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1. Zhang X, Rice K, Wang Y, Chen W, Zhong Y, Nakayama Y, Zhou Y, Klibanski A: Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) noncoding ribonucleic acid: isoform structure, expression, and functions. Endocrinology; 2010 Mar;151(3):939-47
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  • Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is an imprinted gene highly expressed in the human pituitary.
  • However, MEG3 expression is lost in human gonadotroph-derived pituitary adenomas and most human tumor cell lines.

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  • (PMID = 20032057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK040947; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01DK40947
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / MEG3 non-coding RNA, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Long Noncoding; 0 / RNA, Untranslated; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2840681
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2. Kimata-Hayashi N, Takano K, Yasufuku-Takano J, Teramoto A, Fujita T: Mechanism of adrenomedullin-induced prolactin release from human prolactin-releasing adenoma cells. Endocr J; 2005 Dec;52(6):769-73
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  • [Title] Mechanism of adrenomedullin-induced prolactin release from human prolactin-releasing adenoma cells.
  • The mechanism of adrenomedullin-induced prolactin release was investigated in prolactin-secreting human pituitary adenoma cells by intracellular calcium measurement and static incubation study.
  • [MeSH-major] Peptides / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16410671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channels; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / protein kinase modulator; 148498-78-6 / Adrenomedullin; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium; TSN3DL106G / Fura-2
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3. Yoshino A, Katayama Y, Ogino A, Watanabe T, Yachi K, Ohta T, Komine C, Yokoyama T, Fukushima T: Promoter hypermethylation profile of cell cycle regulator genes in pituitary adenomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Jun;83(2):153-62
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  • [Title] Promoter hypermethylation profile of cell cycle regulator genes in pituitary adenomas.
  • The aim of the present study was to examine in more detail the prevalence and role of the promoter methylation of genes with a proven involvement in the cell cycle regulation of pituitary adenomas, since their tumorigenesis has not yet been clearly defined.
  • We profiled the CpG island methylation status of a series of well-characterized cell cycle regulation genes: the RB1, p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a), p21(Waf1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p73 genes, in 34 pituitary adenomas as determined by a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay.
  • Promoter hypermethylation of the RB1, p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a), p21(Waf1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p73 genes was detected in 12 (35%), 2 (6%), 11 (32%), 20 (59%), 1 (3%), 0 (0%), and 4 (12%) of the adenomas, respectively.
  • In total, 88% (30 of 34) of the adenomas displayed methylation of at least one of such cell cycle regulatory genes, especially methylation of the member genes of the RB1 pathway (29 of 34; 85%).
  • Our results suggested that aberrant hypermethylation of the key cell cycle regulatory genes occurs at a relatively high frequency in pituitary adenomas, especially in RB1 pathway genes with promoter hypermethylation of the p16(INK4a) gene being the most common deregulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. CpG Islands / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17216555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein
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4. Voulgaris SG, Partheni M, Tzortzidis F, Ravazoula P, Pessach IS, Papadakis N, Polyzoidis KS: Suprasellar and intrasellar paragangliomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2006 Sep-Oct;25(5):221-6
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  • Neoplasms of the sellar region are entities with a large differential diagnosis.
  • Although paraganglionic cells have not been demonstrated in the pituitary or adjacent structures, the existence of sellar region paragangliomas is well-documented.
  • Clinical history, physical examination, radiographic investigation as well as intraoperative gross observation are the same as those of sellar meningioma or pituitary adenoma.
  • The clinical management, the possible pathogenesis of the tumor, the importance of immunohistochemistry in making the diagnosis and the clinical outcome of these patients are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17007444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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5. Pisarek H, Pawlikowski M, Kunert-Radek J, Radek M: Expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human pituitary adenomas -- immunohistochemical studies. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jul-Aug;60(4):240-51
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  • [Title] Expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human pituitary adenomas -- immunohistochemical studies.
  • BACKGROUND: The highly variable expression of SSTR subtypes in pituitary adenomas (PA) may partially explain why the subgroup of somatotropinomas or other adenomas do not respond to the therapeutic action of currently used long-acting somatostatin analogues like octreotide or lanreotide.
  • In PA immunonegative for pituitary hormones, we noticed only a weak staining of all receptor subtypes including SSTR 4.
  • In plurihormonal adenomas with positive GH phenotype the staining pattern was: SSTR 5 > SSTR 1 = SSTR 2B and in plurihormonal PA with negative GH phenotype: SSTR 1 = SSTR 5 > SSTR 2A = SSTR 2B = SSTR 3.
  • In plurihormonal adenoma with ACTH immunopositivity, the staining pattern was: SSTR = SSTR 2A = SSTR 3 = SSTR 5.
  • SSTR 1 and SSTR 5 were the most frequent subtypes of somatostatin receptor in plurihormonal adenomas without ACTH expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19753537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0G3DE8943Y / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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6. Labeur M, Theodoropoulou M, Sievers C, Paez-Pereda M, Castillo V, Arzt E, Stalla GK: New aspects in the diagnosis and treatment of Cushing disease. Front Horm Res; 2006;35:169-78
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  • [Title] New aspects in the diagnosis and treatment of Cushing disease.
  • Cushing disease, which is caused by the excessive production of ACTH, is a rare and complex endocrine disorder that still represents a major challenge for the physician in terms of accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment.
  • In the absence of efficient drug therapy, transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma is the treatment of choice for the reduction of ACTH secretion.
  • The role of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma as new approaches for treating pituitary tumors is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Ligands. PPAR gamma / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16809932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-3073
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Horm Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ligands; 0 / PPAR gamma; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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7. Howlett TA, Levy MJ, Robertson IJ: How reliably can autoimmune hypophysitis be diagnosed without pituitary biopsy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Jul;73(1):18-21
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  • [Title] How reliably can autoimmune hypophysitis be diagnosed without pituitary biopsy.
  • Autoimmune hypophysitis is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the pituitary gland which typically presents with hypopituitarism and a pituitary mass.
  • Cases involving anterior pituitary alone (65%) are six times more common in women, typically presenting during pregnancy or postpartum (57%).
  • Anterior and posterior pituitary involvement (25%) are twice as common in women, and neurohypophysis alone (10%) occurs equally in both sexes.
  • It has a prevalence of around 5 per million, an annual incidence of 1 in 7 to 9 million and in our experience represents the known or suspected cause of 0.5% of cases of hypopituitarism, <1% of pituitary masses and 2% of nonfunctioning macro lesions presenting to an endocrine clinic.
  • Anterior hypopituitarism shows a characteristic but atypical pattern of deficiency of ACTH followed by TSH, gonadotrophins and prolactin deficiency or hyperprolactinaemia.
  • On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), autoimmune hypophysitis is typically symmetrical and homogeneous with thickened but undisplaced stalk in contrast to typical findings with pituitary tumours.
  • Ultimately, the histological diagnosis of autoimmune hypophysitis can only be confirmed by surgery but a presumptive diagnosis can often be made on the basis of a combination of context and clinical features, and pituitary biopsy is not always clinically necessary for effective clinical management of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoimmune Diseases / diagnosis. Hypopituitarism / diagnosis. Pituitary Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Inflammation / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 Mar;74(3):406 [21050257.001]
  • (PMID = 20039888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Majumdar S, Friedrich CA, Koch CA, Megason GC, Fratkin JD, Moll GW: Compound heterozygous mutation with a novel splice donor region DNA sequence variant in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene in malignant paraganglioma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Mar;54(3):473-5
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  • Family history was positive for non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia and pituitary adenoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Jul 15;55(1):211; author reply 212 [20213850.001]
  • (PMID = 19927285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA Splice Sites; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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9. Nishioka H, Haraoka J, Ikeda Y: Risk factors of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea following transsphenoidal surgery. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Nov;147(11):1163-6; discussion 1166
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  • METHODS: To elucidate the risk factors that may affect the incidence of postoperative CSF rhinorrhea, we retrospectively reviewed 200 consecutive cases of TSS performed by a single surgeon for 168 adenomas and 32 other sellar and parasellar lesions.
  • Among 4 microadenoma cases with CSF leak, 3 were ACTH adenomas.
  • In contrast, postoperative CSF rhinorrhea was observed in 5 cases (2.5%), all following TSS for adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Sella Turcica / surgery. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / standards. Reoperation / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16047106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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10. Gendeh BS, Doi M, Selladurai BM, Khalid BA, Jegan T, Misiran K: The role of endoscopic endonasal approach to pituitary tumours: HUKM experience. Med J Malaysia; 2006 Aug;61(3):343-8
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  • [Title] The role of endoscopic endonasal approach to pituitary tumours: HUKM experience.
  • Surgery for pituitary tumours at our institution was performed by rhinosurgical route by combined procedure by otolaryngologist and neurosurgeons.
  • A retrospective review of case records of patients who had endonasal endoscopic transphenoidal approach for pituitary tumours from September 1998 to December 2004 was performed.
  • Thirty-six patients out of 40 macro-adenomas had suprasellar extensions (90%).
  • The common complications encountered were diabetes insipidus (4), cerebrospinal fluid leak (2), meningitis (3), epistaxis (2), septal perforation (2), intercavernous sinus haemorrhage (3) and anterior pituitary insufficiency (2).
  • Our study reveals that endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach is a safe and effective method of management of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hypophysectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Sphenoid Sinus

