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1. Pawlikowski M, Kunert-Radek J, Radek M: Plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas in light of immunohistochemical studies. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):63-6
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  • [Title] Plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas in light of immunohistochemical studies.
  • INTRODUCTION: Plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas can be defined as the ability of an adenoma to express more than one pituitary hormone.
  • The application of immunohistochemistry to diagnose surgically removed pituitary tumours revealed that a great number of pituitary adenomas are in fact plurihormonal.
  • However, data on the incidence and the clinical relevance of the pituitary adenoma plurihormonality are still scarce and controversial.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hundred fifty-five pituitary adenomas, surgically removed, were studied immunohistochemically with the antibodies against pituitary hormones or their subunits.
  • Additionally, 40 adenomas were immunostained with Ki-67 antibody to evaluate the proliferative potential.
  • Even with this limitation, plurihormonality was found to be a frequent finding in both hormonally active and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • It was shown that over one-third (36.1%) of the investigated adenomas expressed more than one hormone.
  • Plurihormonal adenomas also possess higher Ki-67 indices, as compared to monohormonal tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Plurihormonality is a frequent phenomenon in both hormonally active and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Luteinizing Hormone / metabolism. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / complications. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Prolactin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20205106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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2. Zhang X, Rice K, Wang Y, Chen W, Zhong Y, Nakayama Y, Zhou Y, Klibanski A: Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) noncoding ribonucleic acid: isoform structure, expression, and functions. Endocrinology; 2010 Mar;151(3):939-47
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  • Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is an imprinted gene highly expressed in the human pituitary.
  • However, MEG3 expression is lost in human gonadotroph-derived pituitary adenomas and most human tumor cell lines.

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  • (PMID = 20032057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK040947; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01DK40947
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / MEG3 non-coding RNA, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Long Noncoding; 0 / RNA, Untranslated; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2840681
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3. Nemergut EC, Zuo Z, Jane JA Jr, Laws ER Jr: Predictors of diabetes insipidus after transsphenoidal surgery: a review of 881 patients. J Neurosurg; 2005 Sep;103(3):448-54
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  • Among patients with pituitary adenomas, those with Cushing's disease had an increased risk of transient (22.2%), but not persistent, DI.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Central Nervous System Cysts / complications. Central Nervous System Cysts / surgery. Craniopharyngioma / complications. Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Humans. Incidence. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Subdural Effusion


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4. Ruebel KH, Leontovich AA, Jin L, Stilling GA, Zhang H, Qian X, Nakamura N, Scheithauer BW, Kovacs K, Lloyd RV: Patterns of gene expression in pituitary carcinomas and adenomas analyzed by high-density oligonucleotide arrays, reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR, and protein expression. Endocrine; 2006 Jun;29(3):435-44
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  • [Title] Patterns of gene expression in pituitary carcinomas and adenomas analyzed by high-density oligonucleotide arrays, reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR, and protein expression.
  • Very few of the genes that are important in pituitary tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis have been identified to date.
  • To identify potential genes that may be important in pituitary tumor progression and carcinoma development, we used Affymetrix GeneChip HGU-133A-oligonucleotide arrays, which contain more than 15,000 characterized genes from the human genome to study gene expression in an ACTH pituitary carcinoma metastatic to the liver and four pituitary adenomas.
  • Reverse-transcriptase real-time quantitative- PCR (RT-qPCR) was then used to analyze 4 nonneoplastic pituitaries, 19 adenomas, and the ACTH carcinoma.
  • A larger series of pituitary adenomas and carcinomas were also analyzed for protein expression using tissue microarrays (TMA) (n = 233) and by Western blotting (n = 18).
  • There were 4298 genes that were differentially expressed among the adenomas compared to the carcinoma, with 2057 genes overexpressed and 2241 genes underexpressed in the adenomas.
  • The beta-galactoside binding protein galactin-3 was underexpressed in some adenomas compared to the carcinomas.
  • The human achaetescute homolog-1 ASCL1 (hASH-1) gene was also underexpressed in some adenomas compared to the carcinoma.
  • ID2, which has an important role in cell development and tumorigenesis, was underexpressed in some adenomas compared to the carcinomas.
  • Transducin-like enhancer of split four/ Groucho (TLE-4) was over-expressed in adenomas compared to the ACTH carcinoma.
  • These results indicate that the LGALS3, hASH1, ID2, and TLE-4 genes may have important roles in the development of pituitary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Blotting, Western. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / secretion. GRB2 Adaptor Protein / metabolism. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2 / metabolism. Luteinizing Hormone / secretion. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16943582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 90249
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GRB2 Adaptor Protein; 0 / GRB2 protein, human; 0 / ID2 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / TLE4 protein, human; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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5. Maartens NF: The history of the treatment of pituitary adenomas. Endocrine; 2005 Oct;28(1):9-26
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  • [Title] The history of the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • The immense history leading to our current understanding and treatment of pituitary pathology is inextricably linked to the evolution of the understanding of the numerous functions of the hypophysis cerebri as the "master gland" of the endocrine system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / history. Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / history. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16311406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Chuang CC, Chang CN, Wei KC, Liao CC, Hsu PW, Huang YC, Chen YL, Lai LJ, Pai PC: Surgical treatment for severe visual compromised patients after pituitary apoplexy. J Neurooncol; 2006 Oct;80(1):39-47
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment for severe visual compromised patients after pituitary apoplexy.
  • BACKGROUND: Pituitary apoplexy is a rare neurovascular insult.
  • METHODS: Thirteen patients who presented with severe visual defect after pituitary apoplexy were enrolled retrospectively.
  • Six patients without severe underlying diseases were considered non-complicated and were treated early.
  • We postulated old age, underlying malignant diseases, and coagulation disorders played the predisposing factors of poor outcome in these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Decompression, Surgical. Pituitary Apoplexy / complications. Pituitary Apoplexy / surgery. Vision, Low / etiology. Vision, Low / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / blood supply. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prognosis. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16645717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Schlesinger DJ, Sayer FT, Yen CP, Sheehan JP: Leksell GammaPlan version 10.0 preview: performance of the new inverse treatment planning algorithm applied to Gamma Knife surgery for pituitary adenoma. J Neurosurg; 2010 Dec;113 Suppl:144-8
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  • [Title] Leksell GammaPlan version 10.0 preview: performance of the new inverse treatment planning algorithm applied to Gamma Knife surgery for pituitary adenoma.
  • METHODS: Forty-three patients with pituitary adenomas were evaluated after dose planning was performed using FP and IP treatment approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 21121796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Tauchmanovà L, Pivonello R, Di Somma C, Rossi R, De Martino MC, Camera L, Klain M, Salvatore M, Lombardi G, Colao A: Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 May;91(5):1779-84
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients and 80 controls were prospectively enrolled: 37 patients (21 females) with pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma, 18 (14 females) with adrenocortical adenoma, 15 (11 females) with adrenal carcinoma of mixed secretion, and 10 (three females) with ectopic ACTH secretion.
  • At diagnosis, bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck; vertebral fractures were investigated by standard spinal radiographs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers. Body Mass Index. Carcinoma / blood. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16522701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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9. Dekkers OM, Neelis KJ, de Keizer RJ, Voormolen JH, Pereira AM, Romijn JA: [Nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas: diagnosis, treatment and follow-up]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Apr 5;152(14):792-6
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  • [Title] [Nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas: diagnosis, treatment and follow-up].
  • [Transliterated title] Niet-functionerende macroadenomen van de hypofyse: diagnostiek, behandeling en follow-up.
  • *Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas are benign tumours characterised by the absence of hormone overproduction.
  • The main symptoms are pituitary insufficiency, visual field defects, vision impairment and headache.
  • *Because nonfunctioning adenomas can recur, lifelong follow-up after treatment is necessary.
  • *Poor quality of life has been reported in treated patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, which may be due to the intrinsic imperfections of hormonal replacement therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18491820.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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10. Davis JR, McNeilly JR, Norris AJ, Pope C, Wilding M, McDowell G, Holland JP, McNeilly AS: Fetal gonadotrope cell origin of FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma - insight into human pituitary tumour pathogenesis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Nov;65(5):648-54
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  • [Title] Fetal gonadotrope cell origin of FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma - insight into human pituitary tumour pathogenesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of human pituitary adenomas remains unclear, but we report a case of FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma whose monohormonal phenotype suggests it was of fetal origin.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Endocrine studies were performed before and after curative surgery, with assessment of tumour hormone secretion in vitro, and immunostaining of tumour tissue for a series of gonadotrope proteins.
  • Human fetal pituitary tissue contained FSH-only cells at 18 weeks gestation, whereas normal adult pituitary tissue contained only bihormonal gonadotropes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We propose that this pituitary adenoma represents an indolent tumour of monohormonal fetal gonadotrope cells that originated early in gestation.
  • Pituitary tumours may therefore arise from abnormal persistence of fetal cell types, with extremely slow growth over many years until reaching a size threshold to generate an endocrine syndrome.
  • Understanding fetal pituitary architecture and function may be more informative for new insights into pituitary tumour pathogenesis than classical theories of cancer biology that invoke unrestrained cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / embryology. Gonadotrophs / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / embryology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Estradiol / blood. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / analysis. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / secretion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Immunoradiometric Assay / methods. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / embryology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / secretion. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / blood. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / embryology. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / etiology. Tissue Culture Techniques

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  • (PMID = 17054468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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11. Daly AF, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Ciccarelli A, Valdes-Socin H, Rohmer V, Tamburrano G, Borson-Chazot C, Estour B, Ciccarelli E, Brue T, Ferolla P, Emy P, Colao A, De Menis E, Lecomte P, Penfornis F, Delemer B, Bertherat J, Wémeau JL, De Herder W, Archambeaud F, Stevenaert A, Calender A, Murat A, Cavagnini F, Beckers A: Clinical characterization of familial isolated pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Sep;91(9):3316-23
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  • [Title] Clinical characterization of familial isolated pituitary adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: Familial pituitary adenomas occur rarely in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC).
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize the clinical and genealogical features of non-MEN1/CNC familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA).
  • RESULTS: Sixty-four FIPA families including 138 affected individuals were identified [55 prolactinomas, 47 somatotropinomas, 28 nonsecreting adenomas (NS), and eight ACTH-secreting tumors].
  • FIPA cases were younger at diagnosis than sporadic cases (P = 0.015); tumors were diagnosed earlier in the first vs. the second generation of multigenerational families.
  • Somatotropinomas occurred as isolated familial somatotropinoma cases and within heterogeneous FIPA families; isolated familial somatotropinoma cases represented 18% of FIPA cases and were younger at diagnosis than patients with sporadic somatotropinomas.
  • Familial NS cases were younger at diagnosis (P = 0.03) and had more frequently invasive tumors (P = 0.024) than sporadic cases.
  • FIPA may represent a novel endocrine neoplasia classification that requires further genetic characterization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Adult. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics. Female. Gonadotropins, Pituitary / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Pituitary Hormones, Anterior / metabolism. Prolactinoma / genetics. Prolactinoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sequence Analysis, DNA


12. Kitthaweesin K, Ployprasith C: Ocular manifestations of suprasellar tumors. J Med Assoc Thai; 2008 May;91(5):711-5
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  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Medical records of 69 patients with a diagnosis of suprasellar tumor at Srinagarind Hospital between January 1995 and December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • The respective definite diagnosis were pituitary adenoma, suprasellar meningioma, and craniopharyngioma in 33 (48%), 19 (28%), and 17 (25%) patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Pituitary adenoma was the most frequent suprasellar tumor and visual loss was the most common ocular presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Eye Diseases / etiology. Meningioma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18672637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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13. Geiger D, Meek C, Wexler Y: Speeding up HMM algorithms for genetic linkage analysis via chain reductions of the state space. Bioinformatics; 2009 Jun 15;25(12):i196-203
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  • For a Finnish family in which two affected children suffer from a rare cold-inducing sweating syndrome, we were able to reduce the state space by more than five orders of magnitude from 2(50) to 2(32).
  • In another pedigree of state-space size of 2(27), used for a study of pituitary adenoma, the state space reduced by a factor of 8.5 and consequently exact linkage scores can now be computed, rather than approximated.

