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1. M Bustamante-Balén, Bernet L, Cano R, Morell L, López A: Assessing the reproducibility of the microscopic diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma of the colon. Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2009 Apr;101(4):258-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessing the reproducibility of the microscopic diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma of the colon.
  • INTRODUCTION: sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) is a recently described lesion that may be related to the development of up to 15% of colorectal cancers (CRCs).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: concordance between two pathologists in the diagnosis of serrated lesions of the colon was studied for 195 lesions (187 hyperplastic polyps and 7 serrated adenomas).
  • Possible diagnoses were: SSA, traditional serrated adenoma (TSA), hyperplastic polyp (HP), serrated polyp, tubular adenoma, or mixed lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19492901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-0108
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Enferm Dig
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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2. Al-Daraji WI, Abdellaoui A, Salman WD: Osseous metaplasia in a tubular adenoma of the colon. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):220-1

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Osseous metaplasia in a tubular adenoma of the colon.
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed a 1.5 cm polyp 30 cm from the anus.
  • The polyp was removed during the sigmoidoscopy by electrocautery and sent for histological examination.
  • The polyp was a tubular adenoma with mild dysplasia.
  • The adenoma contained numerous foci of metaplastic bone.
  • This is the first case of osseous metaplasia in a tubular adenoma of the colon to be reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Ossification, Heterotopic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colon / pathology. Female. Humans. Metaplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15677548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770563
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3. White V, Shaw AG, Tierney GM, Lund JN, Semeraro D: Osseous metaplasia in an ulcerating tubular adenoma of the colon: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:130

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Osseous metaplasia in an ulcerating tubular adenoma of the colon: a case report.
  • Here we report a rare case of metaplastic ossification within a benign ulcerating adenoma and review the literature concerning the aetiology.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old woman, who presented with a history of melaena, was found at colonoscopy to have a pedunculated ulcerating polyp.
  • Histological examination demonstrated multiple areas of osseous metaplasia within the polyp stroma.
  • CONCLUSION: Heterotopic ossification in colonic adenomas is a particularly rare phenomenon, with the majority of cases occurring within malignant lesions.

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  • [Cites] Am J Pathol. 1955 Jan-Feb;31(1):73-91 [13218132.001]
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  • (PMID = 18445248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2386133
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4. Harada K, Higaki S, Amano A, Hashimoto K, Hashimoto S, Gondo T, Sakaida I: A reduced COX-2 expression and a reduced number of pericryptal myofibroblasts are associated with depressed adenoma of the colon. Oncol Rep; 2007 Jun;17(6):1353-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A reduced COX-2 expression and a reduced number of pericryptal myofibroblasts are associated with depressed adenoma of the colon.
  • The histogenesis of depressed adenoma of the colon has not been sufficiently investigated.
  • Pericryptal myofibroblasts are stromal cells expressing smooth muscle actin, and are involved in the differentiation and multiplication of epithelial cells in the colonic epithelium.
  • COX-2 has been reported to be involved in the development of colon adenoma.
  • We studied the histogenesis of depressed adenoma of the colon by examining the relationship between the presence of pericryptal myofibroblasts and COX-2 expression.
  • Twenty-one depressed adenomas of the colon that had been resected endoscopically between June 1998 and May 2003 (mild-moderate atypia; mean diameter, 6.7 mm) and 23 elevated adenomas that had been resected endoscopically in 2003 (mild-moderate atypia; mean diameter, 11.7 mm), were studied.
  • Eighteen (78.3%) of the 23 elevated adenomas and six (28.6%) of the 21 depressed adenomas were positive for pericryptal myofibroblasts immunohistochemically, showing a significant difference (P<0.001).
  • Seventeen elevated adenomas (73.9%) and eight depressed adenomas (38.1%) were positive for COX-2 expression (P=0.016).
  • The histogenesis of depressed adenomas differs from that of elevated adenomas.
  • Our results suggest that a low number of pericryptal myofibroblasts and a low COX-2 expression are associated with depressed adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Fibroblasts / pathology. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Myoblasts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17487390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
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5. Ispas C, Yu J, Tarantino DR, Lara JF: Pathologic quiz case: a 44-year-old woman with a tubulovillous adenoma of the colon and liver and bone lesions. Small cell (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the colon with metastasis and an associated, overlying villous adenoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Mar;129(3):412-4
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  • [Title] Pathologic quiz case: a 44-year-old woman with a tubulovillous adenoma of the colon and liver and bone lesions. Small cell (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the colon with metastasis and an associated, overlying villous adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15737043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Murff HJ, Shrubsole MJ, Smalley WE, Wu H, Shyr Y, Ness RM, Zheng W: The interaction of age and hormone replacement therapy on colon adenoma risk. Cancer Detect Prev; 2007;31(2):161-5
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  • [Title] The interaction of age and hormone replacement therapy on colon adenoma risk.
  • BACKGROUND: Several studies have identified a possible interaction between age and hormone replacement therapy on colon neoplasm risk.
  • RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between age and hormone replacement therapy use (P=0.03) with current estrogen users who were over 56 years of age having a reduced odds of colon adenoma (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.16-0.98) when compared to never users.
  • Both older women who had used hormone replacement therapy for 3 or less years (OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.006-0.81) and those reporting greater than 10 years of use (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09-0.80) had a reduced adjusted odds for adenomas when compared to non-users.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Duration of use is not likely to explain the stronger association of hormone replacement therapy use with colon neoplasm in older women.

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  • (PMID = 17433566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-090X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer detection and prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Detect. Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA114029; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097386-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA114029-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097386; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095103-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA95103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097386-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA97386
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS24075; NLM/ PMC1949417
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7. Kaneko R, Sato Y, An Y, Nakagawa M, Kusayanagi S, Kamisago S, Umeda T, Ogawa M, Munakata K, Mizuno K: Clinico-epidemiologic study of the metabolic syndrome and lifestyle factors associated with the risk of colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(4):975-83
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  • [Title] Clinico-epidemiologic study of the metabolic syndrome and lifestyle factors associated with the risk of colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma.
  • Prevention is clearly important and the present study aimed to clarify risk factors and to promote colon cancer screening.
  • RESULTS: Low-grade adenoma was more frequent among the elderly and in men.
  • All of the men and 87.5% of the women with high-grade adenoma or adenocarcinoma were aged≥45 and≥50 years, respectively.
  • In women, a larger waist circumference (=80 cm) increased the odds ratio for colon adenoma or adenocarcinoma (colon tumors) by 1.033 (95% confidence index (CI), 1.001-1.066; p=0.040).
  • Metabolic syndrome significantly increased the odds ratio of colon tumors in men, but not in women.
  • Cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, and increased physical activity were significant risk factors for colon tumors in men, with odds ratios of 1.001 (95% CI, 1.000-1.002; p=0.001), 1.001 (95% CI, 1.000-1.003; p=0.047), and 1.406 (95% CI 1.038-1.904; p=0.028), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Colon tumors have a high prevalence in the elderly.
  • A larger waist circumference in women and metabolic syndrome in both men and women elevate the risk of colon tumors.
  • In addition, smoking, drinking, and excessive physical activity are risk factors for adenoma and adenocarcinoma in men.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Metabolic Syndrome X / complications

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  • (PMID = 21133610.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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8. Lee HL, Son BK, Lee OY, Jeon YC, Han DS, Sohn JH, Yoon BC, Choi HS, Hahm JS, Lee MH, Lee DH, Kee CS: [Abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and the risk of colonic adenoma]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2007 Mar;49(3):147-51
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  • [Title] [Abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and the risk of colonic adenoma].
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abdominal obesity and hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance are of interest in connection with colon carcinogenesis.
  • We conducted a prospective case controlled study for the evaluation of relationship between abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and colorectal adenoma.
  • METHODS: Fifty patients with colorectal adenoma and fifty healthy subjects were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: There were no differences in sex, serum insulin, FBS, HOMA-IR, TG, CROL between adenoma and control group.
  • Subjects with high BMI, WHR, percent body fat, and obesity were more likely to have colonic adenoma.
  • Multiple logistic regression analysis after adjusting confounding factors, had revealed that WHR was the most important independent risk factor for colon adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal obesity was most closely related to colonic adenoma.
  • However, insulin resistance was not related to colonic adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Fat. Adenoma / etiology. Colonic Neoplasms / etiology. Insulin Resistance. Obesity / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Korean J Gastroenterol. 2007 Mar;49(3):192-5 [18172350.001]
  • (PMID = 18172342.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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9. Patel VG, Darko ND, Martin DM, Lyons R, Marantz D: Serrated adenoma of the colon: an under-recognized premalignant variant of adenomatous polyp. Am Surg; 2010 Sep;76(9):E190-2
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  • [Title] Serrated adenoma of the colon: an under-recognized premalignant variant of adenomatous polyp.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Colectomy / methods. Colonic Polyps / epidemiology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21396285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Sztarkier I, Levy I, Walfisch S, Delgado J, Benharroch D: Mantle cell lymphoma in a tubular adenoma: unusual presentation with synchronous colonic carcinoma. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Feb;13(1):47-9
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  • [Title] Mantle cell lymphoma in a tubular adenoma: unusual presentation with synchronous colonic carcinoma.
  • Colonoscopy at this time revealed 3 colonic tubular adenomas.
  • Reassessment of the histology of the colonic polyps and appropriate immunohistochemical stains showed that the lamina propria of one of the tubular adenomas was infiltrated by MCL.
  • Reexamination of the sections taken at the time of the original sigmoidectomy showed MCL in 2 of the regional lymph nodes removed at that time, but no evidence of lymphoma in the colon was found.
  • To our knowledge, this is the fifth reported case of synchronous occurrence of intestinal MCL and colonic carcinoma and the first report of MCL presenting in a tubular adenoma of the colon.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Bone Marrow / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 19118782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Lim SC, Oh SH: The role of CD24 in various human epithelial neoplasias. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;201(7):479-86
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  • The authors aimed at evaluating CD24 protein expression in adenoma and adenocarcinoma of the stomach, colon, gallbladder, ovary, and breast to establish a correlation with clinicopathologic data.
  • The present study clearly demonstrates that CD24 is abundantly expressed in adenocarcinoma compared to adenoma of the colon and breast.
  • Intracytoplasmic CD24 expression was found to be highly associated with adenocarcinoma of the colon, gallbladder, and ovary compared to the adenoma group of those organs, and with the positive nodal status compared to the negative nodal status of the colonic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD24. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16164042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD24; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD24 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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12. Iwama T: NSAIDs and colorectal cancer prevention. J Gastroenterol; 2009;44 Suppl 19:72-6
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  • Then, the results of a randomized double-blind clinical test that examined the regressive effect of a COX-2-specific inhibitor on adenoma of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are presented.
  • These results suggest that a higher dose of COX-2 inhibitors has a suppressive effect on adenoma of the colon and rectum, although a moderate clinical dose of COX-2 inhibitors does not induce clinically effective suppression of adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / prevention & control. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / drug therapy. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / pathology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 19148797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
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13. Ivanov D, Toyonaga T: The first case of endoscopic submucosal dissection of cecal adenoma in Serbia. Med Pregl; 2009 Jan-Feb;62(1-2):27-30
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  • [Title] The first case of endoscopic submucosal dissection of cecal adenoma in Serbia.
  • In 2006, we performed a colonic ESD in Serbia.
  • The adenoma was removed en bloc and prepared for further histopathological examination.
  • Histopathological examination showed that the tumor was a "flat adenoma" of the colon mucosa with a low grade dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Cecal Neoplasms / surgery. Colonoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19514597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pregl.
  • [Language] eng; srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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14. Stübinger SH, van der Horst Ch, Braun PM: [Pelvic tumors in the eyes of urologists]. Ther Umsch; 2007 Jul;64(7):395-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Raumforderungen im kleinen Becken aus Sicht des Urologen.
  • Benign tumors such as endometrial myoma, ovarian cyst and adenoma of the colon might lead to the development of urogenital symptoms.
  • This is also the case with malignant tumors of the uterus, ovaries, cervix and colon where infiltration of the urogenital organs might be noted.

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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Enlarged Prostate (BPH).
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  • (PMID = 17948757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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15. Pucciarelli S, Enzo M, Agostini M, Pizzini S, Del Bianco P, Lonardi S, Friso M, Mescoli C, Urso E, Nitti D: Cell-free circulating DNA as a promising marker of colorectal cancer detection and progression. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):11059

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : 11059 Background: Since the pathologic stage is the most powerful prognostic factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), there is a strong need of non-invasive methods for early detection.
  • METHODS: cfDNA was extracted from plasma samples from 136 patients with primary CRC at different stages [median age 64 yrs; male/female 78/58; stages I-II, 61; stages III-IV, 75], and from 24 patients with adenomas [median age 67 yrs; male/female 17/7)] and from 55 clean-colon healthy subjects [median age 56 yrs; male/female 13/43).
  • The levels of cfDNA (ALU-115, ALU-247) of CRC patients (stages I-II and stages III-IV) were compared with those of healthy subjects and patients with adenoma.
  • RESULTS: The median concentrations of total cfDNA (ALU115) in the plasma samples from patients with stages III-IV and stages I-II CRC, adenoma and normal controls were 52,4, 11.9; 1.9, and 1.7 ng/ml, respectively (p<.0001).
  • With a cut-off of 4.86 ng/ml, total DNA (ALU115) showed a sensitivity of 78.52 (95% CI 70.6-85.1) and a specificity of 86.08 (95% CI 76.4-92.8) in distinguishing patients with CRC from non-CRC [AUC: 0.860 (95% CI 0.81-0,90), p-value=.0001].
  • With a cut-off of 3.04, cfDNA tumor-related (ALU247) showed a sensitivity of 77.94 (95% CI 70.0-84.6) and a specificity of 82.28 (95% CI 72.1-90.0) in distinguishing patients with CRC from non-CRC [AUC: 0.864 (95% CI 0.81-0,91), p-value=.0001].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both ALU115 and ALU 247 fragments of circulating cfDNA seem promising non-invasive molecular markers of detection and progression of CRC.
  • The findings of the current study require to be confirmed on larger cohorts of patients with CRC and colonic adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 27963165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Ricchetti T, Paci M, Cavazza A, Ferrari G, Annessi V, De Franco S, Sgarbi G: A case of metastatic epithelioid angiosarcoma in the lamina propria of a sigmoid tubulovillous adenoma. Tumori; 2005 Mar-Apr;91(2):210-2

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  • [Title] A case of metastatic epithelioid angiosarcoma in the lamina propria of a sigmoid tubulovillous adenoma.
  • We report a case of epithelioid angiosarcoma with multiple bilateral lung infiltration, bone metastasis, and metastasis of the lamina propria of a tubulovillous adenoma of the colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Basement Membrane / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / secretion. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15948556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31
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17. Raica M, Cimpean AM, Ribatti D: Angiogenesis in pre-malignant conditions. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Jul;45(11):1924-34
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

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  • Additional evidences came from pre-malignant lesions of glandular epithelia, in which the angiogenic switch was demonstrated by the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF in gastric metaplasia and dysplasia, in atypical adenoma of the colon, atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ of the breast and others.

