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1. Bakshi N, Kunju LP, Giordano T, Shah RB: Expression of renal cell carcinoma antigen (RCC) in renal epithelial and nonrenal tumors: diagnostic Implications. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Sep;15(3):310-5
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  • [Title] Expression of renal cell carcinoma antigen (RCC) in renal epithelial and nonrenal tumors: diagnostic Implications.
  • Antibody to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) antigen, a normal human proximal brush border antigen, has recently become commercially available and reported to be highly specific and a relatively sensitive marker for RCC.
  • Using tissue microarrays, we investigated the use of RCC on a large number of renal epithelial neoplasms (RENs) and nonrenal tumors, especially those potentially confused with REN.
  • Three tissue microarrays containing 241 REN samples, 192 samples of a wide variety of neoplasms and 170 adrenal tumor samples, respectively, were stained with RCC monoclonal antibody.
  • Out of 241 REN, 173 were positive for RCC (sensitivity 72%): clear cell 72%, papillary 95%, chromophobe 91%, unclassified 85%, oncocytoma 75%, sarcomatoid 20%, and metastatic RCC 40%.
  • The overall immunostaining intensity was consistently much higher in papillary and clear cell RCC than in other tumors.
  • These included: adrenocortical neoplasms 37/170 (22%), colonic 11/29 (37.5%), breast 9/27 (33%), prostate 5/18 (27.7%), ovary 2/17 (11.7%), melanoma 3/18 (16.6%), lung 3/21 (14.2%), and parathyroid 3/3 (100%).
  • RCC expression was seen equally among adrenal adenoma and carcinoma group.
  • Eight out of 28 (28.5%) normal adrenal cores also stained for RCC.
  • RCC is a relatively useful marker in the differential diagnosis of REN only if used in a panel with other positive and negative markers.
  • RCC does not reliably differentiate REN, especially classic clear cell type, from adrenocortical neoplasms, which are frequently confused due to close anatomic proximity and similar morphology.
  • RCC also does not reliably differentiate subtypes of renal epithelial neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17721277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.22 / MOK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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2. Rossi GP, Seccia TM, Palumbo G, Belfiore A, Bernini G, Caridi G, Desideri G, Fabris B, Ferri C, Giacchetti G, Letizia C, Maccario M, Mallamaci F, Mannelli M, Patalano A, Rizzoni D, Rossi E, Pessina AC, Mantero F, Primary Aldosteronism in the Prevalence in hYpertension (PAPY) Study Investigators: Within-patient reproducibility of the aldosterone: renin ratio in primary aldosteronism. Hypertension; 2010 Jan;55(1):83-9
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  • Within-patient ARR comparison was available in 268 patients, of whom 49 had an aldosterone-producing adenoma, on the basis of the "4-corner criteria."
  • The accuracy of each ARR for pinpointing aldosterone-producing adenoma patients was approximately 80%.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Renin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Male. Mass Screening. Middle Aged. Potassium / blood. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Hypertension. 2010 May;55(5):e18; author reply e19 [20212263.001]
  • (PMID = 19933925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4563
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertension
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
  • [Investigator] Armanini A; Opocher G; Mattarello MY; Ronconi V; Boscaro M; Emilia R; Angelica M; Andronico G; Cerasola G; Porteri E; Agabiti-Rosei E; Costantini C; Lavazza MT; Caliumi C; Parenti G; Ghigo E; Calabria R; Zoccali C
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3. Chierigo P, Puccetti O, Visonà A, Bassan F, Rahmati M, Lazzarotto M, Franzolin N: [High alpha-fetoprotein persistence after orchiectomy. On a case of uncommon etiology]. Urologia; 2010 Oct-Dec;77 Suppl 17:27-31
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  • [Transliterated title] Persistenza di alfa-fetoproteina elevata dopo orchiectomia. Su di un caso ad etiologia inusuale.
  • From this age on, serum AFP can rise above normal in some diseases, e.g. liver disorders, and in some kind of tumors.
  • Careful evaluation for occult cancer showed no abnormality.
  • Histology showed necrotic tissue and could not make a reliable diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: AFP was found to be elevated in another four out of six relatives within three generations, unrelated to any disease.
  • The existence of this clinically benign condition needs to be considered in both children and adults with unexplained and persistent elevation of AFP, e.g. those diagnosed or suspected for germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Metabolism, Inborn Errors / diagnosis. Orchiectomy. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Genes, Dominant. Humans. Ischemia / surgery. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Postoperative Period. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testis / blood supply. Testis / pathology. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • (PMID = 21308671.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6075
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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4. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of a mixture of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (Cas No. 1746-01-6), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) (Cas No. 57117-31-4), and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) (Cas No. 57465-28-8) in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2006 Sep;(526):1-180
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  • Hepatic Cell Proliferation Data: To evaluate hepatocyte replication, analysis of labeling of replicating hepatocytes with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was conducted at the interim evaluations.
  • At 2 years, there were significant increases in the incidences of hepatocellular adenoma and cholangiocarcinoma of the liver.
  • There was an increase in hepatic toxicity characterized by increases in the incidences of numerous nonneoplastic lesions including hepatocyte hypertrophy, multinucleated hepatocytes, pigmentation, inflammation, diffuse fatty change, bile duct hyperplasia, oval cell hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, eosinophilic focus, cholangiofibrosis, bile duct cysts, necrosis, portal fibrosis, mixed cell focus, and toxic hepatopathy.
  • At 2 years, incidences of acinar adenoma or acinar carcinoma that exceeded the historical control ranges were seen in all dosed groups except the 100 ng TEQ/kg group.
  • Treatment-related increases in the incidences of nonneoplastic lesions were seen in other organs including hyperplasia, cystic degeneration, atrophy, and cytoplasmic vacuolization of the adrenal cortex; gingival squamous hyperplasia of the oral mucosa; squamous metaplasia of the uterus; atrophy of the thymus (incidence and severity); chronic active inflammation of the ovary; nephropathy of the kidney (incidence and severity); cardiomyopathy; bone marrow hyperplasia; transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder; chronic active inflammation of the mesenteric artery; and follicular cell hypertrophy of the thyroid gland. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED).

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  • (PMID = 17342195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzofurans; 0 / Carcinogens; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; TSH69IA9XF / 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl; U4C2RV3124 / 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran
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5. Stasik CN, Giordano TJ, Gauger PG: Ganglioneuroma manifesting as an incidental adrenal mass in an adult with Turner's syndrome. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):382-4
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  • [Title] Ganglioneuroma manifesting as an incidental adrenal mass in an adult with Turner's syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of ganglioneuroma masquerading as an incidental adrenal mass in an adult patient with Turner's syndrome.
  • RESULTS: A 31-year-old woman with Turner's syndrome who had previously been treated with growth hormone replacement had an incidentally discovered mass, apparently arising from the left adrenal gland.
  • The mass was "silent" clinically and biochemically, but imaging characteristics were not reassuring for a benign cortical adenoma.
  • Because of uncertainty regarding the nature of the mass, it was removed laparoscopically; during this procedure, it was noted to be intimately associated with, but anatomically distinct from, the left adrenal gland.
  • The pathology report confirmed the presence of a benign ganglioneuroma.
  • CONCLUSION: Although ganglioneuroma has previously been noted to be associated with Turner's syndrome (especially in pediatric patients), to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a ganglioneuroma manifesting as an incidental adrenal mass in an adult patient with Turner's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Turner Syndrome / complications

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  • (PMID = 16638724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Mazzuco TL, Chabre O, Sturm N, Feige JJ, Thomas M: Ectopic expression of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor gene is a sufficient genetic event to induce benign adrenocortical tumor in a xenotransplantation model. Endocrinology; 2006 Feb;147(2):782-90
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  • [Title] Ectopic expression of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor gene is a sufficient genetic event to induce benign adrenocortical tumor in a xenotransplantation model.
  • Aberrant expression of ectopic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in adrenal cortex tissue has been observed in several cases of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasias and adenomas associated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • Although there is clear clinical evidence for the implication of these ectopic receptors in abnormal regulation of cortisol production, whether this aberrant GPCR expression is the cause or the consequence of the development of an adrenal hyperplasia is still an open question.
  • To answer it, we genetically engineered primary bovine adrenocortical cells to have them express the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor.
  • After transplantation of these modified cells under the renal capsule of adrenalectomized immunodeficient mice, tissues formed had their functional and histological characteristics analyzed.
  • We observed the formation of an enlarged and hyperproliferative adenomatous adrenocortical tissue that secreted cortisol in a gastric inhibitory polypeptide-dependent manner and induced a mild Cushing's syndrome with hyperglycemia.
  • Thus, a single genetic event, inappropriate expression of a nonmutated GPCR gene, is sufficient to initiate the complete phenotypic alterations that ultimately lead to the formation of a benign adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cattle. Cell Transplantation. Female. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hyperplasia. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mice, SCID. Nutritional Status. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism. Transfection. Transgenes. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16254030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone; 0 / gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor; 128559-51-3 / RAG-1 protein; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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7. Ku JH, Yeo WG, Kwon TG, Kim HH: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for functioning and non-functioning adrenal tumors: analysis of surgical aspects based on histological types. Int J Urol; 2005 Dec;12(12):1015-21
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for functioning and non-functioning adrenal tumors: analysis of surgical aspects based on histological types.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether hormonal functions of the tumor influence the operative results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and to analyse the clinical outcomes in patients with various hormonally active adrenal tumors.
  • All patients with Cushing adenoma had resolution or improvement of the signs and symptoms during follow-up periods.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this retrospective review document that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and effective treatment for functioning as well as non-functioning adrenal tumors, although endocrinologic features may play a significant role.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16409602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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8. Tiryakioglu O, Ugurlu S, Yalin S, Yirmibescik S, Caglar E, Yetkin DO, Kadioglu P: Screening for Cushing's syndrome in obese patients. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010;65(1):9-13
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  • Etiologic reasons for Cushing's syndrome were pituitary microadenoma (9 patients), adrenocortical adenoma (3 patients), and adrenocortical carcinoma (1 patient).
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Obesity / complications

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  • (PMID = 20126340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815288
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenocorticorticotropic hormone / Cortisol / Cushing’s syndrome / Obesity / Screening
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9. Pieterman CR, Schreinemakers JM, Koppeschaar HP, Vriens MR, Rinkes IH, Zonnenberg BA, van der Luijt RB, Valk GD: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1): its manifestations and effect of genetic screening on clinical outcome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Apr;70(4):575-81
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  • Patients are divided into two groups: patients with a (i) clinical MEN1 diagnosis and (ii) MEN1 diagnosis by genetic screening.
  • RESULTS: A total of 74 patients was included (median follow-up 5.5 year); 78% had hyperparathyroidism, 46% a pancreatic neuro-endocrine tumour (NET), 38% a pituitary abnormality, 8% a NET of other origin and 16% an adrenal adenoma at the end of follow-up.
  • Compared with patients identified by genetic screening, patients with a clinical MEN1 diagnosis had significantly more manifestations at diagnosis (P < 0.001) and at end of follow-up (P = 0.002).
  • Eleven of 30 patients with a genetic MEN1 diagnosis (mean age at diagnosis 30.0 years) already had manifestations at diagnosis.
  • Genetic diagnosis is associated with less morbidity at diagnosis and at follow-up.
  • Early genetic diagnosis might therefore lead to improvement of long-term outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Testing. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adult. Aged. Child. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult


10. Suárez Grau JM, Gómez Bravo MA, Alamo Martínez JM, Rubio Cháves C, Marín Gómez LM, Suárez Artacho G, Bernal Bellido C, Barrera Pulido L: Giant hydatid cyst involving the right hepatic lobe. Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2009 Feb;101(2):133-4, 135
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Albendazole / therapeutic use. Anthelmintics / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19335049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-0108
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Enferm Dig
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthelmintics; F4216019LN / Albendazole
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11. Diederich S, Bidlingmaier M, Quinkler M, Reincke M: [Diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism]. Med Klin (Munich); 2007 Jan 15;102(1):16-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism].
  • Diagnosis of this entity is recommended in hypokalemic hypertension, in therapy-resistant hypertension (at least three 3 drugs and RR > 140/90 mmHg), and in adrenal incidentalomas (= incidentally discovered adrenal tumors).
  • After confirmation of primary hyperaldosteronism, differential diagnosis between aldosterone-producing adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism has to be done.
  • For this approach, adrenal CT or MRT, posture test and adrenal vein catheterization as gold standard test are available.
  • Whereas therapy of aldosterone-producing adenoma is surgery, idiopathic hyperaldosteronism is to be treated medically by spironolactone.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aldosterone / analogs & derivatives. Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / urine. Humans. Hypertension / blood. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / blood. Hypokalemia / etiology. Mass Screening. Predictive Value of Tests. Renin / blood

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  • (PMID = 17221347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3604-86-2 / aldosterone 18-glucuronide; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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12. Kim S, Salibi N, Hardie AD, Xu J, Lim RP, Lee VS, Taouli B: Characterization of adrenal pheochromocytoma using respiratory-triggered proton MR spectroscopy: initial experience. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Feb;192(2):450-4
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  • [Title] Characterization of adrenal pheochromocytoma using respiratory-triggered proton MR spectroscopy: initial experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of respiratory-triggered proton single-voxel MR spectroscopy for the diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma and to determine whether certain spectral resonances detected on single-voxel MR spectroscopy are specific for adrenal pheochromocytomas compared with adrenal adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal pheochromocytomas have a unique MR spectral signature, showing 6.8 ppm resonance that is not seen in adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Catecholamines / metabolism. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Protons. Respiration

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  • (PMID = 19155409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Protons
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13. Gosse P, Guiheneuf-Tobie C, Lasserre R, Minifie C, Lemetayer P, Clementy J: [Biochemical detection of Conn's adenoma: definition of criteria and reference values]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss; 2005 Mar;98(3):181-5
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  • [Title] [Biochemical detection of Conn's adenoma: definition of criteria and reference values].
  • [Transliterated title] Dépistage biologique des adénomes de Conn: definition des critères et des seuils.
  • Primary hyperaldosteronism is a diagnosis which should be considered in refractory hypertension even in the absence of any hypokalaemia.
  • The reference values used for the diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism are very variable in the literature, depending not only on the method used but also on the criteria used for their determination.
  • In this study we evaluated the defined reference values prospectively by studying a population of patients with a Conn's adenoma treated surgically.
  • The study included an initial retrospective period which allowed identification of 29 cases of Conn's adenoma treated surgically, and a 9 month prospective period during which 212 reports were collected.
  • During this prospective period a further 9 cases of Conn's adenoma were detected, which were successfully treated with surgery.
  • Analysis to discriminate the 38 Conn's adenomata from the rest showed that 3 parameters contributed significantly and independently to the diagnosis: supine plasma renin activity (ARPc), supine aldosteronaemia and the erect aldosterone/renin ratio, allowing correct classification in 88% of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15816319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9683
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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14. Feng C, Li HZ, Xiao H, Yan WG, Li YQ, Xu WF: [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome:analysis of diagnosis and surgical effect]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Dec 15;45(24):1691-3
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  • [Title] [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome:analysis of diagnosis and surgical effect].
  • All the cases were found adrenal tumors by CT scan, 10 cases in left adrenal and 14 cases in right adrenal.
  • All the patients underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic operation and were pathologic diagnosed to adrenal adenomas.
  • CT scan, assays of plasma cortisol, urinary free cortisol and dexamethasone suppression test are most useful in the diagnosis.
  • The potential benefit of surgery should be considered in those who have a definite diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18476528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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15. Somlóová Z, Widimský J Jr, Rosa J, Wichterle D, Strauch B, Petrák O, Zelinka T, Vlková J, Masek M, Dvoráková J, Holaj R: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in two main types of primary aldosteronism. J Hum Hypertens; 2010 Oct;24(10):625-30
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  • This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of the MS and its components in the two major forms of PA, in unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral aldosterone overproduction because of idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA).
  • The diagnosis of the particular form of PA was based on adrenal venous sampling and/or successful surgery confirmed by histopathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Hyperaldosteronism / epidemiology. Hyperlipidemias / epidemiology. Hypertension / epidemiology. Metabolic Syndrome X / epidemiology


16. Denzinger S, Burger M, Hartmann A, Hofstaedter F, Wieland WF, Ganzer R: Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma. APMIS; 2007 Apr;115(4):381-4
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  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma.
  • We report on a 50-year-old patient with a giant benign adenoma of the adrenal cortex, which ruptured spontaneously, leading to life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
  • Following emergency adrenalectomy with sparing of the ipsilateral kidney, an adenoma of the adrenal cortex with a diameter of 18 cm and a weight of 1400 g was found.
  • A detailed literature search showed this to be the largest benign tumor of the adrenal cortex described so far.
  • We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this unusual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Middle Aged. Rupture, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous / pathology. Rupture, Spontaneous / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17504308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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17. Guthoff M, Schnauder G, Kirchhoff K, Kurth R, Horger M, Müssig K: [Normokalaemic primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma--Case 06/2009]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2009 Jul;134(31-32):1582
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  • [Title] [Normokalaemic primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma--Case 06/2009].
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Ultrasound displayed no evidence of renal artery stenosis.
  • Renal function was normal.
  • MRI revealed an adenoma of the right adrenal gland.
  • DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND COURSE: The results were consistent with primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • The histological findings confirmed an adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / secretion. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Renin / blood

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  • (PMID = 19629922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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18. Siddiqi AJ, Miller FH, Kasuganti D, Nikolaidis P: Adrenal hemangioma-adenoma: an exceedingly rare adrenal collision tumor. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2009 Apr;29(4):949-52
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  • [Title] Adrenal hemangioma-adenoma: an exceedingly rare adrenal collision tumor.
  • Adrenal collision tumors are rare clinical entities referring to separate coexisting adjacent tumors involving an adrenal gland with sharp demarcation between the two and without a substantial histologic admixture at the interface.
  • We report a case of a 60-year-old female patient with an exceedingly rare adrenal hemangioma-adenoma collision tumor.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor comprising an adrenal hemangioma and an adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Interventional


19. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Dobrosz Z, Heitzman M, Cierpka L: [Analysis of adrenocortical tumors morphology as regards their structure and potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Mar-Apr;57(2):136-42
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  • [Title] [Analysis of adrenocortical tumors morphology as regards their structure and potential malignancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Analiza morfologii guzów kory nadnerczy pod wzgledem ich struktury i potencjalnej złośliwości.
  • INTRODUCTION: A consequence of diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is introduction of pharmacological therapy, precise monitoring of the patients and in some cases re-operation.
  • The aim of the study is to analyse morphology of adrenocortical tumours as regards their malignancy by use of criteria proposed by Weiss.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 110 adrenocortical tumours in 107 patients were analysed (M 27.1%, F 72.9%; age 32 to 77 years, mean 55.2 +/- 9.7).
  • Conn syndrome was diagnosed in 16 patients (14.9%), Cushing syndrome in 12 (11.2%), and virilisation in 3 (2.8%).
  • RESULTS: In routine histopatological examination ACC was diagnosed in 6 tumours (5.4%), adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) in 92 (83.6%) and adrenocortical hyperplasia in 12 (10.9%).
  • CONCLUSION: The structure and cell arrangement in adrenocortical adenoma are heterogeneous.
  • Application of criteria proposed by Weiss in histopathological examination of adrenocortical tumours can be useful in differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Adrenocortical Adenoma / ultrastructure. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / ultrastructure. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16773589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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20. Nunes ML, Rault A, Teynie J, Valli N, Guyot M, Gaye D, Belleannee G, Tabarin A: 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning. World J Surg; 2010 Jul;34(7):1506-10
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning.
  • BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has been proposed for the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • However, only scarce data are available to evaluate its usefulness for the identification of primary adrenal carcinomas in patients with no previous history of cancer and equivocal tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Twenty-three consecutive patients without previous history of cancer investigated for adrenal tumors without features of benign adrenocortical adenoma on CT scan but no obvious ACC underwent 18F-FDG PET.
  • The ratio of maxSUV adrenal tumor on maxSUV liver (adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio) during 18F-FDG PET was compared to Weiss pathological criteria.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients had an adrenal adenoma, 2 had small size adrenal carcinomas (<5 cm), 1 had an angiosarcoma, and 3 had noncortical benign lesions.
  • An adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio above 1.6 provided 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Cites] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jul;91(7):2650-5 [16670169.001]
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  • (PMID = 20396886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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21. Sugár I, Vörös A, Diczházi C, Barabás L, Valkó L, Kovács GL, Ondrejka P: [Successfully operated cases of mediastinal and retroperitoneal bronchial cysts]. Magy Seb; 2010 Aug;63(4):168-71
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  • In the first case a mediastinal cyst caused severe swallowing problems, while in the second a retroperitoneal cyst resembled to an adrenal adenoma.
  • It was only the postoperative histology, which clarified the exact diagnosis of the removed cysts.
  • In most of the cases the final diagnosis is made only after excision with histological examination of the cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchogenic Cyst / diagnosis. Bronchogenic Cyst / surgery. Mediastinal Cyst / diagnosis. Mediastinal Cyst / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Deglutition. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Retroperitoneal Space / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20724242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar sebészet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Seb
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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22. O'Neill CJ, Spence A, Logan B, Suliburk JW, Soon PS, Learoyd DL, Sidhu SB, Sywak MS: Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct 1;102(5):450-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes.
  • INTRODUCTION: The number of incidentally discovered adrenal lesions is increasing due to the widespread use of abdominal imaging.
  • Although most incidentalomas are benign, larger suspicious lesions will require adrenalectomy.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the risk of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery for adrenal incidentaloma; and to compare clinical outcomes in those with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on the mode of presentation.
  • Data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained adrenal tumor database.
  • Those with adrenal incidentaloma were selected and histopathology reviewed.
  • Benign, non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma was the most common histopathological finding (46 patients, 63%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentalomas have a small but important risk of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] J. Surg. Oncol. 2010;102:450-453. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20734420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118) (CAS No. 31508-00-6) in female harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2010 Nov;(559):1-174
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  • There were increases in hepatic cell proliferation in the 4,600 g/kg group at 14, 31, and 53 weeks.
  • At the 53-week interim evaluation, three 4,600 g/kg rats had liver cholangiocarcinoma and one had hepatocellular adenoma.
  • At 2 years, there were significant treatment-related increases in the incidences of cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular adenoma.
  • At 2 years, a significant dose-related increase in hepatic toxicity was observed and was characterized by increased incidences of numerous lesions including hepatocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, oval cell hyperplasia, pigmentation, multinucleated hepatocyte, eosinophilic and mixed cell foci, diffuse fatty change, toxic hepatopathy, nodular hyperplasia, necrosis, bile duct hyperplasia and cyst, and cholangiofibrosis.
  • A marginal increase in squamous cell carcinoma occurred in the 220 g/kg group.
  • At 2 years, there were marginally increased incidences of exocrine pancreatic adenoma or carcinoma in the 460, 1,000, and 4,600 g/kg core study groups.
  • Numerous nonneoplastic effects were seen in other organs including: adrenal cortical atrophy and cytoplasmic vacuolization, pancreatic acinar cell cytoplasmic vacuolization and arterial chronic active inflammation, follicular cell hypertrophy of the thyroid gland, inflammation and respiratory epithelial hyperplasia of the nose, and kidney pigmentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this 2-year gavage study, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCB 118 in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats based on increased incidences of neoplasms of the liver (cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocholangioma, and hepatocellular adenoma) and cystic keratinizing epithelioma of the lung.
  • Occurrences of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterus and acinar neoplasms of the pancreas may have been related to administration of PCB 118.
  • Administration of PCB 118 caused increased incidences of nonneoplastic lesions in the liver, lung, adrenal cortex, pancreas, thyroid gland, nose, and kidney.

