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1. Harvey AM, Hibbert A, Barrett EL, Day MJ, Quiggin AV, Brannan RM, Caney SM: Scintigraphic findings in 120 hyperthyroid cats. J Feline Med Surg; 2009 Feb;11(2):96-106
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  • The aim of this study was to characterise the scintigraphic findings in a large population of hyperthyroid cats in order to determine the location of thyroid pathology in newly diagnosed hyperthyroid cats and those that had previously undergone thyroidectomy.
  • A specific aim was to identify the proportion of cats with ectopic hyperfunctional thyroid tissue and characterise the scintigraphic and clinical features of this subset of cats.
  • Nearly one in five hyperthyroid cats was identified to have multiple areas of hyperfunctional thyroid tissue and/or intrathoracic hyperfunctional thyroid tissue where surgical thyroidectomy would not be curative.
  • In addition, this study demonstrated that scintigraphy cannot reliably distinguish between thyroid carcinoma and adenoma.
  • Owners should always be warned about the possibility of ectopic thyroid tissue before thyroidectomy is performed.
  • In this study, intrathoracic hyperfunctional thyroid tissue and multiple areas of increased radionuclide uptake (IRU) were a common feature of benign thyroid disease and responded well to treatment with low dose radioiodine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Choristoma / radionuclide imaging. Choristoma / veterinary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Great Britain. Iodine Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Male. Thyroid Gland. Thyroidectomy / veterinary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18783974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-612X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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2. Târcoveanu E, Moldovanu R, Georgescu S, Niculescu D, Lupaşcu C, Dimofte G: [Pancreatic endocrine tumors]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2006 Mar-Apr;101(2):175-81
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  • In the four cases of insulinoma (all females) the diagnosis was delayed by two to five years due to misinterpretation of neurological symptoms generated by hypoglycemia.
  • The diagnosis of insulinoma was based on Whipple triad, high plasma insulin levels associated with low plasma glucose levels, as well as the symptomatic relief after intravenous glucose injection.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed on pathological examination in all cases.
  • Both patients died and diagnosis of pancreatic endocrine tumors was post-mortem.
  • The two patients with Wermer syndrome also had ulcers complicated with haemorrhage and peritonitis and parathyroid adenoma.
  • One case also had ante-hypophyseal and pituitary adenoma and the other had thyroid colloid hypertrophy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Pancreatectomy. Retrospective Studies. Romania. Splenectomy. Survival Analysis. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16752684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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3. Namasivayam S, Salman K, Mittal PK, Martin D, Small WC: Hypervascular hepatic focal lesions: spectrum of imaging features. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2007 May-Jun;36(3):107-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Common hypervascular liver lesions include hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, and metastases from primary tumors such as islet cell tumor, carcinoid, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hemangioendothelioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma. Humans. Liver / blood supply. Liver Cirrhosis / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Portal Vein / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17484954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-0188
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Opherk IV, Gutt B, Volz S, Siegmund T, Schumm-Draeger PM: [A 46-year-old patient with atrial fibrillation, elevated thyroid hormones and normal thyrotropine]. Internist (Berl); 2010 Mar;51(3):397-8, 400-1
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  • [Title] [A 46-year-old patient with atrial fibrillation, elevated thyroid hormones and normal thyrotropine].
  • Diagnostic evaluation showed elevated free peripheral thyroid hormone levels and thyrotropine (TSH) hormone within normal limits.
  • Ultrasound of the thyroid was normal, and thyroid autoantibodies were found in the normal range.
  • There was a positive family history for thyroid dysfunction.
  • TSH-producing adenoma (TSHoma) of the pituitary gland - the main differential diagnosis - was excluded by cranial MRI and laboratory tests.
  • Familial thyroid hormone resistance (Refetoff syndrome) was suspected and could be confirmed by detection of a pathogenic mutation within the beta-thyroidhormone receptor gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Atrial Fibrillation / diagnosis. Atrial Fibrillation / etiology. Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome / complications. Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome / diagnosis. Thyroid Hormones / blood. Thyroxine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] Ann Clin Biochem. 2006 Nov;43(Pt 6):431-40 [17132274.001]
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  • (PMID = 19902155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1289
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 21R0Z63YKK / thyroxamine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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5. Alexandrides TK, Kouloubi K, Vagenakis AG, Yarmenitis S, Spyridonidis T, Vassilakos P, Apostolopoulos D: The value of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative localization of parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and concomitant thyroid disease. Hormones (Athens); 2006 Jan-Mar;5(1):42-51
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  • [Title] The value of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative localization of parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and concomitant thyroid disease.
  • However, when thyroid disease coexists, their diagnostic accuracy is probably abated.
  • RESULTS: 33 patients (59%) had coexistent thyroid disease.
  • Upon operation, 48 patients were found to have a solitary parathyroid adenoma and were all cured.
  • Concomitant thyroid disease had a non-significant effect on the results of parathyroid scintigraphy and ultrasonography.
  • Ultrasonography is also useful in confirming scintigraphic findings, offers more precise anatomic information, and is valuable in the evaluation of concomitant thyroid disease.
  • The complementary use of parathyroid scintigraphy and ultrasonography is beneficial and efficacious in areas with high prevalence of thyroid disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Preoperative Care. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Technetium. Thallium

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  • (PMID = 16728384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7440-26-8 / Technetium; AD84R52XLF / Thallium
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6. Kraemer S, Rothe K, Pfaeffle R, Fuehrer-Sakel D, Till H, Muensterer OJ: Activating TSH-receptor mutation (Met453Thr) as a cause of adenomatous non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism in a 3-year-old boy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Mar;22(3):269-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Several mutations of the TSH-receptor gene have been described in a variety of thyroid diseases.
  • Particularly in children and adolescents, somatic or germ cell mutations may lead to hyperthyroidism.
  • We report a 3-year-old boy with a rare somatic TSHR mutation causing autonomous adenoma of the thyroid gland in order to illustrate how the genetic analysis of the lesion impacted on the surgical strategy.
  • The patient presented with a left neck mass, negative thyroid autoantibodies, and unifocal autonomy on thyroid scan.
  • He underwent local resection of the adenoma.
  • Exons 9 and 10 of the TSHR gene (chromosome 14q3) from peripheral blood DNA and toxic thyroid adenoma tissue DNA were amplified by PCR and analyzed by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).
  • The genetic appraisal of resected thyroid tissue in cases with nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism is important to formulate surgical and medical treatment plans.
  • In cases with somatic mutations of the TSHR, simple resection of the adenoma is sufficient, whereas total thyroidectomy should be considered in patients with germ cell mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Hyperthyroidism / genetics. Mutation. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Pedigree. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19492584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin
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7. Pennelli G, Mian C, Pelizzo MR, Naccamulli D, Piotto A, Girelli ME, Mescoli C, Rugge M: Galectin-3 cytotest in thyroid follicular neoplasia: a prospective, monoinstitutional study. Acta Cytol; 2009 Sep-Oct;53(5):533-9
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 cytotest in thyroid follicular neoplasia: a prospective, monoinstitutional study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the utility of galectin-3 (Gal3) immunohistochemistry (IHC) on preoperatively obtained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in identifying the subgroup of follicular neoplasia (FN) patients who were candidates for thyroidectomy.
  • STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, monoinstitutional study applied a standardized Gal3 immunostaining protocol (cell block specimens; Gal3 scores: G0 [no Gal3+ve IHC reaction], G1 [Gal3+ve thyrocytes < or = 10%], G2 [Gal3+ve thyrocytes > 10%) in 100 consecutive cytologically assessed FN.
  • Gal3 expression in presurgical samples significantly correlated with the postoperative diagnosis (p < 0.0001).
  • All the Gal3-G2 cases (presurgical cell block) showed postoperative evidence of malignancy.
  • All 9 cases of papillary tumor expressed Gal3 in both cell block and postoperative histology.
  • Among the 6 follicular cancers, the prevalence of Gal3 overexpression in the cell block was 50%.
  • CONCLUSION: The cell block procedure applied to thyroid FNAB samples enables the Gal3 cytotest to be implemented usefully in the preoperative identification of those cases of FN postoperatively found to be malignant (also significantly reducing the number of inappropriate thyroidectomies).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Galectin 3 / analysis. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Nodule / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19798881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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8. Guthoff M, Georges G, Wehrmann M, Teichmann R, Gröne E, Risler T, Häring HU, Müssig K: [Hypercalcemic crisis due to primary hyperparathyroidism]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2008 Dec;133(50):2639-43
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  • Neck ultrasonography revealed a hypoechogenic, 5.8 x 3.5 x 3.1 cm-measuring mass behind the lower pole of the right thyroid lobe.
  • DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND COURSE: Serum calcium levels significantly decreased after immediate rehydration, bisphosphonate administration, and continuous hemodialysis that was also indicated because of acute renal failure with anuria.
  • After knowledge of increased parathormone levels the patient underwent rapidly resection of the parathyroid adenoma which was histologically confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute Kidney Injury / complications. Adenoma / complications. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Disorders of Excessive Somnolence. Female. Fluid Therapy. Humans. Middle Aged. Renal Dialysis. Tachycardia

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  • [CommentIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2009 Jan;134(5):211; author reply 212 [19180412.001]
  • (PMID = 19052999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
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9. Haynik DM, Prayson RA: Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Jun;129(6):736-41
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • However, limited data exist on the role of COX-2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • DESIGN: A retrospective clinicopathologic review with COX-2 immunohistochemical staining of 34 follicular carcinomas and 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration was performed.
  • Seven patients with follicular carcinomas developed recurrent disease: 3 patients were alive (mean follow-up, 10.1 years) and 4 patients died of metastatic disease (mean follow-up, 3.5 years).
  • Only 1 follicular adenoma with incomplete capsular penetration recurred (patient alive at 9 years).
  • The COX-2 staining was positive in 11 tumors (9 of 34 follicular carcinomas, 2 of 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration).
  • CONCLUSION: Only a few follicular carcinomas (26%) and follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration (29%) express COX-2 by immunohistochemical analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005 Dec;129(12):1522-3; author reply 1523 [16329720.001]
  • (PMID = 15913419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
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10. Wang JD, Deng XC, Jin XJ, Zhou C, Zhang C, Xie M, Zhou JQ, Qian MF: [Clinical research on 2228 cases of thyroid gland tumors]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Apr;40(4):295-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical research on 2228 cases of thyroid gland tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss outcome of thyroid tumor patients treated with surgery.
  • These patients of thyroid tumors from 1992-2004 (2072 cases of benign thyroid diseases and 156 cases of thyroid carcinoma) were recruited.
  • (1) Benign thyroid tumors with near-total thyroidectomy including 1761 thyroid adenoma, 207 nodular goiter and 104 Hashimoto thyroiditis, the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis was 0.2%, 55 cases (2.6%) received secondary surgery.
  • All the patients have no hypocalcemia or hemorrhage after operation. (2) Eighty-one cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid ( > 1 cm) and 60 cases of microcarcinoma.
  • Unilateral thyroidectomy, contralateral near-total thyroidectomy and ipsilateral modified neck dissection were performed in unilateral papillary carcinoma of thyroid.
  • Among the 9 cases of follicular carcinoma of thyroid, 7 were performed of near-total thyroidectomy without neck dissection, others were the same as papillary carcinoma.
  • Bilateral total thyroidectomy and bilateral modified neck dissection were performed in 2 cases of the medullary thyroid cancer and 1 case of the undifferentiated thyroid cancer.
  • There is no relapse or metastases in 60 cases of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • The 5-year survival was 100.0%, 1 cases occurred recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis in thyroid cancer.
  • Eight case relapsed in 156 cases of thyroid carcinoma,3 cases died.
  • CONCLUSION: The correct surgical management for the patients with thyroid tumor should benefit for the prognosis and reduce the complications and the recurrence of the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16008266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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11. Woodford RL, Nikiforov YE, Hunt JL, Bellizzi AM, Zhang X, Mills SE, Stelow EB: Encapsulated papillary oncocytic neoplasms of the thyroid: morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 18 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Nov;34(11):1582-90
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  • [Title] Encapsulated papillary oncocytic neoplasms of the thyroid: morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 18 cases.
  • Encapsulated papillary oncocytic neoplasms (EPONs) of the thyroid are rare tumors, whose relationship to other thyroid tumors has not been thoroughly elucidated.
  • Earlier, they have been regarded as variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), hyperplastic lesions, and follicular neoplasms.
  • Cases were evaluated for rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma RET/PTC rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).
  • Ten of 18 cases showed vascular and/or capsular invasion; hence, if the diagnostic criteria used to evaluate follicular neoplasms are applied, more than half of the tumors would be considered minimally invasive carcinomas.
  • Our results confirm that EPONs are histologically, immunohistochemically, and molecularly distinct from papillary thyroid carcinoma and seem to be most related to follicular neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20924280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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12. He CN, He L, Cheng JQ, Chen SC, Zhao HF, Zhai JP, Zhang J: [Expression of Twist in papillary thyroid carcinomas and its roles in differential diagnosis]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jan;37(1):35-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of Twist in papillary thyroid carcinomas and its roles in differential diagnosis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study Twist expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma (PTC) by immunohistochemistry and to assess its usefulness as marker in the differential diagnosis of PTC, follicular adenomas (FA) and benign papillary lesions (BPL).
  • Immunohistochemical staining of Twist has important significance in the differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions.
  • Twist immunohistochemistry maybe helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Twist Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / genetics. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-19 / genetics. Keratins / genetics. Keratins / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18509983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / TWIST1 protein, human; 0 / Twist Transcription Factor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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13. Shikama Y, Mizukami H, Sakai T, Yagihashi N, Okamoto K, Yagihashi S: Spindle cell metaplasia arising in thyroid adenoma: characterization of its pathology and differential diagnosis. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Feb;29(2):168-71
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  • [Title] Spindle cell metaplasia arising in thyroid adenoma: characterization of its pathology and differential diagnosis.
  • Spindle cell metaplasia in thyroid adenoma or carcinoma is rare and its pathological features are not well characterized.
  • We encountered a case of thyroid follicular adenoma associated with spindle cell metaplasia.
  • It showed "tumor in tumor appearance" and neoplastic spindle cells were positive for thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor-1, vimentin and focally chromogranin A and somatostatin (SS).
  • Ultrastructure of the spindle cells was reminiscent of follicular cell origin.
  • From the findings from our case, spindle cell metaplasia appears to be a benign clinical entity, suggestive of multidirectional differentiation of follicular cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16610245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Di Tommaso L, Tresoldi D, Navligu CI, Destro A, Comi P, Morbiducci U, Roncalli M, Rizzo G: A 3-D study of capsular invasion in follicular thyroid tumors. A novel approach to an old dilemma. Pathologica; 2010 Jun;102(3):93-5
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  • [Title] A 3-D study of capsular invasion in follicular thyroid tumors. A novel approach to an old dilemma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of follicular tumors of the thyroid mainly rests on the examination of peri-lesional capsule.
  • Lesions with an intact shell are labeled as adenoma, those with capsular invasion are considered carcinoma and those with doubtful aspects are regarded as tumors of uncertain malignant potential.
  • METHOD: Two follicular carcinoma (FC) and one follicular tumour of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMP) were considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 21171511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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15. Kraeber-Bodéré F, Cariou B, Curtet C, Bridji B, Rousseau C, Dravet F, Charbonnel B, Carnaille B, Le Néel JC, Mirallié E: Feasibility and benefit of fluorine 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-guided surgery in the management of radioiodine-negative differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1176-82; discussion 1182
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  • [Title] Feasibility and benefit of fluorine 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-guided surgery in the management of radioiodine-negative differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Fluorine 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) can be used to visualize metastases in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma that does not take up radioiodine ((131)I).
  • This study was aimed at evaluating the feasibility of (18)F-FDG radio-guided surgery in patients with radioiodine-negative differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Six of these patients were injected with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) preoperatively.
  • All positive tissues detected with the probe were confirmed histologically to be differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show the feasibility and benefit of (18)F-FDG radio-guided surgery with a gamma probe in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer patients with radioiodine-negative recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Surgery, Computer-Assisted. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16360406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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16. Tate G, Suzuki T, Endo Y, Mitsuya T: A novel mutation of the PTEN gene in a Japanese patient with Cowden syndrome and bilateral breast cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Jul;184(1):67-71
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  • Cowden syndrome (CS), also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome associated with a high risk of breast and thyroid cancers.
  • The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene (PTEN) encodes a lipid phosphatase that contains a PTPase domain and a C2 domain and plays a role as a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates the cell-survival signaling pathway initiated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K).
  • In one patient, who suffered from bilateral breast cancer, thyroid adenoma, and gastric malignant lymphoma, we found a single-base substitution in exon 2 (115G>C) of the PTEN gene.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / genetics. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Female. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


