue.
  • Results are discussed for an alternatively possible regression and prevention of any relapse of prolactinoma, most possibly occurring because of tuberoinfundibular dopamine deficiency, by the implantation of another dopamine-rich tissue beside the tumoral mass.
  • CONCLUSION: Regression and prevention of any relapse of a tumoral outgrowth, most possibly occurring because of tuberoinfundibular dopamine deficiency, can well be alternatively achieved by the implantation of another dopamine-rich tissue beside the tumoral mass prolactinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Catecholamines / physiology. Kidney Cortex / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinogens / administration & dosage. Diethylstilbestrol / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Neoplasm Transplantation. Rats

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  • (PMID = 16256840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Catecholamines; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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41. Trivedi P, Gupta A, Pasricha S, Patel D: Malignant prolactinoma: a rare case report. Neurol India; 2010 Sep-Oct;58(5):778-80
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  • [Title] Malignant prolactinoma: a rare case report.
  • Pituitary carcinomas are rare adenohypophyseal tumors with cerebrospinal or extracranial metastasis.
  • None of the histologic findings distinguish pituitary adenoma from carcinoma.
  • We describe clinico-pathological and immunohistological features of malignant prolactinoma.
  • The patient initially presented with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • MIB-1 and p53 labeling indices were also compared in primary adenoma, recurrent invasive adenoma and metastatic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21045511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / MIB-1 antibody; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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42. Kimata-Hayashi N, Takano K, Yasufuku-Takano J, Teramoto A, Fujita T: Mechanism of adrenomedullin-induced prolactin release from human prolactin-releasing adenoma cells. Endocr J; 2005 Dec;52(6):769-73
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  • [Title] Mechanism of adrenomedullin-induced prolactin release from human prolactin-releasing adenoma cells.
  • The mechanism of adrenomedullin-induced prolactin release was investigated in prolactin-secreting human pituitary adenoma cells by intracellular calcium measurement and static incubation study.
  • Adrenomedullin stimulated prolactin release in a concentration-dependent manner.
  • PKA inhibitor attenuated adrenomedullin-induced prolactin release.
  • These data indicate that adrenomedullin stimulates prolactin release by modulating calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels dependently on extracellular sodium.
  • [MeSH-major] Peptides / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16410671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channels; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / protein kinase modulator; 148498-78-6 / Adrenomedullin; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium; TSN3DL106G / Fura-2
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43. Lania AG, Ferrero S, Pivonello R, Mantovani G, Peverelli E, Di Sarno A, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A, Colao A: Evolution of an aggressive prolactinoma into a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor coincident with GNAS gene mutation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jan;95(1):13-7
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  • [Title] Evolution of an aggressive prolactinoma into a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor coincident with GNAS gene mutation.
  • CONTEXT: Mixed PRL- and GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are relatively common because somatotrophs and lactotrophs share the common somato-mammotroph progenitor lineage.
  • Conversely, the occurrence of a prolactinoma evolving into clinically and biochemically active acromegaly is a rare phenomenon.
  • OBJECTIVE AND RESULTS: We report a patient with a prolactinoma who after 15 yr of disease control by bromocriptine became resistant to dopaminergic drugs and due to the rapid tumor growth was submitted to four neurosurgeries and two stereotactic radiotherapies in the subsequent 5 yr.
  • Although samples from the initial surgery were positive for prolactin and negative for GH, about 10% of GH-positive cells were detected in tissue from the last surgery, consistent with the observed clinical shift to acromegaly.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that 1)treatment of prolactinomas resistant to dopaminergic drugs is still a challenge, and 2) the appearance of gsp oncogene in a prolactinoma evolving into acromegaly might be the underlying mechanism of this rare transition, further confirming that this mutational change is associated with somatotroph growth and transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Mutation / physiology. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19890024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
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44. Cooper O, Geller JL, Melmed S: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome caused by an FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Apr;4(4):234-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome caused by an FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Laboratory evaluation included measurements of the levels of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free endogenous T4, the glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I.
  • Radiological studies included MRI of the pituitary.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome caused by a pituitary adenoma, secreting follicle-stimulating hormone.
  • MANAGEMENT: The patient underwent trans-sphenoidal resection of the adenoma, with subsequent normalization of hormonal values and symptoms.

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  • (PMID = 18268519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA75979; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007770; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007770-06A2; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK007770-06A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA075979-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075979; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075979-07
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS117705; NLM/ PMC2777809
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45. Okawara M, Yamaguchi H, Hayashi S, Matsumoto Y, Inoue Y, Okawara S: [A case of ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm mimicking pituitary apoplexy]. No Shinkei Geka; 2007 Dec;35(12):1169-74
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  • [Title] [A case of ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm mimicking pituitary apoplexy].
  • Nineteen years before, she had undergone a transsphenoidal surgery for a prolactin producing pituitary adenoma at our hospital without intraoperative arterial bleeding.
  • MRI revealed a pituitary tumor with intratumoral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage and subdural hemorrhage.
  • Her medical history and radiological findings suggested the rupture of a de novo aneurysm causing a hemorrhage into a pituitary adenoma mimicking pituitary apoplexy.
  • Because of rapid improvement of visual acuity, administration of terguride was chosen for shrinking the pituitary adenoma.
  • If a pituitary adenoma is present, the possibility of a coincidental aneurysm should always be considered.
  • This association should be kept in mind when evaluating any case of pituitary apoplexy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Artery Diseases / diagnosis. Carotid Artery, Internal. Intracranial Aneurysm / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Embolization, Therapeutic. Female. Humans. Lisuride / analogs & derivatives. Lisuride / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rupture, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 18080517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 21OJT43Q88 / dironyl; E0QN3D755O / Lisuride
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46. Astaf'eva LI, Kadashev BA, Kalinin PL, Kutin MA, Shkarubo AN, Fomichev DV, Faĭzullaev RB, Alekseev SN, Sidneva IuG, Tenedieva VD, Tropinskaia OF: [Clinical presentation, diagnostics and results of primary conservative treatment of large and giant prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko; 2008 Oct-Dec;(4):36-8; discussion 39
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  • [Title] [Clinical presentation, diagnostics and results of primary conservative treatment of large and giant prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas].
  • A prospective study of 55 patients with large and giant prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors receiving dopamine agonists as primary treatment was performed.
  • Statistically significant data were obtained indicating decrease of prolactin level, improvement of vision, normalization of sexual function and shrinking of the tumor.
  • Effectiveness and safety of dopamine agonists in patients with large and giant prolactinomas are proved.
  • [MeSH-major] Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactin / antagonists & inhibitors. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19230480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8817
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal voprosy neĭrokhirurgii imeni N. N. Burdenko
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ergolines; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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47. Tinnel BA, Henderson MA, Witt TC, Fakiris AJ, Worth RM, Des Rosiers PM, Edmondson JW, Timmerman RD, Lo SS: Endocrine response after gamma knife-based stereotactic radiosurgery for secretory pituitary adenoma. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg; 2008;86(5):292-6
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  • [Title] Endocrine response after gamma knife-based stereotactic radiosurgery for secretory pituitary adenoma.
  • PURPOSE: To examine treatment outcomes of Gamma Knife-based stereotactic radiosurgery (GK-based SRS) for secretory pituitary adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 25 patients were treated with GK-based SRS for secretory pituitary adenomas with >or=12 months of follow-up.
  • RESULTS: For prolactinomas, 2 of 4 patients (50%) showed normalization of serum prolactin at a mean time of 18 months.
  • One of 4 had a >or=50% decrease but still abnormal prolactin levels.
  • For adrenocorticotrophic hormone-secreting tumors, 6 of 12 patients (50%) showed normalization of their endocrine levels at a median of 10 months.
  • For growth hormone-secreting tumors, 4 of 9 patients (44%) showed normalization of endocrine levels at a median time of 30 months.
  • CONCLUSION: GK-based SRS provides a reasonable rate of endocrine normalization of secretory pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactin / blood. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18758206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0372
  • [Journal-full-title] Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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48. von Puttkamer J, Karges B, Wudy S, Wabitsch M: McCune-Albright syndrome with male premature pubarche of unusual origin. Horm Res; 2008;69(5):312-6
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  • Apart from fibrous dysplasia of the forehead and a growth hormone- and prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma, the boy presented with premature pubarche at the age of 6 years and 11 months.
  • This increased production might be due to an activating mutation of a hormone receptor in the zona reticularis of his adrenal glands leading to an increase in sulfotransferase activity and excessive DHEAS production.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / complications. Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / diagnosis. Puberty, Precocious / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adolescent. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18259112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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49. Mittelbronn M, Psaras T, Capper D, Meyermann R, Honegger J: ACTH- and prolactin-producing pituitary gland microadenoma with biphasic features of atypia and intermediate filament expression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2006 Feb-Apr;27(1-2):89-92
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  • [Title] ACTH- and prolactin-producing pituitary gland microadenoma with biphasic features of atypia and intermediate filament expression.
  • Herein, we report the case of a 28-year old woman clinically presenting with unclear weight gain over the last years.
  • Endocrinological examinations led to the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.
  • Histological and immunohistochemical investigations revealed a pituitary gland adenoma showing a biphasic tumor growth pattern with two morphologically different tumor areas producing ACTH and prolactin respectively.
  • Co-expression of ACTH and prolactin is exceedingly rare in pituitary adenoma.
  • To our surprise, both tumor areas exhibited features of atypia consisting in elevated MIB-1 proliferation index in the ACTH-producing portion as well as p53 expression selectively in the prolactin-producing tumor parts.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of an ACTH- and prolactin-producing pituitary gland adenoma exhibiting biphasic features of atypia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Prolactin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Pituitary Hormones / chemistry. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16648816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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50. Zylberberg D, Naliato EC, Sarmet A, Sato E, Costa FS, Violante AH: [IGF-1 plasma levels evaluation in prolactinoma]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2006 Sep;64(3B):849-54
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  • [Title] [IGF-1 plasma levels evaluation in prolactinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Avaliação plasmática de IGF-1 no prolactinoma.
  • Prolactinomas are the most frequent pituitary tumors and may co-secrete GH (growth hormone).
  • IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) is the main responsible for GH actions and a parameter for the diagnosis of acromegaly.
  • With the objective of identifying through a IGF-1 levels analysis, in the initial evaluation of prolactinoma patients, the existence of mixed tumors [GH and prolactin (PRL)], we studied 7 men and 27 women, aged between 19 and 72 years, confronting them with the results of basal and glucose stimulated (glucose tolerance test--GTT) GH levels, indicated when GH >0.4 ng/mL or IGF-1 levels were elevated.
  • However, we suggest that, they should be submitted to IGF-1 evaluation, due to the risk of GH co-secretion in prolactinomas.
  • Special attention should be paid to those who present a significant decrease of PRL levels without concomitant tumor size reduction.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood. Prolactinoma / blood

