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1. Scholz IM, Nümann A, Froster UG, Helmbold P, Enk AH, Näher H: New mutation in the CYLD gene within a family with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Feb;8(2):99-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant disease characterized by multiple skin appendage tumors caused by various mutations in the CYLD gene on chromosome 16q12-q13.
  • In addition, there may be malignant transformation of the generally benign tumors, so that a timely diagnosis is essential for appropriate monitoring and therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Facial Neoplasms / genetics. Frameshift Mutation. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / genetics. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16 / genetics. Exons / genetics. Female. Genes, Dominant / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nose Neoplasms / genetics. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Phenotype. Skin / pathology. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 20151946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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2. Gutiérrez-García L, Medina Ramos N, García Rodríguez R, Barber MA, Arias MD, García JA: Bilateral ovarian Burkitt's lymphoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(2):231-3
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  • We submit a case of a 34-year-old black patient presenting with a bilateral adnexal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19480266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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3. Zalaudek I, Kreusch J, Giacomel J, Ferrara G, Catricalà C, Argenziano G: How to diagnose nonpigmented skin tumors: a review of vascular structures seen with dermoscopy: part II. Nonmelanocytic skin tumors. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):377-86; quiz 387-8
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  • [Title] How to diagnose nonpigmented skin tumors: a review of vascular structures seen with dermoscopy: part II. Nonmelanocytic skin tumors.
  • Nonmelanoma skin cancer refers to a broad class of tumors, including actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, and as a group these are the most frequent cancers occurring in light skinned humans.
  • In contrast to the rarity of amelanotic melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer commonly lacks pigmentation.
  • Although these tumors rarely cause death related to metastases, they commonly destroy underlying tissues and should be removed at the earliest possible stage.
  • Dermoscopy improves the clinical diagnosis of nonpigmented skin tumors by allowing the visualization of specific vascular structures that are usually not visible to the naked eye.
  • Dermoscopic vascular patterns of several nonmelanocytic nonpigmented skin tumors, such as sebaceous hyperplasia, seborrheic keratosis, clear cell acanthoma, Bowen disease, or nodular cystic basal cell carcinoma are highly specific, allowing a ready diagnosis in most cases.
  • Others, such as actinic keratosis, pyogenic granuloma, or uncommon adnexal tumors, may be difficult to differentiate even with the aid of dermoscopy.
  • In the second part of this review of dermoscopic vascular structures of nonpigmented skin tumors, the dermoscopic patterns associated with benign and malignant nonmelanocytic skin tumors and recommendations for the management of these tumors will be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Skin / blood supply. Skin Neoplasms / blood supply. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


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4. Proia AD: Pigmented hamartoma of the eyelid with apocrine, follicular and sebaceous differentiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Nov;34(11):876-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AIM: Adnexal tumors with divergent lines of differentiation are uncommon.
  • RESULTS: Biopsy showed a well-circumscribed tumor composed of predominantly apocrine glands but with areas of sebaceous and follicular differentiation.
  • Some areas had prominent light-brown, granular pigment within tumor cells.
  • Immunohistochemistry indicated that the hamartomatous elements had antigenic features of various adnexal structures independent of the histological phenotype.
  • Lack of tyrosinase activity in the tumor cells and the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positivity of the pigment indicating its similarity to neuromelanin raise the possibility that the melanin in the hamartoma is a non-enzymatically derived oxidation product of a substance intrinsic to the tumor cells.

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  • (PMID = 17944730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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5. Huchon C, Bats AS, Bensaïd C, Junger M, Nos C, Chatellier G, Lécuru F: [Adnexal masses management: a prospective multicentric observational study]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2008 Nov;36(11):1084-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adnexal masses management: a prospective multicentric observational study].
  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge des masses annexielles organiques : résultats d'une enquête de pratique.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was first to describe the adnexal masses diagnoses and their management and secondly to assess the oncological relevance of these strategies.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective multicentric observational study of organic adnexal masses was conducted between June and November 2005.
  • All patients presenting an organic adnexal tumor and for which a definitive histological diagnosis was subsequently available were eligible.
  • RESULTS: Among the 278 patients treated for an adnexal mass during the study-period, 166 were included.
  • In all, 83.1% of tumors were found benign, 12.7% were malignant and 4.2% were borderlines on definitive histological examination.
  • Among those treated by cystectomy, one borderline tumor was found, whereas in those treated by adnexectomy, five borderline and 12 malignant masses were discovered.
  • Peroperative conversion rates were 16% and 50% in borderline and malignant tumors.
  • A minimal preoperative assessment was defined, based upon the dimensions of the tumor and the dosage of at least one marker.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Ovarian borderline tumors and carcinomas are an important contingent of this study (16.9%).
  • The management observed in this study is adapted to benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2009 Jan;37(1):1-2 [19084459.001]
  • (PMID = 18964176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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6. Kini JR, Kini H: Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor: Report of a case and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Oct;37(10):744-7
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor: Report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare cutaneous neoplasm derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology is being increasingly used in the investigation of primary and metastatic cutaneous tumors.
  • However, there are few reports on the cytology of trichilemmal tumors in the literature.
  • We describe the cytological features of this uncommon adnexal tumor presenting as a scalp mass in a 58-year-old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19405112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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7. dos Santos VM, Marques HV Jr, Lima Cdo C, Turra TZ, de Melo Nogueira PR Jr, Lima LN: Yellow nail syndrome and adnexal tumour: causal or casual association? Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci; 2010 Jan-Mar;52(1):51-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Yellow nail syndrome and adnexal tumour: causal or casual association?
  • In Brazil as well as in India, this syndrome has been scarcely described, at least in part due to diagnosis pitfalls related with darker skin pigmentation.
  • A case of adnexal malignancy developing several decades after initial signs of yellow nail syndrome is reported in a 61-year-old Brazilian female admitted for evaluation of peripheral oedema.
  • Physical examination showed yellow thickened nails and lower limb oedema, and a painless huge adnexal mass.
  • Diverse tumours have been described associated with yellow nail syndrome; however, associations can also occur by chance.

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  • (PMID = 20364616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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8. Wimberger P, Kimmig R: [Significance of laparoscopy in gynaecological oncology: limitations for adnexal tumours]. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch; 2009;49(3):133-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Significance of laparoscopy in gynaecological oncology: limitations for adnexal tumours].
  • In the last few decades, the impact and use of laparoscopy for benign adnexal tumours have markedly increased.
  • This review evaluates the importance of laparoscopy in surgery of adnexa and especially of malignant tumours.
  • Certainly, morbidity after laparoscopy is lower, but there is a risk of possibly more restricted staging, rupture of the tumour and port metastases.
  • Analysis showed that the standard treatment of ovarian malignant tumours is laparotomy via a vertical incision, because data on laparoscopy are scarce and prospective, randomized trials for early-stage ovarian cancer are still missing.

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  • (PMID = 19525620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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9. Gangane N, Joshi D, Sharma SM: Cytomorphological diagnosis of malignant eccrine tumors: report of two cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Nov;36(11):801-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytomorphological diagnosis of malignant eccrine tumors: report of two cases.
  • Though FNAC has been successfully used in diagnosing various neoplastic and nonneoplastic cutaneous lesions, there is a paucity of case reports describing the cytomorphological features of adnexal tumors.
  • We hereby describe the cytological features of two histologically confirmed cases of malignant eccrine tumors.
  • A cytological diagnosis of low grade papillary adenocarcinoma arising from skin adnexal structures was given in case number 1.
  • Careful cytological examination displayed the characteristic of two cell population seen in eccrine tumors in both the cases.
  • Diagnosis of malignant eccrine tumors cannot be made with certainity on cytology alone, hence the need to document the cytological features of these entities is emphasized.

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  • (PMID = 18831018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Bartos P, Struppl D, Trhlík M, Czudek S, Skrovina M, Adamcík L, Soumarová R: [Da vinci robotic surgery in gynaecological oncology: a critical interim appraisal]. Ceska Gynekol; 2007 Oct;72(5):354-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DESIGN: Prospective study analysing our experience in 10 patients operated due to gynaecological malignancy, adnexal tumors or planned for the procedure used as a part of extensive oncological surgery.
  • 2 patients with early invasive cervical cancer, 2 patients with cervical cancer in situ (CIS), 3 patients with complex ovarian tumors, 2 patients with symptomatic atypical endometrial glandular hyperplasia and 1 patient underwent necessary gynecological surgery as a part of oncological treatment of breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18175521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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12. Jariwala A, Evans A, McLeod G: Not all stubbed toes are innocuous--A case report of rare malignant eccrine spiradenoma (spiradenocarcinoma) of the toe. Foot Ankle Surg; 2010 Jun;16(2):e32-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Malignant eccrine spiradenoma (MES) is a rare adnexal tumour derived from cutaneous sweat glands.
  • We wish to emphasise through this case report the importance of keeping this rare but potentially lethal tumour in mind when managing chronic non-healing ulcers in extremities.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20483125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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13. Krishnamurthy J, Divya K: The cytology of giant solitary trichoepithelioma. J Cytol; 2010 Jul;27(3):99-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST) is a rare trichogenic tumor, which may present as a pigmented lesion.
  • The recognition of GST is important because of its close resemblance to basal cell carcinoma and other skin adnexal tumors - clinically, cytologically and histologically.

