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1. Greven WL, van Bemmel T: Rare oxygen, a rare way to diagnose Conn's syndrome. NDT Plus; 2008 Dec;1(6):427-428

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rare oxygen, a rare way to diagnose Conn's syndrome.
  • We present a case of a patient with symptoms of mountain sickness at relatively low altitudes, who appeared to have Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism). <b>Case.
  • A CT scan of the abdomen revealed an adenoma in the left adrenal gland.

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  • [Cites] BMJ. 2003 Apr 26;326(7395):915-9 [12714473.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Intern Med. 2004 Nov 16;141(10):789-800 [15545679.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 May;66(5):607-18 [17492946.001]
  • (PMID = 28657013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Conn's syndrome / hyperaldosteronism / mountain sickness
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2. Schittenhelm J, Jacob SN, Rutczynska J, Tsiflikas I, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma.
  • Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is composed of both adipose tissue and normal haematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare.
  • We present the case of a 63-year-old female patient with adenoma of the adrenal gland and an additional paravertebral lesion in the thoracic spine.
  • Post-mortem histopathology showed the incidental finding of a paravertebral myelolipoma.

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  • [Cites] Radiographics. 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1):69-85 [15653588.001]
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  • (PMID = 21686745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027965
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3. Lubikowski J, Umiński M, Andrysiak-Mamos E, Pynka S, Fuchs H, Wójcicki M, Szajko M, Moleda P, Post M, Zochowska E, Kiedrowicz B, Safranow K, Syrenicz A: From open to laparoscopic adrenalectomy: thirty years' experience of one medical centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):94-101
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  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the standardized treatment of benign adrenal lesions over the last two decades, making the indications to open adrenalectomy (OA) limited.
  • The purpose of this study was to show the thirty years of experience in open (OA) and laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) gained in one medical centre as well as to compare the results of OA and LA performed for benign adrenal lesions.
  • Analyzed factors included patients demographic data, ASA score, indication for surgery, tumour size and side, characteristics of the removed tumours, intraoperative and postoperative outcome of LA and OA, postoperative pain sensation, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and conversion rate from LA to OA.
  • The mean operative time was longer in the LA group (137 v. 82 min., p < 0.0001) and the blood loss was lower in LA group (110 v. 254 mL, p < 0.0001).
  • The mean time until resumption of normal diet was shorter after LA (22 v. 44 h), as was the mean time until ambulation (17 v. 36 h), mean length of the hospital stay (4.6 v. 6.8 days), and mean time until return to normal activities (14 v. 23 days, p < 0.0001 for each difference).
  • The analgesic requirement on the first and the second day postoperatively was lower in the LA group (p < 0.0001).
  • The rate of the conversion from LA to OA was 16%.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was adenoma of the adrenal gland in the majority of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that LA is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated procedure.
  • It may be recommended as a "gold standard" surgery in a case of benign functioning or non-functioning adrenal tumours with diameter less than 8 cm. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 94-101).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Poland. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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4. Dubova EA, Mishnev OD, Shchegolev AI: [Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal gland]. Arkh Patol; 2007 Nov-Dec;69(6):38-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal gland].
  • Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal is described in a 44-year-old female patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18290380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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5. Wu Z, Ni D, Yan Y, Li J, Wang B, Ouyang J, Zhang G, Ma X, Li H, Zhang X: Expression of angiotensin II receptors in aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland and their clinical significance. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2010 Aug;30(4):486-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of angiotensin II receptors in aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland and their clinical significance.
  • The expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) of the adrenal gland was detected, and their relationship with clinical indexes of APA was analyzed.
  • The mRNA expression of AT1R and AT2R in 50 cases of APA and tissues adjacent to tumors and 12 cases of normal adrenal tissues was detected by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • The expression of AT1R in adenoma, tissues adjacent to tumor, and normal tissues of the adrenal gland showed no significant differences.
  • The expression of AT2R in APA tissue was lower than that in normal adrenal gland tissues (P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Aldosterone / blood. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / metabolism. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20714875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AGTR1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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6. Hwang WR, Ma WY, Tso AL, Pan CC, Chang YH, Lin HD: Pheochromocytoma and adrenocortical adenoma in the same gland. J Chin Med Assoc; 2007 Jul;70(7):289-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma and adrenocortical adenoma in the same gland.
  • A right adrenal tumor was found incidentally during abdominal computed tomography exam in a 51-year-old female patient, who had had diabetes and hypertension for more than 10 years.
  • Therefore, adrenal cortical adenoma with subclinical Cushing's syndrome was highly suspected; however, further imaging studies, including magnetic resonance image and 131I-6beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy failed to discriminate an additional tumor.
  • After right adrenalectomy, a small adrenal cortical adenoma and a large pheochromocytoma were noted.
  • This is an extremely rare case of an adrenal incidentaloma consisting of both medullary and cortical tumors in the same gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17631466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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7. Monjero-Ares I, Gegundez-Gómez C, Couselo-Villanueva JM, Moreda-Pérez M, Jorge-Iglesias M, Torres-García I, Alvarez-Gutiérrez AE, Arija-Val JF: [Association of pheochromocytoma with contralateral nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma]. Cir Esp; 2006 Feb;79(2):126-8
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  • [Title] [Association of pheochromocytoma with contralateral nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Asociación de feocromocitoma con adenoma suprarrenal contralateral no funcionante.
  • A 52-year-old woman complaining of abdominal pain, headaches and palpitations was admitted to our hospital for investigation of a bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • The definitive diagnosis was right pheochromocytoma and left adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Only four cases of pheochromocytoma associated with nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma have previously been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pheochromocytoma

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  • (PMID = 16539953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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8. Rohana AG, Ming W, Norlela S, Norazmi MK: Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Med J Malaysia; 2007 Jun;62(2):158-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • CT abdomen showed a right adrenal tumour and a hyperplastic left adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed followed by histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.
  • This was confirmed to be due to partial or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • We discuss the association of partial CAH and adrenal tumours and the unmasking of the mineralocorticoid deficiency following adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications


9. Guthoff M, Schnauder G, Kirchhoff K, Kurth R, Horger M, Müssig K: [Normokalaemic primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma--Case 06/2009]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2009 Jul;134(31-32):1582
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  • [Title] [Normokalaemic primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma--Case 06/2009].
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Ultrasound displayed no evidence of renal artery stenosis.
  • Renal function was normal.
  • MRI revealed an adenoma of the right adrenal gland.
  • DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND COURSE: The results were consistent with primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • The histological findings confirmed an adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / secretion. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Renin / blood

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  • (PMID = 19629922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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10. Lee R, Storr M, Hershfield NB: A case of Conn's syndrome revealed after oral sodium phosphate (Fleet) preparation for colonoscopy. J Dig Dis; 2010 Apr;11(2):111-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of Conn's syndrome revealed after oral sodium phosphate (Fleet) preparation for colonoscopy.
  • The patient was subsequently diagnosed with primary aldosteronism secondary to an adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Bilateral adrenal venous sampling revealed excessive levels of aldosterone in the left adrenal vein prior to definitive surgery.
  • This case indicates that an oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation, though safe for most patients, can be complicated by a previously not diagnosed endocrine disease like the primary aldosteronism (Conn's syndrome) reported here.
  • This is the first report of a Conn's syndrome diagnosed after bowel cleansing with a sodium phosphate solution.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonoscopy / methods. Hyperaldosteronism / chemically induced. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Phosphates / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Administration, Oral. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aldosterone / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Renin / blood

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  • (PMID = 20402838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of digestive diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dig Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; SE337SVY37 / sodium phosphate
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11. Gockel I, Heintz A, Kentner R, Werner C, Junginger T: Changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome. Surg Endosc; 2005 Nov;19(11):1491-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland is regarded as the most common type of endocrine hypertension.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy recorded in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to patients with hormone-inactive incidentaloma and its possible influence by the surgical approach.
  • METHODS: From February 1994 to March 2004, 40 patients underwent endoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome.
  • RESULTS: The adrenal gland was resected using the retroperitoneal in 25 and the transperitoneal approach in 15 patients with Conn's syndrome.
  • The increase in intraoperative blood pressure in patients with Conn's syndrome was significantly higher, for both systolic (p < 0.0001) and diastolic (p = 0.0037) readings, compared to that in patients with incidentaloma undergoing endoscopic adrenalectomy during the same period of time.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that relevant intraoperative increases in blood pressure occur in patients with Conn's syndrome despite prior therapy with an aldosterone antagonist, necessitating specific precautionary measures during anesthesia.

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  • [ErratumIn] Surg Endosc. 2006 Jan;20(1):180. Wetner, C [corrected to Werner, C]
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  • (PMID = 16222471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Herd A, Harman R, Taylor E: Surgical outcomes following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treatment of Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) between 1999 and 2006. N Z Med J; 2010 Oct 15;123(1324):50-6
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  • [Title] Surgical outcomes following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treatment of Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) between 1999 and 2006.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism is a recognised cause of secondary hypertension with its aetiology most commonly due to a secreting aldosterone adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic resection of the adrenal tumour has now become the accepted form of intervention.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is an effective tool in treatment for benign primary hyperaldosteronism caused by aldosterone secreting adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 20953222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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13. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
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  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Oncocytás mellékvese-adenoma.
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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14. Ouzounian S, Tissier F, Gouya H, Kujas M, Louvel A, Legmann P, Bertagna X: [Cushing's syndrome and adrenal adenoma. Two surprising associations]. Presse Med; 2005 Apr 09;34(7):511-5
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  • [Title] [Cushing's syndrome and adrenal adenoma. Two surprising associations].
  • [Transliterated title] Maladie de Cushing et adénome cortico-surrénalien. Deux associations étonnantes.
  • CASES: In the first case, we describe the case of a patient with an adrenal adenoma 20 years before the occurrence of Cushing's disease related to the pineal gland.
  • In the second case, two members of the same family were diagnosed almost simultaneously with adrenal cortical adenoma (mother) and Cushing's disease (daughter).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15903005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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15. Garduno-García Jde J, Reza-Albarrán A, Márquez MA, Pérez FJ: [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Nov;57(9):421-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma adrenal como etiología de síndrome de Cushing: veinte años de experiencia en un centro mexicano de tercer nivel.
  • Adrenal adenomas are an uncommon cause of adult CS.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcome of patients with CS caused by adrenal adenomas in a referral center.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional observational study of patients with a diagnosis of CS caused by adrenal adenomas managed in our center over a 20-year period.
  • Our clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of this entity was analyzed.
  • The results of dynamic testing with dexamethasone suggested adrenal adenoma in 100% of the patients.
  • Seventy percent of adenomas were found in the left gland.
  • ACTH measurement in our center was not reliable in identifying adrenal adenoma as a cause of CS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20863774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2021
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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16. Denzinger S, Burger M, Hartmann A, Hofstaedter F, Wieland WF, Ganzer R: Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma. APMIS; 2007 Apr;115(4):381-4
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  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma.
  • We report on a 50-year-old patient with a giant benign adenoma of the adrenal cortex, which ruptured spontaneously, leading to life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
  • Following emergency adrenalectomy with sparing of the ipsilateral kidney, an adenoma of the adrenal cortex with a diameter of 18 cm and a weight of 1400 g was found.
  • A detailed literature search showed this to be the largest benign tumor of the adrenal cortex described so far.
  • We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this unusual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Middle Aged. Rupture, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous / pathology. Rupture, Spontaneous / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17504308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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17. Blanco C, Maqueda E, Rubio JA, Rodriguez A: Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy secondary to adrenal adenoma: metyrapone treatment and laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Feb;29(2):164-7
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  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy secondary to adrenal adenoma: metyrapone treatment and laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is a rare and difficult to diagnose disorder.
  • An abdominal computed tomography scan confirmed a left adrenal mass.
  • While diagnosis work-up was still in progress, the patient became pregnant and wanted to carry her pregnancy to full-term.
  • Pathologic examination of the gland showed a benign adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The patient developed secondary adrenal insufficiency and was discharged on 20 mg hydrocortisone daily dose.
  • No apparent metyrapone-induced teratogenic effects were observed and there was no clinical or biochemical suppression of adrenocortical function.
  • In conclusion, in adrenal Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy, medical treatment with metyrapone as soon as the diagnosis is made, in combination with laparoscopic surgery during the second trimester, are useful in preventing complications secondary to hypercortisolism and safe both for the mother and infant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / therapy. Metyrapone / therapeutic use. Pregnancy Complications / therapy