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  • (PMID = 17057896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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51. Mortini P, Losa M, Barzaghi R, Boari N, Giovanelli M: Results of transsphenoidal surgery in a large series of patients with pituitary adenoma. Neurosurgery; 2005 Jun;56(6):1222-33; discussion 1233
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  • [Title] Results of transsphenoidal surgery in a large series of patients with pituitary adenoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the efficacy and safety of microsurgical transsphenoidal surgery in a series of previously untreated patients with pituitary adenoma.
  • METHODS: One thousand one hundred forty consecutive patients undergoing transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma at our department from January 1990 through December 2002 were included in our study.
  • Patients were considered in remission of disease when strict hormonal and radiological criteria of cure were met.
  • RESULTS: The most frequent tumor type was clinically nonfunctioning adenoma (NFPA) (33.2%), followed by growth hormone-secreting adenoma (28.1%), adrenocorticotropin-secreting adenoma (23.0%), prolactin-secreting adenoma (13.2%), and last, thyrotropin-secreting adenoma (2.5%).
  • The overall rate of early surgical success was achieved in 504 (66.1%) of the 762 patients with a hormone-active adenoma.
  • In patients with NFPA, no residual adenoma was present in 234 patients (64.8%).
  • CONCLUSION: Transsphenoidal surgery is an effective and safe treatment for most patients with pituitary adenoma and could be considered the first-choice therapy in all cases except for prolactinomas responsive to dopamine agonists.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hypophysectomy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15918938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones
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52. Pawlikowski M, Gruszka A, Kurnatowska I, Winczyk K, Kunert-Radek J, Radek A: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in pituitary adenomas: relationship to the endocrine phenotype of adenoma. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2006;44(1):37-41
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  • [Title] Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in pituitary adenomas: relationship to the endocrine phenotype of adenoma.
  • The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) correlates to cell proliferation and for this reason it is commonly considered as one of proliferation markers.
  • Since proliferation rate is an important factor determining the tumor aggressiveness, the evaluation of PCNA index (the percentage of PCNA-immunopositive nuclei in the investigated tumor sample) is suggested as useful in predicting pituitary adenoma outcome.
  • Seventy three unselected, surgically removed pituitary adenomas were immunostained with antibodies against the pituitary hormones or their subunits and against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).
  • The highest PCNA index was found in ACTH-immunopositive tumors without the manifestation of the Cushing's disease ("silent" corticotropinomas).
  • This value was significantly different in comparison to other adenoma subtypes including corticotropinomas manifesting themselves by Cushing's disease.
  • The lowest PCNA index was noticed in monohormonal GH-secreting tumors.
  • The adenomas which express more than one hormone (plurihormonal adenomas) seem to have a higher PCNA indices than monohormonal ones; the difference was significant in the case of mono- and plurihormonal prolactinomas.
  • The recurrent tumors presented a higher mean PCNA index as compared to the primary tumors, although the difference was significant only in the case of prolactinomas.
  • These findings suggest that the proliferative potential of pituitary adenomas is related to the tumor recurrence and hormone expression.

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  • (PMID = 16584090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human; 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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53. Müssig K, Gallwitz B, Honegger J, Strasburger CJ, Bidlingmaier M, Machicao F, Bornemann A, Ranke MB, Häring HU, Petersenn S: Pegvisomant treatment in gigantism caused by a growth hormone-secreting giant pituitary adenoma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Mar;115(3):198-202
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  • [Title] Pegvisomant treatment in gigantism caused by a growth hormone-secreting giant pituitary adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Gigantism is rare with the majority of cases caused by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Treatment options for GH-secreting pituitary adenomas have been widened with the availability of long-acting dopamine agonists, depot preparations of somatostatin analogues, and recently the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant.
  • CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old male patient presented with continuous increase in height during the past 6 years due to a GH-secreting giant pituitary adenoma.
  • At immunohistochemistry, the tumour showed a marked expression of GH and a sparsely focal expression of prolactin.
  • CONCLUSION: Pegvisomant is a potent treatment option in patients with pituitary gigantism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / surgery. Gigantism / drug therapy. Gigantism / etiology. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17427111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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54. Ikeda H, Takayasu S: A growth hormone-secreting adenoma with incomplete nerve bundle formation. Neuropathology; 2008 Jun;28(3):317-21

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  • [Title] A growth hormone-secreting adenoma with incomplete nerve bundle formation.
  • We present a unique case of an adenoma secreting growth hormone (GH), showing incomplete nerve bundle formation without ganglion cells.
  • Histology revealed an unusual pituitary adenoma containing many nerve bundle-like structures.
  • Adenoma cells with ovoid or round hyperchromatic nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasms lacked the typical features of ganglion cells.
  • By immunohistochemistry, many adenoma cells were positive for GH, prolactin, thyrotropin beta, synaptophysin and chromogranin.
  • Fibrous bodies revealed by keratin immunostaining were found only in adenoma cells.
  • Scattered star-shaped adenoma cells showed the same immunoreactivity as folliculo-satellite cells.
  • Adenoma cells, but not the bundle-like structures, were also positive for Pit-1.
  • Our case is the first GH-secreting pituitary adenoma showing incomplete nerve bundle differentiation and lacking mature ganglion cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Neurons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18194142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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55. Franchini M, Lippi G, Manzato F, Vescovi PP, Targher G: Hemostatic abnormalities in endocrine and metabolic disorders. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Mar;162(3):439-51
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  • This review summarizes current knowledge of the effects of most frequent endocrine and metabolic diseases (such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, GH-related pituitary dysfunctions, pituitary prolactin-producing adenomas, polycystic ovary syndrome, primary hyperparathyroidism, and metabolic syndrome) on coagulation and fibrinolysis.
  • Globally, the disorders of coagulation and fibrinolysis usually range from mild to moderate, and, rarely, to severe laboratory abnormalities (for example, bleeding diathesis in overt hypothyroidism mainly due to an acquired von Willebrand's disease type 1).