17. Xu MR, Chen Y, Zhou SR, Chi MM, Chen SL, Liu LY: [Expressions of RASSF1A, Galectin-3 and TPO mRNA in papillary thyroid carcinoma and their clinical significance]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 May;31(5):356-60
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  • [Title] [Expressions of RASSF1A, Galectin-3 and TPO mRNA in papillary thyroid carcinoma and their clinical significance].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mRNA expressions of RASSF1A, Galectin-3 and TPO in papillary thyroid carcinoma and some other thyroid benign lesions, and evaluate their diagnostic significance.
  • METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of RASSF1A, galectin-3 and TPO in the samples from 73 cases, including 23 cases with papillary thyroid cancer, 16 with nodular goiter, 29 with thyroid adenoma and 5 with Hashimoto's disease.
  • RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in the mRNA expression of RASSF1A, Galectin-3 and TPO was observed between papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular benign lesions (P<0.05).
  • However, there was no significant difference among various kinds of benign lesions (P>0.05).
  • A negative correlation of the expression of RASSF1A and Galectin-3 mRNA was found between thyroid benign lesions and malignant ones (P = 0.000).
  • While the mRNA expression of RASSF1A and TPO was positively correlated between benign and malignant lesions (P = 0.028).
  • CONCLUSION: Loss of expression of RASSF1A and TPO mRNA but high expression of Galectin-3 mRNA in papillary thyroid carcinoma are common.
  • Therefore, the products of these three genes may be closely related to the development of thyroid papillary carcinoma, and may be used as useful markers in differential diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma from the benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantigens / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Iron-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / genetics. Hashimoto Disease / metabolism. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19799084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Iron-Binding Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 1.11.1.7 / TPO protein, human; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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18. Haigh PI, Urbach DR: The treatment and prognosis of Hürthle cell follicular thyroid carcinoma compared with its non-Hürthle cell counterpart. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1152-7; discussion 1157-8
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  • [Title] The treatment and prognosis of Hürthle cell follicular thyroid carcinoma compared with its non-Hürthle cell counterpart.
  • BACKGROUND: This population study compared the treatment and prognosis of Hürthle cell follicular thyroid carcinoma (HCFC) and non-HCFC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16360403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Mendoza PL, Ongkeko EE, Santiago JF: Silent parathyroid adenoma mistakenly interpreted on FDG-PET as thyroid cancer metastasis in a patient with elevated thyroglobulin and negative I-131 whole body scan and removed by radioguided minimally invasive surgery. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jan;33(1):23-5
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  • [Title] Silent parathyroid adenoma mistakenly interpreted on FDG-PET as thyroid cancer metastasis in a patient with elevated thyroglobulin and negative I-131 whole body scan and removed by radioguided minimally invasive surgery.
  • Detection of recurrent and metastatic thyroid cancer remains a considerable challenge in patients presenting with rising thyroglobulin levels but with negative I-131 whole body scintigraphy.
  • Such is the case in this patient with follicular thyroid cancer in whom subsequent FDG PET scanning showed a solitary hypermetabolic cervical lesion.
  • Histopathology, however, revealed a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18097251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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20. Evenson A, Mowschenson P, Wang H, Connolly J, Mendrinos S, Parangi S, Hasselgren PO: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2007 Jun;193(6):707-12
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) is an uncommon benign thyroid tumor that can present as a solitary thyroid nodule, a prominent nodule in a multinodular goiter, or as an incidental finding in a thyroidectomy specimen.
  • METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 7 patients presenting with a solitary thyroid nodule (n = 4) or a multinodular goiter (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although HTA is a rare condition of the thyroid, the surgeon needs to be aware of this entity to be able to better discuss the pathological findings with the patient, particularly since some pathologists and endocrinologists believe that HTA may represent a malignant neoplasm of low metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17512281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Ge D, You Z: Expression of interleukin-17RC protein in normal human tissues. Int Arch Med; 2008;1(1):19
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  • RESULTS: IL-17RC expression in 51 normal human tissues and two benign tumors (i.e., lymphangioma and parathyroid adenoma) on the tissue microarrays was determined by immunohistochemical staining, using two polyclonal antibodies against IL-17RC.
  • IL-17RC protein was expressed in many cell types including the myocardial cells, vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells, glandular cells (of the adrenal, parathyroid, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, parotid salivary, and subepidermal glands), epithelial cells (of the esophagus, stomach, intestine, anus, renal tubule, breast, cervix, Fallopian tube, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate, gallbladder, bronchus, lung, and skin), oocytes in the ovary, Sertoli cells in the testis, motor neurons in the spinal cord, autonomic ganglia and nerves in the intestine, skeletal muscle cells, adipocytes, articular chondrocytes, and synovial cells.

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  • (PMID = 18928529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-7682
  • [Journal-full-title] International archives of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Arch Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2596096
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22. Stepansky A, Gold-Deutch R, Poluksht N, Hagag P, Benbassat C, Mor A, Aharoni D, Wassermann I, Halpern Z, Halevy A: Intraoperative parathormone measurements and postoperative hypocalcemia. Isr Med Assoc J; 2010 Apr;12(4):207-10
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  • BACKGROUND: Hypocalcemia following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is a well-recognized potential complication.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the utility of intraoperative quick parathormone assay in predicting severe hypocalcemia development following parathyroidectomy for a single-gland adenoma causing primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • IO-QPTH values were measured at time 0 (T0) before incision, and 10 (T10) and 30 minutes (T30) following excision of the hyperfunctioning gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hypocalcemia / diagnosis. Hypocalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20803878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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23. Keskek M, Ocak S, Ozalp N, Koc M, Tez M: Clinical significance of Hürthle cells in fine needle aspiration biopsy for multinodular goitre. Endocr Regul; 2010 Apr;44(2):65-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: So far, the significance of Hürthle cell predominance in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in multinodular goitre (MNG) appears not definitely clarified.
  • The aim of this study was to determine if there are any clinical factors that can be used to distinguish either malignant or benign disease with the aid of FNAB specimen that contains a predominance of Hürthle cells in multinodular goitre patients.
  • In 37 (9% of them) the FNAB specimen was interpreted as consistent with a Hürthle cell lesion.
  • RESULTS: Among 37 patients with Hürthle cell predominance in FNAB, 29 had benign diseases and 8 had malignant diseases resulting in 21.6% prevalence of malignancy.
  • There were no differences in age, sex, functional status of the thyroid gland, and nodule size between patients with benign versus malignant disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Total thyroidectomy should be recommended for all multinodular goitre patients with Hürthle cell predominance in FNAB, since there is no preoperative predictor of malignancy in these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20429635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-0668
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine regulations
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Regul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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24. Saleh HA, Jin B, Barnwell J, Alzohaili O: Utility of immunohistochemical markers in differentiating benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid nodules. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:9
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  • [Title] Utility of immunohistochemical markers in differentiating benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are common among adults though only a small percentage is malignant, which can histologically mimic benign nodules.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these thyroid nodules is critical for the proper clinical management.
  • METHODS: We investigated immunoexpression in 98 surgically removed benign thyroid nodules including 52 hyperplastic nodules (HN) and 46 follicular/Hurthle cell adenomas (FA), and 54 malignant tumors including 22 follicular carcinoma (FC), 20 classic papillary carcinoma (PTC), and 12 follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC).
  • RESULTS: The staining results showed that malignant tumors express galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19 and Ret oncoprotein significantly more than benign nodules.
  • The sensitivity of these markers for the distinction between benign and malignant lesions ranged from 83.3% to 87%.
  • Immunoexpression was usually diffuse and strong in malignant tumors, and focal and weak in the benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that these immunomarkers are significantly more expressed in malignant tumors compared to benign lesions and may be of additional diagnostic value when combined with routine histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Hyperplasia. Keratin-19 / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20181018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2831001
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100524
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25. Kefeli M, Akpolat I, Yildirim A, Sunter AT, Kandemir B: Morphometric analysis in cytologic evaluation of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Aug;32(4):234-8
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  • [Title] Morphometric analysis in cytologic evaluation of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the morphometric features of papillary carcinomas with follicular neoplasias and benign lesions and to determine the potential role of nuclear morphometric features in their differential diagnosis.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Morphometric features were investigated in the cytologic samples of 64 cases, including 27 benign lesions, 6 follicular neoplasias and 31 papillary carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the benign lesion and follicular neoplasia groups for any nuclear parameters.
  • However, between benign lesions and papillary carcinomas, there were significant differences for all parameters, except for form factor.
  • Between follicular neoplasms and papillary carcinomas, only the MaxD/MinD ratio was significantly different.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the ratio of MaxD/MinD is a distinct nuclear morphometric feature for distinguishing papillary carcinoma from other thyroid lesions, and it may be employed with other cytologic criteria in diagnosing problematic cases.