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  • (PMID = 19477987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1367-4811
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioinformatics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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14. Krzentowska A, Gołkowski F, Bałdys-Waligórska A, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A: [Gastrointestinal tract polyps in acromegaly patients]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(12):1266-9
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  • Acromegaly is a rare, chronic disease due to hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) by pituitary adenoma arising from somatotrophs.
  • Polyps were histopatologically verified as tubular adenoma with low-grade dysplasia (10 patients, 76.9%) and hyperplastic polyps (3 patients, 23.1%).
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  • Our study indicates that duration of uncontrolled acromegaly, contrary to IGF-1, GH basic and in OGTT serum concentrations at diagnosis are essential for the colon polyps development.

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  • (PMID = 21591351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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15. Lahera Vargas M, da Costa CV: [Prevalence, etiology and clinical findings of Cushing's syndrome]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Jan;56(1):32-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Prevalencia, etiología y cuadro clínico del síndrome de Cushing.
  • Age at diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome varies according to the etiology.
  • Most cases of Cushing's disease are due to a pituitary adenoma, although the tumor may not be visible on the available imaging techniques.
  • ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome is found in 20% of cases and is most frequently due to adenomas (10%) or adrenal carcinomas (8).
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / secretion. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / secretion. Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology. Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology. Female. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hyperplasia. Incidence. Male. Phenotype. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Prevalence. Risk

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  • (PMID = 19627706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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16. Pouratian N, Prevedello DM, Jagannathan J, Lopes MB, Vance ML, Laws ER Jr: Outcomes and management of patients with Cushing's disease without pathological confirmation of tumor resection after transsphenoidal surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Sep;92(9):3383-8
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  • CONTEXT: Despite the success of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for the treatment of Cushing's disease, in a number of cases, an ACTH-staining pituitary adenoma is not identified histologically.
  • PATIENTS: Of 490 TSS procedures for Cushing's disease between 1993 and 2004, we identified 111 cases without histological adenoma confirmation.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 50% of these patients achieved remission, a figure lower than for our entire series (79%) and for patients with histological confirmation of an ACTH-staining adenoma (88%) (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: The lower remission rate in patients without histological evidence of an adenoma is most likely a result of a decreased rate of adenoma extirpation.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jan;4(1):14-5 [17940518.001]
  • (PMID = 17595252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Machiavelli G, Cotignola J, Danilowicz K, Carbonara C, Paes de Lima A, Basso A, Bruno OD, Szijan I: Expression of p16(INK4A) gene in human pituitary tumours. Pituitary; 2008;11(1):71-5
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  • [Title] Expression of p16(INK4A) gene in human pituitary tumours.
  • Pituitary adenomas comprise 10-15% of primary intracranial tumours but the mechanisms leading to tumour development are yet to be clearly established.
  • We studied the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4A) gene expression at mRNA level in human pituitary adenomas.
  • The RT-PCR assay and electrophoresis of the PCR-products showed that p16(INK4A) mRNA was undetectable in: 62% of non-functioning, 8% of growth hormone-secreting, 17% of prolactin-secreting and 17% of adrenocorticotropin-secreting adenomas.
  • Within the non-functioning adenomas 63% were "null cell" and 37% were positive for some hormone, both subgroups showed similar percentage of cases with absence of p16(INK4A) mRNA.
  • Our results show that clinically non-functioning macroadenomas have impaired p16(INK4A) expression in a clearly higher proportion than any other pituitary tumour subtype investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18058237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Cónsole GM, Hereñú CB, Camihort GA, Luna GC, Ferese C, Goya RG: Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy on the somatotropic axis in experimental prolactinomas. Cells Tissues Organs; 2009;190(1):20-6
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  • Gene therapy was implemented in young female Sprague-Dawley rats which received 2 pituitary stereotaxic injections of a control recombinant adenoviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein (RAd-GFP) or IGF-I (RAd-IGF-I).
  • The treatment of pituitary adenomas with RAd-IGF-I induced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in cell size with respect to E(2) + RAd-GFP (51.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 58.9 +/- 0.3 microm(2)) and no changes in cell density compared with RAd-GFP-injected animals (12.8 +/- 1.7 vs. 10.5 +/- 0.1).
  • In rats carrying estrogen-induced adenomas, RAd-IGF-I injection induced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum growth hormone compared to RAd-GFP-injected animals (107.5 +/- 7 vs. 142.4 +/- 9 ng/ml).
  • IGF-I gene therapy appears to be an effective approach for the treatment of experimental somatomammotropic pituitary tumors and could be potentially useful as an adjuvant of conventional therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Therapy. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / genetics. Prolactinoma / therapy. Somatotrophs / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18957836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1422-6421
  • [Journal-full-title] Cells, tissues, organs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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19. El-Banhawy OA, Halaka AN, Ayad H, El-Altuwaijri M, El-Sharnoby MM: Long-term endonasal endoscopic review of successful duraplasty after endonasal endoscopic skull base surgery. Am J Rhinol; 2008 Mar-Apr;22(2):175-81
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  • Forty patients had pituitary adenomas, 25 with macroadenomas and 15 with microadenomas.

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  • (PMID = 18416976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of rhinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Rhinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Castro EC, Ferraz ML, Corrêa RR, Reis MA, Texeira VP: Cushing's disease in a 5-month infant due to a basophilic microadenoma of the pituitary gland. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Oct;19(10):1263-6
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  • [Title] Cushing's disease in a 5-month infant due to a basophilic microadenoma of the pituitary gland.
  • We report a female patient who developed severe Cushing's disease during the fifth month of life due to a basophilic pituitary adenoma Histological findings showed a basophilic microadenoma of the pituitary gland, leading to the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.
  • The importance of the present report resides in the age of the child at diagnosis, and that it was the necropsy finding of microadenoma which clarified the cause of the Cushing's syndrome, since it was not diagnosed during life.
  • Cushing's disease is most often diagnosed in children older than 7 years, and our patient was only 5 months old when we detected the pituitary adenoma, the earliest case diagnosed so far.
  • Cushing's syndrome in pediatric patients has been rarely reported and most cases are due to functioning adrenal tumors, usually a malignant carcinoma but occasionally a benign adenoma.
  • The present case shows that the pituitary of these patients should be investigated with important implications in terms of therapeutic approaches, such as pituitary radiotherapy, which can cure the patient when treatment is started very soon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Basophil / complications. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17172089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Yamada S, Ohyama K, Taguchi M, Takeshita A, Morita K, Takano K, Sano T: A study of the correlation between morphological findings and biological activities in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Neurosurgery; 2007 Sep;61(3):580-4; discussion 584-5
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  • [Title] A study of the correlation between morphological findings and biological activities in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to review the histology of the clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (CNFPAs) we have observed and to determine whether or not the frequency of cavernous sinus invasion is different among each type of morphology.
  • METHODS: In addition, several proliferative markers, including Ki67, p53, E-cadherin, matrix metallo-proteinase 9 and pituitary tumor derived fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (ptd-FGFR4), were also investigated in invasive and non-invasive tumors.
  • RESULTS: Our consequent 213 CNFPAs were diagnosed as follows: 64% were silent gonadotroph adenomas, 18% were null cell adenomas, 12% were silent corticotroph adenomas, 4% were silent Subtype 3 adenomas, and 1% were other types of adenomas.
  • Female patients or younger patients showed a significant preponderance in silent corticotroph adenomas and in silent Subtype 3 adenomas, respectively.
  • Cavernous sinus invasion occurs most frequently in silent corticotroph adenomas (85%) followed by Subtype 3 adenomas (67%), null cell adenomas (38%), and silent gonadotroph adenomas (11%).
  • Therefore, we suggest that all CNFPAs be examined not only by conventional light microscopy but also by immunohistochemistry, preferably by electron microscopy, to achieve a correct morphological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / classification. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology


22. Saeger W: Pituitary tumors: prognostic indicators. Endocrine; 2005 Oct;28(1):57-66
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  • [Title] Pituitary tumors: prognostic indicators.
  • Many factors influence the proliferation of pituitary adenomas: angiogenesis, apoptosis, growth factors, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and hormone receptors.
  • Pituitary adenomas can be enclosed or invasive and may be very large or may be microadenomas, but the most important point for prognosis is the total resection in the first or second surgery or the reaction on treatments by drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16311411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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23. Lania AG, Ferrero S, Pivonello R, Mantovani G, Peverelli E, Di Sarno A, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A, Colao A: Evolution of an aggressive prolactinoma into a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor coincident with GNAS gene mutation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jan;95(1):13-7
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  • [Title] Evolution of an aggressive prolactinoma into a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor coincident with GNAS gene mutation.
  • CONTEXT: Mixed PRL- and GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are relatively common because somatotrophs and lactotrophs share the common somato-mammotroph progenitor lineage.
  • [MeSH-major] GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19890024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
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24. Radaelli E, Arnold A, Papanikolaou A, Garcia-Fernandez RA, Mattiello S, Scanziani E, Cardiff RD: Mammary tumor phenotypes in wild-type aging female FVB/N mice with pituitary prolactinomas. Vet Pathol; 2009 Jul;46(4):736-45
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  • [Title] Mammary tumor phenotypes in wild-type aging female FVB/N mice with pituitary prolactinomas.
  • Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are common spontaneous lesions in aging FVB females.
  • Prolactin-secreting pituitary proliferations play a significant role in mouse mammary tumorigenesis generally producing adenosquamous carcinomas.
  • Since genetically engineered FVB mice are frequently used to study mammary tumor biology, we have examined a cohort of 64 aging wild-type FVB/N females to establish the prevalence and the nature of spontaneous mammary and pituitary tumors.
  • Tissues from mammary and pituitary glands were studied by histopathology and immunohistochemistry.
  • Of the 64 examined mice, 20 had pituitary tumors and 20 had mammary tumors.
  • Mammary and pituitary tumors were associated in 17 mice.
  • All pituitary tumors were prolactin-positive by immunohistochemistry and classified as prolactinomas.
  • Compared with previous reports, prolactinoma-associated mammary tumors displayed a broader morphologic spectrum, including cases with the EMT phenotype.

