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1. Szende B, Arvai K, Peták I, Nagy K, Végsô G, Perner F: [Changes in gene expression in the course of proliferative processes in the parathyroid gland]. Magy Onkol; 2006;50(2):137-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Changes in gene expression in the course of proliferative processes in the parathyroid gland].
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in expression pattern of the most important genes connected with apoptosis in proliferative apoptotic lesions (hyperplasia, adenoma), applying cDNA microarray technique, in order to promote the possible diagnostic or therapeutic utilisation of any difference in gene expression compared to the healthy (normal) parathyroid gland.
  • Samples were taken from surgically removed 2 hyperplasias, 2 adenomas and 2 normal parathyroid glands.
  • The samples deriving from hyperplasia or adenoma were compared to samples from normal parathyroid glands.
  • The following genes were overexpressed in both hyperplasia and adenoma: CHEK1, ATM, BCL-XL, FAS, TNF, cIAP1, TRAIL, FADD, CASP 4,5,6,8, CD120b, CD137, LTA, TANK, TARF2, CAD, LIGHTR, DR3LG.
  • CASP1,10, BFAR, BOD, BCL2L2, TRANCE were underexpressed in both hyperplasia and adenoma.
  • Overexpressed only in adenoma: APOLLON, RIPK1, LTB, LTBR, CASP2,13, cIAP2, CIDEB.
  • Underexpressed only in adenoma: TRAF4 and FASLG.
  • As a result of this study, both pro-apoptotic and antiapoptotic genes were identified in hyperplasia and adenoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Apoptosis / genetics. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics


2. Imelda F, Bandar IN, Setiyohadi B, Suwondo P, Nasar IM, Darwito: Postural shortening due to primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma. Acta Med Indones; 2006 Apr-Jun;38(2):89-91
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Hyperparathyroidism, primary.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postural shortening due to primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma.
  • Osteoporosis can be primary or secondary.
  • Secondary osteoporosis is the result of an underlying disease such as an endocrine abnormality, and an example of such is primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism is based on the following biochemical examinations: parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, creatinine clearance, 24 hour urinary calcium, and another examination such as parathyroid gland scan.
  • The patient was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • We found high levels of parathyroid hormone and low levels of serum calcium caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Body Height / physiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / physiopathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16799210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
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3. Zhu X, Zhai H, Tang SF, Cheng Y: Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma presenting with neuromuscular manifestation. Neurol India; 2009 May-Jun;57(3):340-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma presenting with neuromuscular manifestation.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is not an uncommon endocrine disorder.
  • Serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were elevated and serum phosphorus was low.
  • The right lobectomy examination confirmed the diagnosis of an intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma of the right gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Neuromuscular Junction Diseases / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19587481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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4. Smayra T, Abi Khalil S, Abboud B, Halabi G, Slaba S: [Unusual location of a parathyroid adenoma: the carotid sheath]. J Radiol; 2006 Jan;87(1):59-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Unusual location of a parathyroid adenoma: the carotid sheath].
  • [Transliterated title] Localisation atypique d'un adénome parathyroïdien: la gaine carotidienne.
  • We report the imaging features of an occult parathyroid adenoma with unusual location in the carotid sheath.
  • Our patient presented with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Venous sampling of the neck confirmed the left location of the adenoma and a third surgical intervention found the adenoma embedded in the left carotid sheath.
  • This is an unusual case of parathyroid adenoma that necessitated the use of several imaging techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carotid Artery, Common / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiography, Digital Subtraction. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neck Dissection. Thyroid Gland / blood supply. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16415782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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5. Wani S, Hao Z: Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):389-93

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course of a patient with atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma manifesting as hypercalcemic parathyroid crisis.
  • METHODS: We present a case report and review the relevant literature on parathyroid cysts and atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas.
  • She had severe hypercalcemia (calcium level, 18.3 mg/dL) in conjunction with an elevated parathyroid hormone level of 1,472 pg/mL.
  • Intraoperatively, 25 mL of fluid was aspirated from the cystic mass, and the parathyroid hormone level in the fluid was 7,400,000 pg/mL.
  • The final pathologic diagnosis was an atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid cysts are uncommon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass.
  • Although most parathyroid cysts are nonfunctional, 10% to 15% of such cysts are functional and can rarely manifest as acute parathyroid crisis.
  • Atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas are rare and have an unpredictable clinical course.
  • Treatment options for parathyroid cysts include aspiration, injection of sclerosing agents, and surgical excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 16638726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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6. Balasanthiran A, Sandler B, Amonoo-Kuofi K, Swamy R, Kaniyur S, Kaplan F: Sarcoid granulomas in the parathyroid gland - a case of dual pathology: hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid adenoma and coexistent sarcoidosis with granulomas located within the parathyroid adenoma and thyroid gland. Endocr J; 2010;57(7):603-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sarcoid granulomas in the parathyroid gland - a case of dual pathology: hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid adenoma and coexistent sarcoidosis with granulomas located within the parathyroid adenoma and thyroid gland.
  • We present a highly unusual and interesting case of coexistent hyperparathyroidism and sarcoidosis leading to hypercalcaemia.
  • Parathyroid imaging was then requested and an adenoma was identified.
  • Surprisingly, surgery revealed the coexistence of a parathyroid adenoma with the unexpected finding of sarcoid granulomas within the parathyroid and thyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Granuloma / complications. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Diseases / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Sarcoidosis / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Gland / pathology


7. Tcherveniakov P, Menon A, Milton R, Papagiannopoulos K, Lansdown M, Thorpe JA: Video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) for surgical resection of ectopic parathyroid adenoma. J Cardiothorac Surg; 2007;2:41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) for surgical resection of ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia account for up to 25% of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT).
  • We present our experience with the novel use of Video-Assisted Mediastinoscopy (VAM) for resection of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid glands.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: 4 patients underwent VAM for removal of an ectopic intramediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • All of them had at least one previous unsuccessful neck exploration.In all cases histology confirmed complete resection of ectopic parathyroid glands (3 parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid hyperplasia).
  • CONCLUSION: The cervical approach for resection of ectopic parathyroid adenomas is frequently unsuccessful.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Choristoma / surgery. Mediastinoscopy / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery

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  • [Cites] Ann Thorac Surg. 2000 Jan;69(1):221-3 [10654517.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Thorac Surg. 2001 Feb;71(2):699-701 [11235732.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Thorac Surg. 1997 Jul;64(1):238-40 [9236371.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Biomed. 2003 Dec;74(3):157-9 [15055021.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Thorac Surg. 2001 Nov;72(5):1758-60 [11722090.001]
  • (PMID = 17937802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-8090
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cardiothoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2146999
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8. Kiverniti E, Kazi R, Rhys-Evans P, Nippah R: Airway obstruction due to giant non-parathyroid hormone-producing parathyroid adenoma. J Cancer Res Ther; 2008 Oct-Dec;4(4):197-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Airway obstruction due to giant non-parathyroid hormone-producing parathyroid adenoma.
  • Parathyroid gland tumors are unusual in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal tumors.
  • The eventual diagnosis on histology was parathyroid adenoma.
  • The patient had no clinical evidence of metabolic abnormalities and her pre- and postoperative calcium and postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were within normal limits.
  • This case poses the interesting question of whether identification of elevated PTH levels is an absolute prerequisite for diagnosing parathyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma. Adult. Airway Obstruction. Esophagus / metabolism. Female. Humans. Mediastinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Medical Oncology / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19052395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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9. Prasad KK, Agarwal G, Mishra SK, Krishnani N: Oxyphilic cell adenoma of parathyroid resulting in primary hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa cystica--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jul;49(3):448-50
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Hyperparathyroidism, primary.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oxyphilic cell adenoma of parathyroid resulting in primary hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa cystica--a case report.
  • Adenomas of the parathyroid gland, the majority of which are of the solitary chief cell type, are the most frequent cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • Parathyroid adenomas composed predominantly or exclusively of oxyphil cells are rare and most oxyphil cell adenomas of this organ remain clinically silent.
  • We present here a case of hyperfunctioning oxyphil cell adenoma of the parathyroid gland resulting in pHPT, osteitis fibrosa cystica and simultaneous bilateral fractures upper shafts of femora.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica / etiology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17001919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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10. Souza ER, Scrignoli JA, Bezerra FC, Ribeiro SL, Passos LF: Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma. J Clin Rheumatol; 2008 Oct;14(5):281-4
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Hyperparathyroidism, primary.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disease caused by exaggerated secretion of the parathyroid gland hormone, produced by an adenoma in 80% of cases.
  • Ectopic adenomas occur in a small proportion of cases.
  • Herein, the authors report a 72-year-old woman with a delayed diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, produced by an intrathoracic adenoma, with a longstanding course, presenting with severe osteoporosis, multiple fractures, bone deformities, and neurologic impairments.
  • Persistent hypercalcemia, high levels of alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were documented and a paratracheal mass was found on a helicoidal tomography of the thorax.
  • After surgical removal, the histopathological examination confirmed an ectopic adenoma of the parathyroid gland and the patient achieved some improvement in her clinical picture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Bone Diseases, Endocrine / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Choristoma. Female. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Nephrocalcinosis / etiology. Nephrolithiasis / etiology. Osteoporosis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Tracheal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18824925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-7355
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Shirzad N, Tehrani MR, Soltani A: A rare association of hyperparathyroidism and Turner's syndrome--a case report. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 May-Jun;59(3):232-4
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  • [Title] A rare association of hyperparathyroidism and Turner's syndrome--a case report.
  • After primary evaluation, she underwent treatment with calcium and vitamin D supplement with the diagnosis of osteomalacia in Turner's syndrome.
  • The rise of serum calcium during medical therapy, which was an unusual finding, attracted the clinician's attention to another underlying disorder.
  • Further evaluation revealed primary hyperparathyroidism due to an adenoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • Even though this is a rare diagnosis, its presence should be considered in any patient with Turner's syndrome presenting with severe osteoporosis and a rise in serum calcium during treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Turner Syndrome / complications