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  • (PMID = 21434525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Machiavelli GA, Pauni M, Heredia Sereno GM, Szijan I, Basso A, Burdman JA: T3 receptors in human pituitary tumors. Neurol Res; 2009 Nov;31(9):928-30
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  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to investigate the synthesis of T3 receptors in human tumors of the anterior pituitary gland, its relationship with the hormone synthesized and/or secreted by the tumor and the post-surgical evolution of the patient.
  • METHODS: Patients were evaluated clinically and by magnetic nuclear resonance to classify the adenoma according to their size.
  • DISCUSSION: The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in pituitary tumors is in line with two important characteristics of these tumors: they are histologically benign and well differentiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19138463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyroid Hormone; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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27. Wilson CH, McIntyre RE, Arends MJ, Adams DJ: The activating mutation R201C in GNAS promotes intestinal tumourigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice through activation of Wnt and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways. Oncogene; 2010 Aug 12;29(32):4567-75
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  • Somatically acquired, activating mutations of GNAS, the gene encoding the stimulatory G-protein Gsalpha subunit, have been identified in kidney, thyroid, pituitary, leydig cell, adrenocortical and, more recently, in colorectal tumours, suggesting that mutations such as R201C may be oncogenic in these tissues.
  • GNAS R201C alone was not sufficient to induce tumourigenesis by 12 months, but there was a significant increase in adenoma formation when Gpa33(tm1(GnasR201C)Wtsi/+) mice were bred onto an Apc(Min/+) background.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Alleles. Animals. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cell Proliferation. Chromogranins. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Disease Progression. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Loci / genetics. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Mice. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Mutation. Organ Specificity. Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Stem Cells / metabolism. Stem Cells / pathology. Substrate Specificity. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20531296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 082356; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6997; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A8784; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Gpa33 protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / Wnt Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2923080; NLM/ UKMS30064
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28. Kessler A, Gavriel H, Zahav S, Vaiman M, Shlamkovitch N, Segal S, Eviatar E: Accuracy and consistency of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis and management of solitary thyroid nodules. Isr Med Assoc J; 2005 Jun;7(6):371-3
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  • [Title] Accuracy and consistency of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis and management of solitary thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy has been well established as a diagnostic technique for selecting patients with thyroid nodules for surgical treatment, thereby reducing the number of unnecessary surgical procedures in cases of non-malignant tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of FNAB in cases of a solitary thyroid nodule.
  • METHODS: The preoperative FNAB results in 170 patients who underwent thyroidectomy due to a solitary thyroid nodule were compared retrospectively with the final postoperative pathologic diagnoses.
  • RESULTS: In cases of a solitary thyroid nodule, FNAB had a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 98.5%, accuracy of 87%, and positive and negative predictive values of 98.75% and 76.6% respectively.
  • All cases of papillary carcinoma diagnosed by FNAB proved to be malignant on final histology, while 8 of 27 cases of follicular adenoma detected by preoperative FNAB were shown to be malignant on final evaluation of the surgical specimen.
  • It proved to be cost-effective and is recommended as the first tool in the diagnostic workup in patients with thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Isr Med Assoc J. 2005 Sep;7(9):616; author reply 616 [16190494.001]
  • (PMID = 15984379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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29. Shaco-Levy R, Bean SM, Bentley RC, Robboy SJ: Natural history of biologically malignant struma ovarii: analysis of 27 cases with extraovarian spread. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 May;29(3):212-27
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  • The tumors measured 5 to 24.5 cm and were more than 50% thyroid tissue in all but 2 cases.
  • The microscopic diagnosis of the thyroid tissue was follicular adenoma in 17 cases (63%), papillary carcinoma in 7 (26%), unremarkable in 2 (7%), and follicular carcinoma in 1 case (4%).
  • Death from disease occurred 1.5 to 32 years after diagnosis (mean=14 yr).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20407319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Ide F, Obara K, Enatsu K, Mishima K, Saito I: Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity. J Oral Pathol Med; 2005 Mar;34(3):187-9
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  • Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMEC) with eosinophilia is a rare but distinctive tumor usually affecting the thyroid.
  • SMEC involvement of salivary gland is exceptional, with only six cases in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Gingival Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Eosinophils / pathology. Humans. Hyalin / ultrastructure. Male. Sclerosis. Secretory Vesicles / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 15689234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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31. Sorrenti S, Trimboli P, Catania A, Ulisse S, De Antoni E, D'Armiento M: Comparison of malignancy rate in thyroid nodules with cytology of indeterminate follicular or indeterminate Hürthle cell neoplasm. Thyroid; 2009 Apr;19(4):355-60
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  • [Title] Comparison of malignancy rate in thyroid nodules with cytology of indeterminate follicular or indeterminate Hürthle cell neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules that are read on cytology as follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasms (FN and HN, respectively) and indeterminate for malignancy require surgery to differentiate benign from malignant nodules.
  • We analyzed FN and HN with indeterminate cytology to determine if there were differences in the rate and types of thyroid malignancy and if the rate of thyroid malignancy was influenced by age or sex.
  • METHODS: We analyzed 463 nodules with an indeterminate cytological diagnosis of FN and 140 nodules with an indeterminate cytological diagnosis of HN.
  • The histopathological diagnosis after thyroidectomy was the method for establishing the diagnosis and type of malignancy.
  • RESULTS: For the entire series of 603 patients there were 106 (17.6%) with thyroid cancer; 80 of these had a cytology reading of FN and 26 had HN.
  • Extrathyroidal invasion in the grouped HN and FN patients who had papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was more common in females than in males (62% vs. 25 %, p < 0.05).
  • The rate of thyroid cancer was similar in FN (17.3%) and HN (18.6%).
  • The rate of Hürthle cell thyroid cancer was significantly higher in HN than in FN (5.0% vs. 0.7%, p < 0.01) and the rate of the oncocytic variant of PTC was also significantly greater in HN compared to FN nodules (23.1% vs. 1.7%, p < 0.05).
  • The rate of follicular thyroid carcinoma was almost identical in patients with HN and FN (19.2% vs. 18.8 %).
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is little difference in the rate of malignancy between thyroid nodules with a cytological reading of FN indeterminate for malignancy and HN indeterminate for malignancy but there is a difference in the types of thyroid cancers in these groups.
  • Hürthle cell thyroid cancer and the oncocytic variant of PTC is more common in nodules with an HN indeterminate for malignancy cytology reading than in nodules with a FN indeterminate for malignancy cytology reading.
  • Since Hürthle cell thyroid cancer and the oncocytic variant of PTC are more aggressive than other thyroid cancers, it is likely that patients with an HN indeterminate for malignancy cytology will, as a group, have more aggressive thyroid cancers than those with an FN indeterminate for malignancy cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19355826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Hasegawa T, Araki A, Tamura Y, Sugawara T, Iwata A, Kamimiya F, Chiba Y, Horiuchi T, Mori S, Ito H: [A case of Plummer disease that appeared in older old age after 10-year course of subclinical hyperthyroidism]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2007 Mar;44(2):251-5
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  • A 81-year-old woman with a thyroid tumor and subclinical hyperthyroidism since ten years ago was admitted to our hospital for palpitations and hyperthyroidism (FT(4) 1.75 ng/dl, FT(3) 5.37 pg/ml, TSH<0.03 microIU/ml).
  • Although thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) was transiently and mildly positive, anti-TSH receptor antibody (TRAb), microsome test, and thyroid test were negative.
  • Thyroid echogram showed an isoechoic nodule in the left lobe (33 x 42 x 22 mm) and a small nodule (10 x 15 x 9 mm) in right lobe.
  • Thyroid scintiscan showed a hyperfunctional (hot) nodule in left thyroid lobe with suppressed uptake in the remainder of the gland.
  • Based on the above findings, a diagnosis of Plummer disease was made.
  • After treatment with propranolol and thiamazole, the thyrotoxic symptoms disappeared and thyroid function returned to normal level.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthyroidism / complications. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Aged, 80 and over. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Autoantibodies / blood. Female. Humans. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / complications. Thyroid Nodule / complications. Thyrotropin / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17527029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Autoantibodies; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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33. Wang CC, Yang JG, Hu YZ, Chen J, Xu P, Su C: [Endoscopic thyroidectomy via chest and breasts approach in 500 cases]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Dec;42(12):919-23
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  • 2006, endoscopic thyroidectomy via anterior chest and breast approach was performed in 500 patients, including 76 cases of Grave's disease (1 case had an opened operation history), 111 cases of thyroid adenoma, 291 cases of nodular goiter (10 cases have 1-2 opened thyroidectomy history, 2 cases secondary of hyperthyroidism), and 22 cases of thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The endoscopic thyroidectomy was successfully carried out in 492 cases, including tumor enucleation in 50 cases, partial lobectomy in 210 cases, subtotal thyroidectomy in 212 cases (including 73 cases of Graves' disease), and lobectomy in 16 cases of thyroid carcinoma.
  • There were some complications including subcutaneous bleeding (3 cases), burn of the epidermal (1 case), inflammation of the incision (2 cases), subcutaneous bruising (3 cases), subcutaneous effusion (6 cases), thyroid crisis (1 case), and temporarily hoarseness of 2 cases.
  • However, 3 cases of nodular goiter, 1 case of thyroid carcinoma, and 1 case of Grave's disease were recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic thyroidectomy is a safe and effective method of thyroid surgery.

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  • (PMID = 18335750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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34. Wang MH, Lee W, Luo YL, Weis MT, Yao HP: Altered expression of the RON receptor tyrosine kinase in various epithelial cancers and its contribution to tumourigenic phenotypes in thyroid cancer cells. J Pathol; 2007 Dec;213(4):402-11
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  • [Title] Altered expression of the RON receptor tyrosine kinase in various epithelial cancers and its contribution to tumourigenic phenotypes in thyroid cancer cells.
  • The role of RON in regulating tumourigenic phenotypes was also studied using thyroid cancer cells as a model.
  • Among 15 types of cancer studied, RON was overexpressed in significant numbers in cancers derived from breast (56%), colon (51%), lung (48), thyroid (42%), skin (37%), bladder (36%), and pancreas (33%).
  • Detailed analysis of thyroid tissues showed that RON was hardly detected in normal thyroid cells, moderately expressed in adenoma samples, but overexpressed in about half of papillary and follicular cancer specimens.
  • In cultured thyroid cancer cells, RON was highly expressed, with constitutive phosphorylation.
  • Activation of RON increased cell growth and migration via the MAP kinase and AKT pathways.
  • Silencing RON expression significantly prevented cell growth and increased cell apoptotic death.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Apoptosis. Cell Division. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Disease Progression. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Silencing. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  • (PMID = 17955509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA91980
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / RON protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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35. Aziz MM, Khan AW, Uddin MF, Hasanat MA, Kader MA, Chowdhury AJ, Choudhury NA: Endoscopic para-thyroidectomy: a new approach. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Jul;19(3):442-6
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  • Two patients (one male and one female) underwent endoscopic para-thyroidectomy for parathyroid adenoma at the Department of Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Endoscopic para-thyroidectomy appears to be a technically feasible patient friendly modality of treatment for the selected cases of para-thyroid pathology in experienced hand with excellent cosmetic outcome.