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  • (PMID = 19406633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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18. Yamada T, Tamura S, Onishi S, Hiroi M: A comparison of magnifying chromoendoscopy versus histopathology of forceps biopsy specimen in the diagnosis of minute flat adenoma of the colon. Dig Dis Sci; 2009 Sep;54(9):2002-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A comparison of magnifying chromoendoscopy versus histopathology of forceps biopsy specimen in the diagnosis of minute flat adenoma of the colon.
  • Having noted a discrepancy between endoscopic and histopathological diagnoses in cases of minute adenomas of the colon, a prospective study was designed to clarify which is appropriate, magnifying chromoendoscopy or histopathology of a specimen obtained by biopsy forceps.
  • Comparison of the initial diagnoses between groups A and B showed that a total of 84.6% (88/104) of the lesions were diagnosed to be tubular adenomas histopathologically in group A, compared with 100% (104/104) in group B (P < 0.0001).
  • Results for comparison of the secondary diagnoses between group A and group B showed that 14 of the 16 lesions were diagnosed as tubular adenomas histopathologically.
  • Thereafter, 98.1% (102/104) of the lesions were diagnosed to be tubular adenomas histopathologically in group A (P = 0.4976).
  • In conclusion, high-resolution magnifying chromoendoscopy is an appropriate procedure for the diagnosis of minute adenomas in comparison with histopathology of specimens obtained by biopsy forceps in this prospective study.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19037726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Schöniger-Hekele M, Petermann D, Müller C: Mutation of keratin 8 in patients with liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Sep;21(9):1466-9
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  • A specific mutation of keratin 8 (G61C) was found to be a genetic risk factor for the development of cryptogenic liver cirrhosis.
  • Also, one out 45 disease control patients with an adenoma of the colon but without liver disease was found to carry the mutation G61C of cytokeratin 8.
  • Two of 15 patients (13.3%) with cryptogenic liver disease had the mutation G61C in cytokeratin 8 (P = 0.069 vs patients with non-cryptogenic liver disease).

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  • (PMID = 16911694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / Keratin-8
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20. Shin JE, Jung SA, Kim SE, Joo YH, Shim KN, Kim TH, Yoo K, Moon IH: [Expression of MMP-2, HIF-1alpha and VEGF in colon adenoma and colon cancer]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2007 Jul;50(1):9-18

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of MMP-2, HIF-1alpha and VEGF in colon adenoma and colon cancer].
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was aimed to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in colonic adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two tissue samples of colon adenoma, 11 of early colon cancer and 36 of advanced colon cancer were collected by colonoscopic biopsy.
  • Normal colonic tissues were also collected from the same subjects.
  • RESULTS: The expression level of MMP-2 mRNA showed a progressive increase in the advance of the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence (p<0.05).
  • In colon cancer tissues, the expression level of MMP-2 mRNA showed an increasing trend according to differentiation, lymphatic invasion and Dukes' stage (p<0.05).
  • The mRNA expression levels of HIF-1alpha and VEGF were greater in tissues of early and advanced colon cancer compared with colon adenoma (p<0.05; p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MMP-2, HIF-1alpha, and VEGF may be useful in detecting early carcinogenesis and progression of colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18172354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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21. Pantanowitz L: Colonic adenoma with squamous metaplasia. Int J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;17(4):340-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Colonic adenoma with squamous metaplasia.
  • Squamous metaplasia arising within colon adenomas is a rare occurrence, with a 0.4% incidence noted predominantly in elderly males.
  • A case of squamous metaplasia arising in a tubulovillous adenoma of the cecum, associated with adenocarcinoma, is described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18701516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / beta Catenin
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22. Wei HJ, Guo ZY, Xie SS, He BH, Li LB, Chen XM, Wu GY, Lu JJ: [Colon adenoma detection using Kubelka-Munk spectral function of DNA and protein bands]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi; 2009 Jun;29(6):1473-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Colon adenoma detection using Kubelka-Munk spectral function of DNA and protein bands].
  • Differential diagnosis of human colon adenoma was studied using the Kubelka-Munk spectral function of the DNA and protein absorption bands at 260 and 280 nm in vitro.
  • The results of measurement showed that for the spectral range from 590 to 1 064 nm pathological changes of colon epithelial tissues were induced so that there were significant differences in the averaged values of the Kubelka-Munk function f(r infinity) and logarithmic Kubelka-Munk function log [f(r infinity)] of the DNA absorption bands at 260 nm between normal and adenomatous colon epithelial tissues, and the differences were 218% (p < 0.05) and 68.5% (p < 0.05) respectively.
  • Pathological changes of colon epithelial tissues were induced so that there were significant differences in the averaged values of the Kubelka-Munk function f(r infinity) and logarithmic Kubelka-Munk function log [f(r infinity)] of the protein absorption bands at 280 nm between normal and adenomatous colon epithelial tissues, and the differences were 208% (p < 0.05) and 59.0% (p < 0.05) respectively.
  • Pathological changes of colon epithelial tissues were induced so that there were significant differences in the averaged values of the Kubelka-Munk function f(r infinity) and logarithmic Kubelka-Munk function log [f(r infinity)] of the beta-carotene absorption bands at 480 nm between normal and adenomatous colon epithelial tissues, and the differences were 41.7% (p < 0.05) and 32.9% (p < 0.05) respectively.
  • Obviously, pathological changes of colon epithelial tissues were induced so that there were significant changes in the contents of the DNA, protein and beta-carotene of colon epithelial tissues.
  • The conclusion can be applied to rapid, low-cost and noninvasive optical biopsy of colon adenoma, and provides a useful reference.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. DNA / chemistry. Proteins / chemistry. Spectrum Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19810511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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23. Veeriah S, Hofmann T, Glei M, Dietrich H, Will F, Schreier P, Knaup B, Pool-Zobel BL: Apple polyphenols and products formed in the gut differently inhibit survival of human cell lines derived from colon adenoma (LT97) and carcinoma (HT29). J Agric Food Chem; 2007 Apr 18;55(8):2892-900

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  • [Title] Apple polyphenols and products formed in the gut differently inhibit survival of human cell lines derived from colon adenoma (LT97) and carcinoma (HT29).
  • Here, apple polyphenols were studied for effects on the survival of colon adenoma (LT97) and carcinoma-derived (HT29) cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Survival / drug effects. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Fermentation. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Fruit / chemistry. Malus / chemistry. Phenols / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17378580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Polyphenols
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24. Byun TJ, Han DS, Ahn SB, Cho HS, Eun CS, Jeon YC, Sohn JH, Oh YH: Pseudoinvasion in an adenomatous polyp of the colon mimicking invasive colon cancer. Gut Liver; 2009 Jun;3(2):130-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pseudoinvasion in an adenomatous polyp of the colon mimicking invasive colon cancer.
  • Pseudoinvasion or pseudocarcinomatous invasion in an adenomatous polyp of the colon can be unfamiliar to an endoscopist.
  • Pseudoinvasion in an adenomatous polyp represents prolapse of the adenomatous epithelium into its stalk.
  • In most cases its morphology does not differ from of general adenomatous polyps, but in some cases it can morphologically mimic a malignant polyp with submucosal invasion due to mass-like lesioning of its stalk.
  • This makes it difficult for endoscopists to differentiate pseudoinvasion in an adenoma from an invasive carcinoma by conventional endoscopy; instead, endoscopic ultrasonography can provide useful information for differentiating these conditions.
  • We report on an 82-year-old man who presented with a large pedunculated polyp with a thick stalk in the sigmoid colon, which mimicked a submucosal invasive carcinoma.
  • The patient was diagnosed with pseudoinvasion in an adenomatous polyp after segmental resection of the sigmoid colon.

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  • [Cites] J Clin Pathol. 1973 Jan;26(1):25-31 [4540378.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1974 Jan;33(1):206-17 [4810096.001]
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  • (PMID = 20431736.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-1212
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut and liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut Liver
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2852693
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenomatous polyps / EUS / Malignant polyp / Pseudoinvasion
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25. Schindler AE: Long-term use of progestogens: colon adenoma and colon carcinoma. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2007 Oct;23 Suppl 1:42-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term use of progestogens: colon adenoma and colon carcinoma.
  • Colon cancer is the second most common cancer in women in the Western world and there is a trend towards an increasing risk.
  • Colon adenoma is a potential precursor for colon cancer.
  • Adenoma and carcinoma of the colon seem to be influenced by estrogens and progesterone/progestins.
  • This is related to the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors, with apparently higher concentrations in colon cancers than in adenomas.
  • Epidemiological data and the finding of a significant reduction in colon cancer risk related to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and in particular the length of HRT intake, indicate that progesterone/progestins have a preventive effect.
  • Furthermore, the recurrence rate of adenoma appears to be reduced, and the survival of colon cancer patients improved, with HRT; such effects have not been documented with ERT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / prevention & control. Carcinoma / prevention & control. Colonic Neoplasms / prevention & control. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Progestins / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17943538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0766
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Progestins
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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26. Kim SE, Shim KN, Jung SA, Yoo K, Moon IH: An association between obesity and the prevalence of colonic adenoma according to age and gender. J Gastroenterol; 2007 Aug;42(8):616-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An association between obesity and the prevalence of colonic adenoma according to age and gender.
  • BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data on obesity as a risk factor for colonic adenoma with respect to gender have not yet been confirmed.
  • Here, we aimed to compare the prevalence of colonic adenoma and of advanced polyps in age-stratified men and women at baseline, to examine the role of body mass index (BMI) on colonic adenoma risk according to age and gender, and to examine the influence of menopausal status.
  • BMI was assessed, and histology, size, and location of the adenoma were examined for each patient.
  • RESULTS: A significant increase in the prevalence of colonic adenoma and of advanced polyps was found to occur with age (P for trend < 0.01).
  • The prevalences of adenoma and advanced polyps were higher in men in most age groups (P < 0.01), but no significant difference in prevalences was observed between genderes in patients 70 years of age or older.
  • Moreover, a positive association between BMI and the prevalence of colonic adenoma and advanced polyps was shown in relatively young individuals of both gender (men in their thirties, P < 0.05; women in their forties, P < 0.05), and premenopausal women according to hormonal status (P = 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that obesity increases the risk of colonic adenoma in relatively young people and in premenopausal women subject to estrogen effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Obesity / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Biopsy. Body Mass Index. Colonic Polyps / epidemiology. Colonic Polyps / etiology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonoscopy. Female. Humans. Korea / epidemiology. Male. Menopause. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 17701124.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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27. Kuefner MA, Schwelberger HG, Hahn EG, Raithel M: Decreased histamine catabolism in the colonic mucosa of patients with colonic adenoma. Dig Dis Sci; 2008 Feb;53(2):436-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Decreased histamine catabolism in the colonic mucosa of patients with colonic adenoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Alterations in mucosal histamine degradation play an important role in various gastrotinestinal diseases including colonic adenoma.
  • METHODS: About 94 colonic biopsies were endoscopically obtained from 23 patients suffering from colonic adenoma and 26 biopsies from six healthy individuals.
  • RESULTS: In adenoma patients DAO activities were slightly and HNMT activities were significantly decreased in normal mucosa compared to controls.
  • Activities of both enzymes were significantly lower in adenoma tissue than in healthy mucosa in the same patients.
  • Histamine concentrations were elevated in adenoma patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Histamine catabolism is decreased in the colonic mucosa of patients with colonic adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Histamine / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Villous / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing) / metabolism. Female. Histamine N-Methyltransferase / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17562176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 820484N8I3 / Histamine; EC 1.4.3.21 / Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing); EC 2.1.1.8 / Histamine N-Methyltransferase
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28. Hazra A, Fuchs CS, Chan AT, Giovannucci EL, Hunter DJ: Association of the TCF7L2 polymorphism with colorectal cancer and adenoma risk. Cancer Causes Control; 2008 Nov;19(9):975-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association of the TCF7L2 polymorphism with colorectal cancer and adenoma risk.
  • We evaluated the association of a polymorphism in TCF7L2 (RS12255372) in the WNT signaling pathway, which previously has been strongly associated with risk of Type II Diabetes, with colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenoma in the prospective Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) cohorts.
  • Hyperinsulinemia may be related to the risk of colon adenoma and cancer, therefore this variant associated with reduced insulin secretion would be predicted to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18478343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-5243
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA87969; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T-32 CA 09001-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA107412; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA70817; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA55075; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA107412-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA107412-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TCF Transcription Factors; 0 / TCF7L2 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS124556; NLM/ PMC2719293
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29. Egan JB, Thompson PA, Ashbeck EL, Conti DV, Duggan D, Hibler E, Jurutka PW, Leroy EC, Martínez ME, Mount D, Jacobs ET: Genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor VDR/RXRA influence the likelihood of colon adenoma recurrence. Cancer Res; 2010 Feb 15;70(4):1496-504
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor VDR/RXRA influence the likelihood of colon adenoma recurrence.
  • No gene-level associations were observed for VDR, nor was any single SNP in VDR related to any metachronous adenoma after correction for multiple comparisons.
  • Haplotypes within linkage blocks of RXRA support an approximately 30% reduction in odds of metachronous neoplasia arising in the proximal colon among carriers of specific haplotypes, which was strongest (OR(proximal), 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.86) for carriers of a CGGGCA haplotype (rs1805352, rs3132297, rs3132296, rs3118529, rs3118536, and rs7861779).

