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1. Teixeira CS, Bitar RA, Martinho HS, Santos AB, Kulcsar MA, Friguglietti CU, da Costa RB, Arisawa EA, Martin AA: Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy. Analyst; 2009 Nov;134(11):2361-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy.
  • The diagnosis of thyroid pathologies is usually made by cytologic analysis of the fine needle aspiration (FNA) material.
  • The application of optical spectroscopy in the characterization of alterations could result in the development of a minimally invasive and non-destructive method for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases.
  • Thus, the objective of this work was to study the biochemical alterations of tissues and hormones (T3 and T4) of the thyroid gland by means of molecular vibrations probed by FT-Raman spectroscopy.
  • Through the discriminative linear analysis of the Raman spectra of the tissue, it was possible to establish (in percentages) the correct classification index among the groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular region, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma.
  • A relevant result was obtained in the analysis of the benign tissues (goitre and follicular adenoma) versus malignant tissues (papillary and follicular carcinomas), for which the index was 72.5% and considered good.
  • In conclusion, some biochemical alterations, represented by the FT-Raman spectra, were identified that could possibly be used to classify histologic groups of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Spectrum Analysis, Raman. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cluster Analysis. Discriminant Analysis. Humans. Principal Component Analysis. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroxine / metabolism. Triiodothyronine / metabolism. Vibration

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  • (PMID = 19838427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5528
  • [Journal-full-title] The Analyst
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Analyst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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2. Krausz Y, Bettman L, Guralnik L, Yosilevsky G, Keidar Z, Bar-Shalom R, Even-Sapir E, Chisin R, Israel O: Technetium-99m-MIBI SPECT/CT in primary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg; 2006 Jan;30(1):76-83
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  • The novel trend toward focused parathyroidectomy requires precise preoperative localization of the parathyroid adenoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
  • Three patients with both negative planar and SPECT/CT studies subsequently underwent bilateral neck exploration, with multiglandular hyperplasia diagnosed in two patients and a parathyroid adenoma in one.
  • Of 33 patients with a positive MIBI study, parathyroid adenoma was confined to the neck in 23 patients and to the lower neck-mediastinum in 10.
  • SPECT/CT facilitated the surgical exploration of all 10 ectopic parathyroid adenomas and 4 of 23 cervical parathyroid adenomas, the latter four either at reexploration or in patients with nonvisualization of the thyroid after thyroidectomy.
  • SPECT/CT contributed to the localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with PHPT and to planning the surgical exploration in 14 of 36 (39%) patients, predominantly those with ectopic parathyroid adenomas or who had distorted neck anatomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 16369710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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3. Mełeń-Mucha G: [Molecular aspects of pituitary tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 May-Jun;56(3):333-8
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  • Pituitary adenomas are common benign neoplasms, accounting for approximately 15% of intracranial tumors.
  • The progress in the studies concerning pituitary tumorigenesis is rather slow and, due to several limitations, including the anatomic inaccessibility of human pituitary gland, the lack of functional human cell lines in culture and the discrepancies between human and animal pituitary oncogenesis (in rodents pituitary hyperplasia is a prerequisite for adenoma development).
  • In humans, the majority of pituitary tumors are monoclonal in origin and derived from single mutated pituicyte, rarely hyperplasia is a prerequisite for adenoma formation.
  • GHRH, dopamine D2 receptor, PRL receptor, estrogens, thyroid hormone receptor) and growth factors (e.g.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16350728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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4. Lass P, Kaniuka S: Feline hyperthyroidism. The contribution of nuclear medicine. Hell J Nucl Med; 2005 Sep-Dec;8(3):145-8
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  • This paper overviews the incidence, aetiology, clinical signs and complications of hyperthyroidism in cats as well as the contribution of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and management of this veterinary disease.
  • Thyroid gland scintigraphy is of particular value in detecting autonomic adenoma in occult cases of fenile hyperthyroidism (FH), particularly when hormone tests are doubtful or conflicting.
  • Also, thyroid scintigraphy is useful in detecting the shape of the thyroid gland, hyperfunctioning accessory or ectopic thyroid tissue, multi-nodular goitre and unilateral or bilateral cold lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16390018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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5. Half E, Bercovich D, Rozen P: Familial adenomatous polyposis. Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2009;4:22
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  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the development of many tens to thousands of adenomas in the rectum and colon during the second decade of life.
  • Most patients are asymptomatic for years until the adenomas are large and numerous, and cause rectal bleeding or even anemia, or cancer develops.
  • FAP may present with some extraintestinal manifestations such as osteomas, dental abnormalities (unerupted teeth, congenital absence of one or more teeth, supernumerary teeth, dentigerous cysts and odontomas), congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), desmoid tumors, and extracolonic cancers (thyroid, liver, bile ducts and central nervous system).
  • A less aggressive variant of FAP, attenuated FAP (AFAP), is characterized by fewer colorectal adenomatous polyps (usually 10 to 100), later age of adenoma appearance and a lower cancer risk.
  • In a subset of individuals, a MUTYH mutation causes a recessively inherited polyposis condition, MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), which is characterized by a slightly increased risk of developing CRC and polyps/adenomas in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.
  • Diagnosis is based on a suggestive family history, clinical findings, and large bowel endoscopy or full colonoscopy.
  • Whenever possible, the clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by genetic testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / diagnosis. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19822006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 114
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2772987
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6. Baldelli R, Bianchi A, Diacono F, Passeri M, Fusco A, Valle D, Poggi M, Terlini M, Toscano V, Tamburrano G, Pontecorvi A, Maira G, De Marinis L: Characteristics of adult patients with growth hormone deficiency who underwent neurosurgery for functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenomas and craniopharyngiomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Feb;28(2):157-61
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  • [Title] Characteristics of adult patients with growth hormone deficiency who underwent neurosurgery for functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenomas and craniopharyngiomas.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics of GH deficiency (GHD) in adult patients after neurosurgery for pituitary adenomas and craniopharingiomas.
  • The whole group included: 45 non-functioning pituitary adenomas, 23 craniopharyngiomas, 16 PRLomas, 8 GHomas, 7 ACTHomas and 2 FSHomas; in particular 51 were macroadenomas and 27 microadenomas.
  • At study entry, GHD diagnosis was carried out by assessing GH secretion after GHRH+arginine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Human Growth Hormone / deficiency. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15887862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine
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7. Carney JA, Hirokawa M, Lloyd RV, Papotti M, Sebo TJ: Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland are almost all benign. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Dec;32(12):1877-89
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid gland are almost all benign.
  • In 1987, Carney et al reported 11 thyroid tumors with the following features: circumscription or encapsulation, trabecular architecture with intratrabecular hyalin and colloid, polygonal and spindle cells, nuclei with frequent grooves and cytoplasmic inclusions, occasional psammoma bodies, and a low mitotic rate.
  • The neoplasms did not recur or metastasize during a follow-up period that averaged 10 years, and they were titled hyalinizing trabecular adenomas.
  • Later, discovery of RET/PTC mutations in the tumor resulted in it being designated as a type of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • We conclude that the overwhelming majority of hyalinizing trabecular tumors of the thyroid behave as benign neoplasms and that, at this time, hyalinizing trabecular adenoma is the most appropriate title for them.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18813121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Pickett CA, Agoff SN, Widman TJ, Bronner MP: Altered expression of cyclins and cell cycle inhibitors in papillary thyroid cancer: prognostic implications. Thyroid; 2005 May;15(5):461-73
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  • [Title] Altered expression of cyclins and cell cycle inhibitors in papillary thyroid cancer: prognostic implications.
  • Currently we lack biochemical or molecular markers that predict recurrence and metastases in thyroid cancer.
  • Recent studies in a number of other human malignancies indicate that expression and/or subcellular localization of certain cell cycle regulators has prognostic utility.
  • We have investigated the expression of cyclins D1 and E and of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor's p21 and p27 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and correlated this with clinical/histological stage at diagnosis and with clinical outcome.
  • PTCs were compared to normal thyroid, adenomas, and undifferentiated thyroid cancers (UTCs).
  • Our studies indicate that PTCs and UTCs demonstrate low nuclear expression of cyclin E and p27, allowing a clear distinction between adenomas and these carcinomas (p < 0.004).
  • These studies suggest that evaluation of a panel of these markers and attention to their subcellular localization may be a useful adjunct in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and in predicting tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cyclins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Cyclin E / biosynthesis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tissue Fixation. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis


9. Lee B, Sir JJ, Park SW, Kim SB, Nah JC, Kang YK, Lee HK, Kim YI, Cho WH, Choi SK: Right-sided myxomas with extramedullary hematopoiesis and ossification in Carney complex. Int J Cardiol; 2008 Nov 12;130(2):e63-5
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  • He had previously been diagnosed as Cushing's syndrome and undergone resection of pituitary adenoma at the age of 21.
  • A tiny eyelid nodule was noted and histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of skin myxoma.
  • Thyroid ultrasonography revealed multiple hypoechoic nodules, which were confirmed pathologically as follicular adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary. Myxoma / diagnosis. Ossification, Heterotopic / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18230408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1874-1754
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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10. Nygaard B, Frisch T, Kiss K: [Thyroid papillary cancer using TPO staining]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2008 Apr 28;170(18):1571
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  • [Title] [Thyroid papillary cancer using TPO staining].
  • Immunostaining for TPO (MoAb47) has been used to predict the risk of thyroid cancer in thyroid adenomas without uptake in thyroid 99m pertechnetate scintigraphy.
  • This case describes a 16-year-old girl with thyroid papillary cancer staining 95% positive using TPO staining.
  • The case indicates that TPO staining can not be used as the only parameter in the evaluation of the risk of cancer in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Iodide Peroxidase / analysis. Staining and Labeling / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18454932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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11. García-González M, Abdulkader I, Boquete AV, Neo XM, Forteza J, Cameselle-Teijeiro J: Cyclooxygenase-2 in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic follicular cells of the human thyroid gland. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jul;447(1):12-7
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic follicular cells of the human thyroid gland.
  • This study was undertaken to investigate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in follicular cells of the human thyroid.
  • COX-2 immunoreactivity was confined to the cell cytoplasm with the nuclei remaining unlabelled.
  • COX-2 expression was observed in five cases (17.2%) of normal follicular cells and in one case (16.6%) of solid cell nests.
  • Follicular carcinoma expressed COX-2 more frequently than follicular adenoma (93.4% vs 21.1%) (p<or=0.001).
  • Our results suggest that COX-2 plays a role in progression of all thyroid carcinomas, but in papillary carcinomas, seems more important only in the early stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / enzymology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / enzymology. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 15947945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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12. Ong SC, Ng DC, Sundram FX: Initial experience in use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in thyroid carcinoma patients with elevated serum thyroglobulin but negative iodine-131 whole body scans. Singapore Med J; 2005 Jun;46(6):297-301
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  • [Title] Initial experience in use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in thyroid carcinoma patients with elevated serum thyroglobulin but negative iodine-131 whole body scans.
  • INTRODUCTION: This study aims to examine the usefulness of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in thyroid carcinoma patients with elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) but negative iodine-131 (I-131) whole body scans.
  • METHODS: 17 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent FDG PET/CT scans were reviewed retrospectively over a period of one year from July 2003 to June 2004.
  • CONCLUSION: FDG PET/CT is a sensitive diagnostic tool to detect radioiodine-negative recurrences/metastases in patients with thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroglobulin / blood