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  • (PMID = 20639842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
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36. Krzysztof K, Wiktor B, Tadeusz Ł, Waldemar B, Magdalena K, Janusz D: Neuroendocrine tumours--analysis of own material--a nine--year retrospective study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Mar-Apr;57(98):236-41
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  • RESULTS: In the present study were observed 6 cases of carcinoids localized in ileum, cecum and sigmoid colon, 1 case of gastrinoma in pancreatic head localization, 1 case of insulinoma localized in pancreatic tail, 1 case of vipoma localised in pancreatic head, 2 cases of nesidioblastoma and 1 case of microcystic adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation in pancreatic tail localization and 1 case of nonspecific apudoma observed in ileum.
  • In the study we have also 11 cases of medullary thyroid carcinomas.
  • In adrenal glands we observed 10 benign and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma (one bilateral female case with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2A).
  • The clinical manifestations of some neuroendocrine tumours are not specific, so it causes a lot of difficulties in early diagnosis and treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20583420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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37. Karslioğlu Y, Celasun B, Günhan O: Contribution of morphometry in the differential diagnosis of fine-needle thyroid aspirates. Cytometry B Clin Cytom; 2005 May;65(1):22-8
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  • [Title] Contribution of morphometry in the differential diagnosis of fine-needle thyroid aspirates.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytologic discrimination of cellular nodules, follicular adenoma, and follicular carcinoma in the thyroid is problematic.
  • Methods are needed to achieve a reliable diagnosis.
  • METHODS: One hundred twelve samples obtained from patients with lesions histopathologically diagnosed as nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma were used.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Cell Biology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Goiter / diagnosis. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Multivariate Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Software. Statistics as Topic / methods. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15779051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4949
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry B Clin Cytom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Raitila A, Georgitsi M, Bonora E, Vargiolu M, Tuppurainen K, Mäkinen MJ, Vierimaa O, Salmela PI, Launonen V, Vahteristo P, Aaltonen LA, Romeo G, Karhu A: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations seem not to associate with familial non-medullary thyroid cancer. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 May;32(5):426-9
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  • [Title] Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations seem not to associate with familial non-medullary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Over 95% of all thyroid malignancies are non-medullary thyroid carcinomas (NMTC).
  • Recently, thyroid disorders have been observed in families with germline mutations in aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) but, due to frequent occurrence of these conditions in the population, the significance of this co-occurrence is not clear.
  • In addition, the AIP status was studied in one follicular thyroid adenoma patient with a known AIP mutation from an additional cohort.
  • AIP mutation-positive patient's follicular thyroid adenoma showed no loss of heterozygosity or lack of immunohistochemical AIP staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19794292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
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39. Walter MA, Seboek D, Demougin P, Bubendorf L, Oberholzer M, Müller-Brand J, Müller B: Extraction of high-integrity RNA suitable for microarray gene expression analysis from long-term stored human thyroid tissues. Pathology; 2006 Jun;38(3):249-53
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  • [Title] Extraction of high-integrity RNA suitable for microarray gene expression analysis from long-term stored human thyroid tissues.
  • INTRODUCTION: Isolation of high-quality RNA from fresh-frozen thyroid tissues stored for more than a decade would open novel options for gene expression profiling.
  • Herein, we describe successful extraction of high-integrity RNA from human thyroid tissues that were stored for more than a decade.
  • METHODS: Seventy-nine samples (15 goitres, 20 follicular adenomas, 30 papillary carcinomas, 14 follicular carcinomas) that were shock-frozen in isopentane and stored for a median of 11 years (range 1-16 years) were processed using standard precipitation and column filtration techniques.
  • RESULTS: The median RNA yield was 1.9 microg/mg tissue (papillary carcinoma 2.1 microg/mg, range 0.2-7.2 microg/mg; follicular carcinoma 2.4 microg/mg, range 0.2-3.2 microg/mg; goitre 1.4 microg/mg, range 0.1-5.4 microg/mg; follicular adenoma 1.6 microg/mg, range 0.1-6.2 microg/mg; p = 0.46) with an 8.6 (7.3-9.8) median RIN.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age and entity independent RNA suitable for expression profiling can be extracted from long-term stored fresh-frozen human thyroid tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / chemistry. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / genetics. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Goiter / genetics. Goiter / metabolism. Goiter / pathology. Humans. Organ Preservation. Thyroid Gland. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16753748.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 1.2.1.- / Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases
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40. Gupta A, Mathur SK, Batra C, Gupta A: Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Oct-Dec;51(4):521-2
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  • [Title] Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyrolipoma or adenolipoma of the thyroid gland is defined as a thyroid adenoma containing mature fat tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19008582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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41. Kouassi YM, Tanon-Anoh MJ, Doukouré B, Assouan C, Buraïma F, N'gattia KV, Kouassi KB: [Thyroid localization of myxofibrosarcoma: first case in Africa]. Med Trop (Mars); 2010 Feb;70(1):70-2
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  • [Title] [Thyroid localization of myxofibrosarcoma: first case in Africa].
  • This case report describes a 45-year-old woman who was treated for a bulky ulcerated thyroid tumor with an offensive odor.
  • Histopathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen demonstrated myxofibrosarcoma associated with a classic thyroid tumor (vesicular adenoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Myxosarcoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20337120.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Médecine tropicale : revue du Corps de santé colonial
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Trop (Mars)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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42. Aiad HA, Kandil MA, Asaad NY, El-Kased AM, El-Goday SF: Galectin-3 immunostaining in cytological and histopathological diagnosis of thyroid lesions. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Mar;20(1):36-46
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 immunostaining in cytological and histopathological diagnosis of thyroid lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 is a human lectin linked to malignant transformation in different organs including thyroid gland.
  • We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions in cytological and histological samples.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included a total of 79 cases; 19 multinodular goiter (MNG), 19 follicular adenoma (FA), 13 follicular carcinoma (FTC) and 28 papillary carcinoma (PTC).
  • According to H score, glaectin-3 immunostaining was significantly lowered in FA) 1+/-2.8 as compared to papillary (158.5+/-88.6) and follicular carcinoma (150+/-83.9) (p>0.0001).
  • However, there was no statistically significant difference between FTC and PTC (p=0.56) or between classic and follicular variants of PTC (p=0.51).
  • Prospective analysis: There were five benign, six malignant and 17 indeterminate cytology cases.
  • Galectin-3 immunostaining was able to detect the benign nature of 11/17 indeterminate cytology.
  • CONCLUSION: We suggest Galectin-3 as a supplementary immunostaining in histological diagnosis of difficult thyroid follicular lesions and in preoperative evaluation of indeterminate thyroid cytology to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgical interference in benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Galectin 3 / analysis. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cytodiagnosis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19847280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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43. Joseph B, Ji M, Liu D, Hou P, Xing M: Lack of mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha and beta genes but frequent hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene in differentiated thyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Dec;92(12):4766-70
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  • [Title] Lack of mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha and beta genes but frequent hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene in differentiated thyroid tumors.
  • CONTEXT: It remains inconclusive whether mutations in thyroid hormone receptor (TR) genes naturally occur in thyroid cancer and whether these genes could be suppressors of this cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to examine further mutations of TRalpha and TRbeta genes in thyroid cancer and also to examine their methylation as an epigenetic silencing mechanism in thyroid cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Instead of using a cDNA sequencing approach used in previous studies, we used genomic DNA to sequence directly the coding regions of the TRalpha and TRbeta genes to search mutations in various differentiated thyroid tumors and used methylation-specific PCR to analyze promoter methylation of these genes.
  • RESULTS: We found no TRalpha gene mutation in 17 papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) and 11 follicular thyroid cancers (FTCs), and no TRbeta gene mutation in 16 PTCs and 12 FTCs.
  • We also found no methylation of the TRalpha gene in 33 PTCs, 31 FTCs, 20 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs), and 10 thyroid tumor cell lines.
  • In contrast, we found hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene in 10 of 29 (34%) PTCs, 22 of 27 (81%) FTCs, five of 20 (25%) follicular thyroid adenomas, and three of 10 (30%) thyroid tumor cell lines, with the highest prevalence in FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mutation is not common in TR genes, whereas hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene as an alternative gene silencing mechanism is highly prevalent in thyroid cancer, particularly FTC, consistent with a possible tumor suppressor role of this gene for FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha / genetics. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17911173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta
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44. Bajoghli M, Muthukrishnan A, Mountz JM: Posterior bulge sign for parathyroid adenoma on Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Aug;31(8):470-1
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  • [Title] Posterior bulge sign for parathyroid adenoma on Tc-99m MIBI SPECT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16855433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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45. Romanchishen AF, Gostimskiĭ AV, ShabalovN P, Skorodok IuL, Ditkovskaia LV: [The diagnostics of nodular goiter in children and adolescents]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2007;166(2):55-7
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  • The authors give an analysis of preoperative diagnostics of nodular tumors of the thyroid gland in 105 children and adolescents.
  • It was shown that there are no special techniques allowing an absolute exclusion of malignant growth in the thyroid nodule before operation.
  • The most accurate method of investigation in differential diagnostics of thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents is thought to be fine-needle aspiration biopsy under USI control.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17665577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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46. Nonaka D, Tang Y, Chiriboga L, Rivera M, Ghossein R: Diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2 (FoxE1) in thyroid epithelial neoplasms. Mod Pathol; 2008 Feb;21(2):192-200
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2 (FoxE1) in thyroid epithelial neoplasms.
  • Thyroid-specific transcription factors, Pax8, TTF-1, and TTF-2, are crucial for thyroid organogenesis and differentiation.
  • The goal of this study is to evaluate the expressions of these markers in thyroid tumors of the full spectrum of differentiation, with special emphasis on anaplastic carcinomas.
  • A total of 94 cases of thyroid neoplasms were studied: 17 papillary carcinomas, 18 follicular adenomas, 16 follicular carcinomas, 7 poorly differentiated carcinomas, 28 anaplastic carcinomas, and 8 medullary carcinomas.
  • All three markers were seen in papillary carcinomas, follicular adenomas and carcinomas, and poorly differentiated carcinomas in a diffuse manner, whereas their expressions in medullary carcinomas were variable.
  • Pax8 is a useful marker for the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinomas, particularly when the differential diagnosis includes pulmonary carcinoma.
  • In differentiated thyroid neoplasms, no significant difference in expression was seen in all the three transcription factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcitonin / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18084247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / TTF2 protein, human
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47. Kohn B, Grasberger H, Lam LL, Ferrara AM, Refetoff S: A somatic gain-of-function mutation in the thyrotropin receptor gene producing a toxic adenoma in an infant. Thyroid; 2009 Feb;19(2):187-91
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  • [Title] A somatic gain-of-function mutation in the thyrotropin receptor gene producing a toxic adenoma in an infant.
  • BACKGROUND: Activating mutations of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene (TSHR) are rare in the neonate and in the pediatric population.
  • They are usually present in the germline, and are either inherited or occur de novo.
  • RESULTS: As genomic DNA analysis failed to show a TSHR gene mutation, a radioiodide scan was performed to reveal a unilateral localization of uptake suppressing the remaining thyroid tissue.
  • Genomic and complementary DNA analyses of the active thyroid tissue, removed surgically, identified a missense mutation (D633Y) located in the sixth transmembrane domain of the TSHR.
  • The absence of this TSHR mutation in circulating mononuclear cells and in unaffected thyroid tissue confirmed the somatic nature of this genetic alteration.