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  • (PMID = 17240587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5283
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical journal of Malaysia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. J. Malaysia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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11. Rittierodt M, Hori A: Pre-morbid morphological conditions of the human pituitary. Neuropathology; 2007 Feb;27(1):43-8
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  • [Title] Pre-morbid morphological conditions of the human pituitary.
  • The clinically silent premorbid conditions of the pituitary, in particular preneoplastic features, were morphologically and statistically investigated within a control population at autopsy.
  • They were as follows in 228 pituitary specimens: incidentalomas in 3% (potential pituitary adenomas), aberrant salivary gland cell clusters in the pars intermedia in 8.8% (potential salivary gland cysts or carcinomas in the sellar region), residual Rathke's cleft cells in 3.2-6.8% (potential craniopharyngiomas), meningothelial aggregates in the pituitary capsule in 4.0% (potential meningiomas), one case also had ciliated epithelial cell fragments in the anterior lobe, one case each of granular cell and nerve cell group in the posterior lobe, and two cases of telangiectasia.
  • Furthermore, aberrant anterior pituitary cells were found in the leptomeniges of the peri-pituitary region as a possible basis of an intracranial ectopic pituitary adenoma.
  • In particular, the "basis" of the possible neoplasm was pre-existent, so that some triggers are necessary (e.g., pituitary tumor transforming gene, hormonal stimuli, etc.) for it to become manifest, although there was no direct morphological evidence in our findings to alter to the lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Diseases / epidemiology. Pituitary Diseases / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17319282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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12. Taslipinar A, Bolu E, Kebapcilar L, Sahin M, Uckaya G, Kutlu M: Insulin-like growth factor-1 is essential to the increased mortality caused by excess growth hormone: a case of thyroid cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with pituitary acromegaly. Med Oncol; 2009;26(1):62-6
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor-1 is essential to the increased mortality caused by excess growth hormone: a case of thyroid cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with pituitary acromegaly.
  • Here, we describe clinical and laboratory findings for a patient with acromegaly who first developed thyroid cancer, and then, in the follow up period, probably due to poorly controlled insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, developed a large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly. Adenoma / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / metabolism. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18663612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Ergolines; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; N824AOU5XV / pegvisomant; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; COP protocol 2
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13. Kenai H, Yamashita M, Nakamura T, Asano T, Sainoh M, Nagatomi H: Tolerance dose in gamma knife surgery of lesions extending to the anterior visual pathway. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:230-3
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  • [Title] Tolerance dose in gamma knife surgery of lesions extending to the anterior visual pathway.
  • OBJECT: The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the radiation dose to the anterior visual pathway (AVP) to assess its tolerance to gamma knife surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiation Tolerance / radiation effects. Radiosurgery / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 15662816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Mallea-Gil MS, Cristina C, Perez-Millan MI, Villafañe AM, Ballarino C, Stalldecker G, Becu-Villalobos D: Invasive giant prolactinoma with loss of therapeutic response to cabergoline: expression of angiogenic markers. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(1):35-40
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  • The present study reports the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian man who was referred to the Military Hospital of Buenos Aires for evaluation of a giant sellar-extrasellar mass with extension in the right temporal lobe and compression of the third ventricle.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the excised tumor revealed strong immunoreactivity for VEGF and FGF-2, two potent angiogenic factors, and CD31 (an endothelial marker) indicating high vascularization of the adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19172414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ergolines; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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15. Vourliotaki I, Bonapart IE, Stamataki C, Tsapakis EM, Saridaki C: A case of a prolactinoma resistant to dopamine agonists. Hormones (Athens); 2005 Jul-Sep;4(3):165-70
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  • Dopamine agonists are the drugs of choice in the treatment of prolactinomas, the most common type of pituitary adenomas.
  • Throughout the same period, the size of the adenoma remained unchanged.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16613827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
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16. Seker A, Toktas ZO, Peker S, Batirel HA, Necmettin Pamir M: Asystole due to trigemino-cardiac reflex: a rare complication of trans-sphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Feb;16(2):338-40
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  • [Title] Asystole due to trigemino-cardiac reflex: a rare complication of trans-sphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma.
  • TCR is a well-known, although not well documented, phenomenon commonly observed during trans-sphenoidal surgery for resection of pituitary adenomas.
  • We report a case in which asystole occurred during trans-sphenoidal surgery on a pituitary adenoma that was infiltrating the right cavernous sinus.
  • Invasive pituitary adenomas should be removed gently and the risk of triggering TCR should be kept in mind.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Arrest / etiology. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Reflex / physiology. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery. Trigeminal Nerve / physiology

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Dec;16(12):1709 [19766494.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Nov;16(11):1508 [19632118.001]
  • (PMID = 19056276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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17. Er U, Gürses L, Saka C, Belen D, Yiğitkanli K, Simşek S, Akin I, Bavbek M: Sublabial transseptal approach to pituitary adenomas with special emphasis on rhinological complications. Turk Neurosurg; 2008 Oct;18(4):425-30
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  • [Title] Sublabial transseptal approach to pituitary adenomas with special emphasis on rhinological complications.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this presentation is to show that the sublabial transseptal transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas is the least invasive anatomic route with the lowest postoperative complication rates.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: This study was based on a retrospective analysis of 276 patients with a diagnosis of pituitary adenoma who were surgically treated via the sublabial transsphenoidal route.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Nose Diseases / epidemiology. Nose Diseases / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Diabetes Insipidus / epidemiology. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Mucosa / injuries. Nasal Mucosa / pathology. Nasal Septum / injuries. Nasal Septum / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Prolactinoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Thyrotropin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / epidemiology. Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / etiology. Young Adult


18. Kristo C, Ueland T, Godang K, Aukrust P, Bollerslev J: Biochemical markers for cardiovascular risk following treatment in endogenous Cushing's syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 May;31(5):400-5
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  • SUBJECTS: Twenty-eight CS patients (22 women, 6 men) were included in the study and 21 of these patients (15 women, 6 men) were also followed longitudinally for a mean 33 months (range 5-69 months) after operative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / blood. Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology. Cortisone / analogs & derivatives. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Fludrocortisone / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18560257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 883WKN7W8X / cortisone acetate; U0476M545B / Fludrocortisone; V27W9254FZ / Cortisone
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19. Masaya-anon P, Lorpattanakasem J: Intracranial tumors affecting visual system: 5-year review in Prasat Neurological Institute. J Med Assoc Thai; 2008 Apr;91(4):515-9
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  • The three most common types of intracranial tumors were meningioma (45%), pituitary adenoma (32.9%), tumors of neuroepithelial tissues (6.7%) and craniopharyngioma (6.7%).Common neuro-ophthalmological symptoms were visual blur (88.6%) and proptosis (12.1%).
  • Ninety percent of the patients had the visual difficulty symptom for less than 12 months, before the diagnosis of intracranial tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: From the study, meningioma is the most common tumor that impairs the visual pathway structures followed by pituitary adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 18556861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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20. Radaelli E, Arnold A, Papanikolaou A, Garcia-Fernandez RA, Mattiello S, Scanziani E, Cardiff RD: Mammary tumor phenotypes in wild-type aging female FVB/N mice with pituitary prolactinomas. Vet Pathol; 2009 Jul;46(4):736-45
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  • [Title] Mammary tumor phenotypes in wild-type aging female FVB/N mice with pituitary prolactinomas.
  • Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are common spontaneous lesions in aging FVB females.
  • Prolactin-secreting pituitary proliferations play a significant role in mouse mammary tumorigenesis generally producing adenosquamous carcinomas.
  • Since genetically engineered FVB mice are frequently used to study mammary tumor biology, we have examined a cohort of 64 aging wild-type FVB/N females to establish the prevalence and the nature of spontaneous mammary and pituitary tumors.
  • Tissues from mammary and pituitary glands were studied by histopathology and immunohistochemistry.
  • Of the 64 examined mice, 20 had pituitary tumors and 20 had mammary tumors.
  • Mammary and pituitary tumors were associated in 17 mice.
  • All pituitary tumors were prolactin-positive by immunohistochemistry and classified as prolactinomas.
  • Compared with previous reports, prolactinoma-associated mammary tumors displayed a broader morphologic spectrum, including cases with the EMT phenotype.

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  • (PMID = 19276050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141582; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA55909
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Fedele M, Palmieri D, Fusco A: HMGA2: A pituitary tumour subtype-specific oncogene? Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Sep 15;326(1-2):19-24
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  • [Title] HMGA2: A pituitary tumour subtype-specific oncogene?
  • The high mobility group AT-hook (HMGA) proteins, a family of DNA architectural factors, are highly expressed during embryogenesis and play a crucial role in several different biological processes, as well as in tumorigenesis of a wide range of tissues, including pituitary.
  • Indeed, HMGA2 has been found rearranged and amplified in human prolactinomas, and transgenic mice overexpressing either Hmga1 or Hmga2 develop pituitary adenomas secreting prolactin and growth hormone.
  • Here, we overview HMGA proteins in human tumours, focusing on pituitary adenomas and the mechanisms by which the HMGA proteins are involved in their onset and development.
  • Different HMGA-dependent potential drives of pituitary oncogenesis are discussed as future research directions in the field.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. HMGA2 Protein / physiology. Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20347930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA1c Protein; 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 124543-08-4 / HMGA1b Protein; 124544-67-8 / HMGA1a Protein
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22. Widhalm G, Wolfsberger S, Preusser M, Fischer I, Woehrer A, Wunderer J, Hainfellner JA, Knosp E: Residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: prognostic value of MIB-1 labeling index for tumor progression. J Neurosurg; 2009 Sep;111(3):563-71
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  • [Title] Residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: prognostic value of MIB-1 labeling index for tumor progression.
  • OBJECT: In residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, reliable prognostic parameters indicating probability of tumor progression are needed.
  • METHODS: The authors studied a cohort of 92 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Additionally, the time period to second surgery was significantly shorter in residual adenomas showing an MIB-1 LI>3%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that MIB-1 LI in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas is a clinically useful prognostic parameter indicating probability of progression of postoperative tumor remnants.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Postoperative Period. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18991501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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23. Dubuisson AS, Stevenaert A, Martin DH, Flandroy PP: Intrasellar arachnoid cysts. Neurosurgery; 2007 Sep;61(3):505-13; discussion 513
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  • METHODS: Among 1540 patients presenting with pituitary lesions, nine presented with an intrasellar arachnoid cyst.
  • In three patients, the contrast infiltrated along the pituitary stalk toward the subarachnoid spaces; in the other patients, it remained in the intrasellar compartment.
  • CONCLUSION: The clinical picture of an intrasellar arachnoid cyst resembles that of a nonfunctional pituitary adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 17881962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Olateju TO, Vanderpump MP: Thyroid hormone resistance. Ann Clin Biochem; 2006 Nov;43(Pt 6):431-40
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  • Patients with RTH can be classified on clinical grounds alone into either generalized resistance (GRTH), pituitary resistance (PRTH) or combined.
  • The differential diagnosis includes a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and the presence of endogenous antibodies directed against thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
  • Although occasionally desirable, no specific treatment is available for RTH; however, the diagnosis allows appropriate genetic counselling.