18. Ziaja J, Cholewa K, Mazurek U, Cierpka L: [Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jul-Aug;59(4):330-9
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  • [Title] [Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Molekularne podstawy syntezy aldosteronu i kortyzolu w prawidlowych nadnerczach i w gruczolakach kory nadnerczy.
  • The aim of the study is to present genes encoding enzymatic proteins of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis pathway, methods of their transcriptional activity measurement, mRNA expression of the genes in normal adrenal cortex, in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients with Conn and Cushing syndromes, as well as in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients, in which hormonal activity of the tumour was not confirmed.
  • According to presented papers mRNA expression of analyzed genes is best known in tissue obtained from tumours excised from patients with Conn syndrome.
  • On the other hand transcriptional activity of the genes within the other adrenocortical adenomas is documented in lesser degree.
  • It concerns particularly analyses of tissue material obtained from patients, in which hormonal activity of adrenal tumours was not confirmed with biochemical tests.
  • It should be also considered, that the frame of reference for the majority of molecular analyses of adrenocortical tumour tissues was material obtained from little number of normal adrenals, what decreases in some degree credibility of obtained results.
  • Mentioned above remarks may be the basis for conduction of further investigations based on larger material, obtained both from normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / enzymology. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis. Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reference Values. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18777504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.- / Mixed Function Oxygenases; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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19. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses.
  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • There were 43 cortical adenomas, 11 cortical adrenocarcinomas and 20 PHEOs (including 5 malignant lesions).
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • There was no expression of Ki67 or p53 protein above the assumed level in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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20. Yip L, Tublin ME, Falcone JA, Nordman CR, Stang MT, Ogilvie JB, Carty SE, Yim JH: The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Mar;17(3):846-52
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  • [Title] The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging.
  • BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help diagnose benign adrenal adenomas, but prior studies rely on nonoperative follow-up as proof of a lesion's benign nature.
  • Imaging results were considered to signify benign adrenal adenoma if one or more of the following was present: Hounsfield units <10 on unenhanced CT, contrast-enhanced CT quantifying absolute contrast washout of >60% or relative contrast washout of >40%, or MR with chemical-shift imaging demonstrating loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase images.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative imaging in predicting benign adrenal adenoma were 57 and 94%, respectively.
  • Histopathology confirmed that all 66 adrenal masses with imaging characteristics suggesting benign adenoma were indeed benign lesions and included 61 benign adrenal adenomas and 5 benign nonadenomatous lesions (3 myelolipomas, 1 composite myelolipoma/adenoma, and 1 ganglioliponeuroma).
  • Malignant adrenal lesions were diagnosed in 17/130 (13%) masses: 8 metastases, 7 adrenal cortical carcinomas, 1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CT or MR characteristics predicted the presence of benign lesions with 100% specificity.
  • Every adrenal malignancy had CT or MR results that were inconsistent with benign adenoma (100% sensitivity).
  • To exclude malignancy, adrenal masses with non-benign imaging characteristics should be resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19960266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Okura T, Miyoshi K, Watanabe S, Kurata M, Irita J, Manabe S, Fukuoka T, Higaki J, Sasano H: Coexistence of three distinct adrenal tumors in the same adrenal gland in a patient with primary aldosteronism and preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2006 Jun;10(2):127-30
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  • [Title] Coexistence of three distinct adrenal tumors in the same adrenal gland in a patient with primary aldosteronism and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Physical examination revealed no signs of excessive adrenocortical steroid production, as are found in Cushing's syndrome.
  • Magnetic resonance image revealed three sequential nodular masses (each 15 mm x 15 mm) in the right adrenal gland.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that the upper and lower tumors were adrenocortical adenomas, and the middle tumor was a black adenoma.
  • Surprisingly, at 33 years of age, she had been diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome, due to a cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenoma, and she had received a left adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / physiopathology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged


22. Yoon JH, Kim SH, Kim MA, Han JK, Choi BI: MDCT and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI findings of adrenal adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Korean J Radiol; 2010 Jan-Feb;11(1):126-30
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  • [Title] MDCT and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI findings of adrenal adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • We report a case of an adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland mimicking a hepatocellular carcinoma in a heavy alcohol abuser.
  • A tumorectomy was performed and adrenal adenoma from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver was confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Gadolinium DTPA. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20046505.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799643
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal adenoma / Ectopic adrenal gland / Liver / Magnetic resonance (MR) / Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT)
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23. Ors F, Lev-Toaff A, O'Kane P, Qazi N, Bergin D: Paraovarian adrenal rest with MRI features characteristic of an adrenal adenoma. Br J Radiol; 2007 Sep;80(957):e205-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paraovarian adrenal rest with MRI features characteristic of an adrenal adenoma.
  • We report MR and sonographic imaging features of an incidentally detected paraovarian adrenal rest in a 44-year-old woman who was being evaluated for menorrhagia.
  • This is the first report of chemical shift imaging identifying the presence of lipid within an adrenal rest as well as rapid washout of contrast.
  • Both of these MR characteristics are typically seen with an adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Rest Tumor / diagnosis. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17928489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Mac Gregor Gooch AL, Guillermina Velasco Diaz G, Carranza Lira S: [Virilizing adrenal adenoma: a report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 May;73(5):261-4
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  • [Title] [Virilizing adrenal adenoma: a report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma suprarrenal virilizante: comunicación de un caso.
  • Androgen excess can be due to different entities such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, ovarian tumors or adrenal tumors.
  • The CAT scan and nuclear magnetic imaging of adrenal glands showed an oval retroperitoneal image of 7.2 x 6.5 x 8.4 cm at the right adrenal gland.
  • Surgery was performed and the right adrenal gland excised.
  • The histopathologic report indicated a benign cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21966765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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25. De Padua M, Rajagopal V: Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern. Indian J Med Sci; 2008 May;62(5):199-203

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern.
  • Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors.
  • To our knowledge, only 22 cases have been described so far in literature, which include 13 carcinomas and 9 adenomas.
  • We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor.
  • Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18579979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5359
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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26. Wolf A, Willenberg HS, Cupisti K, Schott M, Geddert H, Raffel A, Bornstein SR, Scherbaum WA, Knoefel WT: Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma: diagnostic and therapeutic management. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Jun;37(6):391-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma: diagnostic and therapeutic management.
  • There is evidence for a close interrelation between the adrenomedullary and adrenocortical tissues, and there are well-characterized models of their paracrine interaction.
  • To contribute to the studies of systemic interactions between these tissues, we studied a 52-year-old female patient with a pheochromocytoma and a contralateral cortisol-producing adenoma.
  • Due to a misunderstanding, she presented to her family doctor to have an inherited kidney disease ruled out.
  • An adrenal mass was discovered incidentally by ultrasound.
  • A computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal masses.
  • Laboratory work-up, selective adrenal venous sampling and magnetic resonance imaging studies established the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma in the right-hand adrenal gland and a cortisol-producing adenoma on the left.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining against chromogranin A in a histological specimen obtained from the right-hand adrenal gland, while the left was negative; the left-hand adrenal gland stained positive against the ACTH receptor (MC2R) while the right was negative.
  • Genetically, the patient was negative for MEN2, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and mutations in subunits B, C, and D of the succinate dehydrogenase gene.
  • Although presence of bilateral adrenal adenomas or bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas in certain inherited disorders are possible, this rare case of an adrenal pheochromocytoma combined with a contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma may further underline the wide range of complex interactions between the two endocrine systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 16001333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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27. Shigematsu K, Nishida N, Sakai H, Igawa T, Toriyama K, Nakatani A, Takahara O, Kawai K: Synaptophysin immunoreactivity in adrenocortical adenomas: a correlation between synaptophysin and CYP17A1 expression. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Dec;161(6):939-45
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  • [Title] Synaptophysin immunoreactivity in adrenocortical adenomas: a correlation between synaptophysin and CYP17A1 expression.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: The adrenal cortex is not considered to be an intrinsic part of the diffuse neuroendocrine system, but adrenocortical neoplasms possess neuroendocrine properties.
  • In this study, we examined synaptophysin (SYP) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression in adrenocortical adenomas in relation to adrenal function.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis showed that 50.7 and 98.6% of the cortical adenomas showed SYP and NCAM immunoreactivities respectively.
  • There was no apparent difference in NCAM immunoreactivity among the adenomas.
  • However, the immunostaining for SYP was significantly stronger in cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) than in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA), nonfunctioning adenomas (NFA), showing no clinical or endocrinological abnormality, or adenomas associated with preclinical Cushing's syndrome (preCS).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We propose that SYP expression in adrenocortical cells may be involved in some aspect of adrenal function such as transport or secretion of glucocorticoids.

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  • (PMID = 19755404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 1.14.99.9 / CYP17A1 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase
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28. Baba Y, Hokotate H, Nakajo M: Comparison of adrenal vein sampling value between aldosterone producing adrenal adenoma and non-functioning adrenal adenoma: evaluation using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Acta Radiol; 2005 Nov;46(7):750-5
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  • [Title] Comparison of adrenal vein sampling value between aldosterone producing adrenal adenoma and non-functioning adrenal adenoma: evaluation using receiver operating characteristic analysis.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate adequate criteria for adrenal vein sampling values in patients with aldosterone producing adrenal adenoma (APA), retrospectively.
  • During the same period, 23 patients with non-functioning adrenal adenoma (11 M and 12 F aged 53.56 +/- 11.76 years) were diagnosed based on computed tomography and laboratory data.
  • Bilateral adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for measurement of plasma aldosterone (A) and cortisol (C) was performed, and a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was conducted to establish the best criteria from the AVS-derived index in patients with APA.
  • The Az values for A (APA side)/A (contralateral side) were 0.8948 and 0.9260 for right and left APA, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Aldosterone / blood. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. ROC Curve

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  • (PMID = 16372697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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29. Chen KT: Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jul-Aug;49(4):449-51
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  • [Title] Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: The fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic evaluations of most adrenal lesions are straightforward.
  • After delivery, computed tomography-guided FNA showed bland epithelial cells, and a diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma was made.
  • However, subsequent resection showed a myelolipoma of the adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: This case illustrated 2 cytodiagnostic pitfalls in adrenal fine needle aspirates.
  • Second, extraneous, benign cells of hepatic origin were misinterpreted as adrenal cortical adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hepatocytes / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16124179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Lazúrová I, Dudásová D, Wagnerová H, Dravecká I, Petrásová D: Adrenal incidentalomas and the metabolic syndrome--are there any differences between adenoma and hyperplasia? Neoplasma; 2006;53(4):324-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas and the metabolic syndrome--are there any differences between adenoma and hyperplasia?
  • Authors evaluated the prevalence of symptoms of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in 25 patients with adrenal incidentalomas (10 men, 15 women) of the mean age 57.9+/-15 years.
  • 15 patients had adrenal adenoma determined by CT or MR scan and 10 had unilateral or bilateral hyperplasia.
  • Patients with adrenal adenomas had mildly but significantly higher body mass index (BMI, p<0.05) and insulin resistance calculated as HOMA IR (p<0.05) and FIRI (p<0.05) and significantly higher values of serum ferritin (p<0.01).
  • Plasma cortisol values were slightly but not significantly higher in the group with adrenal adenomas.
  • Authors conclude that adrenal adenomas are probably more related to the metabolic syndrome than adrenal hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Metabolic Syndrome X / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16830060.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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31. Pittavini L, De Gaetano A, Solano G, Losito A: Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma. J Nephrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):614-6
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  • [Title] Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.
  • The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma.
  • This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications


