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1. Pickett CA, Agoff SN, Widman TJ, Bronner MP: Altered expression of cyclins and cell cycle inhibitors in papillary thyroid cancer: prognostic implications. Thyroid; 2005 May;15(5):461-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Altered expression of cyclins and cell cycle inhibitors in papillary thyroid cancer: prognostic implications.
  • Currently we lack biochemical or molecular markers that predict recurrence and metastases in thyroid cancer.
  • Recent studies in a number of other human malignancies indicate that expression and/or subcellular localization of certain cell cycle regulators has prognostic utility.
  • We have investigated the expression of cyclins D1 and E and of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor's p21 and p27 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and correlated this with clinical/histological stage at diagnosis and with clinical outcome.
  • PTCs were compared to normal thyroid, adenomas, and undifferentiated thyroid cancers (UTCs).
  • Our studies indicate that PTCs and UTCs demonstrate low nuclear expression of cyclin E and p27, allowing a clear distinction between adenomas and these carcinomas (p < 0.004).
  • These studies suggest that evaluation of a panel of these markers and attention to their subcellular localization may be a useful adjunct in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and in predicting tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cyclins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Cyclin E / biosynthesis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tissue Fixation. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis


2. Das K, Kendall C, Isabelle M, Fowler C, Christie-Brown J, Stone N: FTIR of touch imprint cytology: a novel tissue diagnostic technique. J Photochem Photobiol B; 2008 Sep 18;92(3):160-4
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  • FTIR spectral profiles of TIC of lymph node and thyroid tissues differ visually when compared with TIC spectra of parathyroid tissue.
  • The thyroid spectra, in addition to evident strong protein peaks at 1547cm(-1) and 1659cm(-1), also demonstrated possible nucleic acid signals at 1079cm(-1) and 1244cm(-1).
  • Parathyroid adenoma showed a marginal shift to lower wavenumbers with decreased amide I and II peak intensities when compared to hyperplasia.
  • Nucleic acid peak positions at 1079cm(-1) and 1244cm(-1) were of higher intensity in adenomas compared to hyperplastic glands possibly demonstrating an increase in cell proliferation and growth.
  • This study demonstrates the feasibility of cytoimprint FTIR for the intraoperative diagnosis of tissue during surgical neck exploration for the management of hyperparathyroidism.
  • There is potential for the application of the technique in sentinel lymph node biopsy diagnosis and tumour margin evaluation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagectomy. Frozen Sections. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18640848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-1344
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Department of Health / / CSA/03/07/017
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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3. Nelson KK, Gattuso P, Xu X, Prinz RA: Expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway molecules in synchronous follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in predicting malignancy. Surgery; 2010 Oct;148(4):654-60; discussion 660
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  • [Title] Expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway molecules in synchronous follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in predicting malignancy.
  • The Sonic Hedgehog pathway is required for normal thyroid gland development, but when activated as a result of gene mutation or overexpression, it may stimulate thyroid tumor cell proliferation.
  • This study determines whether 3 molecules, Patched, Smoothened, and Sonic Hedgehog, involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway are overexpressed equally in synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients with synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent thyroidectomy.
  • Patched expression was detected in 5 of 13 (38%) follicular adenomas and 5 of 12 (42%) papillary carcinomas.
  • Smoothened was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 3 of 13 (23%) papillary carcinomas.
  • Sonic Hedgehog was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 11 of 13 (85%) papillary carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of the 3 molecules involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway was similar in follicular thyroid adenoma, but Sonic Hedgehog expression was a more sensitive indicator of malignancy in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Greater understanding of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway may provide molecular methods for preventing or treating papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Hedgehog Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20797751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / SHH protein, human
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4. Nygaard B, Frisch T, Kiss K: [Thyroid papillary cancer using TPO staining]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2008 Apr 28;170(18):1571
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  • [Title] [Thyroid papillary cancer using TPO staining].
  • Immunostaining for TPO (MoAb47) has been used to predict the risk of thyroid cancer in thyroid adenomas without uptake in thyroid 99m pertechnetate scintigraphy.
  • This case describes a 16-year-old girl with thyroid papillary cancer staining 95% positive using TPO staining.
  • The case indicates that TPO staining can not be used as the only parameter in the evaluation of the risk of cancer in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Iodide Peroxidase / analysis. Staining and Labeling / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18454932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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5. Miseikyte-Kaubriene E, Ulys A, Trakymas M: [The frequency of malignant disease in cytological group of suspected cancer (ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable thyroid nodules)]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(3):189-94
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  • [Title] [The frequency of malignant disease in cytological group of suspected cancer (ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable thyroid nodules)].
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the most important procedure for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones.
  • Traditionally, findings of fine-needle aspiration biopsy are divided into four categories: nondiagnostic, benign lesions, suspected cancer, and malignant lesions.
  • Group suspicious for cancer largely involves follicular neoplasms as well as lesions with cytological features of malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish the value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of nonpalpable thyroid cancer and to assess the frequency of malignant disease in the group of suspected cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 184 patients with nonpalpable thyroid nodules (less than 1.5 cm in diameter) were examined by means of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • RESULTS. During 1997-2002, 204 ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies of thyroid nodules were performed; findings were nondiagnostic in 5.9% of cases.
  • In 59.8% of cases, cytological examination revealed benign lesions; in 11.8%, suspected cancer; and in 22.5%, malignant lesions.
  • In 45 cases, cytological diagnosis of malignant or suspected thyroid cancer was confirmed by histological examination after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy has a high accuracy in the diagnostic evaluation of nonpalpable thyroid nodule with cytological features of malignancy.
  • However, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is not effective diagnostic method for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones in follicular neoplasm group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Palpation. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18413985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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6. Naço M, Celiku E, Llukaçaj A, Shehaj J, Kameniku R: Toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Hippokratia; 2009 Apr;13(2):116-8
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  • [Title] Toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.
  • We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with toxic adenoma scheduled for surgery right lobectomy and isthmectomy of thyroid gland.
  • In this case report we discuss the role of induction of anesthesia and presence of toxic adenoma in a patient with WPW.

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  • (PMID = 19561784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Hippokratia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hippokratia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2683455
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome / accessory pathway / congenital heart defect / hyper functioning solitary nodule / preexcitation / radio-frequency ablation / surgical ablation / toxic adenoma
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7. Hoftijzer HC, Liu YY, Morreau H, van Wezel T, Pereira AM, Corssmit EP, Romijn JA, Smit JW: Retinoic acid receptor and retinoid X receptor subtype expression for the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Apr;160(4):631-8
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  • [Title] Retinoic acid receptor and retinoid X receptor subtype expression for the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Although differential expression of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) subtypes between benign and malignant thyroid tissues has been described, their diagnostic value has not been reported.
  • AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of RAR and retinoid X receptor (RXR) subtype protein expression for the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.
  • METHODS: We used a tissue array containing 93 benign thyroid tissues (normal thyroid, multinodular goiter, and follicular adenoma (FA)) and 77 thyroid carcinomas (papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma, and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC)).
  • RESULTS: We found increased expression of cytoplasmic (c) RARA, cRARG, cRXRB and decreased expression of nuclear (n) RARB, nRARG, and nRXRA in thyroid carcinomas compared with benign tissues.
  • Using cluster analysis, the combination of negative staining of membranous RXRB and positive staining for cRXRB had a high positive predictive value (98%) for malignant thyroid disease, whereas the combination of positive nRXRA and negative cRXRB staining had a high predictive value (91%) for benign thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that differences in RAR and RXR subtype protein expression may be valuable for the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 19155317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Retinoid X Receptors
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8. Uchida N, Suda T, Inoue T, Fujiwara Y, Ishiguro K: Needle track dissemination of follicular thyroid carcinoma following fine-needle aspiration biopsy: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(1):34-7
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  • [Title] Needle track dissemination of follicular thyroid carcinoma following fine-needle aspiration biopsy: report of a case.
  • Few reports have been concerned with the risk of needle track dissemination of tumor cells following fine-needle aspiration biopsy, especially for follicular thyroid nodules.
  • A 61-year-old woman who underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy and surgery 5 years previously for follicular thyroid adenoma presented with nodules that had developed in the sternocleidomastoid and omohyoid muscles of the anterior neck.
  • These nodules were located along a line from the skin to the thyroid that coincided with the needle track of the previous biopsy.
  • Following surgical resection, histological diagnosis determined the nodules to be follicular carcinoma.
  • Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a useful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, it is important to consider the risk of tumor cell dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Seeding. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17186343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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9. Wakely PE Jr: Oncocytic and oncocyte-like lesions of the head and neck. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Jun;12(3):222-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • An oncocyte is a cell containing an abundant amount of deeply eosinophilic finely granular cytoplasm, rounded nuclei, and variable presence of nucleoli in conventional hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Humans. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18486901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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10. Karger S, Berger K, Eszlinger M, Tannapfel A, Dralle H, Paschke R, Führer D: Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies. Thyroid; 2005 Sep;15(9):997-1003
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  • [Title] Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies.
  • Impairment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) function through a dominant negative PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene or other events resulting in wild-type PPAR-gamma downregulation has been implicated in malignant thyroid cell transformation.
  • The aim of our study was to perform a systematic evaluation of PPAR-gamma mRNA and protein expression in normal thyroid tissue as opposed to benign thyroid pathologies of different functional status and thyroid malignancy, to gain further insights into a putative physiological role of PPAR-gamma in the thyroid and to define whether PPAR-gamma could serve as a marker of thyroid cell differentiation.
  • Ten cold benign (CTN) and 10 toxic (TTN) thyroid nodules and corresponding normal thyroid tissues, 10 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 10 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) and 8 Graves' disease (GD) thyroids were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR (PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene).
  • When comparing benign nodular and normal thyroid tissue of the same patient no significant difference in PPAR-gamma mRNA expression was observed.
  • In contrast, PPAR-gamma mRNA expression was downregulated in 9 of 10 PTC and all GD samples, whereby at least 4 fold downregulation (compared with normal and benign nodular thyroid tissues) was observed in the latter.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed an increased, patchy PPAR-gamma nuclear staining in CTNs and TTNs and only faint staining in the corresponding normal thyroid tissues.
  • No PAX-8/PPAR-gamma rearrangements were detected in any of the 68 thyroid tissue samples.
  • In conclusion PPAR-gamma mRNA and protein expression levels are not concordant in benign thyroid nodular disease.
  • Furthermore there is no clear-cut association of PPAR-gamma mRNA expression with follicular thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Absence of a PAX-8/PPAR-gamma fusion gene in the series of 68 thyroid samples is in agreement with the suggestion of PAX-8/PPAR-gamma rearrangement being restricted to a subset of follicular thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] PPAR gamma / biosynthesis. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Apoptosis / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Graves Disease / genetics. Graves Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16187907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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11. Horányi J, Duffek L, Kemenes M, Szlávik R, Darvas K, Dabasi G, Lakatos P, Tóth M: [New intraoperative diagnostic methods parathyroid surgery. Adenoma localization by gamma probe]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1443-5
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  • [Title] [New intraoperative diagnostic methods parathyroid surgery. Adenoma localization by gamma probe].
  • [Transliterated title] Uj, intraoperatív diagnosztikus módszerek a mellékpajzsmirigy-sebészetben: gamma-szondás adenoma-lokalizáció.
  • INTRODUCTION: The key to heal primary hyperparathyroidism is to find the hyper functioning parathyroid gland(s).
  • METHODS: At 122 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy in last 5 years with diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism perioperative sestamibi scanning by gamma probe was taken to localize the adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Because of the thyroid lobes also accumulate sestamibi the localizability of adenomas depended on direction of scanning.
  • Localization of adenomas by percutaneous measurement was correct in 36.1% of cases and by perioperative direct scanning in 66.4%.
  • Furthermore, ex vivo scan of removed adenomas showed impressively high activity in all cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In their experience sestamibi scanning lightens the operation only in a part of cases but probably it will be the most important method of localization if isotope selectively accumulating in parathyroid gland could be found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Gamma Rays. Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Diseases / surgery. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16089105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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12. Zhou GW, Wei Y, Chen X, Jiang XH, Li XY, Ning G, Li HW: Diagnosis and surgical treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Jul 5;122(13):1495-500
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and surgical treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia.
  • We discuss the diagnosis and surgical treatment of MEN.
  • There were 22 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), 10 cases of enteropanceatic tumor including 9 cases of insulinoma, 15 cases of pituitary adenoma, 9 cases of adrenal adenoma, 2 cases of thymic carcinoid.
  • Two patients had 4 glands involved, 3 patients had 3 glands involved, 16 patients had 2 glands involved, and 6 patients had only one gland involved.
  • 48 cases of MEN2a had thyroid masses with elevated calcitonin levels.
  • 5 MEN2b patients had medullary thyroid carcinoma and mucosal ganglioneuromatosis with Marfanoid.
  • RESULTS: In MEN1, subtotal parathyroidectomy was performed in 12 patients with PHPT and one patient received parathyroid adenoma enucleation.
  • Germline mutation test is helpful in establishing a diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19719936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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13. Pelizzo MR, Toniato A, Piotto A, Pagetta C, Ide EC, Boschin IM, Bernante P: [The surgical treatment of the nodular goiter]. Ann Ital Chir; 2008 Jan-Feb;79(1):13-6
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  • METHODS: From January to December 2004, 1009 out of 1580 patients admitted to our Center underwent surgical treatment for thyroid disease.
  • More in detail, toxic multinodular goiter was found in 13.5% of the patients, euthyroid multinodular goiter in 46.6%, single hyperplastic nodule in 2.3%, follicular lesion in 14%, Plummer's adenoma in 4.4%, relapsing goiter in 2.6% and thyroid cyst in 0.12%.
  • Thyroid lobectomy was carried out in 20.8% of patients, while the remaining 79.2% underwent to total thyroidectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgery should be advocated for the treatment of thyroid nodules whenever a patient presents with either pressure symptoms, hyperthyroidism or follicular cytology.
  • Bilateral surgical exploration of the gland should be always carried out to assess the extension of the disease.
  • Thyroid lobectomy with frozen section should be limited to unilateral nodular goiter.