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  • (PMID = 17132274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta; 0 / Thyroid Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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25. Asthagiri A, Lopes MB: Neuropathological considerations of pituitary adenomas. Front Horm Res; 2006;34:206-35
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  • [Title] Neuropathological considerations of pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary tumors constitute around 15-20% of intracranial tumors.
  • The understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the functional regulation of pituitary adenoma has greatly advanced in the last decade.
  • The current WHO classification scheme of pituitary tumors reflects this progress on tumor biology knowledge, and embraces the most widely utilized diagnostic methods of evaluation of these lesions.
  • The present chapter highlights the different aspects of the tumor diagnosis and reviews the classification of pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Humans. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Hormones / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16474222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-3073
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Horm Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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26. Harzallah L, Boudabbous S, Migaw H, Harzallah F, Ach K, Hamdi I, Bakir D, Chaieb L, Kraiem C: [MRI and pituitary adenoma]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Sep;67(4):325-30
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  • [Title] [MRI and pituitary adenoma].
  • Pituitary is the most important gland of the organism which can be affected by many diseases, especially by adenomatous processes.
  • Classically macroadenoma, microadenoma and picoadenoma are described, according to the size of the pituitary adenoma.
  • The diagnosis of microadenoma was long considered a highly difficult task and that of picoadenoma was impossible by computed tomography.
  • Recently, the high resolution of multiplanar MRI has enabled the diagnosis of microadenomas measuring less than 3 mm (picoadenoma).
  • For macroadenoma, MRI not only contributes to diagnosis but is particularly important to assess the extension and to detect possible complications.
  • The aim of our study is to illustrate MRI features in pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pituitary Gland / anatomy & histology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17072237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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27. Parhar PK, Duckworth T, Shah P, DeWyngaert JK, Narayana A, Formenti SC, Shah JN: Decreasing temporal lobe dose with five-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for treatment of pituitary macroadenomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Oct 1;78(2):379-84
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  • [Title] Decreasing temporal lobe dose with five-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for treatment of pituitary macroadenomas.
  • PURPOSE: To compare temporal lobe dose delivered by three pituitary macroadenoma irradiation techniques: three-field three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), three-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (3F IMRT), and a proposed novel alternative of five-field IMRT (5F IMRT).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Computed tomography-based external beam radiotherapy planning was performed for 15 pituitary macroadenoma patients treated at New York University between 2002 and 2007 using: 3D-CRT (two lateral, one midline superior anterior oblique [SAO] beams), 3F IMRT (same beam angles), and 5F IMRT (same beam angles with additional right SAO and left SAO beams).
  • RESULTS: Five-field IMRT yielded significantly decreased temporal lobe dose delivery compared with 3D-CRT and 3F IMRT.
  • Temporal lobe sparing with 5F IMRT was most pronounced at intermediate doses: mean V25Gy (% of total temporal lobe volume receiving ≥25 Gy) of 13% vs. 28% vs. 29% for right temporal lobe and 14% vs. 29% vs. 30% for left temporal lobe for 5F IMRT, 3D-CRT, and 3F IMRT, respectively (p < 10(-7) for 5F IMRT vs. 3D-CRT and 5F IMRT vs. 3F IMRT).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Five-field IMRT irradiation technique results in a statistically significant decrease in the dose to the temporal lobes and may thus help prevent neurocognitive sequelae in irradiated pituitary macroadenoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Temporal Lobe / radiation effects

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20015598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Yang I, Kim W, De Salles A, Bergsneider M: A systematic analysis of disease control in acromegaly treated with radiosurgery. Neurosurg Focus; 2010 Oct;29(4):E13
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  • OBJECT: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as an adjuvant radiation-based therapy for pituitary adenomas.
  • Here, the authors present a systematic analysis of SRS for growth hormone-secreting adenomas to characterize the efficacy of SRS in the treatment of acromegaly.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 20887123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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29. Khoo SK, Pendek R, Nickolov R, Luccio-Camelo DC, Newton TL, Massie A, Petillo D, Menon J, Cameron D, Teh BT, Chan SP: Genome-wide scan identifies novel modifier loci of acromegalic phenotypes for isolated familial somatotropinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):1057-63
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  • Isolated familial somatotropinoma (IFS) accounts for 18% of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) cases.
  • Recently, germline mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene (AIP) have been found in families with pituitary adenoma predisposition, FIPA, and IFS.
  • Complete endocrine diagnosis and data could not be collected due to logistical and cultural reasons.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Genetic Loci. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19443539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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30. Falchetti A, Cilotti A, Vaggelli L, Masi L, Amedei A, Cioppi F, Tonelli F, Brandi ML: A patient with MEN1-associated hyperparathyroidism, responsive to cinacalcet. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;4(6):351-7
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  • BACKGROUND: A 30-year-old woman with suspected multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) was referred to our center in 2001 with primary hyperparathyroidism caused by a multiglandular parathyroid adenoma.
  • The patient also had hyperprolactinemia caused by an anterior pituitary macroadenoma.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Local recurrence of a parathyroid adenoma associated with MEN1.

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  • [ErratumIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;4(7):420. Vagelli, Luca [corrected to Vaggelli, Luca]
  • (PMID = 18414463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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31. Liu W, Kunishio K, Matsumoto Y, Okada M, Nagao S: Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression correlates with cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas. J Clin Neurosci; 2005 Sep;12(7):791-4
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  • [Title] Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression correlates with cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenoma.
  • METHOD: Tissue samples from 54 pituitary adenomas were examined for expression of MMP-2 protein by immunohistochemistry.
  • The MMP-2 score of pituitary adenomas with cavernous sinus invasion (3.9 +/- 0.5) was significantly higher than those without invasion (2.3 +/- 0.2; P < 0.01).
  • There was no difference in MMP-2 score between macroadenomas (3.0 +/- 0.3) and microadenomas (2.1 +/- 0.4; P > 0.05), and also, no difference between the functioning adenomas (2.8 +/- 0.3) and non-functioning adenomas (2.8 +/- 0.3; P > 0.05).
  • MMP-2 mRNA expression was also intense in invasive pituitary adenomas and was significantly higher in invasive pituitary adenomas than those without invasion (68.2 +/- 15.3; 21.8 +/- 8.2; P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: This study suggests that MMP-2 may be associated with aggressiveness and invasion in pituitary adenoma but is not related to tumor size or secretory function.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Gene Expression / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16198918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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32. Rubinfeld H, Hadani M, Barkai G, Taylor JE, Culler MD, Shimon I: Cortistatin inhibits growth hormone release from human fetal and adenoma pituitary cells and prolactin secretion from cultured prolactinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2257-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cortistatin inhibits growth hormone release from human fetal and adenoma pituitary cells and prolactin secretion from cultured prolactinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: The objective of the study was to assess the direct in vitro effects of CST on human pituitary hormone secretion.
  • MATERIALS: Primary cell cultures of human fetal (21-25 wk gestation) pituitary tissues and cultured hormone-secreting adenoma cells were used in this study.
  • RESULTS: CST-14 (10 nm) inhibited GH secretion by up to 65% in all fetal pituitary specimens after 4-h incubation (P < 0.05).
  • CST-14 or CST-17 (10 nm) inhibited basal GH secretion in six of the 13 GH-cell adenomas and two of the three GH-PRL mixed adenomas.
  • CST-17 (100 nm) suppressed the GH response to GHRH and ghrelin analog (10 nm each) by 30-50% in adenomas (P < 0.05).
  • Three PRL-adenomas treated with CST-17 (10 nm) showed a 20-40% inhibition of PRL release (P < 0.05), whereas in three others no suppression or mild response was achieved at this concentration.
  • RT-PCR revealed the expression of both SSTR2 and SSTR5 in all GH-cell and mixed adenomas studied and all PRL-secreting adenomas studied, except for two of the CST-resistant prolactinomas, in which SSTR5 was absent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of in vitro CST suppression of human GH and PRL in cultured pituitary tissues.
  • The regulation of PRL release from cultured adenomas appears to be primarily mediated by SSTR5.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Fetus / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Neuropeptides / pharmacology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16595604.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / cortistatin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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33. Bernreuther C, Flitsch J, Lüdecke DK, Hagel C: A 61-year-old man with hyponatremia. Brain Pathol; 2008 Apr;18(2):283-7
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  • Cranial computed tomography and MRI scans revealed an intra- and suprasellar tumor of adenoma-like appearance with elevation of the optic chiasm.
  • After transsphenoidal resection of the tumor, no additional anterior lobe insufficiencies or diabetes insipidus occurred.
  • An intrasellar cellular schwannoma clinically and radiologically mimicking a non-secreting pituitary adenoma is uncommon.
  • However, rare entities like schwannomas, melanocytomas or pituicytomas have to be considered in addition to the more common tumors like pituitary adenomas and meningiomas.

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  • (PMID = 18363939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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34. Bladowska J, Sokolska V, Sozański T, Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Sąsiadek M: Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function. Pol J Radiol; 2010 Jan;75(1):29-36
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  • [Title] Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function.
  • BACKGROUND: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions.
  • It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas - 409 MRI results in total - were studied.
  • RESULTS: The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism.
  • In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy.
  • 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MRI presentation of post - surgical pituitary gland doesn't necessarily correlate with its hormonal function - there was a significant statistical difference.
  • Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function.
  • In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy.

