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1. Walsh MT, Couldwell WT: Symptomatic cystic degeneration of a clinically silent corticotroph tumor of the pituitary gland. Skull Base; 2010 Sep;20(5):367-70
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  • [Title] Symptomatic cystic degeneration of a clinically silent corticotroph tumor of the pituitary gland.
  • Clinically silent corticotroph tumors of the pituitary gland are those tumors that stain for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) but do not manifest with clinical or laboratory features of Cushing disease.
  • These tumors have been described as exhibiting more aggressive behavior than other nonfunctional pituitary tumors.
  • We present an unusual case of a clinically silent corticotropic adenoma of the pituitary gland that underwent cystic degeneration following recurrence after transsphenoidal surgery and radiation therapy.

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  • [Cites] Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Oct 25;11(20):7191-203 [6634412.001]
  • (PMID = 21359002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0065
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3023327
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cortisol / Cushing disease / adrenocorticotropic hormone / corticotroph cells / cystic degeneration / nonfunctional pituitary adenoma
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2. Georgitsi M, Raitila A, Karhu A, Tuppurainen K, Mäkinen MJ, Vierimaa O, Paschke R, Saeger W, van der Luijt RB, Sane T, Robledo M, De Menis E, Weil RJ, Wasik A, Zielinski G, Lucewicz O, Lubinski J, Launonen V, Vahteristo P, Aaltonen LA: Molecular diagnosis of pituitary adenoma predisposition caused by aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene mutations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Mar 6;104(10):4101-5
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  • [Title] Molecular diagnosis of pituitary adenoma predisposition caused by aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene mutations.
  • Pituitary adenomas are common neoplasms of the anterior pituitary gland.
  • Germ-line mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene cause pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP), a recent discovery based on genetic studies in Northern Finland.
  • Typically, PAP patients were of a young age at diagnosis but did not display a strong family history of pituitary adenomas.
  • To evaluate the role of AIP in pituitary adenoma susceptibility in other populations and to gain insight into patient selection for molecular screening of the condition, we investigated the possible contribution of AIP mutations in pituitary tumorigenesis in patients from Europe and the United States.
  • A total of 460 patients were investigated by AIP sequencing: young acromegaly patients, unselected acromegaly patients, unselected pituitary adenoma patients, and endocrine neoplasia-predisposition patients who were negative for MEN1 mutations.
  • Because many of the patients displayed no family history of pituitary adenomas, detection of the condition appears challenging.
  • Feasibility of AIP immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a prescreening tool was tested in 50 adenomas: 12 AIP mutation-positive versus 38 mutation-negative pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / genetics. Founder Effect. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Mutation. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17360484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ EF203234/ EF203235/ EF203236/ EF203237/ EF203238/ EF203239/ EF203240
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1820715
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3. Rao S, Rajkumar A, Kuruvilla S: Sellar lesion: not always a pituitary adenoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Apr-Jun;51(2):269-70
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  • [Title] Sellar lesion: not always a pituitary adenoma.
  • Inflammatory lesions of the hypophysis account for 0.5% of all symptomatic diseases of the pituitary, which include lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis with or without specific etiology and pituitary abscess.
  • Based on preliminary investigations, a clinical diagnosis of pituitary adenoma was made and the pituitary gland was surgically excised.
  • Histopathological examination showed caseating granulomas, along with normal areas of preserved pituitary gland and a final diagnosis of tuberculous hypophysitis was made.
  • This case is being documented due to the extremely rare involvement of the pituitary gland by granulomatous lesions such as tuberculosis and to emphasize the role of intraoperative consultation to obviate the need for radical surgery in such lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Diseases / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Endocrine / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Sella Turcica / pathology. Tuberculoma / diagnosis. Tuberculoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18603706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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4. Lonser RR, Kindzelski BA, Mehta GU, Jane JA Jr, Oldfield EH: Acromegaly without imaging evidence of pituitary adenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Sep;95(9):4192-6
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  • [Title] Acromegaly without imaging evidence of pituitary adenoma.