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  • (PMID = 21383778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 31508-00-6 / 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; DO80M48B6O / Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
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24. Babińska A, Sworczak K, Siekierska-Hellmann M, Lewczuk A, Błaut K, Obołoiczyk L, Wiśniewski P, Zielonko J, Kaska L, Lachiński A: [Incidentally discovered adrenal masses in the Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Hemostatic Disorders, Medical University of Gdansk]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(11-12):744-50
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  • [Title] [Incidentally discovered adrenal masses in the Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Hemostatic Disorders, Medical University of Gdansk].
  • [Transliterated title] Przypadkowo wykryte guzy nadnerczy w materiale Kliniki Chorób Wewnetrznych, Endokrynologii i Zaburzeń Hemostazy Akademii Medycznej w Gdańsku.
  • Clinically silent adrenal masses (incidentaloma) are incidentally discovered lesions when noninvasive imaging methods (ultrasonography--USG, computer tomography--CT, magnetic resonance imaging--MRI) are performed for the reason other than known or suspected adrenal disease.
  • Most of studies report the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma range between 1 and 10% in radiological series.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1993 and 03.2004 we observed 198 patients with incidentalomas of adrenal glands (144 females--72.7% and 54 males--27.3%).
  • Adrenocortical adenoma was diagnosed in 54.9%, adrenal hyperplasia in 8.5%, adrenal carcinoma in 6.7%, pheochromocytoma in 12.9% (in 3.1% of all cases malignant pheochromocytoma was diagnosed), in 4.9% others malignant tumors (primary or metastatic), in 4.9% adrenal cysts and in 7.1% other rare adrenal pathologies were found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / epidemiology. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Female. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Prevalence. Radiography, Abdominal. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17427485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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25. Prochazkova K, Pavlikova K, Minarik M, Sumerauer D, Kodet R, Sedlacek Z: Somatic TP53 mutation mosaicism in a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Am J Med Genet A; 2009 Feb;149A(2):206-11
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  • We present a girl who developed adrenocortical adenoma at the age of 1 year and osteosarcoma at the age of 5 years.
  • The substitution was found in neither of her parents, which indicated a possibility of a de novo mutation.
  • To our knowledge this is the first description of somatic mosaicism for a de novo TP53 mutation in LFS.


26. Białas M, Okoń K, Stachura J: Primary adrenal tumors--a 16-year experience in a single institution. Pol J Pathol; 2008;59(2):101-6
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  • [Title] Primary adrenal tumors--a 16-year experience in a single institution.
  • The incidence of primary adrenal gland tumors observed at the Pathology Department, Cracow, in the period of 16 years was examined.
  • The frequency of adrenal lesion in males and females was studied and compared.
  • The results were shown in tables and diagrams and compared with data given in the WHO Classification of Tumors and the literature on the subject.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Humans. Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Hyperplasia / pathology. Hyperplasia / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Poland / epidemiology. Sex Factors. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18669176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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27. Akos MB, Péter K, Edina N, János H, Eszter S: [Laparoscopic extirpation of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst]. Magy Seb; 2006 Feb;59(1):37-41
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  • During the examination of an 18-year-old female patient due to her extreme thinness, the abdominal ultrasound and later the CT indicated as an accidental finding--a left side adrenal/suprarenal adenoma, which turned out to be hormonally inactive.
  • The left suprarenal gland had normal size and appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchogenic Cyst / diagnosis. Bronchogenic Cyst / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16637389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar sebészet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Seb
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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28. Moroni AL, Bricault I, Serra-Tosio G, Sengel C, Ferretti G: [Failure to characterize a suprarenal metastasis of hepatocarcinoma using the percentage of contrast medium washout with CT: a case study]. J Radiol; 2007 Apr;88(4):589-91
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  • [Transliterated title] Echec de caractérisation d'une métastase surrénalienne d'hépatocarcinome par le pourcentage de lavage du produit de contraste en TDM: à propos d'un cas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Contrast Media. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Palliative Care

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  • (PMID = 17464259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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29. Nugent M, Waterman GS: An adrenal adenoma presenting with psychosis. Psychosomatics; 2006 Mar-Apr;47(2):175-7
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  • [Title] An adrenal adenoma presenting with psychosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / psychology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / psychology. Psychotic Disorders / diagnosis. Psychotic Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Dibenzothiazepines / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Quetiapine Fumarate

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  • (PMID = 16508033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychosomatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychosomatics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Dibenzothiazepines; 2S3PL1B6UJ / Quetiapine Fumarate
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30. Cazabat L, Ragazzon B, Groussin L, Bertherat J: PRKAR1A mutations in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. Pituitary; 2006;9(3):211-9
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  • [Title] PRKAR1A mutations in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease.
  • Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease (PPNAD) is a rare primary bilateral adrenal defect causing corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome.
  • Macroscopic appearance of the adrenals is characteristic with small pigmented micronodules observed in the cortex.
  • Somatic inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A have been observed in macronodules of PPNAD and in sporadic cortisol secreting adrenal adenomas.
  • Isolated PPNAD is a genetic heterogenous disease, and recently inactivating mutations of the gene of the phosphodiesterase 11A4 (PDE11A4) located at 2q31-2q35 have been identified in patients without PRKAR1A mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / genetics. Mutation. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Hormones / metabolism. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / enzymology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Signal Transduction / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17036196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Hormones; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
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31. Mazzaglia PJ, Monchik JM: Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience. Arch Surg; 2009 May;144(5):465-70
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  • [Title] Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of percutaneous adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS: All adult patients undergoing image-guided adrenal biopsy from 1997 to 2007.
  • Eighty-eight biopsies (53.4%) were performed in patients with a prior diagnosis of cancer.
  • Forty-five (26.4%) were performed when imaging study results suggested previously undiagnosed cancer with a simultaneous adrenal metastasis.
  • Thirty (20.2%) were performed for isolated adrenal incidentalomas.
  • In patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma, a radiology report recommended biopsy 33% of the time for characteristics inconsistent with benign adenoma.
  • Benign incidentalomas measured mean (SD) 4.2 (2.1) cm (range, 1.4-10.7 cm), and malignancies measured mean (SD) 9.3 (3.3) cm (range, 5.3-14 cm) (P < .05).
  • All incidentalomas 5 cm or less (n = 18) were benign.
  • There were 4 false-negative biopsy results: 3 adrenocortical carcinomas and 1 pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy is unhelpful in patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Despite atypical radiographic findings, all nonfunctioning nodules 5 cm or less were benign.
  • The value of biopsy remains the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma in patients with a nonadrenal primary malignancy, proven by the more than 70% positive rate in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19451490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Anagnostis P, Karagiannis A, Tziomalos K, Kakafika AI, Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP: Adrenal incidentaloma: a diagnostic challenge. Hormones (Athens); 2009 Jul-Sep;8(3):163-84
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: a diagnostic challenge.
  • The widespread application of abdominal imaging procedures has resulted in an increased frequency of clinically silent adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is a term applied to an accidentally discovered adrenal mass on imaging performed for the investigation of an unrelated complaint.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are a cluster of different pathologies, the majority of which are benign and non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Algorithms. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19671516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 181
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33. de Bruin C, Feelders RA, Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ: Somatostatin and dopamine receptors as targets for medical treatment of Cushing's Syndrome. Rev Endocr Metab Disord; 2009 Jun;10(2):91-102
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  • Increasing knowledge of specific subtype expression within these tumours and the ability to target these receptor subtypes with high-affinity compounds, has driven the search for new SS- or DA-based medical therapies for the various forms of CS.
  • In Cushing's disease, corticotroph adenomas mainly express dopamine receptor subtype 2 (D(2)) and somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (sst(5)), whereas sst(2) is expressed at lower levels.
  • Activation of these receptors can inhibit ACTH-release in primary cultured corticotroph adenomas and compounds that target either sst(5) (pasireotide, or SOM230) or D(2) (cabergoline) have shown significant efficacy in subsets of patients in recent clinical studies.
  • In both normal adrenal tissue as well as in adrenal adenomas and carcinomas that cause CS, sst and DA receptor expression has been demonstrated.
  • Although selected cases of adrenal CS may benefit from sst or DA-targeted treatment, its total contribution to the treatment of these patients is likely to be low as surgery is effective in most cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .
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  • (PMID = 18642088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2606
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Endocr Metab Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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34. Catena C, Colussi G, Nadalini E, Chiuch A, Baroselli S, Lapenna R, Sechi LA: Cardiovascular outcomes in patients with primary aldosteronism after treatment. Arch Intern Med; 2008 Jan 14;168(1):80-5
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  • Fifty-four patients with or without evidence of adrenal adenomas were prospectively followed up for a mean of 7.4 years after treatment with adrenalectomy or spironolactone.
  • RESULTS: At baseline, the prevalence of cardiovascular events was greater in primary aldosteronism (35%) than in essential hypertension (11%) (odds ratio, 4.61; 95% confidence interval, 2.38-8.95; P< .001), with odds ratios of 4.93, 4.36, and 2.80 for sustained arrhythmias, cerebrovascular events, and coronary heart disease, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldosterone / blood. Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / complications

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  • (PMID = 18195199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9926
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 27O7W4T232 / Spironolactone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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35. Eto M, Harano M, Koga H, Tanaka M, Naito S: Clinical outcomes and learning curve of a laparoscopic adrenalectomy in 103 consecutive cases at a single institute. Int J Urol; 2006 Jun;13(6):671-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: We examined the clinical outcomes and the learning curve for a laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in 103 consecutive cases performed by three surgeons at our institute, according to the type of adrenal disorder.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and three patients with adrenal tumors, including 38 cases of primary aldosteronism, 33 cases of Cushing syndrome (including preclinical Cushing syndrome), 15 cases of pheochromocytoma, and nine cases of non-functioning adenoma were evaluated, while focusing on the approaches, intraoperative and postoperative data, and the learning curve of LA, according the type of adrenal disorder.
  • RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the operation time, estimated blood loss, incidence of conversion to open surgery and blood transfusion, or postoperative recovery among the patients treated by LA for aldosteronoma, Cushing adenoma, pheochromocytoma, and non-functioning adenoma.
  • In the cases of aldosteronoma and Cushing adenoma, the learning curve for the operation time and blood loss in each operator tended to decrease as the number of operations increased.
  • On the other hand, in the cases treated by LA for pheochromocytoma, no trends in either the operation time or blood loss were observed.
  • However, there has been neither any conversion to open surgery nor blood transfusion in cases treated by LA since 1998 (our 42nd case), even after the changes in the operators.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly indicate that LA is becoming safer than before, probably due to improvements in the technique, education, and training of surgeons, in addition to the increased number of cases now treated by LA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy / education. Education, Medical, Continuing. Laparoscopy. Medical Staff, Hospital / education