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  • [Cites] Przegl Lek. 1999;56(10):638-43 [10695377.001]
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  • (PMID = 22802758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1733-134X
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Radiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3389853
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; MRI / hormonal function / pituitary tumours / surgery
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35. Chen C, Tang K, Zhang M, Lin S: The chiasmal spur. J Neuroophthalmol; 2010 Jun;30(2):157-9
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  • A 51-year-old woman underwent craniotomy for removal of a pituitary tumor.
  • At surgery, anomalous tissue was found projecting forward from the anterior angle of the optic chiasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Nervous System Malformations / complications. Optic Chiasm / abnormalities. Optic Nerve / abnormalities. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Craniotomy. Decompression, Surgical. Fatigue. Female. Humans. Menstruation Disturbances / etiology. Middle Aged. Vision, Low / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20431488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Jevdjovic T, Bernays RL, Eppler E: Insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA and peptide in the human anterior pituitary. J Neuroendocrinol; 2007 May;19(5):335-41
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA and peptide in the human anterior pituitary.
  • The pituitary is the central organ regulating virtually all endocrine processes, and pathologies of the pituitary cause manifold adverse effects.
  • Because insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I appears to be involved in tumour pathogenesis, progression, and persistence, and only few data exist on the cellular synthesis sites of IGF-I, the present study aims to create a basis for further research on pituitary adenomas by investigating the presence of IGF-I in the human pituitary using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridisation, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry.
  • IGF-I was expressed in the pituitary, and gene sequence analysis revealed a sequence identical to that found in human liver.
  • In all pituitary samples investigated, IGF-I-immunoreactivity occurred in almost all adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-immunoreactive cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Growth Hormone / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17425608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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37. Jacob S, Pye E, Hbahbih M, Messios N, Rajabally YA: Rapidly progressive bilateral ophthalmoplegia and enlarging sellar mass caused by amelanotic melanoma. J Neuroophthalmol; 2006 Mar;26(1):49-50
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  • A 63-year-old woman with diplopia and bilateral ptosis underwent brain MRI that showed a pituitary mass with signal characteristics suggestive of adenoma.
  • Extensive search for a primary source was unsuccessful.
  • Despite local radiation treatment, the tumor continued to grow and the patient became blind and died within several months of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / complications. Ophthalmoplegia / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Sella Turcica / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16518168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-8022
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Sathyapalan T, Lowry M, Turnbull LW, Rowland-Hill C, Atkin SL: Mechanism of action of octreotide in acromegalic tumours in vivo using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Pituitary; 2007;10(3):233-6
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  • RESULTS: Amplitude of contrast intake (9.87 +/- 3.52 vs. 4.97 +/- 1.96 P < or = 0.05) and exchange rate (6.27 +/- 1.57 vs. 1.63 +/- 0.76 P value < or = 0.01) were significantly higher at baseline in adenoma compared to normal pituitary tissue but was comparable to normal pituitary tissue after treatment.
  • There was a significant decrease in amplitude of contrast intake and exchange rate which relates to functional vascularity of adenoma at 24 weeks compared to baseline (P-values 0.026 and 0.002 respectively) but there were no significant changes in the normal pituitary tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: DCE-MRI in acromegalic tumours treated with octreotide showed a significant reduction in functional vascularity after octreotide therapy compared to baseline in pituitary adenomas.
  • This supports the antiangiogenic action of somatostatin analogue therapy in vitro, but it remains unclear if this mechanism is important clinically in analogue pre-treatment reducing the effect of radiotherapy on these pituitary tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17541750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Contrast Media; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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39. King TJ, Gurley KE, Prunty J, Shin JL, Kemp CJ, Lampe PD: Deficiency in the gap junction protein connexin32 alters p27Kip1 tumor suppression and MAPK activation in a tissue-specific manner. Oncogene; 2005 Mar 03;24(10):1718-26
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  • Several tissues were highly sensitive to loss of p27 tumor suppressor function (intestine, adrenal, pituitary) resulting in an increased overall tumor burden in DKO mice compared to both wild-type (P<0.005) and Cx32-KO mice (P=0.066).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / etiology. Animals. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Enzyme Activation. Female. Genes, ras. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Organ Specificity. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Trans-Activators / genetics. Weight Gain. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 15608667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM055632; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR47963; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM55632; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32-AI07509
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cdkn1b protein, mouse; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Connexins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 0 / connexin 32; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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40. Zada G, Tirosh A, Kaiser UB, Laws ER, Woodmansee WW: Cushing's disease and idiopathic intracranial hypertension: case report and review of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Nov;95(11):4850-4
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  • CONTEXT: Several studies have reported an association between idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and deficits of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
  • CASE ILLUSTRATION: A 33-yr-old woman with Cushing's disease underwent successful surgical resection of a pituitary adenoma and developed IIH 11 months later after inadvertent withdrawal of oral glucocorticoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pseudotumor Cerebri / complications. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 20739379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
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41. Tahir A, Chahal HS, Korbonits M: Molecular genetics of the aip gene in familial pituitary tumorigenesis. Prog Brain Res; 2010;182:229-53
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  • [Title] Molecular genetics of the aip gene in familial pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • Pituitary adenomas usually occur as sporadic tumors, but familial cases are now increasingly identified.
  • As opposed to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex, in familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) syndrome no other disease is associated with the familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas.
  • Patients with AIP mutations have an overwhelming predominance of somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas, which often present in childhood or young adulthood.
  • AIP is shown to bind various proteins, including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, Hsp90, phosphodiesterases, survivin, RET and the glucocorticoid receptor, but currently it is not clear which interaction has the leading role in pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • This chapter summarizes the available clinical and molecular data regarding the role of AIP in the pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Family Health. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Molecular Imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Humans. Male. Mutation / genetics. Pituitary Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20541668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-7855
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
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42. Dahlqvist P, Koskinen LO, Brännström T, Hägg E: Testicular enlargement in a patient with a FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Endocrine; 2010 Apr;37(2):289-93
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  • [Title] Testicular enlargement in a patient with a FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Clinically non-functional pituitary adenomas are often derived from gonadotropin producing cells.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biochemical examinations showed a large pituitary adenoma and excessive levels of serum FSH.
  • After pituitary surgery, serum FSH levels normalized and there was a decrease in testicular volume.
  • This is in line with experimental studies showing biological effect of FSH from pituitary adenomas and previous occasional reports of ovarian hyperstimulation and testicular enlargement in patients with FSH-secreting gonadotropinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / secretion. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20960265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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43. Hubina E, Góth M, Korbonits M: [Ghrelin--a hormone with multiple functions]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jun 19;146(25):1345-51
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  • Ghrelin was originally identified from the stomach but it is also present in all tissue among others in: hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, lung, immune cells, placenta, ovary, testis, kidney and in different tumours including pituitary adenoma, neuroendocrine tumours, thyroid carcinomas, endocrine tumours of the pancreas and lung.

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  • (PMID = 16106757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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44. da Silva CE, da Silva JL, da Silva VD: Use of sodium fluorescein in skull base tumors. Surg Neurol Int; 2010;1:70
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  • RESULTS: THE GROUP OF TUMORS WAS AS FOLLOWS: one vestibular schwannoma, three meningiomas, one craniopharyngioma and one pituitary adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 21125008.001).
  • [ISSN] 2152-7806
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2980904
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cranial base tumors / fluorescence-guided surgery / sodium fluorescein
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45. O'Sullivan EP, Woods C, Glynn N, Behan LA, Crowley R, O'Kelly P, Smith D, Thompson CJ, Agha A: The natural history of surgically treated but radiotherapy-naïve nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Nov;71(5):709-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The natural history of surgically treated but radiotherapy-naïve nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transsphenoidal surgery is indicated for patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) causing compressive symptoms.
  • MEASUREMENT: Post-operative recurrent/regrowth was defined by any increase in tumour remnant size on serial post-operative pituitary imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19302582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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46. Hnasko TS, Hnasko RM, Sotak BN, Kapur RP, Palmiter RD: Genetic disruption of dopamine production results in pituitary adenomas and severe prolactinemia. Neuroendocrinology; 2007;86(1):48-57
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  • [Title] Genetic disruption of dopamine production results in pituitary adenomas and severe prolactinemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons into the median eminence activates dopamine-D2 receptors in the pituitary gland where it inhibits lactotroph function.
  • Because these animals require daily treatment with 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) to survive, it has not been possible to examine the consequences of chronic loss of dopamine on pituitary physiology.
  • CONCLUSION: Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that hypothalamic dopamine is a critical inhibitor of lactotroph proliferation and suggest additional roles for dopamine in the regulation of pituitary function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Dopamine / deficiency. Dopamine / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Prolactin / blood

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17622754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM07270
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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47. Marouf R, Mohr G, Assimakopoulos P, Glikstein R: [Apoplectic macroadenomas: the outcome of the residual pituitary gland]. Neurochirurgie; 2010 Aug;56(4):324-30
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  • [Title] [Apoplectic macroadenomas: the outcome of the residual pituitary gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Macroadénomes apoplectiques: le devenir de l'hypophyse résiduelle.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the MRI aspects and the function of the residual pituitary gland (RPG) after surgical decompression of an apoplectic pituitary macroadenoma, and to attempt to answer the question of whether an intra-adenomatous apoplexy necessarily leads to hypophyseal apoplexy.
  • METHODS: Between 1992 and 2008, 150 pituitary macroadenomas were surgically treated via the trans-sphenoidal approach, 19 of which presented an apoplectic feature (13%).
  • According to the radiological classification of Hardy and Vezina modified by the Mohr (Mohr et Hardy, 1982) grade, the patients were subdivided up as follows: one grade II-0, four grade II-A, 11 grade II-B, two grade C, and one grade IV-B+D.
  • CONCLUSION: The repercussions of adenomatous apoplexy on the RPG is significant: only 27% of the patients retained normal pituitary function.
  • The implications of the ischemic or compressive damage on the normal pituitary gland are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Stroke / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Cerebral Infarction / etiology. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Function Tests. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / physiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20096427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0619
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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48. Mazziotti G, Giustina A: Effects of lanreotide SR and Autogel on tumor mass in patients with acromegaly: a systematic review. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):60-7
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  • The peer-reviewed medical literature was searched to identify clinical trials studying the effects of lanreotide SR or Autogel on adenoma size in acromegaly.