  • CONTEXT: GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are nearly always visible on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.
  • However, management and outcome of acromegalic patients lacking imaging evidence of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are undefined.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate surgical exploration for MR-invisible GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive acromegalic patients without imaging evidence of a pituitary adenoma on pre- and postcontrast, spin echo T1-weighted MR imaging and who lacked evidence of an ectopic (nonpituitary) source causing GH excess were included.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Surgical exploration with identification and resection of a pituitary adenoma was performed.
  • RESULTS: Six patients (three males, three females; 3% of all patients) with suspected GH-secreting adenomas did not demonstrate imaging evidence of pituitary adenoma on conventional MR imaging.
  • Three patients underwent a postcontrast, volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination MR-imaging sequence (1.2-mm slice thickness), which revealed a 4-mm pituitary adenoma not seen on the spin echo T1-weighted MR imaging in one patient.
  • A pituitary adenoma was identified and removed in all patients (mean diameter, 5.6 mm; range, 5 to 6.7 mm).
  • Histological analysis confirmed that the lesions were GH-secreting adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Acromegaly can be caused by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas that are not evident on conventional MR imaging.
  • Adenomas in some of these patients become evident using volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination MR imaging.
  • Surgical exploration of the pituitary gland in acromegalic patients with endocrine findings consistent with a GH-secreting adenoma but negative MR imaging can lead to identification and removal of an adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20610592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2936064
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5. George JT, Thow JC, Matthews B, Pye MP, Jayagopal V: Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:67
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  • [Title] Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: a case report.
  • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism.
  • Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment.
  • Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation.TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 - 4.00 mU/L), Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 - 6.8 pmol/L) and Free T4 51(10-30 pmol/L).
  • MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma.
  • TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered when evaluating the cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of such adenomas is critical in reducing neurological and endocrine complications.

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  • (PMID = 18307779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2270282
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6. Santos J, Paiva I, Gomes L, Batista C, Geraldes E, Rito M, Velez A, Oliveira F, Carvalheiro M: [Recurrent hypercortisolism after removal of an ACTH secretor pituitary adenoma associated with an adrenal macronodule]. Acta Med Port; 2010 Jan-Feb;23(1):107-12
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  • [Title] [Recurrent hypercortisolism after removal of an ACTH secretor pituitary adenoma associated with an adrenal macronodule].
  • [Transliterated title] Hipercortisolismo recorrente após remoção de adenoma hipofisário secretor de ACTH associado a macronódulo da glândula supra-renal.
  • Laboratorial study: High urinary free cortisol (UFC); serum cortisol - 25 microg/dl (8 am) (5-25) and 20 microg/dL (11pm); ACTH - 20 pg/mL (9-52) (8 am) and 14 pg/mL (11 pm); serum cortisol after dexamethasone suppression test: 14,9 mg/dL; CRH test: elevation of ACTH; Pituitary MRI: microadenoma; abdominal CT: nodule on the left adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Cushing Syndrome / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20353713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1646-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta médica portuguesa
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Port
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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7. Kim JP, Park BJ, Kim SB, Lim YJ: Pituitary Apoplexy due to Pituitary Adenoma Infarction. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2008 May;43(5):246-9
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  • [Title] Pituitary Apoplexy due to Pituitary Adenoma Infarction.
  • Cause of pituitary apoplexy has been known as hemorrhage, hemorrhagic infarction or infarction of pituitary adenoma or adjacent tissues of pituitary gland.
  • However, pituitary apoplexy caused by pure infarction of pituitary adenoma has been rarely reported.
  • Here, we present the two cases pituitary apoplexies caused by pituitary adenoma infarction that were confirmed by transsphenoidal approach (TSA) and pathologic reports.
  • Pathologic report of first case revealed total tumor infarction of a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma and second case partial tumor infarction of ACTH secreting pituitary macroadenoma.
  • Patients with pituitary apoplexy which was caused by pituitary adenoma infarction unrelated to hemorrhage or hemorrhagic infarction showed good response to TSA treatment.