32. Hennings J, Sundin A, Hägg A, Hellman P: 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):963-7
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  • [Title] 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate whether dexamethasone suppression treatment can improve (11) C-metomidate positron emission tomography (MTO-PET) detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism (PA).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven patients with proven PA and two patients with non-hyperfunctioning adrenocortical incidentalomas and small adrenocortical tumours observed on CT underwent MTO-PET before and 3 days after administration of oral dexamethasone suppression treatment.
  • RESULTS: All tumours were detected and categorised as adrenocortical by MTO-PET.
  • SUVhs as well as SUVmax were higher in PA compared to nonfunctional adenomas.
  • Normal adrenal cortex was suppressed after dexamethasone (p < 0.05), but tumour SUV was not significantly decreased after suppression in either PA or nonfunctional tumours (p > 0.05).
  • However, these changes caused no significant increase in the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio (p > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a highly sensitive method for detecting and categorising even small adrenocortical tumours in PA.
  • In this series, dexamethasone-suppressed MTO-PET was unable to increase the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio to further facilitate detection of small adenomas in PA as an alternative to adrenal venous sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / drug therapy. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnostic imaging. Hyperaldosteronism / drug therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 20644954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5377-20-8 / metomidate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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33. Hosogi H, Nagayama S, Kanamoto N, Yoshizawa A, Suzuki T, Nakao K, Sakai Y: Biallelic APC inactivation was responsible for functional adrenocortical adenoma in familial adenomatous polyposis with novel germline mutation of the APC gene: report of a case. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Dec;39(12):837-46
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  • [Title] Biallelic APC inactivation was responsible for functional adrenocortical adenoma in familial adenomatous polyposis with novel germline mutation of the APC gene: report of a case.
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients develop various extracolonic lesions, among which functional adrenocortical neoplasms are infrequent.
  • Furthermore, bilateral adrenocortical adenomas were detected, and functional analyses showed a hormonal secretion pattern consistent with Cushing's syndrome.
  • At 10 months post-operative with no detectable metastatic lesions, the residual colorectum and the larger, left adrenal gland were resected, and the hormonal hypersecretion was normalized.
  • Biallelic APC inactivation due to loss of the normal allele was evident in the adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunostaining for beta-catenin revealed diffuse cytoplasmic expression in resected tissues including adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Biallelic APC inactivation may play a role in developing cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma in FAP patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / metabolism. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Genes, APC / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19684041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein
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34. Inomoto C, Sato H, Kanai G, Hirukawa T, Shoji S, Terachi T, Kajiwara H, Osamura RY: Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2010 Jul;35(2):57-61
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  • [Title] Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Functioning black adrenal adenoma (BAA) rarely causes preclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS).
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed that she had a 15-mm in diameter, round, left adrenal adenoma.
  • The left adrenal adenoma was laparoscopically removed.
  • Examination of the surgical specimen revealed unilateral double adrenal adenomas of the left adrenal gland, one of which was a BAA.
  • The compact cell zones remained in the adrenal cortex adjacent to the BAA showed atrophic change.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21319027.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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35. Qiao ZW, Xia CM, Zhu YB, Shi WP, Miao F: First-pass perfusion computed tomography: initial experience in differentiating adrenal adenoma from metastasis. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Mar;73(3):657-63
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  • [Title] First-pass perfusion computed tomography: initial experience in differentiating adrenal adenoma from metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To differentiate adrenal adenoma from metastasis in patients using perfusion computed tomography (PCT) imaging.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two patients with adrenal masses underwent first-pass PCT imaging.
  • Of these patients, twenty-one were diagnosed with adrenal adenoma, and the others with metastases.
  • RESULTS: The perfusion parameters such as BV, BF and PS were statistically significant different between the two groups, with adenomas showing higher mean BV (12.18 versus 3.86), BF (97.51 versus 45.99) and PS (21.73 versus 10.93) compared with metastases (p<0.05).
  • For BV, a cutoff point of 7.30 was found to have a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 100% to differentiate between adenoma and metastasis.
  • The sensitivity and specificity were 81.0 and 80.0%, respectively, for BF with a cutoff point of 71.96; and 85.7 and 86.7%, respectively, for PS with a cutoff point of 12.70 to differentiate adenoma and metastasis.
  • A comparison of MVD counts from adenomas with those from metastases showed a significant difference (p<0.05).
  • However, no significant differences were observed in the four perfusion parameters and MVD between lipid rich and lipid poor adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: PCT may be useful for evaluating the neovascularization of adrenal masses and differentiating adenoma from metastasis on the basis of PCT parameters.
  • Adenomas show higher BV, BF and PS compared with metastases.
  • According our data, the optimal threshold BV is 7.30, resulting in a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 100% for the differentiation of adenoma from metastasis.
  • Adrenal adenomas have similar hemodynamic profiles, which are apparently independent of the lipid content of an adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Male. Microcirculation. ROC Curve. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19200677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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36. Nunes ML, Rault A, Teynie J, Valli N, Guyot M, Gaye D, Belleannee G, Tabarin A: 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning. World J Surg; 2010 Jul;34(7):1506-10
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning.
  • BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has been proposed for the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • However, only scarce data are available to evaluate its usefulness for the identification of primary adrenal carcinomas in patients with no previous history of cancer and equivocal tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Twenty-three consecutive patients without previous history of cancer investigated for adrenal tumors without features of benign adrenocortical adenoma on CT scan but no obvious ACC underwent 18F-FDG PET.
  • The ratio of maxSUV adrenal tumor on maxSUV liver (adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio) during 18F-FDG PET was compared to Weiss pathological criteria.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients had an adrenal adenoma, 2 had small size adrenal carcinomas (<5 cm), 1 had an angiosarcoma, and 3 had noncortical benign lesions.
  • An adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio above 1.6 provided 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20396886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Alam MM, Rahman MA, Naser MF, Hossain MS, Islam MA: Testosterone secreting adrenal adenoma in an adult female patient. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Oct;19(4):632-5
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  • [Title] Testosterone secreting adrenal adenoma in an adult female patient.
  • Adrenal tumours that secrete testosterone are extremely rare and we describe such a case in a 35 years old female with virilization.
  • She had left adrenal adenoma 7.5 X 6.4 cm in size, her ovaries were normal.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20956912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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38. Park SH, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Lim JS, Kim KW: Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation. Korean J Radiol; 2007 Jul-Aug;8(4):328-35
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  • [Title] Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal threshold for the attenuation values in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and assess the value of the size criteria for differentiating between an adrenal adenoma and a nonadenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The unenhanced CT images of 45 patients at our institution, who underwent a surgical resection of an adrenal masses between January 2001 and July 2005, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Forty-five adrenal masses included 25 cortical adenomas, 12 pheochromocytomas, three lymphomas, and five metastases confirmed by pathology were examined.
  • The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test.
  • RESULTS: The twenty-five adenomas showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) attenuation values (mean+/-SD; 16.3+/-14.9) than the nonadenomas (38.1+/-6.8).
  • The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were 36%, 100%, 100%, 56%, and 64%, respectively, at a threshold of 10 HU; 60%, 100%, 100%, 67%, and 78%, respectively, at a threshold of 20 HU; and 72%, 95%, 95%, 73%, and 82%, respectively, at a threshold of 25 HU.
  • The adenomas had a significantly (p < 0.05) smaller diameter (2.44+/-1.24 cm) than the nonadenomas (5.09+/-2.37 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: The threshold attenuation values of 20 or 25 HU in the unenhanced CT appear optimal for discriminating an adrenal adenoma from a nonadenoma.
  • The size criteria are of little value in differentiating adrenal masses because of their low specificity or low sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17673844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627166
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39. Hirose A, Okada Y, Fukushima A, Tanaka Y: [A rare case of primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas with renal cell carcinoma]. J UOEH; 2005 Dec 1;27(4):315-23
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  • [Title] [A rare case of primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas with renal cell carcinoma].
  • We report a rare case of bilateral primary aldosteronism with renal cell carcinoma.
  • Abdominal CT and MRI revealed tumor masses in both adrenal glands, and a large left renal mass.
  • The preoperative diagnosis was primary aldosteronism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas and left renal cell carcinoma.
  • The Pathological diagnosis was left renal cell carcinoma and bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Primary aldosteronism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas is relatively rare and its complication with renal cell carcinoma is an extremely rare case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications


40. Pomara G, Cappello F, Barzon L, Morelli G, Rappa F, Benvegna L, Giannarini G, Palù G, Selli C: Cytomegalovirus and BK-Virus co-infection of a clinically non-functioning adrenal adenoma: innocent bystanders or new pathogenetic agents? Eur J Histochem; 2006 Apr-Jun;50(2):131-2
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  • [Title] Cytomegalovirus and BK-Virus co-infection of a clinically non-functioning adrenal adenoma: innocent bystanders or new pathogenetic agents?
  • We report a case of a 64-year-old woman who underwent left adrenalectomy with removal of a 8,5 cm clinically non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma and a 4-cm myelolipoma.
  • Molecular testing for viral infection demonstrated the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA sequences in the adrenal adenoma, but not in the myelolipoma (confirmed by immunohistochemistry).
  • Moreover, the adrenal adenoma was also positive for parvovirus B19, and both adrenal tumor samples were positive for polyomavirus BK (BKV) and adenovirus DNA sequences.
  • This is the first report of co-infection of an adrenocortical adenoma by CMV and BKV.
  • The role of these viruses in adrenal tumorigenesis was postulated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. BK Virus / genetics. Cytomegalovirus / genetics. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Polyomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16864124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-760X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of histochemistry : EJH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Histochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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41. Ammoury RF, Heptulla RA, Tatevian N, Elenberg E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient. Pediatr Nephrol; 2006 Mar;21(3):433-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient.
  • Adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma is extremely rare in pediatrics.
  • A 16-year-old patient was diagnosed with severe hypertension associated with a right adrenal mass.
  • MRI of the abdomen showed a heterogeneous adrenal mass 4.2x3.3 cm.
  • Laparoscopic resection of the mass was done, and the pathology revealed an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • This is a case in which an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma, a benign and usually asymptomatic tumor, presented as severe hypertension resolving with surgical resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16382320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-041X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  •  go-up   go-down