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  • (PMID = 20145122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA106269; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA023074-22S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095060-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07CA106269; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA95060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77145; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA041108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA095060-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA123065; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA106269-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023074-22S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA041108-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA41108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA041108-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106269-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Retinoid X Receptor alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS262521; NLM/ PMC3019606
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30. Wu K, Giovannucci E, Byrne C, Platz EA, Fuchs C, Willett WC, Sinha R: Meat mutagens and risk of distal colon adenoma in a cohort of U.S. men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Jun;15(6):1120-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Meat mutagens and risk of distal colon adenoma in a cohort of U.S. men.
  • We examined the association between intakes of the heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5,-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and meat-derived mutagenicity (MDM) and risk of distal colon adenoma using a cooking method questionnaire administered in 1996 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohort.
  • Between 1996 and 2002, 581 distal colon adenoma cases were identified.
  • Higher intake of MDM was marginally associated with increased risk of distal adenoma [fourth versus lowest quintile: odds ratio (OR), 1.39; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.05-1.84; highest versus lowest quintile: OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.97-1.72; P(trend) = 0.08].
  • Our data also suggested a positive association between higher MeIQx (highest versus lowest quintile: OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.95-1.71; P(trend) = 0.22) and risk of adenoma, but this association was attenuated after adjusting for processed meat intake.
  • DiMeIQx and PhIP did not seem to be associated with risk of adenoma.
  • In conclusion, higher consumption of mutagens from meats cooked at higher temperature and longer duration may be associated with higher risk of distal colon adenoma independent of overall meat intake.
  • Because mutagens other than heterocyclic amines also contribute to MDM, our results suggest that mutagens other than heterocyclic amines in cooked meats may also play a role in increasing the risk of distal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Colonic Neoplasms / etiology. Meat. Mutagens / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16775169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 55075; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA95589
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amines; 0 / Mutagens
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31. Marino M, Galluzzo P, Leone S, Acconcia F, Ascenzi P: Nitric oxide impairs the 17beta-estradiol-induced apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Jun;13(2):559-69
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  • [Title] Nitric oxide impairs the 17beta-estradiol-induced apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.
  • By contrast, E2 reduces the incidence of colon adenoma and carcinoma by about 30%.
  • We report the genomic and non-genomic E2-estrogen receptor (ER) beta-induced effects in human colon adenocarcinoma.
  • The E2-ERbeta-dependent gene transcription was inhibited by exogenous NO, whereas some non-genomic E2-dependent effects (e.g. p38/MAP kinase), important for the activation of the apoptotic cascade, were unaffected by NO.
  • However, NO impaired the E2-induced pro-apoptotic cascade in human colon adenocarcinoma cells by inhibiting caspase-3.
  • On the whole, high NO concentrations suppressed the E2 protective effects in the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the caspase-dependent apoptotic cascade may become critical under conditions of high redox stress such as occur under specific activation of the immune system by chronic infections or pathogen challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspase Inhibitors. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / antagonists & inhibitors. Nitric Oxide / toxicity

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. NITRIC OXIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ESTRADIOL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYSTEINE .
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  • (PMID = 16728582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caspase Inhibitors; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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32. Pusztaszeri M, Bouzourene H: Invasive carcinoma arising from a colonic adenoma with clear cell change. Hum Pathol; 2008 Sep;39(9):1402-5
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  • [Title] Invasive carcinoma arising from a colonic adenoma with clear cell change.
  • Clear cell change (CCC) in colonic adenoma is rare, and its biological and clinical significance remains unknown.
  • Malignant progression of an adenoma with CCC has seldom been reported.
  • We report a case of a sigmoid adenoma with multiple foci of CCC associated with high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in a 62-year-old patient.
  • We evaluated the histochemical and immunohistochemical characteristics of each component of the adenoma.
  • In contrast to other parts of the adenoma, p53 was strongly and diffusely overexpressed in the areas of CCC, high-grade dysplasia, and carcinoma.
  • The MIB-1 labeling index was also significantly higher in these components than in other parts of the adenoma.
  • In conclusion, our findings suggest that CCC in adenoma may be associated with malignant progression of the adenoma.
  • Hence, for practical purposes, we recommend considering CCC in colonic adenomas as a high-grade dysplasia equivalent and following up the patient accordingly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18602669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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33. Obtulowicz T, Swoboda M, Speina E, Gackowski D, Rozalski R, Siomek A, Janik J, Janowska B, Ciesla JM, Jawien A, Banaszkiewicz Z, Guz J, Dziaman T, Szpila A, Olinski R, Tudek B: Oxidative stress and 8-oxoguanine repair are enhanced in colon adenoma and carcinoma patients. Mutagenesis; 2010 Sep;25(5):463-71
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  • [Title] Oxidative stress and 8-oxoguanine repair are enhanced in colon adenoma and carcinoma patients.
  • Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer.
  • In the examined groups of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC, n = 89), benign adenoma (AD, n = 77) and healthy volunteers (controls, n = 99), we measured: vitamins A, C and E in blood plasma, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) in leukocytes and urine, leukocyte 8-oxoGua excision activity, mRNA levels of APE1, OGG1, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydrodeoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (MTH1) and OGG1 polymorphism.
  • The vitamin levels decreased gradually in AD and CRC patients.
  • 8-OxodG increased in leukocytes and urine of CRC and AD patients.
  • 8-OxoGua excision was higher in CRC patients than in controls, in spite of higher frequency of the OGG1 Cys326Cys genotype, encoding a glycosylase with decreased activity. mRNA levels of OGG1 and APE1 increased in CRC and AD patients, which could explain increased 8-oxoGua excision rate in CRC patients.
  • The results suggest that oxidative stress occurs in CRC and AD individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA Repair / genetics. Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives. Oxidative Stress / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyps / blood. Adenomatous Polyps / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aging / genetics. Antioxidants / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. DNA Glycosylases / genetics. DNA Glycosylases / metabolism. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase / genetics. DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / genetics. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / metabolism. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Sex Characteristics. Smoking / adverse effects. Smoking / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20534734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-3804
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutagenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutagenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.6.- / 8-oxodGTPase; EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / oxoguanine glycosylase 1, human; EC 4.2.99.18 / APEX1 protein, human; EC 4.2.99.18 / DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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34. Castillo-Alcala F, Mans C, Bos AS, Taylor WM, Smith DA: Clinical and pathologic features of an adenomatous polyp of the colon in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Can Vet J; 2010 Nov;51(11):1261-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonic Polyps.

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  • [Title] Clinical and pathologic features of an adenomatous polyp of the colon in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).
  • A 6-year-old castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with a 4-week history of intermittent diarrhea and straining during defecation had an intraluminal mass in the descending colon identified by abdominal ultrasound.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of the resected mass was an adenomatous polyp of the colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / veterinary. Colonic Polyps / veterinary. Ferrets

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  • (PMID = 21286327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5286
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue vétérinaire canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2957035
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35. Friedland S, Soetikno R, Carlisle M, Taur A, Kaltenbach T, Segall G: 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography has limited sensitivity for colonic adenoma and early stage colon cancer. Gastrointest Endosc; 2005 Mar;61(3):395-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography has limited sensitivity for colonic adenoma and early stage colon cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is used clinically to detect recurrent colon cancer after surgical resection, but the sensitivity of PET for premalignant colon lesions and early stage colon cancer is not well defined.
  • METHODS: In a prospective study, 45 patients with a total of 58 colonic neoplasms, including premalignant polyps, premalignant, flat lesions, and early stage cancers, were evaluated by PET.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PET has limited sensitivity for flat, premalignant lesions; protruded, premalignant lesions smaller than 3 cm; and colon cancers smaller than 2 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Precancerous Conditions / diagnostic imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 15758910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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36. Bergheim I, Bode C, Parlesak A: Decreased expression of cytochrome P450 protein in non-malignant colonic tissue of patients with colonic adenoma. BMC Gastroenterol; 2005;5:34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Decreased expression of cytochrome P450 protein in non-malignant colonic tissue of patients with colonic adenoma.
  • To estimate the role of cytochrome P450 in carcinogenesis of the colon, expression patterns and protein levels of four representative CYPs (CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) were determined in colon mucosa of normal and adenomatous colonic tissue of patients with adenomas and disease-free controls.
  • METHODS: Expression of CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 in colon mucosa of normal and adenomatous colonic tissue of patients with adenoma and disease-free controls was determined by RT-PCR.
  • RESULTS: With the exception of CYP3A5, expression of CYP mRNA was similar among groups and tissues (e.g. normal colon mucosa and adenoma).
  • CYP3A5 mRNA expression was significantly higher in adenoma in comparison to normal tissue of patients with adenoma (approximately 48%).
  • When comparing protein concentrations of CYPs measured in adenomas with neighboring normal colonic mucosa no differences were found.
  • However, in normal tissue of patients with adenomas, protein levels of CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, but not that of CYP2E1, were significantly lower than in biopsies obtained from disease-free controls.
  • Specifically, in normal colonic mucosa of patients protein concentrations of CYP2C8, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were approximately 86%, approximately 69%, and approximately 54%, respectively, lower than in disease-free controls.
  • CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) in colon mucosa might contribute to the development of neoplasia in the colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / enzymology. Colon / enzymology. Colonic Neoplasms / enzymology. Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16281975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / cytochrome P-450 CYP2C subfamily; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.13.- / Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1; EC 1.14.13.67 / CYP3A4 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / CYP3A protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / CYP3A5 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1310537
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37. Veeriah S, Miene C, Habermann N, Hofmann T, Klenow S, Sauer J, Böhmer F, Wölfl S, Pool-Zobel BL: Apple polyphenols modulate expression of selected genes related to toxicological defence and stress response in human colon adenoma cells. Int J Cancer; 2008 Jun 15;122(12):2647-55
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  • [Title] Apple polyphenols modulate expression of selected genes related to toxicological defence and stress response in human colon adenoma cells.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether polyphenols from apples modulate expression of genes related to colon cancer prevention in preneoplastic cells derived from colon adenoma (LT97).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Malus / chemistry. Phenols / pharmacology. Precancerous Conditions / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18351577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Polyphenols
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38. Ashktorab H, Belgrave K, Hosseinkhah F, Brim H, Nouraie M, Takkikto M, Hewitt S, Lee EL, Dashwood RH, Smoot D: Global histone H4 acetylation and HDAC2 expression in colon adenoma and carcinoma. Dig Dis Sci; 2009 Oct;54(10):2109-17
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  • [Title] Global histone H4 acetylation and HDAC2 expression in colon adenoma and carcinoma.
  • Chromatin remodeling and activation of transcription are important aspects of gene regulation, but these often go awry in disease progression, including during colon cancer development.
  • We investigated the status of global histone acetylation (by measuring H3, H4 acetylation of lysine residues, which also occur over large regions of chromatin including coding regions and non-promoter sequences) and expression of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue microarrays using immunohistochemical staining.
  • Specifically, HDAC2 and the acetylation of histones H4K12 and H3K18 were evaluated in 134 colonic adenomas, 55 moderate to well differentiated carcinomas, and 4 poorly differentiated carcinomas compared to matched normal tissue.
  • HDAC2 nuclear expression was detected at high levels in 81.9%, 62.1%, and 53.1% of CRC, adenomas, and normal tissue, respectively (P = 0.002).
  • HDAC2 expression was correlated significantly with progression of adenoma to carcinoma (P = 0.002), with a discriminative power of 0.74, when comparing cancer and non-cancer cases.

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  • (PMID = 19057998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122959; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122959-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122959-02; United States / PHS HHS / / A102681; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122959
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Histones; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS118762; NLM/ PMC2737733
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39. Hsu HH, Cheng SF, Chen LM, Liu JY, Chu CH, Weng YJ, Li ZY, Lin CS, Lee SD, Kuo WW, Huang CY: Over-expressed estrogen receptor-alpha up-regulates hTNF-alpha gene expression and down-regulates beta-catenin signaling activity to induce the apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of LoVo colon cancer cells. Mol Cell Biochem; 2006 Sep;289(1-2):101-9
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  • [Title] Over-expressed estrogen receptor-alpha up-regulates hTNF-alpha gene expression and down-regulates beta-catenin signaling activity to induce the apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of LoVo colon cancer cells.
  • Epidemiologic studies reported that the prevalence of hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) in male is about 1.5-fold higher than that in female.
  • Patients that received E(2) replacement therapy were found to have a reduction in the incidence of colon adenoma and carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Signal Transduction. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / metabolism. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. DNA Fragmentation. Down-Regulation / genetics. Estrogens / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Promoter Regions, Genetic / drug effects. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Up-Regulation / genetics. Wnt Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16628468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / TNF protein, human; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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40. Kim Y, Kim Y, Lee S: An association between colonic adenoma and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study. BMC Gastroenterol; 2009;9:4
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  • [Title] An association between colonic adenoma and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study.
  • BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenoma is a precursor lesion of colorectal cancer and thus, it is an important target for preventing colorectal cancer.
  • Only a few studies suggest an association between colorectal adenoma and obesity, but results show considerable heterogeneity.
  • In this study, we investigated the association between colorectal adenoma and waist circumference.
  • METHODS: 165 adenoma cases and 365 polyp-free controls with a normal colon were compared in this cross-sectional study.
  • And smokers and men were more prevalent among cases than controls.Among the abdominal obese subjects, 45.6% had 1 or more adenoma, and 9.0% of these had advanced adenoma, whereas among subjects with a normal waist circumference, only 25.7% had 1 or more adenomas.
  • The prevalence of adenoma was higher among abdominal obese group (P < 0.05).
  • Logistic regression analysis showed that abdominal obesity was associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.66~4.51 in men, OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.08~6.12 in women).
  • While BMI was found to be weekly associated with the risk of adenoma among men at the highest BMI levels.
  • However, BMI was not associated with the risk for adenoma after adjusting for waist circumference.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Obesity / complications

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  • (PMID = 19144203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2635368
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41. Rubio CA: Luminal histological outline and colonic adenoma phenotypes. Anticancer Res; 2007 Sep-Oct;27(5B):3555-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Luminal histological outline and colonic adenoma phenotypes.
  • BACKGROUND: The luminal appearance of histological sections from colonic adenomas exhibits two different profiles: one regularly smooth and the other asymmetrically lumpy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose, the largest section of 107 consecutive endoscopically removed colonic adenomas was digitalized using an Epson Perfection 4990 PHOTO device.
  • RESULTS: Asymmetrically lumpy profiles were found in 96% (22/23) of the sections from adenomas measuring > or =15 mm, in 72% (39/54) of those having villous, mixed serrated or microtubular configurations and in 89% (24/27) showing carcinoma according to the Vienna classification.
  • CONCLUSION: The asymmetrically lumpy profile of sections from endoscopically excised colonic adenomas correlated with the size of the sections, the histological phenotype and the degree of neoplastic transformation.
  • Studies have been initiated to clinically explore whether the luminal configuration of colonic adenomas can be of help in predicting, before endoscopical removal, accepted histological parameters.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17972517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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42. Deutscher N, Bataille F, Hausmann M, Kiessling S, Muller-Newen G, Leeb SN, Herfarth H, Heinrich PC, Schölmerich J, Rogler G: Functional expression of the interleukin-11 receptor alpha-chain in normal colonic epithelium and colon cancer. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2006 Sep;21(6):573-81
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  • [Title] Functional expression of the interleukin-11 receptor alpha-chain in normal colonic epithelium and colon cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profiling of IL-11Ralpha and its downstream signaling cascade in colonic adenoma and carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of IL-11Ralpha in normal colonic mucosa, 11 colonic adenomas, and 10 carcinomas was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry revealed significant IL-11-Ralpha expression in epithelial cells of normal colonic mucosa.
  • In contrast, the expression of IL-11-Ralpha in colon adenomas and carcinomas was either absent or only detectable in very few scattered epithelial cells.
  • Densitometric analysis of Western blots confirmed these results, showing a decrease of IL-11Ralpha-protein in cells isolated from adenomas or carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a decrease of IL-11-Ralpha-protein expression in epithelial cells isolated from colon carcinomas and adenomas compared to normal colonic mucosa and a reduced STAT3 signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit / biosynthesis. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16292518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit
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43. Lü BJ, Cui J, Xu J, Zhang H, Luo MJ, Zhu YM, Lai MD: [Bioinformatic analysis of adenoma-normal mucosa SSH library of colon]. Yi Chuan; 2006 Apr;28(4):385-92
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  • [Title] [Bioinformatic analysis of adenoma-normal mucosa SSH library of colon].
  • We established a colonic adenoma-normal mucosa suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) library in 1999.
  • The nucleic acid analytical software, an integrator of the universal bioinformatics tools including phred, phd2fasta, cross_match, repeatmasker and blast2.0, can blast sequences of differential clones with the downloaded non-redundant nucleotide (NR) database.
  • Both genes were up-regulated in 10 or 9 out of 10 adenomas in comparison with the paired normal mucosa, respectively.
  • The candidate genes in A-N library would be of great significance in disclosing the molecular mechanism underlying in colonic adenoma initiation and progression.