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  • (PMID = 18615398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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12. Van den Hauwe K, Oeyen SG, Schrijvers BF, Decruyenaere JM, Buylaert WA: A 50-year-old man with severe hypercalcemia: a case report. Acta Clin Belg; 2009 Sep-Oct;64(5):442-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: We present this case to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of an acute severe hypercalcemic syndrome due to primary hyperparathyroidism as a consequence of an undiagnosed adenoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • Serum levels of calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were markedly increased to 23.6 mg/dL (reference values 8.6-10.2 mg/dL) and > 1900 ng/L (reference values 14-72 ng/L) respectively.
  • A parathyroid adenoma was diagnosed and a few days later a parathyroidectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Acute primary hyperparathyroidism, also known as parathyroid storm or parathyroid crisis, is a rare but potentially fatal endocrine emergency if unrecognized and untreated.
  • Appropriate diagnosis and immediate adequate management of hypercalcemia are important in reducing mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / radiography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Parathyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19999395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3286
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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13. von Breitenbuch P, Iesalnieks I, Piso P, Schlitt HJ, Agha A: [Primary hyperparathyroidism: clinical symptoms, diagnostic significance and localisation--a retrospective analysis]. Zentralbl Chir; 2007 Dec;132(6):497-503
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Hyperparathyroidism, primary.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary hyperparathyroidism: clinical symptoms, diagnostic significance and localisation--a retrospective analysis].
  • BACKGROUND: The primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is one of the most frequent metabolic diseases.
  • Moreover, the question of the best localisation-diagnostics and the most frequent localisation of the adenoma is not yet clarified.
  • New operation strategies and more cost-efficient strategies for diagnostic and therapy could be developed due to the clinically established electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for intraoperative monitoring of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH).
  • The best preoperative diagnostic procedure for localisation of the adenoma of the parathyroid gland, in non preoperated patients, seemed to be the combination of ultrasound and scintigraphy.
  • The most common localisation of the adenoma was caudal, on the left side.
  • Today, the combination of iPTH-monitoring and minimal invasive unilateral cervical exploration should be considered as standard in the surgery of the adrenal gland.
  • Due to our data we recommend an exploration of the left caudal parathyroid gland first if the localisation of the adenoma could not be clarified preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Electrodiagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Luminescent Measurements. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / surgery. Male. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Postoperative Complications / blood. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [ErratumIn] Zentralbl Chir. 2008 Feb;133(1):85. Pompiliu, P [corrected to Piso, P]
  • (PMID = 18098076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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14. Colognesi A, de Tullio D, Messina F, Ferrocci G, Stano R, Azzena G: Primary hyperparathyroidism related to a parathyroid adenoma: the dramatic clinical evolution of a misdiagnosed patient and its surgical solution. Minerva Chir; 2006 Feb;61(1):51-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism related to a parathyroid adenoma: the dramatic clinical evolution of a misdiagnosed patient and its surgical solution.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a clinical condition related to an excessive and abnormally regulated secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands which is responsible for an alteration of the calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
  • Parathyroid adenomas are the most important cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (80-85%).
  • A case of parathyroid adenoma observed in a patient aged 47, admitted to the Emergency Medicine Department of our Hospital with a diagnosis of hypertensive crisis, cephalea, vomiting, and a clinical history of recurrent episodes of severe abdominal and renal pain, is presented.
  • The suspect of a primary hyperparathyroidism related to a single adenoma of the parathyroid gland suggested a surgical treatment.
  • The histologycal exam reported a parathyroid adenoma with large areas with haemorrage.
  • Patients affected by primary hyperparathyroidism are often misdiagnosed because their clinical conditions can create differential diagnosis problems with other diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16568023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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15. Knezević-Obad A, Tomić-Brzac H, Zarković K, Dodig D, Stromar IK: Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):25-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology.
  • The aim of this study is to establish possibilities of using cytology in the diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • 475 patients, all suspected to have parathyroid gland disease, were examined over a three-year period (from 1 of January 2006 to 31 of December 2008) in the Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Protection, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Croatia.
  • The parathyroid hormone (PTH) analysis was made for all punctates.
  • The adenoma was diagnosed via morphological characteristics in 71 out of 288 punctates that were proven adequate for cytological analysis.
  • Increased PTH levels were later on established in all diagnosed adenomas.
  • All patients with cytology-based diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma were sent to surgery, and the cytological diagnosis was confirmed by pathohistology.
  • In three cases, the parathyroid gland adenoma was established by pathohistology, although in these cases the cytological diagnosis was negative.
  • The cytological diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma can be considered reliable in 96% of cases, provided that the echosonographic structure and localisation of the punctured node is noted, and assuming that material adequate for cytological analysis is obtained by FNAB.
  • Possible pitfalls are oncocytic types of parathyroid adenoma, intranuclear inclusions and papillary formation of epithelial cells, and cystic degeneration of nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Eosine Yellowish-(YS). Epithelial Cells / pathology. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Methylene Blue. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Reproducibility of Results. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20432729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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16. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Ayoub S, Hachem K, Smayra T, Ghorra C, Abadjian G: Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively? World J Surg; 2007 Apr;31(4):817-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively?
  • INTRODUCTION: The role of cervical ultrasonography (US)-guided surgery for intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism is rarely reported.
  • METHODS: From 1996 to 2003, cervical explorations were performed in 178 patients (mean age 57 years) with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Patients' characteristics were reviewed to identify predictive factors for intrathyroid adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Cervical US identified abnormal parathyroid glands in 163 of 178 patients, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%.
  • Six patients (3.4%) were found to have intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas (two in the superior parathyroid and four in the inferior parathyroid).
  • Cervical US predicted this anomaly in four of six patients (67%) in whom the thyroid gland was not nodular and allowed total enucleation of the adenoma to be performed in three and subtotal thyroid loboisthmectomy in three; these operations were performed uneventfully and rapidly.
  • On multivariable analysis, no factor predicted intrathyroid localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PPV of high-resolution cervical US for identifying an abnormal parathyroid gland was 100% in this series.
  • It was 80% for predicting intrathyroid localization of the adenoma.
  • This method allows us to shorten the operating time by guiding the exploration immediately toward the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17354026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Kucera T, Veselý D, Pácová H, Martínek J, Astl J: Expression of nitric oxide synthases in parathyroid gland adenoma and parathyroid gland hyperplasia. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2005 Aug;26(4):373-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of nitric oxide synthases in parathyroid gland adenoma and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the presented study was to perform the immunohistochemical detection of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) isoform of nitric oxide synthase in the adenomatous and hyperplastic parathyroid gland in relation to the apoptotic process.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Tissue samples from 12 patients with parathyroid gland adenoma (PGA) and 10 patients with secondary parathyroid gland hyperplasia (PGH) were collected during surgery at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery of The First Faculty of Medicine in Prague.
  • RESULTS: The immunoreactivity to eNOS antibody was observed in the endothelial lining of vessels in PGA, PGH and in the rim of normal parathyroid gland adjacent to PGA sample.
  • CONCLUSION: eNOS observed in the vasculature of the enlarged parathyroid glands can serve as a factor that contributes to the viability of hypertrophic pathologic tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / enzymology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16136006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS3 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
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18. Târcoveanu E, Niculescu D, Cotea E, Moldovanu R, Vasilescu A, Crumpei F, Zbranca E, Zugun F, Rusu V, Ferariu D: [Parathyroid glands involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2009 Apr-Jun;113(2):482-96
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  • [Title] [Parathyroid glands involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia].
  • Parathyroid gland involvement is usually noted in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) type I and type II.
  • Parathyroid glands tumor associated with endocrine pancreatic tumor, as well as pituitary tumors is the typical pattern of MEN I.
  • The parathyroid gland is the most frequent abnormality in MEN I.
  • CASES REPORTS: We presented five cases with MEN I and parathyroid glands involvement.
  • In three cases with young ages (28-33 years old) and familial setting, the MEN I syndrome was "complete" (parathyroid adenoma, gastrinoma or insulinoma and pituitary adenoma--prolactinoma or GH-secreting tumors), and, in the other two cases, with 57 and 68 years old respectively, the MEN I syndrome was "incomplete" with parathyroid glands and pituitary gland involvement.
  • Unfortunately one patients died due to severe endocrine disorder.
  • During the necropsy, the pituitary adenoma has been diagnosed.
  • The imagistic and laboratory test diagnosed a tumor situated into the pancreatic body, and an parathyroid adenoma.
  • The resection of pancreatic tumor associated with resection of the parathyroid adenoma, in the same time, were performed.
  • The other two cases with "incomplete" MEN were older then the first patients, and were diagnosed with hyperparathyrodism and pituitary gland tumor.
  • The resection of parathyroid gland adenoma has been performed in both cases, with uneventful postoperative course.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The parathyroid glands involvement in MEN is common.
  • There are two kinds of MEN associated with parathyroid gland involvement: the "complete" form, especially in young patients, with diffuse involvement of the parathyroid glands, and the subtotal parathyroidy is the best choice, and the "incomplete" form, especially in elderly, with the involvement of a single parathyroid gland; in this way, the resection of the adenoma associated with biopsy from the other parathyroid gland is the best approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Gastrinoma / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatectomy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21495355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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19. Calbo L, Campennì A, Calbo E, Catalfamo A, Sciglitano P, Niceta M, Borzì R, Lizio R, Gorgone S: [Hyperparathyroidism from mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Case report]. G Chir; 2008 Jun-Jul;29(6-7):295-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Hyperparathyroidism from mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Iperparatiroidismo da adenoma paratiroideo a localizzazione mediastinica. Caso clinico.
  • The authors, after reviewing parathyroid gland diseases, their location, and the modern strategies that can be used for their pre-operative detection, describe a case of primary hyperparathyroidism which recently came to their attention.
  • The use of a combination of instrumental techniques (US, scintigraphy and SPEcT) enabled them to establish, prior to surgery, the mediastinal ectopic site of the parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroidectomy. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18544269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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20. Cappelli C, Pelizzari G, Pirola I, Gandossi E, De Martino E, Delbarba A, Agosti B, Agabiti Rosei E, Castellano M: Modified percutaneous ethanol injection of parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism. QJM; 2008 Aug;101(8):657-62
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  • [Title] Modified percutaneous ethanol injection of parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice for symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism; unlikely few patients do not meet established surgical criteria or have comorbid conditions that prohibit surgery.
  • It is currently in use for the treatment of secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism, however, few studies or case reports suggest it for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Solvents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18499732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2393
  • [Journal-full-title] QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] QJM
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Solvents; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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21. Benhammou A, Meziane M, Dib N, Nazih N, Boulaadas M, Essakali L, Kzadri M: [Maxilla-mandibular brown tumors as a first sign of parathyroid adenoma]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2009 Sep;126(4):216-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Maxilla-mandibular brown tumors as a first sign of parathyroid adenoma].
  • OBJECTIVES: Through a novel observation of parathyroid adenoma revealed by brown tumors of the jaws and a review of the literature, the authors describe this rare mode of primary hyperparathyroidism discovery.
  • The etiologic search consisted of a MRI of the neck, which showed a mass behind the thyroid gland, suggesting a parathyroid adenoma.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed at surgical exploration.
  • CONCLUSION: Brown tumors are a rare mode of parathyroid adenoma discovery, and the jaw location is exceptional.
  • The diagnosis is based on the parathormone rate, and radiological exams generally find the etiology.
  • Treatment is based on surgery of the parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Mandibular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Maxillary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcium / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Phosphorus / blood. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19524874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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22. Schachter PP, Ayesh S, Matouk I, Schneider T, Czerniak A, Hochberg A: Differential expression of kinase genes in primary hyperparathyroidism: adenoma versus normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Jan;131(1):126-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of kinase genes in primary hyperparathyroidism: adenoma versus normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue.
  • CONTEXT: Differentiation between adenoma and hyperplasia or even normal parathyroid tissue is difficult and based mainly on the surgeon's skill.
  • Exploration of genes that express differentially in these various tissues using microarrays and other sophisticated research tools will enable identification and perhaps development of new methods of perioperative diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assemble a panel of kinase genes to differentiate parathyroid adenoma from normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue.
  • DESIGN: RNA was extracted from adenoma, hyperplasia, and normal parathyroid tissue and hybridized to a microarray containing 359 human cDNAs of known kinase genes.
  • RESULTS: The ratio values considered significant (<0.5 or >1.5) suggest that genes up-regulated in parathyroid adenoma are those responsible for blood vessel angiogenesis and genes belonging to the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor groups.
  • Genes down-regulated in parathyroid adenoma are related to cellular growth and apoptosis--genes from the mitogen-activated protein kinase group and DNA-dependent protein kinase group.
  • An interesting gene down-regulated in the parathyroid adenoma samples is related to the serine/threonine protein kinases that exert a key function in calcium handling.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The kinase genes panel presented can be used to differentiate parathyroid adenoma from normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue in particular when histopathology fails to provide a decisive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Phosphotransferases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17227113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.- / Phosphotransferases
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23. Oztürk M, Ustek D, Akbas F, Kösem M, Abaci N, Alagöl F, Oztürk G, Kotan C: The presence of erythropoietin receptor in parathyroid cells. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Dec;30(11):RC35-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The presence of erythropoietin receptor in parathyroid cells.
  • CONTEXT: Effects of erythropoietin on parathyroid cell function has not been studied before.
  • OBJECTIVE: We aimed to demonstrate whether erythropoietin receptor present in parathyroid cells.
  • DESIGN: The specimens of normal parathyroid gland, parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia were retrieved from our pathology archives.
  • Its density was higher in normal parathyroid, followed by parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: Erythropoietin receptor is present in normal parathyroid, parathyroid adenoma, and hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Erythropoietin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18250608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Erythropoietin; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin
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24. Pino Rivero V, Pantoja Hernández CG, González Palomino A, Mora Santos ME, Pardo Romero R, Trinidad Ramos G, Montero García C, Blasco Huelva A: [Reoperation because of ectopic parathyroid adenoma with previous removal of lipothymoma. Importance of intraoperative PTH]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2006;33(6):565-71
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  • [Title] [Reoperation because of ectopic parathyroid adenoma with previous removal of lipothymoma. Importance of intraoperative PTH].
  • [Transliterated title] Reintervención por adenoma ectópico de paratiroides con extirpación previa de lipotimoma. Importancia de la PTH intraoperatoria.
  • Sometimes the surgery of hyperparathyroidism is not easy and the surgical team find difficulties to locate the pathological gland or glands.
  • We report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopic parathyroid adenoma which required two interventions.
  • First we removed what it seems an adenoma but resulted to be a lipotimoma.
  • In the reintervention practiced one week later, having then the rapid or turbo intraoperative PTH and previous digital scintigraphy, it was possible to remove an adenoma histologically confirmed, with 3,5 cm diameter located in depth to right thyroid lobe towards the superior mediastinal straits.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Intraoperative Care. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 17233271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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25. Sato N, Nakagawa T, Kanno M, Nakamura Y, Kishimoto K, Imai T: [Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 Aug;63(9):781-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma].
  • We experienced 3 surgical cases with ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • All patients checked elevated serum calcium levels and parathyroid hormone levels above normal range so we diagnosed their illness as primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • To determine the location of abnormal parathyroid glands, 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy, chest computed tomography (CT) scan and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were done, then posterior and anterior mediastinal tumors were revealed.
  • Especially MIBI scintigraphy was very useful as diagnostic procedure for small ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • It's considered that large tumor in the posterior mediastinum like case 1 is originated from upper parathyroid gland, and small tumor in the anterior mediastinum like case 2, 3 is originated from lower parathyroid gland.
  • Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were normalized immediately.
  • If we can detect the accurate location of small ectopic parathyroid adenoma using some intraoperative method, the tumor is resected by less invasive procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20715458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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26. Muthukrishnan J, Verma A, Modi KD, Kumaresan K, Jha S: Ectopic parathyroid adenoma--the hidden culprit. J Assoc Physicians India; 2007 Jul;55:515-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic parathyroid adenoma--the hidden culprit.
  • Primary Hyperparathyroidism is known to present with protean manifestations leading to misdiagnosis in the initial stages of the disease.
  • Inability to locate the adenoma in an ectopic parathyroid gland may further delay the diagnosis of these cases.
  • Aberrant migration during development may lead to intrathyroidal or other ectopic locations of parathyroid glands.
  • Similarity in cytological picture between thyroids and parathyroids may further complicate diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • We encountered three such cases with the parathyroid gland adenomas in ectopic locations in which pre-operative nuclear imaging played a major role.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17907504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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27. Berland T, Smith SL, Huguet KL: Occult fifth gland intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma identified by gamma probe. Am Surg; 2005 Mar;71(3):264-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Occult fifth gland intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma identified by gamma probe.
  • The gamma probe was instrumental in guiding us to the adenoma in a fifth gland that was not visible and was localized to the parenchyma of the left lobe of the thyroid gland.
  • Many surgeons do not advocate use of the gamma probe in minimally invasive parathyroidectomy and rely solely on focused exploration on the basis of a preoperative sestamibi scan and intraoperative rapid parathyroid hormone assays.
  • This case, however, illustrates the utility of the gamma probe in parathyroid adenoma localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / abnormalities. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gamma Cameras. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / instrumentation. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15869146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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28. Kirov G, Boneva Zh, Protich M, Koleva N, Paskalev V, Iovchevski P, Lozev I, Liutskanov V: [Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma and ectopic parathyroid gland in thyroid nodule - report of two cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2007;(3):64-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma and ectopic parathyroid gland in thyroid nodule - report of two cases].
  • Ectopic locations of parathyroid adenomas are a rare condition and can cause difficulty in their diagnosis and surgical treatment.
  • We report two cases of intrathyroid parathyroid lesions.
  • In the first patient, preoperative localization studies suggested the possibility of a parathyroid adenoma outside the thyroid gland.
  • When a pathological gland is not found during surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism, an ectopic parathyroid gland was found in the thyroid tissue.
  • In the second patient, in an existing thyroid nodule was found an ectopic normal parathyroid gland postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma. Goiter, Nodular. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18437114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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29. Kim SC, Kim S, Inabnet WB, Krynyckyi BR, Machac J, Kim CK: Appearance of descended superior parathyroid adenoma on SPECT parathyroid imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Feb;32(2):90-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appearance of descended superior parathyroid adenoma on SPECT parathyroid imaging.
  • An ectopic superior parathyroid adenoma (SPA) descends inferoposteriorly and can migrate to the posterior mediastinum.
  • It often appears on sestamibi planar parathyroid imaging as an inferior lesion, which can be misleading to inexperienced surgeons.
  • METHODS: Sestamibi SPECT imaging studies performed on 103 patients who had parathyroid adenomas with their origin and locations confirmed by surgery and histology were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Abnormal foci seen on the SPECT images were grouped as to location relative to the thyroid gland as superior (S), middle (M), and inferior (I).
  • Ten foci were at the M level, including 6 SPA and 4 inferior parathyroid adenomas (IPA).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 17242559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Rajagopalan MS, Narla VV, Kanderi T, Muthukrishnan A: Para-hyoid ectopic parathyroid adenoma localized by Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Dec;33(12):880-1