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  • (PMID = 18572733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Trovisco V, Soares P, Preto A, de Castro IV, Lima J, Castro P, Máximo V, Botelho T, Moreira S, Meireles AM, Magalhães J, Abrosimov A, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Sobrinho-Simões M: Type and prevalence of BRAF mutations are closely associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma histotype and patients' age but not with tumour aggressiveness. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jun;446(6):589-95
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  • [Title] Type and prevalence of BRAF mutations are closely associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma histotype and patients' age but not with tumour aggressiveness.
  • A high prevalence of the BRAF(V600E) somatic mutation was recently reported in several series of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • Another BRAF mutation (K601E) was detected in a follicular adenoma and in some cases of the follicular variant of PTC.
  • The BRAF(V600E) mutation was exclusively detected in PTC with a papillary or mixed follicular/papillary architecture both of the conventional type (46%) and of other histotypes, such as microcarcinoma (43%), Warthin-like PTC (75%) and oncocytic variant of PTC (55%).
  • The BRAF(K601E) mutation was detected in four of the 54 cases of the follicular variant of PTC (7%).
  • The BRAF (BRAF(V600E)) mutated PTC did not exhibit signs of higher aggressiveness (size, vascular invasion, extra-thyroid extension and nodal metastasis) and were in fact less often multicentric than PTC without the mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adult. Age Factors. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 15902486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Chao TC, Lin JD, Chen MF: Surgical treatment of Hurthle cell tumors of the thyroid. World J Surg; 2005 Feb;29(2):164-8
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of Hurthle cell tumors of the thyroid.
  • Hurthle cell tumors are relatively rare thyroid tumors and their management and prognosis is controversial.
  • We retrospectively review 135 Hurthle cell adenomas and 28 Hurthle cell carcinomas of the thyroid surgically treated at our institute.
  • No significant difference was found between the adenoma and carcinoma groups in patient age, gender, and tumor size.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of frozen section in detecting malignancy of the thyroid gland were 40.0%, 100.0%, 92.9%, 100.0%, and 92.0%.
  • Most of the adenomas were treated with procedures no less invasive than lobectomy/isthmusectomy.
  • No recurrence of Hurthle cell adenomas was noted.
  • Five adenoma patients died of causes unrelated to their Hurthle cell tumors, but no carcinoma patients died during the follow-up period.
  • In conclusion, clinical factors and FNAC are not helpful in the differentiation between adenoma and carcinoma.
  • Unilateral Hurthle cell adenoma can be treated by lobectomy/isthmusectomy, and Hurthle cell carcinoma can be treated by total thyroidectomy with minimal operative morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15650796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Zhou C, Wang Y, Aguirre AD, Tsai TH, Cohen DW, Connolly JL, Fujimoto JG: Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy. J Biomed Opt; 2010 Jan-Feb;15(1):016001
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  • [Title] Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy.
  • We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast.
  • 34 thyroid gland specimens are imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology ranging from normal thyroid to benign disease/neoplasms (multinodular colloid goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma) and malignant thyroid tumors (papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma).
  • Characteristic features that suggest malignant lesions, such as complex papillary architecture, microfollicules, psammomatous calcifications, or replacement of normal follicular architecture with sheets/nests of tumor cells, can be identified from OCT and OCM images and are clearly differentiable from normal or benign thyroid tissues.
  • With further development of needle-based imaging probes, OCT and OCM could be promising techniques to use for the screening of thyroid nodules and to improve the diagnostic specificity of fine needle aspiration evaluation.