  • Further study on the predisposing factors of pituitary apoplexy and the mechanism of infarction in pituitary adenoma is necessary.

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  • (PMID = 19096606.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2588219
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Pituitary adenoma infarction / Pituitary apoplexy
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8. Picozzi P, Losa M, Mortini P, Valle MA, Franzin A, Attuati L, da Passano CF, Giovanelli M: Radiosurgery and the prevention of regrowth of incompletely removed nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(s_supplement):71-74

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiosurgery and the prevention of regrowth of incompletely removed nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECT: The authors studied the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) in the prevention of regrowth of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA).
  • All patients had undergone surgery in our department and recurrent or residual adenoma was demonstrated on postoperative MR imaging.

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  • (PMID = 28306434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; gamma knife surgery / nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma / pituitary
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9. Killory BD, Kresl JJ, Wait SD, Ponce FA, Porter R, White WL: Hypofractionated Cyberknife Radiosurgery for Perichiasmatic Pituitary Adenomas: Early Results. Neurosurgery; 2009 Feb 01;64(suppl_2):A19-A25

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hypofractionated Cyberknife Radiosurgery for Perichiasmatic Pituitary Adenomas: Early Results.

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  • (PMID = 28175597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Pollock BE: Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery for Hormone Secreting Pituitary Adenomas. Neurosurgery; 2010 May 01;66(5):E1030

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery for Hormone Secreting Pituitary Adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 28173407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Kobayashi T, Mori Y, Uchiyama Y, Kida Y, Fujitani S: Long-term results of gamma knife surgery for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma: is the disease difficult to cure? J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(s_supplement):119-123

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term results of gamma knife surgery for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma: is the disease difficult to cure?
  • OBJECT: The authors conducted a study to determine the long-term results of gamma knife surgery for residual or recurrent growth hormine (GH)-producing pituitary adenomas and to compare the results with those after treatment of other pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 28306435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; gamma knife surgery / growth hormone—producing pituitary adenoma / insulin-like growth factor
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12. Tlachacova D, Schmitt M, Novotny J Jr, Novotny J, Majali M, Liscak R: A comparison of the gamma knife model C and the Automatic Positioning System with Leksell model B. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(s_supplement):25-28
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  • Data were analyzed in patients in whom the following diagnoses had been made: vestibular schwannoma, pituitary adenoma, meningioma, solitary metastasis, and other benign and malignant solitary tumors.

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  • (PMID = 28306471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; conformity index / extracranial exposure / staff exposure / stereotactic radiosurgery
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13. Scheithauer BW, Gaffey TA, Lloyd RV, Sebo TJ, Kovacs KT, Horvath E, Yapıcıer Ö, Young WF, Meyer FB, Kuroki T, Riehle DL, Laws ER: Pathobiology of Pituitary Adenomas and Carcinomas. Neurosurgery; 2006 Aug 01;59(2):341-353

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  • [Title] Pathobiology of Pituitary Adenomas and Carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 28180650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Chibbaro S, Benvenuti L, Carnesecchi S, Faggionato F, Gagliardi R: An interesting case of a pituitary adenoma apoplexy mimicking an acute meningitis. Case report. J Neurosurg Sci; 2007 Jun;51(2):65-9; discussion 68-9
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  • [Title] An interesting case of a pituitary adenoma apoplexy mimicking an acute meningitis. Case report.
  • Apoplexy of a pituitary adenoma is a rare and under-diagnosed clinical occurrence.
  • It results from either infarction or haemorrhage into an adenoma of the pituitary gland.
  • A 33-year-old male suffered a pituitary macroadenoma apoplexy, clinically indistinguishable from an infectious meningitis at presentation.