42. Ballon M, Ceral J, Solar M, Krajina A, Raupach J, Ungermann L: [Is confirmation of an adrenal adenoma in patients with primary aldosteronism sufficient for indication of adrenalectomy?]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Jun;55(6):555-9
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  • [Title] [Is confirmation of an adrenal adenoma in patients with primary aldosteronism sufficient for indication of adrenalectomy?].
  • [Transliterated title] Je průkaz adenomu nadledviny u pacientů s primárním hyperaldosteronizmem dostatecný pro indikati adrenalektomie?
  • Adrenalectomy is effective in patients with proven unilateral hypersecretion of aldosterone whereas pharmacotherapy is indicated in bilateral forms of the disease.
  • We can meet the opinion that in patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism and finding ofsuprarenal adenoma > or = 1 cm on computed tomography (CT) scanning, adrenalectomy can be recommended without further investigation.
  • On the other hand we can perform adrenal venous sampling (AVS) to prove unilateral overproduction of aldosterone.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether AVS is necessary in all patients with unilateral adenoma > or = 1 cm.
  • METHODS: We analyzed data from patients with proven primary aldosteronism, CT finding of adenoma > or = 1 cm along with normal morphology of contralateral adrenal gland, and successfully performed Avs.
  • RESULTS: Out of 107 patients with proven primary aldosteronism, indicated for AVS, we included 30 patients with CT finding of suprarenal adenoma > or = 1 cm along with normal morphology of contralateral adrenal gland and successful Avs. Unilateral overproduction of aldosterone was found only in 17 cases (56.7%), the results in remaining 13 patients (43.3%) did not confirm activity of adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results support necessity of performing AVS in all patients with primary aldosteronism in whom surgical treatment is considered, CT confirmation ofan adenoma is insufficient in this indication.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19662886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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43. Szolar DH, Korobkin M, Reittner P, Berghold A, Bauernhofer T, Trummer H, Schoellnast H, Preidler KW, Samonigg H: Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT. Radiology; 2005 Feb;234(2):479-85
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively measure the adrenal gland attenuation and the percentage loss of adrenal gland enhancement at delayed contrast medium-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in patients with adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas and to compare these data with those in patients with adenomas and metastases.
  • Eleven patients with proved adrenocortical carcinoma, 17 with proved pheochromocytoma, 23 with adrenal adenoma, and 16 with metastasis to the adrenal gland underwent helical CT.
  • RESULTS: The mean attenuation of adenomas (8 HU +/- 18 [standard deviation]) was significantly lower than those of adrenocortical carcinomas (39 HU +/- 14), pheochromocytomas (44 HU +/- 11), and metastases (34 HU +/- 11) on nonenhanced CT scans (P < .001).
  • Although the mean attenuation values for nonadenomas (ie, adrenocortical carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases) were significantly higher than the value for adenomas on the 1-minute contrast-enhanced CT scans (P < .001), there was more overlap in attenuation between adenomas and nonadenomas on contrast-enhanced scans than on nonenhanced scans.
  • On the 10-minute delayed contrast-enhanced scans, the mean attenuation of adenomas (32 HU +/- 17) was significantly lower than the mean attenuations of carcinomas (72 HU +/- 15), pheochromocytomas (83 HU +/- 14), and metastases (66 HU +/- 13) (P < .001).
  • At optimal threshold values of 50% for absolute percentage of enhancement loss and 40% for relative percentage of enhancement loss at 10 minutes, both the sensitivity and the specificity for the diagnosis of adenoma were 100% when adenomas were compared with carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: The enhancement loss in adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas is similar to that in adrenal metastases but significantly less than that in adrenal adenomas.
  • The percentage change in contrast material washout is a useful adjunct to absolute CT attenuation values in differentiating adrenal adenomas from adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2005 Sep;236(3):1112-3 [16118181.001]
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2006 Jan;238(1):373; author reply 373-4 [16373781.001]
  • (PMID = 15671003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Abdullah N, Khawaja K, Hale J, Barrett AM, Cheetham TD: Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;18(2):215-9
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  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy.
  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome).
  • The hypertension resolved following excision of the adrenal tumour.
  • Normokalaemia with potassium >4.0 mmol/l is very unusual in patients with Conn's syndrome and has not been described in childhood before.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Potassium / blood


45. Linder B, Hong Y, Jarrett T: Intra-renal adrenal adenoma: a compelling addition to the differential diagnosis of renal mass. Int J Urol; 2009 Nov;16(11):912-4
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  • [Title] Intra-renal adrenal adenoma: a compelling addition to the differential diagnosis of renal mass.
  • We report a case of an adrenal rest arising in the kidney of a 37-year-old male.
  • Laparoscopic renal exploration and biopsy revealed angiomyolipoma on frozen section.
  • However, final pathological analysis of the partial nephrectomy specimen revealed intra-renal adrenal adenoma.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistries and transmission electron microscopy.
  • We review the reported literature on intra-renal adrenal adenoma and highlight the aspects that raise the index of suspicion for this entity on the differential diagnosis of renal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19863627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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46. Hennings J, Hellman P, Ahlström H, Sundin A: Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography for evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Feb;69(2):314-23
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  • [Title] Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography for evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Given the higher sensitivity of modern computed tomography (CT) scanners, adrenal incidentalomas are being discovered increasingly often.
  • Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) using the tracer (11)C-metomidate (MTO) has been established as an alternative diagnostic method with high sensitivity for identifying adrenocortical lesions.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use and value of MTO-PET compared to CT and MRI in the characterisation and work-up of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • METHODS: Initially, we retrospectively evaluated 20 adrenal incidentalomas in patients who had undergone CT, MRI and MTO-PET and from whom we had either histopathological diagnosis or clinical follow-up data.
  • In the latter study, 24 incidentalomas were imaged by CT, MRI and MTO-PET and the results were correlated to those from histopathology (n=8) and clinical diagnosis after follow-up (n=16).
  • RESULTS: In the retrospective analysis, MRI and especially MTO-PET, correlated well to histopathology and clinical diagnosis after follow-up, whereas specificity with CT was low.
  • This was possibly due to the presence of several haematomas/fibrosis which were misdiagnosed as adrenocortical adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma may be established by CT in most patients and by MRI in an additional number.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18082990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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47. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Conton PA, Reimondo G, Dall'Asta C, Bemporad D, Angeli A, Opocher G, Mannelli M, Ambrosi B, Mantero F: Midnight serum cortisol as a marker of increased cardiovascular risk in patients with a clinically inapparent adrenal adenoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Aug;153(2):307-15
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  • [Title] Midnight serum cortisol as a marker of increased cardiovascular risk in patients with a clinically inapparent adrenal adenoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: There is scant information on the morbidity associated with subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with a clinically inapparent adrenal adenoma.
  • In the present study, we have determined the prevalence of alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in such patients and examined whether any correlation between endocrine data and the clinical phenotype exists.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective study was carried out on 210 patients (135 women and 75 men aged 19-81 years) with an adrenal adenoma detected serendipitously between 1996 and 2000 in four referral centers in Italy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Elevated midnight cortisol concentration is a reliable test to select a subgroup of patients with a clinically inapparent adrenal adenoma with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile.

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  • (PMID = 16061838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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48. Bagwan IN, Cook G, Mudan S, Wotherspoon A: Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:116
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  • BACKGROUND: The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases.
  • Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known.
  • In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 x 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 x 3 cm in size.
  • Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The present case highlights the unusual behaviour of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma causing metastasis to an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17949483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2100056
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49. Hirai H, Shibata T, Sasaki Y, Fujii H, Kubo S, Suehiro S: Simultaneous surgery for chronic aortic dissection and adrenal adenoma with primary aldosteronism. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 May;58(5):235-7; discussion 238
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  • [Title] Simultaneous surgery for chronic aortic dissection and adrenal adenoma with primary aldosteronism.
  • Magnetic resonance images showed a 1-cm nodule in the left adrenal gland.
  • Graft replacement for aortic dissection under extracorporeal circulation and resection of the left adrenal gland were undertaken simultaneously.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aneurysm, Dissecting / surgery. Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic / surgery. Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Hypertension / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Aortography / methods. Blood Pressure. Chronic Disease. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20449714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-6713
  • [Journal-full-title] General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
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50. Thorin-Savouré A, Tissier-Rible F, Guignat L, Pellerin A, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Lefebvre H: Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4924-9
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  • [Title] Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis.
  • CONTEXT: In patients with a history of extraadrenal tumor, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Detection of the malignant tissue is a difficult challenge when metastasis occurs in an adrenal adenoma, forming a collision/composite tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We report two patients with adrenal collision/composite tumors referred to two French university hospitals.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: Two patients with histories of mammary and sigmoid carcinomas, respectively, presented with adrenal mass discovered 8 and 3 yr after surgical removal of the primary tumor.
  • In the two cases, computerized tomographic scan showed that the adrenal tumor contained two components with low and high attenuation values, respectively.
  • Uptake of iodocholesterol by the adrenal tumor in case 1 and elevated plasma ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone values in case 2 strongly argued for the diagnosis of primary adrenocortical tumors.
  • Enlargement of the adrenal mass during follow-up in case 1 and association of the adrenal lesion with a hepatic mass in case 2 led to adrenalectomy.
  • In both cases, histological examination of the tumor demonstrated the presence of metastatic carcinoma tissue in an adrenocortical adenoma, allowing classification of the neoplasia as a collision/composite tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations show that collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland formed by carcinoma metastasis in benign adenomas are a pitfall of iodocholesterol scintigraphy and/or plasma steroid assays to exclude the diagnosis of adrenal metastasis.
  • Conversely, computerized tomographic scan is a useful tool for the distinction between the benign and malignant tissues in adrenal collision/composite tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15914530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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51. Ridho FE, Adam FM, Adam JM: Adrenal incidentaloma. Acta Med Indones; 2009 Apr;41(2):87-93
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma is an adrenal tumor, which is unidentified before the imaging procedures conducted for an abnormality which is initially unforeseen as an adrenal disease.
  • Symptoms and/or clinical signs of adrenal tumor do not have to be present prior to a diagnosis.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma can be divided into non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, hypersecreting tumor, primary adrenal carcinoma, other adrenal mass, and metastases.
  • The majority of adrenal tumor is non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, but it is always considered as hypersecreting tumor until proven otherwise.
  • Some conditions that can be found due to hormonal activity of adrenal incidentaloma is subclinical Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, aldosteronoma (Conn's disease), and several tumors which secrete androgen and sex hormone.
  • Diagnostic approach of adrenal incidentaloma is focused on two main problems, which are, whether the lesion is hormonally active even though lacking characteristic clinical signs, and whether the lesion is benign or malignant; thus it needs hormonal and radiologic evaluation, even a fine needle biopsy.
  • The management for adrenal incidentaloma includes surgical removal for hormonally active adrenal tumors, or inactive tumors with size less than 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Aldosterone / blood. Catecholamines / urine. Incidental Findings. Renin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Indonesia / epidemiology. Morbidity / trends