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  • (PMID = 19191749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK15070; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR04999
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2858372
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48. Wang LH, Zhao YJ, Wang XY, Yuan P, Xu WQ, Xiao JC, Xu JP, Luo BR: [Significance of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Sep;27(9):547-50
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  • [Title] [Significance of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression between benign and malignant thyroid nodules, and to evaluate their clinical value in distinguishing thyroid cancer from benign thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 and CD44v6 was immunohistochemically detected by the ABC method in 143 benign and malignant thyroid nodule samples.
  • RESULTS: Expression of these two markers in benign thyroid nodules: galectin-3 was negative in 10 cases of para-cancer normal tissue and 14 cases of benign nodules found in the other benign thyroid disease.
  • Also it was weakly positive in 2 of 22 follicular adenomas (9.1%).
  • But all three eosinophilic follicular adenomas were diffusely or focally positive for galectin-3.
  • CD44v6 was negative in 10 cases of para-cancer normal tissue, but positive in 4 of 14 nodular lesions found in benign thyroid diseases (28.6%).
  • It was also positive in 16 of 52 nodular goiters (30.8%), and weakly positive in 7 of 22 follicular adenomas (31.8%).
  • The two markers in malignant lesions: galectin-3 was positive in 50 of 52 thyroid adenocarcinoma (96.2%), CD44v6 was positive in 42 of 52 thyroid adenocarcinoma (80.8%).
  • The positive rate of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in thyroid cancer was significantly higher than that in benign thyroid nodule and normal tissue (P < 0.001).
  • The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of galectin-3 combined with CD44v6 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodule were 80.8%, 93.4%, 88.8%; they were 96.2%, 90.1%, 92.3% for Galectin-3 alone.
  • CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical expression of galectin-3 and CD44v6 by the ABC method is significantly higher in thyroid cancers than in benign thyroid nodules, especially galectin-3 in thyrocyte being helpful in differentiating benign thyroid nodule from thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16438854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44v6 antigen; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Glycoproteins
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49. Patel KN, Shaha AR: Locally advanced thyroid cancer. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Apr;13(2):112-6
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  • [Title] Locally advanced thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize existing literature with respect to locally advanced thyroid cancer and define the intricacies of preoperative evaluation, surgical management of involved sites and postoperative treatment.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Locally invasive thyroid cancer is an uncommon disease process, which carries significant morbidity and mortality.
  • Surgical treatment is still the mainstay for locally advanced thyroid cancer.
  • SUMMARY: Little progress has been made in advancing the treatment of locally advanced thyroid cancer.
  • The understanding and recognition of histopathological variations, such as poorly differentiated thyroid cancer is also important.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15761287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9508
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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50. Jindal S, Bansal S, Choudhary R, Pathak K, Mathur M, Biswas R: Severe ureteric colic and a palpable neck node. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [MeSH-major] Hydronephrosis / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Kidney Calculi / diagnosis. Renal Colic / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Palpation. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 22791863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027579
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51. Pironi D, Panarese A, Candioli S, Manigrasso A, La Gioia G, Romani AM, Arcieri S, Mele R, Filippini A: [Reoperative thyroid surgery: personal experience and review of the literature]. G Chir; 2008 Oct;29(10):407-12
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  • [Title] [Reoperative thyroid surgery: personal experience and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Reinterventi in chirurgia tiroidea: contributo casistico e revisione della letteratura.
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the complication rate of reoperative thyroid surgery and to find out the way to minimize the morbidity associated with it.
  • We reviewed our experience in 622 patients, who underwent thyroid operation from January 2000 to September 2007.
  • Among these ones, 76 were the patients who underwent reoperative thyroid surgery.
  • Histologic examination revealed: benign lesions in 67 pts (88.15%), papillary cancer in 4 pts (5.26%), follicular cancer in 2 pts (2.63%), follicular adenoma in 1 pt (1.32%) and Hashimoto thyroiditis in 2 pts (2.63%).
  • One of the patient at the first thyroid surgery had monolateral palsy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve with dyspnoea and dysphonia.
  • Temporary hypoparathyroidism (Ca<8 mg/dl) occurred in 47.3% of the patients, who underwent reoperative thyroid surgery and in 45.2% of the patients, who underwent prior thyroid surgery.
  • Conclusions. This study documents that reoperative thyroid surgery can be performed with little morbidity to the patient if precise operative rules are respected.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Female. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Humans. Hypoparathyroidism / etiology. Intraoperative Complications / etiology. Laryngeal Nerve Injuries. Male. Middle Aged. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18947462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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52. Galusca B, Dumollard JM, Lassandre S, Niveleau A, Prades JM, Estour B, Peoc'h M: Global DNA methylation evaluation: potential complementary marker in differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jul;447(1):18-23
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  • [Title] Global DNA methylation evaluation: potential complementary marker in differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia.
  • Little is known about this epigenetic event in thyroid neoplasia.
  • The study aimed to evaluate the status of global DNA methylation in several types of thyroid tumors using a monoclonal antibody specific for 5-methylcytidine (5-mc) and to define the diagnosis potential of this marker.
  • 5-mc immunostaining scores were calculated in 17 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), 6 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), 16 follicular adenomas (FA), 19 nodular goiters (NG) and ten Hürthle cells adenomas (HCA).
  • Computerized image analysis showed a significant lower level of 5-mc immunostaining in thyroid carcinoma when compared with benign tumors or adjacent normal thyroid parenchyma (P<0.0001).
  • Overall, 5-mc accuracy to distinguish malign from benign thyroid tumors was similar to that of galectin-3 (89% versus 87%, P>0.05).
  • Among follicular neoplasia 5-mc accuracy to differentiate malign tumors trends to be higher than galectin-3 one (90% versus 66%, P=0.06).
  • These data stress the necessity of epigenetic events evaluation among thyroid nodules and propose global DNA methylation assessment as a potential diagnostic tool to combine with other valuable markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. DNA Methylation. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Epigenesis, Genetic. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 15891902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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53. Besic N, Hocevar M, Zgajnar J, Petric R, Pilko G: Aggressiveness of therapy and prognosis of patients with Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2006 Jan;16(1):67-72
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  • [Title] Aggressiveness of therapy and prognosis of patients with Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma (HCPTC) has been studied separately from other types of thyroid carcinoma in relatively few studies.
  • A total of 1552 patients with thyroid carcinoma were seen at our institute during the period of 1976-2003; of them, 42 patients (33 females, 9 males; age 10-85 years, median 56.5 years) had histopathologically verified HCPTC.
  • Primary treatment consisted of total or near-total thyroidectomy (39 patients), lobectomy (2 patients), radioiodine ablation of the thyroid remnant (37 patients), external irradiation (14 patients), and chemotherapy (3 patients).
  • Three patients died of thyroid carcinoma during the follow-up period.
  • Long-term survival and locoregional control of disease are likely after the radical tumor resection, radioiodine ablation of the thyroid remnant, and external irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytoplasm / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Iodine / deficiency. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Slovenia / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16487016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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54. Ernst O: [Hyperparathyroidism: CT and MR findings]. J Radiol; 2009 Mar;90(3 Pt 2):409-12
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  • [Transliterated title] Hyperparathyroïdie: applications du scanner et de l'IRM.
  • Density measurements can assist in differentiating adenomas from lymph nodes and normal thyroid tissue.
  • The spontaneous attenuation of parathyroid adenomas is lower than 80 HU, whereas the density of normal thyroid tissue is above 80 HU.
  • Forty five seconds after contrast injection, adenomas have a density>130 HU, whereas lymph nodes have a density<130 HU.
  • Furthermore, between 45 and 70 seconds after injection, the attenuation of parathyroid adenomas decreases (>20UH) whereas the attenuation of lymph nodes increases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / radiography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19421131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 3
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55. Wani S, Hao Z: Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):389-93
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  • [Title] Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course of a patient with atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma manifesting as hypercalcemic parathyroid crisis.
  • METHODS: We present a case report and review the relevant literature on parathyroid cysts and atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas.
  • Ultrasonography revealed a large cystic structure (5.8 cm) at the lower pole of the left thyroid lobe.
  • She underwent surgical exploration of the neck, total thyroidectomy for multinodular disease of the thyroid, and subtotal parathyroidectomy.
  • The final pathologic diagnosis was an atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid cysts are uncommon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass.
  • Atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas are rare and have an unpredictable clinical course.
  • [MeSH-major] Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16638726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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56. Zieleniewski W, Jurczyńska J, Kunert-Radek J: [Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone--a case report]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Sep-Oct;56(5):790-3
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  • [Title] [Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone--a case report].
  • Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone is a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • Pituitary adenoma was excluded as magnetic resonance imaging showed normal pituitary gland, alpha subunit was within normal range and TSH concentration increased after TRH administration.
  • Sonography revealed normoechogenic, slightly enlarged thyroid gland.
  • Thus, the diagnosis of the syndrome of pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone was established.
  • After 2 months of treatment she achieved a state of constant euthyrosis and following next few months thyroid volume diminished.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthyroidism / etiology. Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome / complications. Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16817146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine
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57. Wu ZX, Zheng LW, Dong YJ, Li ZB, Zhang WF, Zhao YF: Modified approach for lingual thyroid transposition: report of two cases. Thyroid; 2008 Apr;18(4):465-8
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  • [Title] Modified approach for lingual thyroid transposition: report of two cases.
  • Lingual thyroid is a rare congenital anomaly of thyroid development resulting from failure of the thyroglossal duct to migrate from the foramen cecum to the prelaryngeal site.
  • The lingual thyroid associated with a fetal adenoma is even more unusual.
  • We presented two cases of lingual thyroid, one associated with fetal adenoma.
  • The ectopic gland was transposed into the muscle space at the floor of the mouth using an extraoral midline lower lip, mandible and tongue-splitting approach in case 1, and a transoral lower lip degloving and midline mandibulotomy and tongue-splitting approach in case 2.
  • Surgical transposition of the lingual thyroid to the floor of the mouth with the vascular supply intact offers a promising approach for the treatment of this anomaly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Lingual Thyroid / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Mouth / surgery. Oral Surgical Procedures / methods. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tongue / anatomy & histology. Tongue / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18346006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Erbil Y, Salmaslioğlu A, Kabul E, Işsever H, Tunaci M, Adalet I, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: Use of preoperative parathyroid fine-needle aspiration and parathormone assay in the primary hyperparathyroidism with concomitant thyroid nodules. Am J Surg; 2007 Jun;193(6):665-71
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  • [Title] Use of preoperative parathyroid fine-needle aspiration and parathormone assay in the primary hyperparathyroidism with concomitant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Although the sensitivity of imaging studies is high in solitary parathyroid adenomas, negative results are inevitable.
  • The aims of this prospective clinical study are to evaluate the impact of the presence of thyroid disease on the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of ultrasonography (US), sestamibi (MIBI), and parathyroid fine needle aspiration and parathormone assay (PTH-FNA).
  • These 4 groups were subdivided according to the presence (group 1) or absence (group 2) of thyroid nodule.
  • RESULTS: In the overall patients, the sensitivity and PPV of PTH-FNA to localize parathyroid adenoma was higher compared with US, MIBI, and US + MIBI (100% and 100% versus 96% and 91% versus 92% and 87% versus 95% and 94%, respectively, P < .05).
  • The sensitivity and PPV of US, MIBI, and US + MIBI in the patients without thyroid nodule was higher compared with the patients with thyroid nodule (100% and 100%, 100% and 96%, 100% and 100% versus 93% and 84%, 85% and 80%, 96% and 86%, respectively, P < .05).
  • The sensitivity and PPV of the PTH-FNA was 100% in the patients with and without a thyroid nodule.
  • CONCLUSION: PTH-FNA can be performed safely for the confirmation of parathyroid adenoma localized by preoperative imaging studies.
  • In patients with a concomitant thyroid nodule, PTH-FNA was more accurate to detect the parathyroid adenoma than the other imaging studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Preoperative Care / methods. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17512273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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59. Bartolotta TV, Midiri M, Galia M, Runza G, Attard M, Savoia G, Lagalla R, Cardinale AE: Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of solitary thyroid nodules with contrast-enhanced ultrasound: initial results. Eur Radiol; 2006 Oct;16(10):2234-41
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  • [Title] Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of solitary thyroid nodules with contrast-enhanced ultrasound: initial results.
  • To assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of the thyroid gland and to evaluate the potential of this method for characterising solitary thyroid nodules.18 patients affected by solitary thyroid nodules (size range: 0.6 to 3.6 cm; mean: 1.8 cm) confirmed by surgery (nine papillary carcinomas, four follicular carcinomas, three hyperplasias, one follicular adenoma and one Plummer's adenoma) underwent pulse inversion US at low M.I. (0.06 to 0.08) after i.v. injection of a 2.4-mL bolus of SonoVue.
  • Baseline echogenicity and the dynamic enhancement pattern of each nodule, in comparison with adjacent thyroid parenchyma, were assessed.
  • Benign nodules showed diffuse contrast enhancement, both homogeneous (3 out of 5) and heterogeneous (2 out of 5).
  • CEUS of thyroid gland is a feasible technique, but overlapping findings seem to limit the potential of this technique in the characterization of thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Phospholipids. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Thyroid Nodule / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16670868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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60. Rasmuson T, Tavelin B: Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(8):1059-61
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  • [Title] Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine.
  • Patients with thyrotoxicosis are often treated with radioactive iodine and its accumulation in the thyroid gland exposes the adjacent parathyroid glands to radioactivity.
  • Patients with parathyroid adenomas (ICD-9 = 195.1) were recruited from the Swedish Cancer Registry.
  • Eleven patients with parathyroid adenomas following the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis were identified.
  • The median age at exposure was 59 years and the latency period between diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and parathyroid adenoma was 7.4 years (range <1-19 years).
  • This study does not indicate that patients with thyrotoxicosis treated with radioactive iodine in adult age have increased risk of developing parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Parathyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyrotoxicosis / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17118839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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61. Pauzar B, Staklenac B, Loncar B: Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):87-91
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology is currently the best diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules.
  • The aim of this research was to make a detailed and objective determination of the morphological characteristics of cells in cytological smears in an attempt to distinguish benign from malignant follicular tumors.
  • The research included 62 patients with cytologically diagnosed follicular or oncocytic tumors, and 15 patients with nodular hyperplasia.
  • We analyzed the cellularity of the smear, cohesion between follicular cells, acinar formations, bare nuclei, characteristics of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and the presence of colloid.
  • The statistical analysis of cytological parameters has indicated that none of the cytological parameters alone is discriminating enough between non-tumor and tumor changes, or benign and malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • The analysis of age, sex, nodule size and ultrasound findings has not shown the correlation between any of these parameters with the malignant or benign follicular tumors.
  • The cytological analysis of the smears for patients with follicular tumors, in combination with clinical data and other diagnostic methods, contributes to more precise diagnostics, but is not sufficient for the differentiation between benign and malignant follicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20432738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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62. Heikkilä A, Siironen P, Hagström J, Heiskanen I, Sankila R, Louhimo J, Haglund C, Arola J: Follicular thyroid neoplasm: clinicopathologic features suggesting malignancy. APMIS; 2010 Nov;118(11):846-54
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid neoplasm: clinicopathologic features suggesting malignancy.
  • Thyroid follicular neoplasms are the most common tumors of the thyroid.
  • The criterion for their malignancy is evidence of capsular or vascular invasion, which makes preoperative diagnosis difficult.
  • The poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma entity was introduced by World Health Organization in its 2004 classification with an incidence still poorly known.
  • We found 356 follicular neoplasms treated between 1990 and 2006.
  • Among these tumor patients, adenomas were more common in women than in men (3.6:1), but carcinomas differed little with respect to gender (1.2:1).
  • All follicular carcinomas (n=39), atypical adenomas (n=6), and oxyphilic adenomas (n=15) were included in the study, as well as 30 consecutive conventional follicular adenomas.
  • Five tumors were reclassified as poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas, representing 13% of carcinomas in this unselected material.
  • Oxyphilic tumor cells were more frequent in carcinomas than in adenomas; however, among carcinomas, they were non-prognostic.
  • Probability for malignancy is thus greater in a male patient with a large oxyphilic follicular neoplasm.
  • The PI requires evaluation in all follicular thyroid carcinomas to identify poorly differentiated tumors with worse prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 APMIS.
  • (PMID = 20955457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND1 protein, human; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 6.3.2.19 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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63. Cakir M, Arici C, Alakus H, Altunbas H, Balci MK, Karayalcin U: Incidental thyroid carcinoma in thyrotoxic patients treated by surgery. Horm Res; 2007;67(2):96-9
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  • [Title] Incidental thyroid carcinoma in thyrotoxic patients treated by surgery.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Thyroid malignancy detected incidentally in patients who are operated for thyrotoxicosis has been reported at different rates.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of incidental thyroid carcinoma in thyrotoxic patients managed with surgery in our institution.
  • METHODS: Of the 375 thyrotoxic patients who had thyroid surgery between the years of 1997-2004, 70.7% were females and 29.3% were males.
  • Among thyrotoxic patients 65.3% (n=245) had toxic multinodular goiter (TMG), 16.8% (n=63) had toxic adenoma (TA) and 17.9% (n=67) had Graves' disease.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-six (6.9%) of all thyrotoxic patients had thyroid carcinoma.
  • Eighteen (7.3%) of TMG, 4 (6.3%) of TA and 4 (6%) of Graves' disease patients had thyroid carcinoma.
  • Histologic examination revealed 18 papillary (9 microscopic), 5 follicular, 2 hurthle cell and 1 anaplastic carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In our study, incidental thyroid carcinoma was found in 6.9% of subjects with thyrotoxicosis.
  • Papillary thyroid microcarcinomas constituted 34.6% (26/9) of these newly diagnosed thyroid carcinomas.
  • The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was not higher in subjects with Graves' disease compared to TMG and TA.
  • The rate of incidental thyroid carcinoma in subjects with thyrotoxicosis treated with surgery was similar to previous studies reported from different countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Incidental Findings. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyrotoxicosis / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17047344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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64. Verburg FA, de Keizer B, van Isselt JW: Use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Agents Med Chem; 2007 Jul;7(4):399-409
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  • [Title] Use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • At the time, the histologic diagnosis was a 'malignant adenoma' of the thyroid.
  • In 1938 the patient returned with overt signs of thyroid hyperfunction (hyperthyroidism) and lower back pain.
  • In 1937 Hertz, Roberts and Evans investigated the rabbit's thyroid function using I-128 [2].
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Medical Oncology / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. History, 20th Century. Humans. Male. Models, Biological. Models, Chemical. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Hormones / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17630916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1871-5206
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Agents Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Thyroid Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 207
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65. Dal Maso L, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S: Risk factors for thyroid cancer: an epidemiological review focused on nutritional factors. Cancer Causes Control; 2009 Feb;20(1):75-86
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  • [Title] Risk factors for thyroid cancer: an epidemiological review focused on nutritional factors.
  • OBJECTIVES: The present review summarizes epidemiological evidence on risk factors for thyroid cancer (TC), in particular, nutritional factors.
  • There is also a strong association with history of benign nodules/adenoma or goiter.
  • Iodine deficiency may induce an increasing incidence of benign thyroid conditions, but very high iodine intake also affects thyroid function and, possibly, TC risk.
  • Height and weight at diagnosis show a moderate positive association with TC risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18766448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7225
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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66. Half E, Bercovich D, Rozen P: Familial adenomatous polyposis. Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2009;4:22
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  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the development of many tens to thousands of adenomas in the rectum and colon during the second decade of life.
  • Most patients are asymptomatic for years until the adenomas are large and numerous, and cause rectal bleeding or even anemia, or cancer develops.
  • FAP may present with some extraintestinal manifestations such as osteomas, dental abnormalities (unerupted teeth, congenital absence of one or more teeth, supernumerary teeth, dentigerous cysts and odontomas), congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), desmoid tumors, and extracolonic cancers (thyroid, liver, bile ducts and central nervous system).
  • A less aggressive variant of FAP, attenuated FAP (AFAP), is characterized by fewer colorectal adenomatous polyps (usually 10 to 100), later age of adenoma appearance and a lower cancer risk.
  • In a subset of individuals, a MUTYH mutation causes a recessively inherited polyposis condition, MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), which is characterized by a slightly increased risk of developing CRC and polyps/adenomas in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.
  • Diagnosis is based on a suggestive family history, clinical findings, and large bowel endoscopy or full colonoscopy.
  • Whenever possible, the clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by genetic testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / diagnosis. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19822006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2772987
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67. Yilike X, Kuerban G, Yang X, Wu S, Abudula A: Expression of MGMT and its clinopathological significance in thyroid carcinoma. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2010 Dec;35(12):1219-24
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  • [Title] Expression of MGMT and its clinopathological significance in thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and its clinicopathological significance in thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of MGMT in 61 thyroid cancer tissues, 21 thyroid adenomas, 15 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 8 nodular goiter, and 12 peri-tumor tissues.
  • RESULTS: There was statistic difference in the expression of MGMT between the normal tissues and thyroid cancers (P<0.05).
  • Expression of MGMT increased from the normal tissue (16.67%, 10/12), nodular goiter (25.00%, 2/8), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (60.00%, 9/15), and thyroid adenoma (52.38%, 11/21)to thyroid cancer (60.66%, 38/61).
  • Expression of MGMT in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) had significant difference (P<0.05), and the expression level of MGMT decreased with the malignancy of thyroid cancer, such as in PTC (72.22%, 26/36), and FTC (50.00%, 8/16).
  • CONCLUSION: High expression of MGMT might be related to the malignancy of thyroid cancer, which may be one of the diagnosis indexes for thyroid cancer.
  • It will be a common clinical index in diagnosing thyroid cancer since there is no difference in MGMT expression among sexes, ages, and nationalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21200087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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68. Bhatoe HS, Badwal S, Dutta V, Kannan N: Pituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma of thyroid: case report and review of literature. J Neurooncol; 2008 Aug;89(1):63-7
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  • [Title] Pituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma of thyroid: case report and review of literature.
  • Pituitary is a rare site for metastases from thyroid cancer.
  • Most reported cases have been of papillary and follicular carcinoma.
  • Metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma have not been reported.
  • We report a case of intrapituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma thyroid in a 38-year-old male, who had been operated for pituitary adenoma 5 years earlier.
  • At the time of presentation in Nov 2006, he had visual field defects and a painless thyroid nodule.
  • Further evaluation revealed medullary carcinoma thyroid, cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, elevated serum calcitonin levels, and lobulated pituitary tumor.
  • After surgical excision of thyroid and lymph node clearance, he underwent craniotomy and subfrontal excision of pituitary tumor.
  • All the tumors were of identical histology, i.e., medullary carcinoma thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / analysis. Calcitonin / blood. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome. Vision, Low / etiology. Vision, Low / pathology. Vision, Low / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18408891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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  • [Number-of-references] 25
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69. Kopczyńska E, Junik R, Tyrakowski T: [BRAF gene mutation in thyroid cancer]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2006 Feb;20(116):210-3
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  • [Title] [BRAF gene mutation in thyroid cancer].
  • Mutations of genes coding effectors of signaling pathway RET/PTC-RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, involved in cell growth and proliferation, are important in papillary thyroid cancer development.
  • Mutation of BRAF gene appears in various types of carcinomas, but most frequently in malignant melanomas (66%) and papillary thyroid cancer (average 44%).
  • The relation between mutations of BRAF, RAS and RET/PTC genes has not been found, although they together exist in two thirds of papillary thyroid cancers.
  • BRAF(TI796A) oncogene appears in papillary thyroid cancer, whereas it has not been found in follicular thyroid cancer and benign thyroid adenomas.
  • For this reason mutated BRAF gene could be specific molecular marker, with relatively high sensitivity in diagnostics of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Point Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