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Para-hyoid ectopic parathyroid adenoma localized by Tc-99m MIBI SPECT.
  • A 64-year-old woman with a history of I-131 ablation for Graves hyperthyroidism and bilateral parathyroid exploration with resection of a left inferior parathyroid adenoma presented 2 years after surgery with marked fatigue, irritability, and joint pain.
  • Laboratory testing revealed an elevated calcium and parathyroid hormone levels suspicious for hyperparathyroidism.
  • The ultrasound indicated no evidence of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT demonstrated a focus of uptake posteroinferior to the right submandibular gland, suspicious for a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Repeat ultrasound and CT confirmed the presence of a para-hyoid adenoma inferior to the right submandibular gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / pathology. Choristoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyoid Bone / pathology. Hyoid Bone / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 19033797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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31. Ogawa T, Tsuji E, Kanauchi H, Yamada K, Mimura Y, Kaminishi M: Excision of postesophageal parathyroid adenoma in posterior mediastinum with intraoperative 99mTechnetium sestamibi scanning. Ann Thorac Surg; 2007 Nov;84(5):1754-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Excision of postesophageal parathyroid adenoma in posterior mediastinum with intraoperative 99mTechnetium sestamibi scanning.
  • Although approximately 25% of parathyroid tumors in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism are located in the mediastinum, nearly all these tumors can be removed through cervical exploration.
  • The mediastinal tumors are usually located in the inferior parathyroid gland, and the ectopic mediastinal tumors derived from the superior glands are extremely rare.
  • We present a case of retroesophageal mediastinal parathyroid adenoma that developed in the left superior parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Choristoma / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17954108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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32. Akin H, Gunluoglu Z, Kara V, Melek H, Dincer I: Mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenoma: report of two cases successfully treated by VATS approach. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2008 Feb;56(1):60-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenoma: report of two cases successfully treated by VATS approach.
  • Ectopic parathyroid adenomas are the cause of approximately one in four cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • Most ectopic parathyroid adenomas are located adjacent to the upper thymus gland and can be resected with a collar incision.
  • In rare cases, however, adenomas located in the chest require a transsternalor transthoracic approach.
  • We present two cases with primary hyperparathyroidism due to mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenoma that were successfully treated by VATS approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 18200473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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33. Chaychi L, Chaidarun S, Golding A, Kinlaw WB, Memoli V, Siegel A: Unusual recurrence of hypercalcemia due to concurrent parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid sarcoidosis with lymph node involvement. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):463-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual recurrence of hypercalcemia due to concurrent parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid sarcoidosis with lymph node involvement.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient presenting with the rare findings of synchronous parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid sarcoidosis.
  • RESULTS: A 67-year-old man had the following initial blood test results: calcium, 11.1 mg/dL (reference range, 8.5-10.6 mg/dL); albumin 4.0 g/dL (reference range, 3.2- 5.2 g/dL); intact parathyroid hormone, 166 pg/mL (reference range, 10-69 pg/mL); creatinine, 1.9 mg/dL; 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 15 ng/mL (reference range, 30-80 ng/mL); and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 44 pg/mL (reference range, 16-72 pg/mL).
  • Pathologic examination of the resected gland confirmed the diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma, and subsequent review disclosed the presence of noncaseating granulomas within the adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sarcoidosis with parathyroid involvement causing severe hypercalcemia is unique to this case.
  • Recurrent hypercalcemia after successful resection of a parathyroid adenoma may require consideration of potential causes other than the initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Aliyev A, Kabasakal L, Simsek O, Paksoy M, Halac M, Uslu I: Ectopic parathyroid adenoma localized with MIBI scintigraphy and excised with guide of macroaggregated human serum albumin injection. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Mar;35(3):151-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic parathyroid adenoma localized with MIBI scintigraphy and excised with guide of macroaggregated human serum albumin injection.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by an excessive amount of parathyroid hormone secreted by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands.
  • Most commonly primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Ectopic parathyroid adenomas are rare, but they can complicate the surgical treatment and have an increased morbidity and poorer success rate.
  • Thus, preoperative imaging is particularly valuable in this group of patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • Preoperative imaging has opened up a new era of minimally invasive parathyroid surgery procedures.
  • In this report, we investigated the usefulness of the radio-guided occult lesion localization technique in the identification of ectopic parathyroid adenomas.
  • Tc-99m methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile scintigraphy identified an ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • Careful dissection was then carried out and an enlarged ectopic parathyroid gland was removed.
  • In conclusion, the preoperative imaging of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma and the excision of this tissue with radioguided occult lesion localization technique can open up a new era of minimally invasive parathyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / radionuclide imaging. Choristoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Serum Albumin / administration & dosage. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 20173443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Serum Albumin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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35. Yeşilkaya E, Cinaz P, Bideci A, Camurdan O, Demirel F, Demircan S: Hungry bone syndrome after parathyroidectomy caused by an ectopic parathyroid adenoma. J Bone Miner Metab; 2009;27(1):101-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hungry bone syndrome after parathyroidectomy caused by an ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • Hungry bone syndrome (HBS), i.e., persistent hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia as a result of extensive remineralization, is rarely encountered in children after parathyroid surgery.
  • Herein, we report a 12-year-old girl who was diagnosed to have an ectopic parathyroid adenoma, and HBS was observed in the postsurgical follow-up.
  • The diagnosis and the risk factors are discussed in the light of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypocalcemia / etiology. Hypophosphatemia / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Syndrome. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19057842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-8779
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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36. Imachi H, Murao K, Kontani K, Yokomise H, Miyai Y, Yamamoto Y, Kushida Y, Haba R, Ishida T: Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis. Endocrine; 2009 Oct;36(2):194-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis.
  • After the episode of acute pancreatitis subsided, laboratory investigation revealed increased serum calcium (12.0 mg/dl), decreased serum phosphorus (2.7 mg/dl), and increased serum parathyroid hormone (intact) levels (131 pg/ml).
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck did not reveal any mass lesions in the parathyroid gland.
  • However, (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy revealed that there was one functioning parathyroid gland in the upper mediastinum.
  • Combined (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy and CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in the mediastinum.
  • Microscopic examination revealed the presence of a parathyroid adenoma (1.3 x 0.4 cm(2)) adjacent to the atrophic parathyroid gland in right thymus gland.
  • We report the case of a patient diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • An ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma may manifest as an episode of acute pancreatitis.
  • Preoperative investigation to determine the exact location of an adenoma should include two types of imaging studies, preferably (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy and CT of the neck and chest.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Choristoma. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Pancreatitis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male

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  • (PMID = 19598003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Libánský P, Astl J, Adámek S, Nanka O, Pafko P, Spacková J, Foltán R, Sedý J: Ectopic parathyroid adenoma in child. Prague Med Rep; 2008;109(2-3):200-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic parathyroid adenoma in child.
  • Ultrasonography and MIBI scintigraphy showed a structure near the lower pole of thyroid gland.
  • The structure macroscopically appeared as adenoma, histologically it was thymic tissue.
  • Bilateral neck exploration together with exploration of cervical thymic extensions was performed; adenoma was not found.
  • Adenoma was located by MIBI-SPECT/CT near the left border of jugulum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / complications. Neck. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19548602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1214-6994
  • [Journal-full-title] Prague medical report
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prague Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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38. Berri RN, Lloyd LR: Detection of parathyroid adenoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: the use of office-based ultrasound in preoperative localization. Am J Surg; 2006 Mar;191(3):311-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of parathyroid adenoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: the use of office-based ultrasound in preoperative localization.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this investigation is to show that preoperative localization of the parathyroid gland using office-based ultrasound (US) and Tc-99m sestamibi scan is superior to all other approaches in detecting a parathyroid adenoma.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 43 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • RESULTS: In 42 of 43 patients, office-based US performed by a surgeon and sestamibi scintigraphy successfully detected the location of a parathyroid abnormality (42/43 cases, sensitivity = 98%, P < .05 =.0001).
  • Office-based US localized the abnormal gland to the specific side (right/left) in 36 of 43 cases (84%).
  • US localized the abnormal gland to the specific quadrant (34/43 cases [79%] sensitivity versus 23/43 cases [53%] sensitivity using sestamibi scan alone to localize to the specific quadrant, P = .03).
  • CONCLUSION: It is clear that the combined modalities of office-based US and sestamibi scintigraphy in preoperative localization have a high success rate and should be considered in parathyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16490537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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39. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Rabaa L, Daher R, Abou Zeid H, Jabbour H, Hachem K, Smayra T: Ultrasonography: highly accuracy technique for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma. Laryngoscope; 2008 Sep;118(9):1574-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasonography: highly accuracy technique for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study evaluates the accuracy of ultrasonography in guided unilateral parathyroidectomy to treat primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • METHODS: Two hundred fifty-three patients with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent preoperative ultrasonography.
  • Group 1 included the patients in whom the preoperative cervical ultrasound localized one abnormal parathyroid gland; these patients underwent unilateral surgical exploration of the neck under local anesthesia.
  • RESULTS: Sensitivity and positive predictive value of ultrasonography in detecting abnormal parathyroid gland were 96% and 98%, respectively.
  • Mediastinal and retroesophageal localizations of abnormal parathyroid gland adversely affected the accuracy of the ultrasound.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Preoperative Care / methods. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18475203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Kirk J, Au-Yong I, Ganatra R: Multimodality imaging of a retrosternal parathyroid adenoma with multiple brown tumors. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Sep;34(9):555-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodality imaging of a retrosternal parathyroid adenoma with multiple brown tumors.
  • Brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism are rare but can mimic metastatic disease on many imaging modalities.
  • We report the case of a patient presenting with symptomatic brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism due to a large retrosternal parathyroid adenoma, with histopathological correlation of both.
  • The initial imaging findings on plain radiography, computed tomography, and bone scintigraphy were nonspecific and difficult to differentiate from the more common diagnosis of metastatic disease.
  • Whole body sestamibi imaging however demonstrated increased uptake within both the mediastinal mass and multiple bone lesions leading to the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / radiography. Hyperparathyroidism / ultrasonography. Thyroid Gland / radiography. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19692812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Grosso I, Sargiotto A, D'Amelio P, Tamone C, Gasparri G, De Filippi PG, Picciotto G, Isaia G: Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma with sonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Ultrasound; 2007 May;35(4):186-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma with sonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and usefulness of dual-phase 99mTc-Sestamibi scintigraphy (SS) and sonography (US) of the neck, alone and in combination, as noninvasive adenoma localizing procedures in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism prior to parathyroidectomy.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 79 patients with parathyroid (PT) adenomas and confirmed diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism who were evaluated with SS and US prior to successful parathyroidectomy.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-three adenomas were removed during bilateral neck exploration.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No benefit was gained from using both SS and US for the preoperative localization of PT adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • US, when performed by a skilled operator, is a reliable tool for PT adenoma localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Parathyroidectomy. Postoperative Complications. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17354248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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42. Whyte S, Cannon M: In search of stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychic moans: putting the pieces together--a case of parathyroid adenoma. Perspectives; 2009;33(2):5-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In search of stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychic moans: putting the pieces together--a case of parathyroid adenoma.
  • An often neglected and frequently forgotten gland in the body is the parathyroid.
  • The parathyroid glands (there are four) play a vital role in maintaining body function by regulating calcium levels through the secretion of parathyroid hormone.
  • When function of the parathyroid gland becomes abnormal and calcium regulation is altered, there can be serious consequences to the patient in the form of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Due to the variable symptoms, making an accurate diagnosis can be a challenge for the clinician.
  • This paper will provide an overview of the parathyroid glands, identification of the signs and symptoms of a parathyroid adenoma, a discussion about the tests that facilitate a definitive diagnosis and a review of treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19813385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0831-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Perspectives (Gerontological Nursing Association (Canada))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Perspectives
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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43. Mydlarz WK, Zhang K, Micchelli ST, Kim M, Tufano RP: Ipsilateral double parathyroid adenoma and thyroid hemiagenesis. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2010;72(5):272-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ipsilateral double parathyroid adenoma and thyroid hemiagenesis.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe a case of left thyroid dysgenesis, accompanied by ipsilateral double parathyroid adenomas in a setting of primary hyperparathyroidism, and to review the pertinent literature on the diagnosis of these rare clinical scenarios.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsies of what was thought to be two concerning thyroid nodules revealed potential double intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas.
  • Video-assisted exploration verified double parathyroid adenomas and revealed concomitant left thyroid lobe dysgenesis.
  • Intact parathyroid hormone level returned to normal and a greater than 50% drop from baseline was achieved intraoperatively with subsequent long-term cure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid dysgenesis is a rare, poorly understood and potentially confusing variety of developmental anomalies, which can be associated with thyroid as well as parathyroid disease.
  • Clinical diagnosis is highly dependent upon the clinician maintaining an index of suspicion for these anomalies, thorough physical examination and careful review of available imaging modalities, especially while investigating thyroid and parathyroid disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Dysgenesis / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 20733341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0275
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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44. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Helou E, Mansour E, Tohme C, Noun R, Sarkis R: Existence and anatomic distribution of double parathyroid adenoma. Laryngoscope; 2005 Jun;115(6):1128-31