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  • (PMID = 21187885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5165
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cytol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2983083
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; FNAC / Giant solitary trichoepithelioma / basal cell carcinoma / microcystic adnexal carcinoma / trichoblastoma
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14. Balbi GC, Del Piano L, Labriola D, Visconti S, Monteverde A, Passaro M, Monaco R, Cardone A, Rossiello R, Panariello S, Montone L: Female adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin: clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and cytofluorimetric analyses of a 22-year-old virgin. case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(3):313-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Female adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin: clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and cytofluorimetric analyses of a 22-year-old virgin. case report.
  • The term female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin "FATWO" designs this tumor wich arises by the rare persisting remnants of the mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct).
  • At laparotomy the left adnexa were deformed by a well-capsulated mass, totally removed and sent to the pathologist with a specimen of peritoneal fluid and of the omentum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Wolffian Ducts

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  • (PMID = 16800270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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15. Preuss SF, Stenzel MJ, Hansen T, Eslick GD, Gosepath J: Inverted malignant pilomatricoma of the neck. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Apr;262(4):269-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Malignant pilomatricoma is an uncommon malignant follicular adnexal tumor with a predilection for the head and neck among older males.
  • Histology of the resected tumor revealed a malignant pilomatricoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1961 Apr;83:606-18 [13700704.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1996 Apr 1;77(7):1311-4 [8608508.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1980 May 1;45(9):2368-73 [7379033.001]
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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1993 Apr 15;71(8):2491-8 [8453573.001]
  • (PMID = 15258812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Mahlberg MJ, McGinnis KS, Draft KS, Fakharzadeh SS: Multiple eccrine poromas in the setting of total body irradiation and immunosuppression. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Aug;55(2 Suppl):S46-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Eccrine poromas are benign, adnexal tumors that most often occur as a solitary lesion on the palm or sole.
  • Before the appearance of these tumors, the patient had received total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 16843124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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17. Schadt CR, Boyd AS: Eccrine syringofibroadenoma with co-existent squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Dec;34 Suppl 1:71-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare, benign adnexal tumor arising most often on the extremities of elderly individuals.
  • Histologically, the tumor consists of anastomosing cords of cuboidal epithelial cells surrounded by a fibrovascular stroma containing plasma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17997744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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18. Chia CC, Huang SC: Ruptured tubo-ovarian abscess in a postmenopausal woman presenting with septic shock: a case report and literature review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Mar;45(1):89-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Transabdominal sonography and computed tomography showed a large pelvic tumor over the left adnexa with some ascites.
  • The uterus and other adnexa were unremarkable.
  • Under suspicion of a ruptured adnexal tumor, laparotomy was performed and showed a large ruptured tubo-ovarian tumor arising from the left adnexa with intra-abdominal pus formation.
  • Subtotal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy led to massive bleeding during manipulation of the left adnexa because of the necrotic change in the left infundibulopelvic vessels.
  • CONCLUSION: Tubo-ovarian abscesses in postmenopausal women are uncommon but should be kept in mind with a pelvic tumor accompanied by septic shock, as this may cause a terrible outcome and other sequelae.

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  • (PMID = 17272220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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19. Yi WS, Xu XL, Xiang Q, Jiang HB: [Characteristics of ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin lymphoma]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2008 Sep;33(9):826-30
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  • [Title] [Characteristics of ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin lymphoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical manifestation and pathological features of primary ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • METHODS: Data of 18 patients with biopsy-proven ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin lymphoma at Xiangya hospital were reviewed.The disease site, clinical manifestation,imaging and pathological features of the tumor were summarized.
  • RESULTS: All patients had typical presentation of an adnexal mass.Twelve(66.7%) patients had orbital involvement, 3(16.7%) had conjunctival, and 3(16.7%) had lymphoma involving the eyelids.Eight patients were misdiagnosed as "inflammatory pseudotumour" before the operation according to their clinical and imaging examination,another 8 patients were diagnosed as "ocular adnexal tumour with unknown nature" before the operation.
  • CONCLUSION: The typical presentation of ocular adnexal lymphoma is a painless mass.Orbital connective tissue is the most involved anatomical site.
  • The diagnosis of ocular adnexal non-Hodgkin lymphoma is difficult which could easily be misdiagnosed as "inflammatory pseudotumour".

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  • (PMID = 18812662.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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20. Kariya Y, Moriya T, Suzuki T, Chiba M, Ishida K, Takeyama J, Endoh M, Watanabe M, Sasano H: Sex steroid hormone receptors in human skin appendage and its neoplasms. Endocr J; 2005 Jun;52(3):317-25
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  • [Title] Sex steroid hormone receptors in human skin appendage and its neoplasms.
  • Sex steroids have been postulated to influence pathophysiology of human skin through various skin appendages.
  • The presence of sex steroid receptors has been also reported in adnexal tumors but its details still remained unknown.
  • Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized sex steroid receptor protein (estrogen receptor (ER)alpha, ERbeta, progesterone receptor (PR)A, PRB and androgen receptor (AR)) in 23 cases of non-pathological skin (male: 10, female: 13) and in 50 cases of skin adnexal tumors (male 24, female 26; 38 benign and 12 malignant).
  • ERalpha immunoreactivity was detected exclusively in basal cells of sebaceous glands of non-pathological skin.
  • In sebaceous gland neoplasms, the number of ERalpha positive cases was significantly lower in skin appendage neoplasms than non-pathological skin.
  • In sweat gland neoplasms, the number of AR positive cases was significantly lower in benign neoplasms than their non-pathological counterpart.
  • Therefore sex steroids are considered to play important roles in regulation of non-pathological skin appendage function and pathogenesis and/or development of its neoplasm.
  • In addition, the status of the great majority of sex steroid hormone receptors was maintained throughout the process of neoplastic transformation of skin appendages, except for AR and ERalpha in sweat and sebaceous gland neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16006726.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / progesterone receptor A; 0 / progesterone receptor B
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21. Bordel MT, Alvarez-Fernández JC: [Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: presentation of two cases]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2006 May;97(4):260-3
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  • [Transliterated title] Tricoepitelioma desmoplásico. Presentación de dos casos.
  • Trichoepithelioma is a benign neoformation with hair follicle differentiation that may clinically present in solitary, multiple or desmoplastic form.
  • We present two cases of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, a rare adnexal tumor whose incidence is estimated at 2 per 10,000.
  • Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is a benign lesion, clinically and histologically similar to other dermatoses, and presents a true diagnostic challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16801020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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22. Cangelosi JJ, Nash JW, Prieto VG, Ivan D: Cutaneous adnexal tumor with an unusual presentation--discussion of a potential diagnostic pitfall. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 May;31(3):278-81
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  • [Title] Cutaneous adnexal tumor with an unusual presentation--discussion of a potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • The clinical presentation of skin adnexal tumors is nonspecific, and histologically; the differential diagnosis between primary cutaneous adnexal malignant carcinomas and metastatic tumors with a visceral origin can be challenging.
  • However, the tumor cells labeled strongly and diffusely not only for pancytokeratin and cytokeratin (CK7) but also with p63 and CK5/6; carcinoembryonic antigen highlighted the ductal structures.
  • Based on the p63 and CK5/6 positivity, the differential diagnosis also included the possibility of a primary adnexal neoplasm and a complete excision was advised.
  • The reexcision specimen revealed residual infiltrating dermal tumor and an overlying intraepithelial component with marked cytologic atypia and focal duct formation, diagnostic of a primary cutaneous adnexal tumor with ductal differentiation (porocarcinoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2010 Dec;32(8):853-4 [20431390.001]
  • (PMID = 19384070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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23. Kim YH, Lee YK, Choi KW, Lee CY, Kim KH: A Case of Trichilemmal Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery. Ann Dermatol; 2008 Sep;20(3):157-61
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  • Trichilemmal carcinoma is a cutaneous adnexal tumor originating from the outer root sheath of hair follicle, and it was first described by Headington in 1976.
  • Although histologically, trichilemmal carcinoma frequently has maliganant features, it has a relatively benign clinical behavior.
  • We think Mohs micrographic surgery is a useful treatment modality in trichilemmal carcinoma because the final skin defect is smaller than a wide excision.

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  • (PMID = 27303183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1013-9087
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4903970
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mohs micrographic surgery / Trichilemmal carcinoma
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24. Gorva AD, Mohil R, Srinivasan MS: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma presenting as a paronychia of the finger. J Hand Surg Br; 2005 Oct;30(5):534
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  • Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma is a rare skin adnexal tumour, which has a predilection for the digits.
  • We report a case of this tumour presenting as a simple nail bed infection.

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  • (PMID = 16055244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0266-7681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hand surgery (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Br
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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25. Robert Y, Bazot M: [Meno-metrorrhagia imaging]. J Radiol; 2008 Jan;89(1 Pt 2):115-33
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  • It is the first-line technique examination for the identification of an etiology: benign endometrium lesion (polyp, endometrium atrophy or hypertrophy) or malignant tumor, myometrial lesions (adenomyosis, leiomyoma), adnexal tumors, and first trimester pregnancy complication.