  • In conclusion the authors believe that, despite many reports in the literature, encouraging conservative management in pituitary apoplexy by administering intravenous steroids, surgery should be undertaken in order to avoid eventual visual field defects, relieve pituitary gland compression and prevent a possible recurrent apoplectic episode or tumor re-growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Meningitis / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / diagnosis. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Brain Infarction / complications. Brain Infarction / etiology. Brain Infarction / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Headache / etiology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Hypopituitarism / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neck Pain / etiology. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Unconsciousness / etiology. Vomiting / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17571037.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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15. Harzallah L, Boudabbous S, Migaw H, Harzallah F, Ach K, Hamdi I, Bakir D, Chaieb L, Kraiem C: [MRI and pituitary adenoma]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Sep;67(4):325-30
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  • [Title] [MRI and pituitary adenoma].
  • Pituitary is the most important gland of the organism which can be affected by many diseases, especially by adenomatous processes.
  • Classically macroadenoma, microadenoma and picoadenoma are described, according to the size of the pituitary adenoma.
  • The diagnosis of microadenoma was long considered a highly difficult task and that of picoadenoma was impossible by computed tomography.
  • Recently, the high resolution of multiplanar MRI has enabled the diagnosis of microadenomas measuring less than 3 mm (picoadenoma).
  • For macroadenoma, MRI not only contributes to diagnosis but is particularly important to assess the extension and to detect possible complications.
  • The aim of our study is to illustrate MRI features in pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pituitary Gland / anatomy & histology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17072237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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16. Alexander AA, Niktash N, Kardon DE, Sadeghi N: Ectopic nasopharyngeal pituitary adenoma resected with endoscopic technique. Ear Nose Throat J; 2008 Jul;87(7):E8-10
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  • [Title] Ectopic nasopharyngeal pituitary adenoma resected with endoscopic technique.
  • Although initially the mass was suspected to be a minor salivary gland tumor, histopathologic analysis led to a diagnosis of pituitary adenoma.
  • The ectopic tumor was removed via transnasal en bloc resection with partial adjacent septal resection.
  • Final pathology confirmed the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Endoscopy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18633921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. De Witte O, Makiese O, Wikler D, Levivier M, Vandensteene A, Pandin P, Balériaux D, Brotchi J: [Transsphenoidal approach with low field MRI for pituitary adenoma]. Neurochirurgie; 2005 Dec;51(6):577-83
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  • [Title] [Transsphenoidal approach with low field MRI for pituitary adenoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Apport de la résonance magnétique per-opératoire à bas champs dans la chirurgie de l'adénome hypophysaire.
  • INTRODUCTION: Appropriate evaluation of resection remains one of the major difficulties of surgical treatment of pituitary adenoma.
  • Endoscopy provides useful information but may no distinguish well residual adenoma from the pituitary gland.
  • We report our experience with low field intraoperative MRI in surgical treatment of pituitary adenoma.
  • POPULATION: Intraoperative MRI (Polestar N10, 30 patients and Polestar N20, 17 patients) was performed in 45 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for pituitary adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Intraoperative images were unavailable for two patients due to small size of the neck and the pituitary glands which were not in the middle in the field of view.
  • For the others, the pituitary glands were in the field of view and the intraoperative scans could be used for comparison.
  • A control showed no residual adenoma but hemostatic tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: Low field intraoperative MRI is an excellent technique for controlling the size of pituitary adenoma resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16553330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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18. Alons K, Bergé SJ, Rieu PN, Meijer GJ: [Treatment of macroglossia due to acromegaly]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd; 2010 Jun;117(6):321-4
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  • At the age of 55 years she was diagnosed with acromegaly induced by a adenoma of the pituitary gland, which had been removed surgically.

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  • (PMID = 20614796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2200
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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19. Mittelbronn M, Meyermann R, Honegger J: Atypical pituitary adenoma exhibiting densely secretory granules and basophilia without hormone production. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2006 Feb-Apr;27(1-2):93-6
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  • [Title] Atypical pituitary adenoma exhibiting densely secretory granules and basophilia without hormone production.
  • Radiological examination revealed a pituitary tumor.
  • Endocrinological investigations showed no pathological alterations of anterior pituitary function.