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  • (PMID = 19276050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141582; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA55909
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Swords FM, Monson JP, Besser GM, Chew SL, Drake WM, Grossman AB, Plowman PN: Gamma knife radiosurgery: a safe and effective salvage treatment for pituitary tumours not controlled despite conventional radiotherapy. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Dec;161(6):819-28
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  • [Title] Gamma knife radiosurgery: a safe and effective salvage treatment for pituitary tumours not controlled despite conventional radiotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the use of 'gamma knife' (GK) radiosurgery in 25 patients with pituitary adenomas not cured despite conventional therapy, including external beam radiotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients had previously received conventional radiotherapy for a mean of 11.8 years prior to receiving GK; 23 out of 25 had also undergone pituitary surgery on at least one occasion.
  • Seventeen had hyperfunctioning adenomas that still required medical therapy without an adequate biochemical control--ten somatotroph adenomas, six corticotroph adenomas and one prolactinoma, while eight patients had non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs).
  • The results in corticotroph adenomas were variable.
  • Prior to GK, 72% of the patients were panhypopituitary, and 42% of the remainder have developed new anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies to date.

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  • (PMID = 19773368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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26. Widhalm G, Wolfsberger S, Preusser M, Fischer I, Woehrer A, Wunderer J, Hainfellner JA, Knosp E: Residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: prognostic value of MIB-1 labeling index for tumor progression. J Neurosurg; 2009 Sep;111(3):563-71
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  • [Title] Residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: prognostic value of MIB-1 labeling index for tumor progression.
  • OBJECT: In residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, reliable prognostic parameters indicating probability of tumor progression are needed.
  • METHODS: The authors studied a cohort of 92 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Additionally, the time period to second surgery was significantly shorter in residual adenomas showing an MIB-1 LI>3%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that MIB-1 LI in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas is a clinically useful prognostic parameter indicating probability of progression of postoperative tumor remnants.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Postoperative Period. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18991501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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27. Mortini P, Barzaghi R, Losa M, Boari N, Giovanelli M: Surgical treatment of giant pituitary adenomas: strategies and results in a series of 95 consecutive patients. Neurosurgery; 2007 Jun;60(6):993-1002; discussion 1003-4
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of giant pituitary adenomas: strategies and results in a series of 95 consecutive patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Giant pituitary adenomas, defined as those measuring at least 4 cm in maximum diameter, are a therapeutic challenge.
  • We report our experience in a large, consecutive series of patients with giant adenomas.
  • METHODS: Between 1990 and 2004, 95 patients with a giant pituitary adenomas underwent surgery at our department.
  • Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma was the most frequent type (n = 70; 73.7%), whereas hormone-secreting adenomas numbered only 25 (26.3%).
  • This was not different in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas compared with patients with hormone-secreting tumors.
  • In the subgroup of patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, radiation therapy had a protective role against tumor growth (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: Maximal surgical removal of giant adenomas through the transsphenoidal or transcranial approach, or both, aimed to relieve compression of the optic pathway and reduce tumor volume as much as possible, offers the best chances to control the tumor when followed with adjuvant medical and radiation therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / therapy. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17538372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Biermasz NR, Dekkers OM, Voormolen J, de Keizer RJ, Neelis KJ, Wiggers-de Bruïne FT, Smit JW, Arias AM, Romijn JA: [Transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas: long-term results from the Leiden University Medical Center]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Nov 22;152(47):2565-70
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  • [Title] [Transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas: long-term results from the Leiden University Medical Center].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term outcome of transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas at the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), The Netherlands.
  • METHOD: 416 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for pituitary adenoma at the LUMC between 1978 and 2004 were included; 174 patients with non-functioning macroadenomas (NFMA), 164 patients with acromegaly and 78 patients with Cushing's disease.
  • RESULTS: Biochemical remission was achieved in 66% of patients with acromegaly, and 72% of patients with Cushing's disease; incidence of pituitary failure was low in these patients (5% and 18% respectively).
  • In 82% of the patients with NFMA visual function improved whereas the percentage with any degree of pituitary failure increased from 85% (preoperatively) to 95% (postoperatively).
  • CONCLUSION: Transsphenoidal resection is an effective treatment in most, but not all, patients with pituitary adenomas.
  • The surgical results at the LUMC are comparable with those obtained in important international centres.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hypophysectomy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / pathology. Acromegaly / surgery. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008 Nov 22;152(47):2537-43 [19174932.001]
  • (PMID = 19174939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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29. Del Monte P, Foppiani L, Ruelle A, Andrioli G, Bandelloni R, Quilici P, Prete C, Palummeri E, Marugo A, Bernasconi D: Clinically non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas in the elderly. Aging Clin Exp Res; 2007 Feb;19(1):34-40
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  • [Title] Clinically non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas in the elderly.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical presentation, characteristics and post-surgical outcome of non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPM) in elderly patients.
  • RESULTS: Endocrinological evaluation on diagnosis showed global anterior hypopituitarism in 33% and partial hypopituitarism in 37% of patients.
  • Surgery was highly effective in improving alterations in vision and compressive symptoms, but was unable to restore normal pituitary function in established hypopituitarism in most cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: in elderly patients, the development of hypopituitarism is often overlooked and the initial diagnosis of NFPM may be delayed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / surgery. Aging. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiography. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypopituitarism / physiopathology. Hypopituitarism / radiography. Hypopituitarism / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome


30. Yaldizli O, Muroi C, Keller E: An unusual complication of a successful cardiopulmonary reanimation. Am J Emerg Med; 2008 Jun;26(5):639.e1-2
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  • We report the case of a 50-year-old man who experienced acute cardiac arrest after transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18534321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8171
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of emergency medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Emerg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Candrina R, Sleiman I, Zorzi F: ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma within an ovarian teratoma. Eur J Intern Med; 2005 Sep;16(5):359-60
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  • [Title] ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma within an ovarian teratoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome is one of the most difficult tasks in medicine, and it is especially problematic in cases with "occult" ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • We describe the case of a 26-year-old woman who was found to suffer from ectopic ACTH syndrome due to pituitary microadenoma, localized within a mature ovarian teratoma.

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  • (PMID = 16137552.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-6205
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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32. Rubinfeld H, Hadani M, Barkai G, Taylor JE, Culler MD, Shimon I: Cortistatin inhibits growth hormone release from human fetal and adenoma pituitary cells and prolactin secretion from cultured prolactinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2257-63
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  • [Title] Cortistatin inhibits growth hormone release from human fetal and adenoma pituitary cells and prolactin secretion from cultured prolactinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: The objective of the study was to assess the direct in vitro effects of CST on human pituitary hormone secretion.
  • MATERIALS: Primary cell cultures of human fetal (21-25 wk gestation) pituitary tissues and cultured hormone-secreting adenoma cells were used in this study.
  • RESULTS: CST-14 (10 nm) inhibited GH secretion by up to 65% in all fetal pituitary specimens after 4-h incubation (P < 0.05).
  • CST-14 or CST-17 (10 nm) inhibited basal GH secretion in six of the 13 GH-cell adenomas and two of the three GH-PRL mixed adenomas.
  • CST-17 (100 nm) suppressed the GH response to GHRH and ghrelin analog (10 nm each) by 30-50% in adenomas (P < 0.05).
  • Three PRL-adenomas treated with CST-17 (10 nm) showed a 20-40% inhibition of PRL release (P < 0.05), whereas in three others no suppression or mild response was achieved at this concentration.
  • RT-PCR revealed the expression of both SSTR2 and SSTR5 in all GH-cell and mixed adenomas studied and all PRL-secreting adenomas studied, except for two of the CST-resistant prolactinomas, in which SSTR5 was absent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of in vitro CST suppression of human GH and PRL in cultured pituitary tissues.
  • The regulation of PRL release from cultured adenomas appears to be primarily mediated by SSTR5.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Fetus / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Neuropeptides / pharmacology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16595604.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / cortistatin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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33. Bladowska J, Sokolska V, Sozański T, Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Sąsiadek M: Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function. Pol J Radiol; 2010 Jan;75(1):29-36
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  • [Title] Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function.
  • BACKGROUND: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions.
  • It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas - 409 MRI results in total - were studied.
  • RESULTS: The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism.
  • In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy.
  • 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MRI presentation of post - surgical pituitary gland doesn't necessarily correlate with its hormonal function - there was a significant statistical difference.
  • Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function.
  • In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy.

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  • (PMID = 22802758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1733-134X
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Radiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3389853
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; MRI / hormonal function / pituitary tumours / surgery
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34. Quentien MH, Barlier A, Franc JL, Pellegrini I, Brue T, Enjalbert A: Pituitary transcription factors: from congenital deficiencies to gene therapy. J Neuroendocrinol; 2006 Sep;18(9):633-42
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  • [Title] Pituitary transcription factors: from congenital deficiencies to gene therapy.
  • Despite the existence of interspecies phenotypic variability, animal models have yielded valuable insights into human pituitary diseases.
  • Studies on Snell and Jackson mice known to have growth hormone, prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiencies involving the hypoplastic pituitary gland have led to identifying alterations of the pituitary specific POU homeodomain Pit-1 transcription factor gene.
  • This finding supports the idea that Tpit plays an essential role in the differentiation of the pro-opiomelanocortin pituitary lineage.
  • Lentiviral vectors expressing a Pit-1 dominant negative mutant induced time- and dose-dependent cell death in somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas in vitro.
  • Gene transfer by lentiviral vectors should provide a promising step towards developing an efficient specific therapeutic approach by which a gene therapy programme for treating human pituitary adenomas could be based.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Genetic Therapy. Pituitary Diseases / genetics. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Transcription Factor Pit-1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Transfer Techniques. Growth Hormone / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Mice, Neurologic Mutants. Mutation / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactin / metabolism. T-Box Domain Proteins. Thyrotropin / metabolism. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16879162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / TBX19 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factor Pit-1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 184787-43-7 / homeobox protein PITX2; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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35. Sharma SG, Gokden M, McKenney JK, Phan DC, Cox RM, Kelly T, Gokden N: The utility of PAX-2 and renal cell carcinoma marker immunohistochemistry in distinguishing papillary renal cell carcinoma from nonrenal cell neoplasms with papillary features. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Dec;18(6):494-8
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  • Of the NRCPN, 9/66 (14%) is positive for PAX-2 [4/10 (40%) ovarian papillary serous carcinomas, 5/9 (56%) uterine papillary serous carcinomas]; RCCma was positive in 28/66 (42%), including 9/9 (100%) papillary thyroid carcinomas, 8/10 (80%) ovarian papillary serous carcinomas, 4/9 (44%) uterine papillary serous carcinomas, 1/10 (10%) papillary urothelial carcinomas, 1/2 (50%) intraductal papillary mucinous carcinomas of the pancreas, 3/3 (100%) choroid plexus papillomas, 1/1 (100%) pituitary adenoma with papillary features, and 1/2 (50%) lung adenocarcinomas with papillary features.
  • [MeSH-major] Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / chemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. PAX2 Transcription Factor
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Kidney / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 21102195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor
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36. Tajima T, Tsubaki J, Ishizu K, Jo W, Ishi N, Fujieda K: Case study of a 15-year-old boy with McCune-Albright syndrome combined with pituitary gigantism: effect of octreotide-long acting release (LAR) and cabergoline therapy. Endocr J; 2008 Jul;55(3):595-9
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  • [Title] Case study of a 15-year-old boy with McCune-Albright syndrome combined with pituitary gigantism: effect of octreotide-long acting release (LAR) and cabergoline therapy.
  • We described a clinical course of a 15-year-old boy of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) with pituitary gigantism.
  • At the age of 8 years, a growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) producing pituitary adenoma was diagnosed at our hospital.
  • This case demonstrated the difficulty of treating pituitary gigantism due to MAS.