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  • (PMID = 16834640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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36. Vesin C, Chabre O, Mallion JM, Chaffanjon P, Sturm N, Baguet JP: [Diagnosis and post-operative evolution of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome). A 12-years retrospective study]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss; 2007 Feb;100(2):121-5
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and post-operative evolution of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome). A 12-years retrospective study].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostic et évolution postopératoire des patients opérés d'un adénome de Conn. Etude rétrospective sur 12 ans.
  • The prevalence and characteristics of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome) as well as their post-operative arterial pressure evolution are varying through literature.
  • From 1993 to 2005, 24 patients (mean age = 46 +/-11 years) presented the biological criteria of primary hyperaldosteronism and benefited from adrenalectomy with confirmation of adrenal adenoma.
  • All adenomas measured more than 10 mm in scanner imaging.
  • Post-operative spontaneous normotensive patients had, at the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma, a more recent and non-refractory hypertension, with a lower number of antihypertensive drugs, a better response to spirinolactone and higher aldosterone plasmatic levels.
  • 1) Whether 70% of patients operated for adrenal adenoma are normotensive (with or without treatement) post-operatively, only 25% are definitely cured after 4 years.
  • Factors associated to a post-operative cure highlight the interest of an ealy diagnosis.
  • 2) There is probably an underdiagnosis of adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome) because neither adenomas with normokaliemia, nor adenomas <10 mm in scanner imaging have ever been diagnosed or at least, sent to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17474497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9683
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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37. Chen W, Chen GY, Tsai SJ, Wang PW, Sheu HM, Shen YS, Chen FF: Mild cutaneous manifestation in two young women with extraordinary hyperandrogenemia. Dermatology; 2005;210(1):49-52
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  • Hyperandrogenism with hyperandrogenemia should be considered in those with severe acne of sudden onset or conspicuous male-pattern baldness with hairline recession, although the majority of female patients with acne or androgenetic alopecia possess no endocrine disorder.
  • The first one presenting vertical alopecia had an elevated level of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (>800 microg/dl) and was suspected to be a case of late-onset, non-classical adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The second case with mild acne had a soaring serum level of total testosterone >9,000 ng/dl derived from an androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma overexpressing steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and aromatase.
  • The possibility of adrenal tumor should be explored in patients with escalated circulating testosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Acne Vulgaris / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Alopecia / complications. Hyperandrogenism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15604546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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38. Morello F, Schiavone D, Mengozzi G, Bertello C, Liew CC, Bisbocci D, Mulatero P, Veglio F: Adrenal endothelin-1 levels are not associated with aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Mar;160(3):453-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal endothelin-1 levels are not associated with aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism.
  • In the present study, we sought to examine ET-1 secretion from the adrenal glands in patients with PA.
  • DESIGN: We determined ET-1 levels in blood samples obtained during adrenal venous sampling of patients affected by PA (n=17).
  • Furthermore, we examined the mRNA expression of the ET system in tissue samples from aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs, n=9) and control normal adrenals (n=3).
  • RESULTS: ET-1 levels did not differ between inferior vena cava and adrenal vein blood in both bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and APA patients.
  • Moreover, cortisol-normalized ET-1 levels did not show lateralized adrenal ET-1 secretion in APAs.
  • Through gene expression profiling with microarray performed in a distinct set of APA individuals (n=9), we confirmed the adrenal expression of a complete ET system, but we did not detect a significant upregulation of ET components within the APA tissue compared with normal adrenals.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present data argue against the hypothesis of increased ET-1 secretion from APAs and do not support a general role for adrenal ET-1 in the vascular pathophysiology of PA.

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  • (PMID = 19073831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.71 / endothelin-converting enzyme
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39. Barzon L, Masi G, Pacenti M, Trevisan M, Fallo F, Remo A, Martignoni G, Montanaro D, Pezzi V, Palù G: Expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors in human adrenocortical tumors. Virchows Arch; 2008 Feb;452(2):181-91
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  • [Title] Expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors in human adrenocortical tumors.
  • We recently demonstrated that adrenocortical carcinoma cells express aromatase and estrogen receptors (ERs) and that 17beta-estradiol enhances adrenocortical cell proliferation.
  • To provide a clue to the role of estrogens in adrenal tumorigenesis, we investigated the expression profile of genes involved in sex steroid hormone production and activity in a large series of normal and neoplastic human adrenocortical tissues.
  • Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry showed that ERalpha and ERbeta, androgen receptor (AR), and aromatase were expressed in the adrenal cortex and in adrenocortical tumors.
  • ERbeta was the predominant ER subtype and was mainly expressed in the zona glomerulosa and fasciculata.
  • Western blot analysis revealed the presence of a truncated form of AR in adrenocortical tissues.
  • With respect to the normal adrenal cortex and adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas were characterized by significantly lower ERbeta levels, ERalpha upregulation, and aromatase overexpression.
  • In agreement with our in vitro findings, the results of this study suggest that estrogens, locally produced by aromatase, could enhance adrenocortical cell proliferation though autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Aromatase / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / embryology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Virchows Arch. 2008 Aug;453(2):221-2 [18553103.001]
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  • (PMID = 18157729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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40. Park BK, Kim CK, Kim B: Adrenal incidentaloma detected on triphasic helical CT: evaluation with modified relative percentage of enhancement washout values. Br J Radiol; 2008 Jul;81(967):526-30
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma detected on triphasic helical CT: evaluation with modified relative percentage of enhancement washout values.
  • The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess adrenal incidentalomas detected by triphasic helical CT using modified relative percentage of the enhancement washout (mRPEW) values.
  • 42 adrenal incidentalomas in 35 patients were detected on CT and confirmed by either pathological examination or follow-up CT examination.
  • The mRPEW values were calculated using the attenuation values of the adrenal masses seen on the images from portal phase and delayed phase CT performed 3 min after intravenous injection of contrast material.
  • The diagnostic accuracy of an adenoma was obtained using the mRPEW values.
  • The final diagnosis was an "adenoma" and a "metastasis" in 9 and 33 cases, respectively.
  • The mRPEW values of the adenomas and metastases ranged from 5.8% to 59.4% (26.1+/-15.5%) and from -18.8% to 25% (6.4+/-11.7%), respectively (p<0.05).
  • An mRPEW value of 20% yielded the best accuracy of 88% (37/42) for an adenoma. mRPEW values >25% and < or =5% had a positive predictive value of 100% (3/3) and a negative predictive value of 100% (15/15), respectively.
  • In conclusion, a substantial number of adrenal incidentalomas may be characterized using the mRPEW values from triphasic helical CT without the need for dedicated adrenal CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18559901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. Oki K, Yamane K, Nakanishi S, Nakashima R, Jitsuiki K, Kohno N: Improvement of hypercortisolism by β-blocker therapy in subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia. Endocrine; 2009 Dec;36(3):372-6
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  • [Title] Improvement of hypercortisolism by β-blocker therapy in subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia.
  • A 61-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes was referred for the evaluation of multiple bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed as having ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) with subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with the aberrant expression of β-adrenergic receptors.
  • While the suppression of cortisol secretion was sustained for 24 months, glucose metabolism and adrenal size were unaffected.
  • Additional cases or controlled studies are needed to determine the potential effect of propranolol on metabolic disorders and adrenal size in patients with AIMAH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Propranolol / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19813002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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42. Ctvrtlík F, Herman M, Student V, Tichá V, Minarík J: Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Feb;69(2):243-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare CT findings of adrenal incidentalomas with a definitive histological diagnosis in order to establish CT features characteristic for individual types of lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The retrospective study comprised of patients with adrenal lesions detected on abdominal CT.
  • The study consisted of 62 adrenal expansions found in 55 patients (in seven patients bilateral lesions were found).
  • According to the definitive histological diagnosis after adrenalectomy, the lesions were divided into the following six groups: primary adrenocortical carcinoma (n=4), metastasis (n=7), adrenocortical adenoma (n=37), pheochromocytoma (n=9), myelolipoma (n=2), and others (n=3).
  • Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value for distinguishing adenomas and non-adenomas using a cut-off diameter of 41.5mm were 81.1%, 70.0%, 77.2%, 83.3%, 66.7%, respectively; using the non-contrast density threshold of 23 HU, they were 89.2%, 100%, 93%, 100%, 83.3%, respectively; using the post-contrast density threshold of 47.5 HU, they were 80.6%, 100%, 88.2%, 100%, 76.9%, respectively; using the increase of density threshold of 34.5 HU, they were 74.2%, 70.0%, 72.5%, 79.3%, 63.6%, respectively.
  • A study of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses resulted in the following conclusions: (a) the most accurate parameter for distinguishing adenomas from non-adenomas is the value of non-contrast density, (b) the second most accurate parameter is the post-contrast density, (c) the least suitable parameters are the size of the lesion and increase of density, (d) therefore, in practice, the value of non-contrast density parameter should be used.
  • CONCLUSION: Standard CT of the abdomen (not specifically aimed at adrenal glands) is a suitable method for distinguishing adrenal lesions which need to be operated on from those which are probably benign but need to be monitored.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiography, Abdominal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18226485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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43. Kimura H, Sato K, Nishimaki M, Miki N, Ono M, Takano K: Symptomatic hypercalcemia due to painless thyroiditis after unilateral adrenalectomy in a patient with Cushing's syndrome. Intern Med; 2008;47(8):751-6
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  • We report a 53-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome due to an adrenocortical adenoma, who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy and developed symptomatic hypercalcemia during the thyrotoxic period of painless thyroiditis, while tapering off a daily supplemented dose of cortisol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Thyroiditis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Bone Resorption / metabolism. Calcium / urine. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18421193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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44. Spinazzi R, Rucinski M, Neri G, Malendowicz LK, Nussdorfer GG: Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;90(6):3544-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells.
  • We previously found that orexin-A, via the OX1-R, stimulates cortisol secretion from dispersed human adrenocortical cells.
  • In this study, we demonstrate that six of eight cortisol-secreting adenomas expressed preproorexin mRNA, and seven of 10 adenomas contained measurable amounts of orexin-A but not orexin-B.
  • Normal adrenal cortexes neither expressed preproorexin nor contained orexins.
  • All adenomas expressed OX1-R and OX2-R mRNAs, and real-time PCR showed that the expression of both receptors was up-regulated in adenomas, compared with normal adrenal cortex.
  • Orexin-A concentration-dependently raised basal cortisol secretion from freshly dispersed normal and adenomatous cells, minimal and maximal effective concentrations being 10(-10) and 10(-8) m, and the peptide efficacy (percent increase elicited by 10(-8) m orexin-A) was significantly higher in adenomas than in the normal adrenal cortex.
  • Collectively, our findings allow us to conclude that the orexin system is overexpressed in cortisol-secreting adenomas and suggest that orexin-A may act as an autocrine-paracrine regulator of the secretory activity and growth of some of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15797953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / HCRT protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Orexin Receptors; 0 / Orexins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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45. Yaylali GF, Akin F, Bastemir M, Yaylali YT, Ozden A: Phaeochromocytoma combined with subclinical Cushing's syndrome and pituitary microadenoma. Clin Invest Med; 2008;31(3):E176-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: Phaeochromocytoma (PHEO) occasionally associates with pathological lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • The coexistence of PHEO and pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome (PCS) of the same adrenal gland has rarely been reported.
  • We report a case of PHEO and PCS originating from the same adrenal gland and discuss the peculiar diagnostic aspects of this entity.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 64 yr old man was hospitalized to evaluate the right adrenal mass which was discovered incidentally by ultrasonography.
  • CT scan of the adrenal glands showed a 6 cm well encapsulated right adrenal mass together with a clearly normal left adrenal gland.
  • MRI investigation of the sella turcica revealed a pituitary microadenoma on the right side of the adenohypophysis He was treated with alpha and subsequent beta blockers after the diagnosis of PHEO and PCS was made.
  • The pathology showed typical PHEO with adrenocortical hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: The present report is a rare case of PHEO combined with PCS in the same adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications


46. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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47. Volante M, Sperone P, Bollito E, Frangipane E, Rosas R, Daffara F, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Papotti M: Matrix metalloproteinase type 2 expression in malignant adrenocortical tumors: Diagnostic and prognostic significance in a series of 50 adrenocortical carcinomas. Mod Pathol; 2006 Dec;19(12):1563-9
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  • [Title] Matrix metalloproteinase type 2 expression in malignant adrenocortical tumors: Diagnostic and prognostic significance in a series of 50 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The differential diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma from adrenocortical adenoma is based on different pathological parameters, usually incorporated in scoring systems, which unfortunately lack a 100% sensitivity and specificity.
  • Little is known on the molecular mechanisms leading to the malignant phenotype in adrenocortical tumors.
  • Therefore, we aimed to investigate metalloproteinases and their inhibitors expression in a series of 50 adrenocortical carcinomas and 50 control adrenocortical adenomas, diagnosed according to the Weiss histological criteria.
  • Metalloproteinase type 2 gave the most significant result, being detected in neoplastic cells in 1/50 adrenocortical adenomas (2%) and 37/50 adrenocortical carcinomas (74%) (P < 0.001), with a focal (score 1, <20% of positive cells--two-thirds of cases) or diffuse (score 2, >20% of positive cells--one-third of cases) pattern.
  • In addition, diffuse (score 2) metalloproteinase type 2 protein expression, as compared to focal or negative immunostaining, correlated with shorter survival (P < 0.02) and disease-free interval (P = 0.05).
  • Our data indicate that metalloproteinase type 2 immunohistochemical localization in tumor cells is significantly restricted to malignant adrenocortical tumors, with high specificity but low sensitivity.
  • In addition, a strong metalloproteinase type 2 expression in adrenocortical carcinoma was for the first time recognized as an unfavorable prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / enzymology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16980949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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48. Sawazaki H, Segawa T, Yoshida K, Kawahara T, Inoue T, Soda T, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Takahashi T, Nakamura E, Nishiyama H, Ito N, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):785-8
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  • [Title] [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report].
  • We present a case of hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • Based on abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was a sarcoma of renal capsule origin.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Histologically, the mass was diagnosed as hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipomatous foci.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 17131868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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49. Catena C, Colussi G, Lapenna R, Nadalini E, Chiuch A, Gianfagna P, Sechi LA: Long-term cardiac effects of adrenalectomy or mineralocorticoid antagonists in patients with primary aldosteronism. Hypertension; 2007 Nov;50(5):911-8
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  • Fifty-four patients with primary aldosteronism were enrolled in a prospective study and were followed for a mean of 6.4 years after treatment with adrenalectomy (n=24) or spironolactone (n=30).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism / physiopathology. Hypertension / physiopathology. Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / therapy. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists

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  • [CommentIn] Hypertension. 2007 Nov;50(5):837-9 [17909118.001]
  • (PMID = 17893375.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4563
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertension
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 27O7W4T232 / Spironolactone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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50. Pugeat M, Déchaud H, Raverot V, Denuzière A, Cohen R, Boudou P, French Endocrine Society: Recommendations for investigation of hyperandrogenism. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Feb;71(1):2-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DHEAS is primarily of cortico-adrenal origin in women.
  • Thus, a DHEAS level over 600 mg/dl indicates a diagnosis of androgen-secreting adrenal cortical adenoma..
  • If DHEAS is normal, the diagnosis could be either ovarian hyperthecosis, normally associated with insulin resistance, or androgen-secreting ovarian tumour.
  • 4. More rarely, elevated testosterone is associated with a marked elevation of SHBG possibly as the result of use of medication having an estrogenic effect (tamoxifen, raloxifene, Op'DDD), or of hyperthyroidism or liver disease.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
  • (PMID = 20096825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Guideline; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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51. van Aken MO, Pereira AM, Frölich M, Romijn JA, Pijl H, Veldhuis JD, Roelfsema F: Growth hormone secretion in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome is disorderly and inversely correlated with body mass index. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jan;288(1):E63-70
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  • [Title] Growth hormone secretion in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome is disorderly and inversely correlated with body mass index.
  • To evaluate the impact on the somatotropic axis of endogenous cortisol excess in the absence of primary pituitary disease, we investigated spontaneous 24-h growth hormone (GH) secretion in 12 adult patients with ACTH-independent hypercortisolism.
  • We conclude that hyposomatotropism in primary adrenal hypercortisolism is only partly explained (approximately 30%) by increased body weight and that increased GH secretory irregularity and loss of synchrony suggest altered coordinate regulation of GH release.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adult. Eating. Entropy. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Male. Middle Aged


52. Song JH, Lee KH, Kim SD, Cho BS: Long-term Follow up of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients with Hyponatremia. Electrolyte Blood Press; 2007 Dec;5(2):140-6
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  • [Title] Long-term Follow up of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients with Hyponatremia.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease, which leads to cortisol and aldosterone deficiency and hyperandrogenism.
  • Typical medical treatment includes oral glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid administration to suppress adrenal androgens and to compensate for adrenal steroid deficiencies.
  • Among these patients, four cases of CAH patients showing the presence of hyponatremia as an initial electrolyte disorder were found with adrenal adenoma.
  • Hypersecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and chronic poor compliance to therapy appears to be associated with the development of the adrenal tumor.
  • Two cases were managed with adrenalectomy because of increasing adrenal tumor size and virilization.
  • Therefore, it is important that patients with CAH maintain steroid medication to avoid the appearance of adrenal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 24459514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-5997
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrolyte & blood pressure : E & BP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrolyte Blood Press
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3894515
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 21-hydroxylase deficiency / Adrenal tumor / Congenital adrenal hyperplasia / Hyponatremia
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53. Pereira JM, Sirlin CB, Pinto PS, Casola G: CT and MR imaging of extrahepatic fatty masses of the abdomen and pelvis: techniques, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1):69-85
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  • [Title] CT and MR imaging of extrahepatic fatty masses of the abdomen and pelvis: techniques, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls.
  • The differential diagnosis of extrahepatic abdominopelvic masses is wide.
  • Demonstration of fat within a lesion at noninvasive imaging is an important clue for narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • Lesions with predominantly microscopic fat include adrenal adenoma and some teratomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Teratoma / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15653588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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54. Leitolf H, Dixit KC, Higham CE, Brabant G: Licorice - or more? Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Apr;118(4):250-3
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  • Abdominal imaging with US and MRI showed a 2.7 cmx2.2 cmx1.7 cm left adrenal mass.
  • He underwent laparoscopic left adrenalectomy and histology confirmed aldosterone producing adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / ultrasonography. Aldosterone / blood. Glycyrrhiza / adverse effects. Hypokalemia / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Potassium, Dietary. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.
  • (PMID = 20213599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Potassium, Dietary; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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55. Zhang W, Tang ZY, Wang WQ, Ning G: [Metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenocortical adenoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Dec 26;86(48):3397-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenocortical adenoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • METHODS: MS-related indexes, including waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting plasma glucose, plasma and urinary aldosterone, plasma potassium, basic and upright plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma and urinary cortisol, and plasma ACTH, were examined among 61 patients of aldosterone producing adenoma (APA, Group 1), 23 patients of cortisol-secreting adenoma (CSA, Group 2), 24 patients of nonfunctional adrenal adenoma (NAA, Group 3), and 26 healthy controls (Group 4).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with adrenocortical adenoma have a significantly high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially the patients of CSA and NAA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Metabolic Syndrome X / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17313850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Lipids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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56. Joubert M, Louiset E, Rego JL, Contesse V, Kong LC, Benhaim A, Mittre H, Lefebvre H, Reznik Y, REHOS Study Group: Aberrant adrenal sensitivity to vasopressin in adrenal tumours associated with subclinical or overt autonomous hypercortisolism: is this explained by an overexpression of vasopressin receptors? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 May;68(5):692-9
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  • [Title] Aberrant adrenal sensitivity to vasopressin in adrenal tumours associated with subclinical or overt autonomous hypercortisolism: is this explained by an overexpression of vasopressin receptors?
  • OBJECTIVE: Abnormal responsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP) was previously observed in cortisol-producing adrenocortical tumours but the mechanism remains unclear.
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of AVP on cortisol secretion from adrenocortical tumours compared to normal human adrenal gland.
  • DESIGN: A multicentre study based on pharmacological, molecular and immunohistochemical experiments performed in adenomatous and normal adrenal tissues.
  • PATIENTS: Twenty patients with adrenocortical adenomas and subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCCS) or Cushing's syndrome (CS) were compared to six control normal subjects.
  • MEASUREMENTS: In vivo and in vitro cortisol response to vasopressin, vasopressin receptor subtype mRNA measurement by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical localization of AVP and its V1a receptor in tumour and normal adrenal tissues.
  • AVP receptor subtype mRNA levels were similar in SCCS, CS cells and normal adrenal cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SCCS and CS adrenocortical tumours often exhibit in vivo and in vitro hyper-responsiveness to AVP, which is not related to vasopressin receptor overexpression, but may be explained by more efficient coupling pathways or by the indirect action of AVP through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Receptors, Vasopressin / biosynthesis. Vasoconstrictor Agents / pharmacology


57. Garduno-García Jde J, Reza-Albarrán A, Márquez MA, Pérez FJ: [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Nov;57(9):421-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma adrenal como etiología de síndrome de Cushing: veinte años de experiencia en un centro mexicano de tercer nivel.
  • Adrenal adenomas are an uncommon cause of adult CS.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcome of patients with CS caused by adrenal adenomas in a referral center.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional observational study of patients with a diagnosis of CS caused by adrenal adenomas managed in our center over a 20-year period.
  • Our clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of this entity was analyzed.
  • The results of dynamic testing with dexamethasone suggested adrenal adenoma in 100% of the patients.
  • Seventy percent of adenomas were found in the left gland.
  • ACTH measurement in our center was not reliable in identifying adrenal adenoma as a cause of CS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20863774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2021
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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58. Linder B, Hong Y, Jarrett T: Intra-renal adrenal adenoma: a compelling addition to the differential diagnosis of renal mass. Int J Urol; 2009 Nov;16(11):912-4
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  • [Title] Intra-renal adrenal adenoma: a compelling addition to the differential diagnosis of renal mass.
  • We report a case of an adrenal rest arising in the kidney of a 37-year-old male.
  • Laparoscopic renal exploration and biopsy revealed angiomyolipoma on frozen section.
  • However, final pathological analysis of the partial nephrectomy specimen revealed intra-renal adrenal adenoma.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistries and transmission electron microscopy.
  • We review the reported literature on intra-renal adrenal adenoma and highlight the aspects that raise the index of suspicion for this entity on the differential diagnosis of renal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19863627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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59. Kaspareit J, Friderichs-Gromoll S, Buse E, Habermann G: Spontaneous neoplasms observed in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during a 15-year period. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2007 Nov;59(3-4):163-9
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  • The great majority of neoplasms was benign (23 benign neoplasms versus 10 malignant tumors).
  • Most of the tumors (22) in the cynomolgus monkeys were seen in endocrine organs (adrenal cortical adenoma, adrenal hemangioma, C-cell carcinoma, follicular adenoma), respiratory system (nasal cavity adenoma, pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, bronchio-alveolar carcinoma, bronchiolar papilloma, chondromatous hamartoma) and female genital system (uterine polyp, uterine adenoma, uterine leiomyoma and teratoma of the ovary).
  • [MeSH-major] Macaca fascicularis. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17869495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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60. Inomoto C, Sato H, Kanai G, Hirukawa T, Shoji S, Terachi T, Kajiwara H, Osamura RY: Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2010 Jul;35(2):57-61
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  • [Title] Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Functioning black adrenal adenoma (BAA) rarely causes preclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS).
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed that she had a 15-mm in diameter, round, left adrenal adenoma.
  • The left adrenal adenoma was laparoscopically removed.
  • Examination of the surgical specimen revealed unilateral double adrenal adenomas of the left adrenal gland, one of which was a BAA.
  • The compact cell zones remained in the adrenal cortex adjacent to the BAA showed atrophic change.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21319027.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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61. Terzolo M, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Definition of an optimal strategy to evaluate and follow-up adrenal incidentalomas: time for further research. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Oct;161(4):529-32
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  • [Title] Definition of an optimal strategy to evaluate and follow-up adrenal incidentalomas: time for further research.
  • Clinical endocrinologists have to deal frequently with adrenal incidentalomas in their practice.
  • However, no comprehensive guidelines have been published by professional societies to guide assessment and management of adrenal incidentalomas and current recommendations are mainly based on the NIH state-of-the-science statement or expert opinions.