70. Dedivitis RA, Lima FR, Guirado CR: Follicular adenoma in a thyroglossal duct. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 May-Jun;73(3):430
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  • [Title] Follicular adenoma in a thyroglossal duct.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroglossal Cyst / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17684668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1808-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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71. Brzeziańska E, Cyniak-Magierska A, Sporny S, Pastuszak-Lewandoska D, Lewiński A: Assessment of cyclin D1 gene expression as a prognostic factor in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2007 Aug;28(4):341-50
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  • [Title] Assessment of cyclin D1 gene expression as a prognostic factor in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: Cyclin D1, encoded by CCND1 (cyclin D1) gene with locus in chromosome 11q13, is a protein that plays the key role in the passage through the restriction point in G1 phase of cell cycle.
  • 1) an assessment of CCND1 gene expression level in benign and malignant thyroid lesions and 2) the evaluation of possible correlations between gene expression and the histopathological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), or tumour size, classified according to TNM definition of primary tumours (in case of PTC only) or patient's sex or age.
  • DESIGN: Thirty five (35) tissue samples were analysed: 24 cases of PTC, 4 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), 4 cases of follicular adenoma (FA) and 3 cases of nodular goitre (NG).
  • RESULTS: The level of cyclin D1 gene expression was significantly higher in malignant thyroid tumours (PTC, MTC), as compared with that in macroscopically unchanged thyroid tissue, FA and/or NG groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cyclin D1 gene expression in various thyroid lesions may be helpful in diagnostically doubtful cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Cyclin D. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17693985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclins
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72. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118) (CAS No. 31508-00-6) in female harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2010 Nov;(559):1-174
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  • There were no effects on triiodothyronine or thyroid stimulating hormone levels in any dosed groups evaluated at the 14-, 31-, and 53-week interim evaluations.
  • There were increases in hepatic cell proliferation in the 4,600 g/kg group at 14, 31, and 53 weeks.
  • At the 53-week interim evaluation, three 4,600 g/kg rats had liver cholangiocarcinoma and one had hepatocellular adenoma.
  • At 2 years, there were significant treatment-related increases in the incidences of cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular adenoma.
  • At 2 years, a significant dose-related increase in hepatic toxicity was observed and was characterized by increased incidences of numerous lesions including hepatocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, oval cell hyperplasia, pigmentation, multinucleated hepatocyte, eosinophilic and mixed cell foci, diffuse fatty change, toxic hepatopathy, nodular hyperplasia, necrosis, bile duct hyperplasia and cyst, and cholangiofibrosis.
  • A marginal increase in squamous cell carcinoma occurred in the 220 g/kg group.
  • At 2 years, there were marginally increased incidences of exocrine pancreatic adenoma or carcinoma in the 460, 1,000, and 4,600 g/kg core study groups.
  • Numerous nonneoplastic effects were seen in other organs including: adrenal cortical atrophy and cytoplasmic vacuolization, pancreatic acinar cell cytoplasmic vacuolization and arterial chronic active inflammation, follicular cell hypertrophy of the thyroid gland, inflammation and respiratory epithelial hyperplasia of the nose, and kidney pigmentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this 2-year gavage study, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCB 118 in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats based on increased incidences of neoplasms of the liver (cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocholangioma, and hepatocellular adenoma) and cystic keratinizing epithelioma of the lung.
  • Occurrences of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterus and acinar neoplasms of the pancreas may have been related to administration of PCB 118.
  • Administration of PCB 118 caused increased incidences of nonneoplastic lesions in the liver, lung, adrenal cortex, pancreas, thyroid gland, nose, and kidney.

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  • (PMID = 21383778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 31508-00-6 / 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; DO80M48B6O / Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
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73. Garcia EA, Simões K, Wakamatsu A, Ressio RA, Alves VA, Longatto-Filho A, Camargo RS: Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):101-7
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  • [Title] Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia worldwide.
  • In order to evaluate the value of LVD in benign and malignant thyroid lesions, we analyzed 110 thyroidectomy specimens using D2-40, a specific marker for lymphatic vessels and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), the most potent molecule of lymphatic proliferation.
  • LVD was significantly different between papillary and follicular carcinomas in total (p = 0.045) and peritumoral area (p = 0.042).
  • Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma showed an important difference of intra- (p = 0.019) and peritumoral (p = 0.033) LVD.
  • VEGF-C was more markedly expressed in malignancies than in benign lesions (p = 0.0001).
  • Almost all cancers with high positive VEGF-C expression also exhibited increased peritumoral LVD (p = 0.049) when compared with the benign lesions.
  • Indeed, the high peritumoral LVD of malignant thyroid lesions is an important finding for surgery planning and supports the practice of total thyroidectomy in malignant thyroid neoplasm's since the lymphatic peritumoral vessels definitely are an escape path for tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20336393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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74. Târcoveanu E, Niculescu D, Moldovanu R, Cotea E, Vasilescu A, Dănilă N, Lăzescu D, Ferariu D, Crumpei F, Ichim M, Zbranca E: [Surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2009 Sep-Oct;104(5):531-44
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  • Associated diseases were recorded at 47.06% of patients: arterial hypertension--32.4%, coronary heart disease--23.5%, heart rhythm disorders--17.6%, diabetes--11.8%, biliary lithiasis--5.9%, renal lithiasis--8.8% and thyroid hypertrophy--55.9%.
  • In 8 cases, primary hyperparathyroidism was associated with other diseases of the endocrine glands: 4 cases with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) type 1; a patient with von Recklinghausen disease; a patient with associated hypothyroidism and diabetes; two cases that with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Positive diagnosis was supported by determining serum calcium, phosphorus and serum concentration of the parathormone (PTH).
  • In patients with associated thyroid disease total thyroidectomies (26.5%) and subtotal thyroidectomies were done (11.8%).
  • Histopathological examination revealed the presence of parathyroidian adenoma in 67.6% of patients (N=23), parathyroidian hyperplasia in 26.5% (N=9) and parathyroidian carcinoma in the others 5.9% (N=2).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of HPT involves positive determination of calcium and PTH.
  • The postoperative follow-up is mandatory because of the increased potential for recurrence and for diagnosis of other endocrine tumors (in patients with MEN).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Biomarkers / blood. Calcium / blood. Carcinoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphorus / blood. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19943551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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75. Al-Sharif AA, Abujbara MA, Chiacchio S, Ajlouni KM, Mariani G: Contribution of radioiodine uptake measurement and thyroid scintigraphy to the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. Hell J Nucl Med; 2010 May-Aug;13(2):132-7
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  • [Title] Contribution of radioiodine uptake measurement and thyroid scintigraphy to the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis.
  • Based on clinical experience and guideline recommendations, radioiodine iodine uptake (RAIU) measurement and scintigraphy are often requested as the first-line investigation in thyrotoxic patients; however, their specific individual contribution to the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis has not been previously investigated.
  • All patients had RAIU measured at 24 hours after (131)I-iodide administration, followed by thyroid scintigraphy.
  • Based on the combination of RAIU and scintigraphy, patients were classified as having diffuse toxic goiter (DTG) in 44% (the most common diagnosis), toxic adenoma in 15.9%, thyroiditis in 14%, and toxic multinodular goiter in 2.7%, while the pattern was inconclusive in 22.7% of all patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotoxicosis / metabolism. Thyrotoxicosis / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biological Transport. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20808986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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76. Schagdarsurengin U, Richter AM, Hornung J, Lange C, Steinmann K, Dammann RH: Frequent epigenetic inactivation of RASSF2 in thyroid cancer and functional consequences. Mol Cancer; 2010;9:264
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  • [Title] Frequent epigenetic inactivation of RASSF2 in thyroid cancer and functional consequences.
  • In our study, we analyzed the role of RASSF2, RASSF3, RASSF4, RASSF5A, RASSF5C and RASSF6 and the effectors MST1, MST2 and WW45 in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • RESULTS: Frequent methylation of the RASSF2 and RASSF5A CpG island promoters in thyroid tumors was observed.
  • RASSF2 was methylated in 88% of thyroid cancer cell lines and in 63% of primary thyroid carcinomas.
  • RASSF2 methylation was significantly increased in primary thyroid carcinoma compared to normal thyroid, goiter and follicular adenoma (0%, 17% and 0%, respectively; p < 0.05).
  • Patients which were older than 60 years were significantly hypermethylated for RASSF2 in their primary thyroid tumors compared to those younger than 40 years (90% vs. 38%; p < 0.05).
  • Over-expression of RASSF2 reduced colony formation of thyroid cancer cells.
  • Functionally our data show that RASSF2 interacts with the proapoptotic kinases MST1 and MST2 and induces apoptosis in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that RASSF2 encodes a novel epigenetically inactivated candidate tumor suppressor gene in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apoptosis / genetics. Apoptosis / physiology. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. DNA Methylation / genetics. DNA Methylation / physiology. Female. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Protein Binding. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Two-Hybrid System Techniques