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  • (PMID = 19189218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0G3DE8943Y / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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49. Galt JR, Halkar RK, Evans CO, Osman NA, LaBorde D, Fox TH, Faraj BA, Kumar K, Wang H, Oyesiku NM: In vivo assay of folate receptors in nonfunctional pituitary adenomas with 99mTc-folate SPECT/CT. J Nucl Med; 2010 Nov;51(11):1716-23
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  • [Title] In vivo assay of folate receptors in nonfunctional pituitary adenomas with 99mTc-folate SPECT/CT.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo assay of folate receptors in nonfunctional pituitary adenomas using preoperative (99m)Tc-folate SPECT/CT and Western blot analysis (WBA) of surgical specimens as the standard.
  • METHODS: Fifty-six patients (29 men, 27 women; age range, 29-82 y) with clinically nonfunctional pituitary adenomas on MRI underwent preoperative imaging using 666 MBq (18 mCi) of (99m)Tc-folate.
  • Attenuation-corrected (99m)Tc-folate SPECT/CT images were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively (maximal adenoma counts to background), with WBA as a standard.
  • Detection of pituitary uptake on anterior-posterior and lateral images was hampered by facial uptake, which varied between patients.
  • This method may also prove beneficial in selecting patients for folate-targeted therapy of clinically nonfunctional pituitary adenomas, for which there is currently no medical therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Folate Receptors, GPI-Anchored / metabolism. Folic Acid / drug effects. Organotechnetium Compounds. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20956474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-5667
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS051439-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Folate Receptors, GPI-Anchored; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid
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50. Höybye C, Ragnarsson O, Jönsson PJ, Koltowska-Häggström M, Trainer P, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Biller BM: Clinical features of GH deficiency and effects of 3 years of GH replacement in adults with controlled Cushing's disease. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Apr;162(4):677-84
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  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were obtained from KIMS, the Pfizer International Metabolic Database.
  • A retrospective cross-sectional comparison of background characteristics in unmatched cohorts of patients with CD (n=684, 74% women) and nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA; n=2990, 39% women) was conducted.
  • RESULTS: The cross-sectional study showed a significant delay in GHD diagnosis in the CD group, who had a higher prevalence of hypertension, fractures, and diabetes mellitus.

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  • (PMID = 20089548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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51. Steinhoff M, Rochlitz H, Nussbaum G, Georgieva J, Zouboulis CC: Reduced growth of beard as the only diagnostic sign in a patient with macroprolactinoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Jan;21(1):124-6
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  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adult. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Face. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testosterone / therapeutic use. Thyroxine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17207191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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52. Ulitin AIu, Oliushin VIu, Zhinzhina IV, Ovcharenko OIu, Getmanova VV, Markova NV: [Ophthalmological symptoms in patients with giant pituitary adenomas]. Vestn Oftalmol; 2007 May-Jun;123(3):36-42
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  • [Title] [Ophthalmological symptoms in patients with giant pituitary adenomas].
  • In patients with giant pituitary adenomas, visual dysfunction is a common complaint and the chiasmatic syndrome is the major clinical sign of the disease.
  • Early and timely diagnosis of a tumor in the absence of its extracellular growth makes it possible to improve visual function in the postoperative period and the quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Vision Disorders / etiology. Vision, Ocular / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17672094.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-465X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik oftalmologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn Oftalmol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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53. Cheikhrouhou H, Khiari K, Hadj Ali I, Chérif L, Ben Abdallah N: [Clinical features and treatment in Cushing's disease. 18 cases]. Tunis Med; 2006 Jul;84(7):432-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Aspects cliniques et thérapeutiques de la maladie de Cushing. A propos de 18 cas.
  • We report a retrospective study about 18 Cushing's diseases in the department of endocrinology at Charles Nicolle hospital in 24 years.
  • Diagnosis was established on adrenocorticotropin hormone analysis and pituitary imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / radiography. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17039735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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54. Rivera J, Alves S, Bianchi CC, Al-Mutawa N, Guiot MC, Zeitouni A: An unusual collision tumor comprising a prolactinoma and a plasmocytoma originating from the sellar region. Pituitary; 2010 Jun;13(2):189-93
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  • MR imaging showed a large sellar mass with significant destruction of the pituitary fossa.
  • A transsphenoidal excisional biopsy was performed which demonstrated two distinct populations of cells, corresponding to a plasma cell tumor and a lactotroph adenoma.
  • Only a few cases of solitary plasmocytomas of the pituitary region have been reported.
  • We suggest that in the presence of extensive cranial nerve involvement, atypical imaging findings for a pituitary adenoma and severe hyperprolactinemia, the possibility of a collision tumor should lead the physician to consider excisional tumor biopsy or surgery in addition to dopamine agonist therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Plasmacytoma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Sella Turcica / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18846427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Ramakrishna N: The role of fractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Mar;4(3):138-9
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  • [Title] The role of fractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 18212762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Daly AF, Rixhon M, Adam C, Dempegioti A, Tichomirowa MA, Beckers A: High prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a cross-sectional study in the province of Liege, Belgium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Dec;91(12):4769-75
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  • [Title] High prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a cross-sectional study in the province of Liege, Belgium.
  • CONTEXT: Prevalence data are important for assessing the burden of disease on the health care system; data on pituitary adenoma prevalence are very scarce.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of clinically relevant pituitary adenomas in a well-defined population.
  • DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional, intensive, case-finding study performed in three regions of the province of Liège, Belgium, to measure pituitary adenoma prevalence as of September 30, 2005.
  • Medical practitioners in these districts were recruited, and patients with pituitary adenomas under their care were identified.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients with clinically relevant pituitary adenomas were identified in a population of 71,972 individuals; the mean (+/- sd) prevalence was 94 +/- 19.3 cases per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval, 72.2 to 115.8).
  • The group was 67.6% female and had a mean age at diagnosis of 40.3 yr; 42.6% had macroadenomas and 55.9% underwent surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pituitary adenomas in the study population (one case in 1064 individuals) was more than 3.5-5 times that previously reported.
  • This increased prevalence may have important implications when prioritizing funding for research and treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Belgium / epidemiology. Child. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / epidemiology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / epidemiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / therapy. Prevalence. Prolactinoma / epidemiology. Prolactinoma / pathology. Prolactinoma / therapy


57. Di Mambro A, Giuliani C, Ammannati F, Mannucci E, Scoccianti S, Detti B, Meattini I, Mennonna P, Forti G, Serio M, Peri A: A single-institution restrospective experience of brachytherapy in the treatment of pituitary tumors: transsphenoidal approach combined with (192)Ir-afterloading catheters. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jul-Aug;33(7):455-60
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  • [Title] A single-institution restrospective experience of brachytherapy in the treatment of pituitary tumors: transsphenoidal approach combined with (192)Ir-afterloading catheters.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Radiotherapy may be used as an adjuvant treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • The aim of our study was to present our experience of multimodal treatment of pituitary adenomas, consisting in temporary implantation of (192)Ir-labeled wires following transphenoidal surgery.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An observational investigation was performed on a series of 80 patients undergoing surgery (S) for pituitary adenomas between 1982 and 2000, some of whom received post-operative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (no.
  • The different treatments were compared in terms of hormonal normalization in the subgroup of patients with hypersecreting adenomas, tumor control, and side effects.
  • Anterior pituitary hormones deficits ranged from 8.6-34% in S+B patients and from 15.8-47.4% in S+EBRT patients, after a mean follow-up of 14 yr.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We presented one original experience regarding brachytherapy in the management of pituitary tumors, which turned out to be effective and safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Iridium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19955849.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iridium Radioisotopes; 0 / Pituitary Hormones
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58. Kalfa N, Lumbroso S, Boulle N, Guiter J, Soustelle L, Costa P, Chapuis H, Baldet P, Sultan C: Activating mutations of Gsalpha in kidney cancer. J Urol; 2006 Sep;176(3):891-5
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  • Activating Gsalpha mutations have been reported in tumors arising only from highly specialized endocrine tissue, such as pituitary adenomas, toxic thyroid adenomas and differentiated thyroid carcinomas, but never in other nonendocrine tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16890646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
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59. Koutourousiou M, Kontogeorgos G, Wesseling P, Grotenhuis AJ, Seretis A: Collision sellar lesions: experience with eight cases and review of the literature. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):8-17
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  • The concomitant presence of a pituitary adenoma with a second sellar lesion in patients operated upon for pituitary adenoma is an uncommon entity.
  • Although rare, quite a great variety of lesions have been indentified coexisting with pituitary adenomas.
  • We present a series of eight collision sellar lesions indentified among 548 transsphenoidally resected pituitary adenomas in two Neurosurgical Departments.
  • The histological studies confirmed a case of sarcoidosis within a non-functioning pituitary adenoma, a case of intrasellar schwannoma coexisting with growth hormone (GH) secreting adenoma, two Rathke's cleft cysts combined with pituitary adenomas, three gangliocytomas associated with GH-secreting adenomas, and a case of a double pituitary adenoma.
  • Suggested hypotheses about a common embryonic origin or a potential interaction between pituitary adenomas and the immune system are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Sella Turcica / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Central Nervous System Cysts / pathology. Female. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19551516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807600
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60. Lanfranco F, Baldi M, Cassoni P, Bosco M, Ghé C, Muccioli G: Ghrelin and prostate cancer. Vitam Horm; 2008;77:301-24
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  • Several endocrine and nonendocrine cancer cells (pituitary adenomas; gastroenteropancreatic and pulmonary carcinoids; colorectal neoplasms, thyroid tumors; lung, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas) as well as their related cell lines have been shown able to express ghrelin both at mRNA and at protein level.

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  • (PMID = 17983862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0083-6729
  • [Journal-full-title] Vitamins and hormones
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vitam. Horm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin
  • [Number-of-references] 130
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61. Toh CH, Wong HF, Jung SM, Wong AM: Radiation-induced skull base leiomyosarcoma presenting with intracerebral haemorrhage. Br J Radiol; 2007 Sep;80(957):e212-5
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  • Radiation-induced neoplasm including meningioma, glioma and sarcoma, is an uncommon but known consequence after therapeutic irradiation of pituitary tumour.
  • We herein present the second case of radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma that happened 17 years after radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, such an acute and severe presentation has never been reported in radiation-induced neoplasm following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tomography, X-Ray

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  • (PMID = 17928491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Kalinin PL, Fomichev DV, Kutin MA, Kadashev BA, Faĭzullaev RB: [Extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches in skull base surgery]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko; 2008 Oct-Dec;(4):47-9; discussion 49
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  • Pituitary adenomas and some other sellar tumors which traditionally require transcranial procedure now can be removed via endonasal route.