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  • (PMID = 19934268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 150
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56. Schäffler A: [Treatment of pituitary gland hyperfunction: from acromegaly to prolactinoma]. Internist (Berl); 2006 Dec;47(12):1215-6, 1218-20, 1222
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  • [Title] [Treatment of pituitary gland hyperfunction: from acromegaly to prolactinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Therapie der Hypophysenüberfunktion: Von der Akromegalie zum Prolaktinom.
  • Evidence based drug therapy is currently available for the treatment of prolactinomas and growth hormone secreting adenomas (acromegaly).
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Hyperpituitarism / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17033781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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57. Elsässer Imboden PN, Gomez F: [Medical treatment of prolactinoma. Quo usque tandem..]. Rev Med Suisse; 2005 Feb 9;1(6):440-5
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  • [Title] [Medical treatment of prolactinoma. Quo usque tandem..].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement médical du prolactinome. Quo usque tandem...
  • Dopamine agonists are the first choice therapy for prolactinoma.
  • They decrease tumor secretion and volume, restore the gonadotropic axis, preserve the remaining pituitary functions, and correct the ophthalmologic symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15786649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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58. Muhr C: Positron emission tomography in acromegaly and other pituitary adenoma patients. Neuroendocrinology; 2006;83(3-4):205-10
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  • [Title] Positron emission tomography in acromegaly and other pituitary adenoma patients.
  • PROCEDURES: We have used PET in pituitary tumors for in vivo characterization with respect to metabolism, 11C-L-methionine and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, receptor properties, 11C-N-methylspiperone and 11C-raclopride, and monoamine oxidase B enzyme content, 11C-L-deprenyl; further, for diagnosing and outlining the tumors in differential diagnostic perspectives and in the follow-up of treatment.
  • OBSERVATIONS: 11C-raclopride, a specific dopamine antagonist, demonstrated high amounts of dopamine D2 binding in prolactinomas and some growth hormone-secreting adenomas.
  • When 11C-L-methionine and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose were used for metabolic mapping, the highest metabolic activity was found in the prolactinomas, which correlated well with the serum prolactin levels.
  • The growth hormone adenomas also showed high metabolic rates.
  • PET was also shown valuable in differential diagnosing between pituitary adenomas, meningiomas and skull base neuromas.
  • CONCLUSION: We have found PET to be highly valuable in the research and clinical handling of patients with a pituitary adenoma for in vivo tumor characterization.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Brain Mapping. Pituitary Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17047384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 430K3SOZ7G / Raclopride
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59. Lopes MB: Growth hormone-secreting adenomas: pathology and cell biology. Neurosurg Focus; 2010 Oct;29(4):E2

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  • [Title] Growth hormone-secreting adenomas: pathology and cell biology.
  • The majority of patients with acromegaly harbor a functioning growth hormone (GH) pituitary adenoma.
  • Growth hormone&#x2013;secreting adenomas correspond to about 20% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • From the histopathological point of view, a variety of adenomas may present with clinical signs and symptoms of GH hypersecretion including pure GH cell adenomas (densely and sparsely granulated GH adenomas), mixed GH and prolactin cell adenomas, and monomorphous adenomas with primitive cells able to secrete GH and prolactin including the acidophilic stem cell adenoma and the mammosomatotroph cell adenoma.
  • In this article, the author reviews the main pathological features of the GH-secreting adenomas and some of the molecular genetics mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / pathology. Acromegaly / physiopathology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / secretion. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Human Growth Hormone / physiology. Human Growth Hormone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Prolactin / physiology. Prolactin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 20887127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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60. Dunkley MJ, Reveley MA: Successful treatment of refractory schizophrenia with combined olanzapine and quetiapine in a patient with a prolactin secreting pituitary microadenoma. J Psychopharmacol; 2005 Jan;19(1):97-101
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of refractory schizophrenia with combined olanzapine and quetiapine in a patient with a prolactin secreting pituitary microadenoma.
  • Hyperprolactinaemia (elevation of serum prolactin levels) is a common side-effect of antipsychotics and one that it is especially important to minimize in patients with primary pituitary pathology.
  • We present a patient with treatment resistant schizophrenia and a prolactin-secreting microadenoma of the pituitary who was intolerant of clozapine therapy.
  • She was prescribed a combination of olanzapine and quetiapine and experienced almost complete resolution of her psychosis, with no elevation of serum prolactin levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / metabolism. Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzodiazepines / therapeutic use. Dibenzothiazepines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Prolactin / metabolism. Schizophrenia / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15671135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-8811
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Dibenzothiazepines; 12794-10-4 / Benzodiazepines; 132539-06-1 / olanzapine; 2S3PL1B6UJ / Quetiapine Fumarate; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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61. Musolino NR, Passos VQ: [Dopamine-agonist resistant prolactinomas: diagnosis and management]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):641-50
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  • [Title] [Dopamine-agonist resistant prolactinomas: diagnosis and management].
  • [Transliterated title] Prolactinomas resistentes a agonistas dopaminérgicos: diagnóstico e manejo.
  • Prolactinomas are the more prevalent functioning pituitary tumors, and dopamine agonist drugs (DA) are the main therapeutic option for patients harboring such tumors.
  • Bromocriptine (BRC) resistance, defined as failure to normalize prolactin (PRL) and/or to shrink the tumor is reported in 5 to 18% of the patients treated with this drug, the first DA widely used.
  • Cabergoline (CBG) can bring PRL to normalization and reduce tumor size in up to 86% and 92% of the patients, respectively.
  • The mechanisms for resistance are not yet fully clarified, so the treatment for the resistant prolactinoma is still a challenge.
  • Transsphenoidal surgery associated or not to radiotherapy is an important tool, but PRL may not normalize, mainly in macroprolactinomas.
  • New drugs as anti-estrogens, new DA, specific analogs for somatostatin receptor subtypes, chimeric molecules associating dopamine and somatostatin effect, and PRL antagonists are under investigation and can be future alternatives for DA resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16444347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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62. Losa M, Fortunato M, Molteni L, Peretti E, Mortini P: Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas: biological and molecular features, diagnosis and therapy. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Dec;33(4):329-40
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  • [Title] Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas: biological and molecular features, diagnosis and therapy.
  • Central hyperthyroidism due to a thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is a rare cause of hyperthyroidism, representing 0.5-1.0% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • The etiopathogenesis of TSH-secreting-adenomas is unknown and no definite role for various oncogenes has been proven.
  • Patients with TSH-secreting adenoma usually present with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism milder than those in patients with hyperthyroidism of thyroid origin, in addition to symptoms secondary to mass effects of the pituitary tumour.
  • Mixed pituitary tumours co-secrete growth hormone and prolactin.
  • Measurement of markers of peripheral thyroid hormone action and dynamic tests may aid in the differential diagnosis with the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone.
  • Neuroimaging is fundamental to visualize the pituitary tumor.
  • Therapy of TSH-secreting adenomas can be accomplished by surgery, radiation therapies, and medical treatment with somatostatin analogs or dopamine agonists.
  • Nowadays, and in contrast with the first reports on this rare disease, most patients are well controlled by current therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / therapy. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperthyroidism / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Prolactin / blood. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18923369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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63. Nociti V, Frisullo G, Tartaglione T, Patanella AK, Iorio R, Tonali PA, Batocchi AP: Multiple sclerosis attacks triggered by hyperprolactinemia. J Neurooncol; 2010 Jul;98(3):407-9
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  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T-cell autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS).
  • Predominance of women in autoimmune diseases suggests that sex hormones may play a role in disease susceptibility.
  • A possible role for prolactin, a neuroendocrine peptide with powerful immunomodulatory properties, is suggested in MS.
  • We describe the case of a 32-year-old man affected by relapsing-remitting MS who experienced the first MS clinical event during the development of a prolactin-secreting adenoma and the only two MS relapses during adenoma recurrence.
  • Prolactin may have facilitated the inflammatory process and triggered MS clinical attacks, suggesting a role of prolactin in immunomodulation and therefore in autoimmune disease course.