  • Neuropathological examinations revealed a pituitary gland adenoma with an elevated proliferation rate (MIB-1 index 4-5 %) as well as an elevated p53 expression leading to the diagnosis of an atypical pituitary adenoma.
  • This discrepancy might be due to a production of unfunctional pre-stages of pituitary gland proteins in this fast growing neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16648809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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20. Gallelli MF, Cabrera Blatter MF, Castillo V: A comparative study by age and gender of the pituitary adenoma and ACTH and alpha-MSH secretion in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Res Vet Sci; 2010 Feb;88(1):33-40
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  • [Title] A comparative study by age and gender of the pituitary adenoma and ACTH and alpha-MSH secretion in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
  • Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is frequent in dogs.
  • Using magnetic resonance, pituitary tumours were intra-sellar (IS) in 30.8% and extra-sellar (ES) in 62.6% and the pars intermedia (PI) was affected in 6.5%.
  • Differences in adenoma size according to gender and their age-related frequency of apparition could be because of different origins of the corticotrophinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / veterinary. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Dog Diseases / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / veterinary. alpha-MSH / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Animals. Dogs. Female. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Pituitary Gland / secretion. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19683322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2661
  • [Journal-full-title] Research in veterinary science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Res. Vet. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 581-05-5 / alpha-MSH; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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21. Yoshino A, Katayama Y, Watanabe T, Ogino A, Ohta T, Komine C, Yokoyama T, Fukushima T, Hirota H: Apoplexy accompanying pituitary adenoma as a complication of preoperative anterior pituitary function tests. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007 Jun;149(6):557-65; discussion 565
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  • [Title] Apoplexy accompanying pituitary adenoma as a complication of preoperative anterior pituitary function tests.
  • Pituitary apoplexy occurs as a very rare complication of the pituitary function test.
  • We have experienced two cases of pituitary apoplexy following anterior pituitary function tests for preoperative assessment: a triple bolus test and a TRH test.
  • The combined data suggest that pituitary function tests have the potential to precipitate pituitary apoplexy, and its manifestations range from a clinically benign event to a catastrophic presentation with permanent neurological deficits or even death, although most patients may fortunately have a good outcome.
  • We suggest that the pituitary function test should not be done as a routine test, and when such a test is planned, the patient should be observed with caution for any symptomatic changes for at least 2 hours following the test for appropriate treatment.
  • Further, MRI, especially enhanced studies, may provide an earlier diagnosis of the pituitary apoplexy since CT scan images often fail to demonstrate either density changes or obvious enlargement of the pituitary adenoma at the acute stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Acidophil / surgery. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / adverse effects. Pituitary Apoplexy / chemically induced. Pituitary Function Tests / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Preoperative Care. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17468811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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22. Gul S, Bahadir B, Dusak A, Kalayci M, Edebali N, Acikgoz B: Spherical amyloid deposition in a prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. Neuropathology; 2009 Feb;29(1):81-4
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  • [Title] Spherical amyloid deposition in a prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • MRI demonstrated a mass arising from the pituitary gland.
  • The patient underwent trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma.
  • Histological examination revealed an adenoma with spheroid amyloid deposits adjacent to prolactin-staining adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Amyloid / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Birefringence. Congo Red. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Hormones, Anterior / metabolism. Prolactin / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Neuropathology. 2009 Apr;29(2):208
  • (PMID = 18498287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid; 0 / Pituitary Hormones, Anterior; 3U05FHG59S / Congo Red; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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23. Ke C, Deng Z, Lei T, Zhou S, Guo DS, Wan J, Wu S: Pituitary prolactin producing adenoma with ossification: a rare histological variant and review of literature. Neuropathology; 2010 Apr;30(2):165-9
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  • [Title] Pituitary prolactin producing adenoma with ossification: a rare histological variant and review of literature.
  • Pituitary adenoma with ossification is a rare histological variant.
  • Here a case of pituitary prolactin-producing adenoma with bone formation in a 21-year-old woman is described.