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  • (PMID = 20210448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1560-2281
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA075289-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075289; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075289-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA75289-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2844129
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17. Rivolta CM, Moya CM, Esperante SA, Gutnisky VJ, Varela V, Targovnik HM: [The thyroid as a model for molecular mechanisms in genetic diseases]. Medicina (B Aires); 2005;65(3):257-67
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  • [Title] [The thyroid as a model for molecular mechanisms in genetic diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] La tiroides como modelo de mecanismos moleculares en enfermedades geneticas.
  • Thyroid diseases constitute a heterogeneous collection of abnormalities associated with mutations in genes responsible for the development of thyroid: thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), thyroid transcriptions factor-2 (TTF-2) and PAX8, or in one of the genes coding for the proteins involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis such as thyroglobulin (TG), thyroperoxidase (TPO), hydrogen peroxide-generating system (DUOX2), sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), pendrin (PDS), TSH and TSH receptor (TSHr).
  • Somatic mutations of the TSHr have been identified in hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas.
  • Another established thyroid disease is the resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH).
  • It is a syndrome of reduced tissue responsiveness to hormonal action caused by mutations located in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRbeta) gene.
  • In conclusion, the identification of mutations in the thyroid expression genes has provided important insights into structure-function relationships.
  • The thyroid constitutes an excellent model for the molecular study of genetic diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / genetics. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Mutation. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Hormones / biosynthesis. Thyroid Hormones / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16042141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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18. Magro G, Benkova K, Michal M: Meningioma-like tumor of the thyroid: a previously undescribed variant of follicular adenoma. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jun;446(6):677-9
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  • [Title] Meningioma-like tumor of the thyroid: a previously undescribed variant of follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Meningioma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 15891903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Rubello D, Giannini S, Martini C, Piotto A, Rampin L, Fanti S, Armigliato M, Nardi A, Carpi A, Mariani G, Gross MD, Pelizzo MR: Minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy. Biomed Pharmacother; 2006 Apr;60(3):134-8
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  • On the basis of preoperative imaging including Sestamibi scintigraphy and neck ultrasound (US), 263 patients (74% of the whole series) with evidence of a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA) and a normal thyroid gland were addressed to MIRP and in 253 (96%) of them this minimally invasive neck exploration was successfully performed.
  • The most frequent cause of exclusion from MIRP in our series was the presence of concomitant Sestamibi avid thyroid nodules (68.5% of cases) that can give false positive results at radio-guided surgery.
  • In conclusion, MIRP is an effective treatment in patients with a high likelihood of a solitary PA and a normal thyroid gland at scintigraphy and US so that an accurate preoperative localizing imaging is required for MIRP.
  • Patients with concomitant Sestamibi avid thyroid nodules should be excluded from MIRP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Gamma Cameras. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Radiology, Interventional / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 16524690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0753-3322
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine & pharmacothérapie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Pharmacother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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20. Eszlinger M, Paschke R: Molecular fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of thyroid nodules by tumor specific mutations and gene expression patterns. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Jun 30;322(1-2):29-37
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  • [Title] Molecular fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of thyroid nodules by tumor specific mutations and gene expression patterns.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is currently the most sensitive and specific tool for the presurgical differential diagnosis of thyroid malignancy, but has also substantial limitations.
  • While approximately 75% of FNAB reveal benign lesions and 5% already cytologically prove malignancy, up to 20% of FNAB show follicular proliferation for which follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma can only be distinguished histologically, thus requiring thyroid surgery.
  • However, new biomarkers that might improve the accuracy of FNAB come along with the discovery of more and more details of the molecular etiology of thyroid tumors.
  • Nevertheless, the application of molecular markers will significantly improve thyroid tumor diagnosis and thus it will help to prevent unnecessary surgeries and it will also help to guide mutation-specific targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Mutation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20083161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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21. Mofid AR, Yazdani T, Shahrzad M, Seyedalinaghi S, Zandieh S: Role of fine-needle aspiration in the management of thyroid nodules. Saudi Med J; 2009 Apr;30(4):515-8
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  • [Title] Role of fine-needle aspiration in the management of thyroid nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: To show the benefits of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in managing thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: As a retrospective study, reports of 888 FNABs of the thyroid performed during a period of 11 years (1996-2007) at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Sina Hospital and Endocrine Clinic, Tehran, Iran were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The cytology diagnoses by FNAB were: papillary 6 (3.2%); follicular neoplasm 51 (28%); follicular adenoma 10 (5.4%); Hurthle cell neoplasm 8 (4.3%); suspicious 20 (10.9%); inconclusive 2 (1%); and benign 85 (46.4%).
  • Due to surgery pathologic reports, malignant cytologies were: 6 (100%) for papillary, 1 (1.96%) for follicular neoplasm, 4 (50%) for Hurthle cell neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: Fine needle aspiration is a useful technique for selecting patients with nodular thyroid disease for surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19370278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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22. Laco J, Ryska A: [The use of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of thyroid gland tumors with follicular growth pattern]. Cesk Patol; 2006 Jul;42(3):120-4
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  • [Title] [The use of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of thyroid gland tumors with follicular growth pattern].
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of galectin-3 (gal3), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and E-cadherin (Ecad) in thyroid gland tumors with follicular growth pattern with particular focus on their use in differential diagnosis.
  • A series of 139 cases - 87 follicular adenomas (FAs), 26 follicular carcinomas (FCs), and 26 cases of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) was studied.
  • Therefore, the use of gal3 and CK19 in differential diagnosis of FVPC versus FA and FC can be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemistry. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cadherins / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16955558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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23. Murakami S, Sakata H, Okubo K, Tsuji Y, Kayano H: Thyroid adenoma with extensive extracellular mucin deposition: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(3):226-9
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  • [Title] Thyroid adenoma with extensive extracellular mucin deposition: report of a case.
  • A thyroid tumor with extensive extracellular mucin deposition is extremely rare.
  • We herein describe a case of a thyroid adenoma with prominent myxoid stroma.
  • Radiological examinations showed this mass to be a thyroid tumor with a cystic component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Mucins / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17342362.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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24. Cardenas MG, Kini S, Wisgerhof M: Two patients with highly aggressive macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Apr;19(4):413-6
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  • [Title] Two patients with highly aggressive macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (MFV-PTC) is an unusual type of thyroid carcinoma with histological features that can be confused with nodular goiter or follicular adenoma.
  • SUMMARY: The first patient was a 59-year-old woman with an occipital mass diagnosed histologically as papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant.
  • Ten years earlier a biopsy of a thyroid nodule had been negative for malignant cells.
  • Thyroidectomy showed a 3-cm nodule in the thyroid, diagnosed as MFV-PTC.
  • The second patient was an 81-year-old man with a history of right thyroid nodule treated by total thyroidectomy with a postoperative diagnosis of adenomatous goiter.
  • Three years later he developed a right shoulder mass, histologically diagnosed as follicular variant of PTC.
  • He died of metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • Although MFV-PTC usually has a good prognosis these cases highlight the importance of careful histopathological examination for MFV-PTC in thyroidectomy specimens that may appear to be seemingly benign nodular thyroid disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19355832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Pujani M, Arora B, Pujani M, Singh SK, Tejwani N: Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jul-Sep;47(3):304-7
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  • [Title] Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt.
  • RESULTS: Ki-67 labeling index (LI) showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms.
  • A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05) and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Cancer. 2011 Jul-Sep;48(3):378 [21921351.001]
  • (PMID = 20587907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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26. Chen S, Li M, Lian XL, Zeng ZP, Dai WX, Li F, Yu W, Wang RZ: [Octreotide in the diagnosis and treatment of pituitary thyrotropin-secreting adenoma]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Nov;45(11):910-3
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  • [Title] [Octreotide in the diagnosis and treatment of pituitary thyrotropin-secreting adenoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of octreotide in the diagnosis and treatment of pituitary thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting adenoma.
  • METHODS: A 34-year man presented with central hyperthyroidism and pituitary TSH-secreting macroadenoma was reported. (99 m)Tc-octreotide scan and magnetic resonance imaging were completed to make the location diagnosis of the adenoma.
  • Serum TSH level and tumor size were observed and trans-sphenoidal adenoma resection was completed.
  • RESULTS: Pituitary TSH-secreting adenoma displayed positive sign in (99 m)Tc-octreotide scan.
  • Antithyroid drug was of no help in depressing thyroid function to normal.
  • However, octreotide treatment could revert thyroid function to normal rapidly.
  • A significant shrinkage of tumor mass from 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 2.0 cm x 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm was observed and a shrinkage of thyroid gland from III to II also observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: (99 m)Tc-octreotide scan is one of the useful tools for location diagnosis of TSH-secreting adenoma.
  • Octreotide can effectively control central hyperthyroid and make tumor shrink, and it can be a satisfactory method of preoperative preparation for TSH-secreting adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Organotechnetium Compounds. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17313878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1426
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nei ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 99mTc-octreotide; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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27. Lappinga PJ, Kip NS, Jin L, Lloyd RV, Henry MR, Zhang J, Nassar A: HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Oct 25;118(5):287-97
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  • [Title] HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) (eg, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm") prove to be benign at the time of surgical resection.
  • Ancillary tests in current use are limited in their ability to improve the preoperative detection of malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • Studies using paraffin-embedded tissue have indicated that high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression is present in a high percentage of malignant thyroid neoplasms but not in benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • In the current study, the ability of HMGA2 overexpression analysis to preoperatively distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on suspicious cytologic smears was evaluated.
  • METHODS: Patients who underwent thyroid FNA and subsequent thyroid resection from 2001 through 2007 were identified.
  • A subset of these patients who had a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious" underwent HMGA2 expression analysis.
  • With an HMGA2 overexpression change of 5.9-fold or greater compared with a thyroid tumor cell line as a positive cutoff, the test was found to have the following overall performance for detecting malignant nodules: sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 84%.
  • HMGA2 overexpression was found to have low sensitivity for detecting Hurthle cell carcinoma (33%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: HMGA2 mRNA expression analysis can be performed on cytologic smears and demonstrates a high specificity and positive predictive value and relatively high sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting malignancy in "suspicious" thyroid aspirate specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20597139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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28. Sturniolo G, Bonanno L, Gagliano E, Tonante A, Taranto F, Mamo M, De Salvo G, Sturnioloa G: [The thyroid pyramidal lobe: frequency, morphological features and related diseases]. Chir Ital; 2008 Jan-Feb;60(1):41-6
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  • [Title] [The thyroid pyramidal lobe: frequency, morphological features and related diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Il lobo piramidale della tiroide: frequenza, caratteri morfologici e patologia.
  • The Authors examine the features of thyroid pyramidal lobe in 1405 operated patients over the period from January 1992 to January 2006.
  • The pyramidal lobe was detectable in 25.5% of cases, mostly in women, the primary disease invariably arising from the main gland.
  • The Authors conclude that the pyramidal lobe is an embryological remnant which may be involved in diseases arising from the main gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Atrophy. Carcinoma / pathology. Female. Goiter / pathology. Goiter / surgery. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Graves Disease / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroidectomy. Thyroiditis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18389746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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29. Zheng YX, Xu SM, Wang P, Chen L: Preoperative localization and minimally invasive management of primary hyperparathyroidism concomitant with thyroid disease. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2007 Sep;8(9):626-31
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  • [Title] Preoperative localization and minimally invasive management of primary hyperparathyroidism concomitant with thyroid disease.
  • The coexistence of thyroid diseases with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) can present a challenge in the clinical diagnosis and management for these patients.
  • This study aims to determine the frequency of coexisting thyroid gland lesions in a consecutive series patients with PHPT, and to analyze the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of these patients.
  • Twenty-two cases of a total of 52 PHPT patients who had synchronous thyroid and parathyroid pathology were surgically managed in this study.
  • Thirteen patients had ipsilateral thyroid nodules, and 9 patients had thyroid nodules in contralateral or bilateral side.
  • Seventeen nodular goiter (32.7%), 2 thyroiditis (3.8%), 2 thyroid adenoma (3.8%) and 1 thyroid carcinoma (1.9%) coexisting with parathyroid adenoma were pathologically diagnosed.
  • A high incidence of thyroid diseases that coexisted with PHPT in literatures was briefly reviewed.
  • Our study illustrated the need for clinical awareness of concomitant PHPT and thyroid disease.
  • A combination of US, computed tomography (CT) and MIBI scintigraphy would be recommended for preoperative localization of enlarged parathyroid adenoma and for evaluation of thyroid lesions.
  • Synchronous treatment of associated thyroid abnormalities is desirable, and open minimally invasive surgical approach with additional resection of isolated ipsilateral thyroid nodules is possible in some of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / epidemiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / statistics & numerical data. Parathyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 17726743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 19
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1963428
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30. Cho Mar K, Eimoto T, Tateyama H, Arai Y, Fujiyoshi Y, Hamaguchi M: Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions. Histopathology; 2006 Feb;48(3):286-94
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  • [Title] Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions.
  • AIMS: To examine expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and related proteins in follicular thyroid lesions (FTLs) and to determine their usefulness for differential diagnosis of FTLs, particularly between minimally invasive carcinoma and adenoma.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Six widely invasive follicular carcinomas (WIFCs), 15 minimally invasive follicular carcinomas (MIFCs), 19 follicular adenomas (FAs) and 10 adenomatous goitres (AGs) were analysed immunohistochemically for MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Adenoma / chemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / genetics. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16430475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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31. Foppiani L, Del Monte P, Sartini G, Arlandini A, Quilici P, Bandelloni R, Marugo A, Bernasconi D: Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma as cause of hypercalcemia and pitfall of localization techniques: clinical and biologic features. Endocr Pract; 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):176-81
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  • METHODS: We report the clinical and biologic features of an intrathyroidal PC, discuss the challenges with distinguishing PC from parathyroid adenoma, and review the related literature.
  • Thyroid ultrasonography disclosed a 3-cm solid inferior nodule.
  • Neck ultrasonography showed a large hypoechogenic solid nodule, not clearly cleaved from the right thyroid lobe, which was possibly compatible with an enlarged parathyroid gland; however, a sestamibi scan was negative.
  • Final histologic examination showed cellular nests with nuclear pleomorphism and invasive behavior into the thyroid tissue and likely into the vessels, in conjunction with immunohistochemical negativity for thyroglobulin and strong positivity for PTH.
  • These findings were highly suggestive of and supported the diagnosis of PC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Goiter / surgery. Humans. Infant. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17490933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Ingui CJ, Shah NP, Oates ME: Endocrine neoplasm scintigraphy: added value of fusing SPECT/CT images compared with traditional side-by-side analysis. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Nov;31(11):665-72
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  • These cases included: 4 I-131 (posttherapy thyroid cancer), 2 I-123 (pretherapy thyroid cancer), 2 In-111 OctreoScan (neuroendocrine neoplasm), one Tc-99m sestamibi (thyroid cancer), one Tc-99m tetrofosmin (parathyroid adenoma), and one I-123 MIBG (adrenergic neoplasm).
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Subtraction Technique. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17053381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Wild JL, Weigel T, Chen H: The need for intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring during radioguided parathyroidectomy by video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS). Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;31(1):9-12
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  • PURPOSE: We report on a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism (1HPT) who had a preoperative Tc-99m sestamibi scan localizing a single parathyroid adenoma in the mediastinum.
  • METHODS: On removal of this hyperfunctioning adenoma by radioguided video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), intraoperative PTH levels failed to decline in the appropriate manner consistent with curative resection.
  • This prompted the surgical team to investigate further for a second adenoma, which revealed a 2 x 1-cm mass near the inferior border of the thyroid gland on the right lateral aspect of the trachea.
  • RESULTS: In the absence of intraoperative PTH monitoring, the operation would have been terminated after the removal of the mediastinal adenoma, leading to an incomplete surgical resection and persistent 1HPT.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 16374113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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34. Zhang XW, Li Y, Wang ZL, Li P: Glucocorticoid receptor subunit gene expression in thyroid gland and adenomas. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(8):1073-8
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  • [Title] Glucocorticoid receptor subunit gene expression in thyroid gland and adenomas.
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the glucocorticoid receptor -alpha (GR-alpha) and -beta (GR-beta) mRNA may be expressed in thyroid gland.
  • Ten normal thyroid gland and 14 follicular adenomas were studied using a real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR (FQ-RT-PCR) method.
  • The results demonstrated that there was a lower expression of GR-alpha mRNA (x10(6) GR-alpha cDNA copies/microg total RNA) in thyroid adenoma (1.27+/-0.26) than that in normal thyroid gland (3.53+/-1.22) (p < 0.001).
  • The expression of GR-beta mRNA was lower in all the thyroid tissues.
  • Of note, there was a significant difference in GR-beta mRNA expression (x10(4) GR-beta cDNA copies/microg total RNA) between thyroid adenoma (80.8+/-13.9) and thyroid gland (1.78+/-0.59) (p < 0.001).
  • The GR-alpha/GR-beta ratios in thyroid adenoma and normal thyroid gland were 1.67+/-0.68 and 207.57+/-84.41 respectively (p < 0.001).
  • These results revealed, for the first time, that both GR-alpha and GR-beta mRNA expression were detectable in both thyroid gland and adenomas tissues.
  • We therefore conclude that down-regulation of GR-alpha and up-regulation of GR-beta mRNA expression may play an important role in the thyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17118842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 0 / glucocorticoid receptor alpha; 0 / glucocorticoid receptor beta
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35. Matesa N, Samija I, Kusić Z: Galectin-3 and CD44v6 positivity by RT-PCR method in fine needle aspirates of benign thyroid lesions. Cytopathology; 2007 Apr;18(2):112-6
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 and CD44v6 positivity by RT-PCR method in fine needle aspirates of benign thyroid lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the presence of macrophages and Hürthle cells (HC) in benign thyroid lesions could explain the false-positive expression of galectin-3 and CD44v6 detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • METHODS: For galectin-3 and CD44v6, RT-PCR was performed on RNA isolated from aspirates obtained by ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from 123 patients with benign thyroid lesions.
  • The results of RT-PCR analysis were evaluated against the definitive FNAC diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Galectin-3 expression was found in 29% follicular adenoma (FA), 26% Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), and in 24% nodular goitre (NG).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Biomarkers / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Adhesion. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. False Positive Reactions. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / metabolism. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Humans. Macrophages / metabolism. Macrophages / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / metabolism. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17397496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CD44v6 antigen; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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36. Chen G, Jiang Q, You Z, Yao J, Mou L, Lin X, Shen X, You T, Lin Q, Wen J, Lin L: Regulation of GSK-3 beta in the proliferation and apoptosis of human thyrocytes investigated using a GSK-3 beta-targeting RNAi adenovirus expression vector: involvement the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Mol Biol Rep; 2010 Jul;37(6):2773-9
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  • Disorders in the proliferation and apoptosis of thyrocytes may induce goitre, adenoma and carcinoma in the thyroid.
  • The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in various cell lines.
  • Results showed that the expression of beta-catenin protein in primary human thyrocytes was increased after GSK-3beta-targeting RNAi adenovirus infection, the proliferation of primary human thyrocytes was significantly stimulated using Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay, while cell apoptosis was slightly affected which was observed through flow cytometry.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae / genetics. Apoptosis. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / metabolism. RNA Interference. Signal Transduction. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Gland / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae Infections / genetics. Cell Proliferation. Down-Regulation. Genetic Vectors / genetics. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta. Humans. Time Factors. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19757160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4978
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.7.11.1 / GSK3B protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
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37. Chan P, Mahler J, Travlos G, Nyska A, Wenk M: Induction of thyroid lesions in 14-week toxicity studies of 2 and 4-methylimidazole in Fischer 344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Arch Toxicol; 2006 Mar;80(3):169-80
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  • [Title] Induction of thyroid lesions in 14-week toxicity studies of 2 and 4-methylimidazole in Fischer 344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.
  • In the 15-day studies, 2MI induced thyroid follicular-cell hyperplasia and pituitary pars-distalis hypertrophy in rats and thyroid follicular-cell hypertrophy and spleen hematopoietic-cell proliferation in mice; 4MI induced no histopathological changes in rats and mice.
  • In the 14-week studies, 2MI increased concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased those of thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyroxine (T(3)) in male and female rats according to the dosage.
  • Incidences of diffuse follicular-cell hyperplasia of the thyroid gland increased significantly in male rats exposed to 1,250 ppm or greater and female rats exposed to 2,500 ppm or greater.
  • Thyroid follicular-cell adenoma was diagnosed in two males in the 10,000-ppm group.
  • In mice, follicular-cell hypertrophy of the thyroid gland, anemia, splenic hematopoietic-cell proliferation, and hemosiderin in kidney tubules appeared.
  • Serum T(3), T(4), and TSH levels were not altered, and no thyroid lesions occurred.
  • Our studies demonstrated that, in rats and mice, 2MI induces thyroid hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and both 2MI and 4MI induce anemia; 2MI induces thyroid follicular-cell adenoma in male rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Imidazoles / toxicity. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Toxicity Tests, Chronic / methods

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  • (PMID = 16180012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5761
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Imidazoles; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 693-98-1 / 2-methylimidazole; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; Q64GF9FV4I / 4-methylimidazole
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38. Aiad H, Abdou A, Bashandy M, Said A, Ezz-Elarab S, Zahran A: Computerized nuclear morphometry in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions with predominant follicular pattern. Ecancermedicalscience; 2009;3:146
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  • [Title] Computerized nuclear morphometry in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions with predominant follicular pattern.
  • BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions with predominantly follicular pattern is one of the most common problems in thyroid pathology.
  • Development of more objective and reproducible tools for diagnosis is needed.
  • This work is aimed at studying the role of nuclear morphometry in differential diagnosis of different thyroid lesions having predominant follicular pattern.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semiautomatic image analysis system was used to measure a total of 8 nuclear parameters in 48 thyroid lesions including seven nodular goiter (NG), 14 follicular adenoma (FA), 14 follicular carcinoma (FC) and 13 follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC).
  • CONCLUSION: Nuclear morphometric parameters may help in the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid lesions and between FVPC and follicular neoplasms (FC and FA) but they have no value in the differentiation between FC and FA.