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  • (PMID = 19692548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Groussin L, Cazabat L, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Bertherat J: Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex. Horm Res; 2005;64(3):132-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex.
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a main characteristic of CNC.
  • PPNAD is a very rare cause of Cushing's syndrome due to a primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations nor familial history.
  • Interestingly, patients with isolated PPNAD and no familial history of CNC can also present a germline de novo mutation of PRKAR1A.
  • Somatic mutations of PRKAR1A have been found in PPNAD as a mechanism of inactivation of the wild-type allele, in a patient already presenting a germline mutation, and in a subset of sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas with clinical, hormonal, and pathological features quite similar to PPNAD.
  • This review will summarize the recent findings on CNC from the perspective of the pathophysiology of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and PPNAD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / physiopathology. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / physiopathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16192737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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63. Gavras I: The incidentally discovered adrenal mass. N Engl J Med; 2007 May 10;356(19):2005-6
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  • [Title] The incidentally discovered adrenal mass.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. African Continental Ancestry Group. Humans

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  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 8;356(6):601-10 [17287480.001]
  • (PMID = 17506163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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64. McNicol AM: A diagnostic approach to adrenal cortical lesions. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):241-51
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  • [Title] A diagnostic approach to adrenal cortical lesions.
  • The adrenal gland is not a common specimen in surgical pathology practice as, until recently, adrenal tumors were recognized in life only if associated with hypersecretion of hormones or evidence of malignancy.
  • However, adrenal nodules are not uncommon at autopsy, and the number of these found in life is now increasing as they are identified when the abdomen is scanned for the investigation of other diseases using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.
  • It is therefore becoming increasingly important for the surgical pathologist to be aware of the range of pathology in the gland and to understand how to approach the specimens.
  • This short review will deal with lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19089656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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65. Willenberg HS, Haase M, Papewalis C, Schott M, Scherbaum WA, Bornstein SR: Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor expression on normal and tumorous human adrenocortical cells. Neuroendocrinology; 2005;82(5-6):274-81
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  • [Title] Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor expression on normal and tumorous human adrenocortical cells.
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is not only the principal regulator of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis but also exerts direct actions on peripheral tissues.
  • We analyzed the expression of CRH receptors in microdissected preparations of normal human adrenal glands and in adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors, employing immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR of microdissected adrenal tissues, and in situ hybridization.
  • The effect of CRH on adrenal steroidogenesis was tested in adrenal cells.
  • In addition, we found a higher expression of CRH type-1 and 2 receptors mRNAs in preparations of adrenal cortices as compared to pheochromocytomas, a 6-fold increase in preparations of clinically unapparent adrenocortical adenomas, and a 10- to 60-fold increase in cortisol-producing adrenal adenomas.
  • Stimulation of the adrenal tumor cell line NCI-H295R with CRH elicited a 1.4-fold increase in DHEA secretion.
  • This result could be reproduced in a culture of primary human adrenocortical cells.
  • We conclude that adrenocortical cells exhibit a higher expression of functional CRH receptors than chromaffin cells and that CRH acts on adrenal DHEA production.
  • The data support the assertion of a direct action of CRH on human adrenocortical cells in addition to an intra-adrenal CRH receptor/adrenocorticotropin system.
  • Enhanced CRH1R expression may be involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / chemistry. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemistry. Adrenocortical Adenoma / chemistry. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / chemistry. Pheochromocytoma / chemistry. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16721033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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66. Arai H, Kobayashi N, Nakatsuru Y, Masuzaki H, Nambu T, Takaya K, Yamanaka Y, Kondo E, Yamada G, Fujii T, Miura M, Komatsu Y, Kanamoto N, Ariyasu H, Moriyama K, Yasoda A, Nakao K: A case of cortisol producing adrenal adenoma without phenotype of Cushing's syndrome due to impaired 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity. Endocr J; 2008 Aug;55(4):709-15
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  • [Title] A case of cortisol producing adrenal adenoma without phenotype of Cushing's syndrome due to impaired 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity.
  • This report concerns a case of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenoma without the phenotype of Cushing's syndrome.
  • A left adrenal tumor was incidentally detected in this patient.
  • A diagnosis of adrenal Cushing's syndrome was based on the results of endocrinological and radiological examinations, although she showed none of the physical signs of Cushing's syndrome, glucose intolerance, hypertension or dyslipidermia.
  • After a successful laparoscopic left adrenalectomy, the pathological diagnosis was adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Slow tapering of glucocorticoids was needed to prevent adrenal insufficiency after surgery, and the plasma ACTH level remained high even though the serum cortisol level had reached the upper limit of the normal range.
  • [MeSH-major] 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18493111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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67. Stratakis CA, Carney JA: The triad of paragangliomas, gastric stromal tumours and pulmonary chondromas (Carney triad), and the dyad of paragangliomas and gastric stromal sarcomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome): molecular genetics and clinical implications. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):43-52
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  • A number of other lesions have been described in the condition including pheochromocytomas, oesophageal leiomyomas and adrenocortical adenomas; CT is a novel form of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a genetic condition with a female predilection.
  • We recently reported an international series of patients with CT, 34 females and three males (median age of presentation 21 years) who did not carry SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations.


68. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Osella G, Borretta G, Angeli A, Reimondo G: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1272-9
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  • Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS) is attracting increasing interest since the serendipitous discovery of an adrenal mass has become a rather frequent event owing to the routine use of sophisticated radiologic techniques.
  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent type of adrenal incidentaloma accounting for approximately 50% of cases in surgical series and even greater shares in medical series.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas may secrete cortisol in an autonomous manner that is not fully restrained by pituitary feedback, in 5 to 20% of cases depending on study protocols and diagnostic criteria.
  • The criteria for qualifying subclinical cortisol excess are controversial and presently there is no consensus on a gold standard for the diagnosis of this condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / epidemiology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Incidental Findings. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18209865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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69. Wosnitzer B, Gadiraju R: The role of nuclear imaging in multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1). Radiol Case Rep; 2010;5(4):452
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) is a rare genetic disorder classically characterized by a predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet cells (1).
  • In addition to exhibiting these characteristic tumors, MEN 1 patients also have an increased propensity for other tumors such as carcinoids, adrenal adenomas, angiofibromas, and lipomas (1, 2, 3).
  • The tumors of MEN 1 are usually benign; however, malignancy of some carcinoid, islet cell, and gastrointestinal tract tumors can cause mortality (5, 6, 7, 8).
  • Diagnosis of MEN 1 is usually made by a combination of history and physical examination, biochemical serum testing, and various imaging modalities (9, 10).
  • We present a classic case of MEN 1 with unique presentation and diagnosis using predominantly nuclear imaging in order to emphasize the role of nuclear imaging in diagnosing and treating MEN 1.

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  • (PMID = 27307880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-0433
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4901017
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT, computed tomography / EGD, esophagogastroduodenoscopy / MEN 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 / MRI, magnetic resonance imaging
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70. de Matos LL, Trufelli DC, das Neves-Pereira JC, Danel C, Riquet M: Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review. Lung Cancer; 2006 Sep;53(3):381-6
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  • Neither of these patients had hypophysary microadenomas, adrenal adenomas or recurrence of CS after surgical treatment, demonstrating that CS was caused solely by the presence of the bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis


71. Kramer CK, Ferreira N, Silveiro SP, Gross JL, Dora JM, Azevedo MJ: Pituitary gland metastasis from renal cell carcinoma presented as a non-functioning macroadenoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010;54(5):498-501
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  • [Title] Pituitary gland metastasis from renal cell carcinoma presented as a non-functioning macroadenoma.
  • Metastatic tumors involving the pituitary gland are an uncommon finding and occur in up to 1% of all pituitary tumor resections.
  • Five years ago, he underwent a right radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy for lung and parotid metastases.
  • Endocrinological evaluation revealed central adrenal and gonadal insufficiencies.
  • The patient underwent a transsphenoidal tumor resection that revealed renal cell carcinoma.
  • Furthermore, clinical diabetes insipidus, a common finding of pituitary metastases, can be absent.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 20694412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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72. Shiozawa M, Sata N, Endo K, Koizumi M, Yasuda Y, Nagai H, Takakusaki H: Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Jan-Feb;34(1):113-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy (EA) is recognized as a principal procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 11 cases comprising 10 adrenal adenomas and one ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia admitted to Jichi Medical University Hospital, Tochigi, Japan, between November 2003 and October 2006.
  • 3D PVS images of ribs, vertebrae, kidneys, and adrenal tumors were generated and compared with real images obtained during EA.
  • RESULTS: The PVS images clearly showed the relative locations of the adrenal tumor, kidney, and adjacent anatomical structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18253779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Brunaud L, Ayav A, Zarnegar R, Rouers A, Klein M, Boissel P, Bresler L: Prospective evaluation of 100 robotic-assisted unilateral adrenalectomies. Surgery; 2008 Dec;144(6):995-1001; discussion 1001
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pathology was aldosteronoma (n = 39), pheochromocytoma (n = 24), nonfunctional adenoma (n = 19), Cushing adenoma or hyperplasia (n = 16), and cyst (n = 2).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / statistics & numerical data. Robotics / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 19041009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Rosłonowska E, Kochman M, Jeske W, Otto M, Cichocki A, Słapa RZ, Zgliczyński W: Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):69-73
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  • [Title] Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre.
  • INTRODUCTION: During the last 22 years we registered 1790 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumours (AI, adrenal incidentalomas).
  • The group of patients with bilateral adrenal tumours included 258 women and 93 men, 25-83 years old.
  • Hormonal investigations and imaging examinations were performed to search for subclinical adrenal hyperfunction and to define the malignant potential of the tumours.
  • Histological findings included malignant tumours: metastases - 9, adrenal cancer - 7, and lymphomas - 5; and non-malignant tumours: adenomas - 24, nodular hyperplasia - 14, myelolipomas - 4, and pheochromocytomas - 4.
  • Subclinical Cushing's syndrome was relatively more frequent in nodular hyperplasia (40%) than in adenomas (30%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Indications for surgery were recommended in 20% of patients with bilateral AI, most frequently for adenomas, nodular hyperplasia, and oncological pathologies, with a good prognosis in the non-malignant group. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 69-73).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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75. Saner-Amigh K, Mayhew BA, Mantero F, Schiavi F, White PC, Rao CV, Rainey WE: Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):1136-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: The mechanisms driving steroid production in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are poorly defined.
  • However, previous studies have shown that steroid production in some cortisol-producing adenomas is regulated by aberrant expression of G protein-coupled receptors.
  • Aberrant adrenal expression of LH receptors has been shown to cause Cushing's syndrome, but the role of LH receptors in Conn's disease (hyperaldosteronism) has not been studied.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether APAs express elevated LH receptor, compared with normal adrenal (NA).
  • Aldosterone synthase transcription was studied in H295R adrenocortical cells transfected with an LH receptor expression construct and reporter constructs prepared from CYP11B2 5'-flanking DNA.
  • PATIENTS: The patient population consisted of 20 normal control adrenals and 18 adenomas from patients with APAs.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Regulation of CYP11B2 gene expression by aberrant LH receptor expression in aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma was measured.
  • CONCLUSION: LH receptor expression is elevated in many APAs, which makes LH a potential cause of the excessive production of aldosterone in a subset of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aldosterone / metabolism. Receptors, LH / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Corpus Luteum / physiology. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Ovarian Follicle / physiology. Plasmids. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16332935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LH; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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76. Eller-Vainicher C, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Battista C, Torlontano M, Coletti F, Iorio L, Cairoli E, Beck-Peccoz P, Arosio M, Ambrosi B, Scillitani A, Chiodini I: Accuracy of several parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting before surgery the metabolic effects of the removal of an adrenal incidentaloma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Dec;163(6):925-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accuracy of several parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting before surgery the metabolic effects of the removal of an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • CONTEXT: It is unknown whether the metabolic effects of the removal of an adrenal incidentaloma (AI) can be predicted by the assessment of cortisol hypersecretion before surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of several criteria of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting the metabolic outcome after adrenalectomy.