  • The cytoplasm of the adenoma cells was slightly eosinophilic and the myelo-adipose metaplastic foci were also found within the parenchyma.
  • Meanwhile, negative expressions of S-100, epithelial membrane antigen, GFAP and other pituitary hormones were also demonstrated.
  • As a rare histological variant of pituitary adenoma, the current case of pituitary prolactin producing adenoma with ossification is reported.
  • The bony shell structure may limit the growth of pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ossification, Heterotopic / pathology. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19737358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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24. Balarini Lima GA, Machado Ede O, Dos Santos Silva CM, Filho PN, Gadelha MR: Pituitary apoplexy during treatment of cystic macroprolactinomas with cabergoline. Pituitary; 2008;11(3):287-92
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  • [Title] Pituitary apoplexy during treatment of cystic macroprolactinomas with cabergoline.
  • Pituitary apoplexy is a rare and life-threatening clinical condition caused by hemorrhage and/or infarction of the pituitary gland or adenoma.
  • Although pituitary apoplexy is usually spontaneous, it has been associated with numerous precipitating factors, such as bromocriptine use.
  • However, reports of pituitary apoplexy during cabergoline therapy are scarce.
  • We report three patients with cystic macroprolactinomas who developed pituitary apoplexy during cabergoline treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Dopamine Agonists / adverse effects. Ergolines / adverse effects. Pituitary Apoplexy / chemically induced. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17570067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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25. Inagawa H, Ishizawa K, Mitsuhashi T, Shimizu M, Adachi J, Nishikawa R, Matsutani M, Hirose T: Giant invasive pituitary adenoma extending into the sphenoid sinus and nasopharynx: report of a case with intraoperative cytologic diagnosis. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jul-Aug;49(4):452-6
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  • [Title] Giant invasive pituitary adenoma extending into the sphenoid sinus and nasopharynx: report of a case with intraoperative cytologic diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Invasive pituitary adenomas involving the skull base are difficult to distinguish from other, more aggressive tumors.
  • Because of the lack of endocrine abnormalities and lack of an apparent rise in pituitary hormones, preoperative diagnoses included chordoma, chondrosarcoma, meningioma and pituitary adenoma.
  • The cytologic features indicated a probable diagnosis of pituitary adenoma and excluded other possibilities.
  • Immunohistochemical demonstration of prolactin and ultrastructural features established the final diagnosis of prolactinoma.
  • As compared to frozen sections, cytologic preparations are more effective for the intraoperative diagnosis of pituitary adenomas.
  • Such neoplasms should always be included in the differential diagnosis of tumors involving the skull base.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharynx / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Sphenoid Sinus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16124180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine
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26. Poggi M, Monti S, Pascucci C, Toscano V: A rare case of follicular thyroid carcinoma in a patient with thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma. Am J Med Sci; 2009 Jun;337(6):462-5
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  • [Title] A rare case of follicular thyroid carcinoma in a patient with thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a rare case of a thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma associated with thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We report the clinical history, imaging studies, and laboratory and pathologic data in a male patient affected by TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and goiter; histologic evaluation revealed thyroid carcinoma.
  • The thyroid morphologic study using Doppler ultrasonography showed a gland of increased volume with multiple nodular lesions bilaterally.
  • The nuclear magnetic resonance of the pituitary gland described a microadenoma.
  • A total thyroidectomy was performed followed by neurosurgical treatment of the pituitary lesion.
  • The patient firmly refused surgical removal of the pituitary adenoma.
  • The pituitary nuclear magnetic resonance showed a stable lesion without difference in size.
  • CONCLUSION: The clinical association between thyroid carcinoma and TSH-producing adenoma is rare, with the removal of the pituitary lesion being mandatory.
  • Pituitary surgery, in this case, is impossible, showing that TSH-producing microadenoma could seldom have an indolent behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19390430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9629
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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27. Elston MS, Conaglen JV: Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas from one New Zealand centre. Intern Med J; 2010 Mar;40(3):214-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas from one New Zealand centre.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma) are a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis and need to be distinguished from the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone.