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  • [CommentIn] Singapore Med J. 2005 Jun;46(6):257-8 [15902352.001]
  • (PMID = 15902358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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13. Yaqub A: Familial Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: case reports and review of the literature. W V Med J; 2009 Jul-Aug;105(4):23-8
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  • [Title] Familial Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: case reports and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe case reports of a brother and sister pair with Hurthle cell carcinoma of thyroid.
  • Both had the disease diagnosed in later years of life, had cold nodules for 4-5 years before histological diagnosis, and both had local recurrence following thyroidectomy and postoperative radioiodine ablation.
  • Family history was pertinent for benign nodular thyroid disease in multiple family members.
  • CONCLUSION: HCC is a rare malignancy of thyroid.
  • Our case describes a rare familial occurrence of this malignancy and highlights the importance of obtaining a careful family history in management and surveillance of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19585901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Virginia medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] W V Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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14. Pryma DA, Schöder H, Gönen M, Robbins RJ, Larson SM, Yeung HW: Diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET in Hürthle cell thyroid cancer patients. J Nucl Med; 2006 Aug;47(8):1260-6
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  • [Title] Diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET in Hürthle cell thyroid cancer patients.
  • Hürthle cell carcinoma is an uncommon and occasionally aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer associated with increased mortality compared with other differentiated thyroid malignancies.
  • METHODS: All patients with Hürthle cell thyroid cancer who underwent their first 18F-FDG PET scan between May 1996 and February 2003 were identified retrospectively.
  • CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG PET has excellent diagnostic accuracy in Hürthle cell thyroid cancer patients, improving on CT and RIS.
  • Our data suggest that all patients with Hürthle cell thyroid cancer should undergo 18F-FDG PET as part of their initial postoperative staging and periodically to screen for occult recurrence, particularly in patients with elevated serum thyroglobulin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging


15. Lee D, Nam Y, Sung K: Single-incision endoscopic thyroidectomy by the axillary approach. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2010 Dec;20(10):839-42
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  • CONCLUSIONS: SIET via the axillary approach is safe and feasible for the treatment of patients with thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Axilla. Cicatrix / prevention & control. Endoscopy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 21105764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9034
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Elliott DD, Sellin R, Egger JF, Medeiros LJ: Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as a thyroid gland mass. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Oct;9(5):267-74
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  • [Title] Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as a thyroid gland mass.
  • We report 2 cases of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) presenting as a thyroid mass.
  • The first case is a 45-year-old woman with a 13-year history of diabetes insipidus who presented with an enlarging thyroid mass with substernal extension.
  • The second case is a 29-year-old man who presented with an enlarging thyroid mass and skin lesions.
  • Histologic evaluation of the thyroid gland in both cases revealed extensive involvement by LCH, confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis showing Langerhans cells that were positive for CD1a and S-100 protein.
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis can rarely involve the thyroid gland in adults, and we have identified 30 cases reported in literature.
  • Most patients had evidence of LCH involving other anatomic sites, as was true in these 2 cases, and the diagnosis was initially established by examination of other sites in a subset of patients.
  • Thyroid gland involvement as the initial presentation of LCH is a rare phenomenon that can result in misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Diabetes Insipidus / complications. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged


17. Dai YL, Cai DH, Chen H, Zhang Y, Li J: [Transcription and promoter hypermethylation of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene in human papillary thyroid carcinoma]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2010 Jan;30(1):114-7
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  • [Title] [Transcription and promoter hypermethylation of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene in human papillary thyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the mRNA expression of the tumor suppressor gene thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and the correlation between aberrant promoter methylation of TSHR gene and the tumorigenesis of PTC.
  • METHODS: RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of TSHR gene in 50 PTC cases, 20 cases of nodular goiter and 12 cases of thyroid adenoma tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. DNA Methylation. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20117998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin
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18. Pallante P, Terracciano L, Carafa V, Schneider S, Zlobec I, Lugli A, Bianco M, Ferraro A, Sacchetti S, Troncone G, Fusco A, Tornillo L: The loss of the CBX7 gene expression represents an adverse prognostic marker for survival of colon carcinoma patients. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Aug;46(12):2304-13
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  • We have previously shown that CBX7 expression is associated with a more malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer.
  • Finally, the restoration of CBX7 expression in two CRC cell lines reduces their proliferation rate suggesting a role of the loss of CBX7 expression in the progression step of colon carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / mortality. Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20542683.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CBX7 protein, human; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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19. Noordzij MJ, de Heide LJ, Links TP, Jager PL, Wolfenbuttel BH: [Four patients with incidentalomas of the thyroid discovered on 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET)]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2007 Oct 20;151(42):2337-41
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  • [Title] [Four patients with incidentalomas of the thyroid discovered on 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET)].
  • [Transliterated title] Vier patiënten met een incidentaloom van de schildklier bij fluor-18-deoxyglucose-positronemissietomografie (FDG-PET).
  • In 4 patients, an incidentaloma of the thyroid was found on 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET).
  • In the first patient, a 73-year-old man, a medullary thyroid carcinoma was discovered during the staging procedure ofa laryngeal carcinoma.
  • In the second patient, an 81-year-old woman, a follicular thyroid carcinoma was found as a result of a FDG-PET evaluation of an adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • In the third patient, a 64-year-old woman, a papillary thyroid carcinoma was found during dissemination investigation after curative removal of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The last patient, a 78-year-old man, was found to have a thyroid incidentaloma on FDG-PET scan during staging ofa recurrence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour.
  • Thyroid incidentalomas are present on 1.2-2.3% of FDG-PET scans.
  • However, whether these malignant thyroid lesions are relevant is not always clear.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18064937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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20. Granja F, Morari EC, Assumpção LV, Ward LS: GSTO polymorphism analysis in thyroid nodules suggest that GSTO1 variants do not influence the risk for malignancy. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2005 Jun;14(3):277-80
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  • [Title] GSTO polymorphism analysis in thyroid nodules suggest that GSTO1 variants do not influence the risk for malignancy.
  • In order to investigate the role of GSTO1 inheritance pattern on thyroid cancer risk we used a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP)-sequencing approach to compare the genotypes of 173 (87 women, 86 men; 18-81 years old; 47+/-18 years old) healthy control individuals with those of 145 patients with thyroid nodules (84 women, 61 men; 17-81 years old; 49+/-14 years old) including 17 follicular carcinomas, 76 papillary carcinomas, 21 follicular adenomas and 31 multinodular goiters.
  • The incidence of GSTO1 variants was similar in the control population and population with the benign and malignant nodules.
  • There was no association between genotype and the patients' clinical features, tumour parameters of aggressiveness at diagnosis or behaviour during follow-up.
  • We conclude that GSTO1 variants do not influence the risk for thyroid nodules or their pathologic and clinical characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15901998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.5.1.18 / GSTO1 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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21. Kung B, Winokur R, Cognetti D, O'Hara B, Rosen D: Parathyroid carcinoma: a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Sep;88(9):E10-3
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  • Most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (80 to 90%) are caused by a parathyroid adenoma; most of the rest are caused by either parathyroid gland hyperplasia or multiple adenomas.
  • When the appropriate clinical scenario is presented, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • A sestamibi scan and magnetic resonance imaging detected the presence of what appeared to be a right inferior parathyroid adenoma.
  • Following placement of bilateral ureteral stents and adequate hydration, the patient was taken to the operating room for a neck exploration and removal of a parathyroid adenoma with rapid intraoperative PTH monitoring.
  • A 4 x 2.5-cm, 10-g mass was removed from the right inferior pole of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19750462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Bajoghli M, Muthukrishnan A, Mountz JM: Posterior bulge sign for parathyroid adenoma on Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Aug;31(8):470-1
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  • [Title] Posterior bulge sign for parathyroid adenoma on Tc-99m MIBI SPECT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16855433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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23. Steele SR, Martin MJ, Mullenix PS, Azarow KS, Andersen CA: The significance of incidental thyroid abnormalities identified during carotid duplex ultrasonography. Arch Surg; 2005 Oct;140(10):981-5
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  • [Title] The significance of incidental thyroid abnormalities identified during carotid duplex ultrasonography.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Incidental thyroid masses identified during carotid duplex ultrasonography may represent clinically significant lesions.
  • INTERVENTIONS: After bilateral carotid duplex ultrasonography, selected patients additionally underwent 1 or more of the following: dedicated thyroid ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and/or partial or total thyroidectomy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence and type of thyroid abnormalities, correlation with a dedicated thyroid ultrasound, and results of histopathologic diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: One or more thyroid abnormalities were identified in 188 duplexes (9.4%) involving 168 patients.
  • Sixty-six of the patients (40%) went on to have formal thyroid ultrasounds.
  • Surgical pathology included 5 patients with cancer (3 with papillary cancer, 2 with follicular cancer), 4 patients with a follicular adenoma, and 2 with lymphocytic thyroiditis).
  • Two additional patients were discovered to have parathyroid adenomas following further workup and surgery.
  • Thyroid abnormalities identified during carotid duplex ultrasonography correlated with formal ultrasound in 64 of 66 (97%) patients.
  • Measurement of the thyroid mass by carotid duplex strongly correlated with measurement by formal thyroid ultrasound (r = 0.95, P<.001).
  • Two patients with unilateral masses noted on carotid duplex had a normal thyroid formal ultrasound.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Incidental thyroid abnormalities identified during carotid duplex ultrasound are common and contain clinically significant pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Artery Diseases / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex

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  • (PMID = 16230549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Pisanu A, Di Chiara B, Reccia I, Uccheddu A: Oncocytic cell tumors of the thyroid: factors predicting malignancy and influencing prognosis, treatment decisions, and outcomes. World J Surg; 2010 Apr;34(4):836-43
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  • [Title] Oncocytic cell tumors of the thyroid: factors predicting malignancy and influencing prognosis, treatment decisions, and outcomes.
  • BACKGROUND: The distinction between malignant and benign thyroid oncocytic cell tumors (OCTs) before and during surgery still represents a diagnostic challenge.
  • A cross-sectional study of 28 patients with carcinoma and 29 patients with adenoma was performed: demographic data, tumor characteristics, diagnostic results, patient management, postoperative, and follow-up results were evaluated.
  • The mean tumor size was significantly greater for carcinomas than for adenomas (3.0 cm vs. 1.8 cm; p = 0.003).
  • Older age, tumor size, thyroid capsular invasion, higher TNM stage, and AMES high risk were factors significantly related to tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Cross-Sectional Studies. Decision Making. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20041243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Ayoub S, Hachem K, Smayra T, Ghorra C, Abadjian G: Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively? World J Surg; 2007 Apr;31(4):817-23
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  • [Title] Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively?
  • INTRODUCTION: The role of cervical ultrasonography (US)-guided surgery for intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism is rarely reported.
  • Patients' characteristics were reviewed to identify predictive factors for intrathyroid adenoma.
  • Six patients (3.4%) were found to have intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas (two in the superior parathyroid and four in the inferior parathyroid).
  • Cervical US predicted this anomaly in four of six patients (67%) in whom the thyroid gland was not nodular and allowed total enucleation of the adenoma to be performed in three and subtotal thyroid loboisthmectomy in three; these operations were performed uneventfully and rapidly.
  • On multivariable analysis, no factor predicted intrathyroid localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PPV of high-resolution cervical US for identifying an abnormal parathyroid gland was 100% in this series.
  • It was 80% for predicting intrathyroid localization of the adenoma.
  • This method allows us to shorten the operating time by guiding the exploration immediately toward the thyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 17354026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Hemachandran M, Rajwanshi A, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R, Radotra BD: Cytology of Hürthle cell neoplasms of thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):859-61
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  • [Title] Cytology of Hürthle cell neoplasms of thyroid gland.
  • Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCN) are an uncommon group of tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important diagnostic tool in solitary nodules of the thyroid gland.
  • Four were adenomas and two were carcinomas.
  • In addition, 3 cases that were adenomas on histopathology were reported on cytology as colloid goiter with cystic degeneration in 2 cases and as follicular adenoma in 1 case.
  • There were no specific cytomorphological features that distinguished adenoma from carcinoma.
  • FNAC has a high specificity for a diagnosis of HCN, but the sensitivity is not as high because of sampling error.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18306589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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27. Ambrosi A, Fersini A, Tartaglia N, Prete FP, Natale F, Lorusso G, Giannone N, Samele F, Neri V: [Video-assisted thyroidectomy with minimally invasive central cervicotomy: initial experience in an endocrine surgery division]. Chir Ital; 2006 Sep-Oct;58(5):549-56
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  • The inclusion criteria were nodules < or = 3.5 cm diameter or thyroid lobe volume less than 15 ml, and no thyroiditis or previous neck surgery.
  • From March 2004 to March 2005, 127 thyroidectomies were performed, of which 36 were thyroid lobectomies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Feasibility Studies. Female. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17069183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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28. Denning KM, Smyth PC, Cahill SF, Finn SP, Conlon E, Li J, Flavin RJ, Aherne ST, Guenther SM, Ferlinz A, O'Leary JJ, Sheils OM: A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1095-102
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  • [Title] A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples.
  • Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a lesion that frequently causes difficulties from a diagnostic perspective in the laboratory.
  • The purpose of this study was to interrogate a cohort of archival thyroid lesions using gene expression analysis of a panel of markers proposed to have utility as adjunctive markers in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in particular.
  • Laser Capture Microdissection was used to procure pure cell populations for extraction.
  • HLA-DMA, HLA-DQB1, MT1X, CSNK1G2 and RAB23 were found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing follicular adenoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Comparison of follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups showed significant differential expression for MT1K, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Comparison of the papillary thyroid carcinoma group (classic and follicular variants) and the follicular adenoma group showed differential expression for CSNK1G2, HLA-DQB1, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Finally, KRAS2 was found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing the papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups.
  • This panel of molecular targets discriminates between follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma by their expression repertoires.
  • It may have utility for broader use in the setting of fine-needle aspiration cytology and could improve the definitive diagnosis of certain categories of thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Gene Expression. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Markers. Humans. Lasers. Microdissection