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011 Jan;7(1):3 [21197705.001]
  • (PMID = 20881060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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77. Grogan RH, Mitmaker E, Vriens MR, Harari A, Gosnell JE, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY: Adrenal incidentaloma: does an adequate workup rule out surprises? Surgery; 2010 Aug;148(2):392-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: does an adequate workup rule out surprises?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentaloma remains a diagnostic challenge.
  • We sought to determine how accurately these guidelines identify functioning incidentalomas and how often these guidelines result in adrenalectomy for benign tumors.
  • METHODS: We catalogued adrenal incidentalomas from a retrospective review of 500 consecutive adrenalectomies at a single institution.
  • The outcome measures studied were patient demographics, preoperative biochemical analysis, imaging characteristics, tumor size, type of operation performed, and postoperative histologic diagnosis.
  • Size was the only significant characteristic that distinguished cortical cancers from benign adenomas.
  • We also found that 25% of cortisol-secreting incidentalomas were cystic, and that benign adenomas accounted for 42% of all tumors resected.
  • CONCLUSION: Current guidelines accurately predict the functional status of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • However, even with the most up-to-date diagnostic tools available, most adrenal incidentalomas resected are benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20576282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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78. Cotesta D, Caliumi C, Alò P, Petramala L, Reale MG, Masciangelo R, Signore A, Cianci R, D'Erasmo E, Letizia C: High plasma levels of human chromogranin A and adrenomedullin in patients with pheochromocytoma. Tumori; 2005 Jan-Feb;91(1):53-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We collected blood samples for measurement of plasma CgA and AM in 21 patients with pheochromocytomas, 43 healthy subjects and 26 patients with solid non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas.
  • CgA and AM were measured by means of a novel solid-phase two-site immunoradiometric assay based on monoclonal antibodies (CgA-RIA CT, CIS bio international) and by a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA, Phoenix Pharm. Inc.
  • RESULTS: The mean plasma CgA level (+/- SD) in patients with pheochromocytomas (204 +/- 147.9 ng/mL) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that in healthy subjects (41.6 +/- 10.7 ng/mL) and in patients with non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas (47.3 +/- 17.6 ng/mL).
  • The mean plasma AM concentration (+/- SD) in patients with pheochromocytomas (27.5 +/- 10.4 pg/mL) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that in HS (13.8 +/- 4.5 pg/mL) and in patients with non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas (16.6 +/- 7.3 pg/mL).
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that circulating CgA and AM levels are increased in pheochromocytoma patients compared with healthy subjects and patients with non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Moreover, at the time of diagnosis plasma CgA levels correlated with plasma AM levels and with plasma metanephrine levels in all patients with pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranins / blood. Peptides / blood. Pheochromocytoma / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenomedullin. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Chromogranin A. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Radioimmunoassay. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 15850005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Peptides; 148498-78-6 / Adrenomedullin
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79. Zhou J, Ye D, Wu M, Zheng F, Wu F, Wang Z, Li H: Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases. Int Urol Nephrol; 2009;41(3):547-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases.
  • Bilateral adrenal neoplasms are very rare.
  • We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 18 cases of bilateral adrenal tumor in our hospital between 2002 and 2007.
  • The etiology was pheochromocytoma in six, primary lymphoma in four, nonfunctioning cortical adenoma in four, metastatic tumors in two, primary aldosteronism in one, and Cushing syndrome in one.
  • Our findings suggest that pheochromocytoma, primary lymphoma, and nonfunctioning cortical adenoma are common causes of bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18850298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2584
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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81. Tissier F, Cavard C, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Hagneré AM, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Gicquel C, Bertagna X, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Perret C, Bertherat J: Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 1;65(17):7622-7
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  • [Title] Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a rare cancer with a very poor prognosis.
  • The genetic alterations identified to date in adrenocortical tumors are limited.
  • We investigated whether Wnt pathway activation is involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • In a series of 39 adrenocortical tumors, immunohistochemistry revealed abnormal cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in 10 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 11 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • An activating somatic mutation of the beta-catenin gene was shown in 7 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 4 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas; these mutations were observed only in adrenocortical tumors with abnormal beta-catenin accumulation and most were point mutations altering the Ser45 of exon 3 (in the consensus GSK3-beta/CK1 phosphorylation site).
  • Functional studies showed that the activating Ser45 beta-catenin mutation found in the adrenocortical cancer H295R cell line leads to constitutive activation of T-cell factor-dependent transcription.
  • This is the first molecular defect to be reported with the same prevalence in both benign (27%) and malignant (31%) adrenocortical tumors. beta-Catenin mutations are also the most frequent genetic defect currently known in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • In adrenocortical adenomas, beta-catenin alterations are more frequent in nonfunctioning tumors, suggesting that beta-catenin pathway activation might be mostly involved in the development of nonsecreting adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The very frequent and substantial accumulation of beta-catenin in adrenocortical carcinomas suggests that other alterations might also be involved.
  • This finding may contribute to new therapeutic approaches targeting the Wnt pathway in malignant adrenocortical tumors, for which limited medical therapy is available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16140927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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82. Petramala L, Battisti P, Lauri G, Palleschi L, Cotesta D, Iorio M, De Toma G, Sciomer S, Letizia C: Cushing's syndrome patient who exhibited congestive heart failure. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jun;30(6):525-8
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  • In this article we report the case of a 28-yr-old woman with CS secondary to adrenal adenoma who exhibited congestive heart failure as an initial symptom.
  • An abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a 7-cm right adrenal mass.
  • A laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed and pathological examination of the gland showed a benign adrenocortical adenoma.
  • In conclusion we report the case of heart failure as the main clinical symptom in CS secondary to adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome. Heart Failure / etiology


83. Alexandraki KI, Michail OP, Nonni A, Diamantis D, Giannopoulou I, Kaltsas GA, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Syriou V, Michail PO: Corticomedullary mixed adrenal tumor: case report and literature review. Endocr J; 2009;56(6):817-24
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  • [Title] Corticomedullary mixed adrenal tumor: case report and literature review.
  • We report a 66-year-old woman with a mixed corticomedullary tumor of the left adrenal gland.
  • The patient was found to harbor an adrenal incidentaloma while investigated for a spigelian hernia.
  • Due to the atypical radiological features and the relatively large size of the adrenal lesion she underwent a left adrenalectomy following endocrine testing to exclude a functional lesion.
  • Histology was consistent with a corticomedullary mixed adenoma, a lesion for which, there is paucity of published data regarding its natural history and long term outcome.
  • The finding of this case highlights the importance of this extremely rare entity which should be included in the long list of causes of adrenal incidentaloma since cases with intra-operative complications have been described.
  • The previously reported reappearance of this tumor in the contralateral adrenal gland emphasizes the need for prolonged follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hernia, Abdominal / complications

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  • (PMID = 19461165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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84. Mishra AK, Agarwal A, George RK, Gupta S, Mishra SK: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome: report of the initial six cases. Int Surg; 2009 Jan-Feb;94(1):31-4
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome: report of the initial six cases.
  • We report our experience with the initial six cases of transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome).
  • From 1997 to 2002, 6 patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome) were referred to the Department of Endocrine Surgery and underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy through the transperitoneal approach.
  • In all patients, the adrenal gland and the adenoma were successfully removed laparoscopically, and all patients were normokalemic and normotensive in the first follow-up after 6 months.

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  • (PMID = 20099423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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85. Lubikowski J, Umiński M, Andrysiak-Mamos E, Pynka S, Fuchs H, Wójcicki M, Szajko M, Moleda P, Post M, Zochowska E, Kiedrowicz B, Safranow K, Syrenicz A: From open to laparoscopic adrenalectomy: thirty years' experience of one medical centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):94-101
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  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the standardized treatment of benign adrenal lesions over the last two decades, making the indications to open adrenalectomy (OA) limited.
  • The purpose of this study was to show the thirty years of experience in open (OA) and laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) gained in one medical centre as well as to compare the results of OA and LA performed for benign adrenal lesions.
  • Analyzed factors included patients demographic data, ASA score, indication for surgery, tumour size and side, characteristics of the removed tumours, intraoperative and postoperative outcome of LA and OA, postoperative pain sensation, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and conversion rate from LA to OA.
  • The mean operative time was longer in the LA group (137 v. 82 min., p < 0.0001) and the blood loss was lower in LA group (110 v. 254 mL, p < 0.0001).
  • The mean time until resumption of normal diet was shorter after LA (22 v. 44 h), as was the mean time until ambulation (17 v. 36 h), mean length of the hospital stay (4.6 v. 6.8 days), and mean time until return to normal activities (14 v. 23 days, p < 0.0001 for each difference).
  • The analgesic requirement on the first and the second day postoperatively was lower in the LA group (p < 0.0001).
  • The rate of the conversion from LA to OA was 16%.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was adenoma of the adrenal gland in the majority of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that LA is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated procedure.
  • It may be recommended as a "gold standard" surgery in a case of benign functioning or non-functioning adrenal tumours with diameter less than 8 cm. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 94-101).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Poland. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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86. Sangwaiya MJ, Boland GW, Cronin CG, Blake MA, Halpern EF, Hahn PF: Incidental adrenal lesions: accuracy of characterization with contrast-enhanced washout multidetector CT--10-minute delayed imaging protocol revisited in a large patient cohort. Radiology; 2010 Aug;256(2):504-10
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  • [Title] Incidental adrenal lesions: accuracy of characterization with contrast-enhanced washout multidetector CT--10-minute delayed imaging protocol revisited in a large patient cohort.
  • A multidetector computed tomography (CT) adrenal protocol (unenhanced, dynamic contrast material-enhanced, and 10-minute delayed CT) was used in 314 consecutive patients (201 women, 113 men; mean age, 63.6 years) for the period from January 2006 through February 2009.
  • The mean adrenal attenuation during all three CT phases was measured by two readers, and the relative percentage washout (RPW) and absolute percentage washout (APW) values were calculated.
  • RESULTS: There were 323 adrenal lesions (213 left, 110 right) consisting of 307 adenomas and 16 nonadenomas.
  • Areas under the ROC curve were 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.75, 0.95) and 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.97) for the APW and RPW tests, respectively, to detect adenomatous disease.
  • CONCLUSION: The 10-minute delayed adrenal enhancement washout test has reduced sensitivity for the characterization of adrenal adenomas compared with results from prior studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Iopamidol / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data

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  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2012 May;263(2):619; author reply 619-20 [22517967.001]
  • (PMID = 20656838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; JR13W81H44 / Iopamidol
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87. Tanemoto M, Abe M, Satoh F, Abe T, Satoh H, Ito S: Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with aldosterone-producing adenoma. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2007 Jun;11(2):164-7
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  • [Title] Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • We describe a case of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MesPGN), the clinical symptoms of which were exacerbated by aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).
  • A 45-year-old man, who had had a history of hypertension for several years, presented with renal derangement, with serum creatinine at its upper normal limit and with microhematuria and proteinuria.
  • After the administration of spironolactone, we resected his left adrenal gland, which had a nodular lesion as well as aldosterone hypersecretion.
  • The administration of losartan because of the histological finding of MesPGN reduced the amount of hematuria.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative / complications