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Existence and anatomic distribution of double parathyroid adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Double parathyroid adenomas occur in 2% to 15% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases, but the very existence of double adenomas has been controversial.
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical significance and anatomic distribution of parathyroid double adenomas.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Mono-institutional retrospective study of the medical records of 183 unselected consecutive patients who underwent intervention for primary hyperparathyroidism between 1996 and 2003.
  • RESULTS: A total of 14 (7.65%) patients were found to have double parathyroid adenomas.
  • Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were measured in every case.
  • Two enlarged parathyroid glands were identified in four possible configurations: two both superior, one both inferior, two both right, three both left, two right superior and left inferior, and three left superior and right inferior.
  • There was a preferential crossed bilateral distribution of double adenomas.
  • In all patients, intraoperative PTH levels dropped by at least 50% from baseline after removal of both abnormal parathyroid glands.
  • CONCLUSION: The drop in intraoperative PTH levels and maintenance of normocalcemia postoperatively confirm previous reports that double adenomas do exist and are not simply missed cases of four-gland hyperplasia.
  • There was a preferential crossed bilateral distribution of double adenomas in this series.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15933536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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45. Anaforoğlu I, Siviloğlu C, Livaoğlu A, Algün E: Granulomatous infiltration of a parathyroid adenoma presenting as primary hyperparathyroidism in a woman: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:400

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granulomatous infiltration of a parathyroid adenoma presenting as primary hyperparathyroidism in a woman: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Hypercalcemia can be associated with vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) -mediated granulomatous disorders in addition to primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
  • There are many reports about co-presentation of a parathyroid adenoma and a granulomatous disorder in the literature.
  • However, granulomatous inflammation within a parathyroid adenoma is very rare.
  • She underwent excision of an enlarged right inferior parathyroid gland.
  • Histopathological analysis revealed features of a parathyroid adenoma with foci of epithelioid non-caseating granulomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Granulomatous infiltration of a parathyroid adenoma is a rare condition.
  • Pathological examination of the excised adenoma is the only way to diagnose the underlying occult granulomatous disorder.
  • Clinicians should also consider persistent hypercalcemia to be a possible indicator of concomitant parathyroid adenoma.

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  • [Cites] Endocr Pathol. 2001 Fall;12(3):355-9 [11740057.001]
  • [Cites] Endocr Pathol. 2005 Summer;16(2):157-60 [16199902.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Intern Med. 1980 Nov;140(11):1547-8 [7436654.001]
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  • (PMID = 21143903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3019160
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46. Svec A, Bury Y: Haemangioma of the parathyroid gland. Does it really exist? Pathol Oncol Res; 2010 Sep;16(3):443-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Haemangioma of the parathyroid gland. Does it really exist?
  • We are reporting a case of a capillary haemangioma-like proliferation arising within a parathyroid gland adenoma, associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • We investigated expression of VEGF, pKDR, FGF2, HIF1alpha and HIF2alpha and only VEGF gave a strong positive reaction in the adenoma cells entrapped in the vascular meshwork.
  • The production of vasostatin I may have been reduced in a chromogranin A-negative adenoma which could lead to a loss of its opposing effect on VEGF-regulated processes.
  • The only two other published cases of haemangioma of the parathyroid gland were reported in patients diagnosed with primary parathyroid hyperplasia with hyperparathyroidism, a pathophysiologic condition similar to our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20063187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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47. Thongtang N, Plengvidhaya N, Lertwattnarak R, Peepatdit T: Primary hyperparathyroidism due to cystic parathyroid adenoma: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai; 2007 Nov;90 Suppl 2:79-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism due to cystic parathyroid adenoma: a case report.
  • Raw Cystic parathyroid adenoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The authors report one case of cystic parathyroid adenoma, who presented with progressive right hip pain for one year.
  • Parathyroid hormone level was evaluated later and was found to be high, 1,555 pg/ml (15-65 pg/ml).
  • An MRI study of the neck was done and revealed a cystic mass 38 x 36 x 40 mm in diameter just below the left lower pole of the thyroid gland.
  • Hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland was considered.
  • Parathyroidectomy was done and histopathology revealed cystic parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19230428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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48. Ahmad S, Mufti TS, Khan AA, Ahmad S: Parathyroid carcinoma. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2006 Apr-Jun;18(2):84-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism and these tumors are usually hyper-functioning as compared to other malignant endocrine tumors.
  • Surgery is the only effective primary treatment.
  • Parathyroid adenoma was initially diagnosed and localized at left lower gland by Sestamibi scan and ultrasonography.
  • She underwent surgery and enlarged parathyroid gland was removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16977824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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49. Kraas J, Clark PB, Perrier ND, Morton KA: The scintigraphic appearance of subcapsular parathyroid adenomas. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Apr;30(4):213-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The scintigraphic appearance of subcapsular parathyroid adenomas.
  • PURPOSE: Approximately 5 to 10% of parathyroid adenomas are located within the thin, fibrous capsule of the thyroid gland.
  • These subcapsular adenomas can complicate minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Palpation is less sensitive when the adenoma is covered by the thyroid capsule.
  • If a subcapsular parathyroid adenoma can be identified on preoperative parathyroid scintigraphy, nuclear medicine physicians can recommend exploration of the thyroid capsule early, leading to an easier, more efficient operation.
  • The objective of this observational study was to identify the scintigraphic appearance of subcapsular parathyroid adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 109 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent preoperative dual-phase Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy at our tertiary care center from October 2002 to March 2004.
  • Retrospective chart review identified 16 surgically proved subcapsular parathyroid adenomas.
  • Parathyroid scintigraphy was reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Subcapsular parathyroid adenomas tend to conform to the expected shape of the thyroid gland.
  • In this small series, subcapsular parathyroid adenomas followed 1 of 3 patterns on lateral images:.
  • CONCLUSION: Subcapsular parathyroid adenomas often have a distinct appearance on scintigraphy.
  • Preoperative identification of this type of parathyroid adenoma can direct a subcapsular surgical approach, optimizing the efficiency of the minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Preoperative Care / methods. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 15764873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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50. Kamaya A, Quon A, Jeffrey RB: Sonography of the abnormal parathyroid gland. Ultrasound Q; 2006 Dec;22(4):253-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sonography of the abnormal parathyroid gland.
  • In 80% to 90% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, a single parathyroid adenoma will be identified as the culprit, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% are caused by multiple adenomas, parathyroid hyperplasia, and rarely, parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Therefore, preoperative localization of the adenoma is critical in the clinical evaluation of the patient before surgical resection.
  • Although adenomas less than 1 cm may be difficult to visualize sonographically, knowledge of typical imaging characteristics of parathyroid adenomas and use of special sonographic techniques will facilitate identification in most patients.
  • Typical imaging characteristics of parathyroid adenomas include homogeneously hypoechoic echotexture on gray scale with an enlarged feeding artery and peripheral arc of vascularity seen on color and power Doppler.
  • Proper neck extension, unilateral graded compression techniques, and patient swallowing will improve visualization of adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17146333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-8771
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound quarterly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Q
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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51. Moretz WH 3rd, Watts TL, Virgin FW Jr, Chin E, Gourin CG, Terris DJ: Correlation of intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels with parathyroid gland size. Laryngoscope; 2007 Nov;117(11):1957-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation of intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels with parathyroid gland size.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship of intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone levels (iPTH) with parathyroid adenoma weight and volume in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Data collected include preoperative serum calcium, ionized calcium, and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, iPTH levels at baseline, 5 minutes, and 10 minutes, and parathyroid adenoma weight.
  • Adenoma volume was calculated using an equation for the volume of a spheroid object.
  • RESULTS: Thirty patients underwent minimally invasive parathyroidectomy with iPTH measurement for a single parathyroid adenoma between March 2004 and January 2006.
  • A significant correlation between preoperative serum calcium and ionized calcium levels and parathyroid adenoma weight was identified (P = .0008 and P = .03, respectively).
  • A significant correlation was also shown between baseline iPTH measurements and parathyroid adenoma volume (P = .03).
  • There was no correlation between baseline iPTH levels and parathyroid adenoma weight.
  • There was a significant correlation between parathyroid adenoma weight and percentage decrease of iPTH levels at 10 minutes compared to baseline (P = .04).
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative serum calcium and baseline iPTH levels may be useful in predicting parathyroid adenoma weight and volume, respectively.
  • Adenoma weight may relate to the percentage decrease of iPTH levels at the 10-minute postparathyroidectomy interval.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17891053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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52. Brachet C, Boros E, Tenoutasse S, Lissens W, Andry G, Martin P, Bergmann P, Heinrichs C: Association of parathyroid adenoma and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia in a teenager. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Jul;161(1):207-10
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  • [Title] Association of parathyroid adenoma and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia in a teenager.
  • OBJECTIVE: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) is clinically characterized by mild to moderate parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent hypercalcaemia, autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, and normal to frankly reduced urinary calcium excretion in spite of a high serum calcium (clearance (Ca)/clearance (Cr)<0.01).
  • FHH has a benign course and should be differentiated from primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • DESIGN: We report the case of a 16-year-old patient with hypercalcaemia and a mixed family history of parathyroid adenoma and mild hypercalcaemia.
  • A surgical four-gland exploration confirmed a single parathyroid adenoma.
  • After surgical resection of a left superior parathyroid adenoma, the patient's hypercalcemia improved but did not normalize, returning to a level typical of FHH.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thus, this 16-year old patient presented with the association of FHH and a single parathyroid adenoma.
  • The young age of the patient and the association of parathyroid adenoma and FHH in his grandmother argue for a causal link between CASR mutation and parathyroid adenoma in this family.

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  • (PMID = 19423559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CASR protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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53. Stephen AE, Roth SI, Fardo DW, Finkelstein DM, Randolph GW, Gaz RD, Hodin RA: Predictors of an accurate preoperative sestamibi scan for single-gland parathyroid adenomas. Arch Surg; 2007 Apr;142(4):381-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictors of an accurate preoperative sestamibi scan for single-gland parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate why some patients with single parathyroid adenomas have negative preoperative sestamibi scans.
  • All patients had single parathyroid adenomas.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Neck exploration and removal of parathyroid adenomas.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age; sex; preoperative serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels; gland weight; location; and pathologic features.
  • RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age or preoperative serum calcium or parathyroid hormone levels.
  • Gland weight was greater in the TP group compared with the FN group (mean +/- SD, 1336 +/- 1603 mg vs 475 +/- 365 mg; P = .04); 13 (62%) of the 21 glands in the FN group were located in the upper position, compared with 6 (27%) of the 22 glands in the TP group (P = .03).
  • A multivariate logistic regression model yielded the following factors that predicted an accurate scan: higher percentage of oxyphil cells (P = .03), heavier gland (P = .03), female sex (P = .04), and gland location in the lower position (P = .04).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Smaller-volume parathyroid adenomas and those in the upper position are less likely to be localized with sestamibi scans.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17441292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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54. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Yanik BT, Salmaslioğlu A, Tunaci M, Adalet I, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: Impact of gland morphology and concomitant thyroid nodules on preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Laryngoscope; 2006 Apr;116(4):580-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of gland morphology and concomitant thyroid nodules on preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a common endocrine disease.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the presence of thyroid nodules, adenoma weight, and ectopic localization on the sensitivity of different imaging studies in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • The parathyroid adenoma weight in true-positive imaging studies was significantly higher than those in false-positive and false-negative imaging studies.
  • The numbers of ectopic parathyroid adenomas were found to be higher in the group of parathyroid adenomas undetected with ultrasonography when compared with ultrasonographically detected adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with parathyroid adenoma, the sensitivity of imaging studies correlates with the presence of thyroid nodules, adenoma weight, and ectopic localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care / methods. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16585862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Abshirini H, Rashidi I, Saki N: Pathologic fractures: a neglected clinical feature of parathyroid adenoma. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010:357029

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologic fractures: a neglected clinical feature of parathyroid adenoma.
  • The pattern of clinical presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) has changed dramatically from a severe disease to an asymptomatic condition in Western countries.
  • Imaging and nuclear medicine studies will be helpful specially in patient who candidate for surgical removal of the abnormal parathyroid gland.
  • Here, we present a 48-year-old man with multiple typical fractures in long bones and a single adenoma in his right inferior parathyroid gland. pHPT is a severe, symptomatic disease with serious complications and high morbidity in Iran.