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  • (PMID = 18288038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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26. Peitsidis P, Akrivos T, Vecchini G, Rodolakis A, Akrivos N, Markaki S: Splenosis of the peritoneal cavity resembling an adnexal tumor: case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2007;34(2):120-2
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  • [Title] Splenosis of the peritoneal cavity resembling an adnexal tumor: case report.
  • The patient was admitted to our department with the clinical presentation of an adnexal tumor.
  • US and CT confirmed an adnexal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Splenosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17629171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6663
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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27. Liang H, Wu H, Giorgadze TA, Sariya D, Bellucci KS, Veerappan R, Liegl B, Acs G, Elenitsas R, Shukla S, Youngberg GA, Coogan PS, Pasha T, Zhang PJ, Xu X: Podoplanin is a highly sensitive and specific marker to distinguish primary skin adnexal carcinomas from adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Feb;31(2):304-10
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  • [Title] Podoplanin is a highly sensitive and specific marker to distinguish primary skin adnexal carcinomas from adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin.
  • Distinction of primary skin adnexal carcinomas from cutaneous metastasis of adenocarcinomas is challenging.
  • In this study, we evaluated podoplanin immunoreactivity in a series of primary skin adnexal tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin using a D2-40 antibody.
  • The initial test series were composed of a total of 93 cases including 32 primary skin adnexal carcinomas, 46 benign primary adnexal tumors, and 15 cutaneous metastatic adenocarcinomas.
  • We found that variable D2-40 reactivity was seen in all of the primary cutaneous carcinomas including sebaceous carcinomas (10/10), squamous cell carcinomas (10/10), porocarcinomas (4/4), trichilemmal carcinomas (4/4), skin adnexal carcinomas not otherwise specified (4/4), and in the majority of benign skin adnexal tumors.
  • To confirm the initial findings and to further explore the utility of podoplanin reactivity in the distinction of these tumors, we also examined a test set of 35 unknown cases, including 21 adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin and 14 primary adnexal tumors, in a blinded fashion.
  • Of the 13 D2-40 positive cases, 12 were proven to be primary adnexal tumors.
  • Our results suggest that podoplanin can be a useful tool to distinguish primary skin adnexal carcinomas form adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin with high sensitivity (94.5%) and specificity (97.2%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17255777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human
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28. Jain V, Agarwal T, Sharma V, Bisht D, Agarwal AK: Female adnexal tumour of probable Wolffian origin. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):806-8
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  • [Title] Female adnexal tumour of probable Wolffian origin.
  • Mass on histopathological examination was proved to be tumor of Wolffian origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / pathology. Wolffian Ducts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18306563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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29. Heatley MK: Is female adnexal tumour of probable wolffian origin a benign lesion? A systematic review of the English literature. Pathology; 2009;41(7):645-8
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  • [Title] Is female adnexal tumour of probable wolffian origin a benign lesion? A systematic review of the English literature.
  • AIMS: To establish the prognosis associated with female adnexal tumour of probable wolffian origin (FATWO) and determine the frequency with which it behaves as a truly benign lesion.
  • One patient with a ruptured tumour had recurrent disease and one other had died of disease (p = 0.2278).
  • There was no association between outcome and age (p = 0.6651), size (p = 0.1912), length of survival (p = 0.2351) tumour site, mitotic rate or necrosis (p = 0.5937, 0.4697 and 0.2016, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: On the basis of these findings, FATWO cannot be regarded as a benign lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexa Uteri / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Wolffian Ducts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Databases, Bibliographic. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20001344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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30. Lu NH, Tseng MJ: Laparoscopic management of tailgut cyst: case report and review of literature. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2010 Nov-Dec;17(6):802-4
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  • It is usually asymptomatic or demonstrates mass effects, and preoperatively is frequently misdiagnosed as adnexal tumor.
  • The English-language literature contains only limited reports of the laparoendoscopic approach to retrorectal cystic tumor and tailgut cyst.

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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20955994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4669
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Canedo T, de Almeida MP, Cuzzi T, Ramos-e-Silva M: Immunophenotypic aspects of cylindroma and nodular hidradenoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Feb;24(2):178-85
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  • BACKGROUND: Some adnexal tumours have many controversies about their histogenesis.
  • In five of seven cases of nodular hidradenoma (clear cell), we could easily observe clear cells between 20% and 50% of tumour cells.
  • The positivity for p63 antibody, nuclear pattern, was observed in six of seven cases, in the major part of tumour cells.
  • Limitation Samples are in small number because these are relatively rare tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests eccrine origin for both tumours: cylindroma and clear cell hidradenoma.

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  • (PMID = 19796089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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32. Sokalska A, Timmerman D, Testa AC, Van Holsbeke C, Lissoni AA, Leone FP, Jurkovic D, Valentin L: Diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound examination for assigning a specific diagnosis to adnexal masses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Oct;34(4):462-70
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  • [Title] Diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound examination for assigning a specific diagnosis to adnexal masses.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of subjective evaluation of gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound findings (here called pattern recognition) when used by experienced ultrasound examiners with regard to making a specific diagnosis of adnexal masses.
  • METHODS: Within the framework of a European multicenter study, the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis study, comprising nine ultrasound centers, women with at least one adnexal mass were examined with gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography by experienced ultrasound examiners.
  • Using pattern recognition the examiners classified each mass as benign or malignant and suggested a specific diagnosis (e.g. dermoid cyst or endometrioma).
  • The reference standard was the histology of the surgically removed adnexal tumors.
  • RESULTS: A total of 1066 women were included, of whom 800 had a benign mass and 266 a malignant mass.
  • A specific diagnosis based on ultrasound findings was suggested in 899 (84%) tumors.
  • The sensitivity was highest for benign teratoma/dermoid cysts (86%, 100/116), hydrosalpinges (86%, 18/21), peritoneal pseudocysts (80%, 4/5) and endometriomas (77%, 153/199), and lowest for functional cysts (17%, 4/24), paraovarian/parasalpingeal cysts (14%, 3/21), benign rare tumors (11%, 1/9), adenofibromas (8%, 3/39), simple cysts (6%, 1/18) and struma ovarii (0%, 0/5).
  • Dermoid cysts, hydrosalpinges, functional cysts, paraovarian cysts, peritoneal pseudocysts, fibromas/fibrothecomas and simple cysts were never misdiagnosed as malignancies by the ultrasound examiner, whereas more than 10% of inflammatory processes, adenofibromas and rare benign tumors including struma ovarii were misdiagnosed as malignancies.
  • Many other adnexal pathologies can be recognized but not confidently confirmed or excluded.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / ultrasonography. Clinical Competence / standards. Pattern Recognition, Automated

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  • (PMID = 19685552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Kuklani RM, Glavin FL, Bhattacharyya I: Malignant cylindroma of the scalp arising in a setting of multiple cylindromatosis: a case report. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Dec;3(4):315-9
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  • The tumor apparently arose from a cylindroma and had features of spiradenoma.
  • Multiple cylindromatosis is an uncommon hereditary autosomal dominant disease, which is characterized by multiple skin adnexal tumors like cylindromas and trichoepitheliomas and occasional spiradenomas.
  • Cylindroma is an uncommon benign tumor, which originates from skin appendages and is most commonly found on the scalp and face with a strong predilection for middle-aged and elderly females.
  • Although cylindromas are usually benign neoplasms, carcinoma arising in such neoplasms is rare with only sporadic reports in literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20596852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2811564
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34. Blasini W, Hu S, Gugic D, Vincek V: Papillary eccrine adenoma in association with cutaneous horn. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2007;8(3):179-82
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  • [Title] Papillary eccrine adenoma in association with cutaneous horn.
  • Papillary eccrine adenoma (PEA) is an uncommon sweat gland neoplasm that occurs more frequently on the distal extremities of Black women.
  • Concurrent occurrence of PEA and HPV-like epidermal changes may be coincidental; however, their co-occurrence may also be related to the environment induced by this adnexal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Keratosis / complications. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17492846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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35. Kazakov DV, Vittay G, Michal M, Calonje E: High-grade trichoblastic carcinosarcoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):62-4
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  • Here we present the second case of this tumor, which, in contrast to the original example, may be classified as a high-grade neoplasm.
  • The tumor was excised, and the patient had no evidence of recurrence or metastasis 6 years after surgery.
  • Despite the close association throughout the tumor, the epithelial and the stromal cells were sharply separated, without transition between both elements.
  • This conclusion is reached after analyzing the embryological development of the hair follicle, its normal histology and the morphology of cutaneous adnexal tumors with follicular differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18212548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Kanitakis J: Adnexal tumours of the skin as markers of cancer-prone syndromes. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Apr;24(4):379-87
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  • [Title] Adnexal tumours of the skin as markers of cancer-prone syndromes.
  • Adnexal tumours of the skin are benign, more rarely malignant, primary skin tumours that originate from, or differentiate towards, hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands.
  • Although they are usually encountered as single, sporadic tumours, they may occasionally be multiple, hereditary; in that case, they may herald complex genetic syndromes that comprise visceral cancers.
  • Dermatologists should be aware of these adnexal skin tumours, the diagnosis of which may contribute to an early detection of a cancer-prone syndrome with a potentially lethal outcome.
  • The main tumours falling into this category and their associated syndromes are reviewed here.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Muir-Torre Syndrome / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19744258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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37. Gottwald L, Korczyński J, Góra E, Bieńkiewicz A: [Adnexal tumors after surgical treatment of colorectal cancer]. Ginekol Pol; 2008 Apr;79(4):259-63
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  • [Title] [Adnexal tumors after surgical treatment of colorectal cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: The risk of metastatic ovarian tumor is significantly higher in case of women with a history of colorectal cancer.
  • DESIGN: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical presentation and histopathology of adnexal tumors in case of female patients with a history of colorectal adenocarcinoma.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study on 13 women (each with a history of colorectal carcinoma, operated due to adnexal tumor between 2004 and 2007), has been conducted.
  • Subject characteristics, ultrasound, CT, serum tumor markers levels, histopathology and findings at surgery were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Time distance between colorectal cancer surgery and ovarian tumor operation - measured in months -was shorter in cases of malignant neoplasms (10.13 +/- 3.98) than in benign tumors (26.2 +/- 19.37).
  • Ultrasound examination showed solid-cystic adnexal tumors in 8 malignant cases, and ovarian cysts in 5 benign conditions.
  • Unilateral adnexectomy only took place in one case of benign tumor and in one case of disseminated neoplasmatic disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: When evaluating a patient with an adnexal tumor, a history of malignancy strongly suggests a metastatic nature.
  • The use of ultrasound associated with plasma levels of Ca 125, Ca 19-9 and CEA, represents a useful method of preoperative assessment of ovarian tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18592863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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38. Liu WM, Wang PH, Chia CC: A feasible laparoscopic surgery technique for complex adnexal tumors. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Jun;46(2):185-6; author reply 186
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  • [Title] A feasible laparoscopic surgery technique for complex adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexa Uteri / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Mar;46(1):83-4 [17389199.001]
  • (PMID = 17638632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] China
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39. Dubb M, Michelow P: Cytologic features of hidradenoma in fine needle aspiration biopsies. Acta Cytol; 2009 Mar-Apr;53(2):179-82
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  • OBJECTIVE: To review the cytologic features of hidradenoma to describe criteria that may aid in identification of these tumors at the time of aspiration and allow for a more specific diagnosis than the umbrella term of benign skin adnexal tumor.
  • Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of these lesions showed the presence of benign skin adnexal tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the cytologic features of hidradenoma will allow for correct management of the patient and prevent misdiagnosis as a malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19365971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Nemet AY, Martin P, Benger R, Kourt G, Sharma V, Ghabrial R, Danks J: Orbital exenteration: a 15-year study of 38 cases. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Nov-Dec;23(6):468-72
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  • RESULTS: Secondary intraorbital spread of malignant adnexal tumors was the most common indication for exenteration (34 of 38).