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  • (PMID = 16606587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-9772
  • [Journal-full-title] Yi chuan = Hereditas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yi Chuan
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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44. Phelps RA, Chidester S, Dehghanizadeh S, Phelps J, Sandoval IT, Rai K, Broadbent T, Sarkar S, Burt RW, Jones DA: A two-step model for colon adenoma initiation and progression caused by APC loss. Cell; 2009 May 15;137(4):623-34
ZFIN. ZFIN .

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  • [Title] A two-step model for colon adenoma initiation and progression caused by APC loss.
  • Aberrant Wnt/beta-catenin signaling following loss of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is thought to initiate colon adenoma formation.
  • These findings suggest that, following APC loss, CtBP1 contributes to adenoma initiation as a first step, whereas KRAS activation and beta-catenin nuclear localization promote adenoma progression to carcinomas as a second step.
  • Consistent with this model, human FAP adenomas showed robust upregulation of CtBP1 in the absence of detectable nuclear beta-catenin, whereas nuclear beta-catenin was detected in carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 19450512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4172
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA073992; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116468-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA073992-06A10003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116468-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA96934; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA073992-06A10003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116468; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA073992; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116468-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA042014; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA042014; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116468-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Rac1 GTP-binding protein (17-32); 0 / beta Catenin; EC 1.1.- / Alcohol Oxidoreductases; EC 1.1.1.- / C-terminal binding protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / rac1 GTP-Binding Protein; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS102940; NLM/ PMC2706149
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45. Hsu HH, Cheng SF, Wu CC, Chu CH, Weng YJ, Lin CS, Lee SD, Wu HC, Huang CY, Kuo WW: Apoptotic effects of over-expressed estrogen receptor-beta on LoVo colon cancer cell is mediated by p53 signalings in a ligand-dependent manner. Chin J Physiol; 2006 Apr 30;49(2):110-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apoptotic effects of over-expressed estrogen receptor-beta on LoVo colon cancer cell is mediated by p53 signalings in a ligand-dependent manner.
  • Epidemiologic studies reported that the prevalence of hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) in male is about 1.5-fold higher than that in female.
  • Patients that received E2 replacement therapy were found to have a reduction in the incidence of colon adenoma and carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Chin J Physiol. 2006 Jun 30;49(3):167
  • (PMID = 16830793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4920
  • [Journal-full-title] The Chinese journal of physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin J Physiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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46. Zhang W, Ding EX, Wang Q, Zhu DQ, He J, Li YL, Wang YH: Fas ligand expression in colon cancer: a possible mechanism of tumor immune privilege. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jun 21;11(23):3632-5
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  • [Title] Fas ligand expression in colon cancer: a possible mechanism of tumor immune privilege.
  • AIM: To detect the expression of Fas ligand (FasL) in colon cancer tissues and cell lines and analyze the function of FasL-expressing colon cancer cells in inducing Fas-sensitive T lymphocyte apoptosis.
  • METHODS: Ninety surgically resected colon cancer tissues and 15 hepatic metastasis specimens were investigated by immunohistochemical method with normal colon mucosa and colon adenoma as control.
  • FasL expression of 4 colon cancer cell lines, SW620, Lovo, LS-174T and SW1116, were detected by Western blotting assay.
  • The function of FasL expressed on colon cancer cells was determined by coculture assay with Jurkat T lymphocytes, the apoptotic rate of which was detected by flow cytometry assay.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-six (62.22%) cases of all the 90 colon cancer tissues and all (100%) the liver metastasis specimens expressed FasL, significantly higher than normal colon mucosa and colonic adenoma.
  • Higher expression of FasL was found in more advanced stage of colon cancer and in cancer tissues with lymphatic or hepatic metastasis.
  • All the colon cancer cell lines were found to express FasL.
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of FasL is upregulated in colon cancer and the functionally expressed FasL can induce apoptosis of Fas-expressing T lymphocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / immunology. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15962391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4315977
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47. Tanaka S, Tatsuguchi A, Futagami S, Gudis K, Wada K, Seo T, Mitsui K, Yonezawa M, Nagata K, Fujimori S, Tsukui T, Kishida T, Sakamoto C: Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage cyclooxygenase 2 expression in colonic adenoma. Gut; 2006 Jan;55(1):54-61
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  • [Title] Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage cyclooxygenase 2 expression in colonic adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression in subepithelial macrophages of colorectal adenoma has been suggested as the first in a series of steps leading to colorectal tumorigenesis.
  • We tested the hypothesis that chemokines released from human colorectal adenoma epithelium might be involved in COX-2 expression in macrophages of the lamina propria.
  • METHODS: Endoscopic samples of sporadic colorectal adenomas were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for chemokines involved in macrophage chemotaxis.
  • Localisation of adenoma macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and COX-2 were determined by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: MCP-1 levels were markedly higher in adenoma with mild-moderate dysplasia (129.7 (19.9) pg/mg protein) and severe dysplasia (227.9 (35.4) pg/mg protein) than in normal colonic mucosa (55.8 (4.2) pg/mg protein).
  • Other chemokine levels, macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta, and the chemokine regulated on activation of normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) did not vary significantly between adenoma and normal mucosa.
  • MCP-1 levels in both adenoma and normal colonic mucosa increased significantly three hours after tissue cultivation in vitro.
  • MCP-1 immunoreactivity was restricted to the adenoma epithelium, with no reactivity seen in adjacent normal epithelial cells.
  • Addition of exogenous PGE(2) reversed this inhibitory effect on VEGF release, suggesting that MCP-1 in adenoma epithelial cells might be involved in COX-2 expression and subsequent macrophage activation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1 in colorectal adenoma epithelial cells might be involved in macrophage migration and COX-2 expression, leading to the subsequent development of colonic adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Chemokine CCL2 / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Macrophages / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16085694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1856393
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48. Pisello F, Geraci G, Arnone E, Modica G, Stassi F, Sciumè C: [Endoscopic surveillance of colon-rectum in the narrow band imaging era]. G Chir; 2009 Oct;30(10):440-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Endoscopic surveillance of colon-rectum in the narrow band imaging era].
  • [Transliterated title] Sorveglianza endoscopica del colon-retto. Ruolo del Narrow Band Imaging (NBI).
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopic surveillance is an established method of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening that reduces death rates, but has an adenoma miss rate of 10-20%.
  • Narrow band imaging (NBI), a novel endoscopic technology, highlights superficial mucosal capillaries and improves contrast for small adenomas.
  • This study evaluated the role of NBI in the improving colon adenoma detection.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: White light colonoscope was compared with NBI for adenoma detection during colonoscopy.
  • The outcome parameter was the difference in the adenoma detection rate between the two techniques.
  • All polyps detected were removed for histopathological analysis.
  • RESULTS: Adenomas were detected more frequently in the NBI group (51) than in the control group (49); however, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.128).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, the NBI did not increased the adenomas detection rate compared to white light by an endoscopist with a known high detection rate using white light.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19954587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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49. Lau PC, Sung JJ: Flat adenoma in colon: two decades of debate. J Dig Dis; 2010 Aug;11(4):201-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Flat adenoma in colon: two decades of debate.
  • The existence of flat adenomas in the colon is well recognized.
  • Whether they represent a distinct disease with a pathogenetic pathway different from that of the classical adenoma-carcinoma sequence in colorectal tumorigenesis and have higher malignant potential remains a matter of debate.
  • To review the epidemiology, clinical features, detection and management of flat and depressed (non-polypoid) colonic neoplasm, we performed a thorough literature review on studies focusing on the prevalence, histological features, genetics, detection and treatment of flat and depressed (non-polypoid) colonic neoplasm.
  • A high percentage of severe dysplasia in flat colonic adenomas has not been consistently demonstrated.
  • Flat adenomas are found to have a lower incidence of major genetic abnormalities involved in the classical adenoma-carcinoma sequence and that has raised suspicions that they may have a different pathogenesis.
  • More advanced colonoscopic techniques, such as chromoendoscopy, may enhance the detection of small and inconspicuous colonic neoplastic lesions that lack a protruding configuration.
  • It is essential for endoscopists to appreciate the existence and clinical significance of flat and depressed colonic lesions as an important variant of colonic neoplasms so that the goal of reducing colorectal carcinoma incidence by polypectomy can be better achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Colonic Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Colonic Polyps / epidemiology. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonic Polyps / therapy. Colonoscopy. Humans. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / genetics. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20649732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of digestive diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dig Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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50. Tabuchi M, Kitayama J, Nagawa H: Hypertriglyceridemia is positively correlated with the development of colorectal tubular adenoma in Japanese men. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Feb 28;12(8):1261-4
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  • [Title] Hypertriglyceridemia is positively correlated with the development of colorectal tubular adenoma in Japanese men.
  • AIM: To determine the real association between serum lipid levels and colonic polyp formation.
  • METHODS: We performed a large scale retrospective study to analyze the correlation between the incidence of colorectal adenoma or carcinoma and the fasting serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in patients who underwent total colonoscopy for screening for colon cancer.
  • RESULTS: Both levels were significantly elevated in patients with adenomas as compared with patients without any neoplastic lesion (TC 207.6+/-29.5 vs 199.5+/-34.3, n=4883, P<0.001; TG 135.0+/-82.2 vs 108.7+/-71.5, n=4874, P<0.001).
  • The difference was significant in patients with tubular adenoma but not in those with villous or serrated adenoma.
  • The level of TG in patients with invasive carcinoma did not show a significant elevation from that in patients with adenoma.
  • These findings suggest that hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for colonic adenoma in men.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / etiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Hypertriglyceridemia / complications

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  • (PMID = 16534881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Triglycerides; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4124439
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51. Kahveci A, Ari E, Arikan H, Koc M, Tuglular S, Ozener C: Streptococcus bovis bacteremia related to colon adenoma in a chronic hemodialysis patient. Hemodial Int; 2010 Jan;14(1):91-3
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  • [Title] Streptococcus bovis bacteremia related to colon adenoma in a chronic hemodialysis patient.
  • Abstract We report the case of a 54-year-old hemodialysis patient who presented with recurrent fever due to Streptococcus bovis bacteremia related to colonic tubulovillous adenoma.
  • In this paper, we discussed the relation between S. bovis bacteremia, colonic adenomas, and hemodialysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / microbiology. Bacteremia / etiology. Colonic Neoplasms / microbiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects. Streptococcal Infections / pathology. Streptococcus bovis / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 19758303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-4758
  • [Journal-full-title] Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hemodial Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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52. Spisák S, Kalmár A, Galamb O, Sipos F, Wichmann B, Molnár B, Tulassay Z: [Identification of methylation related genes from laser capture microdissected colon samples during investigation of adenoma-carcinoma sequence]. Orv Hetil; 2010 May 16;151(20):805-14

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Identification of methylation related genes from laser capture microdissected colon samples during investigation of adenoma-carcinoma sequence].
  • [Transliterated title] Metilációs szabályozás alatt álló gének azonosítása lézerrel kimetszett vastagbéldaganat-sejtekben az adenoma-carcinoma sorrend vizsgálata során.
  • AIMS: Our aim was to identify colorectal cancer development and progression specific marker genes regulated by DNA methylation using gene expression analysis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genes, which expression increased after the demethylation were determined in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells treated with 10 microM 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine.
  • In parallel, 5000 epithelial cells were collected with laser microdissection (LCM) from normal, adenoma and tumorous colonic samples.
  • The genes with gradually decreasing expression along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence were identified.
  • CONCLUSION: The regulation of the identified genes showing decreased expression during the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, can be associated with DNA methylation.
  • The identified genes showing colorectal cancer specific methylation pattern can be potential therapeutic targets in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Lasers