88. Rescinito G, Zandrino F, Cittadini G Jr, Santacroce E, Giasotto V, Neumaier CE: Characterization of adrenal adenomas and metastases: correlation between unenhanced computed tomography and chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging. Acta Radiol; 2006 Feb;47(1):71-6
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  • [Title] Characterization of adrenal adenomas and metastases: correlation between unenhanced computed tomography and chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation of absolute attenuation values of unenhanced computed tomography (CT) with signal intensity (SI) quantitative analysis on chemical shift (CS) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in differentiating adrenal adenomas from metastases.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-one adrenal masses (27 adenomas, 14 metastases) were studied with CS MR imaging and unenhanced CT.
  • RESULTS: The mean attenuation value of metastases was significantly greater than that of adenomas (< 0.0001).
  • On MR, the mean SI-i of adenomas was significantly greater than that of metastases (P < 0.0001) and no overlaps were evident.
  • The CS-r of malignant and benign lesions overlapped considerably, and five adenomas (all with indeterminate Hounsfield Unit values at CT) were misclassified as potentially malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Since CS MR imaging and CT both depict the presence of lipids within adrenal lesions, absolute attenuation values are highly correlated with MR quantitative analysis.
  • SI-i is the most reliable tool for differentiating adrenal adenomas from metastases, showing better accuracy than lesion-to-spleen CS-r, in particular for adenomas with indeterminate absolute attenuation values.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16498936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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89. Penezić Z, Zarković M, Vujović S, Drezgić M: [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2006 Nov-Dec;134(11-12):558-66
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome].
  • Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a clinical state resulting from prolonged, inappropriate exposure to excessive endogenous secretion of cortisol and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of normal feedback mechanisms of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and normal circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion.
  • The etiology of Cushing's syndrome may be excessive ACTH secretion from the pituitary gland, ectopic ACTH/CRH secretion by non-pituitary tumor, or excessive autonomous secretion of cortisol from hyperfunctioning adrenal adenoma or carcinoma, PPNAD and MAH.
  • Diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome must be made before any attempt at differential diagnosis, and key biochemical characteristics are: excess endogenous cortisol secretion; loss of normal feedback of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and disturbance of normal circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion.
  • Biochemical diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome includes: urinary free cortisol determination, low-dose dexamethasone testing, circadian rhythm assessment, insulin tolerance test, and LDDST/CRH test.
  • Differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome involves: plasma ACTH level determination, high dose dexamethasone testing, metyrapone testing, testing with CRH, testing with vasopressin or combination, and finally, bilateral simultaneous petrosal sinus sampling with CRH stimulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17304774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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90. Hwang WR, Ma WY, Tso AL, Pan CC, Chang YH, Lin HD: Pheochromocytoma and adrenocortical adenoma in the same gland. J Chin Med Assoc; 2007 Jul;70(7):289-93
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma and adrenocortical adenoma in the same gland.
  • A right adrenal tumor was found incidentally during abdominal computed tomography exam in a 51-year-old female patient, who had had diabetes and hypertension for more than 10 years.
  • Therefore, adrenal cortical adenoma with subclinical Cushing's syndrome was highly suspected; however, further imaging studies, including magnetic resonance image and 131I-6beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy failed to discriminate an additional tumor.
  • After right adrenalectomy, a small adrenal cortical adenoma and a large pheochromocytoma were noted.
  • This is an extremely rare case of an adrenal incidentaloma consisting of both medullary and cortical tumors in the same gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17631466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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91. Tenenbaum F: [Adrenal incidentaloma and nuclear medicine examination]. J Radiol; 2009 Mar;90(3 Pt 2):444-8
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma and nuclear medicine examination].
  • [Transliterated title] Différentes explorations d'un incidentalome surrénalien en médecine nucléaire.
  • In the setting of adrenal incidentaloma, nuclear medicine evaluation is only indicated after biological and imaging work-up has been completed.
  • In lesions without MIBG uptake, 18F FDG or 18F DOPA PET can be considered to characterize chromaffin cell tumours.
  • To characterize lesions of the adrenal cortex, iodocholesterol scintigraphy is performed to confirm the origin of the adenoma and the benign or malignant nature of the lesion since benign adenomas show tracer uptake and malignant lesions show no tracer uptake.
  • 18F FDG PET only characterizes the lesion as benign or malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19421135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 2C598205QX / fluorodopa F 18; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 63-84-3 / Dihydroxyphenylalanine
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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92. Zhou GW, Wei Y, Chen X, Jiang XH, Li XY, Ning G, Li HW: Diagnosis and surgical treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Jul 5;122(13):1495-500
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and surgical treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia.
  • We discuss the diagnosis and surgical treatment of MEN.
  • There were 22 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), 10 cases of enteropanceatic tumor including 9 cases of insulinoma, 15 cases of pituitary adenoma, 9 cases of adrenal adenoma, 2 cases of thymic carcinoid.
  • Two patients had 4 glands involved, 3 patients had 3 glands involved, 16 patients had 2 glands involved, and 6 patients had only one gland involved.
  • RESULTS: In MEN1, subtotal parathyroidectomy was performed in 12 patients with PHPT and one patient received parathyroid adenoma enucleation.
  • Twenty two MEN2a patients underwent pheochromocytoma enucleation including bilateral adrenal resection in 10 cases.
  • Among them, 3 cases underwent bilateral adrenal operations.
  • Germline mutation test is helpful in establishing a diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19719936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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93. Araki A, Shinohara M, Yamakawa J, Tanaka M, Natsui S, Izumi Y: Gastric diverticulum preoperatively diagnosed as one of two left adrenal adenomas. Int J Urol; 2006 Jan;13(1):64-6
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  • [Title] Gastric diverticulum preoperatively diagnosed as one of two left adrenal adenomas.
  • A 47-year-old man was diagnosed with primary aldosteronism due to two left adrenal adenomas, suggested on computed tomography (CT) to be located at the upper and lower adrenal portion.
  • However, adosterol scintigraphy revealed negligible uptake at the upper portion of the left adrenal.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, but macroscopic examination of the specimen revealed only one adrenal tumor.
  • Postoperatively, aldosteronism resolved and repeat CT revealed staining of the adrenal pseudotumor when oral contrast was administered.
  • Since organs located near the adrenals can simulate adrenal tumors, caution must be exercised in interpreting suprarenal masses on CT.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of concurrent pseudotumor and true tumor of the ipsilateral adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Diverticulum, Stomach / diagnosis. Preoperative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16448434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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94. Almeida MQ, Fragoso MC, Lotfi CF, Santos MG, Nishi MY, Costa MH, Lerario AM, Maciel CC, Mattos GE, Jorge AA, Mendonca BB, Latronico AC: Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II and its receptor in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Sep;93(9):3524-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II and its receptor in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical tumors are heterogeneous neoplasms with incompletely understood pathogenesis.
  • IGF-II overexpression has been consistently demonstrated in adult adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to analyze expression of IGF-II and its receptor (IGF-IR) in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors and the effects of a selective IGF-IR kinase inhibitor (NVP-AEW541) on adrenocortical tumor cells.
  • PATIENTS: Fifty-seven adrenocortical tumors (37 adenomas and 20 carcinomas) from 23 children and 34 adults were studied.
  • Cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed in NCI H295 cells and a new cell line established from a pediatric adrenocortical adenoma.
  • RESULTS: IGF-II transcripts were overexpressed in both pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas and adenomas.
  • Otherwise, IGF-II was mainly overexpressed in adult adrenocortical carcinomas (270.5 +/- 130.2 vs. 16.1 +/- 13.3; P = 0.0001).
  • IGF-IR expression was significantly higher in pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas than adenomas (9.1 +/- 3.1 vs. 2.6 +/- 0.3; P = 0.0001), whereas its expression was similar in adult adrenocortical carcinomas and adenomas.
  • IGF-IR expression was a predictor of metastases in pediatric adrenocortical tumors in univariate analysis (hazard ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.28-2.66; P = 0.01).
  • Furthermore, NVP-AEW541 blocked cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both cell lines through a significant increase of apoptosis.
  • CONCLUSION: IGF-IR overexpression was a biomarker of pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Additionally, a selective IGF-IR kinase inhibitor had antitumor effects in adult and pediatric adrenocortical tumor cell lines, suggesting that IGF-IR inhibitors represent a promising therapy for human adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Receptor, IGF Type 2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18611974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, IGF Type 2; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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95. Zhang XP, Wei JX, Zhang WX, Wang ZY, Wu YD, Song DK: [Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal neoplasm: a report of 371 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2009 Jul;28(7):730-3
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  • [Title] [Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal neoplasm: a report of 371 cases].
  • There were 127 cases of primary hyperaldosteronism adenoma, 117 cases of Cushing's adenoma, 58 cases of phaeochromo-cytoma, 37 cases of incidentoma and 32 cases of other types.
  • The type of adrenal diseases, operating time, blood loss, complications and prognosis were summarized and the operating method was analyzed.
  • Two patients suffered from diaphragm injuries, one patient had right renal vein injury and one had colon injury.
  • CONCLUSION: Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy is one of the favorable approaches for the treatment of adrenal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Loss, Surgical. Child. Child, Preschool. Colon / injuries. Diaphragm / injuries. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Renal Veins / injuries. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult


96. Hennings J, Andreasson S, Botling J, Hägg A, Sundin A, Hellman P: Long-term effects of surgical correction of adrenal hyperplasia and adenoma causing primary aldosteronism. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Feb;395(2):133-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term effects of surgical correction of adrenal hyperplasia and adenoma causing primary aldosteronism.
  • Preoperative indications for surgery included presumed adenoma (aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA)) or in one case unilateral dominance of hyperplasia.
  • RESULTS: Histopathology was classified into adenoma (n = 9), dominant nodule (n = 16), and general hyperplasia without dominating nodules (n = 5), demonstrating a higher frequency of hyperplasia than anticipated.
  • Hypersecretion of aldosterone may be released from a large nodule identified as an adenoma, as well as from a generally hyperplastic gland that has not been identified as such.
  • Nevertheless, surgery for lateralized disease results in good long-term control of BP with less antihypertensive medication.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19418066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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97. Papotti M, Volante M, Duregon E, Delsedime L, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Rosai J: Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jul;34(7):973-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior.
  • Myxoid changes have been rarely reported both in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • The recent observation by our group of an adrenal myxoid tumor with morphologically borderline features, but aggressive clinical behavior prompted us to review a series of 196 adrenocortical lesions, comprising 122 carcinomas and 74 adenomas, to define the morphologic, phenotypical and clinical characteristics of adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features.
  • Fourteen cases, including 12 carcinomas and 2 borderline tumors, formed the basis of this report, and were characterized by a variably abundant myxoid component (from 5% to 90% of tumor) and 2 distinct cellular growth patterns: the first (10 cases), mostly associated with a predominant myxoid stromal component, was made of small cells with mild atypia arranged in cords and microcysts; the second (4 cases) was characterized by focal myxoid changes in tumors otherwise similar to conventional adrenocortical carcinoma, with large atypical cells having an eosinophilic cytoplasm and a diffuse or nodular architecture.
  • The above mentioned patterns were absent in all adenomas reviewed.
  • A peculiar reactivity to neurofilaments was seen, mostly associated to the presence of predominant rather that focal myxoid stromal changes, and in 40% of conventional adrenocortical carcinomas, thus representing an undescribed potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of adrenal lesions.
  • Myxoid adrenocortical tumors probably represent a rare but histologically and phenotipically distinct entity and, although rare cases of benign lesions are on record, they seem to be generally associated to morphologic and clinical features of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Mucins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. Fetal Development. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20534995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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98. Gockel I, Heintz A, Kentner R, Werner C, Junginger T: Changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome. Surg Endosc; 2005 Nov;19(11):1491-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland is regarded as the most common type of endocrine hypertension.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy recorded in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to patients with hormone-inactive incidentaloma and its possible influence by the surgical approach.
  • METHODS: From February 1994 to March 2004, 40 patients underwent endoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome.
  • RESULTS: The adrenal gland was resected using the retroperitoneal in 25 and the transperitoneal approach in 15 patients with Conn's syndrome.
  • The increase in intraoperative blood pressure in patients with Conn's syndrome was significantly higher, for both systolic (p < 0.0001) and diastolic (p = 0.0037) readings, compared to that in patients with incidentaloma undergoing endoscopic adrenalectomy during the same period of time.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that relevant intraoperative increases in blood pressure occur in patients with Conn's syndrome despite prior therapy with an aldosterone antagonist, necessitating specific precautionary measures during anesthesia.

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  • [ErratumIn] Surg Endosc. 2006 Jan;20(1):180. Wetner, C [corrected to Werner, C]
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  • (PMID = 16222471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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99. Bagwan IN, Cook G, Mudan S, Wotherspoon A: Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:116
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases.
  • Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known.
  • In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 x 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 x 3 cm in size.
  • Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The present case highlights the unusual behaviour of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma causing metastasis to an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17949483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2100056
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100. Okosieme OE, Suruliram P, Brade L, Campbell A, Evans LM: Diuretic-induced hypokalaemia in patients with hypertension. Int J Clin Pract; 2006 Dec;60(12):1673-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism due to an adrenal adenoma, and normal blood pressure was restored after surgical removal of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16669823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics
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