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  • (PMID = 18030119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Goh SG, Carr R, Dayrit JF, Calonje E: Mucinous hidradenoma: a report of three cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jun;34(6):497-502
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  • Mucinous cutaneous adnexal tumors are an uncommon occurrence.
  • The tumor was also interpretated as a mucinous hidradenoma, most likely of follicular-apocrine origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17518780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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43. Nikolić B, Ardalić D, Lazić J: [Tumor marker CA-125 in adnexal inflammatory tumors]. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2006 Apr;63(4):383-5
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  • [Title] [Tumor marker CA-125 in adnexal inflammatory tumors].
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: The glycoprotein of a high molecular weight CA-125, which is not a specific tumor marker of ovarian cancer, is secreted by the endothelial cells of most pelvic organs.
  • METHODS: The study included 57 female patients hospitalized due to inflammable adnexal tumors.
  • In all the 57 patients, transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography revealed the presence of adnexal tumor of inflammatory kind.
  • CONCLUSION: The method for the assessment of CA-125 is simple and available which facilitates the monitoring of surgical, conservative or the combined therapy that is particularly significant in younger patients with inflammable adnexal tumor developed on the basis of endometrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. CA-125 Antigen / analysis. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16683407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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44. Mamelak AJ, Goldberg LH, Katz TM, Graves JJ, Arnon O, Kimyai-Asadi A: Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Jan;62(1):102-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (DTE) is an uncommon adnexal tumor usually found on the face of young women.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the clinical and histologic characteristics of DTE and discuss management strategies for these tumors.
  • Approximately 38% of the tumors had been present for 1 to 2 years before presentation.
  • The average size of the tumors at the time of surgery was 0.8 x 0.6 cm.
  • To date, none of the tumors have recurred.
  • CONCLUSION: DTE is a benign tumor that has a predilection for the face.
  • With its rapid growth, aggressive histologic features that may be confused with basal cell carcinoma, and tendency to arise in cosmetically and functionally sensitive areas, these tumors should be removed in a manner that assures clear surgical margins, such as Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Cheek. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mohs Surgery. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Feb;64(2):438-9 [21238832.001]
  • (PMID = 20082889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Cribier B: [Accurate diagnosis of adnexal tumours can be a matter of life or death]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Feb;136(2):125-32
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  • [Title] [Accurate diagnosis of adnexal tumours can be a matter of life or death].
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19232249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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46. Obaidat NA, Ghazarian DM: A proliferating composite adnexal tumour of the penis: report of the first case. J Clin Pathol; 2007 May;60(5):567-9
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  • [Title] A proliferating composite adnexal tumour of the penis: report of the first case.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Eur J Dermatol. 2003 May-Jun;13(3):271 [12822557.001]
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  • (PMID = 17513517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Bhosale P, Iyer R: Diagnostic imaging in gynecologic malignancy. Minerva Ginecol; 2008 Apr;60(2):143-54
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  • This article summarizes the diagnostic performance (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios) of US, CT, MRI and PET/CT in the diagnosis of various gynecological diseases and tumors.
  • US is the first-line imaging modality of choice and is used to discriminate between benign and malignant adnexal masses and for characterizing adnexal tumors such as dermoid cyst, endometrioma, hemorrhagic corpus luteum, etc., for diagnosing intrauterine pathology in women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and for confirming or refuting pelvic pathology in women with pelvic pain.
  • MRI can play a role in detecting the extent of disease and helps in local staging of gynecologic tumors.


48. Gauerke S, Driscoll JJ: Hidradenocarcinomas: a brief review and future directions. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 May;134(5):781-5
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  • Hidradenocarcinomas are rare, aggressive skin adnexal tumors of sweat gland origin that demonstrate a high potential for local recurrence, metastasis, and poor outcome.
  • These neoplasms can derive from preexisting clear cell hidradenomas but more commonly appear de novo, with the molecular events responsible for the pathogenesis currently unknown.
  • Historically, diagnosis has been difficult because of the few cases, inconsistent nomenclature, variable morphology of cells that compose the neoplasm, and confusion with other visceral metastatic tumors.
  • Presentation is generally benign with an indolent clinical course that typically includes local and multiple recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20441512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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49. Aherne NJ, Fitzpatrick DA, Gibbons D, Armstrong JG: Pilomatrix carcinoma presenting as an extra axial mass: clinicopathological features. Diagn Pathol; 2008;3:47
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  • Pilomatrix carcinoma is the rare malignant counterpart of pilomatrixoma, a skin adnexal tumour originating from hair matrix cells.
  • Pilomatrix carcinoma can arise as a solitary lesion de novo, or through transformation of a pilomatrixoma.
  • They are rare, slow growing tumours of the skin found in the lower dermis and subcutaneous fat and are predominantly found in the neck and the scalp.
  • Here we present the pathological features of this uncommon tumour.

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  • (PMID = 19040752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2633279
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50. Krahl D, Sellheyer K: Sox9, more than a marker of the outer root sheath: spatiotemporal expression pattern during human cutaneous embryogenesis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):350-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We examined immunohistochemically samples from embryonic and fetal human skin for the expression of SOX9 using standard techniques.
  • For comparison reasons, we also included scalp skin from adults.
  • In plantar skin, SOX9 specifically labels the evolving eccrine glands but not the interfollicular keratinocytes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The distinctive expression pattern of SOX9 during human cutaneous embryogenesis indicates a key role in skin homeostasis that includes but goes beyond its role in outer root sheath differentiation.
  • Studying immunohistochemical markers in developing human skin has the potential to further our understanding of adult skin physiology and to deepen our concepts especially of the histogenesis of adnexal tumors (including those of the nail unit) and the relationship of the various adnexal structures to each other.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Follicle / embryology. Nails / embryology. SOX9 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Skin / embryology

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  • (PMID = 19614725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SOX9 Transcription Factor; 0 / SOX9 protein, human
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51. Timmerman D, Testa AC, Bourne T, Ferrazzi E, Ameye L, Konstantinovic ML, Van Calster B, Collins WP, Vergote I, Van Huffel S, Valentin L, International Ovarian Tumor Analysis Group: Logistic regression model to distinguish between the benign and malignant adnexal mass before surgery: a multicenter study by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis Group. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Dec 1;23(34):8794-801
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Logistic regression model to distinguish between the benign and malignant adnexal mass before surgery: a multicenter study by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis Group.
  • PURPOSE: To collect data for the development of a more universally useful logistic regression model to distinguish between a malignant and benign adnexal tumor before surgery.
  • The outcome measure was the histologic classification of excised tissues as malignant or benign.
  • RESULTS: Data from 1,066 patients recruited from nine European centers were included in the analysis; 800 patients (75%) had benign tumors and 266 (25%) had malignant tumors.
  • (1) personal history of ovarian cancer, (2) hormonal therapy, (3) age, (4) maximum diameter of lesion, (5) pain, (6) ascites, (7) blood flow within a solid papillary projection, (8) presence of an entirely solid tumor, (9) maximal diameter of solid component, (10) irregular internal cyst walls, (11) acoustic shadows, and (12) a color score of intratumoral blood flow.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. Preoperative Care / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / classification. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / surgery. Cystadenoma, Papillary / classification. Cystadenoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cystadenoma, Papillary / surgery. Cystadenoma, Serous / classification. Cystadenoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenoma, Serous / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Ovarian Cysts / classification. Ovarian Cysts / diagnosis. Ovarian Cysts / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / classification. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16314639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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52. Jeremic K, Gojnic M, Milenković V, Petković S, Stojnić J, Lazović G, Berisavac M, Jeremić J: Treatment for infertility and risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer--a case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2006;33(3):190-1
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  • A 30-year-old women was admitted to the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Center of Serbia in April 2004 with the following diagnosis: adnexal mass soon after in vitro fertilization.
  • After the antibiotic treatment, laparatomy was performed and a multilocular right adnexal tumor was found.