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  • (PMID = 19957009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Inguenault C, Capon-Degardin N, Martinot-Duquennoy V, Pellerin P: [Galactorrhea after mammary plastic surgery]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet; 2005 Apr;50(2):171-5
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  • However, it may reveal the presence of o prolactin secreting adenoma, as was the case with one of our patients.
  • When faced with postsurgical galactorrhoea, serum prolactin levels should be measured.
  • If serum prolactin levels exceed 150 ng/ml further investigation by way of an MRI of the sella turcica is advisable to rule out pituitary adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 15820605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0294-1260
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthétique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir Plast Esthet
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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65. Rix M, Laurberg P, Hoejberg AS, Brock-Jacobsen B: Pegvisomant therapy in pituitary gigantism: successful treatment in a 12-year-old girl. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Aug;153(2):195-201
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  • [Title] Pegvisomant therapy in pituitary gigantism: successful treatment in a 12-year-old girl.
  • OBJECTIVE: The use of a growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist, pegvisomant has shown great promise in adults with acromegaly, but experience in paediatric patients is lacking.
  • We aimed to describe the results of pegvisomant therapy in a 12-year-old girl with an aggressive GH-secreting pituitary tumour.
  • DESIGN: To evaluate the ability of pegvisomant therapy to control the effects of peripheral GH excess in a case of pituitary gigantism.
  • RESULTS: A large pituitary adenoma with suprasellar extension was diagnosed in a 12-year-old girl with progressive tall stature (178 cm), GH hypersecretion without suppression during oral glucose loading (nadir serum GH, 90 mU/l), high serum IGF-I and serum prolactin levels.
  • Histological examination showed a mixed GH- and prolactin-secreting adenoma with lymphocytic infiltration of B and T cells.
  • Treatment with a dopamine agonist, cabergoline, normalized serum prolactin, but GH secretion was resistant to both somatostatin analogue, octreotide and cabergoline.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that treatment in pituitary gigantism with pegvisomant is safe and may normalize IGF-I levels and effectively stop growing.

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  • (PMID = 16061823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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66. Noh SJ, Ahn JY, Lee KS, Kim SH: Pituitary adenoma and concomitant Rathke's cleft cyst. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007 Dec;149(12):1223-8
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenoma and concomitant Rathke's cleft cyst.
  • Although pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts have a shared ancestry, they rarely occur simultaneously.
  • Only 32 reports involving a pituitary adenoma and a concomitant Rathke's cleft cyst were identified upon review of the literature.
  • Next to growth hormone, Prolactin was the most commonly hypersecreted pituitary hormone.
  • Here, we report a patient with a growth hormone- secreting pituitary adenoma associated with a Rathke's cleft cyst.
  • When a non-enhancing cyst-like structure is demonstrated on imaging in a patient with a pituitary adenoma, the possibility of a coexisting Rathke's cleft cyst should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Central Nervous System Cysts / surgery. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neuronavigation. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17914599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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67. Fusco A, Gunz G, Jaquet P, Dufour H, Germanetti AL, Culler MD, Barlier A, Saveanu A: Somatostatinergic ligands in dopamine-sensitive and -resistant prolactinomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 May;158(5):595-603
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  • [Title] Somatostatinergic ligands in dopamine-sensitive and -resistant prolactinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Ten percent of patients with prolactinoma fail to respond with normalization of prolactin (PRL) and tumor shrinkage under dopamine agonist (DA) therapy.
  • Prolactinomas express somatostatin (SST) receptor subtypes, SSTR1, 2, and 5.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether different SST compounds could overcome the resistance to DA in prolactinomas.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: The efficacy of SSTR1, SSTR2, and SSTR5 ligands; the universal SST ligand, SOM230; and the chimeric SST-DA compound, BIM-23A760, was compared with cabergoline in suppressing PRL secretion from primary cultures of ten prolactinomas (six DA responders and four DA resistant).
  • The SSTR1 agonist, BIM-23926, did not suppress PRL in prolactinomas.
  • In a DA-resistant prolactinoma, it did not inhibit [(3)H]thymidine incorporation.
  • The SSTR5 compound, BIM-23206, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of PRL release similar to that of cabergoline in three DA-sensitive prolactinomas.
  • BIM-23A760 produced a maximal PRL inhibition superimposable to that obtained with cabergoline with a lower EC(50) (0.5+/-0.1 vs 2.5+/-1.5 pmol/l).
  • In DA-resistant prolactinomas, BIM-23206 and SOM230 were ineffective.
  • Cabergoline and BIM-23A760 produced a partial inhibition of PRL secretion (19+/-6 and 21+/-3% respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: Although the SSTRs are expressed in prolactinomas, the somatostatinergic ligands analyzed do not appear to be highly effective in suppressing PRL.
  • D2DR remains the primary target for effective treatment of prolactinomas.

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  • (PMID = 18426817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BIM 23926; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Ligands; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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68. Andrioli M, Pecori Giraldi F, Losa M, Terreni M, Invitti C, Cavagnini F: Cushing's disease due to double pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas: the first case report. Endocr J; 2010;57(9):833-7

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  • [Title] Cushing's disease due to double pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas: the first case report.
  • Double pituitary adenomas are rare occurrences in autoptical, surgical and neuroradiological series and are mostly due to non-functioning pituitary adenomas, GH-secreting and prolactin-secreting adenomas.
  • ACTH secreting tumours are more rare and, to our knowledge, two distinct ACTH-producing adenomas within the same pituitary have never been reported.
  • We herewith describe a 56 year old woman with Cushing' s disease due to two clearly distinct ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • She presented with signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism and hormonal testing was indicative for pituitary-dependent Cushing' s syndrome.
  • Sellar MRI visualized an asymmetric pituitary gland with suspect lesions in both the right and the left pituitary lobes.
  • Pathology confirmed the existence of two distinct adenomas located in different sites in the gland.
  • Our case indicates that double ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas may occur in patients with Cushing' s disease.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20595779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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69. Karavitaki N, Scheithauer BW, Watt J, Ansorge O, Moschopoulos M, Llaguno AV, Wass JA: Collision lesions of the sella: co-existence of craniopharyngioma with gonadotroph adenoma and of Rathke's cleft cyst with corticotroph adenoma. Pituitary; 2008;11(3):317-23
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  • [Title] Collision lesions of the sella: co-existence of craniopharyngioma with gonadotroph adenoma and of Rathke's cleft cyst with corticotroph adenoma.
  • Most contributions include a pituitary adenoma or a cyst/cystic tumor, particularly a Rathke cleft cyst.
  • The association of craniopharyngioma with an adenoma is particularly rare.
  • Among reported cases, some have included secondary prolactin cell hyperplasia due to pituitary stalk section effect.
  • Herein, we report two collision lesions, including a gonadotroph adenoma with adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and a corticotroph adenoma with Rathke's cleft cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / complications. Central Nervous System Cysts / complications. Corticotrophs / pathology. Craniopharyngioma / complications. Gonadotrophs / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Sella Turcica / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17917812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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70. Lee EJ, Ahn JY, Noh T, Kim SH, Kim TS, Kim SH: Tumor tissue identification in the pseudocapsule of pituitary adenoma: should the pseudocapsule be removed for total resection of pituitary adenoma? Neurosurgery; 2009 Mar;64(3 Suppl):ons62-9; discussion ons69-70
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  • [Title] Tumor tissue identification in the pseudocapsule of pituitary adenoma: should the pseudocapsule be removed for total resection of pituitary adenoma?
  • OBJECTIVE: The microsurgical pseudocapsule can be found in the transition zone between an adenoma and the surrounding normal pituitary tissue.
  • Furthermore, we evaluated the remission rate, the changes in pituitary function, and the recurrence rate after intensive resection of the pseudocapsule.
  • METHODS: In 616 patients with pituitary adenomas (Hardy Types I-III) over a period of 14 years, we introduced intensive resection of the microsurgical pseudocapsule to achieve complete tumor removal.
  • A combined pituitary function test and radiological study were performed on the patients before surgery, 1 year after surgery, and at subsequent 1.5-year intervals 2 to 13 years postoperatively.
  • The presence of a pseudocapsule was slightly more frequent in prolactin-secreting tumors (70.9%) than in growth hormone-secreting (55.0%) and adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting (40.0%) tumors.
  • In the 243 patients of the total resection group who underwent combined pituitary function tests more than 2 times after surgery, the surgical remission rate was 99.1% in clinically nonfunctional tumors, 88% in growth hormone-secreting, 70.6% in prolactin-secreting, and 100% in adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting tumors.
  • The surgical remission rate was 86.2% in the presence of a pseudocapsule and 94.3% in the absence of a pseudocapsule.
  • There was no statistical difference in improvement or deterioration of pituitary function according to the existence or absence of the pseudocapsule.
  • These results indicate that intensive resection of the pseudocapsule could result in a higher remission rate without deteriorating pituitary function.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Microsurgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Pituitary Function Tests. Postoperative Period. Prolactinoma / surgery. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19240574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Lévêque M, Dimitriu C, Gustin T, Jamart J, Gilliard C, Bojanowski MW: [Evaluation of neuro-oncology information for French speaking patients on the Internet]. Neurochirurgie; 2007 Nov;53(5):343-55
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  • [Transliterated title] Evaluation de l'information sur Internet destinée aux patients francophones en neuro-oncologie.
  • OBJECTIVE: Internet has become the first place where patients go to when seeking information about their disease.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We entered six key words "glioblastome", "méningiome", "métastase cérébrale", "neurinome de l'acoustique", "adénome à prolactine" and "lymphome primitif cérébral" into 2 different search engines and, for each key word, the first fifty websites were reviewed using the tool "DISCERN", and with the help of two neuro-oncologists, we rated their content in terms of quality and comprehension.