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  • (PMID = 21209742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3014855
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56. Uludag M, Isgor A, Yetkin G, Atay M, Kebudi A, Akgun I: Supernumerary ectopic parathyroid glands. Persistent hyperparathyroidism due to mediastinal parathyroid adenoma localized by preoperative single photon emission computed tomography and intraoperative gamma probe application. Hormones (Athens); 2009 Apr-Jun;8(2):144-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Supernumerary ectopic parathyroid glands. Persistent hyperparathyroidism due to mediastinal parathyroid adenoma localized by preoperative single photon emission computed tomography and intraoperative gamma probe application.
  • Ectopic and/or supernumerary parathyroid glands are a major cause of persistent and recurrent Hyperparathyroidism (HPT).
  • Primary HPT (pHPT) was diagnosed incidentally in a 50-year old female patient during a preoperative examination for hernia.
  • No pathologic parathyroid gland was detected in the preoperative Tc-99m Methoxybutylisonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy and Ultrasonography (US).
  • Four parathyroid glands were located adjacent to the thyroid gland.
  • SPECT showed a parathyroid adenoma in the middle of the anterior mediastinum which was excised (size 1x0.5x0.5 cm) using a gamma probe.
  • In conclusion, SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe application may help to detect the parathyroid adenomas, especially if they are small in size and buried in the adipose tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19570742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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57. Horányi J, Duffek L, Kemenes M, Szlávik R, Darvas K, Dabasi G, Lakatos P, Tóth M: [New intraoperative diagnostic methods parathyroid surgery. Adenoma localization by gamma probe]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1443-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [New intraoperative diagnostic methods parathyroid surgery. Adenoma localization by gamma probe].
  • [Transliterated title] Uj, intraoperatív diagnosztikus módszerek a mellékpajzsmirigy-sebészetben: gamma-szondás adenoma-lokalizáció.
  • INTRODUCTION: The key to heal primary hyperparathyroidism is to find the hyper functioning parathyroid gland(s).
  • METHODS: At 122 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy in last 5 years with diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism perioperative sestamibi scanning by gamma probe was taken to localize the adenoma.
  • The distribution of activity was measured before operation percutaneously on the neck and during operation directly at explored parathyroid regions.
  • RESULTS: Because of the thyroid lobes also accumulate sestamibi the localizability of adenomas depended on direction of scanning.
  • Important factor is the correct timing of isotope administration in order to achieve domination of parathyroid activity in time of measurement.
  • Localization of adenomas by percutaneous measurement was correct in 36.1% of cases and by perioperative direct scanning in 66.4%.
  • Furthermore, ex vivo scan of removed adenomas showed impressively high activity in all cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In their experience sestamibi scanning lightens the operation only in a part of cases but probably it will be the most important method of localization if isotope selectively accumulating in parathyroid gland could be found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Gamma Rays. Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Diseases / surgery. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16089105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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58. Velázquez-Fernández D, Laurell C, Saqui-Salces M, Pantoja JP, Candanedo-Gonzalez F, Reza-Albarrán A, Gamboa-Dominguez A, Herrera MF: Differential RNA expression profile by cDNA microarray in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT): primary parathyroid hyperplasia versus adenoma. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):705-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential RNA expression profile by cDNA microarray in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT): primary parathyroid hyperplasia versus adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis between adenoma and hyperplasia in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) remains a dilemma.
  • The aim of this study was to assess differences in transcriptional genomic expression profiles between sporadic (nonfamilial) parathyroid hyperplasia (SPH), adenoma, and normal tissue.
  • METHODS: Parathyroid tissue from 12 patients with parathyroid adenoma, 3 with SPH, and 2 with normal glands was selected for analysis.
  • Histopathology was reviewed in all cases, and all patients with adenomas presented normocalcemia for a minimum of 6 months after one gland resection.
  • RESULTS: There were significant statistical differences between SPH and adenomas.
  • When SPH was compared to normal parathyroid tissue, 50 genes were differentially expressed: 42 were upregulated (> 1.89) and 8 were downregulated (> 1.7) with a B > 4.26 (98.6% probability of real differential expression).
  • At least 17 genes were differentially expressed and able to discriminate SPH from adenoma or normal tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that SPH and adenoma have a singular molecular signature that, theoretically, could be used for the differential diagnosis of these entities and normal parathyroid tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Hyperplasia / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. RNA / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16680586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 63231-63-0 / RNA
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59. Oh SY, Kim S, Eskandar Y, Kim DW, Krynyckyi BR, Machac J, Inabnet WB 3rd, Kim CK: Appearance of intrathymic parathyroid adenomas on pinhole sestamibi parathyroid imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Jun;31(6):325-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appearance of intrathymic parathyroid adenomas on pinhole sestamibi parathyroid imaging.
  • OBJECTIVES: Ectopic inferior parathyroid adenomas (PAs) are frequently located in the anterior mediastinum, quite often in the thymus gland.
  • Clinical follow up has shown that most intrathymic adenomas were visualized on pinhole views and located closer to the thyroid than expected.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed sestamibi pinhole parathyroid imaging performed on 163 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and final diagnoses established by surgery, histology, intraoperative PTH monitoring, and clinical follow up.
  • Of the 93 foci in group A, there were 80 normally situated inferior PA, 6 descended superior PA, 3 intrathyroidal PA, one hyperplastic parathyroid gland, one thyroid adenoma, one unidentified, and one intrathymic PA.
  • CONCLUSION: Focal increased activity completely separated from the lower pole of thyroid (regardless of the distance of separation) on sestamibi pinhole images indicates a high probability of intrathymic parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 16714889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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60. Ikeda Y, Sasaki Y, Miyabe R, Morita N, Takami H: Cervical approach by lifting the superior sternum for mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2009 Feb;19(1):78-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cervical approach by lifting the superior sternum for mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • We report our experience with sternum lifting method in 5 patients with a retrosternal large parathyroid gland around an innominate vein.
  • All patients showed a retrosternal large parathyroid gland around an innominate vein.
  • We believe that cervical excision using our method is a better alternative in those patients with anterior mediastinal parathyroid glands around an innominate vein.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / surgery. Mediastinum / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Sternum / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brachiocephalic Veins. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Thoracic Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 19238073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Rosen JE, Costouros NG, Lorang D, Burns AL, Alexander HR, Skarulis MC, Cochran C, Pingpank JF, Marx SJ, Spiegel AM, Libutti SK: Gland size is associated with changes in gene expression profiles in sporadic parathyroid adenomas. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 May;12(5):412-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gland size is associated with changes in gene expression profiles in sporadic parathyroid adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Sporadic parathyroid adenomas (SPAs) are benign neoplasms responsible for most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • At operation, tissues from SPAs were frozen in liquid nitrogen; total RNA was obtained from sections, and the diagnosis was confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin staining.
  • Control normal parathyroid RNA was age- and sex-matched.
  • Of the clinical parameters, only the mean gland volume was significantly different between group 1 (390 +/- 160 mm(3)) and group 2 (1080 +/- 615 mm(3); P = .032 by Mann-Whitney test).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Differential expression of a few critical genes may contribute to differences in gland volume in SPAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15915376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Marcheix B, Brouchet L, Berjaud J, Dahan M: Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2006 Nov;30(5):808-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with recurrent hyperparathyroidism.
  • She underwent first a subtotal resection of the parathyroid glands associated with subtotal thyroidectomy in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism and multi nodular thyroid.
  • Pathologic findings were consistent with hyperplasia and demonstrated a fifth parathyroid gland in the thyroid.
  • Two years later, the patient presented recurrent hyperparathyroidism associated with terminal renal insufficiency, fusion of Sesta Mibi scintigraphy and CT scan demonstrated a sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland in the aorto pulmonary window.
  • Pathologic findings demonstrated a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Parathyroid Glands
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16979898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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63. Shroff P, McGrath GA, Pezzi CM: Incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland: multiple presentations, variable function, and review of the literature. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):363-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland: multiple presentations, variable function, and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a series of cases of parathyroid incidentalomas and review the related medical literature.
  • METHODS: The medical records of all patients of one surgeon who underwent unplanned removal of enlarged parathyroid glands found either during a surgical procedure performed for indications other than hyperparathyroidism or by ultrasonography of the thyroid gland between September 1989 and December 2003 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Clinical and laboratory data-- especially serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels--as well as information on postoperative parathyroid function are reported.
  • RESULTS: Among 421 patients (355 who underwent thyroidectomy and 66 who underwent transhiatal esophagectomy), 5 cases of parathyroid incidentalomas (1.2%) were identified.
  • These incidental parathyroid adenomas were found during thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer in two patients, during esophagectomy for esophageal cancer in one patient (the first such reported case), and during ultrasonography of the neck for evaluation of thyroid nodules in two patients.
  • In one patient in whom intraoperative PTH level was determined both before and after resection of a large parathyroid adenoma, the initially high PTH value (180 pg/mL) declined to the normal range (48.2 pg/mL).
  • No patient had persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism or hypoparathyroidism postoperatively or during subsequent follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental identification of enlarged parathyroid glands during a neck surgical procedure is not common but does occur.
  • Intraoperative and postoperative measurements of serum calcium and PTH along with postoperative bone density testing can help determine whether such parathyroid incidentalomas are functional.
  • These enlarged parathyroid glands should be removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16638722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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64. Barczynski M, Konturek A, Cichon S, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Golkowski F, Huszno B: Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay improves outcomes of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy mainly in patients with a presumed solitary parathyroid adenoma and missing concordance of preoperative imaging. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Jun;66(6):878-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay improves outcomes of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy mainly in patients with a presumed solitary parathyroid adenoma and missing concordance of preoperative imaging.
  • OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay (IOPTH) is often used during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • The aim of this study was to determine the impact of routine use of IOPTH on the success rate of MIP as the primary outcome, and whether it value-added to surgical decision-making during the operations at our institution.
  • The primary outcome was the cure rate, whereas the secondary outcome was the value-adding of IOPTH to surgical decision-making during MIP.
  • Five (8.1%) of the group 1 patients were hypercalcaemic postoperatively, owing to an additional, overlooked, hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland, whereas among the 115 group 2 patients, 104 (90.4%) underwent resection of a single parathyroid adenoma, met the Miami criterion, and were cured.
  • The remaining 11 (9.6%) patients did not have an adequate reduction in parathyroid hormone levels and underwent further neck exploration, with resection of additional hyperfunctioning parathyroids in nine of them.
  • However, a decrease of less than 50% of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (iPTH) assay correctly identified the risk of persistent disease in that patient.
  • It is a valuable adjunct in surgical decision-making, allowing for intraoperative recognition and resection of additional hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue missed by preoperative imaging studies.
  • However, in patients with concordant results of two imaging studies, the assay offers significantly lower value-adding to surgical decisions, as a vast majority of patients are cured after removal of a two-image-indexed parathyroid lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17437518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PTH protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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65. Dinçer SI, Demir A, Kara HV, Günlüoglu MZ: Thoracoscopic removal of a maternal mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenoma causing neonatal hypocalcemia: a case report. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2008 Oct;14(5):325-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thoracoscopic removal of a maternal mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenoma causing neonatal hypocalcemia: a case report.
  • Most parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism can be resected through a cervical approach.
  • In approximately 2% of cases, the ectopic gland is in the mediastinum in a location that requires a thoracic approach.
  • We describe a case involving a 29-year-old woman with hyperparathyroidism resulting from an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma that caused neonatal hypocalcemia, which was removed through VATS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Choristoma / surgery. Hypocalcemia / etiology. Infant, Newborn, Diseases / etiology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pregnancy. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18989251.001).
  • [ISSN] 2186-1005
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official journal of the Association of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons of Asia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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66. Krausz MM, Ish-Shalom S, Ofer A: [Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma]. Harefuah; 2010 Jun;149(6):353-6, 404
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma].
  • BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is frequently used for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) caused by a single adenoma.
  • This method depends on preoperative localization of the tumor by a sestamibi scan, cervical ultrasound, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurements.
  • When the sestamibi scan is negative, the classical 4-gland exploration is used instead of MIP. AIMS: a.
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of MIP for treatment of PHPT caused by adenoma. b.
  • METHODS: MIP was performed in all patients in whom an adenoma was diagnosed by sestamibi scan and US.
  • When the sestamibi scan was negative, PTH-SVS was performed preoperatively for localization of the adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroidectomy was performed in 541 patients, 458 with PHPT and 83 with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • In 345 of 380 patients (90.8%) with an adenoma, MIP was performed, and in 92 of these patients the operation was performed under local anesthesia.
  • In 56 patients with a negative sestamibi scan, PTH-SVS was used preoperatively for localization of an adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MIP is the treatment of choice for PHPT caused by a single adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anesthesia, Local. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Retrospective Studies. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20941923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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67. Enomoto K, Sakurai K, Amano S: [Experience of parathyroid cancer which required a differentiation from adenoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2325-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Experience of parathyroid cancer which required a differentiation from adenoma].
  • We noted a thyroid gland mass by examination and referred for a further checkup.
  • The cervical echography evidence showed a mass image of the border regular in the back of inferior pole of left thyroid gland.
  • It also revealed a mass image with the calcification in the inferior pole of left lobe of thyroid gland at the same time.
  • We performed aspiration biopsy cytology for a thyroid gland mass, and it was class IIIa.
  • We also performed parathyroidectomy and left lobe of thyroid gland ablative surgery because of a diagnosis of the hyperparathyroidism confirmed a primary parathyroid adenoma.
  • Preoperative pathological diagnosis was adenoma.
  • However, histopathology laboratory findings showed it to be of adenocarcinoma of the parathyroid, which metastasized into the thyroid.
  • Many times parathyroid cancer preoperative diagnosis is inconclusive.
  • So we are reporting our experience with parathyroid cancer metastases to the thyroid for reference.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Male. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 21224561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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68. Fakhran S, Branstetter BF 4th, Pryma DA: Parathyroid imaging. Neuroimaging Clin N Am; 2008 Aug;18(3):537-49, ix
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid imaging.
  • The most common indication for parathyroid imaging is hyperparathyroidism, which is caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma in most patients.
  • The primary function of parathyroid imaging is localization of the abnormal parathyroid gland, enabling the surgeon to pursue a minimally invasive resection.
  • In cases of suspected parathyroid carcinoma, preoperative CT or MR imaging is recommended for surgical planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18656034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroimaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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69. Eloy JA, Mitty H, Genden EM: Preoperative selective venous sampling for nonlocalizing parathyroid adenomas. Thyroid; 2006 Aug;16(8):787-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative selective venous sampling for nonlocalizing parathyroid adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Preoperative parathyroid adenoma localization allows for a minimally invasive surgical approach.
  • Current methods used for adenoma localization include ultrasound, sestamibi scan, and occasionally magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • In cases in which an adenoma is not localized after a radiologic work-up, the surgeon must perform a four-gland exploration.
  • Preoperative selective venous sampling (SVS) has been described as a safe and clinically effective method to localize a parathyroid adenoma after failed exploration.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SVS as a primary localization technique in cases where conventional localization techniques have failed.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with nonlocalizing parathyroid adenomas after ultrasonography, sestamibi scanning, and MRI were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Eight patients underwent SVS prior to surgery and six patients underwent a four-gland neck exploration without preoperative Svs. The two groups were assessed for accuracy of the SVS in localizing the adenoma, operative time, length of hospitalization, and complications.
  • The SVS proved accurate in preoperatively localizing the adenoma in 7 of 8 patients and allowed for a minimally invasive approach in 87% of patients.
  • CONCLUSION: This study suggests that preoperative SVS may represent a safe and effective method of preoperatively localizing the nonlocalized parathyroid adenoma.
  • In cases where conventional radiologic techniques fail to localize an adenoma, SVS may obviate the need for a four-gland exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 16910882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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70. Gilat H, Cohen M, Feinmesser R, Benzion J, Shvero J, Segal K, Ulanovsky D, Shpitzer T: Minimally invasive procedure for resection of a parathyroid adenoma: the role of preoperative high-resolution ultrasonography. J Clin Ultrasound; 2005 Jul-Aug;33(6):283-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimally invasive procedure for resection of a parathyroid adenoma: the role of preoperative high-resolution ultrasonography.
  • PURPOSE: Solitary adenoma of the parathyroid is the major cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Many centers advocate a minimally invasive surgical approach, wherein the surgeon explores only a localized area of the neck according to the preoperative imaging evaluation, and the adenoma is resected without histological sampling from the other parathyroid glands.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of high-resolution ultrasonography (US) to localize adenomas preoperatively and thereby aid in patient selection for minimal procedures.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 77 consecutive patients who underwent resection of a parathyroid adenoma following ultrasonographic imaging between 2001 and 2002, and we assessed the accuracy of the preoperative localization of the adenomas as well as the efficacy of the minimally invasive procedure.
  • RESULTS: US correctly localized the adenoma to a specific quadrant of the neck in 87% of the cases and to a specific side of the neck in 94%.
  • Its sensitivity was not reduced by the presence of nodular disease of the thyroid gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: US performed by a skilled operator is a reliable tool for adenoma localization prior to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • If there is a high clinical suspicion of adenoma in the presence of negative imaging studies, bilateral neck exploration should be performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Preoperative Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16134156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Minamiya Y, Saito H, Ito M, Motoyama S, Katayose Y, Ogawa J: Radio-guided thoracoscopic surgery with (99m)Tc-methoxy-isobutylisonitrile for treating an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma in an adolescent girl. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2009 Dec;57(12):657-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radio-guided thoracoscopic surgery with (99m)Tc-methoxy-isobutylisonitrile for treating an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma in an adolescent girl.
  • Here we report the case of a 17-year-old girl treated for an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma using (99m)Tc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) and radio-guided thoracoscopic surgery.
  • Her serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone levels were elevated, and an anterior mediastinal tumor was noted on her chest computed tomography scan.
  • We suggest that radio-guided thoracoscopic surgery with (99m)Tc-MIBI is an excellent procedure for treating ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas embedded in the mature thymus of adolescents and young adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thoracoscopy. Thymus Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20013101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-6713
  • [Journal-full-title] General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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72. Hussein WI, El-Maghraby TA, Al-Sanea O: Hyperfunctioning intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma. Saudi Med J; 2006 Aug;27(8):1226-9
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  • [Title] Hyperfunctioning intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma is an exceedingly rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism with difficulties in the diagnosis and management.
  • We report a case of hypercalcemia from intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma in a 63-year-old Saudi female.
  • She was diagnosed 2 years earlier with osteoporosis in a primary care clinic and was on alendronate since then.
  • Parathyroid 99mTc-SestaMIBI scintigraphy revealed parathyroid adenoma in the left inferior parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16883457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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73. Hindié E, Ugur O, Fuster D, O'Doherty M, Grassetto G, Ureña P, Kettle A, Gulec SA, Pons F, Rubello D, Parathyroid Task Group of the EANM: 2009 EANM parathyroid guidelines. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2009 Jul;36(7):1201-16