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  • (PMID = 19390128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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52. Feng C, Li HZ, Yan WG, Luo YF, Cao JL: [The expression and significance of chromogranin A and synaptophysin in adrenal gland tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Aug;27(8):486-8
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  • [Title] [The expression and significance of chromogranin A and synaptophysin in adrenal gland tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin (Syn) for differential diagnosis of different kinds of adrenal gland tumors.
  • METHODS: The samples of 69 adrenal gland tumors and 4 normal adrenal glands were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of chromogranin A and synaptophysin.
  • RESULTS: In the normal adrenal gland, CgA and Syn was exclusively detected in the medulla.
  • CgA was detected in all pheochromocytomas 25/25 (100%), and gave less or no expression in adrenocortical tumors.
  • Syn was detected in adrenocortical adenomas 27/28 (96.4%), adrenocortical carcinoma 7/8 (87.5%), pheochromocytoma 24/25 (96.0%) and adrenal metastatic carcinoma 6/8 (75.0%), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: There is statistically significant difference of CgA expression between adrenalcortical and adrenal medullary tumors, and also between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • CgA and Syn are immunohistochemically reliable markers in the differential diagnosis of various kinds of adrenal gland tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Chromogranin A / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Synaptophysin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16188147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin
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53. Dinleyici EC, Dogruel N, Acikalin MF, Tokar B, Oztelcan B, Ilhan H: An additional child case of an aldosterone-producing adenoma with an atypical presentation of peripheral paralysis due to hypokalemia. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Nov;30(10):870-2
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  • [Title] An additional child case of an aldosterone-producing adenoma with an atypical presentation of peripheral paralysis due to hypokalemia.
  • Aldosterone-producing adenoma, which is characterized by hypertension, hypokalemia, and elevated aldosterone levels with suppressed plasma renin activity, is a rare condition during childhood and is also potentially curable.
  • To the best of our knowledge, nearly 25 cases of childhood aldosterone-secreting adenoma have been reported in the literature to date.
  • Here we describe a 13-yr-old girl with primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to aldosterone-secreting adenoma.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed left adrenal mass.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and histopathological examinations showed benign adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Paralysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18075291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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54. Mete O, Asa SL: Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):182-5
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  • [Title] Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions.
  • We report an interesting morphological alteration in the adrenal of a 72-year-old woman suffering from severe hypertension due to primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • The laparoscopic left adrenalectomy specimen revealed an adrenal cortical adenoma composed of varying proportions of oncocytic and clear cells, predominantly showing central oncocytic change.
  • Oncocytes also exhibited numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globular inclusions, which are not commonly observed in aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Aldosterone / secretion. Inclusion Bodies / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19462261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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55. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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56. Sakamoto N, Tojo K, Saito T, Fujimoto K, Isaka T, Tajima N, Ikeda K, Yamada H, Furuta N, Sasano H: Coexistence of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma and pheochromocytoma in an ipsilateral adrenal gland. Endocr J; 2009;56(2):213-9
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  • [Title] Coexistence of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma and pheochromocytoma in an ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • A 40-year-old female, diagnosed as essential hypertension, demonstrated a 2 cm mass in left adrenal gland by computed tomography without abnormal endocrinological findings. (131)I-adosterol and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy at 39 years of age showed no abnormal accumulation.
  • Follow up (131)I-adosterol scintigraphy performed one year later showed apparently abnormal uptake and slightly elevated uptake in left adrenal gland.
  • Furthermore, selective adrenal venous sampling with intravenous ACTH infusion indicated aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma (APA) in left adrenal gland.
  • During operation of adrenal tumor, blood pressure elevated markedly and complication of pheochromocytoma (PC) was suspected.
  • Immunohistochemical findings after left adrenolectomy revealed that the adrenal mass was compatible with APA and PC.
  • Herein, we present an extremely rare case of the simultaneous occurrence of both APA and PC in an ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Female. Humans. Hypokalemia / complications. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19023159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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57. Li Q, Zhang XQ, Nie L, Chen GS, Li H, Zhang F, Zhang LY, Hong L, Wang SF, Wang H: Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours. Br J Cancer; 2007 Aug 6;97(3):420-5
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  • [Title] Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours.
  • Our previous studies have shown that IFN-gamma-like immunoreactivity also appears in human adrenal cortical tumour and phaeochromocytoma.
  • To investigate whether human tumour cells can produce IFN-gamma, we examined 429 biopsy specimens of 30 kinds of tumour and tumour-surrounding tissues in adrenal glands and in kidneys by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation.
  • IFN-gamma immunoactivity was shown in 34.3% of the adrenal cortical adenomas, 50% of the adrenal cortical carcinomas, 26.7% of the phaeochromocytomas, 26.7% of the clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 22% of the adrenal cortexes and 40% of medullas adjacent to tumours.
  • Western blot analysis has further confirmed the immunohistochemistry results by showing a distinct IFN-gamma band corresponding to 17.4 kDa in tissue extracts from adrenal cortical adenoma, phaeochromocytoma and clear cell RCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17622250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360327
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58. Mishra AK, Agarwal A, George RK, Gupta S, Mishra SK: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome: report of the initial six cases. Int Surg; 2009 Jan-Feb;94(1):31-4
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome: report of the initial six cases.
  • We report our experience with the initial six cases of transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome).
  • From 1997 to 2002, 6 patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome) were referred to the Department of Endocrine Surgery and underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy through the transperitoneal approach.
  • In all patients, the adrenal gland and the adenoma were successfully removed laparoscopically, and all patients were normokalemic and normotensive in the first follow-up after 6 months.

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  • (PMID = 20099423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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59. Friedrich-Rust M, Schneider G, Bohle RM, Herrmann E, Sarrazin C, Zeuzem S, Bojunga J: Contrast-enhanced sonography of adrenal masses: differentiation of adenomas and nonadenomatous lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Dec;191(6):1852-60
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  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced sonography of adrenal masses: differentiation of adenomas and nonadenomatous lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate contrast-enhanced sonography in the characterization of adrenal masses.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five consecutively registered patients with newly detected adrenal masses underwent hormonal evaluation and duplex and Doppler sonography followed by contrast-enhanced sonography and CT or MRI.
  • CT and MRI were used as the reference methods for the diagnosis of adenoma and myelolipoma.
  • Metastasis was diagnosed with fine-needle biopsy, and all other adrenal masses were diagnosed at adrenalectomy.
  • Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate the criteria for diagnosis of malignant adrenal masses.
  • RESULTS: Size greater than 4 cm and hypervascularization were found significantly more often in malignant than in benign lesions (71% vs 21% for size; 57% vs 7% for hypervascularization).
  • At contrast-enhanced sonography, early arterial or arterial contrast enhancement and rapid washout were seen in all patients with primary or secondary malignant lesions of the adrenal gland and in only 22% of patients with benign adrenal masses (p < 0.05).
  • In 32 of 35 patients (91%), findings at CT or MRI were congruent with those at contrast-enhanced sonography in regard to characterization of adenoma versus nonadenomatous lesion (p < 0.001).
  • In two of the 35 cases, however, all imaging methods favored the diagnosis of nonadenomatous lesion, but the histologic result after adrenalectomy was adrenal adenoma.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced sonography in the diagnosis of malignant adrenal mass were 100% and 82%.
  • CONCLUSION: Contrast-enhanced sonography can be used to differentiate adenomas and nonadenomatous lesions with a sensitivity comparable with that of CT and MRI and may be a cost-effective method for preselection of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement / methods. Phospholipids. Sulfur Hexafluoride
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19020259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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60. Nakamura A, Shimizu C, Nagai S, Taniguchi S, Umetsu M, Atsumi T, Wada N, Yoshioka N, Ono Y, Sasano H, Koike T: Unilateral adrenalectomy improves insulin resistance and polycystic ovaries in a middle-aged woman with virilizing adrenocortical adenoma complicated with Cushing's syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jan;30(1):65-9
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  • [Title] Unilateral adrenalectomy improves insulin resistance and polycystic ovaries in a middle-aged woman with virilizing adrenocortical adenoma complicated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • A benign virilizing adrenal adenoma is rare among adrenal neoplasms in middle-aged women.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a left adrenal tumor, and an adrenocortical scintigraphy revealed uptake of the tracer on the left side.
  • Histopathological features of resected adrenal tumor were consistent with those of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Cortical atrophy and reduced expression of DHEA-ST were detected in the cortex of the adjacent non-neoplastic adrenal gland.
  • This is a very rare case of virilizing adrenocortical adenoma complicated with Cushing's syndrome (CS).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Insulin Resistance. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / therapy. Virilism / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Endocrinol Invest. 2008 Apr;31(4):380-1 [18475059.001]
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  • (PMID = 17318025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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61. Desmarchelier M, Lair S, Dunn M, Langlois I: Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2008 Oct 15;233(8):1297-301
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  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • CLINICAL FINDINGS: On initial examination, nonregenerative anemia, mild azotemia, and a large left adrenal gland mass were identified.
  • Plasma aldosterone concentration was >3329 pmol/L, confirming a provisional diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism.
  • Histologic examination revealed a large left adrenal gland adenoma, progressive chronic nephropathy, severe pulmonary edema, and focal fibrosis in the left ventricle.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of the adrenal gland mass revealed aldosterone within neoplastic adrenocortical cells.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that primary hyperaldosteronism should be considered as a possible cause in ferrets with hypokalemia, hypertension, and an adrenal gland mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenocortical Adenoma / veterinary. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Fatal Outcome. Female. Ferrets. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / blood. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Hypertension / veterinary. Hypokalemia / blood. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / etiology. Hypokalemia / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19180717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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62. Iihara M, Obara T: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Aug;106(8):479-83
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors].
  • Adrenal surgery is necessary for the management of functioning adrenal tumors, such as aldosterone-producing adenoma, cortisol-producing adenoma, and pheochromocytoma.
  • The role of adrenal imaging in primary hyperaldosteronism is to separate the surgically resectable unilateral aldosteronoma from bilateral hyperplasia.
  • Once the clinical diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism is confirmed, adrenal computed tomography (CT) with 3-mm sections should be the first imaging study.
  • If the results of CT and NP-59 scintigraphy are equivocal, adrenal venous sampling is necessary.
  • Cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas are seen as adrenal masses 2.5 cm or larger in diameter in CT scanning.
  • When an adrenal mass measures more than 5 cm in diameter, a functioning adrenal carcinoma should be considered.
  • In the past decade, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has replaced open adrenalectomy as a standard operative procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal-sparing laparoscopic surgery has recently become a feasible option in patients with hereditary bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16119111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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63. Shigematsu K, Nakagaki T, Yamaguchi N, Kawai K, Sakai H, Takahara O: Analysis of mRNA expression for steroidogenic enzymes in the remaining adrenal cortices attached to adrenocortical adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Jun;158(6):867-78

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of mRNA expression for steroidogenic enzymes in the remaining adrenal cortices attached to adrenocortical adenomas.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We have recently demonstrated that the adrenal cortices attached to aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) contained microscopic subcapsular micronodules suggestive of active aldosterone production.
  • In this study, we used in situ hybridization to investigate the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the adrenal cortices attached to cortisol-producing adenoma (CPA) and clinically silent adenoma (non-functioning adenoma; NFA), in addition to APA.
  • Most of the cortical nodules in zona fasciculata to zona reticularis showed a suppressed steroidogenesis in the cortices attached to adenoma, but some expressed intensely all necessary steroidogenic enzyme mRNAs for cortisol synthesis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is thus necessary to keep in mind, on the occasion of subtotal adrenalectomy, that lesions with the potential to later develop into functional adrenocortical nodules may be present in other parts of the ipsilateral or contralateral adrenal cortices.

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  • (PMID = 18505908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SPATA7 protein, human; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme; EC 1.14.99.9 / CYP17A1 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases; EC 2.8.2.2 / alcohol sulfotransferase
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64. Saito T, Ikoma A, Saito T, Tamemoto H, Suminaga Y, Yamada S, Kawakami M, Suzuki T, Sasano H, Ishikawa SE: Possibly simultaneous primary aldosteronism and preclinical Cushing's syndrome in a patient with double adenomas of right adrenal gland. Endocr J; 2007 Apr;54(2):287-93
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  • [Title] Possibly simultaneous primary aldosteronism and preclinical Cushing's syndrome in a patient with double adenomas of right adrenal gland.
  • We reported a rare case of simultaneous primary aldosteronism and preclinical Cushing's syndrome due to unilateral double adrenocortical adenomas in a 57 year-old woman who had had hypertension for the last 10 years.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed double tumors in her right adrenal gland.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for steroidogenic enzymes demonstrated the presence of all the enzymes involved in corticosteroidogenesis in these two adenomas, indicating that the two adenomas produced both cortisol and mineralocorticoid.
  • Specifically, one adenoma mainly caused excessive production of cortisol as compared to the other one.
  • These findings indicate that overproduction of both cortisol and mineralocorticoid was evident in the two adenomas of the right adrenal gland in immunohistochemical study for steroidogenic enzymes, whereas there was less clinical manifestation of primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome in the present patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology


65. Hachem S, Khauli RB, Salti I: Surgical adrenal diseases. J Med Liban; 2005 Apr-Jun;53(2):114-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical adrenal diseases.
  • There are four adrenal disorders in which surgery is the treatment of choice: pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome due to ACTH-independent adrenal disease (adenoma, carcinoma or autonomous hyperplasia), primary aldosteronism due to an adrenal adenoma and some adrenal non-functional "incidentilomas".
  • Definitive diagnosis by accurate biochemical assessment of the functional status of the adrenal lesion.
  • A small proportion of adrenal lesions requiring surgery are bilateral and in such situations, special intra- and postoperative care should take into consideration the need for appropriate gluco-corticoid and mineralo-corticoid replacement.
  • The advent of laparoscopic surgery has served to reduce the postoperative morbidity of adrenal surgery and is becoming increasingly the procedure of choice except for large lesions (> 8 cm in diameter).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16604998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-9852
  • [Journal-full-title] Le Journal médical libanais. The Lebanese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Liban
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Lebanon
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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66. Boyle B, Butz H, Liko I, Zalatnai A, Toth M, Feldman K, Horanyi J, Igaz P, Racz K, Patocs A: Expression of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in human adrenocortical adenomas. Steroids; 2010 Oct;75(10):695-700