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  • (PMID = 20442051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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53. Ji JH, Park BJ, Park YS, Hwang JH, Chung SH, Kim N, Lee DH, Jung HC, Song IS: [Clinicopathologic study of colorectal polyps and obesity in Korean adult]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2007 Jan;49(1):10-6
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic study of colorectal polyps and obesity in Korean adult].
  • Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown a positive association between obesity and colorectal polyps.
  • There are few studies investigating the association between colorectal adenomatous polyps and body fat composition in Korea.
  • We tried to examine the relationship between body fatness and colorectal adenomatous polyps in health check-up subjects in Korea.
  • METHODS: Six thousand seven hundred and six routine health check-up subjects, who visited our hospital between March 2002 and April 2005 and underwent distal colon examimation with sigmoidoscopy, were enrolled in this study.
  • Among them, colonoscopy was done in 860 patients to evaluate the entire colon.
  • We tried to reveal the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and size, location, number and histopathological type of polyps.
  • RESULTS: The mean value of BMI in total polyp-free group (23.8+/-2.9) was not different from that of the polyp group (24.5+/-2.8, p=0.09).
  • The frequency of rectosigmoid polyps in obese patients (20.4%) was higher than that in non-obese patients (16.0%, p<0.05).
  • The frequency of adenomatous polyp was not different between obese and non-obese group.
  • Number of polyps (> or=4) correlated well with obesity.
  • Moreover, age and triglyceride level in patients with colonic adenoma were significantly higher than in patients without colonic adenom.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that obesity is not associated with colonic adenomatous polyp in Korean population.
  • However, we observed that obesity may be associated with rectosigmoid colon polyps.
  • Furthermore, age and triglyceride level might be the risk factors of colonic adenomatous polyps in Korean population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Obesity / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Body Mass Index. Colonic Polyps / complications. Colonic Polyps / epidemiology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sigmoidoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18167428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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54. Muthunayagam NP, Rohrer JE, Wright SE: Correlation of iron and colon adenomas. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2009 May;33(5):435-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation of iron and colon adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Better colon cancer screening guidelines are needed.
  • This study was conducted to explore the relationship between serum transferrin saturation (as iron is a potential carcinogen) and presence of colon adenomas.
  • This may aid to evolve better colon cancer screening guidelines.
  • The adjusted odds ratio, derived from multiple logistic regression analysis, was used to measure the association between transferrin saturation and colon adenomas.
  • The adjusted odds ratio, for predicting the presence of polyp in those patients with transferrin saturation above the median was 10.9 (CI 4.0-29.5, P<0.001).
  • A one percent increase in transferrin saturation was associated with a 1.07 increase the odds of adenoma (CI 1.03-1.11, P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Iron levels are directly linked to presence of colon polyps, and might help in evolving better screening guidelines.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / etiology. Colonic Neoplasms / blood. Colonic Neoplasms / etiology. Iron Overload / complications. Transferrin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19144479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transferrin
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55. Lim YJ, Kwack WG, Lee YS, Hahm KB, Kim YK: Increased pulse wave velocity reflecting arterial stiffness in patients with colorectal adenomas. J Clin Biochem Nutr; 2010 Nov;47(3):261-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased pulse wave velocity reflecting arterial stiffness in patients with colorectal adenomas.
  • The obese patients with diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer as well as adenomas under the shared pathogenesis related to atherosclerosis.
  • Here we determined the association between increased arterial stiffness and colorectal adenomas incorporating parameters including age, gender, waist circumference, body mass index, lipid profiles, fasting glucose, and blood pressure.
  • Subjects who simultaneously underwent colonoscopies and pulse wave velocity (PWV) determinations between July 2005 and September 2006 were analyzed, based on which the subjects were classified into two groups as patients group with colorectal adenomas (n = 49) and control group (n = 200) with normal, non-polypoid benign lesions or hyperplastic polyps.
  • Uni- and multi-variate analyses were performed to calculate the odd ratio for colon adenomas.
  • Based on uni-variate analysis, age, waist circumference, body mass index, heart-femoral PWV (hfPWV), and brachial-ankle PWV were significantly associated with adenomas (p<0.05) and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the heart-femoral PWV, waist circumference, and the levels of LDL-C were significant risk factor for colorectal adenoma.
  • However, arterial stiffness did not affect the progression of colon adenoma.
  • The finding that hfPWV, reflecting aortic stiffness, was increased in patients with colorectal adenomas lead to conclusion that patients who have prominently increased arterial stiffness can be recommended to undergo colonoscopic examinations and at the same time we also recommend counseling about the risk for atherosclerosis in those who have colorectal adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 21103036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-5086
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Biochem Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2966937
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; atherosclerosis / colon adenoma / pulse wave velocity / risk factors
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56. Rubio CA, Jónasson JG, Nesi G, Mazur J, Olafsdóttir E: The size of colon polyps revisited: intra- and inter-observer variations. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jun;30(6):2419-23
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonic Polyps.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The size of colon polyps revisited: intra- and inter-observer variations.
  • BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that the occurrence of invasive carcinoma in a colon adenoma can be predicted by estimating the size of the resected polyp.
  • Recently, significant intra- and inter-observer differences in size were found when 22 pathologists estimated the size of 12 polyp phantoms.
  • In this work, the size of a large cohort of endoscopically-resected colon polyps was assessed with a novel method.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three pathologists measured photocopies of 148 resected polyps (adenomas at histology) in two independent trials.
  • When 6 possible combinations (the 3 size limits proposed for predicting cancer risk in adenomas, and 2 different trials) were tested for the 13 adenomas showing invasive carcinoma, merely one of the three participants recorded the same size, but only in 11% of the 6 possible combinations.
  • CONCLUSION: Present and previous investigations indicate that the lack of reproducibility makes the use of size limits in predicting cancer risk in polyps removed at colonoscopy unreliable.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Observer Variation

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  • (PMID = 20651402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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57. Steele VE, Rao CV, Zhang Y, Patlolla J, Boring D, Kopelovich L, Juliana MM, Grubbs CJ, Lubet RA: Chemopreventive efficacy of naproxen and nitric oxide-naproxen in rodent models of colon, urinary bladder, and mammary cancers. Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2009 Nov;2(11):951-6
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  • [Title] Chemopreventive efficacy of naproxen and nitric oxide-naproxen in rodent models of colon, urinary bladder, and mammary cancers.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have been highly effective in preventing colon, urinary bladder, and skin cancer preclinically, and also in clinical trials of colon adenoma formation.
  • In the azoxymethane-induced rat colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) model, naproxen administered at 200 and 400 ppm in the diet reduced mean ACFs in the colon by about 45% to 60%, respectively.
  • These data show that both naproxen and NO-naproxen are effective agents against urinary bladder and colon, but not mammary, carcinogenesis.

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  • [Cites] Cancer Res. 1988 Nov 1;48(21):6187-92 [3167865.001]
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  • (PMID = 19892664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01 CN043301; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / NCI-CN43301; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CN53300; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / NCI-CN53300; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01 CN053300; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CN43301
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Nitric Oxide Donors; 0 / naproxen-n-butyl nitrate; 3817-11-6 / Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine; 57Y76R9ATQ / Naproxen; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea; MO0N1J0SEN / Azoxymethane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS142040; NLM/ PMC2774912
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58. Moore LE, Huang WY, Chatterjee N, Gunter M, Chanock S, Yeager M, Welch B, Pinsky P, Weissfeld J, Hayes RB: GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and risk of advanced colorectal adenoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2005 Jul;14(7):1823-7
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  • [Title] GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and risk of advanced colorectal adenoma.
  • Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for colon adenoma.
  • We examined the prevalence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions, and two GSTP1 polymorphisms in 772 cases with advanced colorectal adenomas (>1 cm, villous elements or high-grade dysplasia) of the distal colon (descending or sigmoid colon or rectum) and 777 sigmoidoscopy negative controls enrolled in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.
  • Advanced adenoma risk was increased in current/former smokers (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8).
  • In summary, this is the first study to report associations between colorectal adenomas and GSTM1 wild-type and GSTT1 null allele among smokers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Isoenzymes / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16030123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / GSTP1 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione S-Transferase pi; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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59. Melle C, Ernst G, Schimmel B, Bleul A, Mothes H, Kaufmann R, Settmacher U, Von Eggeling F: Different expression of calgizzarin (S100A11) in normal colonic epithelium, adenoma and colorectal carcinoma. Int J Oncol; 2006 Jan;28(1):195-200
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colorectal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Different expression of calgizzarin (S100A11) in normal colonic epithelium, adenoma and colorectal carcinoma.
  • The aim of the study was to detect proteomic markers usable to distinguish colorectal carcinoma from colon adenoma for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the process of tumourigenesis.
  • Therefore, we microdissected colon carcinoma tissue, epithelial colon adenoma tissue as well as normal adjacent colon epithelium and determined protein profiles by SELDI-TOF MS.
  • For their identification colon biopsis were lysed and subjected to a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for separation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. S100 Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16327996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / S100 Proteins; 146909-89-9 / S100A11 protein, human
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60. Mai PL, Korde L, Kramer J, Peters J, Mueller CM, Pfeiffer S, Stratakis CA, Pinto PA, Bratslavsky G, Merino M, Choyke P, Linehan WM, Greene MH: A possible new syndrome with growth-hormone secreting pituitary adenoma, colonic polyposis, lipomatosis, lentigines and renal carcinoma in association with familial testicular germ cell malignancy: A case report. J Med Case Rep; 2007 Mar 28;1:9
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  • [Title] A possible new syndrome with growth-hormone secreting pituitary adenoma, colonic polyposis, lipomatosis, lentigines and renal carcinoma in association with familial testicular germ cell malignancy: A case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Germ-cell testicular cancer has not been definitively linked to any known hereditary cancer susceptibility disorder.
  • His evaluation as part of an etiologic study of familial testicular cancer revealed multiple colon polyps (adenomatous, hyperplastic, and hamartomatous) first found in his 50 s, multiple lipomas, multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions, left kidney cancer diagnosed at age 64, and a growth-hormone producing pituitary adenoma with associated acromegaly diagnosed at age 64.
  • Alternatively, this family's phenotype might represent a novel neoplasm susceptibility disorder.

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  • (PMID = 17411461.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CP / N02CP11019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1847830
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61. Yoshida I, Suzuki A, Vallée M, Matano Y, Masunaga T, Zenda T, Shinozaki K, Okada T: Serum insulin levels and the prevalence of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps in the proximal colon. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Oct;4(10):1225-31
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  • [Title] Serum insulin levels and the prevalence of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps in the proximal colon.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with an increased incidence of proximal colon cancer.
  • Colonic adenoma that has been reported to be associated with elevated serum insulin levels and subsets of hyperplastic polyps might serve as a precursor of colon cancer.
  • In this study, we sought to determine segment-specific associations between serum insulin levels and the prevalence of adenoma and hyperplastic polyps in the proximal and distal colon.
  • We performed multinomial logistic regression models by using the outcome categories of none (reference), proximal-only, distal-only, and both-segment lesions for the presence of adenoma/hyperplastic polyp with serum insulin, age, gender, lifestyle characteristics, and the presence of other types of lesions as predictors.
  • RESULTS: Overall, serum insulin levels were significantly associated with adenoma (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0; P = .005) and borderline associated with hyperplastic polyps (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7; P = .075).
  • In multinomial logistic regression models, elevated serum insulin levels were significantly associated with proximal-only adenoma (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.5; P = .002), both-side hyperplastic polyp (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5; P = .015), and proximal-only hyperplastic polyp (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1; P = .048) and borderline associated with distal-only adenoma (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1; P =.059) but not with distal-only hyperplastic polyp.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serum insulin levels directly correlate with the presence of adenoma and hyperplastic polyps in the proximal colon and might also less strongly correlate with the presence of distal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Colonic Polyps / blood. Colonic Polyps / epidemiology. Insulin / blood

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Jan;5(1):137
  • (PMID = 16979948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-3565
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Insulin
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62. Ransohoff DF, Martin C, Wiggins WS, Hitt BA, Keku TO, Galanko JA, Sandler RS: Assessment of serum proteomics to detect large colon adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Aug;17(8):2188-93
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  • [Title] Assessment of serum proteomics to detect large colon adenomas.
  • A noninvasive blood test that could reliably detect early colorectal cancer or large adenomas would provide an important advance in colon cancer screening.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether a serum proteomics assay could discriminate between persons with and without a large (> or =1 cm) colon adenoma.

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  • [Cites] World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Mar 14;12(10):1536-44 [16570345.001]
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  • (PMID = 18708413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA044684; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA044684-17; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK034987; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2-R01-CA044684; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 5P30DK034987; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA044684-17; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK034987-23
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS66903; NLM/ PMC2561171
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63. Mego M, Májek J, Konceková R, Ebringer L, Cierniková S, Rauko P, Kovác M, Trupl J, Slezák P, Zajac V: Intramucosal bacteria in colon cancer and their elimination by probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M-74 with organic selenium. Folia Microbiol (Praha); 2005;50(5):443-7
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  • [Title] Intramucosal bacteria in colon cancer and their elimination by probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M-74 with organic selenium.
  • Intraepithelial bacteria were isolated by the gentamicin protection assay (GPA) from biopsy samples obtained at colonoscopy (colon cancer, n = 10 patients; colonic adenoma, n = 20; control group, n = 20; cancer patients without gastrointestinal tract GIT malignancy, n = 10).
  • The number of biopsies with intracellular bacteria was significantly higher in adenoma and carcinoma group than in control group (26 vs. 10%; p = 0.004); in cancer patients without GIT malignancy the difference was nonsignificant. E. faecium M-74 was also administered to 5 patients with colonic adenoma; according to a control colonoscopy the number of biopsies with intracellular bacteria was significantly lower after probiotic administration (48 vs. 16%; p = 0.03).
  • A striking prevalence of intraepithelial bacteria was also showed in patients with large bowel adenoma and carcinoma.
  • The administration of probiotic strain M-74 can thus be considered to be an effective and promising method for elimination of pathogenic bacteria in the case of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / microbiology. Enterobacteriaceae / isolation & purification. Enterococcus faecium. Intestinal Mucosa / microbiology. Probiotics / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / microbiology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Selenium / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16475505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5632
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia microbiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Microbiol. (Praha)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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64. Chen JM, Li WH, Wang JD, Feng YD, Wu JH, Gong JP: [Cell balance between apoptosis and proliferation in colon cancer and its correlation with prognosis]. Ai Zheng; 2005 May;24(5):554-8
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  • [Title] [Cell balance between apoptosis and proliferation in colon cancer and its correlation with prognosis].
  • This study was to investigate cell balance (ratio of apoptosis index to proliferation index, AI/PI) in colon cancer and its correlation with prognosis.
  • METHODS: The apoptotic population and the proliferating population of colon cancer cells were quantitatively analyzed by Sub-G1 method and Ki-67/DNA bivariate analysis of flow cytometry.
  • RESULTS: AI/PI ratio of cells was significantly higher in normal colon tissue than in colon adenoma tissue, Dukes' A colon cancer, Dukes' B colon cancer, and Dukes' C and D colon cancer (0.45+/-0.19 vs. 0.30+/-0.07, 0.29+/-0.11, 0.28+/-0.10, and 0.26+/-0.07, respectively, P < 0.01).
  • AI/PI ratio of peripheral lymphocytes was significantly higher in colon cancer patients than in healthy people (0.64+/-0.11 vs. 0.49+/-0.12, P < 0.01).
  • The expression of Ki-67 was observed in normal colon tissue, colon adenoma, and colon cancer under confocal microscope.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulation (down-regulation or up-regulation) of cell balance between apoptosis and proliferation in colon cancer cells and lymphocytes might play an important role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression.
  • AI/PI ratio can' t be used as a prognostic factor of colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Cell Proliferation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Homeostasis. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15890096.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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65. Pap Z, Pávai Z, Dénes L, Kovalszky I, Jung J: An immunohistochemical study of colon adenomas and carcinomas: E-cadherin, Syndecan-1, Ets-1. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Dec;15(4):579-87
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  • [Title] An immunohistochemical study of colon adenomas and carcinomas: E-cadherin, Syndecan-1, Ets-1.
  • Our goal was to study the changes in the expression of these molecules during colon carcinoma development and progression.
  • We tested 117 colon adenomas and 149 de novo and ex adenoma carcinomas of the colon, using the Ultravision Polymer system.
  • The positive reaction rate was 100% for E-cadherin, 98.3% for syndecan-1 and 22.4% for Ets-1 in adenomas, while in carcinomas it was 88.5%, 62.4% and 56.3% respectively.
  • We found decreasing expression of E-cadherin and syndecan-1 throughout colon carcinoma progression and an opposite regulation for the Ets-1 protein.
  • De novo carcinomas have lower E-cadherin and syndecan-1 expression, and higher Ets-1 expression compared to ex adenoma carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1 / metabolism. Syndecan-1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19253033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1; 0 / Syndecan-1
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66. Petrova TV, Nykänen A, Norrmén C, Ivanov KI, Andersson LC, Haglund C, Puolakkainen P, Wempe F, von Melchner H, Gradwohl G, Vanharanta S, Aaltonen LA, Saharinen J, Gentile M, Clarke A, Taipale J, Oliver G, Alitalo K: Transcription factor PROX1 induces colon cancer progression by promoting the transition from benign to highly dysplastic phenotype. Cancer Cell; 2008 May;13(5):407-19
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  • [Title] Transcription factor PROX1 induces colon cancer progression by promoting the transition from benign to highly dysplastic phenotype.
  • However, we show here that PROX1 promotes dysplasia in colonic adenomas and colorectal cancer progression.
  • PROX1 expression marks the transition from benign colon adenoma to carcinoma in situ, and its loss inhibits growth of human colorectal tumor xenografts and intestinal adenomas in Apc(min/+) mice, while its transgenic overexpression promotes colorectal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18455124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3686
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0301154
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 0 / prospero-related homeobox 1 protein
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67. Wang Y, Li Y, Zhang WY, Xia QJ, Li HG, Wang R, Yang L, Sun XF, Zhou ZG: mRNA expression of minichromosome maintenance 2 in colonic adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2009 Feb;18(1):40-5