53. Mitcov M, Scrivener Y, Cribier B: [Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: a clinicopathological study, including a comparison with morpheiform basal cell carcinoma]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Jun-Jul;136(6-7):501-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (DTE) is an uncommon form of adnexal tumour that was described for the first time as a separate clinicopathological entity in 1976.
  • We carried out a retrospective histopathological study of a large series of cases of DTE in order to better characterise this tumour and compare it with sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma (BCC), which is in fact the most common as well as the most complex type of differential diagnosis.
  • In six cases (8.8%), a tumour combining DTE with an intradermal naevus was observed.
  • There is a significant association with naevus, a singular feature among adnexal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19560610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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54. George E, Swanson PE, Newman BK, Wick MR: Oculocutaneous oncocytic tumors: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 2 cases with literature review. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Jun;29(3):279-85
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  • [Title] Oculocutaneous oncocytic tumors: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 2 cases with literature review.
  • Oculocutaneous oncocytic tumors (OCOTs) are uncommon neoplasms that have been reported only rarely in the dermatopathology literature and whose immunophenotypic profile has not been well characterized.
  • Histologically, the tumors were well-circumscribed nodules comprised of large oxyphilic cells arranged in confluent sheets and forming glandular spaces with secretory material.
  • Both neoplasms were also labeled for markers associated with cutaneous adnexal, lacrimal, and minor salivary glandular tissue, including alpha-1-antitrypsin, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, carcinoembryonic antigen, lysozyme and MUC1; each case expressed 4 of the 5 substances.
  • A review of the literature disclosed that none of these lesions arising in the caruncle behaved aggressively, in contrast to occasional tumors in other oculocutaneous sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17519627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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55. Obaidat NA, Alsaad KO, Ghazarian D: Skin adnexal neoplasms--part 2: an approach to tumours of cutaneous sweat glands. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Feb;60(2):145-59
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  • [Title] Skin adnexal neoplasms--part 2: an approach to tumours of cutaneous sweat glands.
  • Tumours of cutaneous sweat glands are uncommon, with a wide histological spectrum, complex classification and many different terms often used to describe the same tumour.
  • In addition to the eccrine and apocrine glands, two other skin sweat glands have recently been described: the apoeccrine and the mammary-like glands of the anogenital area.
  • In this review (the second of two articles on skin adnexal neoplasms), common as well as important benign and malignant lesions of cutaneous sweat glands are described, and a summary for differentiating primary adnexal neoplasms from metastatic carcinoma is outlined, striving to maintain a common and acceptable terminology in this complex subject.
  • Composite/mixed adnexal tumours are also discussed briefly.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Humans. Syringoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16882695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 110
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860616
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56. Ameye L, Valentin L, Testa AC, Van Holsbeke C, Domali E, Van Huffel S, Vergote I, Bourne T, Timmerman D: A scoring system to differentiate malignant from benign masses in specific ultrasound-based subgroups of adnexal tumors. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Jan;33(1):92-101
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  • [Title] A scoring system to differentiate malignant from benign masses in specific ultrasound-based subgroups of adnexal tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the prediction of malignant adnexal masses can be improved by considering different ultrasound-based subgroups of tumors and constructing a scoring system for each subgroup instead of using a risk estimation model applicable to all tumors.
  • METHODS: We used a multicenter database of 1573 patients with at least one persistent adnexal mass.
  • The sensitivity and specificity, with regard to the prediction of malignancy, of the scoring system were compared with that of the subjective evaluation of ultrasound images by an experienced examiner (pattern recognition) and with that of a published logistic regression (LR) model for the calculation of risk of malignancy in adnexal masses.
  • The gold standard was the pathological classification of the mass as benign or malignant (borderline, primary invasive, or metastatic).
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexa Uteri / ultrasonography. Adnexal Diseases / ultrasonography. Genital Neoplasms, Female / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 ISUOG.
  • (PMID = 19090501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Smoleń A, Stachowicz N, Czekierowski A, Kotarski J: [The estimation of the probability of tumor malignacy on the basis of test combination in the primary diagnosis of adnexal tumors]. Ginekol Pol; 2010 Apr;81(4):254-61
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  • [Title] [The estimation of the probability of tumor malignacy on the basis of test combination in the primary diagnosis of adnexal tumors].
  • PURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate the risk of ovarian tumor malignancy based on logistic regression analysis and to construct a practical tool which might be used at the bedside.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 379 women with adnexal masses were enrolled to the study The results of the two-dimensional (2D) gray-scale ultrasound examination, color and spectral Doppler blood flow measurement, three-dimensional (3D) sonoangiography examination and serum levels of CA-125 measurement were analyzed.
  • 160 out of 379 women with abnormal findings, (42.2%), were diagnosed with a malignant ovarian tumor and 219 (57.8%) were found to have a non-malignant adnexal mass.
  • Furthermore, the nomograms applicable at the bedside for estimation of the probability of malignancy for the examined adnexal tumor were derived.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study suggest that the combined use of ultrasound parameters and serum level of CA-125 in the prognostic model improves the diagnostic precision in the primary discrimination of benign and malignant ovarian tumors in women.


58. Cowden A, Dans M, Militello G, Junkins-Hopkins J, Van Voorhees AS: Eccrine porocarcinoma arising in two African American patients: distinct presentations both treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Int J Dermatol; 2006 Feb;45(2):146-50
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  • Abstract Background Eccrine porocarcinoma (EPC) is a rare, malignant adnexal tumor that has been reported only three times specifically in African American individuals.

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  • (PMID = 16445507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Takeda A, Imoto S, Mori M, Nakano T, Nakamura H: Wound retraction system for isobaric laparoendoscopic single-site surgery to treat adnexal tumors: pilot study. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2010 Sep-Oct;17(5):626-30
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  • [Title] Wound retraction system for isobaric laparoendoscopic single-site surgery to treat adnexal tumors: pilot study.
  • Fourteen isobaric LESS adnexal surgeries including 1 emergency procedure with adnexal torsion were performed using multiple instruments inserted through the wound retractor.
  • A wound retractor offers safe and reliable access for isobaric LESS adnexal surgery as an alternative to the current specialized port systems.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20579942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Ivan D, Nash JW, Prieto VG, Calonje E, Lyle S, Diwan AH, Lazar AJ: Use of p63 expression in distinguishing primary and metastatic cutaneous adnexal neoplasms from metastatic adenocarcinoma to skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jun;34(6):474-80
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  • [Title] Use of p63 expression in distinguishing primary and metastatic cutaneous adnexal neoplasms from metastatic adenocarcinoma to skin.
  • p63, a recently identified homologue of the p53 gene, is mainly expressed by basal and myoepithelial cells in skin.
  • Others and we have shown the value of p63 in distinguishing primary adnexal tumors from visceral adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin.
  • We now investigate the pattern of p63 expression in metastases from skin adnexal carcinomas and their cognate primaries and evaluate p63 expression in a larger case series of malignant cutaneous adnexal neoplasms.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis for p63 was performed on 13 metastases of adnexal carcinomas and their corresponding primary tumors.
  • Twenty visceral metastatic adenocarcinomas to the skin and 7 primary mucinous carcinomas with cutaneous or visceral origin were compared.
  • The majority (90.9%) of primary adnexal tumors strongly expressed p63 and their metastases labeled similar to their cognate primary tumors.
  • Analysis of p63 expression may assist in the differential diagnosis of primary adnexal carcinomas versus metastatic visceral adenocarcinomas to the skin.
  • Metastases from adnexal carcinomas generally retain p63 expression similar to their associated primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2008 Jul;35(7):692-3 [18312438.001]
  • (PMID = 17518775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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61. Su W, Kheir SM, Berberian B, Cockerell CJ: Merkel cell carcinoma in situ arising in a trichilemmal cyst: a case report and literature review. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Oct;30(5):458-61
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  • The stain for cytokeratin 20 "decorated" the tumor cells with an unequivocal perinuclear dot-like pattern, confirming their Merkel cell origin.
  • Dermal Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) arising in association with benign adnexal tumors or cysts, with or without epithelial involvement, is a rare event.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18806489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-20
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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62. Wu TI, Chang TC, Hsueh S, Lai CH: Ovarian endometrioid carcinoma with diffuse pigmented peritoneal keratin granulomas: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):426-9
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  • The presence of keratin granulomas in peritoneal cavity associated with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, which might be related to leakage from the ovarian tumor, is rarely reported.
  • We report a case presenting with intermittent abdominal pain after an acute episode 1 month before a complex adnexal tumor was noted.
  • The ovarian tumor was an endometrioid adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation.
  • Since viable epithelial cells in the implants could be differentially identified against mesothelial or granulomatous components by CK-7 staining and DNA aneuploidy was demonstrated on primary ovarian tumor, four courses of chemotherapy were administered.


63. Lee PL, Lourduraj LT, Palko MJ 3rd, Jukic DM, English JC 3rd: Hereditary basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome. Cutis; 2006 Jul;78(1):42-6
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  • Basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome (BFHS) is a rare adnexal tumor genodermatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hand Dermatoses / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


64. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):341-5
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  • [Title] Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation.
  • The conjoint occurrence of follicular, sebaceous, or apocrine differentiations in a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm is a known event, more often encountered in benign neoplasms, whereas reports of cutaneous malignant adnexal tumors with bilineage or trilineage differentiation are few.
  • A new case of a cutaneous malignant adnexal neoplasm with multidirectional differentiation is reported here.
  • A 57-year-old woman presented with a long-standing, slowly growing, asymptomatic solitary tumor the size of a large nut in the coccygeal area, which was surgically excised.
  • We classified this tumor as a well-differentiated adnexal carcinoma demonstrating combined follicular and apocrine differentiation.
  • It differs from previously published cases of malignant adnexal tumors with multidirectional differentiation and further exemplifies the spectrum of diversity encountered in malignant proliferations with differentiation toward the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16871040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Lee JH, Kyung MS, Jung US, Choi JS: Laparoscopic management of adnexal tumours in post-hysterectomy women. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol; 2008 Feb;48(1):96-100
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of adnexal tumours in post-hysterectomy women.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy is becoming common for the management of complex benign gynaecological diseases, in which considerable adhesions are expected, thus making the laparoscopic surgery more difficult to perform.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery for adnexal tumours in post-hysterectomy women.
  • METHODS: In a retrospective study, we reviewed and analysed 40 post-hysterectomy women who were treated surgically for benign ovarian tumours at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, from May 1999 to April 2007.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgery for adnexal tumours in post-hysterectomy women might be an effective and safe alternative to laparotomic surgery.