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in human adrenocortical adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in the normal human adrenal gland, however, no study has been performed to evaluate the separate expression of alpha- and beta-isoforms (GRalpha and GRbeta) in normal human adrenals and in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL: GRalpha and GRbeta mRNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR in 31 adrenal tissues including 19 non-functioning adenomas (NFA), 6 cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) and 6 normal adrenocortical tissues.
  • In addition, the presence and cellular localization of GRalpha and GRbeta proteins in adrenal tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Compared to normal adrenocortical tissues, both GRalpha and GRbeta mRNAs were significantly increased in CPA but not in NFA.
  • Using anti-GRalpha antibody a strong nuclear staining was observed in NFA and CPA, and a less remarkable immunoreactivity was detected in some nuclei of normal adrenocortical cells.
  • GRbeta immunostaining was absent in normal adrenal tissues and NFA, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear immunoreaction was found in CPA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Altered expression of GRalpha and GRbeta in CPA raises their possible role in the pathophysiology of these adrenal tumors, although further studies are needed to elucidate the potential significance of these findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20438742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5867
  • [Journal-full-title] Steroids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Steroids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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67. Nigawara T, Sakihara S, Kageyama K, Terui K, Takayasu S, Hatakeyama S, Ohyama C, Sasano H, Suda T: Endothelial cyst of the adrenal gland associated with adrenocortical adenoma: preoperative images simulate carcinoma. Intern Med; 2009;48(4):235-40
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  • [Title] Endothelial cyst of the adrenal gland associated with adrenocortical adenoma: preoperative images simulate carcinoma.
  • A 68-year-old woman was referred for characterization of a left adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Endocrinological examinations indicated subclinical Cushing's syndrome, whereas the large volume (10 cm in diameter) and heterogeneous configuration of the tumor raised a strong suspicion of adrenal carcinoma.
  • Histopathologically, this lesion was a thick hyaline-walled endothelial cyst, flanked with a compressed adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The puzzling image resemblance of a variation of adrenal cyst to carcinoma necessitated histological examination for confirmative diagnosis.
  • This is the first reported case of adrenal endothelial cyst associated with adrenocortical adenoma, the former of which alone is a rarity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19218775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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68. Qin ZK, Zhou FJ, Dai YP, Chen W, Hou JH, Han H, Liu ZW, Yu SL, Zhang DZ, Yang JA: [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Oct;26(10):1143-7
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  • [Title] [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Since the histomorphology of adrenal tumor is very special, it is difficult to assess the malignancy of the tumors.
  • This study was to explore the expression and clinical significance of Survivin and PTEN proteins in adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: The expression of Survivin and PTEN in 116 specimens of adrenal tumors, including 39 cases of cortex adenoma, 22 cases of cortex adenocarcinoma, 35 cases of pheochromocytoma, and 20 cases of malignant pheochromocytoma, were detected by LSAB immunohistochemistry.
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was correlated to that of PTEN in adrenal tumors (r=-0.486, P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors were not related to patient's age, sex, tumor position, and so on (P>0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was significantly lower in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly lower in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was related to the differentiation of adrenal tumor.
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was significantly higher in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly higher in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression of Survivin protein and PTEN protein was correlated to the prognosis of adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma and malignant pheochromocytoma: the higher the expression intensity of Survivin protein and the lower the expression intensity of PTEN protein, the worse the patient's prognosis (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of Survivin and PTEN proteins are closely related to the prognosis of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17927889.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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69. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Commonly, it is diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • However, some reports indicate synchronous occurrence with other lesions including adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • It has very rarely been reported to occur in association with adrenocortical adenoma.
  • In this paper, we report three cases of adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenocortical adenoma; in all three patients, the radiological appearance resembled adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Joubert M, Louiset E, Rego JL, Contesse V, Kong LC, Benhaim A, Mittre H, Lefebvre H, Reznik Y, REHOS Study Group: Aberrant adrenal sensitivity to vasopressin in adrenal tumours associated with subclinical or overt autonomous hypercortisolism: is this explained by an overexpression of vasopressin receptors? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 May;68(5):692-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aberrant adrenal sensitivity to vasopressin in adrenal tumours associated with subclinical or overt autonomous hypercortisolism: is this explained by an overexpression of vasopressin receptors?
  • OBJECTIVE: Abnormal responsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP) was previously observed in cortisol-producing adrenocortical tumours but the mechanism remains unclear.
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of AVP on cortisol secretion from adrenocortical tumours compared to normal human adrenal gland.
  • DESIGN: A multicentre study based on pharmacological, molecular and immunohistochemical experiments performed in adenomatous and normal adrenal tissues.
  • PATIENTS: Twenty patients with adrenocortical adenomas and subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCCS) or Cushing's syndrome (CS) were compared to six control normal subjects.
  • MEASUREMENTS: In vivo and in vitro cortisol response to vasopressin, vasopressin receptor subtype mRNA measurement by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical localization of AVP and its V1a receptor in tumour and normal adrenal tissues.
  • AVP receptor subtype mRNA levels were similar in SCCS, CS cells and normal adrenal cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SCCS and CS adrenocortical tumours often exhibit in vivo and in vitro hyper-responsiveness to AVP, which is not related to vasopressin receptor overexpression, but may be explained by more efficient coupling pathways or by the indirect action of AVP through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Receptors, Vasopressin / biosynthesis. Vasoconstrictor Agents / pharmacology


71. Park BK, Kim CK, Jung BC, Suh YL: Cortical adenoma in adrenohepatic fusion tissue: clue to making a correct diagnosis at preoperative computed tomography examination. Eur Urol; 2009 Dec;56(6):1082-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cortical adenoma in adrenohepatic fusion tissue: clue to making a correct diagnosis at preoperative computed tomography examination.
  • Preoperative differential diagnoses included primary or secondary malignant hepatic tumors or adrenal cortical carcinoma due to aggressive imaging features.
  • The tumor proved to be an adrenal cortical adenoma arising from the adrenohepatic fusion tissue and consisted of adenoma cells with lipid-rich cytoplasm.
  • Retrospective review of preoperative computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated that the tumor measured 6 Hounsfield units in mean CT number and was continuous with a medial limb of the right adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19447543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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72. Schwab CW 2nd, Vingan H, Fabrizio MD: Usefulness of adrenal vein sampling in the evaluation of aldosteronism. J Endourol; 2008 Jun;22(6):1247-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Usefulness of adrenal vein sampling in the evaluation of aldosteronism.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the usefulness of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) in patients referred for surgical management of primary aldosteronism (PA).
  • Ten patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for resection of an aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • RESULTS: All patients had an adrenal adenoma seen on CT, mean size 14.8 mm (range 6-27 mm).
  • When compared with CT findings, eight (73%) patients demonstrated aldosterone hypersecretion from the adrenal with the adenoma.
  • Two (18%) patients demonstrated hypersecretion from the contralateral, normal-appearing gland.
  • One (9%) patient demonstrated bilateral aldosterone hypersecretion, consistent with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia.
  • After surgical removal of the gland that demonstrated hypersecretion on AVS, all patients experienced resolution of hypokalemia, five (50%) patients had resolution of hypertension, and five (50%) patients had significant reductions in the number of hypertensive medications.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AVS is a superior test when compared with CT imaging in subtype identification of PA and for determination of occult hypersecretion from the adrenal.

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  • (PMID = 18484874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Pawlikowski M, Winczyk K, Sledź B: Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(1):51-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors.
  • Angiotensin II is well known to affect the adrenal cell growth and function.
  • Angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 were found to be present in the normal adrenal gland.
  • However, the data on the expression of the angiotensin receptors in the adrenal tumors are very scarce.
  • To overcome this gap, the paraffin sections of the adrenal cortical tumors and of pheochromocytomas from the archival material were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 (sc-1173) and AT2 (sc-9040) receptor proteins.
  • In hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and in benign adrenocortical adenomas, both functioning and non-functioning, the AT1 immunostaining was present mainly in the cell membranes.
  • A positive immunoreaction was also found in the subpopulation of cell nuclei and within the cytoplasm.
  • In the adrenal cancer, as well as in pheochromocytomas, neither cell membranes nor cell nuclei were immunostained with anti-AT1 antibody.
  • Our data indicates that the expression of AT1 receptors is altered in adrenal cancer and in pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18296263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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74. Kojima Y, Miyake O, Morimoto A, Kawamura C, Katayama S: [A case of aldosterone-producing adenoma associated with end-stage renal disease]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Jan;56(1):21-4
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  • [Title] [A case of aldosterone-producing adenoma associated with end-stage renal disease].
  • Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a right adrenal tumor.
  • Furthermore, adrenal scintigraphy after dexamethasone inhibition showed accumulation in the right adrenal gland.
  • Under a diagnosis of aldosterone-producing adrenal tumor, laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed.
  • Pathological findings showed adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • Primary aldosteronism causes hypertension, hypopotassiumemia, hyporeninemia, and hyperaldosteronemia via excessive secretion of aldosterone in the adrenal glands.
  • A previous study also indicated the presence of hyperaldosteronemia in patients with end-stage renal disease.
  • A diagnosis should be carefully made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications

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  • (PMID = 20104005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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75. Lumachi F, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Marino F, Fassina A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Iacobone M, Favia G: High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Tumori; 2007 May-Jun;93(3):269-74
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  • [Title] High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The incidental finding of nonfunctioning adrenal masses (incidentalomas) is common, but no reliable criteria in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal masses have been defined.
  • The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the usefulness of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas with the aim of excluding or confirming malignancy before surgery.
  • METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients (18 men and 24 women; median age, 54 years; range, 25-75 years) with incidentally discovered adrenal masses of 3 cm or more in the greatest diameter were prospectively enrolled in the study.
  • RESULTS: The revised final pathology showed 30 (71.4%) benign (26 adrenocortical adenomas, of which 3 were atypical, 2 ganglioneuromas, and 2 nonfunctioning benign pheochromocytomas) and 12 (28.6%, 95% CI = 15-42) adrenal malignancies (8 adrenocortical carcinomas and 4 unsuspected adrenal metastases).
  • The definitive diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma was made according to Weiss criteria and confirmed on the basis of local invasion at surgery or metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the aim of selecting for surgery patients with a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma of 3 cm or more in diameter, the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and fine-needle aspiration cytology should be considered the strategy of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Epinephrine / urine. Female. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / metabolism. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Iodine Radioisotopes. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Norepinephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiography, Abdominal. Renin / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17679462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 68232-36-0 / 6-iodomethylcholesterol; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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76. Iwase K, Nagasaka A, Kato K, Itoh A, Jimbo S, Hibi Y, Kobayashi N, Yamamoto H, Seko T, Miura K: Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors. J Surg Res; 2006 Sep;135(1):150-5
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors.
  • The tissue distribution of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases (SOD) in adrenal tumors was studied by an immunohistochemical technique, and the concentrations of both SODs were measured by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.
  • In the normal adrenal gland, both Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs were localized predominantly in the reticular zone of the cortex.
  • Cu/Zn-SOD was stained clearly in the inner fascicular zone of the cortex, but not in the medulla, whereas Mn-SOD was stained weakly in the medulla.
  • In different adrenal tumors, the localization of both stained SODs reflected the origin of the tumor cell.
  • The concentrations of both SODs in the tissues of medullary tumors were lower than those in the normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • The concentration of Cu/Zn-SOD in the tumor tissue of Cushing's syndrome adenoma was higher, and that of Mn-SOD was lower than the concentrations in the normal adrenal gland.
  • The ratio of the tissue concentrations of Mn-SOD to Cu/Zn-SOD was lower in adrenal medullary tumors and Cushing's syndrome adenomas than in the normal adrenal gland and primary aldosteronism adenomas, indicating the predominance of Cu/Zn-SOD in the former, and Mn-SOD in the latter.
  • These data suggest that the localization of Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs in adrenal tissues reflects the specificity of the adrenal cells that produce the tissue-specific hormones.
  • An investigation of changes in these enzymes in adrenal tumors may also provide useful information on adrenal tumor cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Ganglioneuroma / metabolism. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunohistochemistry. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16780879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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77. Jeong BC, Park YH, Han DH, Kim HH: Laparoendoscopic single-site and conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a matched case-control study. J Endourol; 2009 Dec;23(12):1957-60