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  • (PMID = 22276011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3224013
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Thyroid / differential diagnosis / nuclear morphometry
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39. Haghpanah V, Shooshtarizadeh P, Heshmat R, Larijani B, Tavangar SM: Immunohistochemical analysis of survivin expression in thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Dec;14(4):422-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of survivin expression in thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • This retrospective study of thyroid histologic samples aimed to assess the clinical usefulness of survivin immunostaining for discrimination between follicular adenoma and carcinoma of thyroid.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for survivin was performed on 41 lesions from patients who had undergone surgery for either follicular adenoma or carcinoma of thyroid.
  • Survivin expression was significantly (P < 0.005) higher in the cases that received a diagnosis of carcinoma in comparison with follicular adenomas cases.
  • Odds ratio of follicular carcinoma for survivin expression was 21.375 (95% CI: 3.283 to 139.177).
  • Our results showed potential value of survivin in discrimination between follicular thyroid adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • We conclude that survivin is a potential candidate for further investigation in the proper histologic diagnosis of thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 17122639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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40. Deandrea M, Ragazzoni F, Motta M, Torchio B, Mormile A, Garino F, Magliona G, Gamarra E, Ramunni MJ, Garberoglio R, Limone PP: Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation. Thyroid; 2010 Oct;20(10):1077-83
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of a cytomorphological subclassification of follicular patterned thyroid lesions: a study of 927 consecutive cases with histological correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has proved to be an effective diagnostic tool in patients with thyroid nodules.
  • To date, however, among lesions showing a follicular pattern, FNAC is still unable to differentiate between benign and malignant ones.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate whether a subclassification of follicular cytologic specimens, based on cytoarchitectural patterns, could differentiate categories with a different risk of malignancy, thus improving the clinical management of patients harboring follicular nodules.
  • METHODS: We report a cohort of 927 consecutive cases who underwent thyroid surgery in our hospital between 2000 and 2008.
  • All the cytologic specimens were divided into five categories (Thy 1: inadequate material, Thy 2: benign, Thy 3: indeterminate, Thy 4: suspicious for malignancy, Thy 5: malignant).
  • Thy3 specimens were further divided into three subcategories (Thy 3a, or "follicular lesions of indeterminate significance": scant colloid, microfollicular pattern, or small clusters of thyrocytes with round nuclei usually without, but sometimes with, minimal cellular pleomorphism; Thy 3b, or "follicular neoplasm": absence of colloid, small clusters, or microfollicles of medium-large sized cell populations arranged in cohesive groups with nuclear overlapping, crowding, and pleomorphisms; and Thy 3c or "Hurthle-cell neoplasm": scant colloid, sheets or clusters of oxyphilic cells).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the National Cancer Institute consensus showing a different risk of malignancy for "follicular lesions of undetermined significance” compared with "follicular neoplasms" and "Hurthle cells neoplasms," which are more suspect for malignancy.
  • This subclassification could improve clinical management of thyroid nodules, helping to better select patients for surgery or follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Humans. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20883171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Gérard AC, Many MC, Daumerie Ch, Knoops B, Colin IM: Peroxiredoxin 5 expression in the human thyroid gland. Thyroid; 2005 Mar;15(3):205-9
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  • [Title] Peroxiredoxin 5 expression in the human thyroid gland.
  • We report here its expression in the human thyroid gland.
  • Twenty-seven human thyroid specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry.
  • They included six normal thyroid tissues, five multinodular goiters, nine hot nodules, two Hürthle cell adenomas, and five thyroids from patients with Graves' disease.
  • In the control tissue, PRDX5 expression was heterogeneous, being stronger in cubical functionally active follicular cells than in flat quiescent thyrocytes.
  • This feature was particularly marked in the Hürthle cell adenoma case.
  • We observed that PRDX5 expression was higher in the thyroid gland of patients with Graves' disease compared to multinodular goiters.
  • In conclusion, our data show that PRDX5 is expressed in the thyroid gland where it could act as antioxidant.
  • [MeSH-major] Peroxidases / genetics. Thyroid Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / enzymology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Graves Disease / genetics. Graves Disease / pathology. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / enzymology. Hyperthyroidism / genetics. Immunohistochemistry. Peroxiredoxins

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  • (PMID = 15785239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.11.1.- / Peroxidases; EC 1.11.1.15 / PRDX5 protein, human; EC 1.11.1.15 / Peroxiredoxins
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42. Ortiz-Plata A, Tena Suck ML, López-Gómez M, Heras A, Sánchez García A: Study of the telomerase hTERT fraction, PCNA and CD34 expression on pituitary adenomas. Association with clinical and demographic characteristics. J Neurooncol; 2007 Sep;84(2):159-66
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  • [Title] Study of the telomerase hTERT fraction, PCNA and CD34 expression on pituitary adenomas. Association with clinical and demographic characteristics.
  • To determine the frequency of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) catalytic fraction expression and its association with clinical and demographic characteristics of the patient, as well as with the expression of CD34 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) indexes on adenohypophyseal hormone tissues.
  • A transverse study was realized with 49 cases of hypophyseal adenoma with analysis type cases and controls.
  • The different adenohypophyseal hormones [prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid gland stimulant hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)], the catalytic fraction of the telomerase hTERT, the PCNA index and the CD34 density were determined by means of immunohistochemical techniques.
  • Twenty-eight point six percent of the adenomas had positive expression for hTERT.
  • The variables significantly correlated with hTERT's expression were younger age of presentation, diagnostic of adenoma producer, higher PCNA index, higher CD34 density, increased GH on serum and the expression on PRL tissue, GH and ACTH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / biosynthesis. Telomerase / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17361328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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43. Matsuo SE, Fiore AP, Siguematu SM, Ebina KN, Friguglietti CU, Ferro MC, Kulcsar MA, Kimura ET: Expression of SMAD proteins, TGF-beta/activin signaling mediators, in human thyroid tissues. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Jun;54(4):406-12
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  • [Title] Expression of SMAD proteins, TGF-beta/activin signaling mediators, in human thyroid tissues.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of SMAD proteins in human thyroid tissues since the inactivation of TGF-beta/activin signaling components is reported in several types of cancer.
  • Although TGF-beta and activin exert antiproliferative roles in thyroid follicular cells, thyroid tumors express high levels of these proteins.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protein expression of SMADs was evaluated in multinodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: The expression of pSMAD2/3, SMAD4 and SMAD7 was observed in both benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Although pSMAD2/3, SMAD4 and SMAD7 exhibited high cytoplasmic staining in carcinomas, the nuclear staining of pSMAD2/3 was not different between benign and malignant lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The finding of SMADs expression in thyroid cells and the presence of pSMAD2/3 and SMAD4 proteins in the nucleus of tumor cells indicates propagation of TGF-beta/activin signaling.
  • However, the high expression of the inhibitory SMAD7, mostly in malignant tumors, could contribute to the attenuation of the SMADs antiproliferative signaling in thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Activins / physiology. Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Humans. Signal Transduction / physiology. Smad2 Protein / analysis. Smad3 Protein / analysis. Smad4 Protein / analysis. Smad7 Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20625653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SMAD2 protein, human; 0 / SMAD3 protein, human; 0 / SMAD4 protein, human; 0 / SMAD7 protein, human; 0 / Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Smad3 Protein; 0 / Smad4 Protein; 0 / Smad7 Protein; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 104625-48-1 / Activins
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44. Hasegawa T, Araki A, Tamura Y, Sugawara T, Iwata A, Kamimiya F, Chiba Y, Horiuchi T, Mori S, Ito H: [A case of Plummer disease that appeared in older old age after 10-year course of subclinical hyperthyroidism]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2007 Mar;44(2):251-5
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  • A 81-year-old woman with a thyroid tumor and subclinical hyperthyroidism since ten years ago was admitted to our hospital for palpitations and hyperthyroidism (FT(4) 1.75 ng/dl, FT(3) 5.37 pg/ml, TSH<0.03 microIU/ml).
  • Although thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) was transiently and mildly positive, anti-TSH receptor antibody (TRAb), microsome test, and thyroid test were negative.
  • Thyroid echogram showed an isoechoic nodule in the left lobe (33 x 42 x 22 mm) and a small nodule (10 x 15 x 9 mm) in right lobe.
  • Thyroid scintiscan showed a hyperfunctional (hot) nodule in left thyroid lobe with suppressed uptake in the remainder of the gland.
  • Based on the above findings, a diagnosis of Plummer disease was made.
  • After treatment with propranolol and thiamazole, the thyrotoxic symptoms disappeared and thyroid function returned to normal level.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthyroidism / complications. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Aged, 80 and over. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Autoantibodies / blood. Female. Humans. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / complications. Thyroid Nodule / complications. Thyrotropin / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17527029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Autoantibodies; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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45. Stolf BS, Abreu CM, Mahler-Araújo MB, Dellamano M, Martins WK, de Carvalho MB, Curado MP, Díaz JP, Fabri A, Brentani H, Carvalho AF, Soares FA, Kowalski LP, Hirata R Jr, Reis LF: Expression profile of malignant and non-malignant diseases of the thyroid gland reveals altered expression of a common set of genes in goiter and papillary carcinomas. Cancer Lett; 2005 Sep 8;227(1):59-73
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  • [Title] Expression profile of malignant and non-malignant diseases of the thyroid gland reveals altered expression of a common set of genes in goiter and papillary carcinomas.
  • Using cDNA microarrays with 3800 cDNA fragments, we determined the expression profile of normal thyroid tissue, goiter, adenoma and papillary carcinoma (10 samples from each class).
  • We identified a common set of genes whose expression is diminished in both goiter and papillary carcinomas as compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • Of notice, we demonstrate that the reduced mRNA levels of p27(kip1) observed in papillary carcinomas as compared to either goiter or normal thyroid tissues (P<0.001) is accompanied by an altered protein distribution within the cell.
  • In papillary carcinomas, P27(KIP1) is preferentially cytoplasmic as opposed to goiter or normal thyroid tissue, where P27(KIP1) is preferentially located in the nucleus.
  • The exploitation of the data presented here could contribute to the understanding of the molecular events related to thyroid diseases and gives support to the notion that common molecular events might be related to the frequent observation of areas of papillary carcinomas in the gland of patients with goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Goiter / genetics. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16051032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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46. Deiana L, Lai ML, Carta G, Mariotti S: Correspondence between ultrasonography and histological features in a single thyroid nodule with coexisting follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma. Thyroid; 2008 Jul;18(7):813-4
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  • [Title] Correspondence between ultrasonography and histological features in a single thyroid nodule with coexisting follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18631017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Yoshizawa K, Jelezcova E, Brown AR, Foley JF, Nyska A, Cui X, Hofseth LJ, Maronpot RM, Wilson SH, Sepulveda AR, Sobol RW: Gastrointestinal hyperplasia with altered expression of DNA polymerase beta. PLoS One; 2009 Aug 05;4(8):e6493
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  • These mice present with an elevated incidence of spontaneous histologic lesions, including cataracts, hyperplasia of Brunner's gland and mucosal hyperplasia in the duodenum.
  • We observed elevated expression of Pol beta in stomach adenomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas, but reduced Pol beta expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 19654874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / 1 R01 AG24364-01; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES050158; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES050159; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG024364; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50 CA 097190 01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 P20 CA132385-01; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA132385; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097190; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA103730
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.- / DNA Polymerase beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716528
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48. Tate G, Suzuki T, Endo Y, Mitsuya T: A novel mutation of the PTEN gene in a Japanese patient with Cowden syndrome and bilateral breast cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Jul;184(1):67-71
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  • Cowden syndrome (CS), also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome associated with a high risk of breast and thyroid cancers.
  • The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene (PTEN) encodes a lipid phosphatase that contains a PTPase domain and a C2 domain and plays a role as a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates the cell-survival signaling pathway initiated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K).
  • In one patient, who suffered from bilateral breast cancer, thyroid adenoma, and gastric malignant lymphoma, we found a single-base substitution in exon 2 (115G>C) of the PTEN gene.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / genetics. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Female. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