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  • (PMID = 19230482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8817
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal voprosy neĭrokhirurgii imeni N. N. Burdenko
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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63. Katznelson L: Approach to the patient with persistent acromegaly after pituitary surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Sep;95(9):4114-23
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  • [Title] Approach to the patient with persistent acromegaly after pituitary surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / therapy. Adenoma / surgery. Algorithms. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20823464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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64. Pertuit M, Barlier A, Enjalbert A, Gérard C: Signalling pathway alterations in pituitary adenomas: involvement of Gsalpha, cAMP and mitogen-activated protein kinases. J Neuroendocrinol; 2009 Nov;21(11):869-77
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  • [Title] Signalling pathway alterations in pituitary adenomas: involvement of Gsalpha, cAMP and mitogen-activated protein kinases.
  • Despite extensive research on sporadic pituitary adenomas, it is not yet possible to assign one protein alteration to one specific type of pituitary adenomas.
  • Nevertheless, alterations of the cAMP pathway appear to be molecular hallmarks of most growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas.
  • In this review, we summarise the literature regarding signalling alterations observed in GH-secreting adenomas.
  • In the light of results obtained on human somatotroph adenoma cells in primary culture and on models of murine somatotroph cell lines, we postulate a crucial role for ERK1/2 in GH-secreting adenomas downstream of cAMP pathway alterations that might impact the tumoural phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 19732293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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65. Semple PL, Webb MK, de Villiers JC, Laws ER Jr: Pituitary apoplexy. Neurosurgery; 2005;56(1):65-72; discussion 72-3
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  • [Title] Pituitary apoplexy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pituitary apoplexy is a rare yet potentially fatal disease.
  • We reviewed the combined experience of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, VA, and Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa, with 62 cases of pituitary apoplexy.
  • The average time of presentation was 14.2 days after the ictus, and 81% had no previous history of pituitary tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Pituitary apoplexy is often misdiagnosed because the majority of patients have undetected pituitary adenomas, and the presentation is often mistaken for subarachnoid hemorrhage.
  • Most cases of pituitary apoplexy occur spontaneously, although precipitating factors have been suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Apoplexy

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  • (PMID = 15617587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Yan G, Hou R, Zhuang D, Chen L, Pang Q, Zhu J: Proteomic analysis of prolactinoma cells by immuno-laser capture microdissection combined with online two-dimensional nano-scale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Proteome Sci; 2010 Jan 29;8:2
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  • BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenomas, the third most common intracranial tumor, comprise nearly 16.7% of intracranial neoplasm and 25%-44% of pituitary adenomas are prolactinomas.
  • Prolactinoma represents a complex heterogeneous mixture of cells including prolactin (PRL), endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and other stromal cells, making it difficult to dissect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of prolactin cells in pituitary tumorigenesis through high-throughout-omics analysis.
  • Thus, prolactin cell specific molecular events involved in pituitary tumorigenesis and cell signaling can be approached by proteomic analysis.
  • All MS/MS spectrums were analyzed by SEQUEST against the human International Protein Index database and a specific prolactinoma proteome consisting of 2243 proteins was identified.

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  • (PMID = 20205839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-5956
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteome science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteome Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2825229
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67. Jensen RL, Jensen PR, Shrieve AF, Hazard L, Shrieve DC: Overall and progression-free survival and visual and endocrine outcomes for patients with parasellar lesions treated with intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery. J Neurooncol; 2010 Jun;98(2):221-31
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  • Six patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas and eight with recurrent pituitary adenomas were treated.
  • Three of the pituitary tumors were hormonally active (two with Cushing disease, one with acromegaly).
  • [MeSH-major] Disease-Free Survival. Endocrine System Diseases / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / adverse effects. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20461446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Pawlikowski M, Lawnicka H, Pisarek H, Kunert-Radek J, Radek M, Culler MD: Effects of somatostatin-14 and the receptor-specific somatostatin analogs on chromogranin A and alpha-subunit (alpha-SU) release from "clinically nonfunctioning" pituitary adenoma cells incubated in vitro. J Physiol Pharmacol; 2007 Mar;58(1):179-88
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  • [Title] Effects of somatostatin-14 and the receptor-specific somatostatin analogs on chromogranin A and alpha-subunit (alpha-SU) release from "clinically nonfunctioning" pituitary adenoma cells incubated in vitro.
  • The aim of the study was to examine the effect of somatostatin (SST) and its analogs on the release of chromogranin A (CgA) and alpha-subunit (alpha-SU) from clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas incubated in vitro.
  • Seven pituitary macroadenomas surgically removed were investigated.
  • All adenomas also expressed chromogranin A (CgA) and at least 3 of 5 subtypes of somatostatin receptors.
  • The data suggest that the inhibition of CgA (and possibly of alpha-SU) release by SST is mediated via subtypes sst2A, sst3 and sst5, whereas sst2B subtype may induce the opposite effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Biomarkers, Tumor / secretion. Chromogranin A / secretion. Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / agonists. Somatostatin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17440235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-5910
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit; 0 / Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor sst2A; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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69. Schirmer CM, Heilman CB, Bhardwaj A: Pneumocephalus: case illustrations and review. Neurocrit Care; 2010 Aug;13(1):152-8
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  • In this article, we review the incidence, mechanisms, precipitating factors, diagnosis, and management of pneumocephalus.
  • Considering four case illustrations that typify pneumocephalus in clinical practice, we discuss the common etiologies, and confirm the diagnosis with neuroimaging and management strategies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adipose Tissue / transplantation. Aged. Arnold-Chiari Malformation / diagnostic imaging. Arnold-Chiari Malformation / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Child. Chronic Disease. Diagnosis, Differential. Hematoma, Subdural / diagnostic imaging. Hematoma, Subdural / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Skull Base Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20405340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-0961
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocritical care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocrit Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Lamas Oliveira C, Estrada García J: [Treatment of Cushing's disease. Transsphenoidal surgery and pituitary radiotherapy]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Mar;56(3):123-31
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  • [Title] [Treatment of Cushing's disease. Transsphenoidal surgery and pituitary radiotherapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento de la enfermedad de Cushing. Cirugía transesfenoidal y radioterapia hipofisaria.
  • Pituitary irradiation has been used as a therapeutic tool for many years.
  • We also review the different techniques that can be used for pituitary irradiation, as well as the efficacy and morbidity reported for each of these techniques in patients with Cushing's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypophysectomy / methods. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / therapy. Pituitary Irradiation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / radiotherapy. Adenoma / surgery. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypopituitarism / epidemiology. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Prognosis. Radiosurgery / methods. Remission Induction. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19627725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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71. Bertolini G, Furlanello T, Drigo M, Caldin M: Computed tomographic adrenal gland quantification in canine adrenocorticotroph hormone-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2008 Sep-Oct;49(5):449-53
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  • [Title] Computed tomographic adrenal gland quantification in canine adrenocorticotroph hormone-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
  • We conducted a retrospective study to determine whether multidetector computed tomography (CT) could be of value for adrenal gland assessment in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
  • Adrenal gland attenuation and volume values of 49 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism were recorded and age, body weight, and gender were examined to determine if a relationship existed between these variables and adrenal gland morphology.
  • There was not a statistically significant difference in mean X-ray attenuation of the left vs. right adrenal gland in normal dogs (35.3 +/- 6.1 HU), or in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
  • The mean volume of the left adrenal gland in normal dogs (0.59 +/- 0.17 cm3) was greater than that of the right adrenal gland (0.54 +/- 0.19 cm3) (P < 0.05).
  • There was no effect of age or gender on adrenal gland morphology or X-ray attenuation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Dog Diseases / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / veterinary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Case-Control Studies. Dogs. Female. Male. Pedigree. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18833952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Pamir MN, Peker S, Ozek MM, Dinçer A: Intraoperative MR imaging: preliminary results with 3 tesla MR system. Acta Neurochir Suppl; 2006;98:97-100
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  • Lesions were pituitary adenoma in 10, low grade glial tumor in 9, meningioma and high grade glial tumor in 2 each and metastasis, haemangioblastoma and chordoma in one each.

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  • (PMID = 17009706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1419
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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73. Cozzi L, Clivio A, Bauman G, Cora S, Nicolini G, Pellegrini R, Vanetti E, Yartsev S, Fogliata A: Comparison of advanced irradiation techniques with photons for benign intracranial tumours. Radiother Oncol; 2006 Aug;80(2):268-73
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  • [Title] Comparison of advanced irradiation techniques with photons for benign intracranial tumours.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The potential benefits and limitations of different radiation techniques (stereotactic arc therapy (SRS/T), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), helical tomotherapy (HT), Cyberknife and intensity-modulated multiple arc therapy (AMOA)) have been assessed using comparative treatment planning methods on twelve patients presenting with 'benign' brain tumours.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plans for five acoustic neurinomas, five meningiomas and two pituitary adenomas were computed to generate dose distributions for all modalities using a common CT dataset to delineate planning target volume and organs at risk.

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  • (PMID = 16890315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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74. Mansourian AR: A review on hyperthyroidism: thyrotoxicosis under surveillance. Pak J Biol Sci; 2010 Nov 15;13(22):1066-76
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  • The diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis relay on the thyroid function test carried out by the laboratory serum measurement of thyroxin, triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hormones accompanied by other para-medical examinations suggested by clinicians and endociologicst.
  • In thyrotoxicosis serum level of thyroid hormones and thyroxin in particular elevated accompanied by pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone suppression reaching to undetectable level in sever thyrotoxicosis.
  • Among the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis are, thyroid autoimmunity diseases thyroid toxic, adenoma toxic nodular and multinodular hyperthyroidism.
  • The main aim behind this review is to explore the clinical manifestation, the causative factors, diagnosis, metabolic disorder occur due to thyrotoxicosis.

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  • (PMID = 21313880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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75. Fajardo-Montañana C, Daly AF, Riesgo-Suárez P, Gómez-Vela J, Tichomirowa MA, Camara-Gómez R, Beckers A: [AIP mutations in familial and sporadic pituitary adenomas: local experience and review of the literature]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Aug-Sep;56(7):369-77
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  • [Title] [AIP mutations in familial and sporadic pituitary adenomas: local experience and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Mutaciones de AIP en adenomas hipofisarios familiares y esporádicos: experiencia local y revisión de la literatura.
  • Clinically relevant pituitary adenomas occur 3-5 times more frequently than previously thought.
  • When 2 or more cases of pituitary adenomas occur in the same family in the absence of the above-mentioned syndromes, a diagnosis of FIPA (familial isolated pituitary adenomas) is made, which accounts for 1-2% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • Also mutations in AIP can be detected in sporadic adenomas among young populations (< 30 years of age).
  • Also, the reported findings in sporadic adenomas in the young population are detailed, accompanied by the description of a 19- year old patient with an intronic AIP mutation.
  • Multicenter studies have provided understanding of aspects such as mutations in AIP; however, further studies are necessary to identify other genes involved in FIPA and sporadic pituitary adenomas occurring at a young age.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Mutation. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19883897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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76. Eller-Vainicher C, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Battista C, Torlontano M, Coletti F, Iorio L, Cairoli E, Beck-Peccoz P, Arosio M, Ambrosi B, Scillitani A, Chiodini I: Accuracy of several parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting before surgery the metabolic effects of the removal of an adrenal incidentaloma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Dec;163(6):925-35
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  • [Title] Accuracy of several parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting before surgery the metabolic effects of the removal of an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of several criteria of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting the metabolic outcome after adrenalectomy.