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  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe our initial clinical experience and assess the feasibility of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in the treatment of benign adrenal adenoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine patients undergoing LESS adrenalectomy for benign adrenal adenoma were compared with 17 patients undergoing conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LESS adrenalectomy for benign adrenal adenoma is comparable to the conventional laparoscopic approach with regard to the operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, and degree of complication, and has demonstrated more desirable cosmetic outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 19909074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Demir T, Akinci B, Kebapcilar L, Comlekci A, Bayraktar F, Yesil S: Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jan;33(1):32-6
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Because of the increased use of imaging interventions, more subjects have been diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma in recent years.
  • AIM: To evaluate the risk of mass enlargement, hormone hypersecretion and development of adrenal carcinomas during short-term followup.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: There were 317 subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors in the registry.
  • Forty subjects were excluded because of clinically overt hormone secretion at diagnosis and subjects with complete data were included in radiological (no.
  • There were 143 subjects with adrenal adenomas and 7 subjects with other tumor types (cyst or myelolipoma).
  • RESULTS: Increase in tumor size was detected in 25 subjects (17.4%) with adenomas and 1 subject with adrenal myelolipoma (14.3%).
  • Decrease in tumor size was found in 7 subjects (4.8%) with adrenal adenomas.
  • One patient was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma during follow-up.
  • In subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma (NFA, no.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we demonstrated that, despite being infrequent, adrenal tumors may increase in size, develop overt or subclinical hormone secretion or feature malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Adult. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / diagnostic imaging. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / analysis. Dexamethasone. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / diagnostic imaging. Normetanephrine / urine. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19542759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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79. Comlekci A, Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Akinci B, Demir T, Kebapcilar L, Bayraktar F, Yesil S, Eraslan S: Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):40-6
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience.
  • To investigate clinical characteristics, metabolic parameters and follow-up findings of subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors.
  • CT was the most frequent radiological intervention that discovered adrenal masses (57%).
  • The vast majority of the participants (85.6%) had benign adrenal adenomas.
  • Primary adrenocortical malignancy was detected in 4 subjects (1.1%).
  • Subjects with adrenal adenomas had significantly smaller tumor diameters (P ≤ 0.001 vs. other tumors).
  • Sensitivity and specificity of 40 mm as a cut-off value in the differentiation of adrenal gland malignancies from benign tumors was 73.3 and 54.8%, respectively.
  • Most of the adrenal adenomas were non-functioning (73.5%).
  • During 24 months follow-up 10.2% of adenomas featured increase in tumor diameter and 2.06% developed sCS.
  • Most of the incidentally discovered adrenal tumors were non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • Clinically overt hormone hypersecretion syndromes were mainly shown in young subjects, while adrenal gland malignancies and sCS were more common in older ages.
  • Metabolic derangements were common; however, a possible independent association between adrenal adenoma and metabolic problems need to be elucidated with prospective studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Metabolic Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / therapy. Adenoma / urine. Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / urine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Aging. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / epidemiology. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Normetanephrine / urine. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19882253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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80. Inoue T, Ishiguro K, Suda T, Ito N, Suzuki Y, Taniguchi Y, Ohgi S: Laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy for adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(1):94-7
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy for adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome: report of a case.
  • Laparoscopic total adrenalectomy has become a standard technique for small adrenal tumors; however, bilateral adrenalectomy results in postoperative adrenal insufficiency, necessitating lifelong steroid replacement.
  • To preserve adrenocortical function in a 41-year-old woman with bilateral adrenocortical adenoma (BAA) causing Cushing's syndrome, we performed laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy.
  • We based our preoperative diagnosis of bilateral adrenocortical tumors causing Cushing's syndrome on the results of endocrinological investigations and imaging findings.
  • Thus, we performed lateral transperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy, preserving the adrenal glands, which were normal.
  • Pathological examination of both tumors confirmed the diagnosis of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The patient had no postoperative complications, and her adrenocortical function was normal without steroid replacement at her 10-month follow-up.
  • This report shows that Cushing's syndrome resulting from bilateral adenomas can be effectively treated by laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy as a minimally invasive, adrenocortical-preserving operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16378204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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81. Park BK, Kim B, Ko K, Jeong SY, Kwon GY: Adrenal masses falsely diagnosed as adenomas on unenhanced and delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography: pathological correlation. Eur Radiol; 2006 Mar;16(3):642-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal masses falsely diagnosed as adenomas on unenhanced and delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography: pathological correlation.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy of CT for the diagnosis of histologically confirmed adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma using CT numbers.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 91 adrenal masses in 83 patients; histopathological diagnoses were 45 adenomas, 31 pheochromocytomas, 6 hyperplasias, 4 metastasis, and 5 miscellaneous lesions.
  • RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for adenoma were 40% (18/45), 91% (42/46), and 66% (60/91) with unenhanced CT, and 96% (24/25), 61% (11/18), and 81% (35/43) with DCE CT.
  • Adrenal masses falsely diagnosed as adenoma on unenhanced CT included three hyperplasias and one endothelial cyst, and those falsely diagnosed as adenoma on DCE CT were five pheochromocytomas, one oncocytic cortical tumor, and one primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical dysplasia.
  • Twenty-five lipid-poor adenomas were falsely diagnosed as nonadenomas on unenhanced CT and one degenerated adenoma both on unenhanced CT and on DCE CT.
  • CONCLUSION: Diagnosing adenoma merely on CT numbers can lead to misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur Radiol. 2006 Mar;16(3):768
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  • (PMID = 16215735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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82. Contesse V, Reznik Y, Louiset E, Duparc C, Cartier D, Sicard F, Laquerriere A, Parmentier F, Kuhn JM, Vaudry H, Lefebvre H: Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2843-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies.
  • Two patients with incidentally discovered adrenocortical adenomas underwent a series of pharmacological and physiological tests after pretreatment with dexamethasone.
  • In the two cases, 5-HT stimulated cortisol secretion from tumor cells with increased efficacy and/or potency to activate steroidogenesis by comparison with normal adrenocortical cells.
  • In the two adenoma tissues, immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of 5-HT-like immunoreactivity within clusters of steroidogenic cells, suggesting that 5-HT acted through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism to stimulate steroidogenesis.
  • In conclusion, this study provides the first observation of adrenocortical cortisol-producing adenomas hypersensitive in vivo and in vitro to serotonergic agonists.
  • Our results also show that cortisol-producing adenomas can express simultaneously several illegitimate receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Serotonin / pharmacology

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  • [CommentIn] Horm Metab Res. 2005 Aug;37(8):528-9 [16138268.001]
  • (PMID = 15705918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 158165-40-3 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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83. Chevalier N, Carrier P, Piche M, Chevallier A, Wagner K, Tardy V, Benchimol D, Fénichel P: Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Feb;71(1):56-9
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Large adrenal tumors are rarely associated with adrenal enzymatic deficiency, except in 11-ss-hydroxylase insufficiency.
  • His evaluation at 36 years of age showed a four-centimeter mass in the left adrenal gland, with most characteristics suggestive of malignancy (CT and positron emission tomography [PET] scan).
  • We performed a surgical resection that established the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumor of uncertain prognosis (Weiss's score: 3).
  • Even though malignant tumors are unusual in adrenal deficiency, our observation shows the need for a replacement therapy during adulthood, with a regular CT scan follow up in order to diagnose early isolated adrenal adenoma and remove it in case of malignancy suspicion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19942208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; EC 1.14.99.10 / CYP21A2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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84. Aydin A, Okmen E, Erdinler I, Sanli A, Cam N: Adrenal adenoma presenting with ventricular fibrillation. Tex Heart Inst J; 2005;32(1):85-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal adenoma presenting with ventricular fibrillation.
  • Computed tomography then revealed a right adrenal mass.
  • The patient was treated with surgical resection of the adenoma.

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  • [Cites] Am J Cardiol. 1985 Aug 30;56(6):20D-23D [4036815.001]
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  • (PMID = 15902830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-2347
  • [Journal-full-title] Texas Heart Institute journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tex Heart Inst J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC555832
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85. Komatsu S, Watanabe R, Naito M, Mizusawa T, Obara K, Nishiyama T, Takahashi K: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland. Int J Urol; 2006 May;13(5):606-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • We report a rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from adrenal gland in adulthood, diagnosed preoperatively as having non-functional adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunohistological examination revealed the definite diagnosis as primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16771733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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86. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Attenuation values of <10 Hounsfield units on an unenhanced CT are practically diagnostic for adenomas.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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87. López Martín L, García Cardoso JV, Gómez Muñoz J, González Enguita C: Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 Dec;63(10):880-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the case of adrenal gland myelolipoma.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: The patient was a 29 year old who is diagnosed with an adrenal adenoma during an endocrinology review.
  • The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 21187573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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88. Fallo F, Pezzi V, Sonino N, Altavilla G, Barzon L: Adrenal incidentaloma in pregnancy: clinical, molecular and immunohistochemical findings. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 May;28(5):459-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma in pregnancy: clinical, molecular and immunohistochemical findings.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas detected during pregnancy are very rare, and the natural history of these tumors during gestation is unknown.
  • We report a case of a pregnant woman with an adrenal mass discovered serendipitously, who was followed-up during gestation and underwent adrenalectomy shortly after delivery.
  • Estrogens may indeed influence the function and proliferation of human adrenal cells, and a state of circulating estrogen excess can represent an in vivo model to test their effect on the adrenals.
  • No evidence of adrenal change in morphology and function was found in our patient throughout pregnancy, as shown by adrenal ultrasound imaging and adrenal hormone measurements.
  • Four months after delivery, the patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, and pathologic analysis revealed a 2.7 cm benign adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The diameter of the adrenal mass at ultrasonography correlated highly with post-partum mass diameter measured by abdominal computed tomography (CT).
  • Quantitative expression of both ERalpha and ERbeta by real-time RT-PCR analysis and Western blotting findings did not differ among adenoma, normal adjacent adrenal and normal adrenal control tissues.
  • This case of an adrenal incidentaloma discovered during pregnancy shows that a close observation with endocrine investigations and ultrasonography could be an appropriate approach, delaying the decision of surgical intervention after delivery.
  • Estrogen receptor mRNA levels in the adrenal mass similar to those observed in normal adrenals suggest that estrogen oversecretion during pregnancy was not a risk factor for tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / immunology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / immunology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16075931.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta
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89. Calsyn JD, Green RA, Davis GJ, Reilly CM: Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral adrenocortical adenoma in a cat. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc; 2010 Jan-Feb;46(1):36-42
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  • [Title] Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral adrenocortical adenoma in a cat.
  • An ultrasound revealed bilateral adrenal gland enlargement.
  • Histopathology was consistent with a cortical adenoma in the right adrenal gland and a pheochromocytoma in the left adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenocortical Adenoma / veterinary. Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20045835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Anim Hosp Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Giallauria F, De Lorenzo A, Manakos A, Pilerci F, Psaroudaki M, De Cristofaro A, Lucci R, Del Forno D, Vigorito C: [Inflammatory syndrome after thoracic aortic endoprosthesis implantation associated with cortico-suprarenal adenoma]. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis; 2005 Mar;64(1):59-62
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  • [Title] [Inflammatory syndrome after thoracic aortic endoprosthesis implantation associated with cortico-suprarenal adenoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Sindrome infiammatoria post-impianto di endoprotesi aortica toracica associata ad adenoma surrenalico.
  • We report a case of a 68-year-old patient, admitted with diagnosis of aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta to the Department of Cardiac Surgery, where he underwent percutaneous endovascular application of 4 endoprostheses in the descending thoracic aorta.
  • Further investigations showed left cortical-suprarenal adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 16128168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1122-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Monaldi archives for chest disease = Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Monaldi Arch Chest Dis
  • [Language] ITA
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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91. Fukuda T, Takahashi K, Suzuki T, Saruta M, Watanabe M, Nakata T, Sasano H: Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4671-8
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  • [Title] Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders.
  • Recently, direct involvement of the locally synthesized CRF family in adrenocortical function has been proposed.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We examined in situ expression of Ucn and CRF receptors in nonpathological human adrenal gland and its disorders using immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization.
  • RESULTS: Ucn immunoreactivity was localized in the cortex and medulla of nonpathological adrenal glands.
  • Ucn1 immunoreactivity was marked in the medulla, whereas Ucn3 was immunostained mostly in the cortex.
  • Both CRF type 1 and CRF2 were expressed in the cortex, particularly in the zonae fasciculata and reticularis but very weakly or undetectably in the medulla.
  • Immunohistochemistry in serial tissue sections with mirror images revealed that both Ucn3 and CRF2 were colocalized in more than 85% of the adrenocortical cells. mRNA in situ hybridization confirmed these findings above.
  • In fetal adrenals, Ucn and CRF receptors were expressed in both fetal and definitive zones of the cortex.
  • Ucn and CRF receptors were all expressed in the tumor cells of pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical adenomas, and carcinomas, but its positivity was less than that in nonpathological adrenal glands, suggesting that Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors were down-regulated in these adrenal neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors are all expressed in human adrenal cortex and medulla and may play important roles in physiological adrenal functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Urocortins