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 2009 EANM parathyroid guidelines.
  • The present guidelines were issued by the Parathyroid Task Group of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine.
  • The main focus was imaging of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Dual-tracer and single-tracer parathyroid scintigraphy protocols were discussed as well as the various modalities of image acquisition.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine disorder with high prevalence, typically caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma, less frequently (about 15%) by multiple parathyroid gland disease (MGD) and rarely (1%) by parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Patients with MGD may have a double adenoma or hyperplasia of three or all four parathyroid glands.
  • In this new era, the success of targeted parathyroid surgery depends not only on an experienced surgeon, but also on a sensitive and accurate imaging technique.
  • Scintigraphy should also report on thyroid nodules that may cause confusion with a parathyroid adenoma or require concurrent surgical resection.
  • The guidelines also discuss aspects related to radio-guided surgery of hyperparathyroidism and imaging of chronic kidney disease patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Radiometry. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m / pharmacokinetics. Subtraction Technique. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi / pharmacokinetics. Tissue Distribution. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19471928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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74. Romanchishen AF, Matveeva ZS: [A combination of diseases of the thyroid and asymptomatic adenoma of the parathyroid glands]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2006;165(1):40-2
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  • [Title] [A combination of diseases of the thyroid and asymptomatic adenoma of the parathyroid glands].
  • The authors have analyzed the cases of diagnosis of asymptomatic tumors of the parathyroid gland made during 8814 operations on the thyroid in the period from 1995 through 2004.
  • The probability of detecting parathyroid incidentalomas in different forms of goiter was calculated which reaches 0.4%.
  • A precision technique of operating allows the parathyroid tumors to be detected at the preclinical stage in all patients apart from a removal of the necessary volume of the thyroid tissue, guaranteed preservation of the laryngeal nerves and parathyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16568854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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75. Fischer I, Wieczorek R, Sidhu GS, Pei Z, West B, Lee P: Myxoid lipoadenoma of parathyroid gland: a case report and literature review. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Oct;10(5):294-6
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  • [Title] Myxoid lipoadenoma of parathyroid gland: a case report and literature review.
  • Myxoid lipoadenoma of the parathyroid gland is a rare variant of parathyroid adenoma.
  • We present the case of a 40-year-old man with asymptomatic hypercalcemia who underwent surgical removal of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of thyroid transcription factor and parathyroid hormone by all tumor cells and a low proliferation rate with a Ki-67 labeling index of at most 5%.
  • Although the lesion exhibited characteristics that have been previously associated with "atypical parathyroid adenoma," such as dense fibrous bands within the tumor and a trabecular growth pattern, there was no further evidence, neither histologically nor clinically, for malignant behavior of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adipose Tissue / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Hypercalcemia / complications. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / pathology. Male. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16979523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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76. Ergün S, Saraçoglu A, Güneri P, Ozpinar B: Application of fractal analysis in hyperparathyroidism. Dentomaxillofac Radiol; 2009 Jul;38(5):281-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Application of fractal analysis in hyperparathyroidism.
  • OBJECTIVES: Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a condition caused by an overproduction of parathormone, in excess of the amount required by the body.
  • Its most common cause is a parathyroid gland adenoma and parathyroidectomy is currently the only curative treatment for primary HPT.
  • We present a case history of a 65-year-old patient who was diagnosed with primary HPT after the recognition of dental problems.
  • RESULTS: After consideration of the radiographical, biochemical and clinical evaluations of the patient, the final diagnosis was made as hyperparathyroid adenoma and surgical removal was scheduled.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractals. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radiography. Mandible / radiography. Radiography, Dental, Digital / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / complications. Aged. Algorithms. Alveolar Process / radiography. Humans. Least-Squares Analysis. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Radiography, Panoramic

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  • (PMID = 19474255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Dento maxillo facial radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dentomaxillofac Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Hoshi M, Takami M, Kajikawa M, Teramura K, Okamoto T, Yanagida I, Matsumura A: A case of multiple skeletal lesions of brown tumors, mimicking carcinoma metastases. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2008 Feb;128(2):149-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Brown tumor is not a true tumor, being an unusual reactive lesion in association with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The initial diagnosis of brown tumor was delayed, but later pain in her leg worsened and a sacral lesion was incidentally discovered on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); multiple destructive bone lesions were then found radiologically.
  • However, pathological examination and abnormal laboratory data showing elevated serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone and low serum phosphate confirmed the diagnosis of brown tumor.
  • Adenoma in the parathyroid gland was confirmed and surgically resected.
  • Synthetic analysis of the clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings was necessary for the definite diagnosis of brown tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Hyperparathyroidism / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Calcium / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17354010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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78. Oliveira MA, Maeda SS, Dreyer P, Lobo A, Andrade VP, Hoff AO, Biscolla RP, Smanio P, Brandão CM, Vieira JG: [Importance of parathyroid SPECT and 99mTc scintigraphy, and of clinical, laboratorial, ultrasonographic and citologic correlation in the pre-operative localization of the parathyroid adenoma - pictorial assay]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Jun;54(4):352-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Importance of parathyroid SPECT and 99mTc scintigraphy, and of clinical, laboratorial, ultrasonographic and citologic correlation in the pre-operative localization of the parathyroid adenoma - pictorial assay].
  • [Transliterated title] Importância da complementação com SPECT e 99mTc na cintilografia das paratiroides e da correlação clínica, laboratorial, ultrassonográfica e citológica na localização pré-operatória do adenoma de paratiroide - ensaio pictórico.
  • OBJECTIVE: In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, candidates for surgical intervention, the parathyroid pre-operative localization is of fundamental importance in planning the appropriate surgical approach.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The additional acquisition of SPECT and Technetium-99m images, during parathyroid scintigraphy with Sestamibi, is not common practice.
  • RESULTS: In our experience, the complete protocol in parathyroid scintigraphy increases the accuracy of pre-operative parathyroid localization.
  • CONCLUSION: The complete utilization of all available nuclear medicine methods (SPECT e 99mTc) and image interpretation in a multidisciplinary context can improve the accuracy of parathyroid scintigraphy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / standards