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  • (PMID = 20920251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF2 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / STK3 protein, human; EC 2.7.1.- / STK4 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2956732
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77. Jabbour SA, Davidovici BB, Wolf R: Rare syndromes. Clin Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;24(4):299-316
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  • Dermatologists may also encounter patients presenting with skin lesions that reflect an underlying endocrine disorder not commonly seen in daily practice.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A is characterized by medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary parathyroid hyperplasia.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B is characterized by medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma but not hyperparathyroidism.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an autosomal dominant predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands (four-gland hyperplasia), anterior pituitary, and pancreatic islet cells; hence, the mnemonic device of the "3 Ps"; multiple cutaneous lesions (angiofibromas and collagenomas) are frequent in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • Carney complex may be viewed as a form of multiple endocrine neoplasia because affected patients often have tumors of two or more endocrine glands, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (some with Cushing's syndrome), pituitary adenoma, testicular neoplasms, thyroid adenoma or carcinoma, and ovarian cysts.
  • Additional unusual manifestations include psammomatous melanotic schwannoma, breast ductal adenoma, and a rare bone tumor, osteochondromyxoma.
  • Mast cell diseases include all disorders of mast cell proliferation.

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  • (PMID = 16828412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-081X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 155
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78. Zhu XL, Zhou XY, Zhang TM, Zhu XZ: [Expressions of wildtype-RET and RET/PTC rearrangements in sporadic adult papillary thyroid carcinoma and their clinicopathologic correlation]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Feb;35(2):87-91
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  • [Title] [Expressions of wildtype-RET and RET/PTC rearrangements in sporadic adult papillary thyroid carcinoma and their clinicopathologic correlation].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expressions of wildtype-RET (WT-RET) and RET/PTC in sporadic adult papillary thyroid carcinoma and to investigate their clinicopathologic correlation.
  • METHODS: Sixty-six papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and thirty-six control cases with frozen and paraffin-embedded tissues were analyzed for the expressions of WT-RET and oncogene RET/PTC1 or RET/PTC3 by nested RT-PCR. RESULTS:.
  • One of eight adenomas (12.5 %) expressed wild-type RET (WT-RET). (3) Fourteen PTCs (21.2%) expressed RET/PTC, including five cases expressing RET/PTC1 and nine cases expressing RET/PTC3.
  • The expression patterns of WT-RET in PTC and adenoma suggest that there are different molecular mechanisms in activating RET proto-oncogene in thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Gene Rearrangement. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / biosynthesis. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Hashimoto Disease / metabolism. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16630482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ret-PTC fusion oncoproteins, human
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79. Fuhrer D, Eszlinger M, Karger S, Krause K, Engelhardt C, Hasenclever D, Dralle H, Paschke R: Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 May;152(5):785-90
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  • [Title] Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated three markers (insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ets-1) of thyroid growth stimulation and cell transformation together with a thyroid-specific marker (thyroglobulin (Tg)) for their potential to differentiate benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasia (FN).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR in 100 snap-frozen thyroid samples: 36 benign thyroid nodules with different histology and function (19 cold (CTN) and 17 toxic thyroid nodules (TTN)), 36 corresponding normal thyroid tissues of the same patients, eight Graves' disease (GD) thyroids, 10 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and 10 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • RESULTS: Mean IGF-II and COX-2 levels were not significantly altered between benign and malignant thyroid nodules (IGF-II) or nodular (FTC, TTN, CTN) and normal thyroid tissues (COX-2).
  • In contrast, eight- to tenfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in PTC and three- to fourfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in FTC (and GD) compared with benign thyroid nodules and normal thyroid tissues.
  • In addition, thyroglobulin mRNA expression was markedly downregulated (50- to 100-fold) in FTC, PTC and GD samples compared with benign nodular and normal thyroid tissues.
  • Hence an ets-1/Tg ratio >20 distinguished differentiated thyroid cancer from benign nodular or normal thyroid tissue.
  • However, in a consecutive series of 40 FNAC samples only equivocal results were obtained on 38 benign and two malignant (FTC) thyroid tumour samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of ets-1 and downregulation of Tg mRNA expression occur in differentiated thyroid cancer and may facilitate pre-operative identification of thyroid malignancy depending on further evaluation of these potentially promising markers in a larger series of benign and malignant thyroid tumours and their FNAC samples.

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  • (PMID = 15879365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ETS1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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80. Mannavola D, Persani L, Vannucchi G, Zanardelli M, Fugazzola L, Verga U, Facchetti M, Beck-Peccoz P: Different responses to chronic somatostatin analogues in patients with central hyperthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Feb;62(2):176-81
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  • OBJECTIVE: Central hyperthyroidism is mainly due to two different causes, TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSH-oma) and resistance to thyroid hormone in its pituitary variant, i.e. patients presenting with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism (PRTH).
  • Because therapeutic approach and the clinical follow-up are extremely different in these two disorders, a correct differential diagnosis is mandatory.
  • Unfortunately, no definite pathognomonic tool is presently available and an extensive biochemical and instrumental workup is frequently needed in order to reach the correct diagnosis.
  • Aim of the present study was to investigate the use of somatostatin analogues in the differential diagnosis between TSH-omas and PRTH, as well as the possible treatment of PRTH with these analogues.
  • Thus, administration of long acting somatostatin analogues for at least 2 months can be useful in the differential diagnosis in problematic cases of central hyperthyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis. Octreotide. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / secretion. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Delayed-Action Preparations. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyrotropin / secretion. Thyroxine / blood. Treatment Outcome. Triiodothyronine / blood

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  • (PMID = 15670193.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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81. Sheu SY, Vogel E, Worm K, Grabellus F, Schwertheim S, Schmid KW: Hyalinizing trabecular tumour of the thyroid-differential expression of distinct miRNAs compared with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histopathology; 2010 Apr;56(5):632-40
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumour of the thyroid-differential expression of distinct miRNAs compared with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • AIMS: To compare the expression pattern of five microRNAs (miRNAs) (146b, -181b, -21, -221, -222) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and hyalinizing trabecular tumour of the thyroid (HTT).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression pattern of five miRNAs known to be up-regulated in PTC was retrospectively analysed in 18 HTTs, adjacent normal thyroid tissue, 10 PTCs, 10 follicular adenomas and 10 non-toxic multinodular goitres (MNG) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using the TaqMan miRNA assay.
  • All miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in PTCs, whereas all miRNAs in HTT, normal thyroid tissue, adenomas, and MNGs were down-regulated.
  • It is suggested that HTTs lacking both a miRNA expression pattern characteristic for PTC and RET/PTC rearrangements are re-designated as 'hyalinizing trabecular adenomas'.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Rearrangement. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Hyalin / metabolism. Mutation. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20459574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / ret-PTC fusion oncoproteins, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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82. Prieto-Tenreiro A, Díaz-Guardiola P: Long term treatment of a thyrotropin-secreting microadenoma with somatostatin analogues. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010;54(5):502-6
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  • Thyrotropin (TSH) secreting pituitary adenomas (TSH-omas) account for < 1% of all pituitary adenomas and are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • The diagnosis is often made at the stage of macroadenoma because of the aggressive nature of the tumor and due to the fact that patients are mistakenly treated for more common primary hyperthyroidism for a long time.
  • Despite the delay in diagnosis and prior thyroid ablation, a microadenoma was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 20694413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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83. Khalifa M, Slim I, Ghannouchi N, Kaabia N, Sriha B, Letaief A, Bahri F: Eosinophilic fasciitis and toxic thyroid adenoma--a novel association. Acta Clin Belg; 2008 May-Jun;63(3):197-9
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  • [Title] Eosinophilic fasciitis and toxic thyroid adenoma--a novel association.
  • Eosinophilic fasciitis is characterized by skin induration, peripheral blood eosinophilia, hypergammaglobulinaemia and thickening, fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration of the fascia.
  • However, their association with thyroid disorders has rarely been described and includes autoimmune thyroiditis rather than toxic thyroid adenoma.
  • We describe a case of a 53-year-old woman with simultaneous association of eosinophilic fasciitis and subclinical hyperthyroidism caused by toxic thyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Eosinophilia / complications. Fasciitis / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans


84. Weber F, Aldred MA, Morrison CD, Plass C, Frilling A, Broelsch CE, Waite KA, Eng C: Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):1149-55
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  • [Title] Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • The two most common subtypes of thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma, have been extensively studied, but our fundamental understanding of the molecular events in thyroid epithelial oncogenesis is still limited.
  • In this study, we elucidated the frequency and mechanism of ARHI silencing in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia.
  • We demonstrated that underexpression of ARHI occurs principally in FTCs (P = 0.0018), including its oncocytic variant (11 of 13), even at minimally invasive stage but not classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (two of seven) or follicular adenoma (FA) (three of 14).
  • Furthermore, we showed that pharmacologic inhibition of histone deacetylation but not demethylation could reactivate ARHI expression in the FTC133 FTC cell line.
  • Therefore, our data suggest that silencing of the putative maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene ARHI, primarily by large genomic deletion in conjunction with hypermethylation of the genomically imprinted allele, serves as a key early event in follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Gene Silencing. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genomic Imprinting / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15546898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA16059
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / DIRAS3 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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85. Henry JF, Sebag F: [Lateral endoscopic approach for thyroid and parathyroid surgery]. Ann Chir; 2006 Jan;131(1):51-6
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  • [Title] [Lateral endoscopic approach for thyroid and parathyroid surgery].
  • The endoscopic lateral approach in thyroid and parathyroid surgery is achieved by developing the plane between the carotid sheath laterally and the strap muscles medially.
  • This approach allows direct access to the posterior aspect of the thyroid lobe, without the need for the dissection of the strap muscles and without the need for medial retraction of the thyroid during the procedure.
  • The lateral approach aided by endoscopic magnification provides the surgeon with the ideal view with which to safely dissect the vital structures found in the retro-thyroid space such as the inferior thyroid artery, the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands.
  • This approach was initially adopted in primary hyperparathyroidism caused by a single adenoma that had been localized preoperatively.
  • It is now also offered to patients with an isolated thyroid nodule smaller than 25 mm in diameter requiring surgical excision.
  • Experience with 408 parathyroidectomies and the preliminary results of 38 thyroid lobectomies allows the authors to recommend this technique to appropriately selected patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Functional Laterality. Humans. Patient Selection. Thyroid Nodule / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16289092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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86. Ciobanu D, Vulpoi C, Florea N, Ungureanu MC, Mogoş V, Stefănescu C, Rusu V, Andriescu L, Grigorovici A, Zbranca E: [The role of fine needle aspiration biopsy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2007 Jan-Mar;111(1):49-56
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  • [Title] [The role of fine needle aspiration biopsy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • The aim of the study was to demonstrate the utility of FNAB in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma.
  • In follicular carcinoma (FC), where the cytological diagnostic cannot be certain, morphometry helped the diagnostic: mean cells diameter was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in FC (9.5 mm) vs. thyroid adenoma (8.6 mm).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17595846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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87. Khandwala H, Lee C: Inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone. CMAJ; 2006 Aug 15;175(4):351
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  • [Title] Inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • [Cites] Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2000 Jan;1(1-2):97-108 [11704998.001]
  • [Cites] Endocr Rev. 1996 Dec;17(6):610-38 [8969971.001]
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  • (PMID = 16908893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2329
  • [Journal-full-title] CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CMAJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1534105
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88. Malhotra G, Asopa R, Rajan MG: Renal metastases from thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2010 Nov;20(11):1321; author reply 321-2
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  • [Title] Renal metastases from thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Positron-Emission Tomography. Quality of Life