29. Garcia EA, Simões K, Wakamatsu A, Ressio RA, Alves VA, Longatto-Filho A, Camargo RS: Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):101-7
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  • [Title] Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia worldwide.
  • In order to evaluate the value of LVD in benign and malignant thyroid lesions, we analyzed 110 thyroidectomy specimens using D2-40, a specific marker for lymphatic vessels and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), the most potent molecule of lymphatic proliferation.
  • LVD was significantly different between papillary and follicular carcinomas in total (p = 0.045) and peritumoral area (p = 0.042).
  • Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma showed an important difference of intra- (p = 0.019) and peritumoral (p = 0.033) LVD.
  • VEGF-C was more markedly expressed in malignancies than in benign lesions (p = 0.0001).
  • Almost all cancers with high positive VEGF-C expression also exhibited increased peritumoral LVD (p = 0.049) when compared with the benign lesions.
  • Indeed, the high peritumoral LVD of malignant thyroid lesions is an important finding for surgery planning and supports the practice of total thyroidectomy in malignant thyroid neoplasm's since the lymphatic peritumoral vessels definitely are an escape path for tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20336393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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30. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1102-9; discussion 1109-10
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • We postulated that expression analysis of genes that modulate angiogenesis would identify differentially expressed genes that would help to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and serve as markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) array with 96 genes that modulate angiogenesis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm cDNA array expression data in 123 patients (4 normal thyroid, 26 hyperplastic nodules, 27 follicular adenomas, 23 follicular cancers, 18 follicular variant of papillary cancers, 25 papillary cancers).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two genes were upregulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms by cDNA array analysis, but only 13 genes had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P < or = .04).
  • Of the 13 differentially expressed genes, the combined use of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression levels was best for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid neoplasms, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 75%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 mRNA expression was elevated in higher TNM stage neoplasms and in patients with high-risk AMES (Age, distant Metastasis, Extrathyroidal invasion, and tumor Size) differentiated thyroid cancers (P < or = .005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 are markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


31. Brown RL, Muzzafar T, Wollman R, Weiss RE: A pituitary carcinoma secreting TSH and prolactin: a non-secreting adenoma gone awry. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 May;154(5):639-43
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  • [Title] A pituitary carcinoma secreting TSH and prolactin: a non-secreting adenoma gone awry.
  • Pathologic examination revealed a chromophobe adenoma with increased mitotic forms.
  • Although development of a carcinoma from a pituitary adenoma is very rare (<0.5%), macroadenomas that become hormonally active should be suspect for transformation into pituitary cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16645009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK07011; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00055; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR18372
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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32. Giove E, Lavermicocca W, Merlicco D, Renzulli G, Nacchiero E: [Diagnosis, surgical treatment and follow-up of the hyalizing trabecular adenoma of the thyroid]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Sep-Oct;80(5):357-61
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis, surgical treatment and follow-up of the hyalizing trabecular adenoma of the thyroid].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnosi, trattamento chirurgico e follow-up dell'adenoma trabecolare ialinizzante della tiroide.
  • In the last twenty years, we submitted 853 patients to thyroid surgery.
  • We found only in ten patients a hyalinizing trabecular adenoma at the (histological control), as a confirmation of the rarity of this tumour.
  • In conclusion the hyalinizing trabecular adenoma represents a low malignant potential tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann Ital Chir. 2009 Nov-Dec;80(6):3 p preceding table of contents. Nacchiero, Michele [corrected to Nacchiero, Eleonora]
  • (PMID = 20131547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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33. Kim HJ, Kim KR, Park HS, Jang KY, Chung MJ, Shong M, Moon WS: The expression and role of serum response factor in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Int J Oncol; 2009 Jul;35(1):49-55
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  • [Title] The expression and role of serum response factor in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • SRF is involved in various cellular processes such as expression of immediate early and tissue-specific genes, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.
  • The expression of SRF in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and its role have not been investigated, forming the basis for this study.
  • Surgical specimens of 63 conventional PTCs along with 30 follicular adenoma, 30 adenomatous hyperplasia and 9 anaplastic carcinoma specimens were obtained from the surgical archives.
  • We also investigated the expression level of SRF and an SRF target gene, c-fos in fresh PTC tissues and thyroid cancer cell lines (NPA, FRO and ARO) by Western blot analyses.
  • In addition, we examined the role of SRF in PTC by overexpresion of SRF in the NPA cell line.
  • SRF was expressed in 50 of 63 cases of papillary carcinoma (79%), 18 of 30 cases of follicular adenoma (60%), 10 of 30 cases of nodular hyperplasia (33%) and 6 of 9 cases of anaplastic carcinoma (67%).
  • The expression level of SRF was significantly up-regulated in PTC (combined staining score of 5.21+/-0.43) and anaplastic carcinoma (5.67+/-1.45) compared to that of follicular adenoma (2.30+/-0.44) (P<0.001), or adenomatous goiter (1.13+/-0.28) (P<0.001).
  • Western blot analyses showed an increased expression of the spliced form of SRF protein and c-Fos protein in PTC as compared to non-tumor thyroid tissues.
  • Overexpression of SRF in papillary carcinoma cells enhanced cell motility and invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Serum Response Factor / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Goiter / metabolism. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Protein Isoforms. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Thyroidectomy. Transfection. Up-Regulation

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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 19513551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / SRF protein, human; 0 / Serum Response Factor
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34. Barnabei A, Ferretti E, Baldelli R, Procaccini A, Spriano G, Appetecchia M: Hurthle cell tumours of the thyroid. Personal experience and review of the literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2009 Dec;29(6):305-11
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell tumours of the thyroid. Personal experience and review of the literature.
  • Hurthle cell carcinoma represents about 5% of differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • The prognosis of the malignant type of the tumour is still under debate as some Authors have reported that Hurthle cell adenoma occasionally behaves like Hurthle cell carcinoma.
  • Aim of the present study was to evaluate previously reported data and personal experience on the clinical and pathological features of patients affected by Hurthle cell tumour that may predict disease progression and death.
  • From 1992 to 2003, the Authors identified 28 patients affected by Hurthle cell tumour, 9 with Hurthle cell adenoma and 19 with Hurthle cell carcinoma.
  • Mean age of patients affected by adenoma was 49.7 years (range 30-72) vs. 49.3 years (range 15-72) in Hurthle cell carcinoma patients.
  • At histology, 9 adenomas, 5 "minimally invasive" and 14 invasive carcinomas were found.
  • Post-operatively, in Hurthle cell carcinoma patients, TNM staging showed 9 patients with stage I, 5 stage II, 4 stage III and one stage IVa (UICC, 2002).
  • One Hurthle cell carcinoma patient received external beam radiotherapy.
  • Relapse was not observed in any of the cases with adenoma.
  • Only one Hurthle cell carcinoma patient showed distant lung metastases at 60 months' follow-up.
  • In conclusion, Hurthle cell carcinoma was not found to present a more aggressive behaviour than follicular carcinoma, when risk factors, including extent of tumour invasion, were taken into account.
  • None of the patients with Hurthle cell adenoma showed a relapse or death caused by the tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20463834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1827-675X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2868205
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hurthle cell adenoma / Hurthle cell carcinoma / Thyroid
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35. Zhang YW, Greenblatt DY, Repplinger D, Bargren A, Adler JT, Sippel RS, Chen H: Older age and larger tumor size predict malignancy in hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2842-6
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  • [Title] Older age and larger tumor size predict malignancy in hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) are rare tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • The definitive treatment for Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) is total thyroidectomy, while thyroid lobectomy is adequate for Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA).
  • METHODS: Between May 1994 and January 2007, 1,199 patients underwent thyroid surgery at an academic medical center.
  • Medical records of 55 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid resections for the preoperative diagnosis of HCN were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 55 patients with HCN, 46 (84%) had adenomas and 9 (16%) had carcinomas.
  • Patients with carcinoma also had significantly larger thyroid nodules (4.5 +/- 0.7 cm versus 2.5 +/- 0.2 cm, P < 0.001).
  • All HCNs less than 2 cm in diameter were benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18665423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS778770; NLM/ PMC4852735
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36. Kobayashi K, Fukata S, Miyauchi A: Diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid: role of sonography in preoperative diagnosis of follicular nodules. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2005 Dec;32(4):153-8
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid: role of sonography in preoperative diagnosis of follicular nodules.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate sonographic examination, as well as other clinical tests, for clarifying the parameters for predicting follicular carcinoma in follicular nodules of the thyroid.
  • Nine hundred and ten consecutive patients with follicular nodules were pathologically classified as having follicular carcinoma (109 patients) or benign tumor (811 patients).
  • Benign tumors included follicular adenoma (237 patients) and adenomatous thyroid nodules (574 patients).
  • A case-control study was performed for follicular carcinomas and benign tumors.
  • "Thyroglobulin 1000 ng/ml≦", "cytology class 3≦", and a "solid pattern", "low-echoic level of internal echo", and "jagged borders" of follicular carcinomas were found to be significantly higher than those of benign tumors.
  • We concluded that thyroglobulin 1000 ng/ml≦ and cytology class 3≦ in clinical features, and a solid pattern, low-echoic level, and jagged borders on sonography, indicated an increased risk of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid in follicular nodules.