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  • [CommentIn] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2010 Jun;54(4):343-4 [20625644.001]
  • (PMID = 20625646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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79. Rasmuson T, Tavelin B: Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(8):1059-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine.
  • External ionizing radiation is a risk factor for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Whether exposure to radioactive iodine contributes to the risk of primary hyperparathyroidism is unknown.
  • Patients with thyrotoxicosis are often treated with radioactive iodine and its accumulation in the thyroid gland exposes the adjacent parathyroid glands to radioactivity.
  • Patients with parathyroid adenomas (ICD-9 = 195.1) were recruited from the Swedish Cancer Registry.
  • Eleven patients with parathyroid adenomas following the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis were identified.
  • The median age at exposure was 59 years and the latency period between diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and parathyroid adenoma was 7.4 years (range <1-19 years).
  • This study does not indicate that patients with thyrotoxicosis treated with radioactive iodine in adult age have increased risk of developing parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Parathyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyrotoxicosis / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17118839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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80. Stalberg P, Grodski S, Sidhu S, Sywak M, Delbridge L: Cervical thymectomy for intrathymic parathyroid adenomas during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Surgery; 2007 May;141(5):626-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cervical thymectomy for intrathymic parathyroid adenomas during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: The development of an intrathymic parathyroid adenoma is common, and thymectomy is a significant component of the parathyroid surgeon's technical armamentarium.
  • Over the last decade, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) has become the standard technique for removal of an abnormal parathyroid gland, and the requirement for thymectomy should remain unchanged during the era of minimally invasive techniques.
  • The aim of this paper was to assess the feasibility and outcomes of cervical thymectomy for intrathymic parathyroid adenomas during MIP.
  • RESULTS: A total of 840 patients underwent parathyroid surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) during this period.
  • In 5 cases, only fatty tissue was identified histologically, and, in 5 cases, a small supernumerary parathyroid gland was identified in the histologic specimen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cervical thymectomy for removal of intrathymic parathyroid adenomas can be performed during lateral focused mini-incision MIP with a safety and efficacy equivalent to open bilateral neck explorations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Thymectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17462462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Reimer SB, Pelosi A, Frank JD, Steficek BA, Kiupel M, Hauptman JG: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2005 Jul 1;227(1):101-4, 86
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  • After extensive assessment at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Michigan State University, the clinical signs were attributed to an aldosterone-secreting tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Subsequently, an insulin-secreting tumor of the pancreas as well as a functional parathyroid gland adenoma were diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Male. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / veterinary. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / veterinary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16013543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Rubello D, Giannini S, De Carlo E, Mariani G, Muzzio PC, Rampin L, Pelizzo MR: Minimally invasive (99m)Tc-sestamibi radioguided surgery of parathyroid adenomas. Panminerva Med; 2005 Jun;47(2):99-107

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimally invasive (99m)Tc-sestamibi radioguided surgery of parathyroid adenomas.
  • In the last 10 to 15 years surgery of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) moved from the wide bilateral neck exploration to various types of limited neck exploration ranging from unilateral neck surgery to minimally invasive approaches as the minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy.
  • Only PHPT patients with a high probability to be affected by a solitary parathyroid adenoma showing a high (99m)TC-sestamibi uptake and with a normal thyroid gland should be offer a minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy.
  • In the different-day protocol, a double-tracer parathyroid scintigraphy is obtained some days before surgery with the aim of better planning the type and extension of intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 16210995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-0808
  • [Journal-full-title] Panminerva medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Panminerva Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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83. Papathanassiou D, Flament JB, Pochart JM, Patey M, Marty H, Liehn JC, Schvartz C: SPECT/CT in localization of parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia in patients with previous neck surgery. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jun;33(6):394-7
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  • [Title] SPECT/CT in localization of parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia in patients with previous neck surgery.
  • It has proved useful for localization of abnormal parathyroid glands, especially in the case of an ectopic gland.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four patients with prior neck surgery and hyperparathyroidism underwent parathyroid Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy with SPECT/CT.
  • Two patients had undergone surgery for hyperparathyroidism and 2 had undergone thyroidectomy, 1 for thyroid cancer and 1 for multinodular goiter.
  • Parathyroid hormone levels were assessed during surgery, and patients were followed several months after treatment.
  • RESULTS: SPECT/CT successfully localized the abnormal gland, including an uncommon anterior situation for which previous surgery guided by planar imagery failed to cure the hyperparathyroidism.
  • It allowed efficient surgical treatment, as confirmed by parathyroid hormone level normalization, without complications and with a relatively short operation time in those challenging cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPECT/CT seems to be a useful tool for presurgical assessment in hyperparathyroidism, not only for ectopic glands but also for patients with previous neck surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18496444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Marzouki HZ, Chavannes M, Tamilia M, Hier MP, Black MJ, Levental M, Payne RJ: Location of parathyroid adenomas: 7-year experience. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Oct;39(5):551-4
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  • [Title] Location of parathyroid adenomas: 7-year experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the most common location of parathyroid adenomas.
  • METHODS: Data from 147 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism in Montreal at a McGill University teaching hospital between January 2001 and January 2008 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Patients with histopathologic confirmation of parathyroid hyperplasia were excluded from the study (n = 26).
  • The 121 patients with confirmed adenomas were grouped according to the locations of the tumour into right superior, right inferior, left superior, left inferior, and ectopic.
  • RESULTS: The left inferior parathyroid glands were the most common site of adenomas.
  • The right inferior parathyroid glands were the site in 40 patients (33.06% [mean 0.33; 95% CI 0.248-0.422]).
  • The remainder of the adenomas were distributed as follows: the left superior in 19 patients (15.7% [mean 0.157; 95% CI 0.097-0.234]), the right superior in 10 patients (8.26% [mean 0.0826; 95% CI 0.040-0.147]), and the ectopic in 2 patients (1.65% [mean 0.0165; 95% CI 0.002-0.058]).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the most common site of adenoma was the left inferior parathyroid gland.
  • This information provides parathyroid surgeons with a starting point when imaging fails to localize the site of the adenoma, which allows for the possibility of minimally invasive surgery especially if used in conjunction with intraoperative parathyroid hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20828518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1916-0216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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85. Øgard CG, Vestergaard H, Thomsen JB, Jakobsen H, Almdal T, Nielsen SL: Parathyroid scintigraphy during hypocalcaemia in primary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging; 2005 May;25(3):166-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid scintigraphy during hypocalcaemia in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) demands high imaging accuracy.
  • By increasing blood flow to the parathyroid adenoma before injection of a perfusion marker, we intended to improve the parathyroid scintigraphy.
  • We have named the technique stimulated parathyroid scintigraphy (SPS).
  • Perchlorate was given at the end of the sestamibi scintigram to increase the wash-out of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate from the thyroid gland, and after 2 h a delayed scintigram was obtained.
  • The results of SPS and a conventional (99m)Tc-sestamibi dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy were compared with the operative findings.
  • In nine patients the parathyroid adenoma was also localized with ultrasound and the flow pattern before and after citrate infusion was visualized with Doppler technique.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-eight per cent of the adenomas were localized correctly with the SPS technique compared with 62% at the conventional parathyroid scintigraphy.
  • Tissue perfusion of the nine adenomas increased after citrate infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Hypocalcemia / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 15888097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-0961
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical physiology and functional imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Physiol Funct Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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86. Perrier ND, Edeiken B, Nunez R, Gayed I, Jimenez C, Busaidy N, Potylchansky E, Kee S, Vu T: A novel nomenclature to classify parathyroid adenomas. World J Surg; 2009 Mar;33(3):412-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A novel nomenclature to classify parathyroid adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: A uniform and reliable description of the exact locations of adenomatous parathyroid glands is necessary for accurate communications between surgeons and other specialists.
  • We developed a nomenclature that provides a precise means of communicating the most frequently encountered parathyroid adenoma locations.
  • The system uses the letters A-G to describe exact gland locations.
  • RESULTS: A type A parathyroid gland is a gland that originates from a superior pedicle, lateral to the recurrent laryngeal nerve compressed within the capsule of the thyroid parenchyma.
  • A type B gland is a superior gland that has fallen posteriorly into the tracheoesophageal groove and is in the same cross-sectional plane as the superior portion of the thyroid parenchyma.
  • A type C gland is a gland that has fallen posteriorly into the tracheoesophageal groove and on a cross-sectional view lies at the level of or below the inferior pole of the thyroid gland.
  • A type D gland lies in the midregion of the posterior surface of the thyroid parenchyma, near the junction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery or middle thyroidal vein; because of this location, dissection is difficult.
  • A type E gland is an inferior gland close to the inferior pole of the thyroid parenchyma, lying in the lateral plane with the thyroid parenchyma and anterior half of the trachea.
  • A type F gland is an inferior gland that has descended (fallen) into the thyrothymic ligament or superior thymus; it may appear to be "ectopic" or within the superior mediastinum.
  • An anterior-posterior view shows the type F gland to be anterior to the trachea.
  • A type G gland is a rare, truly intrathyroidal parathyroid gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A reproducible nomenclature can provide a means of consistent communication about parathyroid adenoma location.
  • If uniformly adopted, it has the potential to reliably communicate exact gland location without lengthy descriptions.
  • [MeSH-major] Interdisciplinary Communication. Parathyroid Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 19148701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Lin SD, Tu ST, Hsu SR, Chang JH, Yang KT, Yang LH: Synchronous parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Chin Med Assoc; 2005 Feb;68(2):87-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Concomitant thyroid disease is not unusual among patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • However, the simultaneous occurrence of parathyroid and thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare.
  • We report a 38-year-old man with primary hyperparathyroidism who presented with osteitis fibrosa cystica complicated with pathologic femoral neck fracture.
  • Preoperative investigation for exclusion of multiple endocrine neoplasia did not find evidence of medullary thyroid carcinoma or pheochromocytoma, but imaging studies revealed the presence of nodules in the right lobe and a parathyroid lesion over the left inferior pole of the thyroid gland.
  • The resected specimens were pathologically identified as papillary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma, respectively.
  • Although parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon cause of parathyroid hormone-dependent hypercalcemia, it should nonetheless be given due consideration because its surgical approach differs from that of parathyroid adenoma.
  • As the coexistence of parathyroid and non-medullary thyroid carcinoma has previously been reported, the possibility of both malignancies must also be considered in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism with thyroid nodules.
  • If confirmed with preoperative parathyroid scintigraphic and other laboratory studies, an optimal outcome may be achieved with complete resection of both tumors at the time of initial operation, followed by adjunctive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Calculi / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15759821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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88. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Salmaslioglu A, Tunaci M, Ozbey N, Bozbora A, Ozmarmagan S: Value of parathyroid hormone assay for preoperative sonographically guided parathyroid aspirates for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. J Clin Ultrasound; 2006 Nov-Dec;34(9):425-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Value of parathyroid hormone assay for preoperative sonographically guided parathyroid aspirates for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • PURPOSE: The key to successful parathyroid surgery is accurate preoperative tumor localization.
  • This study investigates the use of ultrasound (US)-guided parathyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) as a confirmatory diagnostic method in patients with hyperparathyroidism undergoing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • METHODS: Patients were selected for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy based on the finding of a single parathyroid adenoma identified with US and/or sestamibi scans and confirmation of the suspected parathyroid lesion via FNA and parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay.
  • The value of aspirate obtained from the thyroid gland intraoperatively served as the negative control.
  • US detected masses suggestive of parathyroid lesion in all 27 patients, and 31 US-guided FNAs were performed.
  • Aspirates from lesions subsequently confirmed as having developed from the parathyroid gland had a mean PTH level of 4,677 +/- 123 pg/ml (range, 3,600-5,000 pg/ml), which was significantly higher than thyroid aspirates, which yielded a mean PTH level of 48 +/- 7 pg/ml (range, 5-57 pg/ml).
  • The sensitivity of US and sestamibi scans in the detection of abnormal parathyroid glands was 88% and 77%, respectively.
  • The sensitivity of US-guided FNA in confirming the parathyroid origin of a lesion was 100%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Hyperparathyroidism / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Ultrasound. 2007 May;35(4):229. Salmasliğlu, Artur [corrected to Salmaslioglu, Artur]
  • (PMID = 17078029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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89. Malinvaud D, Potard G, Martins-Carvalho C, Jézéquel JA, Marianowski R: [Parathyroid adenoma: surgical strategy]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2006 Dec;123(6):333-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Parathyroid adenoma: surgical strategy].
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to reach a better understanding in the handling of parathyroid adenomas, and to emphasize the importance of pre-operatory explorations in order to establish the best surgical approach and its cost.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We are using a retrospective study of 51 patients that underwent surgery in our department between the years 1997 and 2002, for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Every patient received to a pre-operatory exploration in order to localize the parathyroid tumors, including cervical echography in 51 of the cases, and a sestamibi scintigraphy in 49 of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17202992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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90. Lazaris AC, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Papathomas T, Brousalis T, Thomopoulou G, Agrogiannis G, Patsouris ES: Immunohistochemical investigation of angiogenic factors in parathyroid proliferative lesions. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Jun;154(6):827-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical investigation of angiogenic factors in parathyroid proliferative lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The pathological distinction between parathyroid neoplasms and hyperplasias remains difficult in several cases.
  • We attempted to examine whether immunohistochemical expression of CD105, VEGF and VEGF-R2 may be useful in distinguishing between parathyroid hyperplasia and neoplasia as well as to elucidate, to some extent, the mechanism of neovascularization in proliferative lesions of the parathyroid gland.
  • DESIGN: Tissue specimens were taken from 38 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) (17 adenomas and 21 primary hyperplasias) and from 30 patients with secondary HPT.
  • RESULTS: Positive CD105 immunoreaction was significantly increased in parathyroid adenomas by comparison with primary hyperplasias (P = 0.033) and with secondary hyperplasias (P = 0.033).
  • When parathyroid adenomas, primary hyperplasia and secondary hyperplasia specimens were comparatively evaluated, VEGF immunoreaction was much more common in adenomas (P = 0.018).
  • In addition, in samples with secondary hyperplasia, VEGF-R2 immunoreactivity was positively linked with VEGF expression as well as with the apoptotic index of parathyroid cells (P = 0.038 and 0.010 respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows increased angiogenesis in parathyroid adenomas compared with parathyroid proliferative lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16728542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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91. Norman J, Politz D, Browarsky I: Diagnostic aspiration of parathyroid adenomas causes severe fibrosis complicating surgery and final histologic diagnosis. Thyroid; 2007 Dec;17(12):1251-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic aspiration of parathyroid adenomas causes severe fibrosis complicating surgery and final histologic diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of parathyroid adenomas may cause a severe fibrotic reaction of the gland and surrounding structures, making surgery more difficult and histology more confusing.
  • DESIGN: A study was conducted over a 33-month period to compare the operative findings of 30 patients who underwent FNA of a parathyroid adenoma to those of 3000 patients who had not had their parathyroid tumor aspirated.
  • Each patient's normal parathyroid glands also served as internal controls.
  • All aspirations were performed by referring physicians under direct ultrasound guidance within 3 months of surgery, and all adenomas were located in routine positions.
  • Patients who had previous thyroid or parathyroid surgery were not included.
  • Patients with secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism were not included.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA of parathyroid adenomas can cause a severe fibrotic process that typically involves adjacent tissues.
  • FNA of parathyroid adenomas should be avoided unless absolutely necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fibrosis / diagnosis. Fibrosis / etiology. Fibrosis / pathology. Humans. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2008 May;18(5):581-2; author reply 583-4 [18466081.001]
  • (PMID = 17887929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Damadi A, Harkema J, Kareti R, Saxe A: Use of pre-operative Tc99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy and intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring to eliminate neck exploration in mediastinal parathyroid adenocarcinoma. J Surg Educ; 2007 Mar-Apr;64(2):108-12