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  • [Title] mRNA expression of minichromosome maintenance 2 in colonic adenoma and adenocarcinoma.
  • As proliferation is essential for progression from normal cells to tumor, certain markers specific to proliferating cells may permit detection of premalignant lesions.
  • Here, we aimed to evaluate the possible value of a proliferation marker, minichromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2), in the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, by analyzing the difference in MCM2 expression among normal mucosa, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma, and investigating the relationship of MCM2 expression in adenomas with clinicopathologic variables.
  • Using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-PCR, we observed that the expression of MCM2 protein was present on basal third to half of colonic crypts in normal mucosa, whereas throughout the epithelium in adenomas and adenocarcinomas, the expression of MCM2 mRNA in adenocarcinomas was significantly higher than in adenomas (P=0.001), whereas the difference between adenoma and normal mucosa was not significant (P=0.184); we also found that the expression of MCM2 mRNA tended to be increased in the adenomas with high-grade dysplasia, or in older patients, respectively, compared with those with low-grade dysplasia, and younger patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19077563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5709
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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68. Grubben MJ, van den Braak CC, Nagengast FM, Peters WH: Low colonic glutathione detoxification capacity in patients at risk for colon cancer. Eur J Clin Invest; 2006 Mar;36(3):188-92
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  • [Title] Low colonic glutathione detoxification capacity in patients at risk for colon cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Colon carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process influenced by hereditary as well as environmental factors.
  • The glutathione/glutathione S-transferase detoxification system in the colon is important for protection against carcinogens.
  • We investigated the levels of glutathione/glutathione S-transferase in normal colon mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer and in patients at high risk for colorectal cancer compared with those in healthy controls.
  • Normal colon tissue of patients with colon adenoma (n = 64), colorectal cancer (n = 37), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP; n = 19), hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families with (HNPCC+Ad; n = 34) or without (HNPCC-Ad; n = 33) adenoma was investigated.
  • RESULTS: Glutathione levels were significantly lower in the normal colon mucosa of patients with cancer, FAP, HNPCC-Ad or HNPCC+Ad compared with adenoma patients or healthy controls.
  • Glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity in the distal colon was significantly lower in patients with cancer or FAP compared with the adenoma patients or healthy controls, whereas values in carcinoma patients were significantly lower compared with both the HNPCC-Ad and HNPCC+Ad groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An association of low colonic glutathione/glutathione S-transferase activity levels and high clinical risk for the development of colorectal cancer was observed.
  • This low glutathione detoxification capacity might contribute to the colon cancer risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Colon / chemistry. Colorectal Neoplasms / chemistry. Glutathione / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemistry. Adenoma / enzymology. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / chemistry. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / enzymology. Adult. Colonic Neoplasms / chemistry. Colonic Neoplasms / enzymology. Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis / chemistry. Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis / enzymology. Female. Glutathione Transferase / metabolism. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / chemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / enzymology. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16506964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2972
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
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69. Lee SE, Park NH, Park IA, Kang SB, Lee HP: Tubulo-villous adenoma of the vagina. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Feb;96(2):556-8
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  • [Title] Tubulo-villous adenoma of the vagina.
  • BACKGROUND: Tubulo-villous adenomas are common in the colon and rectum, but extremely rare in the vagina.
  • As far as we know, only two cases of tubulo-villous adenoma have ever been reported.
  • We report the third case of enteric-type tubulo-villous adenoma of the vagina.
  • The tumor was excised and pathologically confirmed as a tubulo-villous adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Because some tubulo-villous adenomas in the colon and rectum can progress to the cancer, this case requires long-term follow-up to detect recurrence and malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15661252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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70. Habermann N, Lund EK, Pool-Zobel BL, Glei M: Modulation of gene expression in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid treated human colon adenoma cells. Genes Nutr; 2009 Mar;4(1):73-6
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  • [Title] Modulation of gene expression in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid treated human colon adenoma cells.
  • The aim of the study was to compare the modulation of gene expression in LT97 colon adenoma cells in response to EPA and DHA treatment.
  • In our approach, we used preneoplastic adenoma cells which are a relevant model for target cells of chemoprevention.
  • If verified with real time PCR, these results identify genes and targets for chemoprevention of colon cancer.

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  • [Cites] Eur J Nutr. 2008 Aug;47(5):226-34 [18636219.001]
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  • (PMID = 19234733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8932
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes & nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2654050
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71. Georgopoulos SD, Polymeros D, Triantafyllou K, Spiliadi C, Mentis A, Karamanolis DG, Ladas SD: Hypergastrinemia is associated with increased risk of distal colon adenomas. Digestion; 2006;74(1):42-6
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  • [Title] Hypergastrinemia is associated with increased risk of distal colon adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Helicobacter pylori infection is a recognized cause of hypergastrinemia, but the association of blood gastrin levels with colonic adenomas (CAs) is controversial.
  • Multivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors for colon adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Though prevalence of H. pylori antibodies was not significantly different, the prevalence of cagA protein was significantly higher in patients with adenomas (42.3%) as compared with controls (25.6%, p < 0.03).
  • Hypergastrinemia (>110 pg/ml) was commoner in patients with CAs than in controls (29.5 vs. 11.5%, p = 0.006) and was the only independent risk factor for adenomas (odds ratio 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.5) by multivariate analysis, but not H. pylori infection or cagA positivity.
  • There was a significant association of hypergastrinemia and distal distribution of adenomas (p < 0.002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that hypergastrinemia is a risk factor for CAs, especially of the distal colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Antigens, Bacterial / blood. Bacterial Proteins / blood. Colonic Neoplasms / etiology. Gastrins / blood. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter pylori

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  • [CommentIn] Digestion. 2006;74(1):40-1 [17068396.001]
  • (PMID = 17068397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-2823
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Digestion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Bacterial; 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Gastrins; 0 / cagA protein, Helicobacter pylori
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72. Xing X, Lai M, Wang Y, Xu E, Huang Q: Overexpression of glucose-regulated protein 78 in colon cancer. Clin Chim Acta; 2006 Feb;364(1-2):308-15
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  • [Title] Overexpression of glucose-regulated protein 78 in colon cancer.
  • We investigated the expression pattern of GRP78 at the protein and mRNA level in human colon carcinoma, colon adenoma and normal colon mucosa.
  • METHODS: Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, immunoblot analysis, reverse-transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemistry were used on colon normal and cancer tissues.
  • RESULTS: Comparative 2-D gel electrophoresis of individual-matched colon normal and cancer tissues revealed 15 protein spots with concordantly increased and 20 protein spots with concordantly decreased intensity in tumor tissue.
  • One of the identified proteins, GRP78, exhibited a marked up-regulation in colon cancer tissue.
  • Immunohistochemistry also revealed increased cytoplasmic GRP78 expression with progression along the normal tissue-adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • However, to our surprise, there was essentially no difference in the relative mRNA expression levels of GRP78 between normal and colon tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Heat-Shock Proteins / analysis. Molecular Chaperones / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Colon / chemistry. Colon / metabolism. Colon / pathology. Disease Progression. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / chemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Proteome / analysis. Proteome / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization

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  • (PMID = 16182273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Molecular Chaperones; 0 / Proteome; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / molecular chaperone GRP78
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73. Ye YN, Wu WK, Shin VY, Bruce IC, Wong BC, Cho CH: Dual inhibition of 5-LOX and COX-2 suppresses colon cancer formation promoted by cigarette smoke. Carcinogenesis; 2005 Apr;26(4):827-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dual inhibition of 5-LOX and COX-2 suppresses colon cancer formation promoted by cigarette smoke.
  • Previous studies indicate that the arachidonic acid-metabolizing enzymes COX-2 and 5-LOX are overexpressed during the process of colonic adenoma formation promoted by cigarette smoke.
  • The aims of the present study were to investigate whether there exists a relationship between COX-2 and 5-LOX, and whether dual inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LOX has an anticarcinogenic effect in the colonic tumorigenesis promoted by cigarette smoke.
  • Results showed that pretreating colon cancer cells with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) promoted colon cancer growth in the nude mouse xenograft model.
  • In an in vitro study, we found that the action of CSE on colon cancer cells was mediated by 5-LOX DNA demethylation.
  • In summary, these results indicate that inhibition of COX-2 may lead to a shunt of arachidonic acid metabolism towards the leukotriene pathway during colonic tumorigenesis promoted by CSE.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Colonic Neoplasms / prevention & control. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Lipoxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15637091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3334
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Lipoxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Smoke; 1HGW4DR56D / Leukotriene B4; EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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74. Klenow S, Glei M, Haber B, Owen R, Pool-Zobel BL: Carob fibre compounds modulate parameters of cell growth differently in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells than in LT97 colon adenoma cells. Food Chem Toxicol; 2008 Apr;46(4):1389-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carob fibre compounds modulate parameters of cell growth differently in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells than in LT97 colon adenoma cells.
  • An extract of the Mediterranean carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pod (carob fibre extract), products formed after its fermentation by the gut flora and the major phenolic ingredient gallic acid (GA), were comparatively investigated for their influence on survival and growth parameters of colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells and adenoma LT97 cells.
  • The differently modulated growth of human colon cell lines was more related to proliferation rates and impairment of DNA-synthesis than to H2O2 formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic. Cell Division / drug effects. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Dietary Fiber / pharmacology. Fabaceae / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17950517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-6915
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Culture Media; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Sulfoxides; 0 / Xylenes; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; S2VDY878QD / xylenol orange
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75. Wang Y, Zhou ZG, Xia QJ, Zhang WY, Li HG, Wang R: [Expression of minichromosome maintenance protein 2 in colonic adenocarcinoma, adenoma and normal colonic mucosa and its clinical significance]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;11(5):465-8

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  • [Title] [Expression of minichromosome maintenance protein 2 in colonic adenocarcinoma, adenoma and normal colonic mucosa and its clinical significance].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression differences of minichromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2) mRNA and protein among colon adenocarcinoma, colon adenoma and normal mucosa, and among different clinicopathological types of adenomas.
  • METHODS: Fifty specimens, including 33 colonic adenomas, 12 colonic adenocarcinomas and 5 normal colonic mucosa were selected.
  • Expression differences of MCM2 mRNA among the colonic adenocarcinoma, adenoma and normal colonic mucosa were evaluated by REST-XL software.
  • RESULTS: The expression of MCM2 was observed in the basal third to half of the colonic crypts in normal mucosa, while throughout the epithelium in the colonic adenocarcinomas and adenomas.
  • However, the expression of MCM2 mRNA in the adenocarcinomas was significantly higher than that in the adenomas(P=0.001).
  • The MCM2 mRNA expression was elevated in the adenoma with villous type, in the conditions of high-grade dysplasia, larger size, sessile morphology and in patients of older ages, but the difference was not significant by REST-XL (P>0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The difference of MCM2 expression between the adenoma and the adenocarcinoma indicates its potential value in the early diagnosis of colonic cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18803052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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76. Sierra-Montenegro E, Rocha-Ramírez JL, Villaneuva-Sáenz E, de la Serna-Ortiz I, Fernández-Rivero JM, Soto-Quirino R: [Villous adenoma of the rectum with severe hydroelectric alterations. Report of two cases]. Cir Cir; 2007 Sep-Oct;75(5):377-9
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  • [Title] [Villous adenoma of the rectum with severe hydroelectric alterations. Report of two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma velloso de recto con alteración hidroelectrolítica severa. Informe de dos casos.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of all colorectal adenomas are constituted by villous adenomas.
  • We report two cases with villous adenoma that presented hydroelectrolytic depletion with clinical and surgical management, exclusively.
  • We also performed a transanal resection of tumor reporting villous adenoma.
  • She reported a 4-month clinical evolution with non-bloody diarrhea and abundant mucus.
  • In addition, we carried out a transanal resection of the polyp.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Size and location of the villous adenoma are related to the production of mucus secretory diarrhea.
  • In every patient with presence of mucus, persistent diarrhea and occasional rectal bleeding of 1 month, it is necessary to carry out lower endoscopy to rule out the presence of villous adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / complications. Rectal Neoplasms / complications. Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18158885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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77. Kaczka A, Kumor A, Pietruczuk M, Małecka-Panas E: [Serum concentration of insulin, C-peptide and insulin-like growth factor I in patients with colon adenomas and colorectal cancer]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2007 May;22(131):373-5
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  • [Title] [Serum concentration of insulin, C-peptide and insulin-like growth factor I in patients with colon adenomas and colorectal cancer].
  • Colon carcinogenesis is a multi-steps process in which many growth factors are involved.
  • In some studies the increased risk of colon cancer development was observed in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 with accompanying hyperinsulinemia.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum concentration of insulin, C-peptide and IGF-I in patients with colon adenomas and colorectal cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 17 patients with colon cancer, 32 patients with colon adenomas and in 12 healthy persons the serum concentration of insulin, C-peptide and IGF-I was determined using ELISA kits.
  • RESULTS: In patients with colon cancer significantly higher serum IGF-I concentration comparing to the control group was observed (85.66 ng/ml vs. 60.96 ng/ml; p < 0.05).
  • In patients with colon adenomatous polyps we also observed higher serum IGF-I concentrations I comparing to the control group (82.1 ng/ml vs. 60.96 ng/ml), in high dysplasia adenomas (84.12 ng/ml vs. 79.67 ng/ml) and in smaller adenomas to 1 cm diameter (97.98 ng/ml vs. 73.28 ng/ml), but the differences were not significant.
  • We also observed higher concentration of C-peptide in patients with low grade dysplasia adenomas (665.24 pmol/l vs. 498.13 pmol/l) and with small polyps (611.51 pmol/l vs. 514.89 pmol/l).
  • There were no differences in serum concentration of IGF-I and C-peptide between patients with tubular and villous adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IGF-I is probably involved particularly in the early stage of colon carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adenomatous Polyps / blood. C-Peptide / blood. Colonic Polyps / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood. Insulin / blood

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  • (PMID = 17679371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / C-Peptide; 0 / Insulin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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78. Yan M, Myung SJ, Fink SP, Lawrence E, Lutterbaugh J, Yang P, Zhou X, Liu D, Rerko RM, Willis J, Dawson D, Tai HH, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Newman RA, Bertagnolli MM, Markowitz SD: 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inactivation as a mechanism of resistance to celecoxib chemoprevention of colon tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Jun 9;106(23):9409-13
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  • [Title] 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inactivation as a mechanism of resistance to celecoxib chemoprevention of colon tumors.
  • Pharmacologic inhibitors of the prostaglandin-synthesizing COX-2 oncogene prevent the development of premalignant human colon adenomas.
  • In this study, we show that the adenoma prevention activity of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib requires the concomitant presence of the 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) tumor suppressor gene, and that loss of 15-PGDH expression imparts resistance to celecoxib's anti-tumor effects.
  • We first demonstrate that the adenoma-preventive activity of celecoxib is abrogated in mice genetically lacking 15-PGDH.
  • In parallel with the loss of tumor prevention activity, celecoxib-mediated suppression of colonic PGE(2) levels is also markedly attenuated in 15-PGDH-null versus WT mice.
  • Finally, as predicted by the murine models, humans with low colonic 15-PGDH levels also exhibit celecoxib resistance.
  • Specifically, in a colon adenoma prevention trial, in all cases tested, individuals who developed new adenomas while receiving celecoxib treatment were also found as having low colonic 15-PGDH levels.