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  • (PMID = 27277482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cytology / follicular carcinoma / sonography / thyroglobulin / thyroid
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37. Choi KH, Baek HA, Park HS, Jang KY, Jin GY, Kim MH, Lee YC, Moon WS, Chung MJ: Sclerosing hemangioma, presenting as a pneumonic pattern with mucinous adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung. Pathol Int; 2008 Nov;58(11):735-40
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  • Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma is generally considered a rare neoplasm presenting as a solitary benign nodule.
  • Because this lesion did not have expression of thyroid transcription factor-1, it is described as mucinous adenomatous hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pulmonary Sclerosing Hemangioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Pneumonia / pathology. Radiography, Thoracic. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18844941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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38. Polyzos SA, Anastasilakis AD, Iakovou IP, Partsalidou V: Primary hyperparathyroidism and incidental multifocal metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a man. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Aug;54(6):578-82
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism and incidental multifocal metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a man.
  • Co-existence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and non-medullary thyroid carcinoma has been previously reported in sporadic case reports and some surgical series, but the majority of cases concerned women with occult papillary carcinomas without cervical lymph node involvement.
  • We present a 71-year man with PHPT and multinodular goiter who was subjected to surgery for single parathyroid adenoma and was found to have synchronous multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with cervical lymph node involvement.
  • Ultrasonography of both thyroid and parathyroid glands might be considered in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Incidental Findings. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20857065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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39. Loftus KA, Anderson S, Mulloy AL, Terris DJ: Value of sestamibi scans in tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Laryngoscope; 2007 Dec;117(12):2135-8
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  • DESIGN: Prospective, non-randomized analysis of a consecutive cohort of surgical patients from the Medical College of Georgia Thyroid/Parathyroid Center.
  • Of these 21 patients, 3 were re-operative cases for persistent hypercalcemia and each was found to have a single diseased gland.
  • Of the 18 patients undergoing first time surgery, 15 had four-gland hyperplasia, 2 patients had single adenomas, and 1 patient had a double adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Preoperative Care / methods. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17891049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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40. Rivolta CM, Moya CM, Esperante SA, Gutnisky VJ, Varela V, Targovnik HM: [The thyroid as a model for molecular mechanisms in genetic diseases]. Medicina (B Aires); 2005;65(3):257-67
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  • [Title] [The thyroid as a model for molecular mechanisms in genetic diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] La tiroides como modelo de mecanismos moleculares en enfermedades geneticas.
  • Thyroid diseases constitute a heterogeneous collection of abnormalities associated with mutations in genes responsible for the development of thyroid: thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), thyroid transcriptions factor-2 (TTF-2) and PAX8, or in one of the genes coding for the proteins involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis such as thyroglobulin (TG), thyroperoxidase (TPO), hydrogen peroxide-generating system (DUOX2), sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), pendrin (PDS), TSH and TSH receptor (TSHr).
  • Somatic mutations of the TSHr have been identified in hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas.
  • Another established thyroid disease is the resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH).
  • It is a syndrome of reduced tissue responsiveness to hormonal action caused by mutations located in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRbeta) gene.
  • In conclusion, the identification of mutations in the thyroid expression genes has provided important insights into structure-function relationships.
  • The thyroid constitutes an excellent model for the molecular study of genetic diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / genetics. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Mutation. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Hormones / biosynthesis. Thyroid Hormones / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16042141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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41. Sanasam JC, Singh DT, Lyngdoh NC, Oinam PK: Intrathyroid injection of triamcinolone acetonide in thyroid swelling disorders. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Apr;57(2):112-7
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  • [Title] Intrathyroid injection of triamcinolone acetonide in thyroid swelling disorders.
  • Patients with thyroid swelling disorders, particularly females, are not happy with the postoperative scar on the neck after a thyroid surgery.
  • Medical management can restore thyroid hormones to the normal levels but cannot reduce the swelling easily.
  • Intrathyroid injection of triamcinolone acetonide, a nonsurgical procedure was tried in 76 cases of thyroid swelling disorders.
  • Randomised cases of thyroid swelling disorders with the size less than 4 4cm were selected for this procedure.
  • After excluding the cases associated with diabetes, adenoma, toxic state and malignancy, a course of three to ten sittings of intrathyroid injections was administered in each selected patient.
  • Patients with abnormal thyroid functions were treated to the enthyroid state before the therapy.
  • Intrathyroid injection of triamcinolone acetonide is found to be a satisfactory modality of treatment for thyroid swelling disorders and found to be acceptable to the patients as well.

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  • (PMID = 23120145.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3450962
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cytopathological types / intrathyroid injection / thyroid function tests / thyroid swelling disorders / triamcinoione acetonide
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42. Takano T, Miyauchi A, Yoshida H, Kuma K, Amino N: Decreased relative expression level of trefoil factor 3 mRNA to galectin-3 mRNA distinguishes thyroid follicular carcinoma from adenoma. Cancer Lett; 2005 Feb 28;219(1):91-6
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  • [Title] Decreased relative expression level of trefoil factor 3 mRNA to galectin-3 mRNA distinguishes thyroid follicular carcinoma from adenoma.
  • The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA is a marker for distinguishing thyroid follicular adenomas from carcinomas.
  • However, when measuring the expression level of TFF3 mRNA in fine needle aspiration biopsies, an appropriate internal control mRNA, of which expression is restricted in thyroid epithelial--derived cells, is necessary, since they are often contaminated with a considerable number of blood cells, which do not express TFF3 mRNA.
  • In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of molecular-based diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by measuring the relative expression of TFF3 mRNA by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using galectin-3 mRNA as an internal control.
  • The TFF3/galectin-3 mRNA ratio (T/G ratio) was measured in 54 follicular adenomas and 29 follicular carcinomas.
  • It was markedly decreased in 7 follicular carcinomas of widely invasive type and with evident distant metastases.
  • When the cutoff point was set at 16.0 by a receiver operator characteristic curve, the TG ratio showed good agreement with the pathological diagnosis [kappa=0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.77].
  • Quantification of the T/G ratio may be a useful tool for the distinction between follicular adenomas and carcinomas, which is the most difficult in thyroid pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Mucins / biosynthesis. Muscle Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression. Humans. Peptides. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15694668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TFF3 protein, human
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43. Cowan DF, Tajima Y: The thyroid gland in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico: normal structure and pathological changes. J Comp Pathol; 2006 Nov;135(4):217-25
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  • [Title] The thyroid gland in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico: normal structure and pathological changes.
  • Fresh thyroid glands (n=60) from Atlantic bottlenose dolphins that died after stranding along the Texas coast between 1991 and 2005 were examined.
  • In infancy, the gland tended to be compact, relatively homogeneous, and sometimes partly lobular, but with advancing age it became more lobular, the lobules being defined by fibrous bands.
  • In one 8-year-old female (233 cm), and in a large male (295 cm) aged>25 years the gland was represented by a cluster of lobules.
  • Two animals (3%) had adenomas and five (8%) had discrete hyperplastic nodules, not to be confused with lobulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / veterinary. Amyloidosis / veterinary. Bottle-Nosed Dolphin. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroiditis / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17034811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9975
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
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44. Dong S, Lu GZ, Gao YM, Zhang H, Guo XH, Gao Y: [A clinical pathological study of thyroid nodules detected by physical examinations]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Mar;47(3):189-92
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  • [Title] [A clinical pathological study of thyroid nodules detected by physical examinations].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation among the results of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), thyroid ultrasonography (US) and histopathologic diagnosis about the thyroid nodules detected by physical examination, meanwhile to analyze the etiopathogenesis of the nodules and to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer and the clinical diagnostic value of FNAC.
  • METHODS: The data of thyroid FNAC results of the thyroid nodules detected by physical examination in 271 cases were analyzed and compared with thyroid US and histopathologic diagnosis. RESULT:.
  • The rate of benign lesions was 78.60% and that of goiter was 29.15%, Hashimoto's thyroiditis 26.57% and thyroid adenoma 15.13%.
  • Benign lesions were more common than malignant ones. (2) Comparison of the FNAC and US results of the thyroid nodules showed that of 96 cases with single nodule the rates of malignancy and suspected malignancy were 3.12% and 7.29%, but of 137 cases with multiple nodules the rates of the two lesions were 0.73% and 6.57%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The common causes of the thyroid nodules detected in physical examination are goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid adenoma.
  • FNAC is a reliable method to define the benign or malignant nature of thyroid nodules with a high diagnostic accuracy.
  • US features of the nodule alone, no matter it is single, solid or of greater size do not sufficiently increase the incidence of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Physical Examination / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18785499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1426
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nei ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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45. Murdzhev K, Murdzheva M, Uchikov A, Paskalev G, Iankulov A: [Benign nodular formations of the thyroid gland and changes in cell and humoral immunity before and after surgical treatment]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2007;(4):18-22
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  • [Title] [Benign nodular formations of the thyroid gland and changes in cell and humoral immunity before and after surgical treatment].
  • INTRODUCTION: The main trends concerning the volume of surgery in benign thyroid disease - thyroidectomy or organ - preserved surgery, performed in detected immunological disorders, are not well motivated.
  • They were selected with nodular (adenomatous) hyperplastic parenchymal processes in the thyroid gland, with or without hyperfunction - euthyroid or Basedowificated nodular goitre, solitary toxic adenoma and nodular form of lymphocytic thyroiditis.
  • CONCLUSION: In immune thyroid disorders the organ - preserved radical resection of thyroid gland leaving normal parenchyma is method of choice compared to thyroidectomy since it allows definite treatment with hormonal compensation.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18443530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies
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46. Pomérance M, Quillard J, Chantoux F, Young J, Blondeau JP: High-level expression, activation, and subcellular localization of p38-MAP kinase in thyroid neoplasms. J Pathol; 2006 Jul;209(3):298-306
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  • [Title] High-level expression, activation, and subcellular localization of p38-MAP kinase in thyroid neoplasms.
  • The present study has investigated the expression, subcellular localization, phosphorylation, and activity of p38-MAPKs in normal and tumoural human thyroid tissues and in thyroid cell lines.
  • The expression and nucleo-cytosolic compartmentalization of the alpha-isoform of p38-MAPKs (p38alpha-MAPK) were studied by western blotting in the WRO and B-CPAP cell lines, which are derived from human follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas, respectively, and in the non-transformed rat thyroid cell lines FRTL-5 and PCCL3.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression and subcellular localization of p38alpha-MAPK, and of the phosphorylated forms of p38-MAPKs (P-p38-MAPKs) in human toxic adenomas (TAs), follicular adenomas (FAs), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs).
  • p38alpha-MAPK was expressed in all cell lines and this expression was restricted to the cytosolic compartment. p38 MAPK activity was involved in regulating DNA synthesis in B-CPAP cells. p38alpha-MAPK and P-p38-MAPKs were strongly expressed in PTC and FTC cells, although only in the cytoplasm, whereas they were only very weakly expressed in FA cells, and absent in adjacent normal tissues.
  • Taken together, these results show for the first time that the p38-MAPK signalling cascade is functional in two types of differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The observation that p38-MAPK hyper-expression occurs in FTC, but not in FA, may provide an additional diagnostic tool for malignancy in some thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Adenoma / enzymology. Animals. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Cell Nucleus / enzymology. Cytosol / enzymology. DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Humans. Imidazoles / pharmacology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Phosphorylation. Pyridines / pharmacology. Rats. Thyroid Gland / enzymology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • [CommentIn] J Pathol. 2006 Sep;210(1):133-4 [16826548.001]
  • (PMID = 16583356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / SB 203580; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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47. Demasi AP, Furuse C, Altemani A, Junqueira JL, Oliveira PR, Araújo VC: Peroxiredoxin I is overexpressed in oncocytic lesions of salivary glands. J Oral Pathol Med; 2009 Jul;38(6):514-7
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  • RESULTS: Our results showed that Prx I is overexpressed in oncocytes regardless of the salivary gland lesion where they appear.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenolymphoma / enzymology. Adenolymphoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / enzymology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Antioxidants / analysis. Biomarkers / analysis. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / enzymology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Free Radical Scavengers / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Granular Cell Tumor / enzymology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Hydrogen Peroxide / analysis. Hyperplasia. Lysosomes / pathology. Metaplasia. Mitochondria / pathology. Reactive Oxygen Species / analysis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / enzymology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19298244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0714
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; EC 1.11.1.15 / Peroxiredoxins
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48. Rust DW, Bianchi DW: Microchimerism in endocrine pathology. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(1):11-6
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  • Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1).
  • Studies of feto-maternal microchimerism in the thyroid have documented the presence of fetal cells in association with Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Microchimerism plays a potential role in the repair of diseased thyroid and pancreatic tissues.