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  • (PMID = 18445999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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37. Saveanu A, Jaquet P, Brue T, Barlier A: Relevance of coexpression of somatostatin and dopamine D2 receptors in pituitary adenomas. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 May 14;286(1-2):206-13
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  • [Title] Relevance of coexpression of somatostatin and dopamine D2 receptors in pituitary adenomas.
  • Dopamine and somatostatin are both involved in the negative control of normal pituitary cells.
  • Dopamine subtype 2 receptor (D2DR) and somatostatin receptor (sst) agonists, mainly directed to sst2, are used in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • Nevertheless, a majority of corticotroph and gonadotroph adenomas and a third of somatotroph adenomas are still not sufficiently controlled by these treatments.
  • D2DR and sst1, 2, 3 and 5 are present in most pituitary adenomas.
  • Moreover, new chimeric compounds with sst2, D2DR and sst5 affinity have shown an increased control of secretion and/or proliferation of different types of pituitary adenomas in cell culture.
  • Together with the multi-sst ligand drugs recently developed, these dopamine-somatostatin ligands represent a new opportunity in the combinatory treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Somatostatin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Dopamine / analogs & derivatives. Dopamine / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Protein Multimerization. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18241980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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38. Jevdjovic T, Bernays RL, Eppler E: Insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA and peptide in the human anterior pituitary. J Neuroendocrinol; 2007 May;19(5):335-41
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA and peptide in the human anterior pituitary.
  • The pituitary is the central organ regulating virtually all endocrine processes, and pathologies of the pituitary cause manifold adverse effects.
  • Because insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I appears to be involved in tumour pathogenesis, progression, and persistence, and only few data exist on the cellular synthesis sites of IGF-I, the present study aims to create a basis for further research on pituitary adenomas by investigating the presence of IGF-I in the human pituitary using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridisation, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry.
  • IGF-I was expressed in the pituitary, and gene sequence analysis revealed a sequence identical to that found in human liver.
  • In all pituitary samples investigated, IGF-I-immunoreactivity occurred in almost all adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-immunoreactive cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Growth Hormone / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17425608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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39. Jacobs JF, Idema AJ, Bol KF, Nierkens S, Grauer OM, Wesseling P, Grotenhuis JA, Hoogerbrugge PM, de Vries IJ, Adema GJ: Regulatory T cells and the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway mediate immune suppression in malignant human brain tumors. Neuro Oncol; 2009 Aug;11(4):394-402
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  • No Treg accumulation was observed in benign tumors such as meningiomas (n = 10) and pituitary adenomas (n = 5).
  • In conclusion, using ultrasonic tumor aspirates as a biosource we identified Tregs and the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway as immune suppressive mechanisms in malignant but not benign human brain tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19028999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD274; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / CD274 protein, human; 0 / CTLA-4 Antigen; 0 / CTLA4 protein, human; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / PDCD1 protein, human; 0 / Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2743219
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40. Vazquez-Martinez R, Martinez-Fuentes AJ, Pulido MR, Jimenez-Reina L, Quintero A, Leal-Cerro A, Soto A, Webb SM, Sucunza N, Bartumeus F, Benito-Lopez P, Galvez-Moreno MA, Castaño JP, Malagon MM: Rab18 is reduced in pituitary tumors causing acromegaly and its overexpression reverts growth hormone hypersecretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;93(6):2269-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rab18 is reduced in pituitary tumors causing acromegaly and its overexpression reverts growth hormone hypersecretion.
  • Alterations of these GTPases and their associated proteins are emerging as the underlying cause for several human diseases involving dysregulated secretory activities.
  • OBJECTIVE: Herein we investigated the role of Rab18, which negatively regulates hormone secretion by interacting with secretory granules, in relation to the altered functioning of tumoral pituitary somatotropes causing acromegaly.
  • PATIENTS: A total of 18 patients diagnosed with pituitary tumors causing acromegaly (nine patients) or nonfunctioning adenomas (nine patients) underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery.
  • Adenomas were subsequently processed to evaluate Rab18 production in relation to GH secretion.
  • RESULTS: We found that somatotropinoma cells are characterized by a high secretory activity concomitantly with a remarkably reduced Rab18 expression (15%) and protein content levels (30%), as compared with cells from nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas derived from patients with normal or reduced GH plasma levels (100%).
  • Furthermore, immunoelectron microscopy revealed that Rab18 association with the surface of GH-containing secretory granules was significantly lower in somatotropes from acromegalies than nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. rab GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18349058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RAB18 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; EC 3.6.1.- / rab GTP-Binding Proteins
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41. Kars M, van der Klaauw AA, Onstein CS, Pereira AM, Romijn JA: Quality of life is decreased in female patients treated for microprolactinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Aug;157(2):133-9
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  • We evaluated this topic in female patients with microprolactinoma, because other pituitary adenomas are associated with decreased quality of life.

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Dec;157(6):789 [18057388.001]
  • (PMID = 17656590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
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42. Paez-Pereda M, Giacomini D, Echenique C, Stalla GK, Holsboer F, Arzt E: Signaling processes in tumoral neuroendocrine pituitary cells as potential targets for therapeutic drugs. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord; 2005 Sep;5(3):259-67
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  • [Title] Signaling processes in tumoral neuroendocrine pituitary cells as potential targets for therapeutic drugs.
  • Pituitary adenomas are neuroendocrine tumors that produce different endocrine and metabolic alterations, including hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly and Cushing's disease.
  • These different clinical features of pituitary tumors are the result of the overproduction of hormones produced by the different pituitary cell types.
  • Recent advances in the understanding of the signaling pathways that control hormone production in pituitary cells provide a source of potential therapeutic targets.
  • Therefore, the study of signaling pathways that control hormone production and proliferation is a good source of candidate targets in pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurosecretory Systems / drug effects. Neurosecretory Systems / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Signal Transduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16178787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1568-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug targets. Immune, endocrine and metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Drug Targets Immune Endocr. Metabol. Disord.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Receptors, Cytokine; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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43. Rix M, Laurberg P, Hoejberg AS, Brock-Jacobsen B: Pegvisomant therapy in pituitary gigantism: successful treatment in a 12-year-old girl. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Aug;153(2):195-201
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  • [Title] Pegvisomant therapy in pituitary gigantism: successful treatment in a 12-year-old girl.
  • We aimed to describe the results of pegvisomant therapy in a 12-year-old girl with an aggressive GH-secreting pituitary tumour.
  • DESIGN: To evaluate the ability of pegvisomant therapy to control the effects of peripheral GH excess in a case of pituitary gigantism.
  • RESULTS: A large pituitary adenoma with suprasellar extension was diagnosed in a 12-year-old girl with progressive tall stature (178 cm), GH hypersecretion without suppression during oral glucose loading (nadir serum GH, 90 mU/l), high serum IGF-I and serum prolactin levels.
  • Histological examination showed a mixed GH- and prolactin-secreting adenoma with lymphocytic infiltration of B and T cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that treatment in pituitary gigantism with pegvisomant is safe and may normalize IGF-I levels and effectively stop growing.

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  • (PMID = 16061823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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44. Ruggeri RM, Santarpia L, Curtò L, Torre ML, Galatioto M, Galatioto S, Trimarchi F, Cannavò S: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas infrequently harbor G-protein gene mutations. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Nov;31(11):946-9
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  • [Title] Non-functioning pituitary adenomas infrequently harbor G-protein gene mutations.
  • BACKGROUND: Mutations of the genes encoding the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gs) and of the inhibiting Gi2 protein (GNAS1 and GNAI2 genes, respectively) have been described in various endocrine neoplasias, including pituitary tumors.
  • AIM: To search for mutations of GNAS1 and GNAI2 in a continuous series of non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) patients neurosurgically treated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Acidophil / genetics. Adenoma, Chromophobe / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19169048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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45. Salehi F, Scheithauer BW, Moyes VJ, Drake WM, Syro LV, Manoranjan B, Sharma S, Horvath E, Kovacs K: Low immunohistochemical expression of MGMT in ACTH secreting pituitary tumors of patients with Nelson syndrome. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):227-9
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  • [Title] Low immunohistochemical expression of MGMT in ACTH secreting pituitary tumors of patients with Nelson syndrome.
  • The aim of the present study was to assess immunohistochemical expression of MGMT in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas of patients with Nelson syndrome.
  • Our material consisted of eight specimens from ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas of patients with Nelson syndrome.
  • Absent or low MGMT staining in brain and other neoplasms has been shown to correlate with successful treatment with temozolomide, and recent reports of aggressive pituitary adenomas suggest similar outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. DNA Modification Methylases / biosynthesis. DNA Repair Enzymes / biosynthesis. Nelson Syndrome / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 21061089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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46. Dahlqvist P, Koskinen LO, Brännström T, Hägg E: Testicular enlargement in a patient with a FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Endocrine; 2010 Apr;37(2):289-93
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  • [Title] Testicular enlargement in a patient with a FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Clinically non-functional pituitary adenomas are often derived from gonadotropin producing cells.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biochemical examinations showed a large pituitary adenoma and excessive levels of serum FSH.
  • After pituitary surgery, serum FSH levels normalized and there was a decrease in testicular volume.
  • This is in line with experimental studies showing biological effect of FSH from pituitary adenomas and previous occasional reports of ovarian hyperstimulation and testicular enlargement in patients with FSH-secreting gonadotropinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / secretion. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20960265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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47. Zatelli MC, Minoia M, Filieri C, Tagliati F, Buratto M, Ambrosio MR, Lapparelli M, Scanarini M, Degli Uberti EC: Effect of everolimus on cell viability in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Feb;95(2):968-76
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  • [Title] Effect of everolimus on cell viability in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: Pituitary adenomas can cause specific syndromes due to hormone excess and/or determine sellar mass symptoms.
  • Pituitary cell growth can sometimes be influenced by medical therapy, such as for somatotroph adenomas treated with somatostatin analogs or prolactinomas treated with dopaminergic drugs.
  • However, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) are still orphans of medical therapy.
  • Somatostatin and dopamine subtype 2 receptor expression was investigated by quantitative PCR.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 19965918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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48. Gierach M, Pufal J, Pilecki S, Junik R: The case of Cushing's disease imaging by SPECT examination without manifestation of pituitary adenoma in MRI examination. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur; 2005;8(2):137-9
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  • [Title] The case of Cushing's disease imaging by SPECT examination without manifestation of pituitary adenoma in MRI examination.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate the possibility of imaging the pathological accumulation of (99m)Tc-MIBI in the pituitary gland in patients with Cushing's disease when MRI examination does not show microadenomas.
  • RESULTS: In the patient with Cushing's disease, during the SPECT examination, an increased accumulation of (99m)Tc-MIBI in the pituitary gland was noticed.
  • CONCLUSION: Single photon emission computed tomography using (99m)Tc-MIBI is a useful and sensitive means of pituitary gland microadenoma detection in patients with Cushing's disease when microadenoma is not detected during MRI scanning and when the results of dexamethasone suppression test is positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 16437402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1506-9680
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine review. Central & Eastern Europe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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49. Erem C, Ersöz HO, Ukinç K, Avunduk AM, Hacihasanoglu A, Koçak M: Acromegaly presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis, associated with retinitis pigmentosa and octreotide-induced bradycardia: a case report and a review of the literature. Endocrine; 2006 Aug;30(1):145-9
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed the presence of a pituitary adenoma.
  • Pituitary adenoma was removed surgically.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Adenoma / complications. Diabetic Ketoacidosis / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Retinitis Pigmentosa / complications