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  • (PMID = 18275579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8666
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen
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66. Chia CC, Huang SC: A feasible laparoscopic surgery technique for complex adnexal tumors. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Mar;46(1):83-4
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  • [Title] A feasible laparoscopic surgery technique for complex adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / surgery. Cysts / surgery. Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jun;46(2):185-6; author reply 186 [17638632.001]
  • (PMID = 17389199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] China
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67. Kato K, Uchida K, Nibe K, Tateyama S: Immunohistochemical studies on cytokeratin 8 and 18 expressions in canine cutaneous adnexus and their tumors. J Vet Med Sci; 2007 Mar;69(3):233-9
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical studies on cytokeratin 8 and 18 expressions in canine cutaneous adnexus and their tumors.
  • The expressions of cytokeratin 8 and 18 (CK8 and CK18) in the normal canine skin (2 cases) and cutaneous adnexal tumors (127 cases) were investigated immunohistochemically.
  • In the normal skin, co-expression of CK8/18 was found in the glandular epithelium of apocrine sweat glands, and single CK8-immunoreactivity was detected occasionally in the external root sheath at the isthmus and suprabulbar regions of the hair follicles.
  • Neoplastic glandular epithelial cells in all apocrine gland tumors (21/21 cases, 100%) had co-expression of CK8/18.
  • In several cases of trichoblastomas (4/28 cases, 14%) and trichoepitheliomas (2/19 cases, 11%), tumor cells forming glandular structures had co-expression of CK8/18.
  • There were no positive reactions for both CK8 and 18 in infundibular keratinizing acanthomas, and sebaceous and hepatoid gland tumors.
  • Thus, the combination of CK8- and 18-immunostainings may have the utility to confirm the directions of differentiation in canine cutaneous adnexal tumors providing a reliable hallmark for histopathological diagnoses.

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  • (PMID = 17409637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / Keratin-8
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68. Kalof AN, Cooper K: D2-40 immunohistochemistry--so far! Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Jan;16(1):62-4
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  • More recently, D2-40 immunoexpression has been reported in primary adrenal cortical tumors, schwannomas, and adnexal tumors of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19098468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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69. Kelly BC, Koay J, Driscoll MS, Raimer SS, Colome-Grimmer MI: Report of a case: primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(6):4
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  • [Title] Report of a case: primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin.
  • Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is an extremely rare adnexal tumor that is thought to originate from eccrine sweat glands.
  • The tumor is typically a solitary, asymptomatic nodule, cyst, or ulcer that is slow growing with low metastatic potential.
  • Since primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is such a rare neoplasm (fewer than 130 cases have been reported to date), a complete workup should be conducted to rule out other internal malignancies that may metastasize to the skin.
  • We report a case of primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin, and discuss the clinical presentation, histology, treatment, course, and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18713585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Arteaga-Gómez AC, Aranda-Flores C, Márquez-Acosta G, Colín-Valenzuela A: [Adnexal tumor and pregnancy: diagnosis and treatment]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2010 Mar;78(3):160-7
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  • [Title] [Adnexal tumor and pregnancy: diagnosis and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor anexial y embarazo: diagnóstico y tratamiento.
  • BACKGROUND: The finding of adnexal masses during pregnancy is an exceptional event.
  • OBJECTIVE: Describe a case series of patients with adnexal mass and pregnancy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had diagnosis of pregnancy and adnexal over a period of five years.
  • The diagnosis was established by ultrasound (USG) in 95% of cases, 48% had cystic characteristics, the mean diameter of the tumor was 99 +/- 42 mm.
  • The mean tumor size was 118 mm (range 2 a 40 mm), weight 1,370 g (range 10 a 5,800 g).
  • Tumor markers (CA-125, AFP, GCH-B,DHL, ACE), are not useful during pregnancy.
  • If the tumor doesn't achieve surgical criteria the recommended follow up is clinical observation and USG.
  • If surgery is decided, it should be performed between 16 a 23 weeks of pregnancy, and it's recommended to send the tumor to histological diagnosis, in case of malignancy the surgery will continue according to the tumor stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexa Uteri / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Genital Neoplasms, Female / ultrasonography. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adnexal Diseases / blood. Adnexal Diseases / surgery. Adnexal Diseases / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / blood. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Cesarean Section. Cystadenoma / blood. Cystadenoma / surgery. Cystadenoma / ultrasonography. Cysts / blood. Cysts / surgery. Cysts / ultrasonography. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Incidence. Incidental Findings. Infant, Newborn. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / blood. Teratoma / surgery. Teratoma / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Prenatal. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20939220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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71. Gupta R, Singh S, Gupta K, Kudesia M: Clear-cell hidradenoma in a child: a diagnostic dilemma for the cytopathologist. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Jul;37(7):531-3
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  • Primary cutaneous tumors are infrequently subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • As a result, the cytological reports of skin adnexal tumors like hidradenoma are scarce in the available literature.
  • The cytological features, in conjunction with the clinical examination, suggested a skin appendageal tumor.
  • Though nuclear pleomorphism and occasional larger nucleus posed a cytological diagnostic challenge, a diagnosis of benign appendageal tumor was suggested, considering the young age of the patient.
  • The cytopathologist should consider skin appendageal tumors during evaluation of cutaneous nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19459171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Bulliard C, Murali R, Maloof A, Adams S: Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Dec;33(12):812-6
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  • Mucinous carcinoma of skin (MCS) is an uncommon adnexal tumor of disputed differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 17177942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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73. Auw-Hädrich C, Göbel N, Illerhaus G: [Infectious agents in ocular adnexal tumours]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2010 Jul;227(7):530-7
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  • [Title] [Infectious agents in ocular adnexal tumours].
  • In recent years, infectious agents have been increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor for various malignant tumours of the ocular adnexa.
  • Ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL), especially extranodal marginal cell lymphoma, is associated with Chlamydophila psittaci and Helicobacter pylori in certain geographic regions.
  • Kaposi sarcoma rarely occurs at the ocular adnexa in HIV-positive individuals and seems to be associated with Kaposi sarcoma-associated Herpes virus (KSHV) or HHV8.

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 20535664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3999
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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74. Sgambato A, Zalaudek I, Ferrara G, Giorgio CM, Moscarella E, Nicolino R, Argenziano G: Adnexal tumors: clinical and dermoscopic mimickers of basal cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Mar;144(3):426
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  • [Title] Adnexal tumors: clinical and dermoscopic mimickers of basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18347310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Yen CF, Lin SL, Murk W, Wang CJ, Lee CL, Soong YK, Arici A: Risk analysis of torsion and malignancy for adnexal masses during pregnancy. Fertil Steril; 2009 May;91(5):1895-902
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  • [Title] Risk analysis of torsion and malignancy for adnexal masses during pregnancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To find the risk factors of torsion and malignancy for adnexal tumors during pregnancy.
  • PATIENT(S): Patients from 1990 to 2004 with adnexal tumors >or=4 cm during pregnancy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Tumor size, progression, pathology, incidence of malignancy, and torsion.
  • In 174 patients who were followed through pregnancy with known tumor existence, 14.84% +/- 3.05% encountered tumor torsion.
  • Adnexal masses with sizes between 6 and 8 cm had a significantly higher risk of torsion compared with other sizes (22.41% vs. 9.48%; odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.1, 6.6]).
  • Tumor diameters >or=10 cm at initial diagnosis had a higher risk of malignancy versus smaller sizes (8.77% vs. 0.85%; odds ratio 11.2, 95% CI, [1.3, 97.9]), and tumor growth rates >or=3.5 cm/week also had a significantly higher risk of malignancy versus lower rates (8.33% vs. 0.88%; odds ratio 10.2, 95% CI, [1.0, 101.2]).
  • CONCLUSION(S): Adnexal tumors bearing higher risks for torsion and malignancy should be strongly considered for an aggressive strategy of management during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / complications. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Torsion Abnormality / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18359024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Van Holsbeke C, Van Calster B, Valentin L, Testa AC, Ferrazzi E, Dimou I, Lu C, Moerman P, Van Huffel S, Vergote I, Timmerman D, International Ovarian Tumor Analysis Group: External validation of mathematical models to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal tumors: a multicenter study by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis Group. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Aug 1;13(15 Pt 1):4440-7
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  • [Title] External validation of mathematical models to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal tumors: a multicenter study by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis Group.
  • PURPOSE: Several scoring systems have been developed to distinguish between benign and malignant adnexal tumors.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In phase I of the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis multicenter study, patients with a persistent adnexal mass were examined with transvaginal ultrasound and color Doppler imaging.
  • The outcome measure was the histologic classification of excised tissue as malignant or benign.
  • We used the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis data to test the accuracy of previously published scoring systems.
  • RESULTS: Data from 1,066 patients were included; 800 patients (75%) had benign tumors and 266 patients (25%) had malignant tumors.
  • The morphologic scoring system used by Lerner gave an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.68, whereas the multimodal risk of malignancy index used by Jacobs gave an AUC of 0.88.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adnexal Diseases / classification. Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. CA-125 Antigen. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. International Agencies. Logistic Models. Neural Networks (Computer). Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17671128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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77. Kazakov DV, Calonje E, Zelger B, Luzar B, Belousova IE, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Sebaceous carcinoma arising in nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn: a clinicopathological study of five cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Jun;29(3):242-8
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  • The sebaceous carcinoma was always accompanied by other benign or malignant adnexal lesions such as sebaceoma, syringocystadenoma papilliferum, syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum, trichoblastoma, tricholemmoma, desmoplastic tricholemmoma, or syringoma.
  • Clinically, the tumor presents as a solitary nodule, ulcerated tumor, or mass, often with a recent history of rapid growth.
  • It may arise alone, but it occurs more frequently as part of multiple benign and malignant adnexal tumors.
  • The rest of organoid nevus is usually recognized both clinically and microscopically, although large tumors may overgrow and mask the nevus.
  • The tumor seems to be a low-grade carcinoma in terms of clinical behavior.