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of pre-operative Tc99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy and intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring to eliminate neck exploration in mediastinal parathyroid adenocarcinoma.
  • A 66-year-old white woman was found to have an elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on routine health evaluation.
  • A sestamibi parathyroid scan revealed abnormal uptake in the anterior mediastinum.
  • Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated an anterior mediastinal mass compatible with a parathyroid adenoma but no neck masses.
  • The mass was completely resected with surrounding thymus gland.
  • Frozen section confirmed that excised tissue was parathyroid gland in origin.
  • The strategy for initial surgery for hyperparathyroidism when a sestamibi scan is "positive" in the mediastinum (only) is a point of some controversy.
  • Traditional recommendations have been to "clear the neck" of abnormal parathyroid tissue before undertaking a more morbid sternotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Neck / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Preoperative Care. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17462212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-7204
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical education
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Educ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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93. Lieu D: Cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 May;38(5):327-32

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions.
  • The gold standard to determine the cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is bilateral neck exploration.
  • As most cases are caused by parathyroid adenoma, there is a movement toward preoperative localization of the abnormal gland by ultrasound and/or Tc(99)-sestamibi scan and minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Nonpalpable thyroid nodules are common and cannot be differentiated from parathyroid lesions by imaging alone.
  • This study examines cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (UG-FNA) in diagnosis of parathyroid lesions.
  • Between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008, seven patients with PHPT or other parathyroid lesions with one or more sonographically-visible thyroid masses underwent cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA with immediate cytological evaluation (ICE).
  • Three parathyroid adenomas, two benign colloid nodules, one papillary carcinoma, three parathyroid cysts, and one thyroid cyst were diagnosed.
  • The nodules in three patients with parathyroid adenomas were identified as follicular lesion/neoplasm on ICE.
  • Additional UG-FNA passes were made to obtain tissue for immunohistochemistry stains, which confirmed parathyroid origin.
  • The PHPT patient with papillary carcinoma on UG-FNA had the malignancy confirmed at surgery and a sonographically occult parathyroid adenoma.
  • The three patients with thyroid cysts identified by radiology were suspected of being parathyroid cysts on the basis of real-time sonographic features at the biopsy table.
  • Cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA can distinguish between parathyroid and thyroid nodules in patients with suspected parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19845029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Weber T, Cammerer G, Schick C, Solbach C, Hillenbrand A, Barth TF, Henne-Bruns D, Blagieva R, Böhm BO, Reske SN, Luster M: C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography localizes parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Mar;42(3):209-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography localizes parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), positive preoperative localization studies enable to perform a minimally invasive approach for parathyroid surgery.
  • We therefore conducted a study to determine the sensitivity of C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (Met-PET/CT) in localizing parathyroid adenomas in pHPT.
  • Met-PET/CT scans of the neck and mediastinum of 33 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary HPT were compared with intraoperative and histological findings.
  • Primary HPT was caused by a single gland adenoma in 30 patients, while another 3 patients had multiglandular disease.
  • Met-PET/CT scan correctly located a single gland adenoma in 25 out of 30 (83%) patients with pHPT, among them 2 patients with persistent disease, 7 patients with prior neck surgery, and 8 patients with concomitant thyroid nodules.
  • In 3 patients with multiglandular disease, Met-PET/CT showed only one enlarged parathyroid gland in two individuals and was negative in the third patient.
  • Statistical analysis found a significant correlation between true-positive results and the weight (2.42+/-4.05 g) and diameter (2.0+/-1.18 cm) of parathyroid adenomas while the subgroup with false negative findings had significantly smaller (0.98+/-0.54 cm) and lighter (0.5+/-0.38 g) glands.
  • Sensitivity was 83% for single gland adenomas and 67% for multiglandular disease.
  • Met-PET/CT correctly localized 83% of single gland parathyroid adenomas in patients with pHPT.
  • However, preoperative localization of multiglandular disease due to double adenomas or parathyroid hyperplasia remained difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Methionine. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20013649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 58576-49-1 / carbon-11 methionine; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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95. Wirowski D, Wicke C, Böhner H, Lammers BJ, Pohl P, Schwarz K, Goretzki PE: Presentation of 6 cases with parathyroid cysts and discussion of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Aug;116(8):501-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presentation of 6 cases with parathyroid cysts and discussion of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cystic lesions of the parathyroid glands are uncommon, and rare are those that cause primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Preoperative diagnosis can be challenging and some of these tumors might be misinterpreted as parathyroid carcinoma.
  • With an expertise of more than 1700 patients operated on primary hyperparathyroidism, we present six cases with cystic degeneration of a parathyroid gland causing primary hyperparathyroidism in five patients.
  • CASE REPORTS: A woman at the age of 67 presented with hypercalcaemic crisis due to persistent primary hyperparathyroidism after an operation four years ago.
  • As cervical exploration was unsuccessful, sternotomy was performed and a cystic adenoma of a parathyroid gland could be resected from the anterior mediastinum.
  • The second patient - a 63-year-old female with severe hypercalcaemic crisis, operated on under suspicion of a parathyroid carcinoma - had a functional cyst of the parathyroid gland with a parathyroid hormone level of 700,000 pg/ml in the aspirated fluid.
  • Third, operation on a 70-year-old woman with a benign euthyreot goiter and the laboratory findings of primary hyperparathyroidism revealed a cystic adenoma adjacent to the thyroid gland, whose aspirate had a parathyroid hormone level of 1,500,000 pg/ml.
  • In the fourth case of a 67-year-old female with an adenoma of the right inferior parathyroid gland localized by ultrasonography, the cystic parathyroid adenoma was operated on by video-assistance.
  • It was suspected to be a thyroid cyst at the left-lower pole of the thyroid gland.
  • After hemithyroidectomy pathological evaluation revealed a large parathyroid cyst.
  • The last case of a 56-year-old male illustrates the extensive preoperative work-up of a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism who was preoperatively diagnosed as having a thyroid cyst.
  • Final histopathological examination exposed multiple gland disease with a parathyroid adenoma as well as a cystic parathyroid gland.
  • DISCUSSION: Cystic adenomas of the parathyroid glands are often misdiagnosed as thyroid cysts or - in the case of extremely elevated parathyroid hormone levels - even as parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The routine preoperative diagnostic tools, such as ultrasonography or (99m)Tc-sestamibi-scintigraphy, cannot clearly distinguish between these entities and might be jeopardized by mediastinal localization, which is not uncommon in parathyroid adenomas with cystic degeneration.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Diseases / pathology. Parathyroid Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18523916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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96. Taïeb D, Hassad R, Sebag F, Colavolpe C, Guedj E, Hindié E, Henry JF, Mundler O: Tomoscintigraphy improves the determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas, especially in apparently inferior glands: imaging features and surgical implications. J Nucl Med Technol; 2007 Sep;35(3):135-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tomoscintigraphy improves the determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas, especially in apparently inferior glands: imaging features and surgical implications.
  • Identification of the embryologic origin of hyperfunctioning parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) could determine the most suitable approach for minimally invasive surgery.
  • The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the reliability of a new, combined protocol for the preoperative localization and determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas.
  • On the basis of anatomic considerations, adenomas were classified as superior (P4 derived) if they were located above the isthmus or posterior to the thyroid on SPECT images, despite their apparently middle to inferior position, and as inferior (P3 derived) if the foci were located in inferior and anterior positions or along the thyrothymic tract.
  • Parathyroid ultrasonography was performed on all patients.
  • RESULTS: A total of 36 adenomas were removed: 34 solitary adenomas and 1 double adenoma (for totals of 19 P3-derived and 17 P4-derived adenomas).
  • Pinhole subtraction imaging, SPECT, and ultrasonography sensitivities for detecting adenomas were 86%, 78%, and 77%, respectively.
  • Positive SPECT results were associated with higher gland weights.
  • Only 2 corresponded to large P3-derived adenomas (>2 g).
  • CONCLUSION: By reclassifying apparently inferior adenomas as P4-derived adenomas prolapsed behind the thyroid gland, SPECT provides information about the most suitable surgical approach for avoiding recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.
  • Additional pinhole images should increase the detection of small adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 17702904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-4916
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nucl Med Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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97. Adam MA, Untch BR, Olson JA Jr: Parathyroid carcinoma: current understanding and new insights into gene expression and intraoperative parathyroid hormone kinetics. Oncologist; 2010;15(1):61-72
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: current understanding and new insights into gene expression and intraoperative parathyroid hormone kinetics.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an indolent but ultimately life-threatening malignancy.
  • Due to the lack of definitive diagnostic markers and overlapping clinical features of benign primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), this disease is often misdiagnosed as parathyroid adenoma.
  • Owing to the rarity of the disease, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Here, we review the literature to present current understanding of the disease and provide new information on gene expression and use of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring in the surgical management of this rare malignancy.
  • Specifically, using microarray transcriptome analysis of an unequivocal case of parathyroid carcinoma and a biopsy from the same patient's normal parathyroid gland, we identify APP, CDH1, KCNJ16, and UCHL1 as differentially expressed genes in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Further, using case records from four cases of unequivocal parathyroid carcinoma, we compared intraoperative PTH kinetics of these patients to 475 patients with benign PHPT, and show that intraoperative PTH monitoring is accurate in predicting postoperative normocalcemia in initial en bloc operations for parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Intraoperative Care. Monitoring, Physiologic. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Diagnostic Imaging. Gene Expression. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroidectomy. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20051478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK088188
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
  • [Number-of-references] 86
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3227890
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98. Shanmugam N, Johns W, Chasse K, Gupta SM: Serendipitous detection of metastatic thyroid cancer during I-123 Tc-99m sestamibi dual parathyroid imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Aug;30(8):550-1
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  • [Title] Serendipitous detection of metastatic thyroid cancer during I-123 Tc-99m sestamibi dual parathyroid imaging.
  • Dual isotope parathyroid imaging performed on a 47-year-old man with known papillary thyroid cancer and biochemical hyperparathyroidism showed residual concentration of sestamibi consistent with a right inferior parathyroid adenoma.
  • Histology revealed a left superior parathyroid adenoma and normal right inferior parathyroid gland.
  • Right inferior parathyroid adenoma on scintigraphy was, in fact, a cervical lymph node metastasis from the papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16024952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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99. Ogilvie JB, Clark OH: Parathyroid surgery: we still need traditional and selective approaches. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Jun;28(6):566-9
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  • [Title] Parathyroid surgery: we still need traditional and selective approaches.
  • Since the first parathyroidectomy in 1925, the traditional bilateral cervical approach has been the gold standard surgical treatment for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, with a success rate >95%.
  • Over the past decade, the focus on minimally invasive surgery has led to the development of several innovative approaches to the parathyroid glands including the focused, radio-guided, video-assisted and videoscopic parathyroidectomy.
  • Improvements in pre-operative parathyroid localization studies as well as the use of the intraoperative PTH assay have made these minimally invasive approaches possible, and they have been proven to be safe and effective for the solitary parathyroid adenoma.
  • For patients with multiple gland disease or equivocal localization studies, the traditional bilateral approach remains the standard of care.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Diseases / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Reoperation. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Ultrasonography

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  • [CommentIn] J Endocrinol Invest. 2005 Jun;28(6):570-3 [16117202.001]
  • (PMID = 16117201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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100. Pino Rivero V, Pantoja Hernández CG, Mora Santos ME, González Palomino A, Pardo Romero G, Gómez de Tejada Romero R, Blasco Huelva A: [Morphology of the parathyroid glands. A study of 146 samples and review of the literature]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2007;34(2):135-42

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  • [Title] [Morphology of the parathyroid glands. A study of 146 samples and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Morfología de las glándulas paratiroides. Estudio de 146 muestras y revisión de la literatura.
  • Parathyroid hyperfunction condition has a very diverse and unspecific symptoms and signs.
  • We have performed an anatomopathologic study of 146 parathyroid gland from patients diagnosed from hyperparathyroidism.
  • About a 72.6% of the patients presented a parathyroid adenoma while in the rest 27.4% it was observed principal cells hyperplasia.
  • Up to now we have not registered any cases of parathyroid carcinoma after anatomopathological exam of the removed gland.
  • The mayority of the adenomas (85%) were found on the lower parathyroids and its size varied between 6 mm and 5 cm.
  • In one case an double adenoma was diagnosed and in another two cases the adenoma was located in the superior mediastine.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17549960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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