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  • (PMID = 17881014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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72. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Marek B, Szkróbka W: [Prolactinoma]. Przegl Lek; 2009;66(4):198-205
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  • [Title] [Prolactinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Gruczolak przysadki wydzielajacy prolaktyne.
  • Prolactin-secreting tumours (prolactinomas) are benign neoplasms constituting about 40 percent of all pituitary tumours.
  • The clinical symptoms of prolactinomas are menstrual dysfunction and galactorrhea in women and loss of libido and potency in men.
  • Differential diagnosis of the disease should include the intake of various drugs, hypothyroidism, renal failure, liver cirrhosis, compression of the pituitary stalk by other pathologies, idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and other types of pituitary adenomas.
  • The authors review the diagnosis and management of prolactinomas, including progress made in recent years.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Causality. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Iatrogenic Disease / epidemiology. Male. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / epidemiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Prevalence. Sex Distribution. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19708510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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73. Lebrun JJ: Activin, TGF-beta and menin in pituitary tumorigenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2009;668:69-78
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  • [Title] Activin, TGF-beta and menin in pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • Pituitary adenomas are common monoclonal neoplasms accounting for approximately one-fifth of primary intracranial tumors.
  • Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas (prolactinomas) are the most common form of pituitary tumors in humans.
  • They are associated with excessive release of the hormone prolactin and increased tumor growth, giving rise to severe endocrine disorders and serious clinical concerns for the patients.
  • Recent studies indicated that the activin/TGF-beta family of growth factors plays a prominent role in regulating pituitary tumor growth and prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary lactotrope cells.
  • Furthermore, these studies highlighted the tumor suppressor menin and the protein Smads as central regulators of these biological processes in the pituitary.
  • This chapter will review the role and intracellular molecular mechanisms of action by which activin, TGF-beta, Smads and menin act in concert to prevent pituitary tumor cell growth and control hormonal synthesis by the anterior pituitary.
  • [MeSH-major] Activins / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Prolactin / genetics. Prolactin / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Smad Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20175454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP-53141
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Smad Proteins; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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74. Yoshida D, Nomura R, Teramoto A: Signalling pathway mediated by CXCR7, an alternative chemokine receptor for stromal-cell derived factor-1α, in AtT20 mouse adrenocorticotrophic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma cells. J Neuroendocrinol; 2009 May;21(5):481-8
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  • [Title] Signalling pathway mediated by CXCR7, an alternative chemokine receptor for stromal-cell derived factor-1α, in AtT20 mouse adrenocorticotrophic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.
  • Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptor, CXCR4, have been identified in both neurones and glia of many brain areas.
  • Previous studies have mainly focused on the role of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and their possible involvement in the development of pituitary adenomas.
  • An alternative SDF-1 receptor, CXCR7, has recently been identified, but it has not been studied in the context of pituitary adenomas.
  • The present study aimed to investigate the distribution and function of CXCR7 in pituitary adenomas.
  • The expression of CXCR7, normalised to β-actin, was assessed by tissue microarray analysis of 62 adenomas, including 23 growth hormone (GH)-producing adenomas, 22 nonfunctioning adenomas, seven prolactin (PRL)-producing adenomas, six adrenocorticotrophic hormone-producing adenomas and four thyroid-stimulating hormone-producing adenomas.
  • In vitro functional studies used RNA interference (RNAi) and cDNA microarray analysis to evaluate the CXCR7 signalling pathway in AtT-20 mouse pituitary adenoma cells treated with recombinant mouse SDF-1α and transfected with RNAi against Cxcr7 or control RNAi.
  • In tissue microarray analysis, prominent expression of CXCR7 was observed in GH-producing adenomas and PRL-producing adenomas, and in macroadenomas (P < 0.05).
  • The present study demonstrates that the SDF-1α ⁄ CXCR7 signalling pathway regulates genes involved in cell cycle control, amino acid metabolism and ligase activity, which comprise targets that are distinct from those of CXCR4.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Chemokine CXCL12 / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Mice. Microarray Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19302186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Cmkor1 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, CXCR; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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75. Sicilia V, Earle J, Mezitis SG: Multiple ovarian cysts and oligomenorrhea as the initial manifestations of a gonadotropin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. Endocr Pract; 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):417-21
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  • [Title] Multiple ovarian cysts and oligomenorrhea as the initial manifestations of a gonadotropin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma, which manifested with oligomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and multiple bilateral ovarian cysts.
  • METHODS: We present a case report of a 29-year-old woman, including detailed laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings, who was diagnosed as having an FSH-secreting pituitary tumor.
  • Relevant laboratory data were as follows: serum FSH 6.8 mIU/mL, luteinizing hormone 0.1 mIU/mL, prolactin 67 ng/mL, human chorionic gonadotropin <2 mIU/mL, progesterone 3.5 ng/dL, estradiol 237 pg/mL, thyrotropin 1.8 microIU/mL, testosterone <4 ng/dL, insulin 8.0 microIU/mL, and fasting plasma glucose 87 mg/dL.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 2.5-cm pituitary mass, although the patient had no symptoms of pituitary dysfunction.
  • Transsphenoidal removal of the mass was performed, and pathology studies were positive for FSH-secreting adenoma.
  • Almost 3 years after treatment, the patient remained asymptomatic, results of pituitary function tests were normal, and follow-up MRI showed no signs of tumor regrowth.
  • CONCLUSION: Although very uncommon, gonadotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of new-onset oligomenorrhea and dysmenorrhea, especially if associated with multicystic ovaries on ultrasound study, even in the absence of elevated levels of serum gonadotropins.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropins / secretion. Oligomenorrhea / etiology. Ovarian Cysts / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adult. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / secretion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Luteinizing Hormone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16901798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadotropins; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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76. Naliato EC, Farias ML, Violante AH: [Prolactinomas and bone mineral density in men]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Apr;49(2):183-95
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  • [Title] [Prolactinomas and bone mineral density in men].
  • [Transliterated title] Prolactinomas e densidade mineral óssea em homens.
  • In this paper, we analyze aspects related to bone loss in men with hyperprolactinemia due to prolactinomas: prevalence, clinical relevance, physiopathology, diagnosis and the consequences of the treatment of hyperprolactinemia and hypogonadism on bone mineral density.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density. Hyperprolactinemia / complications. Osteoporosis / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prolactinoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 16184246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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77. Bussade I, Naliato EC, Mendonça LM, Violante AH, Farias ML: [Decreased bone mineral density in pre-menopause women with prolactinoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Dec;51(9):1522-7
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  • [Title] [Decreased bone mineral density in pre-menopause women with prolactinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Redução da densidade mineral óssea em mulheres na menacme com prolactinoma.
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy RX absorptiometry in 24 patients with prolactinoma (15 macro and 9 micro adenomas; age range = 18 to 49 years).
  • No difference was found in densitometric parameters for the comparison between macro and microprolactinoma, or those with normal prolactin versus hyperprolactinemia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Decreased bone mineral density was detected in 20.83% of our young patients with prolactinoma.
  • The great involvement of trabecular bone skeletal regions, such as vertebrae, suggests the participation of hypogonadism in the pathogenesis of bone disease.
  • Irrespective of prolactin levels, return to normal menses seems the best index of good control.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density / physiology. Hyperprolactinemia / physiopathology. Osteoporosis / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Premenopause / physiology. Prolactinoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18209896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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78. George JT, Thow JC, Matthews B, Pye MP, Jayagopal V: Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:67
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  • [Title] Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: a case report.
  • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism.
  • Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment.
  • Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation.TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 - 4.00 mU/L), Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 - 6.8 pmol/L) and Free T4 51(10-30 pmol/L).
  • Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal.
  • MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma.
  • TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered when evaluating the cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of such adenomas is critical in reducing neurological and endocrine complications.