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  • (PMID = 17185803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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50. Isidro ML, Iglesias Díaz P, Matías-Guiu X, Cordido F: Acromegaly due to a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting intracranial gangliocytoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Feb;28(2):162-5
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  • In more than 95% of cases acromegaly is due to GH hypersecretion by a pituitary adenoma.
  • In cases of intrasellar gangliocytomas, not even radiological findings help to make the correct diagnosis, which can only be made with the hystological study.
  • Histopathological diagnosis was consistent with gangliocytoma, and immunostaining in the ganglionic cells was positive for GHRH.
  • Clinical and biochemical data did not allow to make the correct diagnosis, which was only made on the pathological study.
  • This case underscores that acromegaly can be due to causes other than a GH-secreting adenoma, and underlines that finding an image not typical of a pituitary adenoma should raise the suspicion that an unusual cause subsides the acromegaly.

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  • (PMID = 15887863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0G3DE8943Y / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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51. Reith W: [Tumors in the region of the sella turcica]. Radiologe; 2009 Jul;49(7):624-31
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  • Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma).
  • The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia).
  • A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sella Turcica / diagnostic imaging. Sella Turcica / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19568729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2102
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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52. Rowland NC, Aghi MK: Radiation treatment strategies for acromegaly. Neurosurg Focus; 2010 Oct;29(4):E12
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  • Stereotactic radiosurgery, of which there are several forms, including Gamma Knife surgery, CyberKnife therapy, and proton beam therapy, offers slightly attenuated efficacy but achieves remission in less time and provides more precise targeting of the adenoma with better control of the dose of radiation received by adjacent structures such as the pituitary stalk, pituitary gland, optic chiasm, and cranial nerves in the cavernous sinus.
  • Acromegaly is a multisystem disorder that demands highly specialized treatment protocols including neurosurgical and endocrinological intervention.
  • As more efficient forms of pituitary radiation develop, acromegaly treatment options may continue to change with radiation therapies playing a more prominent role.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / radiotherapy. Acromegaly / surgery. Adenoma / radiotherapy. Adenoma / surgery. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / radiotherapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Human Growth Hormone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Radiosurgery / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20887122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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53. Ramakrishna N: The role of fractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Mar;4(3):138-9
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  • [Title] The role of fractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 18212762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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54. Georgitsi M, Heliövaara E, Paschke R, Kumar AV, Tischkowitz M, Vierimaa O, Salmela P, Sane T, De Menis E, Cannavò S, Gündogdu S, Lucassen A, Izatt L, Aylwin S, Bano G, Hodgson S, Koch CA, Karhu A, Aaltonen LA: Large genomic deletions in AIP in pituitary adenoma predisposition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Oct;93(10):4146-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large genomic deletions in AIP in pituitary adenoma predisposition.
  • CONTEXT: Germline mutations in AIP have been recently shown to cause pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP).
  • DESIGN: Here, we applied the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay to examine whether large genomic AIP or MEN1 alterations account for a subset of PAP cases.
  • PATIENTS: The study was performed on familial and sporadic pituitary adenoma cases of European origin, which had previously tested negative for germline AIP and MEN1 mutations by sequencing.
  • RESULTS: Two of 21 pituitary adenoma families (9.5%) were found to harbor an AIP deletion.
  • No copy number changes were detected among 67 sporadic pituitary adenoma patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that large genomic AIP deletions account for a subset of PAP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Gene Deletion. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18628514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ EU872273/ EU872274
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
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55. Kalfa N, Lumbroso S, Boulle N, Guiter J, Soustelle L, Costa P, Chapuis H, Baldet P, Sultan C: Activating mutations of Gsalpha in kidney cancer. J Urol; 2006 Sep;176(3):891-5
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  • Activating Gsalpha mutations have been reported in tumors arising only from highly specialized endocrine tissue, such as pituitary adenomas, toxic thyroid adenomas and differentiated thyroid carcinomas, but never in other nonendocrine tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16890646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
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56. Nasr C, Mason A, Mayberg M, Staugaitis SM, Asa SL: Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Dec;91(12):4776-80
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  • [Title] Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma.
  • Hypothalamic gangliocytomas producing GHRH are also known to be associated with pituitary adenomas causing acromegaly.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe a case of acromegaly due to a pulmonary GHRH-secreting endocrine carcinoma with metastasis to the pituitary gland and to look at the peculiar histological features of this case.
  • Histological examination confirmed metastatic endocrine carcinoma to the pituitary, and immunohistochemistry localized GHRH to the tumor cells.
  • The adjacent pituitary exhibited somatotroph hyperplasia with abundant reactivity for GH and alpha-subunit.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a GHRH-producing endocrine tumor metastasizing to the pituitary and causing local hyperstimulation with somatotroph hyperplasia and adenomatous transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / etiology. Carcinoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Somatotrophs / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16968791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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57. Tamasauskas A, Sinkūnas K, Draf W, Deltuva V, Matukevicius A, Rastenyte D, Vaitkus S: Management of cerebrospinal fluid leak after surgical removal of pituitary adenomas. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(4):302-7
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  • [Title] Management of cerebrospinal fluid leak after surgical removal of pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: During the period from 1995 to 2005, 313 patients underwent 356 transsphenoidal operations for pituitary adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Adenoma was totally removed in 198 (55.6%) cases out of 356.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Prolactinoma / surgery. Sella Turcica / surgery. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Aged. Bone Transplantation. Cellulose, Oxidized / therapeutic use. Drug Combinations. Female. Fibrinogen / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Intraoperative Complications. Male. Middle Aged. Surgical Sponges. Thrombin / therapeutic use. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18469507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cellulose, Oxidized; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / TachoSil; 82347-53-3 / Surgicel; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen; EC 3.4.21.5 / Thrombin
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58. Lanfranco F, Baldi M, Cassoni P, Bosco M, Ghé C, Muccioli G: Ghrelin and prostate cancer. Vitam Horm; 2008;77:301-24
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  • Several endocrine and nonendocrine cancer cells (pituitary adenomas; gastroenteropancreatic and pulmonary carcinoids; colorectal neoplasms, thyroid tumors; lung, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas) as well as their related cell lines have been shown able to express ghrelin both at mRNA and at protein level.

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  • (PMID = 17983862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0083-6729
  • [Journal-full-title] Vitamins and hormones
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vitam. Horm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin
  • [Number-of-references] 130
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59. Levy MJ, Classey JD, Maneesri S, Meeran K, Powell M, Goadsby PJ: The relationship between neuropeptide Y expression and headache in pituitary tumours. Eur J Neurol; 2006 Feb;13(2):125-9
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  • [Title] The relationship between neuropeptide Y expression and headache in pituitary tumours.
  • Patients with pituitary tumours often present with disabling headache but there is no clear relationship between tumour size and headache.
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been identified in pituitary tumours and may serve as a biochemical marker of the propensity for headache.
  • Using immunohistochemical techniques we examined 27 consecutive pituitary adenoma specimens for NPY (including one normal postmortem control anterior pituitary specimen).
  • NPY positive immunoreactivity was seen in 13 tumour specimens (50%, 13 of 26 pituitary tumour specimens), characterized by cytoplasmic and nuclear staining patterns.
  • We did not observe NPY in the normal anterior pituitary control specimen.
  • NPY was present in four of five (80%) growth hormone-secreting tumours and two of two (100%) prolactinomas, compared with four of 11 (36%) non-functioning adenomas.
  • The mechanism of many pituitary tumour-associated headaches remains undetermined.
  • The significance of NPY positivity in pituitary tumours is unknown, although the results of this study may implicate this peptide in the control of somatotroph and lactotroph activity.
  • Our data do not support a clear role for NPY pituitary tumour-associated headache.
  • [MeSH-major] Headache / etiology. Headache / metabolism. Neuropeptide Y / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16490041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-5101
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptide Y
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60. Kalinin PL, Fomichev DV, Kutin MA, Kadashev BA, Faĭzullaev RB: [Extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches in skull base surgery]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko; 2008 Oct-Dec;(4):47-9; discussion 49
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  • Pituitary adenomas and some other sellar tumors which traditionally require transcranial procedure now can be removed via endonasal route.

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  • (PMID = 19230482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8817
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal voprosy neĭrokhirurgii imeni N. N. Burdenko
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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61. Sun C, Yamato T, Kondo E, Furukawa T, Ikeda H, Horii A: Infrequent mutation of APC, AXIN1, and GSK3B in human pituitary adenomas with abnormal accumulation of CTNNB1. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jun;73(2):131-4
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  • [Title] Infrequent mutation of APC, AXIN1, and GSK3B in human pituitary adenomas with abnormal accumulation of CTNNB1.
  • We analyzed mutation of the APC, AXIN1, and GSK3genes in 14 pituitary adenomas with abnormal nuclear accumulations of CTNNB1.
  • Furthermore, the antibody for the C-terminus of APC detected normal expression of the APC protein in these pituitary adenomas.
  • Our present results imply that an unknown mechanism(s) accelerates the accumulation of CTNNB1 that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15981102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AXIN1 protein, human; 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Axin Protein; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.7.11.1 / GSK3B protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
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62. Spallone A, Vidal RV, Gonzales JG: Transcranial approach to pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus: A modification of the classical technique to be used in a low-technology environment. Surg Neurol Int; 2010;1
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  • [Title] Transcranial approach to pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus: A modification of the classical technique to be used in a low-technology environment.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus represent a therapeutic challenge.
  • In relatively recent years, some authors have suggested a main direct surgical approach to cavernous sinus (CS) with the aim of complete removal of the adenoma, either by a modified trans-sphenoidal route, using or not an endoscopy-assisted approach, or by a transcranial direct approach.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report a technical modification of the classical epidural approach for CS adenoma removal.
  • Surgical technique included a fronto-orbito-zygomatic craniotomy with extradural anterior clinoidectomy, and intradural approach to the Hakuba's triangle for intracavernous dissection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This experience, though limited, would suggest that the transcranial limited CS exposure through the Hakuba's triangle may allow adequate removal of intracavernous pituitary adenomas with very good long-term results and acceptable complication rate.