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011 Jan;7(1):3 [21197705.001]
  • (PMID = 20881060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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77. Trapani F, Del Basso De Caro ML, Insabato L, Papparella S, Paciello O: Type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2010 Sep 30;48(3):403-6
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  • [Title] Type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog.
  • The Silent Corticotroph Adenoma (SCA) is a pituitary adenoma variant characterized by the immunoreactivity for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and related peptides, without the clinical signs of Cushing's disease.
  • We describe a case of type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog.
  • Studying spontaneous occurring rare diseases in animals could help to understand the mechanism of similar diseases in human has well.

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  • (PMID = 21071346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.6.- / NADH Tetrazolium Reductase
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78. Krikorian A, Aron D: Evaluation and management of pituitary incidentalomas--revisiting an acquaintance. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;2(3):138-45
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  • [Title] Evaluation and management of pituitary incidentalomas--revisiting an acquaintance.
  • Incidentalomas of the pituitary gland have been described with increasing frequency, paralleling the advances in diagnostic imaging modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / therapy. Algorithms. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Prevalence. Prolactin / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16932273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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79. Narayanaswamy V, Rettig KR, Bhowmick SK: Excessive growth. Clin Pediatr (Phila); 2008 Sep;47(7):705-8
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  • Nevertheless, it is important to identify abnormal accelerated growth patterns in children, which may be the clue in the diagnosis of an underlying disorder.
  • We present a case of pituitary gigantism in a 2 1/2-year-old child and discuss the signs, symptoms, laboratory findings, and the treatment.
  • Brief discussions on the differential diagnosis of excessive growth/tall stature have been outlined.
  • Pituitary gigantism is very rare in the pediatrics age group; however, it is extremely rare in a child that is less than 3 years of age.
  • The nature of pituitary adenoma and treatment options in children with this condition have also been discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Gigantism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Female. Growth Hormone / blood. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / blood. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / physiopathology. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2008 Sep;47(7):708-10 [18724405.001]
  • (PMID = 18626098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9228
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Pediatr (Phila)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IGFBP3 protein, human; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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80. Fraioli MF, Moschettoni L, Fraioli C: Pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg; 2008 Aug;109(2):362-3; author reply 363-4
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] J Neurosurg. 2008 Jan;108(1):26-36 [18173307.001]
  • (PMID = 18671656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Bellut D, Hlavica M, Schmid C, Bernays RL: Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging-assisted transsphenoidal pituitary surgery in patients with acromegaly. Neurosurg Focus; 2010 Oct;29(4):E9
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  • [Title] Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging-assisted transsphenoidal pituitary surgery in patients with acromegaly.
  • OBJECT: Acromegaly is a rare disease, usually caused by a growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • METHODS: A series of 39 consecutive transsphenoidal iMR imaging-guided (using the PoleStar N20 device) surgical procedures performed between September 2005 and August 2009 for GH-producing pituitary adenomas was retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with acromegaly underwent 39 transsphenoidal surgeries for pituitary adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this largest study to date of GH-producing pituitary adenomas in which iMR imaging-guided transsphenoidal surgery was analyzed, the results suggest that this method is a highly effective and safe treatment modality, even compared with previously published surgical series in which high-field iMR imaging was used.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / surgery. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Intraoperative Care / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Remission Induction. Sphenoid Sinus. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20887134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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82. Kowarik M, Onofri C, Colaco T, Stalla GK, Renner U: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor expression and function in folliculostellate pituitary cells. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Feb;118(2):113-20
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  • [Title] Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor expression and function in folliculostellate pituitary cells.
  • Since little information is available on the impact of PDGF/PDGF receptors in normal and adenomatous pituitary, we studied the expression and action of this growth factor system in a variety of pituitary tumour cell lines and in rat anterior pituitary cell cultures.
  • By RT-PCR, mRNA expression of PDGF-A and -B chains and of both receptors was found in rat pituitary and mouse folliculostellate TtT/GF pituitary tumour cells.
  • Rat somatotroph MtT-S and mouse corticotroph AtT20 tumor cells expressed only a part of the PDGF/PDGF receptor components whereas mouse gonadotroph alphaT3-1 and rat lactosomatotroph GH3 pituitary tumour cells contained neither PDGF nor PDGF receptors.
  • Both in rat pituitary cell cultures and in TtT/GF cells, PDGF-AB and -BB strongly enhanced VEGF-A secretion.
  • Its role in endocrine pituitary tumour cell lines and pituitary adenomas need to be clarified in future studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.
  • (PMID = 19373754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
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83. Kajitani T, Liu S, Maruyama T, Uchida H, Sakurai R, Masuda H, Nagashima T, Ono M, Arase T, Yoshimura Y: Analysis of serum FSH bioactivity in a patient with an FSH-secreting pituitary microadenoma and multicystic ovaries: A case report. Hum Reprod; 2008 Feb;23(2):435-9
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  • [Title] Analysis of serum FSH bioactivity in a patient with an FSH-secreting pituitary microadenoma and multicystic ovaries: A case report.
  • FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (FSHoma) is often associated with increased levels of serum FSH and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).
  • OHSS may result not from increased FSH levels, but also from increased bioactivity of the FSH derived from the adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human / blood. Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human / secretion. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18056718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2350
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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84. Bondanelli M, Bonadonna S, Ambrosio MR, Doga M, Gola M, Onofri A, Zatelli MC, Giustina A, degli Uberti EC: Cardiac and metabolic effects of chronic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in young adults with pituitary gigantism. Metabolism; 2005 Sep;54(9):1174-80
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  • [Title] Cardiac and metabolic effects of chronic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in young adults with pituitary gigantism.
  • Chronic growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) excess is associated with considerable mortality in acromegaly, but no data are available in pituitary gigantism.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effects of early exposure to GH and IGF-I excess on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in adult patients with pituitary gigantism.
  • Six adult male patients with newly diagnosed gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary adenoma were studied and compared with 6 age- and sex-matched patients with acromegaly and 10 healthy subjects.
  • Morphologic and functional cardiac parameters were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography.
  • In conclusion, our data suggest that GH/IGF-I excess in young adult patients is associated with morphologic and functional cardiac abnormalities that are similar in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, whereas occurrence of impaired glucose metabolism appears to be higher in patients with acromegaly, although patients with gigantism are exposed to GH excess for a longer period.

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  • (PMID = 16125529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-0495
  • [Journal-full-title] Metabolism: clinical and experimental
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Metab. Clin. Exp.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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85. Bassareo PP, Marras AR, Pasqualucci D, Mercuro G: Increased arterial rigidity in children affected by Cushing's syndrome after successful surgical cure. Cardiol Young; 2010 Dec;20(6):610-4
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  • METHODS: In all, 23 young girls aged between 11 and 18 years who had undergone a surgical cure for Cushing syndrome - 18 with a pituitary adenoma, three with a primary adrenal disease, and two suffering from ectopic adrenocorticotrope hormone secretion - were enrolled.

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  • (PMID = 20487588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1467-1107
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiology in the young
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiol Young
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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86. Saussez S, Mahillon V, Chantrain G, Thill MP, Lequeux T: Acromegaly presented as a cause of laryngeal dyspnea. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2007 Dec;34(4):541-3
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  • The patient underwent a trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma.
  • Vocal cord fixation is probably due to hypopharyngeal and laryngeal soft tissue swelling and can be reversible after successful treatment of the adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Airway Obstruction / etiology. Dyspnea / etiology. Laryngeal Diseases / etiology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Laryngoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


87. Sato T, Muto I, Hasegawa M, Aono T, Okada T, Tamura T, Sakai T: A rare case of invasive ductal carcinoma with hyperprolactinemia. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(3):302-6
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  • She had been amenorrheic for 15 years following an incomplete pituitary adenomectomy for prolactinoma.
  • Morphologically, the mass resembled adenoma of the nipple.
  • Postoperatively, the plasma prolactin level was abnormally high, while the plasma estradiol level was quite low, although macro-pituitary adenoma was not detected by MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Hyperprolactinemia / etiology. Nipples / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography


88. Losa M, Mazza E, Terreni MR, McCormack A, Gill AJ, Motta M, Cangi MG, Talarico A, Mortini P, Reni M: Salvage therapy with temozolomide in patients with aggressive or metastatic pituitary adenomas: experience in six cases. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Dec;163(6):843-51
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  • [Title] Salvage therapy with temozolomide in patients with aggressive or metastatic pituitary adenomas: experience in six cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of either pituitary carcinoma or aggressive pituitary adenoma resistant to standard therapies is poor.
  • We assessed the efficacy of treatment with temozolomide, an oral second-generation alkylating agent, in a consecutive series of six patients with aggressive pituitary adenomas.
  • DESIGN: This was a 1-year prospective study of temozolomide therapy in six consecutive patients with pituitary carcinoma (one case) or atypical pituitary adenoma (five cases) resistant to standard therapies.
  • Temozolomide was given orally at a dose of 150-200 mg/m(2) per day for 5 days every 4 weeks for a maximum of 12 cycles.
  • Immunohistochemistry for O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in tumor sample showed a partial association with treatment response.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Temozolomide treatment has a wide range of efficacy in patients with pituitary carcinoma or locally aggressive pituitary adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20870708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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89. Tiemensma J, Biermasz NR, van der Mast RC, Wassenaar MJ, Middelkoop HA, Pereira AM, Romijn JA: Increased psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits, but normal cognitive functioning, in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;95(12):E392-402
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  • We compared these data with 60 patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMAs) and 60 matched controls.
  • These results suggest irreversible effects of previous GH excess, rather than effects of pituitary adenomas per se and/or their treatment, on the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / psychology. Long-Term Care / psychology. Mental Disorders / etiology. Personality Disorders / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / psychology