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  • (PMID = 18307779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2270282
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79. Usui T, Izawa S, Sano T, Tagami T, Nagata D, Shimatsu A, Takahashi JA, Naruse M: Clinical and molecular features of a TSH-secreting pituitary microadenoma. Pituitary; 2005;8(2):127-34
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  • [Title] Clinical and molecular features of a TSH-secreting pituitary microadenoma.
  • We describe a case of a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary microadenoma, and report the systematic gene expression profile of the surgically- removed tumor.
  • A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because she had high TSH, free-T4, and free-T3 levels, and a pituitary tumor that was visualized with magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Her basal TSH level was high even after a high T3 loading dose, and increased following administration of thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) even after administration of a high dose of exogenous T3.
  • The patient was diagnosed with a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, and trans-sphenoid surgery was performed.
  • The histologic features and immunophenotype were consistent with a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of pituitary hormones, pituitary-specific transcription factors, receptors, and transcriptional cofactors of clinical significance was performed on the removed tumor.
  • The tumor expressed TSH, growth hormone, prolactin, alpha-subunit, pituitary transcription factor-1 (pit-1) but not proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prophet of pit-1 (prop-1) and pituitary cell-restricted T box factor (Tpit).
  • Somatostatin receptor type 1 expression was significantly decreased, whereas type 4 receptor was expressed, which are unusual characteristics for pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16379036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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80. Ptasińska-Wnuk D, Lawnicka H, Fryczak J, Kunert-Radek J, Pawlikowski M: Angiotensin peptides regulate angiogenic activity in rat anterior pituitary tumour cell cultures. Endokrynol Pol; 2007 Nov-Dec;58(6):478-86
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  • [Title] Angiotensin peptides regulate angiogenic activity in rat anterior pituitary tumour cell cultures.
  • VEGF is one of the crucial pro-angiogenic cytokines produced by the cells of many of the tumours examined, including various types of anterior pituitary adenomas.
  • Moreover, an association of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with oestrogen-induced vascular changes during the development of rat pituitary PRL-secreting adenoma has already been demonstrated.
  • The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro effects of angiotensin peptides (Ang II, Ang III and Ang IV) on the secretion of VEGF in two anterior pituitary adenoma cell cultures: the culture of the rat pituitary lactosomatotrope tumour cell line (GH3) and the primary culture of rat PRL-secreting tumour induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: GH3 and prolactinoma cells were cultured in an F10 and an F-12 medium respectively and then placed into 24 multiwell plates (10(5) of GH3 cells/well and 10(6) of rat prolactinoma cells/well).
  • RESULTS: The incubation of both GH3 cells and rat adenoma cells with Ang II, Ang III or Ang IV at concentrations of 10(-12) -10(-8)M resulted in a significant increase in VEGF concentration in the culture medium.
  • Exposure of GH3 cells to Ang III or Ang IV at concentrations of 10(-6)M led to a significant inhibition of cytokine release, and Pearson's correlation curve showed a tendency for Ang II at concentrations of more than 10(-6)M to inhibit VEGF secretion in primary prolactinoma cell culture.
  • The stimulatory influence of Ang II on VEGF secretion in GH3 cell culture was negated by losartan or by PD123319 in both concentrations tested.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ang II, Ang III and Ang IV affect the secretion of VEGF in cultures of the rat lactosomatotrope GH3 cell line and primary rat prolactinoma cells.
  • Both AT1 and AT2 receptors mediate the stimulatory action of Ang II on the cytokine release in GH3 cell culture.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Rats. Tumor Cells, Cultured / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18205103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensins; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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81. Tahir A, Chahal HS, Korbonits M: Molecular genetics of the aip gene in familial pituitary tumorigenesis. Prog Brain Res; 2010;182:229-53
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  • [Title] Molecular genetics of the aip gene in familial pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • Pituitary adenomas usually occur as sporadic tumors, but familial cases are now increasingly identified.
  • As opposed to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex, in familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) syndrome no other disease is associated with the familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas.
  • It is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete variable penetrance.
  • Patients with AIP mutations have an overwhelming predominance of somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas, which often present in childhood or young adulthood.
  • AIP, originally identified as a molecular co-chaperone of several nuclear receptors, is thought to act as a tumor suppressor gene; overexpression of wild-type, but not mutant AIP, reduces cell proliferation while knockdown of AIP stimulates it.
  • AIP is shown to bind various proteins, including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, Hsp90, phosphodiesterases, survivin, RET and the glucocorticoid receptor, but currently it is not clear which interaction has the leading role in pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • This chapter summarizes the available clinical and molecular data regarding the role of AIP in the pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Family Health. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Molecular Imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Humans. Male. Mutation / genetics. Pituitary Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20541668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-7855
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
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82. Brown RL, Wollman R, Weiss RE: Transformation of a pituitary macroadenoma into to a corticotropin-secreting carcinoma over 16 years. Endocr Pract; 2007 Sep;13(5):463-71
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  • [Title] Transformation of a pituitary macroadenoma into to a corticotropin-secreting carcinoma over 16 years.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of a pituitary macroadenoma that differentiated into a corticotropin (ACTH)-secreting carcinoma with metastasis to the thigh.
  • METHODS: We present a case report with a 16-year follow-up that includes anatomic and endocrine documentation of the history of an ACTH-secreting carcinoma.
  • The patient underwent surgical debulking followed by a course of radiation directed to the pituitary.
  • Results from retrospective immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against ACTH, prolactin, and MIB-1 were negative.
  • Biopsy results of the obturator muscle revealed metastatic tumor of neuroendocrine origin with strong reactivity to ACTH antibodies and MIB-1 labeling in 8% of tumor cell nuclei.
  • CONCLUSION: A pituitary tumor can transform into an ACTH-secreting carcinoma in an indolent manner.
  • Patients with invasive pituitary adenomas require long-term surveillance to monitor for differentiation into pituitary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / secretion. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Radiosurgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17872347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK07011; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00055; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR18372
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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83. Mancini T, Casanueva FF, Giustina A: Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Mar;37(1):67-99, viii
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  • [Title] Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas.
  • Any process interfering with dopamine synthesis, its transport to the pituitary gland, or its action at the level of lactotroph dopamine receptors can cause hyperprolactinemia.
  • As described in this article, considering the complexity of prolactin regulation, many factors could cause hyperprolactinemia, and hyperprolactinemia can have clinical effects not only on the reproductive axis.
  • Once any drug effects are excluded, prolactinomas are the most common cause of hyperprolactinemia.
  • Medical and surgical therapies generally have excellent results, and most prolactinomas are well controlled or even cured in some cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18226731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine
  • [Number-of-references] 189
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84. Chahal HS, Chapple JP, Frohman LA, Grossman AB, Korbonits M: Clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of patients with familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jul;21(7):419-27
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  • [Title] Clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of patients with familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA).
  • Familial pituitary adenomas can occur in MEN1 and Carney complex, as well as in the recently characterized familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) syndrome.
  • FIPA is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance, characterized by early-onset disease, often aggressive tumor growth and a predominance of somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20570174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3061
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0701307
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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85. Bangash MH, Clarke DB, Holness RO: Brain & chiasmal herniations into sella after medical treatment of prolactinoma. Can J Neurol Sci; 2006 May;33(2):240-2
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  • [Title] Brain & chiasmal herniations into sella after medical treatment of prolactinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Dopamine agonists are widely used in the treatment of pituitary prolactinomas.
  • We report a case of inferior mesial frontal lobe (gyrus rectus) and chiasmal herniations into an enlarged sella following successful medical treatment of a pituitary macroadenoma.
  • Endocrine evaluation revealed an elevated prolactin level.
  • Serum prolactin levels normalized (5.16 ng/ml).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report a case where successful medical treatment of a large pituitary prolactinoma has resulted in inferior frontal lobe and chiasmal herniatons into an enlarged sella.
  • [MeSH-major] Encephalocele / etiology. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Prolactinoma / surgery. Sella Turcica / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Frontal Lobe / injuries. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Hemianopsia / diagnosis. Hemianopsia / etiology. Hemianopsia / physiopathology. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Optic Chiasm / injuries. Optic Chiasm / pathology. Prolactin / antagonists & inhibitors. Prolactin / blood