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  • (PMID = 20847907.001).
  • [ISSN] 2152-7806
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940085
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cavernous sinus surgery / Hakuba’s triangle / fronto-orbito-zygomatic craniotomy (FOZ) / invasive adenoma / transcranial approach
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63. Pickett CA: Update on the medical management of pituitary adenomas. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2005 May;5(3):178-85
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  • [Title] Update on the medical management of pituitary adenomas.
  • The medical treatment of pituitary adenomas has changed significantly over the past decade.
  • Pharmacologic therapy for prolactinomas in the form of dopamine agonists has been available since the 1970s, and somatostatin analogues for treatment of growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas were introduced in the 1980s.
  • Furthermore, long-acting somatostatin analogues also have utility in treating thyrotropin adenomas and a subset of adrenocorticotroph tumors.
  • Limited clinical studies with long-acting dopamine agonists suggest that a subset of patients with GH, adrenocorticotroph, and gonadotropin/nonsecreting adenomas may also benefit from therapy with these agents.
  • This article highlights some of these evolving new ideas and approaches to the pharmacologic management of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15865883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-4042
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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64. Rauch I, Kofler B: The galanin system in cancer. EXS; 2010;102:223-41
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  • Expression of galanin peptide has been detected in pheochromocytoma, pituitary adenoma, neuroblastic tumours, gastrointestinal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, brain tumours, melanoma, breast cancer and embryonal carcinoma.
  • Expression of peptide or receptors has been correlated with tumour stage or subtypes of pituitary adenoma, neuroblastic tumours, colon carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Galanin treatment has tumour-reducing effects in murine models of gastrointestinal cancer, whereas in animal experiments on adenoma formation, galanin seems to act as a growth factor, promoting both proliferation and tumour formation.
  • Therefore, galanin and its receptors are promising targets for diagnosis and treatment of several types of tumours.

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  • (PMID = 21299072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1023-294X
  • [Journal-full-title] EXS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] EXS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 88813-36-9 / Galanin
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65. Fischli S, Jenni S, Allemann S, Zwahlen M, Diem P, Christ ER, Stettler C: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in the assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Feb;93(2):539-42
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  • [Title] Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in the assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • CONTEXT: The role of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in assessing the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with suspected insufficiency is uncertain.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic value of DHEA-S on HPA function in consecutive patients with suspected HPA insufficiency with and without pituitary lesions at a tertiary referral center.
  • In individuals with pituitary macroadenoma, a z-score below -2.0 had 100% specificity to predict HPA insufficiency (area under ROC curve 0.82).
  • In the absence of a pituitary adenoma, the diagnostic value of the z-score was reduced (area under ROC curve 0.71).
  • There is evidence that a z-score could be of diagnostic value in assessing HPA integrity, especially in younger patients and patients with pituitary macroadenoma, but further studies are needed to consolidate these findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Insufficiency / blood. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / blood. Hypopituitarism / blood. Hypothalamic Diseases / blood. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17986637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Insulin; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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66. Semple PL, Webb MK, de Villiers JC, Laws ER Jr: Pituitary apoplexy. Neurosurgery; 2005;56(1):65-72; discussion 72-3
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  • [Title] Pituitary apoplexy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pituitary apoplexy is a rare yet potentially fatal disease.
  • We reviewed the combined experience of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, VA, and Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa, with 62 cases of pituitary apoplexy.
  • The average time of presentation was 14.2 days after the ictus, and 81% had no previous history of pituitary tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Pituitary apoplexy is often misdiagnosed because the majority of patients have undetected pituitary adenomas, and the presentation is often mistaken for subarachnoid hemorrhage.
  • Most cases of pituitary apoplexy occur spontaneously, although precipitating factors have been suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Apoplexy

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  • (PMID = 15617587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Yan G, Hou R, Zhuang D, Chen L, Pang Q, Zhu J: Proteomic analysis of prolactinoma cells by immuno-laser capture microdissection combined with online two-dimensional nano-scale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Proteome Sci; 2010 Jan 29;8:2
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  • BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenomas, the third most common intracranial tumor, comprise nearly 16.7% of intracranial neoplasm and 25%-44% of pituitary adenomas are prolactinomas.
  • Prolactinoma represents a complex heterogeneous mixture of cells including prolactin (PRL), endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and other stromal cells, making it difficult to dissect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of prolactin cells in pituitary tumorigenesis through high-throughout-omics analysis.
  • Thus, prolactin cell specific molecular events involved in pituitary tumorigenesis and cell signaling can be approached by proteomic analysis.
  • All MS/MS spectrums were analyzed by SEQUEST against the human International Protein Index database and a specific prolactinoma proteome consisting of 2243 proteins was identified.

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  • (PMID = 20205839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-5956
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteome science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteome Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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68. Jensen RL, Jensen PR, Shrieve AF, Hazard L, Shrieve DC: Overall and progression-free survival and visual and endocrine outcomes for patients with parasellar lesions treated with intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery. J Neurooncol; 2010 Jun;98(2):221-31
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  • Six patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas and eight with recurrent pituitary adenomas were treated.
  • Three of the pituitary tumors were hormonally active (two with Cushing disease, one with acromegaly).
  • [MeSH-major] Disease-Free Survival. Endocrine System Diseases / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / adverse effects. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20461446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Minniti G, Osti M, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Esposito V, Cantore G, Maurizi Enrici R: Long-term follow-up results of postoperative radiation therapy for Cushing's disease. J Neurooncol; 2007 Aug;84(1):79-84
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  • OBJECTIVES: Radiotherapy is currently used in patients with residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy is effective in the long-term tumour- and hormone hypersecretion control of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, however with a high prevalence of hypopituitarism.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / radiotherapy. Adenoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm, Residual / radiotherapy. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17356896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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70. Shono T, Mizoguchi M, Yoshimoto K, Amano T, Natori Y, Sasaki T: Clinical course of abducens nerve palsy associated with skull base tumours. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Jul;151(7):733-8; discussion 738
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  • The conditions included two pituitary adenomas, two trigeminal schwannomas and five meningiomas.
  • In the four patients with pituitary adenomas and trigeminal schwannomas, all nerves were anatomically preserved and showed complete recovery of function within 6 months after surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The abducens nerve palsies in pituitary adenomas and trigeminal schwannomas showed a better clinical course compared to those in skull base meningiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve / surgery. Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / complications. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / complications. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Fibrin Tissue Adhesive / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / complications. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neurilemmoma / complications. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Prognosis. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Recovery of Function / physiology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / complications. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19387538.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibrin Tissue Adhesive
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71. Wöhrer A, Waldhör T, Heinzl H, Hackl M, Feichtinger J, Gruber-Mösenbacher U, Kiefer A, Maier H, Motz R, Reiner-Concin A, Richling B, Idriceanu C, Scarpatetti M, Sedivy R, Bankl HC, Stiglbauer W, Preusser M, Rössler K, Hainfellner JA: The Austrian Brain Tumour Registry: a cooperative way to establish a population-based brain tumour registry. J Neurooncol; 2009 Dec;95(3):401-411
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  • In Austria, registration of malignant brain tumours is legally mandatory, whereas benign and borderline tumours are not reported.
  • The most common histology was meningioma (n = 504, 29.9%) followed by glioblastoma (n = 340, 20.1%) and pituitary adenoma (n = 151, 8.9%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Austria / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Geographic Information Systems. Humans. Incidence. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / epidemiology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. Sex Distribution. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19562257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Dekkers OM, Biermasz NR, Pereira AM, Roelfsema F, van Aken MO, Voormolen JH, Romijn JA: Mortality in patients treated for Cushing's disease is increased, compared with patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;92(3):976-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mortality in patients treated for Cushing's disease is increased, compared with patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma.
  • CONTEXT: Increased mortality in patients with pituitary tumors after surgical treatment has been reported.
  • However, it is unknown to what extent excess mortality is caused by pituitary tumors and their treatment in general and to what extent by previous exposure to hormonal overproduction.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare mortality between patients treated for Cushing's disease and nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMAs).
  • PATIENTS: We included 248 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas treated by transsphenoidal surgery in our hospital for NFMAs (n = 174) and ACTH-producing adenomas (n = 74).
  • OUTCOME MEASURES: The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated for the whole cohort and also for the two diseases separately.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / mortality. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / mortality. Pituitary Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17200171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Cozzi L, Clivio A, Bauman G, Cora S, Nicolini G, Pellegrini R, Vanetti E, Yartsev S, Fogliata A: Comparison of advanced irradiation techniques with photons for benign intracranial tumours. Radiother Oncol; 2006 Aug;80(2):268-73
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  • [Title] Comparison of advanced irradiation techniques with photons for benign intracranial tumours.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The potential benefits and limitations of different radiation techniques (stereotactic arc therapy (SRS/T), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), helical tomotherapy (HT), Cyberknife and intensity-modulated multiple arc therapy (AMOA)) have been assessed using comparative treatment planning methods on twelve patients presenting with 'benign' brain tumours.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plans for five acoustic neurinomas, five meningiomas and two pituitary adenomas were computed to generate dose distributions for all modalities using a common CT dataset to delineate planning target volume and organs at risk.