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 2000 Jun 29;342(26):1946-52 [10874062.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer Res. 2000 Nov 1;60(21):6045-51 [11085526.001]
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  • (PMID = 19470469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA127306; United States / PHS HHS / / N01-95015; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA127306; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA116867; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116867; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Sulfonamides; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.141 / 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2695050
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79. Fujiya M, Moriichi K, Saitoh Y, Watari J, Kohgo Y: Endoscopic piecemeal resection is a practical option to cure colorectal tumors. Dig Endosc; 2009 Jul;21 Suppl 1:S28-30
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  • Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic piecemeal resection (EPMR) are therapeutic options widely accepted for the treatment of colon adenoma, intramucosal cancer and minimally invasive submucosal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Colonoscopy / methods. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19691729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1443-1661
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive endoscopy : official journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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80. Florek M, Wojtuń S, Gil J: [New possibilities for detection of adenomas of the colon]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2009 May;26(155):562-4
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  • [Title] [New possibilities for detection of adenomas of the colon].
  • More and more modern diagnostic methods are utilised in detection of colon adenomatous lesions.
  • Currently developed new diagnostics methods can set new standards in detection of colon adenomatous lesions in the future.
  • The study targets to present modern diagnostic methods and their utilisation in detection of various colon adenomatous lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19606727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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81. Becker JC, Fukui H, Imai Y, Sekikawa A, Kimura T, Yamagishi H, Yoshitake N, Pohle T, Domschke W, Fujimori T: Colonic expression of heme oxygenase-1 is associated with a better long-term survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Scand J Gastroenterol; 2007 Jul;42(7):852-8
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  • [Title] Colonic expression of heme oxygenase-1 is associated with a better long-term survival in patients with colorectal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has emerged as a crucial mediator of mucosal defense in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • The role of HO-1 in gastrointestinal malignancies, however, remains to be elucidated.
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze HO-1 expression in human colon adenoma and cancer samples.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-five paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of colorectal cancer and 19 colonic adenoma samples were stained immunhistochemically for HO-1 expression using an anti-HO-1 monoclonal antibody.
  • HO-1 expression was evaluated independently by two different investigators and subsequently correlated to clinical data and patients' life expectancy.
  • RESULTS: Focal HO-1 expression could be documented in 41.8% (23/55) of patients with colorectal cancer.
  • HO-1 expression in colonic adenoma was detectable in 36.8% (7/19) of cases.
  • The rate of lymphatic tumor invasion was significantly lower in colorectal cancer samples expressing HO-1 (p=0.048).
  • Additionally, fewer lymph node metastases were found in colorectal cancer samples with HO-1 expression, but these differences did not reach statistical significance.
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significantly better survival for colorectal cancer patients with colonic HO-1 expression (p=0.018).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that colonic HO-1 may be a prognostic marker of colorectal-cancer outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / enzymology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Colon / enzymology. Colorectal Neoplasms / enzymology. Heme Oxygenase-1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17558910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5521
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase-1
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82. Adler A, Pohl H, Papanikolaou IS, Abou-Rebyeh H, Schachschal G, Veltzke-Schlieker W, Khalifa AC, Setka E, Koch M, Wiedenmann B, Rösch T: A prospective randomised study on narrow-band imaging versus conventional colonoscopy for adenoma detection: does narrow-band imaging induce a learning effect? Gut; 2008 Jan;57(1):59-64
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  • [Title] A prospective randomised study on narrow-band imaging versus conventional colonoscopy for adenoma detection: does narrow-band imaging induce a learning effect?
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy is an established method of colorectal cancer screening, but has an adenoma miss rate of 10-20%.
  • This prospective randomised study evaluated narrow-band imaging (NBI), a new technique that may enhance image contrast in colon adenoma detection.
  • The primary outcome parameter was the difference in the adenoma detection rate between the two techniques.
  • Adenomas were detected more frequently in the NBI group (23%) than in the control group (17%) with a number of 17 colonoscopies needed to find one additional adenoma patient; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.129).
  • When the two techniques were compared in consecutive subgroups of 100 study patients, adenoma rates in the NBI group remained fairly stable, whereas these rates steadily increased in the control group (8%, 15%, 17%, and 26.5%, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The increased adenoma detection rate means of NBI colonoscopy were statistically not significant.
  • It remains speculative as to whether the increasing adenoma rate in the conventional group may have been caused by a training effect of better polyp recognition on NBI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Device Removal. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Practice (Psychology). Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Video-Assisted Surgery / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Gut. 2008 Sep;57(9):1331 [18719144.001]
  • [CommentIn] Gut. 2009 Apr;58(4):604-5 [19299388.001]
  • [CommentIn] Gut. 2008 Sep;57(9):1334 [18719148.001]
  • (PMID = 17681999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3288
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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83. Ashktorab H, Brim H, Al-Riyami M, Date A, Al-Mawaly K, Kashoub M, Al-Mjeni R, Smoot DT, Al-Moundhri M, Al-Hashemi S, Ganguly SS, Raeburn S: Sporadic colon cancer: mismatch repair immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability in Omani subjects. Dig Dis Sci; 2008 Oct;53(10):2723-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sporadic colon cancer: mismatch repair immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability in Omani subjects.
  • We assessed colonic cancers in an attempt to identify tumors with DNA MMR deficiency and microsatellite instability (MSI).
  • Colon cancer tissue was assayed using immunohistochemistry for expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2, and a panel of five pairs of microsatellite primers (NR21, NR22, NR24, BAT25, and BAT26) for MSI-H analysis and additional dinucleotide markers (D17S250, D5S346, and D2S123) used for MSI-L.
  • The methylation status of the p16 promoter was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • The information currently available indicates that there is an incidence of 4.7% colon cancer (49/1036) and 12.1% (126/1290) colon adenoma among the cases who underwent colonoscopy at these centers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Mismatch Repair. Microsatellite Instability

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  • (PMID = 18299982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102681
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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84. Galitskiĭ MV, Khomeriki SG, Nikiforov PA: [Expression of proliferation and apoptosis markers in neoplasms of colon mucosa after cholecystectomy]. Eksp Klin Gastroenterol; 2009;(5):28-32
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  • [Title] [Expression of proliferation and apoptosis markers in neoplasms of colon mucosa after cholecystectomy].
  • The goal of the study was to investigate immunohistochemical markers of proliferation and apoptosis in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas at the patients with cholecystectomy.
  • Fifty patients (40 with retained function of gallbladder and 10 patients with cholecystectomy) histologically diagnosed as proximal colon adenoma or adenocarcinoma were included into the study.
  • Colonoscopic biopsies have been taken from the lesion in cancer patients, and colonoscopic polypectomy has been performed for adenomas.
  • In addition, biopsies have been taken from the adjacent healthy colon mucosa at least 5 cm from the lesion in each patient.
  • The index of Ki-67 expression in healthy colon mucosa at the patients with cholecystectomy was 37,5 +/- 1,8% (p < 0,05) as compared to 31,36 +/- 1,9 at the patients without cholecystectomy.
  • No significant difference was detected in the comparison of Ki-67 expression levels between the healthy mucosa and adenomas at the patients with cholecystectomy 43,4 +/- 3,45 (p > 0,05), but more prominent increase was revealed in adenocarcinomas 64,33 +/- 7,67% (p < 0,01).
  • At the patients without cholecystectomy the frequency of revealing p53 in adenomas does not vary, compared with healthy mucosa, however in adenocarcinomas p53 was not revealed at none case.
  • As a contrast, in group of the patients with cholecystectomy the frequency of revealing p53 in adenomas is considerably increased (up to 80%), and even in adenocarcinomas, p53 was revealed in 30,8% of cases.
  • At the patients with a cholecystectomy, the increase of proliferative activity is accompanied by increased apoptosis in adenomas and maintained apoptosis in adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Proliferation. Cholecystectomy. Colon / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20205327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1682-8658
  • [Journal-full-title] Ėksperimental'nai︠a︡ i klinicheskai︠a︡ gastroėnterologii︠a︡ = Experimental & clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eksp Klin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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85. Knöbel Y, Glei M, Weise A, Osswald K, Schäferhenrich A, Richter KK, Claussen U, Pool-Zobel BL: Uranyl nitrilotriacetate, a stabilized salt of uranium, is genotoxic in nontransformed human colon cells and in the human colon adenoma cell line LT97. Toxicol Sci; 2006 Oct;93(2):286-97
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  • [Title] Uranyl nitrilotriacetate, a stabilized salt of uranium, is genotoxic in nontransformed human colon cells and in the human colon adenoma cell line LT97.
  • To assess possible hazards, we investigated the genotoxic effects of uranyl nitrilotriacetate (U-NTA) in human colon tumor cells (HT29 clone 19A), adenoma cells (LT97), and nontransformed primary colon cells.
  • Colon cells were incubated with U-NTA.
  • Cell survival, cytotoxicity, cellular glutathione (GSH) levels, genotoxicity, and DNA repair capacity (comet assay), as well as gene- and chromosome-specific damage combination of comet assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH], 24-color FISH) were determined.
  • U-NTA was also genotoxic in LT97 cells and primary colon cells, where it additionally increased migration of TP53 into the comet tail.
  • [MeSH-major] Colon / drug effects. Uranium / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chromosome Aberrations. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. DNA Damage. Glutathione / analysis. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Reactive Oxygen Species. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16840563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 4OC371KSTK / Uranium; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
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86. Ye YN, Wu WK, Shin VY, Cho CH: A mechanistic study of colon cancer growth promoted by cigarette smoke extract. Eur J Pharmacol; 2005 Sep 5;519(1-2):52-7
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  • [Title] A mechanistic study of colon cancer growth promoted by cigarette smoke extract.
  • Our previous study showed that cigarette smoke promotes the formation of inflammation-associated colonic adenoma in mice through an angiogenic pathway.
  • Therefore, in the present study, we used the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, SW1116, and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to elucidate the possible mechanisms in vitro.
  • Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate the central role of 5-LOX and its relationship with angiogenic mediators in the actions of cigarette smoke in the promotion of angiogenesis during colon cancer growth.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies / pharmacology. Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / metabolism. Benzoquinones / pharmacology. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Coculture Techniques / methods. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. DNA / biosynthesis. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Endothelial Cells / drug effects. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Humans. Lipoxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. Nicotine / pharmacology. Piperazines / pharmacology. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. Thymidine / metabolism. Time Factors. Tritium. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / immunology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16125168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2999
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Benzoquinones; 0 / Lipoxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Ro 28-2653; 0 / Smoke; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; 80809-81-0 / 2,3,5-trimethyl-6-(12-hydroxy-5,10-dodecadiynyl)-1,4-benzoquinone; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
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87. Rodrigues S, Rodrigue CM, Attoub S, Fléjou JF, Bruyneel E, Bracke M, Emami S, Gespach C: Induction of the adenoma-carcinoma progression and Cdc25A-B phosphatases by the trefoil factor TFF1 in human colon epithelial cells. Oncogene; 2006 Oct 26;25(50):6628-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Induction of the adenoma-carcinoma progression and Cdc25A-B phosphatases by the trefoil factor TFF1 in human colon epithelial cells.
  • To examine the transforming potential of TFF1 in human colon epithelial cells, premalignant PC/AA/C1 adenoma cells (PC) derived from a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were transformed by the TFF1 cDNA and used as a model of the adenoma-carcinoma transition.
  • Constitutive expression of TFF1 increased anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar, and induced or potentiated the growth of colon PC-TFF1 and kidney MDCKts.src-TFF1 tumor xenografts in athymic mice.
  • Using the differential display approach to identify TFF1 target genes, we found that the dual specific phosphatases Cdc25A and B implicated in cell cycle transitions are strongly upregulated under active forms in both PC-TFF1 and HCT8/S11-TFF1 colon cancer cells.
  • Accordingly, TFF1 expression is absent in normal human colon crypts but is induced in correlation with Cdc25a and b transcript levels and tumor grade in familial and sporadic colon adenomas and carcinomas.
  • We propose that TFF1 and Cdc25A-B cooperate with other dominant oncogenic pathways to induce the adenoma and adenocarcinoma transitions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Colon / cytology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology. cdc25 Phosphatases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16715141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / TFF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.1.3.16 / CDC25B protein, human; EC 3.1.3.16 / Cdc25a protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.48 / CDC25A protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / cdc25 Phosphatases
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88. Habermann N, Schön A, Lund EK, Glei M: Fish fatty acids alter markers of apoptosis in colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma cell lines but fish consumption has no impact on apoptosis-induction ex vivo. Apoptosis; 2010 May;15(5):621-30
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  • [Title] Fish fatty acids alter markers of apoptosis in colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma cell lines but fish consumption has no impact on apoptosis-induction ex vivo.
  • Previous studies suggest that the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapenteinoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), constituents of fish oil, exert chemopreventive activity in colon cancer.
  • LT97 human colon adenoma and HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were used to investigate modulation of apoptosis by EPA, DHA or linoleic acid (LA) using a set of endpoints, namely phosphatidylserine staining with Annexin-V (flow cytometry), Bcl-2 expression (Real-time RT-PCR), and Bid, caspase 3, 8 and 9 expression as well as PARP cleavage (Western Blot).
  • Taken together, our results show that adenoma cells are highly susceptible to n-3 PUFA-induced apoptosis.