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  • [CommentOn] Thyroid. 2010 Apr;20(4):429-33 [20373987.001]
  • (PMID = 21062198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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89. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of a binary mixture of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) (Cas No. 57465-28-8) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) (CAS No. 35065-27-1) in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2006 Aug;(530):1-258
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  • Thyroid Hormone Concentrations: Alterations in serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated at the 14-, 31-, and 53-week interim evaluations.
  • Serum total triiodothyronine (T(3)) exhibited a treatment-related increase at the 14-, 31-, and 53-week interim evaluations, but serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were increased at the 14-week time point only.
  • Hepatic Cell Proliferation Data: To evaluate hepatocyte replication, analysis of labeling of replicating hepatocytes with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was conducted at the 14-, 31-, and 53-week interim evaluations.
  • At the end of the 2-year study, there were significantly increased incidences and severities of toxic hepatopathy characterized by hepatocyte hypertrophy, multinucleated hepatocytes, pigmentation, diffuse and focal fatty change, eosinophilic focus, nodular hyperplasia, cholangiofibrosis, oval cell hyperplasia, bile duct cysts, bile duct hyperplasia, necrosis, and portal fibrosis.
  • Significantly increased incidences of hepatocellular adenoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatocholangioma were observed in the study.
  • In addition, single occurrences of squamous cell carcinoma were seen in the top two dose groups.
  • Significantly increased incidences of squamous cell carcinoma (gingival) of the oral mucosa were seen at the end of the 2-year study and were accompanied by increased incidences of gingival squamous hyperplasia.
  • In the uterus at 2 years, there was a marginal increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in Group 5.
  • Numerous nonneoplastic effects were seen in other organs at the interim time points including atrophy of the thymus and follicular cell hypertrophy of the thyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 17160104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; TSH69IA9XF / 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl; ZRU0C9E32O / 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl
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90. Ito Y, Akinaga A, Yamanaka K, Nakagawa T, Kondo A, Dickson RB, Lin CY, Miyauchi A, Taniguchi N, Miyoshi E: Co-expression of matriptase and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V in thyroid cancer tissues--its possible role in prolonged stability in vivo by aberrant glycosylation. Glycobiology; 2006 May;16(5):368-74
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  • [Title] Co-expression of matriptase and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V in thyroid cancer tissues--its possible role in prolonged stability in vivo by aberrant glycosylation.
  • In this study, we report on an investigation of the expression of GnT-V and matriptase in thyroid neoplasm tissues to determine the clinical significance on the co-expression of these two proteins in thyroid cancer.
  • Although neither GnT-V nor matriptase was expressed in normal thyroid tissue, positive staining for matriptase and GnT-V was observed in 52/68 and 66/68 cases of papillary carcinoma, 3/23 and 10/23 cases of follicular carcinoma, 5/13 and 9/13 cases of follicular adenoma, and 11/28 and 6/28 cases of anaplastic carcinoma, respectively.
  • In contrast, the prognosis of thyroid carcinoma after surgery was neither correlated with the expression GnT-V nor matriptase, because the levels of their expression were quite low in anaplastic (undifferentiated) carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases / metabolism. Serine Endopeptidases / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16464868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Glycobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glycobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA096851
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.155 / alpha-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein beta 1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / matriptase
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91. De Martino I, Fedele M, Palmieri D, Visone R, Cappabianca P, Wierinckx A, Trouillas J, Fusco A: B-RAF mutations are a rare event in pituitary adenomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jan;30(1):RC1-3
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  • [Title] B-RAF mutations are a rare event in pituitary adenomas.
  • Recent studies have revealed frequent activating mutations of the gene for B-RAF, an effector of Ras protein in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, in several malignancies, including melanoma, thyroid, colorectal and ovarian cancer.
  • Therefore, in the present study we have investigated the presence of the B-RAF mutations, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hot spot exons 11 and 15, followed by direct sequencing, in 50 human pituitary adenomas, including 25 NFPA and 25 secreting adenomas (10 GH, 5 PRL, 6 LH and/or FSH, 4 GH/PRL).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Mutation. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17318013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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92. Elston MS, Conaglen JV: Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas from one New Zealand centre. Intern Med J; 2010 Mar;40(3):214-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas from one New Zealand centre.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma) are a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis and need to be distinguished from the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone.
  • Patients with TSHoma may also be misdiagnosed as having primary hyperthyroidism and receive inappropriate treatment directed towards the thyroid gland.
  • All patients had elevated free thyroid hormone levels with elevated, or inappropriately normal, TSH levels.
  • The median age at presentation was 43 years and the median time from symptom onset to correct diagnosis was 3 years (range 0.25-12 years).
  • Five patients had a macroadenoma at the time of diagnosis.
  • Three patients received octreotide as primary treatment with two of these patients later undergoing transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: With increased awareness and earlier diagnosis of TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas, management can be appropriately directed towards the pituitary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / therapy. Hospitals, Special. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19849747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-5994
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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93. Vitagliano D, Portella G, Troncone G, Francione A, Rossi C, Bruno A, Giorgini A, Coluzzi S, Nappi TC, Rothstein JL, Pasquinelli R, Chiappetta G, Terracciano D, Macchia V, Melillo RM, Fusco A, Santoro M: Thyroid targeting of the N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene in transgenic mice results in follicular tumors that progress to poorly differentiated carcinomas. Oncogene; 2006 Aug 31;25(39):5467-74
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  • [Title] Thyroid targeting of the N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene in transgenic mice results in follicular tumors that progress to poorly differentiated carcinomas.
  • Ras oncogenes are frequently mutated in thyroid carcinomas.
  • To verify the role played by N-ras in thyroid carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice in which a human N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene (Tg-N-ras) was expressed in the thyroid follicular cells.
  • Tg-N-ras mice developed thyroid follicular neoplasms; 11% developed follicular adenomas and approximately 40% developed invasive follicular carcinomas, in some cases with a mixed papillary/follicular morphology.
  • N-ras(Gln61Lys) expression in cultured PC Cl 3 thyrocytes induced thyroid-stimulating hormone-independent proliferation and genomic instability with micronuclei formation and centrosome amplification.
  • These findings support the notion that mutated ras oncogenes could be able to drive the formation of thyroid tumors that can progress to poorly differentiated, metastatic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, ras. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Amino Acid Substitution. Animals. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Invasiveness


94. Iwai Y, Yamanaka K, Yoshioka K, Yoshimura M, Honda Y, Matsusaka Y, Komiyama M, Yasui T: [The usefulness of adjuvant therapy using gamma knife radiosurgery for the recurrent or residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas]. No Shinkei Geka; 2005 Aug;33(8):777-83
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  • [Title] [The usefulness of adjuvant therapy using gamma knife radiosurgery for the recurrent or residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas].
  • We evaluated the treatment results of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas in the era of radiosurgery.
  • Between January 1994 and December 2003, we operated on 44 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Two patients (7%) required adrenal and thyroid hormonal replacement during the follow-up period after radiosurgery due to radiation-induced endocrinopathy.
  • Surgical resection using transsphenoidal surgery and subsequent gamma knife radiosurgery for residual and recurrent tumor proved to have a highly effective tumor growth control rate, and maintained the quality of life in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 16095207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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95. Mofid AR, Yazdani T, Shahrzad M, Seyedalinaghi S, Zandieh S: Role of fine-needle aspiration in the management of thyroid nodules. Saudi Med J; 2009 Apr;30(4):515-8
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  • [Title] Role of fine-needle aspiration in the management of thyroid nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: To show the benefits of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in managing thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: As a retrospective study, reports of 888 FNABs of the thyroid performed during a period of 11 years (1996-2007) at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Sina Hospital and Endocrine Clinic, Tehran, Iran were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The cytology diagnoses by FNAB were: papillary 6 (3.2%); follicular neoplasm 51 (28%); follicular adenoma 10 (5.4%); Hurthle cell neoplasm 8 (4.3%); suspicious 20 (10.9%); inconclusive 2 (1%); and benign 85 (46.4%).
  • Due to surgery pathologic reports, malignant cytologies were: 6 (100%) for papillary, 1 (1.96%) for follicular neoplasm, 4 (50%) for Hurthle cell neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: Fine needle aspiration is a useful technique for selecting patients with nodular thyroid disease for surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19370278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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96. Hörkkö TT, Tuppurainen K, George SM, Jernvall P, Karttunen TJ, Mäkinen MJ: Thyroid hormone receptor beta1 in normal colon and colorectal cancer-association with differentiation, polypoid growth type and K-ras mutations. Int J Cancer; 2006 Apr 1;118(7):1653-9
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  • [Title] Thyroid hormone receptor beta1 in normal colon and colorectal cancer-association with differentiation, polypoid growth type and K-ras mutations.
  • The precursors for colorectal cancer include polypoid (conventional), flat and serrated adenomas.
  • Polypoid growth in polypoid adenomas and serrated adenomas is associated with K-ras mutations.
  • The regulation of polypoid or nonpolypoid growth is not well known, but could be related to trophic stimuli, such as thyroid hormones.
  • Hence, we investigated the expression pattern of thyroid hormone receptor TRbeta1 in colorectal mucosa and in colorectal tumours and its relationship to tumour growth type.
  • Nuclear TRbeta1 was almost always present in normal epithelium (96%), but less frequent in adenomas (83%) and in cancer (68%; p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively).
  • Association of TRbeta1 expression with growth pattern and the presence of K-ras mutations suggest that abnormalities in thyroid hormone signalling involving TRbeta1 play a role in the development of some types of colorectal adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Genes, ras. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / biosynthesis. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16231318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta
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97. Gautschi OP, Hildebrandt G: Emil Theodor Kocher (25/8/1841-27/7/1917)--A Swiss (neuro-)surgeon and Nobel Prize winner. Br J Neurosurg; 2009 Jun;23(3):234-6
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  • January 9, 2009 commemorates the 100-year anniversary of the Swiss surgeon Emil Theodor Kocher's first performance of the surgical removal of a pituitary adenoma by a trans-nasal approach.
  • He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1909 for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland.
  • Kocher's most significant contribution to medicine concerned the thyroid and pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] History, 19th Century. History, 20th Century. Nobel Prize. Switzerland. Thyroid Diseases / history. Thyroid Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19533456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-046X
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Kocher ET
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98. Salaverría Garzón I, Villaseñor Navas M, Sánchez Herrera S, Martínez Elbal L: [Tako-Tsubo syndrome (transient apical dyskinesia). An entity that can mimic a myocardial infarction]. An Med Interna; 2008 Jan;25(1):20-2
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  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de Tako-Tsubo (discinesia apical transitoria). Un síndrome que simula un infarto de miocardio.
  • We report a case of Tako-Tsubo syndrome after thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Myocardial Infarction / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Biomarkers. Coronary Angiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Electrocardiography. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18377190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-7199
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain : 1984)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Med Interna
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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99. Hubina E, Góth M, Korbonits M: [Ghrelin--a hormone with multiple functions]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jun 19;146(25):1345-51
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  • It stimulates growth hormone, corticotropic hormone and prolactin secretion, but also plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, carbohydrate- and lipid metabolism and possibly on gastric acid secretion, gastric motility, heart function and as well as immune functions and cell proliferation.
  • Ghrelin was originally identified from the stomach but it is also present in all tissue among others in: hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, lung, immune cells, placenta, ovary, testis, kidney and in different tumours including pituitary adenoma, neuroendocrine tumours, thyroid carcinomas, endocrine tumours of the pancreas and lung.
  • The receptor is localised in the central nervous system, kidney, thyroid, pancreas, myocardium and spleen.
  • Although we know much about the ghrelin, number of questions remain unanswered, such as the effects of the locally-produced ghrelin or its role in the cell metabolism.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Appetite Regulation. Cell Proliferation. Ghrelin. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16106757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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100. Brown RL, Muzzafar T, Wollman R, Weiss RE: A pituitary carcinoma secreting TSH and prolactin: a non-secreting adenoma gone awry. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 May;154(5):639-43
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  • [Title] A pituitary carcinoma secreting TSH and prolactin: a non-secreting adenoma gone awry.
  • Pathologic examination revealed a chromophobe adenoma with increased mitotic forms.
  • Although development of a carcinoma from a pituitary adenoma is very rare (<0.5%), macroadenomas that become hormonally active should be suspect for transformation into pituitary cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16645009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK07011; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00055; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR18372
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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