  • Patients with TSHoma may also be misdiagnosed as having primary hyperthyroidism and receive inappropriate treatment directed towards the thyroid gland.
  • The median age at presentation was 43 years and the median time from symptom onset to correct diagnosis was 3 years (range 0.25-12 years).
  • Five patients had a macroadenoma at the time of diagnosis.
  • Three patients received octreotide as primary treatment with two of these patients later undergoing transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: With increased awareness and earlier diagnosis of TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas, management can be appropriately directed towards the pituitary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / therapy. Hospitals, Special. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19849747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-5994
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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28. Jha S, Kumar S: TSH secreting pituitary adenoma. J Assoc Physicians India; 2009 Jul;57:537-9
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  • [Title] TSH secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Thyrotropin (TSH) secreting pituitary adenomas are a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • TSH secreting tumors account for 1 percent of all pituitary adenoma.
  • They are a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis in which adenomas completely or partially lose feedback regulation of thyroid hormones and lead to sustained stimulation of thyroid gland.
  • The most definitive treatment of thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas is transsphenoidal removal of tumor after restoring euthyroidism.
  • We report a case of pituitary adenoma associated with elevated serum free thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Thyroid Function Tests. Treatment Refusal

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  • (PMID = 20329419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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29. Ebner FH, Hauser TK, Honegger J: SIADH following pituitary adenoma apoplexy. Neurol Sci; 2010 Apr;31(2):217-8
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  • [Title] SIADH following pituitary adenoma apoplexy.
  • The rare case of a patient with SIADH following pituitary adenoma apoplexy is reported.
  • Since apoplexy did not exert any mass effect on surrounding structures, the patient was treated conservatively and the anterior pituitary gland insufficiency has been substituted adequately.
  • Diagnosis of SIADH was made.
  • It is essential to be aware of this rare syndrome in patients with pituitary adenoma apoplexy.
  • [MeSH-major] Inappropriate ADH Syndrome / complications. Pituitary Apoplexy / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Sodium / blood. Time Factors

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  • [Cites] J Clin Neurosci. 2003 Mar;10(2):260-1 [12637068.001]
  • [Cites] No To Shinkei. 1990 Oct;42(10):907-11 [2149644.001]
  • (PMID = 20119738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-3478
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium
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30. Kurtulmus N, Turkmen C, Yarman S, Tokmak H, Mudun A: The value of Tc-99m tetrofosmin in the imaging of pituitary adenomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Feb;30(2):86-90
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  • [Title] The value of Tc-99m tetrofosmin in the imaging of pituitary adenomas.
  • AIM: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) are used in the diagnosis and follow-up of pituitary adenoma cases.
  • It has been shown that some radionuclides were taken up by the pituitary adenomas.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the uptake of the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin (TF) in the pituitary adenoma and normal pituitary tissue and assess the ability of Tc-99m TF to predict tumor malignancy in pituitary gland.
  • METHODS: The patients with pituitary adenoma (7 invasive and 8 non-invasive) were compared with control group (no. 13).
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of pituitary gland was performed in both groups.
  • RESULTS: The average tetrofosmin uptake index of pituitary adenoma is 2.44+/-1.54 for the patients and 1.69+/-0.71 for the control group.
  • The average index was calculated as 3.04+/-2.15 for invasive adenomas and 1.92+/-0.33 for the non-invasive group, and there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding uptake of the agent (p 0.53).
  • Furthermore, it was determined that the invasive and non-invasive adenomas displayed an uptake of Tc-99m TF similar to normal pituitary tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Since the pituitary adenoma and normal pituitary tissue gave similar results regarding Tc-99m TF uptake, it was concluded that this agent would not be useful in the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Organophosphorus Compounds. Organotechnetium Compounds. Pituitary Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17392596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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31. Miyakoshi T, Takei M, Kajiya H, Egashira N, Takekoshi S, Teramoto A, Osamura RY: Expression of Wnt4 in human pituitary adenomas regulates activation of the beta-catenin-independent pathway. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):261-73
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  • [Title] Expression of Wnt4 in human pituitary adenomas regulates activation of the beta-catenin-independent pathway.