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  • (PMID = 20107900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-675X
  • [Journal-full-title] Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Apoptosis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Caspase Inhibitors; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Fatty Acids, Omega-3; 0 / Fish Oils; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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89. Glei M, Schaeferhenrich A, Claussen U, Kuechler A, Liehr T, Weise A, Marian B, Sendt W, Pool-Zobel BL: Comet fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in colon cancer relevant genes. Toxicol Sci; 2007 Apr;96(2):279-84
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  • [Title] Comet fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in colon cancer relevant genes.
  • Our objective was to study whether products of oxidative stress, such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), trans-2-hexenal, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), cause DNA damage in genes, relevant for human colon cancer.
  • For this, total DNA damage was measured in primary human colon cells and colon adenoma cells (LT97) using the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, known as "Comet Assay."
  • In primary colon cells, TP53 gene was more sensitive toward H(2)O(2), trans-2-hexenal, and HNE than total DNA was.
  • APC and KRAS genes were more susceptible than total DNA to both lipid peroxidation products but only in primary colon cells.
  • Based on the reported gatekeeper properties of TP53, which in colon adenoma is frequently altered to yield carcinoma, this implies that HNE is likely to contribute to cancer progression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Aged. Aldehydes / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Colon / cytology. Colon / drug effects. Colon / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17192441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 29343-52-0 / 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; 505-57-7 / 2-hexenal; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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90. Eriksen JR, Ibsen PH, Gyrtrup HJ: [Granular cell tumor of the colon--Abrikossoff's tumor]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2006 May 22;168(21):2080-1

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Granular cell tumor of the colon--Abrikossoff's tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Granularcelletumor i colon--Abrikossoffs tumor.
  • A 50-year-old woman had a right hemicoletomy due to a large sessile polyp in the ascending colon, inappropriate for polypectomy.
  • Histopathologic examination of the specimen showed a tubulovillous adenoma with moderate dysplasia and an adjacent 1 x 1 cm submucosal tumor classified as a benign GCT due to the appearance in the light microscope and immunohistochemical analysis.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronic adenoma and GCT in the colon.
  • To date there is no evidence of any association or disposing factors between GCT in the colon and colonic adenomas or malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16768929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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91. Jurek D, Fleckl E, Marian B: Bile acid induced gene expression in LT97 colonic adenoma cells. Food Chem Toxicol; 2005 Jan;43(1):87-93
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  • [Title] Bile acid induced gene expression in LT97 colonic adenoma cells.
  • LT97 human colonic adenoma cells reflecting early premalignant genotype and growth characteristics have been posed to tumor promoting bile acids in order to identify marker genes that permit identification of tumor promoters in vitro.
  • Transient induction of c-fos was seen with the non-promoting taurodesoxycholate (TDOC) as well as DOC, however extended induction at 3 h was only achieved by DOC and CDC reaching 3-6-fold as compared to the control.
  • Stimulation of COX-2 expression was completely specific for the tumor promoting analogs DOC and CDC.
  • Expression of VEGF was stimulated 4-5-fold in the tumor promoter (DOC and CDC) groups and about 2-fold in the non-promoting controls TDOC and GCDC.
  • At later times the tumor promoter specific difference was lost.
  • Our results show that all three genes are modulated in a tumor promoter dependent way and that their upregulation in LT97 adenoma cells can be used for in vitro testing of colon tumor promoters and chemopreventive compounds.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Bile Acids and Salts / pharmacology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15582199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-6915
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 005990WHZZ / Deoxycholic Acid; 0GEI24LG0J / Chenodeoxycholic Acid; 516-50-7 / Taurodeoxycholic Acid; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; EC 1.2.1.- / Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases
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92. Kita H, Hikichi Y, Hikami K, Tsuneyama K, Cui ZG, Osawa H, Ohnishi H, Mutoh H, Hoshino H, Bowlus CL, Yamamoto H, Sugano K: Differential gene expression between flat adenoma and normal mucosa in the colon in a microarray analysis. J Gastroenterol; 2006 Nov;41(11):1053-63
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  • [Title] Differential gene expression between flat adenoma and normal mucosa in the colon in a microarray analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Flat adenomas in the colon are associated with a relatively higher potential for malignancy.
  • Distinct genes may be involved in the development of flat adenoma.
  • The aim of this study was to profile gene expression changes in flat adenomas in the colon.
  • METHODS: A genomewide expression analysis was carried out by using flat adenoma and adjacent normal mucosa in the colon to detect differences in gene expression.
  • Because the right and left colon have different embryonic origins, each sample was classified according to its location, and the gene expression levels between flat adenoma and adjacent normal mucosa were also compared among samples derived from the right or left colon.
  • RESULTS: A total of 180 genes were differentially expressed between flat adenoma and normal mucosa in the colon, including matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), cadherin 3 (CDH3), S100P, and dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2).
  • In addition, a total of 89 and 49 genes were differentially expressed between flat adenoma and normal mucosa among the samples from the right and left colon, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report characterizing the genes differentially expressed in flat adenomas using a microarray analysis.
  • Considerable differences in the gene expression profiles of flat adenomas also exist between the right and left colon.
  • These data should lead to new insights into the pathogenesis of flat adenomas in the colon as well as to new therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 17160516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Flavoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100P protein, human; EC 1.6.3.1 / DUOX2 protein, human; EC 1.6.3.1 / NADPH Oxidase; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7
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93. Tassi E, Henke RT, Bowden ET, Swift MR, Kodack DP, Kuo AH, Maitra A, Wellstein A: Expression of a fibroblast growth factor-binding protein during the development of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and colon. Cancer Res; 2006 Jan 15;66(2):1191-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of a fibroblast growth factor-binding protein during the development of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and colon.
  • FGF-BP1 protein and mRNA were found up-regulated (>70% positive) in parallel (r = 0.70, P < 0.0001) in colon adenoma (n = 9) as well as primary (n = 46) and metastatic (n = 71) colorectal cancers relative to normal colon epithelia (all P < 0.0001, versus normal).
  • We propose that the up-regulation of the secreted FGF-BP1 protein during initiation of pancreas and colon neoplasia could make this protein a possible serum marker indicating the presence of high-risk premalignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16424058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 71508
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 139946-12-6 / FGFBP1 protein, human; 53608-75-6 / Pancrelipase
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94. Benes Z, Antos Z: Optical biopsy system distinguishing between hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps in the colon during colonoscopy. Anticancer Res; 2009 Nov;29(11):4737-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optical biopsy system distinguishing between hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps in the colon during colonoscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: It has been established that the removal of adenomatous colon polyps drastically reduces the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC), but polypectomy is not without risk.
  • The aim was to determine the correlation between the results of an optical biopsy system and the histopathology report of the physical biopsy specimens of the same polyps removed at colonoscopy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Paired optical and physical biopsies were performed on 55 polyps with complete polypectomy of the same tissue.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-three adenomatous polyps and two hyperplastic polyps were identified by the hospital pathologist.
  • The optical biopsy system identified 52 polyps as suspect (adenomatous) and 2 as non-suspect (hyperplastic).
  • One villous adenoma could not be optically analyzed due to friability.
  • CONCLUSION: The WavSTAT Optical Biopsy System provides accurate information to the gastroenterologist to assist in distinguishing between hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / pathology. Colon / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy / methods. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Optics and Photonics / methods. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20032428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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95. Loungnarath R, Mutch MG, Birnbaum EH, Read TE, Fleshman JW: Laparoscopic colectomy using cancer principles is appropriate for colonoscopically unresectable adenomas of the colon. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Jul;53(7):1017-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic colectomy using cancer principles is appropriate for colonoscopically unresectable adenomas of the colon.
  • PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine the risks of cancer in unresectable polyps and to compare the short-term outcome of laparoscopic colectomy with that of open colectomy for benign polyps.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients (n = 165) undergoing colectomy for an adenoma unresectable at colonoscopy was performed on patients collected in a prospective database.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic colectomy for polyps unresectable at colonoscopy is safe.
  • Oncologic resection of the colon should be performed for all colonoscopically unresectable polyps due to the risk of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Colonoscopy / contraindications. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20551753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Ritchie KJ, Walsh S, Sansom OJ, Henderson CJ, Wolf CR: Markedly enhanced colon tumorigenesis in Apc(Min) mice lacking glutathione S-transferase Pi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Dec 8;106(49):20859-64
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  • [Title] Markedly enhanced colon tumorigenesis in Apc(Min) mice lacking glutathione S-transferase Pi.
  • To investigate the unique functions of this enzyme, we have crossed Gstp null mice with an initiated model of colon cancer, the Apc(Min) mouse.
  • In contrast to the Apc(Min/+) Gstp1/p2(+/+) (Gstp-wt Apc(Min)) mice, which rarely develop colonic tumours, Apc(Min/+)Gstp1/p2(-/-) (Gstp-null Apc(Min)) mice had a 6-fold increase in colon adenoma incidence, and a 50-fold increase in colorectal adenoma multiplicity, relative to Gstp-wt Apc(Min).
  • Analysis of the biochemical changes in the colon tissue of Gstp-null Apc(Min) mice demonstrated a marked induction of many inflammatory genes, including IL-6, IL-4, IFN-gamma, and inducible nitric oxide synthase.
  • Gstp therefore appears to play a role in controlling inflammatory responses in the colon, which would explain the change in tumor incidence observed.
  • These data also suggest that individual variation in GSTP levels may be a factor in colon cancer susceptibility.


97. Buso AG, Rocha HL, Diogo DM, Diogo PM, Diogo-Filho A: Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with colon adenomas in a Brazilian university hospital. Arq Gastroenterol; 2009 Apr-Jun;46(2):97-101
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  • [Title] Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with colon adenomas in a Brazilian university hospital.
  • CONTEXT: The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and colon neoplasia has been the subject of recent investigations which have produced controversial results.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with colonic adenomas and also in patients whose colonoscopy exams were normal.
  • METHODS: After colonoscopy, the individuals were distributed into two groups: patients with colon adenomas (cases) and patients whose colons were normal (controls).
  • The prevalence of H. pylori in cases and controls according to gender, histological type and location of the colon lesions showed a significant difference only among women (P = 0.03), among patients with tubular adenomas (P = 0.03), and in those with distal adenomas (P = 0.038).
  • CONCLUSION: There is a positive association between H. pylori infection and colonic adenomas.
  • This association is more evident in women, especially for tubular adenomas and distal colonic location.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / microbiology. Colonic Neoplasms / microbiology. Helicobacter Infections / epidemiology. Helicobacter pylori

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  • (PMID = 19578608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4219
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de gastroenterologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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98. Malmstrøm ML, Meisner S: [Endoscopic mucosal resection of the colon and rectum]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2008 May 12;170(20):1738-9
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  • [Title] [Endoscopic mucosal resection of the colon and rectum].
  • [Transliterated title] Endoskopisk mucosaresektion i colon og rectum.
  • EMR (endoscopic mucosal resection) is an endoscopic procedure where benign adenomas and superficial carcinomas can be removed from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • This paper focuses on lesions of the colon and rectum, presenting the method, techniques, instruments and complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Colon / surgery. Colonoscopy / methods. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Proctoscopy / methods. Rectum / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18489888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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99. Oh K, Redston M, Odze RD: Support for hMLH1 and MGMT silencing as a mechanism of tumorigenesis in the hyperplastic-adenoma-carcinoma (serrated) carcinogenic pathway in the colon. Hum Pathol; 2005 Jan;36(1):101-11
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  • [Title] Support for hMLH1 and MGMT silencing as a mechanism of tumorigenesis in the hyperplastic-adenoma-carcinoma (serrated) carcinogenic pathway in the colon.
  • BACKGROUND: Down-regulation of DNA repair genes has been proposed as an important mechanism of tumorigenesis in some colon cancers.
  • This mechanism has also recently been implicated in the newly postulated hyperplastic polyp-serrated adenoma-carcinoma ("serrated") pathway of carcinogenesis, although this has never been investigated thoroughly.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate hMLH1, hMSH2, MGMT, as well as MIB-1, p53, and beta-catenin immunoexpression in an uncommon cohort of mixed colonic polyps that contain a combination of hyperplastic and adenomatous features (n = 21), and in some (n = 7), carcinoma as well.
  • DESIGN: The clinical, pathological, and immunophenotypic (hMLH1, hMSH2, MGMT, MIB-1, p53, and beta-catenin) properties of 28 mixed hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps of the colon (7 of which also contained carcinoma within the same lesion) were evaluated for the above immunopeptides in each of the different morphologic areas of the polyps, and the results were compared to traditional hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, and conventional (nonserrated) adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Clinically, most mixed polyps with carcinoma occurred in the ascending colon (86%), and pathologically, the adenomatous component of most mixed polyps was serrated (96%).
  • Mixed polyps, particularly those with carcinoma, showed loss of hMLH1 (33%), MGMT (37%), and even hMSH2 (11%) with significantly higher frequency compared to hyperplastic polyps, conventional adenomas, and serrated adenomas.
  • More specifically, loss of hMLH1 and MGMT were more frequent in epithelium of higher neoplastic grade in mixed polyps.
  • However, hMSH2 loss was only present in the adenoma component and never in the hyperplastic or carcinomatous areas of these polyps.
  • Defects in MIB-1 proliferation indices and p53 were not significantly different among the same epithelial components in each of the polyp groups.
  • However, conventional adenomas showed significantly higher rates of nuclear beta -catenin staining (100%) in comparison to the adenomatous component of mixed polyps (60%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Loss of hMLH1 and MGMT play a prominent role in the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis in the colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Gene Silencing. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Carrier Proteins. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. MutS Homolog 2 Protein. Nuclear Proteins. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 15712188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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100. Kautenburger T, Beyer-Sehlmeyer G, Festag G, Haag N, Kühler S, Küchler A, Weise A, Marian B, Peters WH, Liehr T, Claussen U, Pool-Zobel BL: The gut fermentation product butyrate, a chemopreventive agent, suppresses glutathione S-transferase theta (hGSTT1) and cell growth more in human colon adenoma (LT97) than tumor (HT29) cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct;131(10):692-700
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  • [Title] The gut fermentation product butyrate, a chemopreventive agent, suppresses glutathione S-transferase theta (hGSTT1) and cell growth more in human colon adenoma (LT97) than tumor (HT29) cells.
  • Here we investigated kinetics of effects in HT29 and compared sensitivities with preneoplastic LT97 colon adenoma cells, to assess mechanisms of colon cancer chemoprevention in two stages of cell transformation.
  • RESULTS: LT97 adenoma cells consumed twofold more butyrate and were more sensitive to growth inhibition than HT29 (EC(50)1.9 mM and 4.0 mM, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Butyrate has suppressing-agent activities in human colon cells by inhibiting two survival factors, namely hGSTT1 and cell growth, with LT97 more sensitive than HT29.
  • These findings indicate that butyrate formation in the gut lumen of humans could be protective by reducing survival of transformed colon cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / prevention & control. Butyrates / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Glutathione Transferase / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16133571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Butyrates; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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