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  • (PMID = 16736739.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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86. Raica M, Coculescu M, Cimpean AM, Ribatti D: Endocrine gland derived-VEGF is down-regulated in human pituitary adenoma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Oct;30(10):3981-6
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  • [Title] Endocrine gland derived-VEGF is down-regulated in human pituitary adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is an angiogenic molecule restricted to endocrine glands and, particularly, to steroid-secreting cells.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated by immunohistochemistry the expression of EG-VEGF in 2 samples of normal adenohypophysis and 43 bioptic samples of pituitary adenoma.
  • Moreover, the expression of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticoprophic hormone (ACTH) were also estimated.
  • RESULTS: The results of this study for the first time demonstrate a down-regulation of EG-VEGF expression in human pituitary adenoma as compared to normal adenohypophysis, suggesting an impaired function of the neoplastic cells in terms of hormone release in the blood stream, as a consequence of impaired tumor angiogenesis in the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: On the basis of our data showing a marked decrease in the expression of EG-VEGF in pituitary adenoma, with the exception of LH-secreting adenomas, we suggest that LH might be involved in the induction of EG-VEGF secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Endocrine-Gland-Derived / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Down-Regulation. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / biosynthesis. Human Growth Hormone / biosynthesis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Luteinizing Hormone / biosynthesis. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. Prolactin / biosynthesis. Thyrotropin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 21036711.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Endocrine-Gland-Derived; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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87. Yoshida D, Koketshu K, Nomura R, Teramoto A: The CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 suppresses hypoxia-mediated growth hormone production in GH3 rat pituitary adenoma cells. J Neurooncol; 2010 Oct;100(1):51-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 suppresses hypoxia-mediated growth hormone production in GH3 rat pituitary adenoma cells.
  • Pituitary adenomas produce the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1α/CXCL12) and its receptor, CXCR4.
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the molecular mechanism of hypoxia-mediated CXCR4 up-regulation and assess the effect of pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 by the receptor blocker, AMD3100, on pituitary function.
  • CXCR4 expression in pituitary adenoma tissues was determined by a tissue microarray analysis of 62 pituitary adenoma samples.
  • CXCR4 expression was significantly elevated and positively correlated with Knosp grade in pituitary adenomas (P < 0.005), and was higher in macroadenoma and growth hormone (GH)-producing adenomas.
  • The relative expression of genes/gene categories that were modulated by up-regulated CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling was determined by a comparative transcriptome analysis of wild-type and CXCR4-knockdown cells in normoxia and hypoxia using the rat GH-producing and prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma cell line, GH3.
  • Because it blocks CXCR4 and prevents hypoxia-induced down-regulation of inhibin β-C expression, AMD3100 has promise as a molecular-targeting agent in the treatment of GH-producing adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Hypoxia / drug effects. Cell Hypoxia / physiology. Growth Hormone / metabolism. Heterocyclic Compounds / pharmacology. Receptors, CXCR4 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Chemokine CXCL12 / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Rats. Statistics as Topic. beta Carotene / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20309720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Heterocyclic Compounds; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 01YAE03M7J / beta Carotene; 155148-31-5 / JM 3100; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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88. Vilar L, Czepielewsk MA, Naves LA, Rollin GA, Casulari LA, Coelho CE: Substantial shrinkage of adenomas cosecreting growth hormone and prolactin with use of cabergoline therapy. Endocr Pract; 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):396-402
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  • [Title] Substantial shrinkage of adenomas cosecreting growth hormone and prolactin with use of cabergoline therapy.
  • RESULTS: A 48-year-old man (case 1) and a 26-year-old woman (case 2) were found to have acromegaly associated with very high levels of serum prolactin (2,700 and 5,250 ng/mL, respectively).
  • These patients received first line therapy with cabergoline that resulted not only in clinical improvement and normalization of growth hormone, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels but also in a substantial reduction in the size of their somatotroph macroadenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that cabergoline should be considered for medical treatment of adenomas cosecreting growth hormone and prolactin, even in the presence of large tumors with appreciable suprasellar extension, because substantial tumor shrinkage is possible with this therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Ergolines / administration & dosage. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17669717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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89. Tateno T, Kato M, Tani Y, Oyama K, Yamada S, Hirata Y: Differential expression of somatostatin and dopamine receptor subtype genes in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumors and silent corticotroph adenomas. Endocr J; 2009;56(4):579-84
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  • [Title] Differential expression of somatostatin and dopamine receptor subtype genes in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumors and silent corticotroph adenomas.
  • Somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists are clinically used for medical therapy of functioning pituitary tumors, such as growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting tumors, however, their effects on ACTH-secreting tumors are controversial.
  • This study was aimed to determine whether somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtype (1-5) and dopamine receptor type 2 (D2R) are differentially expressed in pituitary tumors causing Cushing's disease (CD), silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA), and non-functioning pituitary tumor (NFT).
  • Tissue specimens were obtained from 35 pituitary tumors during transsphenoidal surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19318729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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90. Akkaya C, Kaya B, Kotan Z, Sarandol A, Ersoy C, Kirli S: Hyperprolactinemia and possibly related development of prolactinoma during amisulpride treatment; three cases. J Psychopharmacol; 2009 Aug;23(6):723-6
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  • [Title] Hyperprolactinemia and possibly related development of prolactinoma during amisulpride treatment; three cases.
  • Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychotic mental disorder that affects about 1% of the world's population.
  • Antipsychotics may enhance prolactinoma growth as manifested by an increase in serum prolactin concentration.
  • Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas possibly related with antipsychotics have been described in the literature.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first series of cases showing a possible relation between pituitary adenomas and amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects. Hyperprolactinemia / chemically induced. Pituitary Neoplasms / chemically induced. Prolactinoma / chemically induced. Sulpiride / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prolactin / blood. Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Schizophrenia / complications. Schizophrenia / drug therapy. Schizophrenic Psychology