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  • (PMID = 19214801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD049469
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS694640; NLM/ PMC4459518
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49. Pauzar B, Staklenac B, Loncar B: Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):87-91
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology is currently the best diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules.
  • The aim of this research was to make a detailed and objective determination of the morphological characteristics of cells in cytological smears in an attempt to distinguish benign from malignant follicular tumors.
  • The research included 62 patients with cytologically diagnosed follicular or oncocytic tumors, and 15 patients with nodular hyperplasia.
  • We analyzed the cellularity of the smear, cohesion between follicular cells, acinar formations, bare nuclei, characteristics of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and the presence of colloid.
  • The statistical analysis of cytological parameters has indicated that none of the cytological parameters alone is discriminating enough between non-tumor and tumor changes, or benign and malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • The analysis of age, sex, nodule size and ultrasound findings has not shown the correlation between any of these parameters with the malignant or benign follicular tumors.
  • The cytological analysis of the smears for patients with follicular tumors, in combination with clinical data and other diagnostic methods, contributes to more precise diagnostics, but is not sufficient for the differentiation between benign and malignant follicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20432738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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50. Rivera M, Ricarte-Filho J, Knauf J, Shaha A, Tuttle M, Fagin JA, Ghossein RA: Molecular genotyping of papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant according to its histological subtypes (encapsulated vs infiltrative) reveals distinct BRAF and RAS mutation patterns. Mod Pathol; 2010 Sep;23(9):1191-200
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  • [Title] Molecular genotyping of papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant according to its histological subtypes (encapsulated vs infiltrative) reveals distinct BRAF and RAS mutation patterns.
  • The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma usually presents as an encapsulated tumor and less commonly as a partially/non-encapsulated infiltrative neoplasm.
  • The molecular profile of the follicular variant was shown to be close to the follicular adenoma/carcinoma group of tumors with a high RAS and very low BRAF mutation rates.
  • A comprehensive survey of oncogenic mutations in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma according to its encapsulated and infiltrative forms has not been performed.
  • Paraffin tissue from 28 patients with encapsulated and 19 with infiltrative follicular variant were subjected to mass spectrometry genotyping encompassing the most significant oncogenes in thyroid carcinomas: 111 mutations in RET, BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS, PIK3CA, AKT1 and other related genes.
  • Encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas have a molecular profile very close to follicular adenomas/carcinomas (high rate of RAS and absence of BRAF mutations).
  • Infiltrative follicular variant has an opposite molecular profile closer to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma than to follicular adenoma/carcinoma (BRAF>RAS mutations).
  • The molecular profile of encapsulated and infiltrative follicular variant parallels their biological behavior (ie, metastatic nodal and invasive patterns).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genes, ras / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20526288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA050706; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA072597
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS720090; NLM/ PMC4573468
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51. Freedman RJ, Malkovska V, LeRoith D, Collins MT: Hodgkin lymphoma in temporal association with growth hormone replacement. Endocr J; 2005 Oct;52(5):571-5
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  • In addition to replacement steroid, thyroid and sex hormones, she insisted on GH replacement.
  • Approximately 2 years after GH initiation, the diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma was made.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / therapy. Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16284435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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52. Woodford RL, Nikiforov YE, Hunt JL, Bellizzi AM, Zhang X, Mills SE, Stelow EB: Encapsulated papillary oncocytic neoplasms of the thyroid: morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 18 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Nov;34(11):1582-90
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  • [Title] Encapsulated papillary oncocytic neoplasms of the thyroid: morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 18 cases.
  • Encapsulated papillary oncocytic neoplasms (EPONs) of the thyroid are rare tumors, whose relationship to other thyroid tumors has not been thoroughly elucidated.
  • Earlier, they have been regarded as variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), hyperplastic lesions, and follicular neoplasms.
  • Cases were evaluated for rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma RET/PTC rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).
  • Ten of 18 cases showed vascular and/or capsular invasion; hence, if the diagnostic criteria used to evaluate follicular neoplasms are applied, more than half of the tumors would be considered minimally invasive carcinomas.
  • Our results confirm that EPONs are histologically, immunohistochemically, and molecularly distinct from papillary thyroid carcinoma and seem to be most related to follicular neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20924280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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53. Montone KT, Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA: The thyroid Hürthle (oncocytic) cell and its associated pathologic conditions: a surgical pathology and cytopathology review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Aug;132(8):1241-50
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  • [Title] The thyroid Hürthle (oncocytic) cell and its associated pathologic conditions: a surgical pathology and cytopathology review.
  • CONTEXT: Hürthle cells are eosinophilic, follicular-derived cells that are associated with a variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic thyroid lesions.
  • The differential diagnosis of Hürthle cell lesions is quite broad.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the pathologic conditions associated with Hürthle cells in the thyroid and to discuss pathology of thyroid lesions associated with oncocytic cytology.
  • DATA SOURCES: A variety of thyroid nonneoplastic (autoimmune thyroiditis, multinodular goiter) and neoplastic conditions (Hürthle cell adenoma, Hürthle cell carcinoma) are associated with Hürthle cell cytology.
  • In addition, there are several thyroid neoplasms that should be considered when one observes a Hürthle cell neoplasm in the thyroid (oncocytic variant of medullary carcinoma, several variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oncocytic cytology is seen in a variety of thyroid conditions that are associated with a broad differential diagnosis and care must be used for accurate diagnosis.
  • Newer molecular-based techniques may be useful for further classification of thyroid neoplasms with oncocytic pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. History, 19th Century. Humans. Metaplasia. Pathology, Surgical / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18684023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 107
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54. Cho Mar K, Eimoto T, Tateyama H, Arai Y, Fujiyoshi Y, Hamaguchi M: Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions. Histopathology; 2006 Feb;48(3):286-94
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  • [Title] Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions.
  • AIMS: To examine expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and related proteins in follicular thyroid lesions (FTLs) and to determine their usefulness for differential diagnosis of FTLs, particularly between minimally invasive carcinoma and adenoma.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Six widely invasive follicular carcinomas (WIFCs), 15 minimally invasive follicular carcinomas (MIFCs), 19 follicular adenomas (FAs) and 10 adenomatous goitres (AGs) were analysed immunohistochemically for MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Adenoma / chemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / genetics. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16430475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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55. Culp SJ, Mellick PW, Trotter RW, Greenlees KJ, Kodell RL, Beland FA: Carcinogenicity of malachite green chloride and leucomalachite green in B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol; 2006 Aug;44(8):1204-12
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  • Female rats exposed to malachite green chloride had increased incidences of thyroid gland follicular cell adenoma or carcinoma and hepatocellular adenoma, and a dose-related increasing trend in mammary gland carcinoma.
  • Female rats fed malachite green chloride and female and male rats fed leucomalachite green had a dose-related decreasing trend in the incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia.
  • In male rats fed leucomalachite green there was a decreasing trend in pituitary gland adenoma and an increasing trend in interstitial cell adenoma of the testis.
  • Female mice fed leucomalachite green had a dose-related increasing trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma, with the incidence being significant in the highest dose group.

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  • (PMID = 16554117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-6915
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aniline Compounds; 0 / Fungicides, Industrial; 0 / Rosaniline Dyes; 12058M7ORO / malachite green; 8U61G37Z20 / leucomalachite green
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56. Foppiani L, Del Monte P, Sartini G, Arlandini A, Quilici P, Bandelloni R, Marugo A, Bernasconi D: Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma as cause of hypercalcemia and pitfall of localization techniques: clinical and biologic features. Endocr Pract; 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):176-81
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  • METHODS: We report the clinical and biologic features of an intrathyroidal PC, discuss the challenges with distinguishing PC from parathyroid adenoma, and review the related literature.
  • Thyroid ultrasonography disclosed a 3-cm solid inferior nodule.
  • Neck ultrasonography showed a large hypoechogenic solid nodule, not clearly cleaved from the right thyroid lobe, which was possibly compatible with an enlarged parathyroid gland; however, a sestamibi scan was negative.
  • Final histologic examination showed cellular nests with nuclear pleomorphism and invasive behavior into the thyroid tissue and likely into the vessels, in conjunction with immunohistochemical negativity for thyroglobulin and strong positivity for PTH.
  • These findings were highly suggestive of and supported the diagnosis of PC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Goiter / surgery. Humans. Infant. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17490933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Yang AH, Hsu CW, Chen JY, Tseng LM, Won GS, Lee CH: Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with recurrent kidney stones: pathological analysis of parathyroid glands. Virchows Arch; 2006 Jul;449(1):62-8
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  • The parathyroid tissues from patients of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NCPHPT) and those having normal parathyroid glands, hypercalcemic primary hyperplasia, secondary hyperplasia, and adenoma were compared by undertaking quantitative immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarray.
  • The statistic results suggested that the parathyroid tissue of NCPHPT approximates more to normal gland than to its counterpart in other groups of parathyroid proliferative diseases in terms of the lack of significant alterations of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), chromogranin A (CGA), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and proliferation index (Ki67).
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Hypercalcemia / blood. Hypercalcemia / complications. Hypercalcemia / pathology. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis


58. Eszlinger M, Krohn K, Kukulska A, Jarzab B, Paschke R: Perspectives and limitations of microarray-based gene expression profiling of thyroid tumors. Endocr Rev; 2007 May;28(3):322-38
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  • [Title] Perspectives and limitations of microarray-based gene expression profiling of thyroid tumors.
  • Microarray-based gene expression profiles are available for malignant thyroid tumors (i.e., follicular thyroid carcinoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma), and for benign thyroid tumors (such as autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and cold thyroid nodules).
  • In general, the two main foci of microarray investigations are improved understanding of the pathophysiology/molecular etiology of thyroid neoplasia and the detection of genetic markers that could improve the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors.
  • Simultaneously, the increasing number of microarray analyses of different thyroid pathologies raises the demand to efficiently compare the data.
  • 2) the reference tissue is defined as strictly nonnodular healthy tissue or also contains benign lesions such as goiter, follicular adenoma, and hyperplastic nodules in some studies; and 3) the widely used Affymetrix GeneChip platform comprises several GeneChip generations that are only partially compatible.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17353294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-769X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 164
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59. Cerutti JM, Latini FR, Nakabashi C, Delcelo R, Andrade VP, Amadei MJ, Maciel RM, Hojaij FC, Hollis D, Shoemaker J, Riggins GJ: Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 1):3311-8
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers.
  • PURPOSE: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, a standard method for thyroid nodule diagnosis, cannot distinguish between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).
  • The goal of this study was to determine if antibody markers used alone or in combination could accurately distinguish between a wider variety of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in fixed sections and FNA samples.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was done on 27 FTA, 25 FTC, and 75 other benign and malignant thyroid tissue sections using custom antibodies for chromosome 1 open reading frame 24 (C1orf24) and integral membrane protein 1 (ITM1) and commercial antibodies for DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and arginase II (ARG2).
  • RNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR in 33 thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We improved this diagnostic test by adding C1orf24 and ITM1 custom antibodies and showing use on a wider variety of thyroid pathology.
  • Use of one or more of these antibodies should improve diagnostic accuracy of suspicious thyroid nodules from both tissue sections and FNA samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16740752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461; United States / PHS HHS / / S98-146
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DDIT3 protein, human; 0 / FAM129A protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147336-12-7 / Transcription Factor CHOP; EC 2.4.1.- / Hexosyltransferases; EC 2.4.99.18 / STT3A protein, human; EC 3.5.3.1 / Arginase; EC 3.5.3.1 / arginase II, human
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60. Ruggieri F, Chiesa A, Schorn K, Strobel K, Maggiorini M, Schmid C: Vanishing polyuria and respiratory failure. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • Ectopic calcification was found in the lungs, in the thyroid, kidneys, heart and stomach.
  • A large parathyroid adenoma was then removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Multiple Organ Failure / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Polyuria / etiology. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult / etiology

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  • (PMID = 22791497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3028080
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61. Grisel JJ, Al-Ghawi H, Heubi CH, Steward DL: Successful removal of an intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma located by technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan and ultrasound. Thyroid; 2009 Apr;19(4):423-5
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  • [Title] Successful removal of an intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma located by technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan and ultrasound.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 19355835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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62. Ulisse S, Delcros JG, Baldini E, Toller M, Curcio F, Giacomelli L, Prigent C, Ambesi-Impiombato FS, D'Armiento M, Arlot-Bonnemains Y: Expression of Aurora kinases in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jul 15;119(2):275-82
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  • [Title] Expression of Aurora kinases in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and tissues.
  • The Aurora kinases are involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression, and alterations in their expression have been shown to associate with cell malignant transformation.
  • In the present study, we demonstrated that human thyrocytes express all 3 Aurora kinases (A, B and C) at both protein and mRNA level and this expression is cell cycle-regulated.
  • An increase in the protein level of the 3 kinases was found, with respect to normal human thyrocytes (HTU5), in the human cell lines derived from follicular (FTC-133), papillary (B-CPAP) and anaplastic (8305C) thyroid carcinomas, but not in cells derived from a follicular adenoma (HTU42).
  • In contrast, Aurora-C mRNA levels were not significantly different among the different cell types analyzed, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanism(s) modulate its expression.
  • The expression at the protein level of all 3 Aurora kinases was significantly higher in 3 thyroid papillary carcinomas with respect to normal matched tissues obtained from the same patients.
  • In conclusion, we demonstrated that normal human thyrocytes express all 3 members of the Aurora kinase family, and their expression is amplified in malignant thyroid cell lines and tissues.
  • These results suggest that the Aurora kinases may play a relevant role in malignant thyroid cancers, and may represent a putative therapeutic target for thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / enzymology. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / analysis. Thyroid Gland / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Aurora Kinase C. Aurora Kinases. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor / enzymology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16477625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.11.1 / AURKC protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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63. Golden SH, Robinson KA, Saldanha I, Anton B, Ladenson PW: Clinical review: Prevalence and incidence of endocrine and metabolic disorders in the United States: a comprehensive review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jun;94(6):1853-78
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  • The least prevalent conditions, affecting less than 1% of the U.S. population, were diabetes mellitus in children and pituitary adenoma.
  • Conditions with the lowest incidence were adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and pituitary adenomas.
  • Certain disorders, such as hyperparathyroidism and thyroid disorders, were more common in females.