49. Loffler KA, Biondi CA, Gartside M, Waring P, Stark M, Serewko-Auret MM, Muller HK, Hayward NK, Kay GF: Broad tumor spectrum in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Int J Cancer; 2007 Jan 15;120(2):259-67
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  • Here we describe a mouse model of MEN1 in which tumors were seen in pancreatic islets, pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid, adrenal glands, testes and ovaries.
  • Menin expression was below the level of detection in ovary, thyroid and testis, but loss of nuclear menin immunoreactivity was observed uniformly in all pancreatic islet adenomas and in some hyperplastic islet cells, suggesting that complete loss of Men1 is a critical point in islet tumor progression in this model.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Mice / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics


50. Garg M, Kanojia D, Suri S, Gupta S, Gupta A, Suri A: Sperm-associated antigen 9: a novel diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Nov;94(11):4613-8
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  • [Title] Sperm-associated antigen 9: a novel diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Cancer-testis antigens are the unique class of testis proteins expressed in tumor but not healthy tissue except testis and might represent ideal targets for the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutic methods in thyroid cancer, which is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the clinical relevance of cancer-testis antigen sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) as early diagnostic and therapeutic target in thyroid cancer.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: SPAG9 gene and protein expression was determined in thyroid cancer cell lines in 138 thyroid tumor specimens, 60 adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCT), 22 multinodular goiters (nonneoplastic hyperplasia), and 20 follicular adenoma tissue samples by RT-PCR, in situ RNA hybridization, and immunohistochemistry.
  • Humoral immune response against SPAG9 in thyroid cancer patients was analyzed using ELISA.
  • RESULTS: SPAG9 mRNA and protein expression was detected in 78% of the thyroid cancer patients but not multiple goiters and follicular adenoma disease patients.
  • It is interesting to note that majority of early-stage (T1) thyroid cancer patients exhibited higher antibody response against SPAG9.
  • Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SPAG9 expression in thyroid cancer cell significantly reduced cellular growth and colony formation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPAG9 expression may play a role in cellular growth and thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • These findings support a potential role for SPAG9 as diagnostic biomarker as well as a possible therapeutic target in thyroid cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Goiter / blood. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19820019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SPAG9 protein, human
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51. Endo K: [Clinical use of nuclear medicine in the management of thyroid diseases]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2009-15
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  • [Title] [Clinical use of nuclear medicine in the management of thyroid diseases].
  • Radionuclides are widely used for the diagnosis and therapy of many diseases.
  • Among them, 131I has the longest history of more than 60 years of clinical use, and has been still used for the therapy of Graves' disease, Plummer disease (hyperfunctional adenoma) and thyroid cancer.
  • Radiodine is specifically taken into thyroid cells and organized.
  • Recently PET using 18F-FDG(glucose analogue) is applied to know the extent of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / therapeutic use. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroid Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Diseases / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18018563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 0
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52. Blankenship DR, Chin E, Terris DJ: Contemporary management of thyroid cancer. Am J Otolaryngol; 2005 Jul-Aug;26(4):249-60
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  • [Title] Contemporary management of thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer is a relatively common and frequently curable malignant neoplasm, accounting for nearly 2% of all new cancers diagnosed annually in the United States.
  • We sought to review the epidemiology and pathology of the several types of thyroid cancer and to present our evidence-based management algorithm.
  • In addition to reviewing well-established approaches to diagnosis and management, emphasis is placed on newer techniques, including minimally invasive thyroidectomy, molecular detection of disease propensity, and the use of recombinant thyrotropin prior to radioiodine ablation.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / therapy. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / embryology. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15991091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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53. Mai KT, Elmontaser G, Perkins DG, Thomas J, Stinson WA: Benign Hürthle cell adenoma with papillary architecture: a benign lesion mimicking oncocytic papillary carcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jan;13(1):37-41
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  • [Title] Benign Hürthle cell adenoma with papillary architecture: a benign lesion mimicking oncocytic papillary carcinoma.
  • We studied the significance of encapsulated Hürthle cell thyroid nodules with papillary structures lacking the nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); 19 cases fulfilling these criteria were encountered The patients' ages ranged from 22 to 40 years (32+/-6), and the F:M ratio was 3:1 The tumors measured from 0.5-5 cm (2+/-1.1).
  • The diameter of the tumor cell nuclei ranged from 5.6 to 7.2 microns.
  • In view of (1) the encapsulation and the uniformity of the constituent cells, (2) the negative or weak immunoreactivity for galectin-3 and HBME and negative to moderate immunoreactivity for CK19, and (3) the absence or paucity of nuclear criteria for the diagnosis of PTC and the absence of lymph node metastasis in all study cases, we believe that these lesions represent the papillary variant of oncocytic follicular adenoma (Hürthle cell adenoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromatin / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15735853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromatin
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54. Tabriz HM, Adabi Kh, Lashkari A, Heshmat R, Haghpanah V, Larijani B, Tavangar SM: Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 protein expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma and follicular neoplasm. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):83-7
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 protein expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma and follicular neoplasm.
  • INTRODUCTION: We aimed at assessing the significance of nm23 gene expression in papillary and follicular carcinomas, the two most common differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a cross-sectional study, 173 paraffin blocks, including 131 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 12 follicular carcinomas and 30 follicular adenomas were stained with nm23 marker by immunohistochemistry method.
  • RESULTS: nm23 was positive in 40% of the follicular adenoma, 67.2% of the papillary carcinoma and 66.7% of the follicular carcinoma. p value was more than 0.05 in the assessment of the relationship between nm23 and all of the above-mentioned parameters in differentiated thyroid carcinomas. nm23 expression did not significantly differentiate between follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • Also, nm23 cannot be considered as a useful marker for the evaluation of invasion in differentiated thyroid carcinomas or in distinctions between follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18996649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases; EC 2.7.4.6 / NME1 protein, human
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55. Parenti G, Nassi R, Silvestri S, Bianchi S, Valeri A, Manca G, Mangiafico S, Ammannati F, Serio M, Mannelli M, Peri A: Multi-step approach in a complex case of Cushing's syndrome and medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Feb;29(2):177-81
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  • [Title] Multi-step approach in a complex case of Cushing's syndrome and medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) may sometimes be cumbersome.
  • In particular, in ACTH-dependent CS it may be difficult to distinguish between the presence of an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma and ectopic ACTH and/or CRH secretion.
  • We report here the case of a 54-yr-old man affected by ACTH-dependent CS in association with a left adrenal adenoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • It was then decided to remove the left adenomatous adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16610247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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56. Kim WJ, Souillard R, Brandwein MS, Lawson W, Som PM: Follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst with papillary carcinoma in the adjacent thyroid gland. Am J Otolaryngol; 2005 Sep-Oct;26(5):348-50
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  • [Title] Follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst with papillary carcinoma in the adjacent thyroid gland.
  • This patient presented with a neck mass diagnosed as a papillary thyroid carcinoma by fine-needle aspiration.
  • After surgery, the initial diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • After correlation with the computed tomography, the diagnosis was revised to a papillary thyroid carcinoma plus a follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroglossal Cyst / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16137536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Shikama Y, Mizukami H, Sakai T, Yagihashi N, Okamoto K, Yagihashi S: Spindle cell metaplasia arising in thyroid adenoma: characterization of its pathology and differential diagnosis. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Feb;29(2):168-71
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  • [Title] Spindle cell metaplasia arising in thyroid adenoma: characterization of its pathology and differential diagnosis.
  • Spindle cell metaplasia in thyroid adenoma or carcinoma is rare and its pathological features are not well characterized.
  • We encountered a case of thyroid follicular adenoma associated with spindle cell metaplasia.
  • It showed "tumor in tumor appearance" and neoplastic spindle cells were positive for thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor-1, vimentin and focally chromogranin A and somatostatin (SS).
  • Ultrastructure of the spindle cells was reminiscent of follicular cell origin.
  • From the findings from our case, spindle cell metaplasia appears to be a benign clinical entity, suggestive of multidirectional differentiation of follicular cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16610245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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58. Pisello F, Geraci G, Sciumè C, Li Volsi F, Modica G: [Total thyroidectomy of choice in papillary microcarcinoma]. G Chir; 2007 Jan-Feb;28(1-2):13-9
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  • [Transliterated title] La tiroidectomia totale di principio nel microcarcinoma papillare.
  • INTRODUCTION: Today, the "gold standard" of surgical management of benign thyroid disease is still controversy.
  • There are different surgical approaches to the thyroid gland, from a radical, total thyroidectomy to a conservative treatment, lobectomy with or not isthmectomy.
  • In consideration of the more frequent incidence of small carcinomas accidentally founded in the context of the thyroid parenchyma removed for another pathology, the aim of this study is to bring a contribute to resolve the debate on the therapeutic choice in the surgical management of the thyroid benign disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2000 to January 2006 502 thyroidectomy were performed in the Section of General and Thoracic Surgery of University of Palermo: 458 total thyroidectomy (91.3%), 2 partial thyroidectomy (0.3%), 24 (4.8%) lobectomy with isthmectomy and 18 (3.6%) reinterventions for relapse; 34 patients (6.8%) were preoperative suspected (cytological or ultrasonography) for thyroid cancer.
  • Histologically, were 11 cases of classical papillary (64.7%), 4 cases (23.6%) of follicular and 2 (11.7%) sclerosing, in 9 cases of multinodular goiter, 3 of follicular adenoma, 3 cases of follicular carcinoma, 1 case of Graves disease and 1 case of Hashimoto thyroiditis.
  • DISCUSSION: Papillary microcarcinoma is a "thyroid papillary cancer with a diameter < or = 1 cm? ".
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our opinion, the surgical management of the all thyroid disease must be the more radical since the first time, because we think other approaches not correct to improve the complete health from the benign thyroid disease and to prevent (secondary prevention) papillary microcarcinoma not pre-operative diagnosed, because there are no preoperative pattern to make a correct diagnosis of this tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17313727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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59. Weismann D, Fassnacht M, Schubert B, Bonfig R, Tschammler A, Timm S, Hahner S, Wunder C, Allolio B: A dangerous liaison--pheochromocytoma in patients with malignant disease. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec;13(12):1696-701
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  • Despite improved imaging techniques, it remains difficult to distinguish an adrenal metastasis from a pheochromocytoma or a lipid-poor adrenocortical adenoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report a case series of four patients with established or suspected malignant disease (melanoma, transitional cell carcinoma and prostate carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma) harboring an adrenal mass.
  • CONCLUSION: Our series is a strong reminder of the risks associated with surgery in patients harboring an unsuspected pheochromocytoma and underscores the need to exclude a pheochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal mass and without a definitive diagnosis of the mass, especially when they are scheduled for surgery or adrenal biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Humans. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Middle Aged


60. Gupta A, Mathur SK, Batra C, Gupta A: Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Oct-Dec;51(4):521-2
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  • [Title] Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyrolipoma or adenolipoma of the thyroid gland is defined as a thyroid adenoma containing mature fat tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19008582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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61. Zajícková K: [Primary hyperparathyroidism as a cause of hypercalcemia in a patient with breast cancer]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2010;149(11):546-8
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  • Parathyroid gland scintigraphy revealed a possible parathyroid adenoma behind the lower pole of the left thyroid lobe.
  • Microscopic examination identified a benign adenomatous goitre and benign parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications


62. Rasmuson T, Tavelin B: Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(8):1059-61
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  • [Title] Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine.
  • Patients with thyrotoxicosis are often treated with radioactive iodine and its accumulation in the thyroid gland exposes the adjacent parathyroid glands to radioactivity.
  • Patients with parathyroid adenomas (ICD-9 = 195.1) were recruited from the Swedish Cancer Registry.
  • Eleven patients with parathyroid adenomas following the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis were identified.
  • The median age at exposure was 59 years and the latency period between diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and parathyroid adenoma was 7.4 years (range <1-19 years).
  • This study does not indicate that patients with thyrotoxicosis treated with radioactive iodine in adult age have increased risk of developing parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Parathyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyrotoxicosis / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17118839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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63. Kim SC, Kim S, Inabnet WB, Krynyckyi BR, Machac J, Kim CK: Appearance of descended superior parathyroid adenoma on SPECT parathyroid imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Feb;32(2):90-3
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  • [Title] Appearance of descended superior parathyroid adenoma on SPECT parathyroid imaging.
  • An ectopic superior parathyroid adenoma (SPA) descends inferoposteriorly and can migrate to the posterior mediastinum.
  • METHODS: Sestamibi SPECT imaging studies performed on 103 patients who had parathyroid adenomas with their origin and locations confirmed by surgery and histology were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Abnormal foci seen on the SPECT images were grouped as to location relative to the thyroid gland as superior (S), middle (M), and inferior (I).
  • The proximity between the focus and the thyroid on the sagittal SPECT images was graded from 0 to 2 with 2 being widely separated.
  • Ten foci were at the M level, including 6 SPA and 4 inferior parathyroid adenomas (IPA).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 17242559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Courcoutsakis N, Patronas N, Filie AC, Carney JA, Moraitis A, Stratakis CA: Ectopic thymus presenting as a thyroid nodule in a patient with the Carney complex. Thyroid; 2009 Mar;19(3):293-6
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  • [Title] Ectopic thymus presenting as a thyroid nodule in a patient with the Carney complex.
  • Ectopic thymic tissue within the thyroid gland is rare.
  • Patients with a complex of myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation, and endocrine overactivity, collectively known as Carney complex (CNC), have a predisposition towards the development of thyroid abnormalities, but there are no reports of thymic defects in CNC.
  • We present the case of a 12-year-old boy with CNC and a growing thyroid nodule.
  • Hemithyroidectomy for a Hürthle cell adenoma led to the confirmation of distinct intrathyroidal ectopic thymic tissue.