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  • (PMID = 16890315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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74. Boari N, Losa M, Mortini P, Snider S, Terreni MR, Giovanelli M: Intrasellar paraganglioma: a case report and review of the literature. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Dec;148(12):1311-4; discussion 1314
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  • A CT scan showed an intra- and supra-sellar expanding lesion, which was regarded as a possible non-functioning pituitary macro-adenoma.
  • We review the literature and discuss pathological features and possible pathogenesis of sellar and parasellar paragangliomas, underlining the necessity to consider paraganglioma in the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraganglioma / pathology. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Sella Turcica / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Neurosurgical Procedures. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17039304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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75. Caron P: [Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas]. Presse Med; 2009 Jan;38(1):107-11
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  • [Title] [Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas].
  • TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas represent 0.5 to 1% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • They are recognized with increasing frequency due to the measurement of TSH level in patients with hyperthyroidism, the ultra sensitive TSH assays and the improvement in pituitary imaging.
  • Hormonal evaluation shows increased free thyroid hormone concentration with detectable, normal or increased serum TSH level, raising the differential diagnosis with pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging reveals pituitary adenomas in most patients.
  • Transphenoidal surgery remains the treatment of choice in patients with TSH-secreting pituitary microadenomas, while long-acting somatostatin analogs seem to be an alternative medical treatment to surgery in patients with macroadenomas or invasive pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Thyroxine / blood

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  • (PMID = 18980829.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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76. Orrego JJ, Bair J: Development of a macroprolactinoma in association with hormone replacement therapy in a perimenopausal woman with presumed idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. Endocr Pract; 2006 Mar-Apr;12(2):174-8
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  • The only clue for ordering a pituitary imaging study in this case was a substantial increase in the level of the serum prolactin.
  • Treatment with cabergoline normalized the patient's serum prolactin level and considerably decreased the size of her pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Hyperprolactinemia / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Prolactinoma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16690466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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77. Tamer G, Kartal I, Aral F: Pituitary infiltration by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:9293
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  • [Title] Pituitary infiltration by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Pituitary adenomas represent the most frequently observed type of sellar masses; however, the presence of a rapidly growing sellar tumor, diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and headaches in an older patient strongly suggests metastasis to the pituitary.
  • Since the anterior pituitary has a great reserve capacity, metastasis to the pituitary and pituitary involvement in lymphoma are usually asymptomatic.
  • As magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass involving the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk, which also extended into the right cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus, the patient underwent an immediate transsphenoidal decompression surgery.
  • Since magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormality, after paranasal sinus computed tomography was performed, we concluded that the primary lymphoma originated from the sphenoid sinus and infiltrated the pituitary.
  • CONCLUSION: Lymphoma infiltration to the pituitary is difficult to differentiate from pituitary adenoma, meningioma and other sellar lesions.
  • To plan the treatment of lymphoma infiltration of the pituitary gland, it must be differentiated from other sellar lesions.

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  • (PMID = 20062782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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78. Berkmann S, Tolnay M, Hänggi D, Ghaffari A, Gratzl O: Sarcoma of the sella after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2010 Oct;152(10):1725-35
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  • [Title] Sarcoma of the sella after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma.
  • Secondary malignancies are infrequent sequelae of pituitary radiotherapy.
  • Radiation-induced sarcoma is a rare sequela of pituitary radiotherapy.
  • Additionally, one must include these tumors into the differential diagnosis in pituitary patients presenting with tumor recurrence more than 5 years after radiotherapy in combination with a secondary lack of hormonal activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Fibrosarcoma / etiology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Skull Base Neoplasms / etiology. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20512596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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79. Chesnokova V, Melmed S: Pituitary senescence: the evolving role of Pttg. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Sep 15;326(1-2):55-9
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  • [Title] Pituitary senescence: the evolving role of Pttg.
  • Despite the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas they are invariably benign, indicative of unique intrinsic mechanisms controlling pituitary cell proliferation.
  • Here we discuss prospective mechanisms underlying senescence-associated molecular pathways activated in benign pituitary adenomas.
  • Both deletion and over-expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene (Pttg) promote chromosomal instability and aneuploidy.
  • Abundant PTTG in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas also triggers p21-dependent senescence.
  • Pituitary p21 may therefore safeguard against further chromosomal instability by constraining pituitary tumor growth.
  • These observations point to senescence as a target for effective therapy for both tumor silencing and growth restraint towards development of pituitary malignancy.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20153804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA075979-11A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075979; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075979-11A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS185500; NLM/ PMC2906651
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80. Fraioli MF, Moschettoni L, Fraioli C: Pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg; 2008 Aug;109(2):362-3; author reply 363-4
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] J Neurosurg. 2008 Jan;108(1):26-36 [18173307.001]
  • (PMID = 18671656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Kawaguchi T, Ikeda H, Fujimura M, Yoshimoto T, Tominaga T: Delayed lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis following successful transsphenoidal treatment of Cushing's disease. J Clin Neurosci; 2005 Apr;12(3):320-3
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  • Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis is a rare disorder in which neurohypophyseal function is impaired by an autoimmune process.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated swelling of the posterior pituitary gland with thickening of the pituitary stalk.
  • On the basis of these findings, a diagnosis of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis was made.
  • The mass lesion of the posterior pituitary resolved after the administration of corticosteroids for two months and no operation was required.
  • Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pituitary mass lesions following transsphenoidal surgery, especially when the mass is confined to the posterior pituitary gland with neurohypophyseal function being compromised.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Pituitary Diseases / etiology. Pituitary Diseases / pathology. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Deamino Arginine Vasopressin / therapeutic use. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Hormones, Posterior / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Prednisolone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15851095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Pituitary Hormones, Posterior; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; ENR1LLB0FP / Deamino Arginine Vasopressin
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82. Gazioglu N, Ulu MO, Ozlen F, Albayram S, Islak C, Kocer N, Oz B, Tanriover N, Yetkin DO, Gundogdu S, Acbay O, Kadioglu P: Management of Cushing's disease using cavernous sinus sampling: effectiveness in tumor lateralization. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Apr;110(4):333-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of bilateral cavernous sinus sampling (CSS) in preoperative tumor lateralization (right/left) within the pituitary in patients with Cushing's disease (CD).
  • The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the selected patients either revealed a normal pituitary or a lesion <or=6mm within the gland.
  • RESULTS: Early remission was achieved in 23 patients (88%) and CSS predicted the correct localization of the adenoma in 22 patients (85%).
  • No lateralization (elevated levels in both sides) was detected during CSS in two patients, due to lesions within the central part of the pituitary.
  • In four cases, there was a false positive lateralization, in which no microadenoma could be located in the lateralized side of the pituitary, resulting in no remission.
  • CONCLUSION: CSS in CD seems to be a valuable and safe diagnostic tool, which can predict the correct location of the pituitary adenoma in 85% of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Petrosal Sinus Sampling / methods. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18314256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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83. Kowarik M, Onofri C, Colaco T, Stalla GK, Renner U: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor expression and function in folliculostellate pituitary cells. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Feb;118(2):113-20
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  • [Title] Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor expression and function in folliculostellate pituitary cells.
  • Since little information is available on the impact of PDGF/PDGF receptors in normal and adenomatous pituitary, we studied the expression and action of this growth factor system in a variety of pituitary tumour cell lines and in rat anterior pituitary cell cultures.
  • By RT-PCR, mRNA expression of PDGF-A and -B chains and of both receptors was found in rat pituitary and mouse folliculostellate TtT/GF pituitary tumour cells.
  • Rat somatotroph MtT-S and mouse corticotroph AtT20 tumor cells expressed only a part of the PDGF/PDGF receptor components whereas mouse gonadotroph alphaT3-1 and rat lactosomatotroph GH3 pituitary tumour cells contained neither PDGF nor PDGF receptors.
  • Both in rat pituitary cell cultures and in TtT/GF cells, PDGF-AB and -BB strongly enhanced VEGF-A secretion.
  • Its role in endocrine pituitary tumour cell lines and pituitary adenomas need to be clarified in future studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.
  • (PMID = 19373754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
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84. Zatelli MC, Piccin D, Vignali C, Tagliati F, Ambrosio MR, Bondanelli M, Cimino V, Bianchi A, Schmid HA, Scanarini M, Pontecorvi A, De Marinis L, Maira G, degli Uberti EC: Pasireotide, a multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes ligand, reduces cell viability in non-functioning pituitary adenomas by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor secretion. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):91-102
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  • [Title] Pasireotide, a multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes ligand, reduces cell viability in non-functioning pituitary adenomas by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor secretion.
  • Somatostatin (SRIF) analogs have been employed in medical therapy of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFA), with contrasting results.
  • Previous evidence showed that SRIF can exert its antiproliferative effects by reducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and action, and that VEGF expression may be related to pituitary tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Somatostatin / pharmacology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17395978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
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85. Garnett MR, Puget S, Grill J, Sainte-Rose C: Craniopharyngioma. Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2007;2:18
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  • Craniopharyngiomas are benign slow growing tumours that are located within the sellar and para sellar region of the central nervous system.
  • The onset of symptoms is normally insidious with most patients at diagnosis having neurological (headaches, visual disturbances) and endocrine (growth retardation, delayed puberty) dysfunctions.
  • The neuroradiological diagnosis is mainly based on the three components of the tumour (cystic, solid and calcified) in the characteristic sellar/para sellar location.
  • Definitive diagnosis is made following histological examination of a surgical specimen.
  • The differential diagnosis includes other tumours in this region (pituitary adenoma), infectious or inflammatory processes (eosinophilic granuloma), vascular malformations (aneurysm) and congenital anomalies (Rathke's cleft cyst).
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Craniopharyngioma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Medical Oncology / methods. Prognosis. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 17425791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 43
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1855047
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86. Zhang Y, Wang Z, Liu Y, Zong X, Song M, Pei A, Zhao P, Zhang P, Piao M: Endoscopic transsphenoidal treatment of pituitary adenomas. Neurol Res; 2008 Jul;30(6):581-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic transsphenoidal treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the techniques and methods of endoscopic transnasal transsphenoid surgery for pituitary adenoma.
  • METHOD: We treated 678 cases with pituitary adenoma by endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery between May 2000 and May 2006.
  • RESULTS: Among the 678 pituitary adenomas, tumor removal was total in 543 (80.1%), subtotal in 118 (17.4%) and partial in 17 (2.5%).
  • CONCLUSION: Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary adenomas is a valuable microinvasive neurosurgery technique of minimal invasiveness, being effective and safe, yet requiring simple manipulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hypophysectomy / methods. Neuroendoscopy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18647497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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87. Azevedo MF, Xekouki P, Keil MF, Lange E, Patronas N, Stratakis CA: An unusual presentation of pediatric Cushing disease: recurrent corticotropinoma of the posterior pituitary lobe. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jun;23(6):607-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual presentation of pediatric Cushing disease: recurrent corticotropinoma of the posterior pituitary lobe.
  • Cushing's syndrome (CS) is rare in childhood and adolescence and its diagnosis and work up are often challenging.
  • We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a recurrent corticotrophin (ACTH)-secreting adenoma, located in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
  • At the age of 11, she presented with classic CS symptoms; biochemical investigation was compatible with ACTH-dependent Cushing disease, although pituitary gland imaging did not show any tumor.
  • Following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), histopathological analysis identified an ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma arising from the posterior gland.
  • The patient went into remission but 4 years later she presented with recurrent CS; this time, pituitary gland imaging showed a microadenoma located in the posterior lobe, which was resected after TSS.
  • Posterior lobe pituitary adenomas are very rare and often hard to diagnose and treat; this is the first case of such a tumor causing recurrent Cushing's disease in a child.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20662335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-12
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS752367; NLM/ PMC4727444
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88. Mondok A, Tóth M, Patócs A, Szücs N, Igaz P, Pusztai P, Czirják S, Beko G, Gláz E, Rácz K, Tulassay Z: [Outcome of somatostatin analogue treatment in acromegaly]. Orv Hetil; 2009 Aug 2;150(31):1457-62
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Changes in serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration, as well as morphologic changes of pituitary adenomas followed by MRI scans were evaluated and compared in 32 acromegalic patients (26 women, 6 men) during long-term somatostatin analogue treatment (mean+/-SE, 3.1+/-0.3 years, range, 1-7 years).
  • Primary somatostatin analogue treatment was applied in 10 patients (7 women and 3 men), whereas 15 patients (14 women and 1 man) had pituitary surgery and 7 patients (5 women and 2 men) underwent both pituitary surgery and irradiation therapy prior to somatostatin analogue treatment.
  • Pituitary MRI showed regression of the adenoma in 46% of patients, and none of the patients had progression of the pituitary adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Somatostatin analogues are effective therapeutic options for acromegalic patients when primary surgical treatment cannot be performed due to complications and associated disorders, or in patients whose acromegaly remains active after pituitary surgery or after pituitary surgery and irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19617182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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89. Xing B, Deng K, Ren ZY, Su CB, Wang RZ, Yang Y, Ma WB, Li YN: Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and surgical results of adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Chin Med Sci J; 2008 Mar;23(1):44-8
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and surgical results of adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and surgical results of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • All patients underwent thin-section sagittal and coronal scans of the pituitary gland before and after administration of gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) on a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner, and dynamic enhanced MRI was performed in 39 patients.
  • RESULTS: Preoperative MRI revealed normal results in 41 (15.4%) cases, microadenoma in 179 (67.3%), macroadenoma in 42 (15.8%), and huge adenoma in 4 (1.5%).
  • Pituitary apoplexy was found in 13 (4.9%) cases.
  • Positive rate of ACTH-secreting adenomas was 84.6% (225/266) on MRI scans, and that of small microadenomas was 87.2% (34/39) on dynamic enhanced MRI scans.
  • Preoperative endocrinological tests of 199 cases supported the diagnosis of typical Cushing's disease, while the other 67 cases had atypical endocrinological results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced coronal pituitary MRI is helpful for preoperative localization of ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma.