90. Lehman NL: The ubiquitin proteasome system in neuropathology. Acta Neuropathol; 2009 Sep;118(3):329-47
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  • In neuropathology, alteration of the UPS, or mutations in UPS target proteins may result in signaling abnormalities leading to the initiation or progression of tumors such as astrocytomas, hemangioblastomas, craniopharyngiomas, pituitary adenomas, and medulloblastomas.
  • In neurodegenerative diseases caused by the expression of mutant proteins, the cellular accumulation of these proteins may overload the UPS, indirectly contributing to the disease process, e.g., sporadic Parkinsonism and prion diseases.
  • Defects or dysfunction of the UPS may also underlie cognitive disorders such as Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome and autism, and muscle and nerve diseases, e.g., inclusion body myopathy and giant axon neuropathy.
  • This paper describes the basic biochemical mechanisms comprising the UPS and reviews both its theoretical and proven involvement in neuropathological diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Diseases / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Humans. Neurodegenerative Diseases / metabolism. Substrate Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19597829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS045077
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ubiquitin; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • [Number-of-references] 149
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716447
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91. Mucha SA, Meleń-Mucha G, Godlewski A, Stepień H: Inhibition of estrogen-induced pituitary tumor growth and angiogenesis in Fischer 344 rats by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat. Virchows Arch; 2007 Mar;450(3):335-41
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  • [Title] Inhibition of estrogen-induced pituitary tumor growth and angiogenesis in Fischer 344 rats by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat.
  • The development of estrogen-induced pituitary prolactinoma in Fischer 344 (F344) rats is associated with enhanced neovascularization.
  • Based on the significance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for tumor growth and angiogenesis, we have studied the effect of batimastat (BB-94), a synthetic MMPs inhibitor (MMPI) on the progression of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in rats.
  • Pituitary tumors were induced in male F344 rats by s.c. implantation of Silastic tubes containing diethylstilbestrol (DES).
  • The effects of chronic treatment with BB-94 (30 mg/kg b.w.) on pituitary weight, cell proliferation, apoptosis and vascular density were evaluated.
  • We have stated that chronic treatment with batimastat caused a significant reduction in the pituitary weight.
  • A marked increase in the apoptotic index within the pituitary was observed in the study group.
  • The ability of BB-94 to suppress established pituitary tumor growth suggests a possible application of MMPIs in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Phenylalanine / analogs & derivatives. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / blood supply. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Thiophenes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17235567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Thiophenes; 47E5O17Y3R / Phenylalanine; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; BK349F52C9 / batimastat; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases
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92. Lau SL, McGrath S, Evain-Brion D, Smith R: Clinical and biochemical improvement in acromegaly during pregnancy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Mar;31(3):255-61
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  • Numerous case reports of pregnancy in acromegaly exist, however detailed descriptions of changes in placental and pituitary GH and IGF-I throughout gestation are rare.
  • A 19-yr-old female presented to this institution with signs and symptoms of a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Human Growth Hormone / analysis. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Placenta / chemistry. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / physiopathology. Pregnancy Outcome. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 18401209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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93. Grigor'eva NN, Serova NK: [Visual functional changes in patients with pituitary adenoma: results of transnasal-transsphenoidal tumor removal]. Vestn Oftalmol; 2006 May-Jun;122(3):19-22
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  • [Title] [Visual functional changes in patients with pituitary adenoma: results of transnasal-transsphenoidal tumor removal].
  • The study was based on the analysis of case histories of 371 patients with pituitary adenoma who were examined and treated at the Acad. N. N.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Hypophysectomy / methods. Nose / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery. Vision, Ocular / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16826780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-465X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik oftalmologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn Oftalmol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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94. Leenstra JL, Tanaka S, Kline RW, Brown PD, Link MJ, Nippoldt TB, Young WF Jr, Pollock BE: Factors associated with endocrine deficits after stereotactic radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas. Neurosurgery; 2010 Jul;67(1):27-32; discussion 32-3
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  • [Title] Factors associated with endocrine deficits after stereotactic radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with anterior pituitary deficits after pituitary adenoma stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).
  • METHODS: The tumor, pituitary stalk, and pituitary gland were segmented on the dose plans of 82 patients (secreting tumors, n = 53; nonsecreting tumors, n=29) for dose-volume analysis.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (41%) developed new anterior pituitary deficits at a median of 32 months (range, 2-118) after SRS.
  • The risk of developing new anterior pituitary deficits was 16% and 45% at 2 and 5 years, respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis of the entire group showed that poor visualization of the pituitary gland (hazard ratio [HR]=2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-6.25, P=.03) was associated with a higher rate of new anterior pituitary deficits.
  • Dosimetric analysis of 60 patients whose pituitary gland could be clearly identified showed that increasing mean pituitary gland radiation dose correlated with new anterior pituitary deficits (HR=1.11, 95% CI=1.02-1.20, P=.02).
  • New anterior pituitary deficits stratified by mean pituitary gland radiation dose: <or=7.5 Gy, 0% (0/7); 7.6 to 13.2 Gy, 29% (7/24); 13.3 to 19.1 Gy, 39% (9/23); >19.1 Gy, 83% (5/6).
  • CONCLUSION: New endocrine deficits after pituitary adenoma radiosurgery were correlated with increasing radiation dose to the pituitary gland.
  • Methods that limit the radiation dose to the pituitary gland during SRS may increase the probability of preserving pituitary function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / radiation effects. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Radiosurgery / adverse effects


95. Nomura R, Yoshida D, Teramoto A: Stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression in pituitary adenoma tissues and upregulation in hypoxia. J Neurooncol; 2009 Sep;94(2):173-81
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  • [Title] Stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression in pituitary adenoma tissues and upregulation in hypoxia.
  • In this study, we investigated whether SDF-1 is triggered by hypoxia and might be a major driving force for tumor angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas.
  • SDF-1 and microvascular density (MVD) were detected by double-immunofluorescence microscopy in CD34-positive vessels from 59 cases with pituitary adenomas.
  • In vitro secretion of SDF-1 by the AtT20 mouse pituitary adenoma cell line under hypoxic conditions was quantitatively analyzed by ELISA, and SDF-1 mRNA levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR.
  • The current study strongly suggests that SDF-1 is a crucial angiogenic factor in pituitary adenomas, where it acts as a homing agent to mediate the mobilization of CD34-positive endothelial progenitor cells to the tumor parenchyma under hypoxic conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Chemokine CXCL12 / metabolism. Hypoxia / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19280118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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96. Pickett CA: Update on the medical management of pituitary adenomas. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2005 May;5(3):178-85
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  • [Title] Update on the medical management of pituitary adenomas.
  • The medical treatment of pituitary adenomas has changed significantly over the past decade.
  • Pharmacologic therapy for prolactinomas in the form of dopamine agonists has been available since the 1970s, and somatostatin analogues for treatment of growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas were introduced in the 1980s.
  • Furthermore, long-acting somatostatin analogues also have utility in treating thyrotropin adenomas and a subset of adrenocorticotroph tumors.
  • Limited clinical studies with long-acting dopamine agonists suggest that a subset of patients with GH, adrenocorticotroph, and gonadotropin/nonsecreting adenomas may also benefit from therapy with these agents.
  • This article highlights some of these evolving new ideas and approaches to the pharmacologic management of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15865883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-4042
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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97. Padova H, Rubinfeld H, Hadani M, Cohen ZR, Nass D, Taylor JE, Culler MD, Shimon I: Effects of selective somatostatin analogs and cortistatin on cell viability in cultured human non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 May 14;286(1-2):214-8
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  • [Title] Effects of selective somatostatin analogs and cortistatin on cell viability in cultured human non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Clinically "non-functioning" human pituitary adenomas (NFPA) constitute about 35% of pituitary adenomas.
  • Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) expression in these adenomas has previously been described both in vitro and in vivo, without evidence for a correlation with tumor volume or the therapeutic efficacy of somatostatin analogs.
  • This study was performed on 13 surgically removed pituitary macroadenomas, diagnosed before surgery as "non-functioning".
  • In addition, 3 growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas served as controls.
  • Cell viability was inhibited by all peptides studied in 2 out of 3 GH-secreting adenomas, expressing both receptors.
  • The third adenoma responded to SSTR2 analog and expressed only SSTR2.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Survival / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neuropeptides / pharmacology. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured


98. Rumboldt Z: Pituitary adenomas. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Jul;16(4):277-88
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas are by far the most common sellar tumor and magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for their detection and characterization.
  • One also has to be aware of common other incidental findings and normal age-related changes in the appearance of the gland.
  • For microadenomas, imaging is primarily used for lesion detection and localization, whereas with macroadenomas, the goal is to establish whether the mass represents a pituitary tumor or some other lesion and to precisely delineate its extent.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16785843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-3459
  • [Journal-full-title] Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Top Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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99. Much JW, Weber ED, Newman SA: Ocular neuromyotonia after gamma knife stereotactic radiation therapy. J Neuroophthalmol; 2009 Jun;29(2):136-9
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  • Three patients who underwent multiple intracranial operations for recurrent nonsecreting pituitary adenomas followed by gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery developed diplopia at 1, 5, and 6 years after the treatments.

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  • (PMID = 19491638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Fracassi F, Gandini G, Diana A, Preziosi R, Ingh TS, Famigli-Bergamini P, Kooistra HS: Acromegaly due to a somatroph adenoma in a dog. Domest Anim Endocrinol; 2007 Jan;32(1):43-54
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  • [Title] Acromegaly due to a somatroph adenoma in a dog.
  • CT scanning of the skull showed an enlarged pituitary gland with normal enhancement pattern.
  • The pituitary gland contained an acidophilic adenoma that immunostained positively for GH (and negatively for ACTH and alpha-MSH).
  • In conclusion, this Dalmatian dog with acromegaly and insulin resistance represents the first case of GH hypersecretion proven to be due to a somatotroph adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / veterinary. Adenoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16472961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0739-7240
  • [Journal-full-title] Domestic animal endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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