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  • (PMID = 18562408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-8811
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 7MNE9M8287 / Sulpiride; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; AA0G3TW31W / sultopride
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91. Botelho CH, Magalhães AV, Mello PA, Schmitt FC, Casulari LA: Expression of p53, Ki-67 and c-erb B2 in growth hormone-and/or prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2006 Mar;64(1):60-6
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  • [Title] Expression of p53, Ki-67 and c-erb B2 in growth hormone-and/or prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • The subcellular events implicated on the formation and behavior of pituitary adenomas are not fully understood.
  • In this study we investigated the presence of p53, Ki-67 and c-erb B2 in 38 pituitary adenomas with immunohistochemical positivity for GH and prolactin (n=26; 68.4%), for prolactin (n=9; 23.7%) and for GH (n=3. 7.8%).
  • Our results demonstrated a high percentage of GH/prolactin-, prolactin- and GH-secreting tumors with immunohistochemical positivity for c-erb B2.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone / secretion. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16622555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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92. Dinc C, Bikmaz K, Iplikcioglu AC, Kosdere S, Latifaci I: Cystic giant prolactinoma in childhood. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Jan;15(1):76-9
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  • [Title] Cystic giant prolactinoma in childhood.
  • In childhood and adolescence, pituitary adenomas are rare and half are prolactinomas.
  • However, cystic giant prolactinoma in prepuberty is extremely rare.
  • In this report, we present a 10-year-old boy with a cystic giant prolactinoma who was treated with two-stage surgery as the tumor was dumbbell shaped.
  • To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of a cystic giant prolactinoma in a prepubertal child.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts. Pituitary Neoplasms. Prolactinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prolactin / secretion. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18042387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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93. Thodou E, Kontogeorgos G, Theodossiou D, Pateraki M: Mapping of somatostatin receptor types in GH or/and PRL producing pituitary adenomas. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Mar;59(3):274-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mapping of somatostatin receptor types in GH or/and PRL producing pituitary adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Somatostatin is a tetradecapeptide exerting inhibitory action on endocrine and exocrine cell secretion and proliferation.
  • Using immunohistochemistry, the expression of SST(1), SST(2A), SST(2B), SST(3), SST(4), and SST(5) was studied in tissue microarrays (TMAs), using a series of 90 human pituitary adenomas producing growth hormone and/or prolactin, including 30 of each somatotroph, lactotroph, and mixed somatotroph/lactotroph adenoma type.
  • SST(5) and SST(2A) were the predominant receptors, showing strong expression in high frequency in all three adenoma types.
  • Strong expression of SST(1) was higher in lactotroph adenomas than in other tumour types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Pituitary Neoplasms / chemistry. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Female. Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Prolactinoma / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16505278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor subtype-4; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860351
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94. Barzaghi LR, Losa M, Giovanelli M, Mortini P: Complications of transsphenoidal surgery in patients with pituitary adenoma: experience at a single centre. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007;149(9):877-85; discussion 885-6
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  • [Title] Complications of transsphenoidal surgery in patients with pituitary adenoma: experience at a single centre.
  • OBJECTIVE: This paper reports the complications of transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas in a series of 1240 consecutive patients operated at our Institute between 1990 and 2004 (first operations) and indicate the clinical characteristics of patients which affected surgical morbidity and mortality.
  • METHODS: According to tumour type, there were 420 (33.9%) non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), 349 (28.1%) GH-secreting, 288 (23.2%) ACTH-secreting, 155 (12.5%) prolactin (PRL)-secreting, and 28 (2.3%) TSH-secreting adenomas.
  • There were 370 (29.8%) microadenomas and 870 (70.2%) macroadenomas of which 54 (4.4%) were giant adenomas.
  • Medical complications were significantly more frequent in patients older than 65 yr (4.9 vs. 1.4%; p = 0.009) and in patients with giant adenomas (5.6 vs. 1.6%; p = 0.03).
  • The surgical morbidity was increased in giant adenomas (15 vs. 3%; p = 0.0001), in NFPA (6.2 vs. 2.1% in secreting adenomas; p = 0.0002) and in patients older than 65 yr (6.6 vs. 3.1%; p = 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, the size of the adenoma was a risk factor for medical and surgery related complications and age over 65 yr for medical complications alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Sphenoid Bone / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17616842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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95. Schlechte JA: Long-term management of prolactinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Aug;92(8):2861-5
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  • [Title] Long-term management of prolactinomas.
  • Prolactinomas are a frequent cause of gonadal dysfunction and infertility, especially in young women.
  • The regulation of prolactin secretion and the efficacy of dopamine agonists in the therapy of prolactinomas are well established.
  • The current challenges in management of prolactinomas are related to follow-up after successful therapy.
  • Issues and questions to be addressed in this approach to long-term management of prolactinomas include the frequency of radiographic monitoring, effect of pregnancy and menopause, safety of estrogen in women taking oral contraceptives, and the potential for discontinuation of dopamine agonist therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17682084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Estrogens
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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96. Console GM, Herenu CB, Camihort GA, Luna GC, Bracamonte MI, Morel GR, Goya RG: Insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy reverses morphologic changes and reduces hyperprolactinemia in experimental rat prolactinomas. Mol Cancer; 2008;7:13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy reverses morphologic changes and reduces hyperprolactinemia in experimental rat prolactinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: The implementation of gene therapy for the treatment of pituitary tumors emerges as a promising complement to surgery and may have distinct advantages over radiotherapy for this type of tumors.
  • Up to now, suicide gene therapy has been the main experimental approach explored to treat experimental pituitary tumors.
  • In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene therapy for the treatment of estrogen-induced prolactinomas in rats.
  • RESULTS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously implanted with silastic capsules filled with 17-beta estradiol (E2) in order to induce pituitary prolactinomas.
  • Blood samples were taken at regular intervals in order to measure serum prolactin (PRL).
  • As expected, serum PRL increased progressively and 23 days after implanting the E2 capsules (Experimental day 0), circulating PRL had undergone a 3-4 fold increase.
  • Seven days post vector injection all animals were sacrificed and their pituitaries morphometrically analyzed to evaluate changes in the lactotroph population.
  • RAd-IGFI but not RAd-GFP, induced a significant fall in serum PRL.
  • Furthermore, RAd-IGFI but not RAd-GFP significantly reversed the increase in lactotroph size (CS) and volume density (VD) induced by E2 treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that IGF-I gene therapy constitutes a potentially useful intervention for the treatment of prolactinomas and that bioactive peptide gene delivery may open novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Therapy. Hyperprolactinemia / pathology. Hyperprolactinemia / therapy. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / therapeutic use. Prolactinoma / pathology. Prolactinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Size. Female. Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism. Lactotrophs / pathology. Prolactin / blood. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Thymidine Kinase / metabolism. Transgenes

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  • (PMID = 18218140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2263076
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97. Gul S, Bahadir B, Dusak A, Kalayci M, Edebali N, Acikgoz B: Spherical amyloid deposition in a prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. Neuropathology; 2009 Feb;29(1):81-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spherical amyloid deposition in a prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • MRI demonstrated a mass arising from the pituitary gland.
  • Hormonal analysis revealed an elevated prolactin level of 4700 ng/mL (normal 4.04-15.2 ng/mL).
  • The patient underwent trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma.
  • Histological examination revealed an adenoma with spheroid amyloid deposits adjacent to prolactin-staining adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Amyloid / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Birefringence. Congo Red. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Hormones, Anterior / metabolism. Prolactin / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Neuropathology. 2009 Apr;29(2):208
  • (PMID = 18498287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid; 0 / Pituitary Hormones, Anterior; 3U05FHG59S / Congo Red; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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98. Nasr C, Mason A, Mayberg M, Staugaitis SM, Asa SL: Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Dec;91(12):4776-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma.
  • Hypothalamic gangliocytomas producing GHRH are also known to be associated with pituitary adenomas causing acromegaly.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe a case of acromegaly due to a pulmonary GHRH-secreting endocrine carcinoma with metastasis to the pituitary gland and to look at the peculiar histological features of this case.
  • Her disease was clinically stable for 7 yr until she developed bitemporal hemianopia.
  • RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain confirmed the presence of a 2.6-cm lesion within the sella turcica extending above the sella and compressing the optic chiasm.
  • Endocrine studies showed elevated serum levels of GH, prolactin, alpha-subunit of glycoprotein hormones, IGF-I, chromogranin A, and GHRH.
  • Histological examination confirmed metastatic endocrine carcinoma to the pituitary, and immunohistochemistry localized GHRH to the tumor cells.
  • The adjacent pituitary exhibited somatotroph hyperplasia with abundant reactivity for GH and alpha-subunit.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a GHRH-producing endocrine tumor metastasizing to the pituitary and causing local hyperstimulation with somatotroph hyperplasia and adenomatous transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / etiology. Carcinoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Somatotrophs / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16968791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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99. Kars M, Dekkers OM, Pereira AM, Romijn JA: Update in prolactinomas. Neth J Med; 2010 Mar;68(3):104-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Update in prolactinomas.
  • Prolactinomas are a frequent cause of gonadal dysfunction and infertility, especially in women.
  • Dopamine agonists are first-line therapy and their efficacy in the treatment of prolactinomas is well established.
  • Current challenges related to the management of prolactinomas remain in the recurrence of the disease after withdrawal of dopamine agonists, the potential of increased risk of cardiac valvulopathy, which is observed in patients treated with high-dose cabergoline for Parkinson's disease, the effects of pregnancy, and impaired quality of life associated with pituitary adenomas in general, and prolactinomas in particular.
  • Although most prolactinomas are biochemically well controlled by pharmaceutical treatment, long-term follow-up is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20308704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9061
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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100. Hong JW, Lee MK, Kim SH, Lee EJ: Discrimination of prolactinoma from hyperprolactinemic non-functioning adenoma. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):140-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Discrimination of prolactinoma from hyperprolactinemic non-functioning adenoma.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate characteristics that discriminate prolactinoma from non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma with hyperprolactinemia.
  • We included 117 patients with hyperprolactinemic pituitary macroadenomas.
  • Patients were divided into three groups according to treatment outcomes and pathologic results: (A) prolactinoma that responded to dopamine agonist (DA) treatment (PRDA);.
  • (B) prolactinoma requiring surgical treatment (PRS); and (C) non-functioning pituitary adenoma with hyperprolactinemia (NFPAH).
  • Old age, low serum prolactin levels, and extrasellar extension were associated with NFPAH.
  • Most patients with NFPAH had serum prolactin levels less than 100 ng/ml.
  • In conclusion, old age, extrasellar tumor extension with relatively low prolactin levels, visual defect, and GH deficiency were considered suggestive of non-functioning pituitary adenoma rather than prolactinoma in hyperprolactinemic pituitary macroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperprolactinemia / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aging. Amenorrhea. Decision Trees. Diagnosis, Differential. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Galactorrhea. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prolactin / blood. Retrospective Studies. Sella Turcica. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20963563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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