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  • (PMID = 18437910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-9294
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. Sci. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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90. Arita K, Tominaga A, Sugiyama K, Eguchi K, Iida K, Sumida M, Migita K, Kurisu K: Natural course of incidentally found nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma, with special reference to pituitary apoplexy during follow-up examination. J Neurosurg; 2006 Jun;104(6):884-91
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  • [Title] Natural course of incidentally found nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma, with special reference to pituitary apoplexy during follow-up examination.
  • OBJECT: The increase in the incidental detection of asymptomatic pituitary adenomas, known as "pituitary incidentalomas," led the authors to conduct a survey of the natural course of these lesions.
  • METHODS: Forty-two patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas who had manifested no neurological or endocrinological disorders were monitored with magnetic resonance imaging studies.
  • This increase was first detected between 8.4 and 58.8 months (mean 31.8 +/- 17.6 months) after diagnosis.
  • Symptoms were noted in 10 patients during follow up; in four, extensive tumor necrosis accompanied hemorrhage, leading to severe headache, acute ophthalmological symptoms, and panhypopituitarism, which was indicative of pituitary apoplexy.
  • During the 5-year follow up, pituitary apoplexy developed in 9.5%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Apoplexy / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16776331.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Jeong SY, Lee SW, Lee HJ, Kang S, Seo JH, Chun KA, Cho IH, Won KS, Zeon SK, Ahn BC, Lee J: Incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT: a multicentre study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Dec;37(12):2334-43
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  • [Title] Incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT: a multicentre study.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and to investigate its clinical significance.
  • Quantification of pituitary metabolic activity was obtained by using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax).
  • Hormone assays and pituitary MRIs were performed to assess pituitary lesions.
  • RESULTS: Focally increased pituitary FDG uptake on PET/CT was found in 30 of 40,967 patients, accounting for an incidence of 0.073%.
  • Histological diagnosis was obtained in three patients and included two growth hormone-secreting adenomas and one non-functioning adenoma.
  • Hormone assays were performed on serum samples from 11 patients, 2 of whom were shown to have hypersecretion of pituitary hormone.
  • Abnormal MRI findings suggesting a pituitary mass were found in 18 of 19 cases (94.7%).
  • There were no cases diagnosed with metastasis to the pituitary gland during clinical follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental pituitary FDG uptake was a very rare finding.
  • Cases with incidental pituitary FDG uptake were diagnosed primarily with clinically non-functioning adenomas, and there were also a few functioning adenomas.
  • Further evaluations, including hormone assays and pituitary MRI, are warranted when pituitary uptake is found on FDG PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Positron-Emission Tomography / statistics & numerical data. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data. Whole Body Imaging / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 20661556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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92. Hossain MG, Iwata T, Mizusawa N, Qian ZR, Shima SW, Okutsu T, Yamada S, Sano T, Yoshimoto K: Expression of p18(INK4C) is down-regulated in human pituitary adenomas. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(2):114-21
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  • [Title] Expression of p18(INK4C) is down-regulated in human pituitary adenomas.
  • Mice lacking p18(Ink4c) exhibit a series of phenotypes including the development of widespread organomegaly and pituitary adenomas.
  • The objective of our study is to examine the role of p18(INK4C) in the pathogenesis of human pituitary tumors.
  • The methylation status of the p18(INK4C) gene promoter and somatic mutations of the p18(INK4C) gene were also investigated. p18(INK4C) protein expression was lost or significantly reduced in 64% of pituitary adenomas compared with levels in normal pituitary glands. p18(INK4C) mRNA levels were low in all ACTH adenomas and non-functioning (NF)-FSH and in 42%, 70% and 66% of GH, PRL, and subtype 3 adenomas, respectively. p18(INK4C) mRNA levels were significantly associated with p18(INK4C) protein levels.
  • Neither methylated promoters in pituitary adenomas, except in one NF-FSH adenoma, nor somatic mutations of the p18(INK4C) gene in any pituitary adenomas were detected.
  • The down-regulation of p18(INK4C) expression may contribute to the tumorigenesis of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19401813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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93. Benoit I, Drui D, Chaillous L, Dupas B, Mosnier JF, Charbonnel B, Cariou B: A corticotroph pituitary adenoma as the initial presentation of familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Jul;161(1):195-9
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  • [Title] A corticotroph pituitary adenoma as the initial presentation of familial glucocorticoid deficiency.
  • Here, we report the case of a young woman with a corticotroph pituitary adenoma as the initial presentation of FGD.
  • CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old girl was referred to our institution for a 16 mm pituitary adenoma associated with glucocorticoid deficiency.
  • Despite adequate glucocorticoid replacement, plasma ACTH levels remained increased and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a progression of the tumour size resulting in optic chiasm compression with intra-tumoural haemorrhaging.
  • The histomorphological analysis identified a well-individualized pituitary adenoma immunoreactive for ACTH.
  • The proband's sister also exhibited type 3 FGD associated with pituitary hyperplasia upon MRI.
  • CONCLUSION: This case highlights the relationship between FGD and hyperplasia of ACTH-producing cells, potentially leading to histologically proven pituitary corticotroph adenomas.
  • This observation raises the question of the pituitary MRI's significance in the follow-up of FGD.

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  • (PMID = 19423561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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94. Ma L, Li G, Su Y, He Q, Zhang C, Zhang J: The soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A protein reduced NKG2D expression on natural killer and T cells from patients with prolactinoma and non-secreting pituitary adenoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Feb;17(2):241-7
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  • [Title] The soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A protein reduced NKG2D expression on natural killer and T cells from patients with prolactinoma and non-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • This study analyses aspects of the immune system in prolactinoma and non-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • We found decreased percentage and mean fluorescence intensity of NKG2D-expressing natural killer and T cells from patients with prolactinoma and non-secreting pituitary adenoma compared to those from healthy donors.
  • The immune-escape of pituitary adenoma is related to the down-regulation of NKG2D and the up-regulation of its ligand MICA.
  • [MeSH-major] Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / blood. Killer Cells, Natural / metabolism. NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood. Prolactinoma / blood. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Tumor Escape / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20045334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / KLRK1 protein, human; 0 / MHC class I-related chain A; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K
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95. Tiemensma J, Biermasz NR, van der Mast RC, Wassenaar MJ, Middelkoop HA, Pereira AM, Romijn JA: Increased psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits, but normal cognitive functioning, in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;95(12):E392-402
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  • We compared these data with 60 patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMAs) and 60 matched controls.
  • These results suggest irreversible effects of previous GH excess, rather than effects of pituitary adenomas per se and/or their treatment, on the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / psychology. Long-Term Care / psychology. Mental Disorders / etiology. Personality Disorders / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / psychology


96. Yasuda M, Akiyama N, Miyamoto S, Warabi M, Takahama Y, Kitamura M, Yakushiji F, Kinoshita H: Primary sellar lymphoma: intravascular large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed as a double cancer and improved with chemotherapy, and literature review of primary parasellar lymphoma. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):39-47
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  • Lymphoma is one of the causative factors of hypothalamus-pituitary dysfunction, and intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a subtype of primary extranodal neoplasm.
  • We diagnosed her with presumable non-functional primary pituitary adenoma and subsequent dysfunction.
  • Though we conducted systemic investigations including chest and abdomen enhanced computer tomography, transbronchial lung biopsy, and bone marrow biopsy, the diagnosis was not confirmed.
  • In affected sites, both sellar and pituitary stalk (6.7%), both hypothalamus and pituitary stalk (6.7%), only sellar (63.3%), only pituitary stalk (6.7%), only hypothalamus (13.3%), and only clivus (3.3%) were observed.
  • In hypothalamus-pituitary dysfunction, both anterior and posterior dysfunction (20.7%), only anterior dysfunction (58.6%), only posterior dysfunction (3.4%), and no dysfunction (17.2%) were observed.
  • It seemed that hypothalamic lesion is related to both anterior and posterior dysfunction, while sellar lesion is related to mainly anterior dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sella Turcica / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cranial Nerves / physiology. Cranial Nerves / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19707877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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97. Lehman NL: The ubiquitin proteasome system in neuropathology. Acta Neuropathol; 2009 Sep;118(3):329-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In neuropathology, alteration of the UPS, or mutations in UPS target proteins may result in signaling abnormalities leading to the initiation or progression of tumors such as astrocytomas, hemangioblastomas, craniopharyngiomas, pituitary adenomas, and medulloblastomas.
  • In neurodegenerative diseases caused by the expression of mutant proteins, the cellular accumulation of these proteins may overload the UPS, indirectly contributing to the disease process, e.g., sporadic Parkinsonism and prion diseases.
  • Defects or dysfunction of the UPS may also underlie cognitive disorders such as Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome and autism, and muscle and nerve diseases, e.g., inclusion body myopathy and giant axon neuropathy.
  • This paper describes the basic biochemical mechanisms comprising the UPS and reviews both its theoretical and proven involvement in neuropathological diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Diseases / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Humans. Neurodegenerative Diseases / metabolism. Substrate Specificity

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