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  • (PMID = 19494161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK079637
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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64. Elliott DD, Pitman MB, Bloom L, Faquin WC: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of Hurthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland: A cytomorphologic study of 139 cases with statistical analysis. Cancer; 2006 Apr 25;108(2):102-9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of Hurthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland: A cytomorphologic study of 139 cases with statistical analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Lesions of the thyroid gland composed of Hurthle cells encompass pathologic entities ranging from hyperplastic nodules with Hurthle cell metaplasia to Hurthle cell carcinomas.
  • Many cytologic features of Hurthle cell lesions that distinguish neoplastic Hurthle cell lesions requiring surgery from those that are benign and nonneoplastic have been described, but with variable usefulness.
  • A morphologic study was made of 139 Hurthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland and statistical analysis applied to identify a set of cytomorphologic features that distinguish benign Hurthle cell lesions (BHCL) from Hurthle cell neoplasms (HCN).
  • METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of thyroid nodules with a predominant Hurthle cell component and corresponding histologic followup were included in the study.
  • Cases were divided into BHCL and HCN groups on the basis of the histologic diagnosis.
  • All cases were reviewed to assess the following 14 cytologic features: overall cellularity, cytoarchitecture, percentage of Hurthle cells, percentage of single cells, percentage of follicular cells observed as naked Hurthle cell nuclei, background colloid, chronic inflammation, cystic change, transgressing blood vessels (TBV), intracytoplasmic lumina, presence of multinucleated Hurthle cells, nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear pleomorphism/atypia, and nucleolar prominence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the current study of 139 FNAB specimens of thyroid Hurthle cell nodules, 14 cytologic features were examined and 6 were found to be statistically significant in identifying HCN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Colloids / analysis. Cytoplasm / pathology. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16453320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Colloids
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65. Admassie D, Negusie Y, Yeshaw T: A case of primary hyperparathyrodism due to parathyroid adenoma Doppler ultrasound diagnosis. Ethiop Med J; 2006 Oct;44(4):391-5
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  • [Title] A case of primary hyperparathyrodism due to parathyroid adenoma Doppler ultrasound diagnosis.
  • Color and power Doppler ultrasound of the neck showed hypo echoic retro thyroid vascular mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17370440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethiopian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethiop. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ethiopia
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66. Abdulkareem FB, Banjo AA, Elesha SO: Histological Review of Thyroid Lesions: A 13-year Retrospective Study (1989-2001). Niger Postgrad Med J; 2005 Sep;12(3):210-4
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  • [Title] Histological Review of Thyroid Lesions: A 13-year Retrospective Study (1989-2001).
  • The aim of the study is to update the available literature on the frequencies of the common thyroid lesions as well as compare with previous studies.
  • Thyroid adenomas (majority; follicular), constituted 10%.
  • There were 29 cases of thyroid carcinoma accounting for 7% of all lesions and occurring more in females than males (17:12).
  • Histologically, follicular carcinoma predominated (48.3%), followed by papillary carcinoma (34.5%) and medullary carcinoma (13.8%).
  • CONCLUSION: Goiter, adenoma and carcinoma remain the commonest pathologic entities of the thyroid gland in Lagos.
  • KEYWORDS: thyroidectomy, histopathology, thyroid lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16160724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1117-1936
  • [Journal-full-title] The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger Postgrad Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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67. Boguszewski CL, Bianchet LC, Raskin S, Nomura LM, Borba LA, Cavalcanti TC: Application of genetic testing to define the surgical approach in a sporadic case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Nov;54(8):705-10
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  • Parathyroid scintigraphy showed tracer uptake in the inferior region of the left thyroid lobe, and cervical ultrasound showed a heterogeneous nodule in the same area, suggestive of a parathyroid adenoma (PA).
  • Genetic testing detected mutation in the MEN 1 gene and total parathyroidectomy with the implantation of a fragment of one gland in the forearm was performed.
  • Pathology showed a PA and 3 normal parathyroid glands, without hyperplasia, despite the diagnosis of MEN 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Genetic Testing / standards. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics


68. Papotti M, Rodriguez J, De Pompa R, Bartolazzi A, Rosai J: Galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in well-differentiated thyroid tumors with follicular architecture of uncertain malignant potential. Mod Pathol; 2005 Apr;18(4):541-6
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in well-differentiated thyroid tumors with follicular architecture of uncertain malignant potential.
  • Well-differentiated encapsulated tumors of the thyroid gland with a follicular architecture may cause diagnostic difficulties.
  • Questionable vascular or capsular penetration may raise the possibility of a follicular carcinoma, while focal nuclear clearing and grooves may suggest a diagnosis of papillary carcinoma.
  • A proposal has recently been made to designate cases showing suggestive but not conclusive morphological evidence of malignancy along these lines as well-differentiated or follicular tumors of uncertain malignant potential.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and diagnostic role in well-differentiated or follicular tumors of uncertain malignant potential of Galectin-3 and HBME-1, two malignancy-related markers.
  • A total of 21 tumors fulfilling the criteria of well-differentiated or follicular tumors of uncertain malignant potential were collected from two institutions, including eight cases with questionable vascular and/or capsular invasion and 13 cases with some degree of nuclear changes in the form of clearing, grooves, and/or pseudoinclusions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15529186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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69. Robertson A, Mansberg R, Mansberg V, Van der Wall H, Hooper M: Tumor-induced osteomalacia: a case of diagnostic dilemma. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Aug;32(8):631-4
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  • Tumor-induced osteomalacia is typically caused by benign mesenchymal tumors of vascular or skeletal origin.
  • Thyroid and parathyroid scintigraphy were performed and showed separate areas of focally increased tracer uptake in the neck.
  • Histopathology showed a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, a parathyroid adenoma, and an adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractures, Bone / diagnosis. Fractures, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Octreotide. Osteomalacia / diagnosis. Osteomalacia / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17667438.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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70. Pisello F, Geraci G, Sciumè C, Li Volsi F, Modica G: [Total thyroidectomy of choice in papillary microcarcinoma]. G Chir; 2007 Jan-Feb;28(1-2):13-9
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  • [Transliterated title] La tiroidectomia totale di principio nel microcarcinoma papillare.
  • INTRODUCTION: Today, the "gold standard" of surgical management of benign thyroid disease is still controversy.
  • There are different surgical approaches to the thyroid gland, from a radical, total thyroidectomy to a conservative treatment, lobectomy with or not isthmectomy.
  • In consideration of the more frequent incidence of small carcinomas accidentally founded in the context of the thyroid parenchyma removed for another pathology, the aim of this study is to bring a contribute to resolve the debate on the therapeutic choice in the surgical management of the thyroid benign disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2000 to January 2006 502 thyroidectomy were performed in the Section of General and Thoracic Surgery of University of Palermo: 458 total thyroidectomy (91.3%), 2 partial thyroidectomy (0.3%), 24 (4.8%) lobectomy with isthmectomy and 18 (3.6%) reinterventions for relapse; 34 patients (6.8%) were preoperative suspected (cytological or ultrasonography) for thyroid cancer.
  • Histologically, were 11 cases of classical papillary (64.7%), 4 cases (23.6%) of follicular and 2 (11.7%) sclerosing, in 9 cases of multinodular goiter, 3 of follicular adenoma, 3 cases of follicular carcinoma, 1 case of Graves disease and 1 case of Hashimoto thyroiditis.
  • DISCUSSION: Papillary microcarcinoma is a "thyroid papillary cancer with a diameter < or = 1 cm? ".
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our opinion, the surgical management of the all thyroid disease must be the more radical since the first time, because we think other approaches not correct to improve the complete health from the benign thyroid disease and to prevent (secondary prevention) papillary microcarcinoma not pre-operative diagnosed, because there are no preoperative pattern to make a correct diagnosis of this tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17313727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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71. Hermann M: [Primary hyperparathyroidism. Postoperative normocalcemic hyperparathyrinemia after curative parathyroidectomy]. Chirurg; 2010 May;81(5):447-53
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  • Preoperative PTH screening was performed in 316 consecutive normocalcemic thyroid patients to evaluate the rate of incidental hyperparathyroidism in patients with normal serum calcium levels.
  • A parathyroid adenoma was found intraoperatively as the cause for normocalcemic pHPT in only 1 of these 31 patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Patient Care Team. Risk Factors. Vitamin D / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19468699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0385
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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72. Assaad A, Voeghtly L, Hunt JL: Thyroidectomies from patients with history of therapeutic radiation during childhood and adolescence have a unique mutational profile. Mod Pathol; 2008 Sep;21(9):1176-82
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  • Radiation in childhood is a known risk factor for thyroid carcinoma, but may also be related to benign nodular hyperplasias.
  • Radiation in childhood was associated with both benign nodular disease and carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • The frequency of allelic loss was very high in all lesions in these patients, as compared to control thyroid glands.
  • These data from human thyroids support prior cell culture experiments and show that radiation induces genetic mutational damage even in benign proliferative processes in these thyroids.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Mutational Analysis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adenoma / etiology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Electrophoresis, Capillary. Female. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18587320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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73. Szinnai G, Sarnacki S, Polak M: Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma: how molecular genetics made multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 a paediatric disease. Endocr Dev; 2007;10:173-87
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  • [Title] Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma: how molecular genetics made multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 a paediatric disease.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a genetic disorder associated with nearly 100% of lifetime risk of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • MEN 2A accounts for over 60-90% of patients with hereditary MTC and is characterized by a combination of MTC, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma.
  • Familial MTC, the third subtype of MEN 2, is characterized by MTC in the objective absence of adrenal and parathyroid gland involvement.
  • The identification of the RET proto-oncogene as the susceptibility gene for MEN 2 has fundamentally changed diagnosis and treatment of the disease since 1993.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Molecular Biology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


74. Hara Y, Teshima T, Taoda T, Ishino H, Nezu Y, Harada Y, Yogo T, Masuda H, Teramoto A, Tagawa M: Efficacy of transsphenoidal surgery on endocrinological status and serum chemistry parameters in dogs with Cushing's disease. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 Apr;72(4):397-404
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  • In all 25 dogs, Cushing's disease was diagnosed from resected pituitary tissues as a corticotroph adenoma in the anterior lobe of the pituitary.
  • In addition, the serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations decreased sequentially, while the serum T4 concentrations tended to increase due to the postoperative hormone substitution therapy utilized to avoid secondary hypothyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 19996557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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75. Błaut K, Wiśniewski P, Syrenicz A, Sworczak K: Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2006 Oct;27(5):569-72
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  • [Title] Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog.
  • Since now, only few cases of an apoplexy of previously undiagnosed pituitary adenoma (usually gonadotropinoma) at the beginning of therapy have been described in the medical literature.
  • Imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) revealed the presence of a pituitary tumor and hemorrhage within the gland.
  • As a result the patient required adrenal and thyroid replacement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy


76. Litmathe J, Kurt M, Boeken U, Roehrborn A, Feindt P, Gams E: Combined cardiothoracic surgery and interventions of the para/thyroid gland. A rare clinical cooperation. Z Kardiol; 2005 Jan;94(1):28-32
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  • [Title] Combined cardiothoracic surgery and interventions of the para/thyroid gland. A rare clinical cooperation.
  • We investigated the question whether combined open heart surgery or thoracic surgery and interventions of the parathyreoid respectively thyroid gland may be helpful for the patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of six patients (age range: 29-78 years) undergoing simultaneous cardiothoracic and para-/thyroid interventions were examined.
  • In combination with these procedures three patients underwent a subtotal goiter resection, two patients had a resection of a parathyroid adenoma and one patient underwent a right-sided hemithyroidectomy.
  • There were no signs of recurrence of either para-/thyroid or Hodgkin's disease.
  • Thus we conclude that simultaneous cardiothoracic and endocrine surgery of the para-/thyroid gland can be performed with acceptable risk in cases of preoperative low-risk assessment.


77. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Yasuoka H, Kakudo K, Inohara H, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma. Pathology; 2005 Aug;37(4):296-8
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in follicular tumours: an immunohistochemical study of its use as a marker of follicular carcinoma.
  • AIMS: Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside binding family of lectins, has been regarded as a useful tool for discriminating malignant tumours from benign nodules of the thyroid, including the distinction between follicular carcinoma and adenoma.
  • However, there are follicular tumours with unclear vascular or capsular invasion, which makes diagnosis more difficult.
  • In this study, we investigated the relationship between galectin-3 expression and the degree of vascular or capsular invasion of follicular tumours.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated galectin-3 expression in 260 cases of follicular tumour with various degrees of vascular or capsular invasion classified into four categories.
  • However, its diagnostic value for follicular carcinoma was not high because the sensitivity and specificity were 68.7% and 57.5%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that galectin-3 plays a role in the transformation of follicular tumours from benign to malignant; however, when diagnosing follicular tumours, the presence of this protein should not be required for diagnosing malignant transformation in all cases.
  • Therefore, we must conclude that galectin-3 should only be considered an adjuvant marker for follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16194828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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78. Wen WB, Liu FY: Autoantibodies highly increased in patients with thyroid dysfunction. Cell Mol Immunol; 2007 Jun;4(3):233-6
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  • [Title] Autoantibodies highly increased in patients with thyroid dysfunction.
  • To evaluate the significance of antithyroid antibodie levels, five hundred and twenty-six patients with thyroid diseases and 292 health subjects from Yuci District, Shanxi Province, China, were studied.
  • Serum levels were determined for thyroid hormone receptor antibody (TRAb), microsomal antibody (TMAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb).
  • Among patients, the percentages for nodular goiter and thyroid adenoma, Graves' disease, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are 44.1%, 19.6% and 17.7%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / biosynthesis. Thyroid Diseases / immunology. Up-Regulation / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / immunology. Thyroglobulin / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17601379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7681
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular & molecular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Receptors, Thyroid Hormone; 0 / thyroid microsomal antibodies; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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79. Drieschner N, Belge G, Rippe V, Meiboom M, Loeschke S, Bullerdiek J: Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin. Thyroid; 2006 Nov;16(11):1091-6
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  • [Title] Evidence for a 3p25 breakpoint hot spot region in thyroid tumors of follicular origin.
  • Epithelial tumors of the thyroid are cytogenetically well-investigated tumors.
  • Recently, we have been able to describe the involvement of a novel gene called THADA in benign thyroid lesions with 2p21 rearrangements.
  • Other fusion genes found in thyroid lesions are RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR(gamma).
  • The latter occurs in follicular thyroid carcinomas with a t(2;3)(q13;p25).
  • Here we present molecular-cytogenetic and cytogenetic investigations on a follicular thyroid adenoma with a t(2;20;3)(p21;q11.2; p25).
  • Our findings suggest that the close surrounding of PPAR(gamma) is a breakpoint hot spot region, leading to recurrent alterations of this gene in thyroid tumors of follicular origin including carcinomas as well as adenomas with or without involvement of PAX8.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Chromosome Breakage. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17123335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / THADA protein, human
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80. Siriweera EH, Ratnatunga NV: Profile of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Sri Lankans: Is There an Increased Risk of Ancillary Pathologies in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis? J Thyroid Res; 2010;2010:124264
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  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been reported to be associated with many neoplastic and nonneoplastic thyroid pathologies.
  • This retrospective study aims to determine the demographic profile of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Sri Lankans, document ancillary pathologies in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and determine whether there is an increased risk of occurrence of malignancies, benign neoplasms, and nonneoplastic benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis by comparing with thyroids showing multinodular goiters, follicular adenomas, and colloid nodules.
  • This study revealed a statistically significant increase of thyroid malignancies in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • The association of Papillary carcinoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hurthle cell adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was statistically significant.

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  • (PMID = 21048834.001).
  • [ISSN] 2042-0072
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thyroid research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thyroid Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955451
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81. Di Palma S, Lombard C, Kappeler A, Posthaus H, Miclard J: Intracardiac ectopic thyroid adenoma in a dog. Vet Rec; 2010 Oct 30;167(18):709-10
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  • [Title] Intracardiac ectopic thyroid adenoma in a dog.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / veterinary. Thyroid Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 21257489.001).
  • [ISSN] 2042-7670
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary record
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Rec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Luo H, Li J, Yang T, Wang J: [Expression and significance of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jun;23(12):531-4
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  • [Title] [Expression and significance of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: VEGF-C,D are known to be capable of inducing proliferation of lymphatic endothelia cell and development of lymphatic vessels, so we investigated the expression of VEGF-C,D in the differentiated thyroid carcinoma tissues microarray in order to understand the significance mechanism of cervix lymphatic metastasis of thyroid cancer.
  • METHOD: A tissue microarray containing 71 specimens was constructed, including normal thyroid tissues, thyroid adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without lymphatic metastasis, follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULT: The expression of VEGF-C,D were not observed in normal thyroid tissues and adenoma tissues.
  • The expression of VEGF-C,D in papillary thyroid carcinoma was significantly higher than those in follicular thyroid carcinoma (P < 0.05) and adeno ma tissues (P < 0.01).
  • The expression of VEGF-C,D in papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymphatic metastasis was significantly higher than those in papillary thyroid carcinoma without lymphatic metastasis (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: By inducing proliferation of lymphatic endothelia cell and development of lymphatic vessels, VEGF-C,D contributed to lymphatic metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19771906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / VEGFC protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D
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83. Ito Y, Takano T, Miyauchi A: Apolipoprotein e expression in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Oncology; 2006;71(5-6):388-93
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  • [Title] Apolipoprotein e expression in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • In this study, we investigated Apo E expression in thyroid carcinoma at both the protein and molecular levels.
  • METHODS: We investigated Apo E expression at the protein and molecular level in 124 thyroid neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: In RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, the Apo E mRNA expression level was very low in papillary and follicular carcinomas as well as normal thyroid, but was dramatically elevated in anaplastic carcinoma.
  • None of the follicular carcinomas or adenomas showed high levels of Apo E expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that Apo E is one of the typical biological characteristics of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Apolipoproteins E / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17690558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoproteins E; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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84. Yoshizawa K, Jelezcova E, Brown AR, Foley JF, Nyska A, Cui X, Hofseth LJ, Maronpot RM, Wilson SH, Sepulveda AR, Sobol RW: Gastrointestinal hyperplasia with altered expression of DNA polymerase beta. PLoS One; 2009 Aug 05;4(8):e6493
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  • These mice present with an elevated incidence of spontaneous histologic lesions, including cataracts, hyperplasia of Brunner's gland and mucosal hyperplasia in the duodenum.
  • We observed elevated expression of Pol beta in stomach adenomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas, but reduced Pol beta expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 19654874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / 1 R01 AG24364-01; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES050158; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES050159; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG024364; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50 CA 097190 01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 P20 CA132385-01; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA132385; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097190; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA103730
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.- / DNA Polymerase beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716528
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85. Marhefka GD, McDivitt JD, Shakir KM, Drake AJ 3rd: Diagnosis of follicular neoplasm in thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration cytology: does the result, benign vs. suspicious for a malignant process, in these nodules make a difference? Acta Cytol; 2009 Sep-Oct;53(5):517-23
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of follicular neoplasm in thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration cytology: does the result, benign vs. suspicious for a malignant process, in these nodules make a difference?
  • OBJECTIVE: To address the likelihood of thyroid malignancy for each cytologic interpretation, highly cellular and benign vs. follicular carcinoma, with particular attention to the indeterminate cytologic result, follicular neoplasm.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed thyroid nodule cytologic and histologic interpretations from 1994 to 2002 in a tertiary medical center setting.
  • Patients were referred for evaluation of thyroid nodules found incidentally or on physical examination.
  • RESULTS: A total of 886 thyroid nodules were aspirated in 802 patients (500 benign, 195 indeterminate, 129 inadequate, 62 malignant).
  • Of 195 indeterminate lesions, 180 were classified as follicular neoplasm or "cannot rule out/possible" follicular neoplasm, with 144 of these ultimately removed and with malignant histologic findings in 28.
  • Any mention of follicular neoplasm in the cytology report conferred a 19.4% risk of malignancy in patients who went on to surgery (including an unexpected 18.2% rate of malignancy in the subcategory in which a possible follicular neoplasm was a secondary listing in an otherwise-benign cytologic differential diagnosis).
  • CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the likelihood of histologic malignancy between the cytologic subcategories of "definite "follicular neoplasm and "cannot rule out/possible" follicular neoplasm.
  • We recommend that cytologic reports on fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm reflect this fact.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19798878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Lal A, Bianco J, Chen H: Radioguided parathyroidectomy in patients with familial hyperparathyroidism. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):739-43
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  • Importantly, 5 patients (25%) had ectopic parathyroid glands localized by the probe in the thymus, thyroid and retroesophageal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroidectomy / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2007 May;14(5):1525-7 [17285397.001]
  • (PMID = 17122990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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87. Yang TF, Wang JD, Luo HJ, Wang XY, Li FH: [Relationship between ultrasonographic velocimetric parameters and microvessel density in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Feb;42(2):126-9
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  • [Title] [Relationship between ultrasonographic velocimetric parameters and microvessel density in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between velocimetric parameters by using color Doppler ultrasonography and microvessel density (MVD) in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance for preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Methods Twenty-nine thyroid tumors were examined preoperatively by color Doppler ultrasonography.
  • RESULTS: Of the twenty-nine patients who underwent surgery, seventeen patients were diagnosed in papillary thyroid carcinoma and twelve patients in thyroid adenoma.
  • In velocimetric analysis, the RI was significantly higher in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma than those with thyroid adenoma (t = 3.3108, P < 0.01).
  • MVD was also significantly increased in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (t = 8.1991, P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Color Doppler ultrasonography could well display the blood flow of thyroid tissue and its nodules.
  • The velocimetric parameter RI was higher in papillary thyroid carcinoma than in adenoma and was along with its MVD.
  • RI may provide valuable information for diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Microvessels. Middle Aged. Rheology. Thyroid Gland / blood supply. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 17633256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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88. Richmond BK, Eads K, Flaherty S, Belcher M, Runyon D: Complications of thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy in the rural community hospital setting. Am Surg; 2007 Apr;73(4):332-6
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  • The objective of this study was to examine the complications encountered in a series of 150 consecutive thyroid and parathyroid procedures performed by a single surgeon in a rural community hospital setting.
  • Specifically, these include intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurements, intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring, and the use of the gamma probe for detection of parathyroid adenoma.
  • A retrospective chart review was conducted on a series of 150 patients undergoing any thyroid or parathyroid operation by a single surgeon in a rural setting over a 4-year period.
  • One hundred thirty-one thyroid procedures were performed (71 lobectomies, 60 total or near total procedures) for a diverse range of patholological conditions: multinodular goiter, 76 (50.7%) patients, follicular adenoma, 9 (6.0%) patients, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 13 (8.7%) patients, papillary carcinoma, 14 (9.3%) patients, follicular carcinoma, 5 (3.3%) patients, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, 13 (8.7%) patients, and medullary carcinoma, 1 (0.7%) patient.
  • The success of identifying parathyroid adenoma was 100 per cent, despite the absence of intraoperative parathormone assays, and the decision not to perform radio-guided parathyroidectomy.
  • We conclude that outcomes and complications in thyroid and parathyroid surgical procedures are largely dependent on surgeon skill and experience, and can be performed safely in the community setting by an experienced general surgeon despite the absence of advanced technology in this setting.