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  • (PMID = 19265501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01-HD-000642-04; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 9007-49-2 / DNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2962859
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65. Nucera C, Mazzon E, Caillou B, Violi MA, Moleti M, Priolo C, Sturniolo G, Puzzolo D, Cavallari V, Trimarchi F, Vermiglio F: Human galectin-3 immunoexpression in thyroid follicular adenomas with cell atypia. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Feb;28(2):106-12
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  • [Title] Human galectin-3 immunoexpression in thyroid follicular adenomas with cell atypia.
  • Increasing hgal-3 immunoexpression has been reported in several human tumors, including thyroid carcinomas, but not in benign thyroid lesions.
  • We analyzed the immunolocalization of hgal-3 in cell compartments of benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Hgal-3 immunoperoxidase reaction was carried out on 133 thyroid tissue samples obtained from 113 patients; 20 of these were normal (NT), 85 were benign thyroid lesions [20 colloid nodules (CN), 21 nodular hyperplasias (NH), 7 focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT), 15 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), 22 follicular adenomas (FA)], 25 differentiated carcinomas [15 papillary carcinomas (PC), 6 follicular carcinomas (FC) and 4 Hürthle cell carcinomas (HC)] and 3 anaplastic carcinomas (AC).
  • Among the malignant thyroid lesions, hgal-3 was detected in 12/15 (80%) PC, 3/4 (75%) HC and in 4/6 (66.6%) FC, but in none of the 3 AC.
  • Conversely, hgal-3 immunoexpression was absent in NT and in all benign thyroid lesions, but 1/15 HT and 10/22 (45.4%) FA.
  • Hgal-3 cytoplasmic-perinuclear immunolocalization was observed in the majority of thyroid carcinomas and in more than half of the FA, theoretically suggesting an involvement of this protein in thyroid tumorigenesis throughout an antiapoptotic activity.
  • Moreover, hgal-3 expression in FA might anticipate the likelihood of evolution of these benign lesions towards malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Adenoma / pathology. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Middle Aged. Staining and Labeling. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 15887854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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66. Stepansky A, Gold-Deutch R, Poluksht N, Hagag P, Benbassat C, Mor A, Aharoni D, Wassermann I, Halpern Z, Halevy A: Intraoperative parathormone measurements and postoperative hypocalcemia. Isr Med Assoc J; 2010 Apr;12(4):207-10
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  • BACKGROUND: Hypocalcemia following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is a well-recognized potential complication.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the utility of intraoperative quick parathormone assay in predicting severe hypocalcemia development following parathyroidectomy for a single-gland adenoma causing primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • IO-QPTH values were measured at time 0 (T0) before incision, and 10 (T10) and 30 minutes (T30) following excision of the hyperfunctioning gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hypocalcemia / diagnosis. Hypocalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20803878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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67. Bradly DP, Reddy V, Prinz RA, Gattuso P: Incidental papillary carcinoma in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases. Surgery; 2009 Dec;146(6):1099-104
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  • [Title] Incidental papillary carcinoma in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases.
  • BACKGROUND: The frequency of incidental papillary carcinoma (IPC) has been reported to be between 4.6 % and 10% in operatively treated benign thyroid diseases.
  • This study reviews the occurrence of IPC in thyroid glands removed for benign disease at our institution.
  • METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-eight patients underwent partial or total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid diseases.
  • The incidence of IPC was compared among patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, multinodular goiter, follicular adenoma, and Graves' disease.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 81 (12.0%) IPCs were recorded with decreasing order of frequency: Hashimoto's thyroiditis, follicular adenoma, goiter, and Graves' disease.
  • Contralateral IPC was detected in 6/15 (40%) patients with follicular adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of IPC in benign operatively resected thyroid disease was 12%.
  • IPC was encountered in the contralateral lobe in 40% of patients with follicular adenoma.
  • The association of IPCs with Hashimoto's thyroiditis may indicate a link to thyroid cancer.
  • Total thyroidectomy may be considered an appropriate operative treatment in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular adenoma requiring operation owing to the high incidence and frequent contralateral involvement of IPC, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chicago / epidemiology. Female. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Graves Disease / complications. Graves Disease / surgery. Hashimoto Disease / complications. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19958937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Steele SR, Martin MJ, Mullenix PS, Azarow KS, Andersen CA: The significance of incidental thyroid abnormalities identified during carotid duplex ultrasonography. Arch Surg; 2005 Oct;140(10):981-5
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  • [Title] The significance of incidental thyroid abnormalities identified during carotid duplex ultrasonography.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Incidental thyroid masses identified during carotid duplex ultrasonography may represent clinically significant lesions.
  • INTERVENTIONS: After bilateral carotid duplex ultrasonography, selected patients additionally underwent 1 or more of the following: dedicated thyroid ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and/or partial or total thyroidectomy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence and type of thyroid abnormalities, correlation with a dedicated thyroid ultrasound, and results of histopathologic diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: One or more thyroid abnormalities were identified in 188 duplexes (9.4%) involving 168 patients.
  • Sixty-six of the patients (40%) went on to have formal thyroid ultrasounds.
  • Surgical pathology included 5 patients with cancer (3 with papillary cancer, 2 with follicular cancer), 4 patients with a follicular adenoma, and 2 with lymphocytic thyroiditis).
  • Two additional patients were discovered to have parathyroid adenomas following further workup and surgery.
  • Thyroid abnormalities identified during carotid duplex ultrasonography correlated with formal ultrasound in 64 of 66 (97%) patients.
  • Measurement of the thyroid mass by carotid duplex strongly correlated with measurement by formal thyroid ultrasound (r = 0.95, P<.001).
  • Two patients with unilateral masses noted on carotid duplex had a normal thyroid formal ultrasound.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Incidental thyroid abnormalities identified during carotid duplex ultrasound are common and contain clinically significant pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Artery Diseases / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex

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  • (PMID = 16230549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Litmathe J, Kurt M, Boeken U, Roehrborn A, Feindt P, Gams E: Combined cardiothoracic surgery and interventions of the para/thyroid gland. A rare clinical cooperation. Z Kardiol; 2005 Jan;94(1):28-32
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  • [Title] Combined cardiothoracic surgery and interventions of the para/thyroid gland. A rare clinical cooperation.
  • We investigated the question whether combined open heart surgery or thoracic surgery and interventions of the parathyreoid respectively thyroid gland may be helpful for the patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of six patients (age range: 29-78 years) undergoing simultaneous cardiothoracic and para-/thyroid interventions were examined.
  • In combination with these procedures three patients underwent a subtotal goiter resection, two patients had a resection of a parathyroid adenoma and one patient underwent a right-sided hemithyroidectomy.
  • There were no signs of recurrence of either para-/thyroid or Hodgkin's disease.
  • Thus we conclude that simultaneous cardiothoracic and endocrine surgery of the para-/thyroid gland can be performed with acceptable risk in cases of preoperative low-risk assessment.


70. Mathur SR, Kapila K, Verma K: Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of goiter. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Apr;48(2):166-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of goiter.
  • Enlargement of the thyroid gland is a common occurrence in most parts of the world especially in the iodine-deficient goiter belt areas.
  • Vast majority of these lesions are benign but they invariably lead to a series of investigations among which FNAC plays a pivotal role.
  • Although many studies have reported diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in detecting neoplasms, there have been few studies where the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of goiter along with their diagnostic pitfalls has been evaluated.
  • The present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of FNAC in diagnosis of goiter and to highlight its limitations and diagnostic pitfalls.
  • They included 733 cases where the cytological diagnosis was goiter or suggestive of goiter along with 38 cases in which the histological diagnosis was goiter while the cytological diagnosis was cystic change or neoplasm.
  • In 34 cases (20.23%) no diagnosis could be offered because of cystic change.
  • A false positive cytologic diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 4 cases.
  • Presence of hurthle cell metaplasia, hyperplastic nodules and papillary hyperplasias were responsible for the false positive diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Humans. India

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  • (PMID = 16758655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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71. Marcheix B, Brouchet L, Berjaud J, Dahan M: Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2006 Nov;30(5):808-10
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  • [Title] Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • She underwent first a subtotal resection of the parathyroid glands associated with subtotal thyroidectomy in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism and multi nodular thyroid.
  • Pathologic findings were consistent with hyperplasia and demonstrated a fifth parathyroid gland in the thyroid.
  • Two years later, the patient presented recurrent hyperparathyroidism associated with terminal renal insufficiency, fusion of Sesta Mibi scintigraphy and CT scan demonstrated a sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland in the aorto pulmonary window.
  • Pathologic findings demonstrated a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16979898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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72. Lo CY, Lam KY, Leung PP, Luk JM: High prevalence of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;152(4):545-50
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  • [Title] High prevalence of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) seems to play a role in the development and carcinogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 expression was performed for 30 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 40 benign thyroid specimens.
  • RESULTS: COX-2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 27 of 30 (90%) PTC but was absent in 40 benign thyroid specimens, including 27 nodular hyperplasia, 7 follicular adenoma and 6 lymphocytic thyroiditis.
  • Two of the three COX-2 negative carcinomas were follicular variant of PTC.
  • Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the level of COX-2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in PTC than in both the adjacent non-cancerous tissues and the benign thyroid specimens.
  • CONCLUSION: COX-2 is frequently expressed in PTC but not in benign thyroid specimens.

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  • (PMID = 15817909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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73. Cassol CA, Guo M, Ezzat S, Asa SL: GNAq mutations are not identified in papillary thyroid carcinomas and hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):250-2
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  • [Title] GNAq mutations are not identified in papillary thyroid carcinomas and hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.
  • Since these neoplasms share with thyroid carcinomas a high frequency of MAP kinase pathway-activating mutations, we hypothesized whether GNAq mutations could also play a role in the development of thyroid carcinomas.
  • Additionally, activating mutations of another subtype of G protein (GNAS1) are frequently found in hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, making it plausible that GNAq-activating mutations could also be found in some of these nodules.
  • To investigate thyroid papillary carcinomas and thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules for GNAq mutations in exon 5, codon 209, a total of 32 RET/PTC, BRAF, and RAS negative thyroid papillary carcinomas and 13 hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules were evaluated.
  • Although plausible, GNAq mutations seem not to play an important role in the development of thyroid follicular neoplasms, either benign hyperfunctioning nodules or malignant papillary carcinomas.
  • Our results are in accordance with the literature, in which no GNAq hotspot mutations were found in thyroid papillary carcinomas, as well as in an extensive panel of other tumors.
  • The molecular basis for MAP-kinase pathway activation in RET-PTC/BRAF/RAS negative thyroid carcinomas remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits / genetics. Mutation. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics

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  • [Cites] Nat Genet. 2004 Sep;36(9):961-8 [15322542.001]
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  • (PMID = 20714830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GNAQ protein, human; 0 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11
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74. Oertel YC: Follicular lesions of the thyroid gland: from hyperplasia to neoplasia. Endocr Pract; 2008 Mar;14(2):251-2
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  • [Title] Follicular lesions of the thyroid gland: from hyperplasia to neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia. Thyroiditis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18308668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Yeager N, Klein-Szanto A, Kimura S, Di Cristofano A: Pten loss in the mouse thyroid causes goiter and follicular adenomas: insights into thyroid function and Cowden disease pathogenesis. Cancer Res; 2007 Feb 1;67(3):959-66
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  • [Title] Pten loss in the mouse thyroid causes goiter and follicular adenomas: insights into thyroid function and Cowden disease pathogenesis.
  • Inactivation and silencing of the tumor suppressor PTEN are found in many different epithelial tumors, including thyroid neoplasia.
  • Cowden Disease patients, who harbor germ-line PTEN mutations, often display thyroid abnormalities, including multinodular goiter and follicular adenomas, and are at increased risk of thyroid cancer.
  • To gain insights into the role PTEN plays in thyroid function and disease, we have generated a mouse strain, in which Cre-mediated recombination is used to specifically delete Pten in the thyrocytes.
  • We found that Pten mutant mice develop diffuse goiter characterized by extremely enlarged follicles, in the presence of normal thyroid-stimulating hormone and T4 hormone levels.
  • Loss of Pten resulted in a significant increase in the thyrocyte proliferative index, which was more prominent in the female mice, and in increased cell density in the female thyroid glands.
  • Surprisingly, goitrogen treatment did not cause a substantial increase of the mutant thyroid size and increased only to some extent the proliferation index of the female thyrocytes, suggesting that a relevant part of the thyroid-stimulating hormone-induced proliferation signals are funneled through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade.
  • Although complete loss of Pten was not sufficient to cause invasive tumors, over two thirds of the mutant females developed follicular adenomas by 10 months of age, showing that loss of Pten renders the thyroid highly susceptible to neoplastic transformation through mechanisms that include increased thyrocyte proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Goiter / genetics. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Growth Processes / genetics. Female. Gene Deletion. Male. Mice. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Gland / enzymology. Thyroid Gland / physiopathology