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  • (PMID = 15914529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / UCN3 protein, human; 0 / Urocortins; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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92. Gupta RT, Ho LM, Marin D, Boll DT, Barnhart HX, Nelson RC: Dual-energy CT for characterization of adrenal nodules: initial experience. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jun;194(6):1479-83
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  • [Title] Dual-energy CT for characterization of adrenal nodules: initial experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether use of dual-energy technique can improve the diagnostic performance of CT in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and metastatic lesions.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one adrenal nodules were prospectively identified in 17 patients who underwent dual-energy CT at 140 and 80 kVp.
  • The mean attenuation change (increase or decrease) between 140 kVp and 80 kVp was determined for each adrenal nodule.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-six adrenal nodules were benign adenomas (attenuation less than +10 HU or stability for at least 1 year).
  • Five adrenal nodules were classified as metastatic (rapid growth in 1 year and history of extraadrenal malignancy).
  • The mean attenuation change between 140 kVp and 80 kVp was 0.4 +/- 7.1 HU for adenomas and 9.2 +/- 4.3 HU for metastatic lesions (p < 0.003).
  • Fifty percent of adenomas had an attenuation decrease at 80 kVp.
  • With a decrease in attenuation at 80 kVp as an indicator of intracellular lipid within an adenoma, dual-energy CT has 50% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 28% negative predictive value in the diagnosis of adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: A decrease in attenuation of an adrenal lesion between 140 kVp and 80 kVp is a highly specific sign of adrenal adenoma.
  • However, because an increase in attenuation at 80 kVp is seen with metastatic lesions and some adenomas, the sensitivity of this test is low.
  • These data suggest that dual-energy CT can be used to help differentiate some lipid-poor adrenal adenomas from metastatic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20489086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Hori T, Taniguchi K, Kurata M, Nakamura K, Kato K, Ogura Y, Iwasaki M, Okamoto S, Yamakado K, Yagi S, Iida T, Kato T, Saito K, Wang L, Kawarada Y, Uemoto S: Carcinoembryonic antigen-producing adrenal adenoma resected using combined lateral and anterior transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Dec 7;13(45):6094-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoembryonic antigen-producing adrenal adenoma resected using combined lateral and anterior transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery.
  • Computed tomography detected a left adrenal mass measuring 3.5 cm multiply 3.0 cm in diameter.
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the adrenal tumor only, with a maximum standardized uptake value of 2.8.
  • A diagnosis of CEA-producing benign adenoma was made.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a benign adenoma.
  • We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of CEA-producing adrenal adenoma, along with a review of the relevant literature, and discuss our laparoscopic surgery techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18023107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4250898
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94. Kley S, Alt M, Zimmer C, Hoerauf A, Reusch CE: Evaluation of the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test and ultrasonographic measurements of the adrenal glands in cats with diabetes mellitus. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd; 2007 Nov;149(11):493-500
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test and ultrasonographic measurements of the adrenal glands in cats with diabetes mellitus.
  • The objectives of the study were to evaluate the low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) test and the size of the adrenal glands via ultrasonography in cats with diabetes mellitus.
  • The adrenal glands of the diabetic cats were not enlarged compared with those of healthy cats.
  • One cat had a pituitary adenoma and adrenal glands of normal size as determined by ultrasonography.
  • The size of the adrenal glands of the other cat clearly differed; histological examination of the larger adrenal gland revealed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • In addition, diabetes mellitus does not lead to a measurable increase in the size of the adrenal glands in cats.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / veterinary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Adrenal Glands / ultrasonography. Cat Diseases / pathology. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Function Tests / veterinary. Animals. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cats. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Diabetes Complications / veterinary. Female. Male

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  • (PMID = 18085163.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-7281
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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95. Yener S, Genc S, Akinci B, Secil M, Demir T, Comlekci A, Ertilav S, Yesil S: Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma. Endocrine; 2009 Jun;35(3):365-70
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  • [Title] Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Data regarding cardiovascular risk in subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma are limited.
  • The objectives of this study are to investigate carotid intima media thickness (IMT) as an indicator of atherosclerosis in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma (AI) and to evaluate the factors that could be associated with IMT.
  • Forty-nine subjects without findings of hypercortisolism or other adrenal gland disorders, 34 body mass index (BMI)-unmatched controls (C) and 18 BMI-matched controls (BC) were enrolled.
  • The correlation between morning cortisol and IMT may be associated with the effect of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis disturbances on vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carotid Arteries / pathology. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Tunica Intima / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Atherosclerosis / complications. Atherosclerosis / diagnosis. Atherosclerosis / metabolism. Atherosclerosis / pathology. Body Mass Index. Case-Control Studies. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19277910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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96. Johnson SP, Bagrosky BM, Mitchell EL, McIntyre RC Jr, Grant NG: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of an aldosterone-secreting primary adrenal tumor in a surgically unfit patient. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2008 Jul;19(7):1115-7
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  • [Title] CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of an aldosterone-secreting primary adrenal tumor in a surgically unfit patient.
  • Because of the speed and efficiency of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, alternative surgical procedures for adrenal adenomas are uncommon.
  • The present report outlines the case of a young patient with an adrenal adenoma causing Conn syndrome who was a poor candidate for surgical treatment.
  • Computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation of the adenoma was performed with a paraspinal approach and injection of dextrose 5% in water.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Catheter Ablation. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Radiography, Interventional. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18589330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-0443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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97. Meyer A, Behrend M: Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors. Urol Int; 2006;77(2):173-8
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  • [Title] Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: The accidental discovery of an adrenal mass called incidentaloma has become an increasingly frequent clinical problem with the question of a correct and appropriate therapeutic approach being the subject of controversial discussions.
  • Histopathologic examination ruled out adrenal adenoma in 32 patients, adrenal myelolipoma in 12, unilateral nodular hyperplasia in 4, cystic lesion in 3, and adrenocortical carcinoma in 1 patient.
  • Evaluating the criteria for surgical treatment regarding age of the patients and size of the lesions, 25 patients (48%), including the patient with the adrenocortical carcinoma, were younger than 60 years and had an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size.
  • Especially in patients younger than 60 years with an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size, an adrenalectomy, predominantly via an endoscopic approach, should be carried out, because a repeated and life-long close follow-up of an anxious patient who has been informed of the diagnosis will in some cases exceed the cost of a single endoscopic operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy

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  • (PMID = 16888426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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98. Liu SY, Ng EK, Lee PS, Wong SK, Chiu PW, Mui WL, So WY, Chow FC: Radiofrequency ablation for benign aldosterone-producing adenoma: a scarless technique to an old disease. Ann Surg; 2010 Dec;252(6):1058-64
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  • [Title] Radiofrequency ablation for benign aldosterone-producing adenoma: a scarless technique to an old disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in treating primary aldosteronism (PA) due to aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).
  • Its application on benign functional adrenal adenoma has never been prospectively described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21107117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Spinazzi R, Rucinski M, Neri G, Malendowicz LK, Nussdorfer GG: Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;90(6):3544-9
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  • [Title] Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells.
  • We previously found that orexin-A, via the OX1-R, stimulates cortisol secretion from dispersed human adrenocortical cells.
  • In this study, we demonstrate that six of eight cortisol-secreting adenomas expressed preproorexin mRNA, and seven of 10 adenomas contained measurable amounts of orexin-A but not orexin-B.
  • Normal adrenal cortexes neither expressed preproorexin nor contained orexins.
  • All adenomas expressed OX1-R and OX2-R mRNAs, and real-time PCR showed that the expression of both receptors was up-regulated in adenomas, compared with normal adrenal cortex.
  • Orexin-A concentration-dependently raised basal cortisol secretion from freshly dispersed normal and adenomatous cells, minimal and maximal effective concentrations being 10(-10) and 10(-8) m, and the peptide efficacy (percent increase elicited by 10(-8) m orexin-A) was significantly higher in adenomas than in the normal adrenal cortex.
  • Collectively, our findings allow us to conclude that the orexin system is overexpressed in cortisol-secreting adenomas and suggest that orexin-A may act as an autocrine-paracrine regulator of the secretory activity and growth of some of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15797953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / HCRT protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Orexin Receptors; 0 / Orexins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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100. Caoili EM, Korobkin M, Brown RK, Mackie G, Shulkin BL: Differentiating adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas using (18)F-FDG PET/CT: quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Acad Radiol; 2007 Apr;14(4):468-75
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  • [Title] Differentiating adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas using (18)F-FDG PET/CT: quantitative and qualitative evaluation.
  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the ability of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET/CT to distinguish adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas in patients with suspected malignancy.
  • METHODS: Fifty-nine adrenal masses were evaluated with coregistered (18)F-FDG PET (PET/CT).
  • Two reviewers independently graded uptake of (18)F-FDG by visual inspection of the adrenal mass in comparison to liver and background.
  • CT attenuation value of the adrenal mass and the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the mass, liver, background, and primary neoplasm (when visible) were measured.
  • Mean SUVs of the adrenal mass, liver, and background and ratios of the SUVs were calculated.
  • RESULTS: Of 47 adenomas, 43 measured <10 HU on unenhanced CT.
  • Using qualitative assessment of FDG activity in the adrenal mass compared with liver, adenomas were less than, equal to, or more active than the liver in 51%, 38%, and 10%, respectively.
  • The mean SUV of adenomas (4.2) was significantly lower (P = .002) than that of their primary malignancies (9.2) but not that of liver (4.3).
  • The mean SUV of adenomas was not significantly different than that of nonadenomas (5.2), but the mean adrenal/liver ratio (1.0) for the adenomas was significantly lower (P = .006) than that of the nonadenomas (2.1).
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal adenomas were better differentiated from nonadenomas using unenhanced CT measurements in combination with ratios of the SUvs. Adrenal mass activity, which was visibly less than liver, was more specific for adenoma, whereas adrenal mass activity visibly greater than liver was more specific for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17368217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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