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  • (PMID = 17519621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Donovan DJ, Person DA: Giant eccrine adenocarcinoma of the scalp with intracranial invasion: resection and reconstruction using a vacuum-assisted closure device: technical case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Apr;58(4 Suppl 2):ONS-E371; discussion ONS-E371
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  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Carcinoma of the adnexal structures of the skin is a rare malignancy, and is even more unusual in the scalp.
  • We report an unusual case of scalp adnexal carcinoma of eccrine origin that went untreated for years, resulting in a giant tumor with extension through the cranium.
  • The tumor resection and reconstruction of the cranium and scalp defects posed unique challenges.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old woman experienced a large recurrence of her scalp adnexal carcinoma after an incomplete wide local excision, which invaded through the cranium.
  • Another split thickness skin graft was used to provide a cosmetically acceptable outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: Scalp adnexal tumors of eccrine origin rarely metastasize and can be resected for cure with complete removal.
  • Reconstruction options for large scalp and cranial tumors may be limited, and allowing the dura to granulate by secondary intention has been very rarely described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Vacuum Curettage
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Middle Aged. Skin Transplantation / methods. Subdural Effusion / etiology. Subdural Effusion / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Neurosurgery. 2008 Aug;63(2):E376; author reply E376 [18797336.001]
  • [CommentIn] Neurosurgery. 2008 Aug;63(2):E376; author reply E376 [18797334.001]
  • (PMID = 16575296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Schmaltz R, Müller CS, Vogt T: [Sudden growth of previously indolent scalp nodule]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jun;61(6):518-21
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  • Cylindromas are benign adnexal tumors with eccrine and apocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2001 Oct;145(4):653-6 [11703297.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Surg. 2003 Jun;29(6):647-9 [12786711.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 Apr;58(4):636-41 [18342709.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1993 Sep 1;72(5):1618-23 [7688655.001]
  • (PMID = 20490442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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80. Ramos-Vara JA, Miller MA: Immunohistochemical detection of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) in canine epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). Vet Pathol; 2007 Jan;44(1):74-9
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  • Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a ubiquitin COOH-terminal hydrolase initially considered specific for neural and neuroendocrine tissues, is expressed in a variety of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors.
  • All tumors were confirmed as T-cell epitheliotropic lymphoma by histopathology and immunohistochemistry for CD3.
  • Immunoreactivity did not correlate with location (epidermal, dermal, and adnexal) of tumor cells.
  • Disease outcome did not vary between PGP 9.5-positive and negative tumors.
  • Although PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity in MF did not predict tumor behavior in these dogs, it has had prognostic value in certain human carcinomas.
  • This unexpected staining of lymphocytes in mycosis fungoides with an antibody to PGP 9.5 demonstrates its presence in nonneuroendocrine tumors and precludes its use as the sole diagnostic marker in discrete cell tumors in the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Dog Diseases / enzymology. Mycosis Fungoides / enzymology. Mycosis Fungoides / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary. Ubiquitin Thiolesterase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17197626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.2.15 / Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
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81. Cauchi C, Visca P, Donati P, Lopez M: [Skin adnexal tumors]. Clin Ter; 2006 Jul-Aug;157(4):363-76
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  • [Title] [Skin adnexal tumors].
  • Adnexal skin tumors are rare neoplasms that develop from hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands.
  • In the majority of cases these tumors are benign, although metastases have been reported in rare occasion.
  • The diagnosis in always histologic and often it is sufficient to report the lesion simply as benign or malignant.
  • When the tumor is large, the Mohs technique can be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17051975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9074
  • [Journal-full-title] La Clinica terapeutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ter
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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82. Knoedler D, Susnik B, Gonyo MB, Osipov V: Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast. Breast J; 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):91-3
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  • We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with an 8.0-cm tumor of the left breast.
  • The tumor was clinically and radiologically suspicious for malignancy.
  • The pathologic evaluation of the core biopsy and the subsequent excision specimen revealed a benign sclerosing, cystic, and papillary adnexal tumor with apocrine and clear cell morphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17214802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Ding DC, Hsu S: Lipid cell tumor in an adolescent girl: a case report. J Reprod Med; 2007 Oct;52(10):956-8
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  • [Title] Lipid cell tumor in an adolescent girl: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Lipid cell tumors of the ovary are rare sex cord neoplasms and account for < 0.1% of ovarian tumors.
  • Ultrasonography revealed an echogenic left adnexal tumor about 5.7 x 6.3 x 5.5 cm.
  • The patient underwent laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy, and pathology showed a lipid cell tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The tumor appeared to be the source of hyperandrogenism in this woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Amenorrhea / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / complications. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17977174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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84. Yildiz B, Ozdemir F, Cobanoglu U, Kavgaci H, Fidan E, Aydin F: Clear cell hidradenoma of the gluteal region: a case report. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2009;17(2):144-6
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  • Clear cell hidradenoma is a rare skin appendage tumor.
  • Under the epidermis, an eosinophilic-cytoplasm, uniform-appearance, oval-round-nucleus, benign tumor with cystic and solid components was detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Buttocks / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19595274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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85. Schanz A, Richter J, Beyer I, Baldus SE, Hess AP, Kruessel JS: Genital schistosomiasis as a cause of female sterility and acute abdomen. Fertil Steril; 2010 Apr;93(6):2075.e7-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a Nigerian patient who suffered from sterility and underwent abdominal laparotomy to remove an adnexal tumor.
  • PATIENTS: One patient who underwent an abdominal laparotomy to remove an adnexal tumor.
  • INTERVENTION(S): In vitro fertilization and adnexal tumor resection via laparotomy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Treatment of the adnexal tumor affecting the reproductive health.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20138271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Kamiya H, Kitajima Y, Ban M: Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma: the pluripotential nature of Bowen's disease cells. J Dermatol; 2006 Dec;33(12):858-64
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  • [Title] Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma: the pluripotential nature of Bowen's disease cells.
  • Bowen's disease rarely exhibits multiple combinations of premalignant and/or malignant skin lesions.
  • Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma was originally described by Kao, but is not well recognized by clinicians due to its rarity and lack of specific clinical features of this condition.
  • Herein, we describe three unusual cases of Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma.
  • In cases 1 and 3, we confirmed the adnexal tumor within tumors of Bowen's disease, the diagnosis of which is eccrine porocarcinoma.
  • The tumor in case 2 was characteristic to trichilemmal carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells of Bowen's disease and the adnexal carcinoma differed in antigenicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17169090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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87. Alexander MP, Makhija P, Jayaseelan E: Fine needle aspiration cytology of trichofolliculoma: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):870-2
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  • The cytomorphology of skin adnexal tumours has not been described extensively in literature.
  • Cytology is a useful tool in the diagnosis of skin adnexal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Follicle / pathology. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18306593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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88. Kazakov DV, Sima R, Vanecek T, Kutzner H, Palmedo G, Kacerovska D, Grossmann P, Michal M: Mutations in exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene (beta-catenin gene) in cutaneous adnexal tumors. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 May;31(3):248-55
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  • [Title] Mutations in exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene (beta-catenin gene) in cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • Previous studies suggested that mutant beta-catenin gene cells in cutaneous adnexal tumors with matrical differentiation contribute to their tumorigenesis.
  • Except for pilomatricoma and pilomatrical carcinoma, only a handful of other cutaneous adnexal tumor types have been studied.
  • DNA was extracted from 86 lesions including 17 proliferating tricholemmal and trichilemmal tumors, 15 trichoblastomas, 7 trichoadenomas, 4 pilomatricomas, 1 pilomatrical carcinoma, 4 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) with shadow cells, 2 trichofolliculomas, 3 BCCs with sebaceous differentiation, 9 sebaceous adenomas, 6 sebaceomas, 14 sebaceous carcinomas (both ocular and extraocular forms), 2 gigantic horns, and 2 apocrine mixed tumors with shadow cells and subjected to polymerase chain reaction with newly designed primers encompassing glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation sites of the CTNNB1 gene.
  • These included 5 different point mutations, 3 of them identified in 2 different tumors: S23N (cribriform trichoblastoma), D32Y (pilomatricoma and craniopharyngioma), G34R (pilomatrical carcinoma and craniopharyngioma), S37F (2 BCCs with shadow cell differentiation), and G34V (craniopharyngioma).
  • This study broadens the list of cutaneous adnexal tumors harboring CTNNB1 mutations and extends the listing of the mutations occurring in these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Exons. Mutation. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19384065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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89. Navi D, Fung M, Lynch PJ: Poromatosis: the occurrence of multiple eccrine poromas. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(1):3
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  • Eccrine poromas are rare, benign adnexal tumors derived from the intraepidermal portion of sweat ducts.
  • They usually appear as solitary, slow-growing, skin-colored papules on acral surfaces.

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  • (PMID = 18319020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Huang W, Zhao Y, Zhao J, Huang Y, Wang J, Zhang Q: Endometrioid carcinoma of the fallopian tube resembling an adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin: a case of report and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Mar 15;206(3):180-4
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  • [Title] Endometrioid carcinoma of the fallopian tube resembling an adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin: a case of report and review of the literature.
  • Endometrioid carcinoma is a common tumor of the female genital tract, mainly affecting the uterus corpus and ovary.
  • The female adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin (FATWO), although occasionally seen elsewhere, is most typically encountered in the broad ligament.
  • The tumor was confined to the tube and strongly resembled FATWO.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for AE1/AE3, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and p16, but negative for CD10, inhibin-alpha, calretinin, vimentin, myogenin, and desmin, CD99,CgA, and Syn.
  • We review the previously published cases of endometrioid carcinomas of the fallopian tube resembling FATWO, and discuss the principal differential diagnosis of the tumor in the fallopian tube.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19457622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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91. Thomassin-Naggara I, Daraï E, Cuenod CA, Fournier L, Toussaint I, Marsault C, Bazot M: Contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses. Eur Radiol; 2009 Jun;19(6):1544-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses.
  • The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for characterizing complex adnexal masses.
  • Seventy-seven women (22-87 years old) with complex adnexal masses (30 benign and 47 malignant) underwent MR imaging including DWI before surgery.
  • ADC measurements did not contribute to differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses.
  • All masses that displayed simultaneously low signal intensity within the solid component on T2-weighted and on b(1,000) diffusion-weighted images were benign.
  • Alternatively, the presence of a solid component with intermediate T2 signal and high b(1,000) signal intensity was associated with a PLR of 4.5 for a malignant adnexal tumour.
  • DWI signal intensity is an accurate tool for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 19214523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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92. Ramos-Ceballos FI, Pashaei S, Kincannon JM, Morgan MB, Smoller BR: Bcl-2, CD34 and CD10 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma, vellus hair hamartoma and neurofollicular hamartoma demonstrate full follicular differentiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 May;35(5):477-83
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  • BFH is a benign adnexal tumor that resembles basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • In this study, we report two cases of GBFHS and stain BFH, a vellus hair hamartoma (VHH) and a neurofollicular hamartoma (NH) with CD34, bcl-2 and CD10 to characterize and compare the staining patterns of these follicular tumors.
  • Bcl-2 stains the outermost cell layer of these tumors.
  • These results show the similarities in differentiation between these benign follicular neoplasms and trichoepithelioma.