76. Daousi C, Foy PM, MacFarlane IA: Ablative thyroid treatment for thyrotoxicosis due to thyrotropin-producing pituitary tumours. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2007 Jan;78(1):93-5
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  • [Title] Ablative thyroid treatment for thyrotoxicosis due to thyrotropin-producing pituitary tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are rare tumours that can be invasive.
  • It has been suggested that thyroid surgery or radioiodine treatment should not be considered in patients with such tumours as these treatments may facilitate rapid and aggressive tumour expansion.
  • AIM: To study the effects of thyroid ablative treatment on tumour size and thyroid status in two patients with TSHomas in whom the size of the adenoma was clearly documented before treatment was started.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ablative thyroid treatment can be a safe and successful option to treat TSHomas, but long-term and close follow-up of these patients is mandatory to ensure that the size and behaviour of the tumours do not change markedly.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology. Thyrotoxicosis / surgery. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17172570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-330X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117800
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77. Zablotska LB, Bogdanova TI, Ron E, Epstein OV, Robbins J, Likhtarev IA, Hatch M, Markov VV, Bouville AC, Olijnyk VA, McConnell RJ, Shpak VM, Brenner A, Terekhova GN, Greenebaum E, Tereshchenko VP, Fink DJ, Brill AB, Zamotayeva GA, Masnyk IJ, Howe GR, Tronko MD: A cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases after the Chornobyl accident: dose-response analysis of thyroid follicular adenomas detected during first screening in Ukraine (1998-2000). Am J Epidemiol; 2008 Feb 1;167(3):305-12
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  • [Title] A cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases after the Chornobyl accident: dose-response analysis of thyroid follicular adenomas detected during first screening in Ukraine (1998-2000).
  • The Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident in 1986 exposed many individuals to radioactive iodines, chiefly (131)I, the effects of which on benign thyroid diseases are largely unknown.
  • To investigate the risk of follicular adenoma in relation to radiation dose after Chornobyl, the authors analyzed the baseline data from a prospective screening cohort study of those exposed as children or adolescents.
  • A stratified random sample was selected from all individuals who were younger than 18 years, had thyroid radioactivity measurements taken within 2 months after the accident, and resided in the three heavily contaminated areas in Ukraine.
  • This analysis is based on the 23 cases diagnosed in 12,504 subjects for whom personal history of thyroid diseases was known.
  • In conclusion, persons exposed to radioactive iodines as children and adolescents have an increased risk of follicular adenoma, though it is smaller than the risk of thyroid cancer in the same cohort.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology


78. Cerutti JM, Latini FR, Nakabashi C, Delcelo R, Andrade VP, Amadei MJ, Maciel RM, Hojaij FC, Hollis D, Shoemaker J, Riggins GJ: Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 1):3311-8
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers.
  • PURPOSE: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, a standard method for thyroid nodule diagnosis, cannot distinguish between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).
  • The goal of this study was to determine if antibody markers used alone or in combination could accurately distinguish between a wider variety of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in fixed sections and FNA samples.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was done on 27 FTA, 25 FTC, and 75 other benign and malignant thyroid tissue sections using custom antibodies for chromosome 1 open reading frame 24 (C1orf24) and integral membrane protein 1 (ITM1) and commercial antibodies for DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and arginase II (ARG2).
  • RNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR in 33 thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We improved this diagnostic test by adding C1orf24 and ITM1 custom antibodies and showing use on a wider variety of thyroid pathology.
  • Use of one or more of these antibodies should improve diagnostic accuracy of suspicious thyroid nodules from both tissue sections and FNA samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16740752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461; United States / PHS HHS / / S98-146
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DDIT3 protein, human; 0 / FAM129A protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147336-12-7 / Transcription Factor CHOP; EC 2.4.1.- / Hexosyltransferases; EC 2.4.99.18 / STT3A protein, human; EC 3.5.3.1 / Arginase; EC 3.5.3.1 / arginase II, human
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79. National Toxicology Program: NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) (CAS No. 35065-27-1) in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (Gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2006 May;(529):4-168
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  • Thyroid Hormone Concentrations: Serum total thyroxine (T4), free T4, and total triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in the 3,000 microg/kg group were significantly lower than those in the vehicle controls at the 14-week interim evaluation.
  • At the 31-week interim evaluation, no significant differences were observed in serum total T4, free T4, T3, or thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations.
  • Hepatic Cell Proliferation Data: No significant differences in hepatocellular labeling index were observed between the vehicle control and dosed groups at any of the interim evaluations.
  • The incidences of oval cell hyperplasia and pigmentation of the liver were significantly increased in the 3,000 microg/kg core study group.
  • A single hepatocellular adenoma was observed in the 3,000 microg/kg core study group.
  • At 53 weeks, sporadic incidences of minimal to mild follicular cell hypertrophy of the thyroid gland occurred in all groups (except 10 microg/kg).
  • At 2 years, the incidences of minimal to mild follicular cell hypertrophy were significantly increased in the 300 microg/kg and 3,000 microg/kg (core and stop-exposure) groups.
  • PCB 153 administration caused increased incidences of nonneoplastic lesions of the liver, thyroid gland, ovary, oviduct, and uterus in female rats.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Bile Duct / chemically induced. Adenoma, Bile Duct / pathology. Administration, Oral. Animals. Bile Duct Neoplasms / chemically induced. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Enlargement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Hepatocytes / drug effects. Hepatocytes / pathology. Liver / drug effects. Liver / pathology. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Thyroid Hormones / blood. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 16835634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; ZRU0C9E32O / 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl
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80. Ouyang D, Chen FJ, Wei MW, Yang AK, Chen ZQ, Li QL, Chen YF: [Expression and clinical significance of galectin-3 in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Nov;24(11):1367-71
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  • [Title] [Expression and clinical significance of galectin-3 in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The most challenging problem in diagnosing thyroid nodules is to distinguish benign disease from malignant disease.
  • Therefore, this study was designed to search for biological markers which can distinguish benign lesion from malignant lesion of thyroid.
  • METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 in 30 specimens of thyroid cancer, 10 specimens of thyroid adenoma, and 10 specimens of nodular thyroid goiter were detected by LSAB immunocytochemistry.
  • The results of routine pathologic examination of gland species were set as golden standard.
  • Galectin-3 was commonly expressed in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, but didn't express in thyroid adenoma and nodular thyroid goiter.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 is commonly expressed in thyroid malignant lesions, but not in benign lesions.
  • Immunocytochemistry assay can distinguish well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma from thyroid adnoma and nodular thyroid goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16552965.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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81. Tarantini B, Ciuoli C, Di Cairano G, Guarino E, Mazzucato P, Montanaro A, Burroni L, Vattimo AG, Pacini F: Effectiveness of radioiodine (131-I) as definitive therapy in patients with autoimmune and non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jul-Aug;29(7):594-8
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  • We evaluated the outcome of radioiodine (RAI) therapy in 100 consecutive patients treated in the period 2000-2001 for hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease (GD), toxic adenoma (TA) and toxic multinodular goiter (TMG).
  • Thyroid function was measured before and after therapy every 3-6 months up to 3 yr.
  • Thyroid volume reduction was observed in all patients, but was higher in GD patients (mean reduction of 76%) and in TA patients (mean nodule reduction of 69%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Graves Disease / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size / drug effects. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16957406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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82. Collie RB, Collie MJ: Extracranial thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting ectopic pituitary adenoma of the nasopharynx. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Sep;133(3):453-4
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  • [Title] Extracranial thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting ectopic pituitary adenoma of the nasopharynx.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / secretion. Choristoma / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Gland. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16143200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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83. Tsybrovskyy O, Rössmann-Tsybrovskyy M: Oncocytic versus mitochondrion-rich follicular thyroid tumours: should we make a difference? Histopathology; 2009 Dec;55(6):665-82
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  • [Title] Oncocytic versus mitochondrion-rich follicular thyroid tumours: should we make a difference?
  • AIMS: To separate true oncocytic neoplasms from mitochondrion-rich non-oncocytic lesions based on the intracellular relationship between major cell organelles, and to establish the diagnostic and clinical relevance of this distinction.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Tissue samples from 276 follicular adenomas, 194 follicular carcinomas, 162 normal thyroids and 296 non-neoplastic lesions were classified as conventional, mitochondrion-rich or oncocytic based on the immunohistochemically assessed quantity and intracellular distribution of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear position.
  • CONCLUSIONS: True oncocytic neoplasms can be distinguished from mitochondrion-rich non-oncocytic tumours based on aberrant distribution of all major cell organelles.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Mitochondria / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Count. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Electron. Regression Analysis. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20002768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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84. Liu YY, Morreau H, Kievit J, Romijn JA, Carrasco N, Smit JW: Combined immunostaining with galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, Hector Battifora mesothelial-1, cytokeratin-19, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}, and sodium/iodide symporter antibodies for the differential diagnosis of non-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Mar;158(3):375-84
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  • [Title] Combined immunostaining with galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, Hector Battifora mesothelial-1, cytokeratin-19, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}, and sodium/iodide symporter antibodies for the differential diagnosis of non-medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The microscopic distinction between benign and malignant thyroid lesions in clinical practice is still largely based on conventional histology.
  • This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of galectin-3 (Gal-3), Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1), cytokeratin (CK)-19, CBP P300-interacting transactivator with glutamic acid E- and aspartic acid D-rich C-terminal domain (CITED-1), fibronectin (FN)-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, and intracellular sodium/iodide symporter (iNIS) immunostaining in a large panel of thyroid neoplasms.
  • METHODS: We used tissue arrays containing 177 thyroid tissues: 100 benign tissues (including normal thyroid, Graves disease, multinodular goiter, and follicular adenoma (FA)) and 77 thyroid carcinomas (including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma, and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC)).
  • RESULTS: In general, we found overexpression of FN-1, CITED-1, Gal-3, CK-19, HBME-1, and iNIS in malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Gal-3, FN-1, and iNIS had the highest accuracy in the differential diagnosis of follicular lesions.
  • A panel of Gal-3, FN-1, and iNIS, identified by hierarchical cluster analysis, had a 98% accuracy to differentiate between FA and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that identifying optimal antibody panels with cluster analysis increases the diagnostic value in the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms, the combination of FN-1, Gal-3, and iNIS having the best accuracy (98%).

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  • (PMID = 18299472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CITED1 protein, human; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Symporters; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter
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85. Sorrentino F, Atzeni J, Romano G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):277-8
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  • [Title] [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Il microcarcinoma differenziato della tiroide.
  • BACKGROUND: The thyroid microcarcinoma is a tumor with maximum diameter of 10 mm (WHO).
  • The papillary microcarcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer, followed by follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The aim of our study is to assess the frequency of microcarcinoma, the association of benign thyroid disease himself and the controversial surgery.
  • RESULTS: 42 carcinomas were detected, of which 24 PTMC and 1 follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The PTMC was associated with cancer in only 2 cases (papillary carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma) in the remaining thyroid tissue was suffering from benign disease (20 goiters, 3 Hashimoto thyroiditis, a trabecular adenoma).
  • TALK: Controversial is still the type of surgery to be performed in case of differentiated thyroid microcarcinomas, as well as the indication is still debated to lymphadenectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid in our series, represents 57% of all thyroid cancers.
  • Microcarcinoma and benign thyroid disease association (76.92% of cases) was high.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20646369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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86. Malle D, Valeri RM, Pazaitou-Panajiotou K, Kiziridou A, Vainas I, Destouni C: Use of a thin-layer technique in thyroid fine needle aspiration. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):23-7
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  • [Title] Use of a thin-layer technique in thyroid fine needle aspiration.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of the ThinPrep Processor (Cytyc Corporation, Boxborough, Massachusetts, U.S.A) in fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid gland lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: This study included 459 thyroid FNA specimens obtained from patients who came to our endocrinology department with various thyroid disorders over 3 years.
  • RESULTS: Our cases included 279 adenomatoid nodules, 15 cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis, 45 follicular neoplasms, 14 Hürthle cell tumors, 58 papillary carcinomas and 1 5 anaplastic carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Thin-layer cytology improves the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNA and offers the possibility of performing new techniques, such as immunocytochemistry, on the same sample in order to detect malignancy as well as the type and origin of thyroid gland neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Hashimoto Disease / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Staining and Labeling. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Cytol. 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):3-4 [16514833.001]
  • (PMID = 16514836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Boguszewski CL, Bianchet LC, Raskin S, Nomura LM, Borba LA, Cavalcanti TC: Application of genetic testing to define the surgical approach in a sporadic case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Nov;54(8):705-10
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  • Parathyroid scintigraphy showed tracer uptake in the inferior region of the left thyroid lobe, and cervical ultrasound showed a heterogeneous nodule in the same area, suggestive of a parathyroid adenoma (PA).
  • Genetic testing detected mutation in the MEN 1 gene and total parathyroidectomy with the implantation of a fragment of one gland in the forearm was performed.
  • Pathology showed a PA and 3 normal parathyroid glands, without hyperplasia, despite the diagnosis of MEN 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Genetic Testing / standards. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics


88. Lass P, Kaniuka S: Feline hyperthyroidism. The contribution of nuclear medicine. Hell J Nucl Med; 2005 Sep-Dec;8(3):145-8
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  • This paper overviews the incidence, aetiology, clinical signs and complications of hyperthyroidism in cats as well as the contribution of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and management of this veterinary disease.
  • Thyroid gland scintigraphy is of particular value in detecting autonomic adenoma in occult cases of fenile hyperthyroidism (FH), particularly when hormone tests are doubtful or conflicting.
  • Also, thyroid scintigraphy is useful in detecting the shape of the thyroid gland, hyperfunctioning accessory or ectopic thyroid tissue, multi-nodular goitre and unilateral or bilateral cold lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16390018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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89. Pino Rivero V, Pantoja Hernández CG, González Palomino A, Mora Santos ME, Pardo Romero R, Trinidad Ramos G, Montero García C, Blasco Huelva A: [Reoperation because of ectopic parathyroid adenoma with previous removal of lipothymoma. Importance of intraoperative PTH]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2006;33(6):565-71
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  • [Title] [Reoperation because of ectopic parathyroid adenoma with previous removal of lipothymoma. Importance of intraoperative PTH].
  • [Transliterated title] Reintervención por adenoma ectópico de paratiroides con extirpación previa de lipotimoma. Importancia de la PTH intraoperatoria.
  • Sometimes the surgery of hyperparathyroidism is not easy and the surgical team find difficulties to locate the pathological gland or glands.
  • We report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopic parathyroid adenoma which required two interventions.
  • First we removed what it seems an adenoma but resulted to be a lipotimoma.
  • In the reintervention practiced one week later, having then the rapid or turbo intraoperative PTH and previous digital scintigraphy, it was possible to remove an adenoma histologically confirmed, with 3,5 cm diameter located in depth to right thyroid lobe towards the superior mediastinal straits.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17233271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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90. Banito A, Pinto AE, Espadinha C, Marques AR, Leite V: Aneuploidy and RAS mutations are mutually exclusive events in the development of well-differentiated thyroid follicular tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Nov;67(5):706-11
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  • [Title] Aneuploidy and RAS mutations are mutually exclusive events in the development of well-differentiated thyroid follicular tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: Follicular thyroid tumours present several genetic alterations such as aneuploidy, RAS mutations and PAX8/PPARgammarearrangements.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between aneuploidy, RAS mutations and PAX8/PPARgamma gene rearrangement in thyroid follicular tumours.
  • DESIGN: Ploidy status was determined by flow cytometry in 111 thyroid lesions (42 follicular thyroid adenomas, 27 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 19 follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 20 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 3 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas).
  • The aneuploid tumours harbouring RAS mutations were two poorly differentiated carcinomas and one follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with poorly differentiated areas.
  • Three of five (60%) follicular thyroid adenomas and 1 of 7 (14%) follicular thyroid carcinomas, with the PAX8/PPARgamma fusion gene, were aneuploid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that aneuploidy and RAS mutations are mutually exclusive events in the development of well-differentiated thyroid follicular tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Aneuploidy. Genes, ras. Point Mutation. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Flow Cytometry. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Statistics as Topic

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  • (PMID = 17651453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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91. Asioli S, Bussolati G: Emerin immunohistochemistry reveals diagnostic features of nuclear membrane arrangement in thyroid lesions. Histopathology; 2009 Apr;54(5):571-9
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  • [Title] Emerin immunohistochemistry reveals diagnostic features of nuclear membrane arrangement in thyroid lesions.
  • AIMS: Objective appreciation of irregularities of the nuclear shape is a key parameter in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, since foldings of the nuclear membrane (NM) featuring indentations, grooves and pseudoinclusions characterize papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry of the NM with emerin as well as three-dimensional reconstruction of the images (through deconvolution processing) performed on a series of 54 cases (processed following the tissue array procedure) revealed a uniform arrangement of the NM in non-neoplastic lesions (thyroiditis, microfollicular goitre, follicular adenoma) and normal thyroid as well as in follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Decoration of the NM represents an original approach to identify PTC nuclear shape, highlights new structural features and might be helpful in the differential diagnosis between so-called nuclear pseudoinclusions and artefactual 'bubbles'.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Nuclear Envelope / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Membrane Proteins. Nuclear Proteins. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19302538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / emerin
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92. Guerra LN, Miler EA, Moiguer S, Karner M, Orlandi AM, Fideleff H, Burdman JA: Telomerase activity in fine needle aspiration biopsy samples: application to diagnosis of human thyroid carcinoma. Clin Chim Acta; 2006 Aug;370(1-2):180-4
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  • [Title] Telomerase activity in fine needle aspiration biopsy samples: application to diagnosis of human thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by fine needle aspiration biopsy is a well known problem in thyroid pathology.
  • METHODS: We evaluated telomerase activity (TA) in 85 fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples from patients with thyroid nodules.
  • Surgery samples from patients with tumor or follicular adenomas were also analyzed.
  • Among them, 4 follicular carcinomas and 1 papillary carcinoma were labeled as indeterminate by FNAB cytological examination.
  • FNAB samples from follicular adenomas were diagnosed as indeterminate by cytological examination, but they showed no detectable TA.
  • Tumor tissues from patients with follicular or papillary thyroid carcinomas presented TA >10 Units, whereas follicular adenoma tissues (benign nodules) showed no TA.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results showed a good correlation between TA in FNAB samples and tumor/nodule thyroid tissue.
  • This suggested that use of TA as a biological marker of malignancy might be a useful tool in the diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinomas or follicular thyroid adenomas using FNAB samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Telomerase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Chim Acta. 2007 Sep;384(1-2):188
  • (PMID = 16600201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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93. Drieschner N, Belge G, Rippe V, Meiboom M, Loeschke S, Bullerdiek J: Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin. Thyroid; 2006 Nov;16(11):1091-6
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  • [Title] Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin.
  • Epithelial tumors of the thyroid are cytogenetically well-investigated tumors.
  • Recently, we have been able to describe the involvement of a novel gene called THADA in benign thyroid lesions with 2p21 rearrangements.
  • Other fusion genes found in thyroid lesions are RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR(gamma).
  • The latter occurs in follicular thyroid carcinomas with a t(2;3)(q13;p25).
  • Here we present molecular-cytogenetic and cytogenetic investigations on a follicular thyroid adenoma with a t(2;20;3)(p21;q11.2; p25).
  • Our findings suggest that the close surrounding of PPAR(gamma) is a breakpoint hot spot region, leading to recurrent alterations of this gene in thyroid tumors of follicular origin including carcinomas as well as adenomas with or without involvement of PAX8.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Chromosome Breakage. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17123335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / THADA protein, human
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94. Simşek E, Simşek T, Savaş-Erdeve S, Erdoğmuş B, Döşoğlu M: Pituitary hyperplasia mimicking pituitary macroadenoma in two adolescent patients with long-standing primary hypothyroidism: case reports and review of literature. Turk J Pediatr; 2009 Nov-Dec;51(6):624-30
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  • We report two cases with primary autoimmune hypothyroidism and an ectopic thyroid gland causing pituitary enlargement mimicking pituitary macroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hypothyroidism / complications. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 20196402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4301
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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95. Taïeb D, Hassad R, Sebag F, Colavolpe C, Guedj E, Hindié E, Henry JF, Mundler O: Tomoscintigraphy improves the determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas, especially in apparently inferior glands: imaging features and surgical implications. J Nucl Med Technol; 2007 Sep;35(3):135-9
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  • [Title] Tomoscintigraphy improves the determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas, especially in apparently inferior glands: imaging features and surgical implications.
  • Identification of the embryologic origin of hyperfunctioning parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) could determine the most suitable approach for minimally invasive surgery.
  • The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the reliability of a new, combined protocol for the preoperative localization and determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas.
  • On the basis of anatomic considerations, adenomas were classified as superior (P4 derived) if they were located above the isthmus or posterior to the thyroid on SPECT images, despite their apparently middle to inferior position, and as inferior (P3 derived) if the foci were located in inferior and anterior positions or along the thyrothymic tract.
  • RESULTS: A total of 36 adenomas were removed: 34 solitary adenomas and 1 double adenoma (for totals of 19 P3-derived and 17 P4-derived adenomas).
  • Pinhole subtraction imaging, SPECT, and ultrasonography sensitivities for detecting adenomas were 86%, 78%, and 77%, respectively.
  • Positive SPECT results were associated with higher gland weights.
  • Only 2 corresponded to large P3-derived adenomas (>2 g).
  • CONCLUSION: By reclassifying apparently inferior adenomas as P4-derived adenomas prolapsed behind the thyroid gland, SPECT provides information about the most suitable surgical approach for avoiding recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.
  • Additional pinhole images should increase the detection of small adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 17702904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-4916
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nucl Med Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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96. Turnbull MM, Humeniuk V, Stein B, Suthers GK: Arteriovenous malformations in Cowden syndrome. J Med Genet; 2005 Aug;42(8):e50
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  • The clinical features include trichilemmomas, verrucose lesions of the skin, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, cerebellar gangliocytoma, thyroid adenomas, fibroadenomas of the breast, and hamartomatous colonic polyps.
  • A family is described with a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome, a familial frameshift mutation in the PTEN gene, and large visceral arteriovenous malformations.
  • Recognition of arteriovenous malformations as a clinical feature of Cowden syndrome has implications for the clinical management of patients with this disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnosis. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16061556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-6244
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] OMIM/ 153480/ 158350
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1736111
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97. Prosst RL, Willeke F, Schroeter L, Post S, Gahlen J: Fluorescence-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: a novel detection technique for parathyroid glands. Surg Endosc; 2006 Sep;20(9):1488-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: The enlarged adenoma and an atrophic parathyroid gland could be identified rapidly and removed because of their intense red fluorescence.
  • Surrounding structures such as thyroid, muscles, and soft tissue remained nonfluorescent and could easily be distinguished from the parathyroid glands.
  • The technique serves as an additional tool requiring only moderate technical and clinical expenditure for help in guiding dissection down to a preoperatively localized adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Aged. Aminolevulinic Acid. Atrophy. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Photosensitizing Agents

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  • (PMID = 16736312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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98. Yang JH, Bae SJ, Park S, Park HK, Jung HS, Chung JH, Min YK, Lee MS, Kim KW, Lee MK: Bilateral pheochromocytoma associated with paraganglioma and papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of an unusual case. Endocr J; 2007 Apr;54(2):227-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral pheochromocytoma associated with paraganglioma and papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of an unusual case.
  • Ultrasonograms and computed tomograms revealed tumors in both of the adrenal glands, anterior aspect of the inferior vena cava, and the right lobe of the thyroid gland.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The final pathological diagnosis was bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and either parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia.
  • This is the first report of a combination of bilateral pheochromocytoma, abdominal paraganglioma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and either parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia without hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis


99. Zhu X, Zhai H, Tang SF, Cheng Y: Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma presenting with neuromuscular manifestation. Neurol India; 2009 May-Jun;57(3):340-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma presenting with neuromuscular manifestation.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is not an uncommon endocrine disorder.
  • Neck computerized tomography scan showed a parenchymatous tumor in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • The right lobectomy examination confirmed the diagnosis of an intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma of the right gland.

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  • (PMID = 19587481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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100. Yao XS, Luo DH, Li L, Wu N, Zhou CW: [Value of multi-slice helical CT in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2006 Sep;28(9):697-700
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  • [Title] [Value of multi-slice helical CT in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of multi-slice helical CT in the differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid lesions.
  • METHODS: The multi-slice helical CT images of 72 patients with 82 thyroid lesions were prospectively studied.
  • RESULTS: Of 42 benign lesions, 38 (90.5 % ) showed well-defined margin, 13 (30.
  • Of 40 thyroid carcinomas, 37 lesions(92.5% ) had irregular border, no lesion contained low density nodular areas, 14 (35.
  • 9% ) from 34 thyroid carcinoma patients who had undergone contrast enhanced CT scan showed complex density, while only 2(6.
  • 3% ) of 32 benign lesions showed such findings on contrast enhancement.
  • There were statistically significant differences between benign and malignant lesion in margin, low density nodular area, granular calcification, cervical lymph node enlargement and complex density( P <0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: The findings of well-defined margin and low density nodular area in CT image may suggest benign thyroid lesions, whereas the presence of irregular border, granular calcifications and cervical lymph node enlargement as well as complex density may indicate thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Goiter, Nodular / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radiography. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Double-Blind Method. Female. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / radiography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17274379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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