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  • (PMID = 17439023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Camera A, Magri F, Fonte R, Villani L, Della Porta MG, Fregoni V, Manna LL, Chiovato L: Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1033-6
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  • [Title] Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule.
  • BACKGROUND: Most solitary hyperfunctiong regions on thyroid scan consist of benign tissue.
  • SUMMARY: A 56-year-old man was referred to our Endocrine Unit in May 2009 due to the incidental discovery of a large left thyroid lobe nodule by a computed tomography study.
  • He was clinically and biochemically thyrotoxic with no evidence of humoral thyroid autoimmunity.
  • The nodule had a dyshomogenous appearance at neck ultrasonography, with multiple hypoechogenic areas and calcifications. (99m)-Technetium thyroid scintiscan revealed a hot nodule with suppression of the contralateral lobe.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated the presence of neoplastic cells not of thyroid origin.
  • Histological analysis of the surgical specimen led to a diagnosis of Burkitt-like large B-cell lymphoma harbored within a thyroid adenoma.
  • After further staging, the final diagnosis was stage IV E Burkitt-like lymphoma with the involvement of the bone and the thyroid.
  • This is the first description of an aggressive Burkitt-like lymphoma that infiltrated an hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma, thus presenting as a hot nodule at thyroid scintiscan.
  • In our patient there was no humoral or histological evidence of thyroid autoimmunity, thus suggesting a metastatic seeding of the lymphoma within the hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involvement of the thyroid gland by Burkitt-like lymphoma is extremely rare as is close localization of malignancy and a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20825299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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90. Yousaf U, Christensen LH, Rasmussen AK, Jensen F, Mollerup CL, Kirkegaard J, Lausen I, Rank F, Feldt-Rasmussen U: Immunohistochemical staining for thyroid peroxidase (TPO) of needle core biopsies in the diagnosis of scintigraphically cold thyroid nodules. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Jun;68(6):996-1001
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for thyroid peroxidase (TPO) of needle core biopsies in the diagnosis of scintigraphically cold thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Cold thyroid nodules are common, in particular in iodine-deficient areas, but only a minority of them are malignant requiring surgery.
  • Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) immunostaining of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material has proven helpful in diagnosing cells from malignant lesions, but the procedure has its limitations in a routine setting.
  • PURPOSE: To improve diagnosis and reduce surgery rate, the FNAC procedure was replaced by needle core biopsy (NCB), which was routinely stained for TPO by the monoclonal antibody mAb 47.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a 5-year period 427 consecutive patients with a cold thyroid nodule were evaluated by ultrasound-guided NCB, which had been routinely stained for TPO in an automated immunostainer.
  • Sensitivity and specificity and predictive values of the TPO immunostaining were estimated, based on the final diagnosis obtained from surgical resection.
  • RESULTS: The majority of nodules with benign NCB diagnosis were not surgically removed, and thus a subgroup of 140 operated nodules formed the basis for the calculations.
  • Sensitivity and specificity for benign and malignant lesions were 100% if the oxyphilic variant of adenomas and minimally invasive follicular carcinomas were excluded.
  • CONCLUSION: TPO immunostaining was found to be a valuable adjunct to morphology in the diagnosis of cold thyroid nodules of the nonoxyphilic type.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Iodide Peroxidase / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Staining and Labeling. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18031322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2440416
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91. Coburn V, Radfar A, Snook D, Mahalingam M: Cutaneous oncocytoma - a report of three cases and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Apr;34(4):355-9
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  • The oncocyte is a cell characterized by capacious, eosinophilic, finely granular cytoplasm, and lesions composed primarily of oncocytes are termed oncocytomas.
  • Whereas oncocytic metaplasia has been reported in various cutaneous neoplasms, oncocytomas typically occur in the kidneys, thyroid and salivary glands and are uncommon in the dermatopathology literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17381809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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92. Dinse GE, Peddada SD, Harris SF, Elmore SA: Comparison of NTP historical control tumor incidence rates in female Harlan Sprague Dawley and Fischer 344/N Rats. Toxicol Pathol; 2010 Aug;38(5):765-75
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  • Our analyses revealed statistically significant strain differences, with female SD rats having lower incidence rates for clitoral gland adenoma (0.2% vs. 5.8%) and mononuclear cell leukemia (0.9% vs. 16.7%) and higher incidence rates for mammary gland fibroadenoma (67.4% vs. 48.4%), mammary gland carcinoma (10.2% vs. 2.4%), and thyroid gland C cell adenoma (25.4% vs. 13.6%) relative to female F344/N rats.

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  • (PMID = 20622195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-1601
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / N01ES55547; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01ES101744; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES045007; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01ES045007; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES101744; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS762371; NLM/ PMC4791045
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93. Cavaco BM, Batista PF, Martins C, Banito A, do Rosário F, Limbert E, Sobrinho LG, Leite V: Familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC): analysis of fPTC/PRN, NMTC1, MNG1 and TCO susceptibility loci and identification of somatic BRAF and RAS mutations. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Mar;15(1):207-15
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  • [Title] Familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC): analysis of fPTC/PRN, NMTC1, MNG1 and TCO susceptibility loci and identification of somatic BRAF and RAS mutations.
  • Linkage analysis has identified four familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) susceptibility loci: fPTC/PRN (1p13.2-1q22), NMTC1 (2q21), MNG1 (14q32) and TCO (19p13.2).
  • In total, 8 FNMTC families, and 27 thyroid lesions from family members (22 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs): 11 classic, 10 of the follicular variant and 1 of the mixed variant; 4 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs) and 1 nodular goitre (NG)), were evaluated for the involvement of the four susceptibility regions, using linkage and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genes, ras / genetics. Genetic Linkage. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18310288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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94. Takano T, Yamada H: Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3): a promising indicator for diagnosing thyroid follicular carcinoma. Endocr J; 2009;56(1):9-16
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  • [Title] Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3): a promising indicator for diagnosing thyroid follicular carcinoma.
  • Since the introduction of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the 1970's, a preoperative diagnostic technique for thyroid follicular carcinoma has long been awaited.
  • Many markers that distinguish follicular carcinomas from adenomas have been reported; however, most of them have not been confirmed to be beneficial for clinical use.
  • Several groups have reported that the suppression of TFF3 mRNA expression is related to malignant characteristics of thyroid follicular cell-derived tumors and the expression level of TFF3 mRNA is the most promising indicator for diagnosing follicular carcinoma.
  • Development of TFF3-based diagnostic methods is now ongoing and it may not be long before thyroid follicular carcinoma can be diagnosed preoperatively using an aspirated sample from the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Peptides / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Models, Biological. Preoperative Care / methods. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18506086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptides; 0 / TFF3 protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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95. Isildak M, Aksoy DY, Terzi A, Tezel GG, Bayraktar M: A thyroidectomy case with a surprising pathologic result: three different birds in one nest. Am J Med Sci; 2006 Feb;331(2):97-9
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  • Neoplasms of the thyroid include types that range from indolent, localized papillary carcinomas to lethal anaplastic disease.
  • Hurthle cell neoplasm is a histopathologic subtype that signals poor prognosis.
  • Herein, we present the case of a 72-year-old female patient with multinodular goiter who, although fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed a benign result, underwent thyroid surgery because of the diameter of the largest nodule.
  • Histopathologically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as papillary thyroid microcarcinoma on one lobe and Hurthle cell neoplasm on the other, whereas the remainder of the thyroid showed a typical pattern of colloidal goiter, all of which are not commonly encountered in one patient.
  • Although multinodular goiter is usually acknowledged as a sign of a benign process, its risk of malignancy is no less than that of a solitary thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16479184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9629
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Soon PS, Delbridge LW, Sywak MS, Barraclough BM, Edhouse P, Sidhu SB: Surgeon performed ultrasound facilitates minimally invasive parathyroidectomy by the focused lateral mini-incision approach. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):766-71
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  • BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is now widely accepted where a single adenoma can be localized preoperatively.
  • In our unit, MIP is offered once a parathyroid adenoma is localized with a sestamibi (MIBI) scan, with or without a concordant neck ultrasound.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of surgeon performed ultrasound (SUS) with radiologist performed ultrasound (RUS) in the localization of a parathyroid adenoma in MIBI-positive primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
  • Overall, RUS correctly localized the parathyroid adenomas in 121 of 148 (82%) patients.
  • Surgeon performed ultrasound correctly localized the abnormal parathyroid adenoma in 72 of 87 (83%) of cases.
  • There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with single gland disease, double adenomas, or hyperplasia correctly localized by SUS or RUS.
  • Incorrect interpretation of ultrasound imaging was due to cystic degeneration in thyroid nodules, lymph nodes, retro-esophageal location of adenomas and ectopic and small parathyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods

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  • [CommentIn] World J Surg. 2008 May;32(5):772-3 [18219466.001]
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  • (PMID = 18224474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Song WJ, Yan LM, Zhao XL, Liu ZH, Sun BC: [Analysis of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region mutation and its significance in human oncocytoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Oct;32(10):767-70
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  • METHODS: The mtDNA D-Loop region of 20 thyroid or renal oncocytomas and the adjacent normal tissues were amplified by PCR, and then sequenced.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21163068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial
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98. Niedźwiecki S, Stepień T, Kuzdak K, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Seehofer D, Rayes N, Ulrich F: Serum levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in thyroid cancer patients. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2008 May;393(3):275-80
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  • [Title] Serum levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in thyroid cancer patients.
  • Therefore, we performed a prospective study, analyzing IL-1ra in thyroid cancer patients.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured preoperative IL-1ra serum levels of 52 consecutive patients with thyroid cancer, 15 with benign adenoma and 27 healthy volunteers.
  • The final histological diagnosis revealed 21 patients with papillary and 8 patients with follicular carcinoma (FTC), while 12 cases of medullary and 11 cases of anaplastic carcinoma (ATC) were observed.
  • Future efforts should focus on the possible application of IL-1ra as a biomarker for the above-mentioned thyroid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / blood. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reference Values. Sex Factors. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2009 Mar;394(2):401-2; author reply 403 [18825404.001]
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  • (PMID = 18064485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IL1RN protein, human; 0 / Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
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99. Wood MD, Huang Y, Bibbo M: Improving recognition of thyroid carcinoma in rapid-consultation specimens. Acta Cytol; 2005 May-Jun;49(3):291-6
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  • [Title] Improving recognition of thyroid carcinoma in rapid-consultation specimens.
  • OBJECTIVE: To improve recognition of thyroid carcinoma in rapid consultation on Diff-Quik-stained (Fisher Diagnostics, Middletown, Virginia, USA.) fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and rapid hematoxylin-eosin (H-E)-stained intraoperative scrape preparation (ISP) specimens by assessing 3 variables (anisokaryosis, nuclear overlap [NO] and scant/absent colloid) in cases of cellular follicular lesions (CFL), an indeterminate diagnostic category.
  • RESULTS: Over 90% of the malignant cases showed NO in both FNA and ISP, while only 22% of the benign cases did; positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 82% and 100%.
  • All malignant cases showed significant anisokaryosis in both FNA and ISP in contrast to 24% of benign cases; PPV and NPV were 74% and 100%.
  • Scant/absent colloid was seen in 87% and 39% of malignancies in FNA and ISP, respectively, as compared to 55% and 20% of the benign cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Application of these variables improves recognition of thyroid carcinoma, particularly in fine needle aspirates, while additional material may be requested.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Middle Aged. Referral and Consultation. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15966292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, Traini E, De Crea C, Corsello SM, Sollazzi L, Pontecorvi A, Bellantone R: Advantages of a video-assisted approach to parathyroidectomy. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2008;70(5):313-8
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  • Moreover, it permits bilateral neck exploration, associated thyroid resections and can be performed under locoregional anesthesia.
  • All these characteristics and the excellent results obtained render VAP a valid and well-validated, and even preferable, alternative to conventional surgery for the surgical treatment of sporadic PHPT, especially in case of suspected single adenoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18971596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0275
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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