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 May;36(5):603; author reply 604 [19476535.001]
  • (PMID = 18399809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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93. Yazbek J, Ameye L, Timmerman D, Testa AC, Valentin L, Holland TK, Van Holsbeke C, Jurkovic D: Use of ultrasound pattern recognition by expert operators to identify borderline ovarian tumors: a study of diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Jan;35(1):84-8
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  • [Title] Use of ultrasound pattern recognition by expert operators to identify borderline ovarian tumors: a study of diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound 'pattern recognition' for the diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumors by asking experienced ultrasound operators to evaluate representative images of different types of adnexal tumor.
  • METHODS: Digitally stored static two-dimensional B-mode images of representative cases of benign, borderline and invasive malignant ovarian tumors were independently assessed by three expert sonologists who had not performed the original real-time ultrasound examination.
  • The outcome measures included diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement in the diagnosis of benign, borderline or invasive malignant ovarian tumors.
  • A correct classification was made by all three experts in 83% of the primary invasive cancers, 76% of the benign masses and in 44% of the borderline malignant tumors (P < 0.01).
  • The experts showed a tendency to misclassify borderline tumors as benign rather than primary invasive (ratio of 8 : 1 for Expert A, 4 : 1 for B and 6 : 1 for C).
  • The interobserver agreement between any two experts was very good when they were tested for their ability to discriminate between invasive and non-invasive (benign and borderline) ovarian tumors (Cohen's kappa 0.85-0.88), but poorer for the discrimination between malignant (invasive and borderline) and benign tumors (kappa 0.70-0.78).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis of borderline tumors is lower in comparison with benign and invasive malignant lesions.
  • The diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement are better when the outcomes are dichotomized into non-invasive and invasive malignant lesions, as opposed to the traditional diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / ultrasonography. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Pattern Recognition, Visual

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  • (PMID = 19746450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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94. Samaila MO: Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med; 2008 Mar;7(1):6-10
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  • [Title] Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: Adnexal skin tumors share many features in common and differentiate along one line.
  • They may be clinically confused with other cutaneous tumors.
  • The aim of this report is to review and classify all adnexal tumors seen in a pathology department over a 16-year period.
  • METHOD: A 16-year retrospective analysis of all adnexal skin tumors seen in a large University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria from January 1991- December 2006.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-two adnexal tumors were seen, accounting for 0.9% of all cutaneous tumors seen within the same period.
  • Only two cases had a clinical diagnosis of adnexal tumor.
  • Tumours of the sweat gland were the commonest--41 (78.8%); they comprised predominantly eccrine acrospiroma (17), characterized histologically by solid nests of round to polygonal cells with clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, forming tubules in areas.
  • Tumours of sebaceous gland were 7 (13.5%); they comprised mainly Nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn (6), composed of immature sebaceous glands and pilar structures microscopically and a solitary sebaceous adenoma.
  • Tumours of hair follicle were 4 (7.7%) and included trichoepithelioma, characterized microscopically by multiple horn cysts and epithelial tracts connecting abortive pilar structures and a trichofolliculoma.
  • Forty-six lesions (88.5%) were benign and six (11.5%) malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Adnexal skin tumors have distinct histological patterns which differentiates them from other cutaneous tumors.
  • Malignant adnexal tumors are uncommon in our setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / classification. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / epidemiology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hair Follicle / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18702242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1596-3519
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of African medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Afr Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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95. Moszyński R, Szpurek D, Pawlak M, Englert-Golon M, Sajdak S: [The influence of ovarian tumour histopathological diagnosis on prognostic values of the sonomorphological index]. Ginekol Pol; 2006 Jul;77(7):516-22
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  • [Title] [The influence of ovarian tumour histopathological diagnosis on prognostic values of the sonomorphological index].
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the helpfulness of sonomorphological index in preoperative diagnosis of ovarian tumours.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: 686 patients diagnosed and treated because of adnexal tumours were analyzed.
  • At the admission day the patient underwent an ultrasonographical examination that stated morphology of tumour using the sonomorphological index (SM).
  • During the study, histopathological types of ovarian tumours with the lowest prognostic values were appointed.
  • Among malignant tumours the lowest sensitivity of the test corresponded with: dysgerminoma and folliculoma.
  • Among benign tumours the lowest helpfulness in preoperative diagnosis of ovarian tumours the sonomorphological index demonstrated in following histopathological types: mucinouse cystadenoma and adult teratoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In all histopathological types of malignant and benign tumours mentioned above, the use of the sonomorphological index require caution.

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  • (PMID = 17076201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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96. Gaffar M, Thebpatiphat N, Przygodzki R, Jacobs S, Miller MM: Primary follicular lymphoma of the conjunctiva in a 6-year-old child. J AAPOS; 2010 Dec;14(6):538-40
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  • Ocular adnexal tumors are rare.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21093330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3933
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J AAPOS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Iura A, Sasajima Y, Katsumata N, Kasamatsu T: Serous adenocarcinoma of the retroperitoneum, as a type of multifocal müllerian carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Jun;14(3):254-7
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  • On MRI, the tumor was 17 x 10 x 6 cm in size and monocystic.
  • The tumor cells were positive for CA125, estrogen receptor, and Wilms tumor 1, and were differentiated from enterogenic cyst by the presence of cytokeratin 7 (+), and the absence of cytokeratin 20 (-).
  • Simultaneously, uterine adnexal serous adenocarcinoma was detected.
  • The volume of the retroperitoneal tumor was 14 times larger than that of the uterine adnexal tumor.
  • We suggest the possibility that the retroperitoneal cancer arose as a primary cancer from rests of the müllerian epithelium synchronously with the uterine adnexal cancer.
  • The patient had been taking conjugated estrogen for 10 years, suggesting that long-term estrogen stimulation may have contributed to the progression of the tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexa Uteri / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19593619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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98. Veyer L, Marret H, Bleuzen A, Simon E, Body G, Tranquart F: Preoperative diagnosis of ovarian tumors using pelvic contrast-enhanced sonography. J Ultrasound Med; 2010 Jul;29(7):1041-9
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  • [Title] Preoperative diagnosis of ovarian tumors using pelvic contrast-enhanced sonography.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a contrast agent for the sonographic examination of adnexal tumors and identify discriminating parameters in the preoperative diagnosis of malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-two tumors were analyzed.
  • Morphologic and Doppler criteria analyses were conducted as described in the literature.
  • When borderline tumors were eliminated, there was an inversion of this, with an AUC of 0.85 versus 0.73.
  • The inclusion of contrast results in the examiner's diagnosis in the context of a bivariate model comparing malignant and borderline tumors with benign tumors provided an AUC of 0.88.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced sonography improves preoperative diagnosis of ovarian tumors parameters.
  • The significant parameters of the enhancement curve were significantly different for malignant and benign tumors.
  • Borderline tumors contribute to a reduction of the discriminating capacity of the contrast agent.

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  • (PMID = 20587427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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99. Nishikawa Y, Kaneko T, Takiyoshi N, Aizu T, Nakajima K, Matsuzaki Y, Nakano H, Sawamura D: Dermoscopy of eccrine poroma with calcification. J Dermatol Case Rep; 2009 Nov 28;3(3):38-40
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  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine poromas are relatively common slow-growing benign solitary adnexal tumors originating from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat duct (acrosyringium).
  • MAIN OBSERVATIONS: A 73-year-old man with hemiparesis, who had a 10-year history of tumor on his right palm, which was occasionally injured by a walking crutch, causing bleeding and ulceration.
  • Physical examination revealed a pigmented dome-shaped tumor.
  • Histological examination revealed that the tumor was composed of cords of tumor cells extending from the epidermis into the dermis.
  • The tumor showed cystic structures and calcification.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although cutaneous neoplasms commonly associated with calcification are of follicular origin, it is known that dystrophic calcification may be triggered also in tumors of eccrine origin by multiple factors, including mechanical injury.

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  • (PMID = 21886728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1898-7249
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dermatological case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3157797
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Pinkus type / adnexal tumors / calcification / dermoscopy / eccrine gland / local tissue injury
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100. Kupesic S, Plavsic BM: Early ovarian cancer: 3-D power Doppler. Abdom Imaging; 2006 Sep-Oct;31(5):613-9
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  • Color Doppler imaging and pulsed Doppler spectral analysis enable evaluation of ovarian tumor blood flow, analysis of the distribution of blood vessels, and quantitative measurement of blood flow velocity waveforms.
  • These parameters increase the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound evaluation of ovarian tumors.
  • Three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler ultrasound provides a new tool to evaluate features of tumor vascularity.
  • Contrast-enhanced 3-D power Doppler sonography facilitates visualization of adnexal tumor vessels, which may aid in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16447081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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