  • A member of the Wnt family of genes, Wnt4, has been known to regulate proliferation of anterior pituitary cell types in the mouse during embryonic development.
  • In order to elucidate the roles of Wnt signaling in human pituitary adenomas, we examined the expression of Wnt4 and its putative receptor Frizzled6 (Fzd6) by immunohistochemistry in pituitary adenomas and normal pituitaries.
  • Expression of Wnt4 was higher in growth hormone-producing adenomas (GHomas), prolactin-producing adenomas (PRLomas), and thyroid-stimulating hormone-producing adenomas (TSHomas) than in the normal pituitary.
  • Fzd6 was widely expressed in GHomas, PRLomas, TSHomas, and gonadotropin subunit (GnSU)-positive adenomas.
  • In normal pituitary glands, Wnt4 and Fzd6 were colocalized predominantly in follicle-stimulating hormone-, luteinizing hormone-, and alpha-subunits of glycoprotein hormone-positive cells.
  • The canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway was analyzed by beta-catenin immunohistochemistry. beta-Catenin was localized at the cell membrane in all pituitary adenomas, but not in the nuclei.
  • These results suggested that activation of Wnt4/Fzd6 signaling through a "beta-catenin-independent" pathway played a role in proliferation and survival of the pituitary adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Frizzled Receptors / genetics. Frizzled Receptors / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism. Signal Transduction / genetics. Wnt4 Protein. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19034702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / FZD6 protein, human; 0 / Frizzled Receptors; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / WNT4 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / Wnt4 Protein; 0 / Wnt4 protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin
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32. Noh SJ, Ahn JY, Lee KS, Kim SH: Pituitary adenoma and concomitant Rathke's cleft cyst. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007 Dec;149(12):1223-8
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenoma and concomitant Rathke's cleft cyst.
  • Although pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts have a shared ancestry, they rarely occur simultaneously.
  • Only 32 reports involving a pituitary adenoma and a concomitant Rathke's cleft cyst were identified upon review of the literature.
  • Next to growth hormone, Prolactin was the most commonly hypersecreted pituitary hormone.
  • Here, we report a patient with a growth hormone- secreting pituitary adenoma associated with a Rathke's cleft cyst.
  • When a non-enhancing cyst-like structure is demonstrated on imaging in a patient with a pituitary adenoma, the possibility of a coexisting Rathke's cleft cyst should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Central Nervous System Cysts / surgery. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neuronavigation. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17914599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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33. Kawamata T, Kubo O, Hori T: Surgical removal of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas with intensive microsurgical pseudocapsule resection results in complete remission of acromegaly. Neurosurg Rev; 2005 Jul;28(3):201-8
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  • [Title] Surgical removal of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas with intensive microsurgical pseudocapsule resection results in complete remission of acromegaly.
  • Although some investigators recommended surgical removal of the borders between pituitary adenoma and the surrounding normal pituitary gland, there is so far little documentation of how intensive dissection of the border zone affects the actual clinical remission rate of pituitary adenomas.
  • We investigated the precise histological characteristics of the boundary, using surgical specimens from patients who underwent intensive resection of "microsurgical pseudocapsule" of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Histologically, most adenomas were in direct contact with normal pituitary gland that formed an increased fibrous component facing the adenoma, without a true histological pseudocapsule.
  • It was impossible to dissect the tumor at exactly the tumor--normal pituitary interface for the whole extent of the pituitary adenoma during surgery, and complete removal of the tumor inevitably included a portion of normal tissue (microsurgical pseudocapsule).
  • The biochemical remission rate was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (90.0 vs 61.1%), and Group 1 showed no additional postoperative pituitary hypofunction.
  • The present results suggested that intensive resection of the microsurgical pseudocapsule is essential to accomplish histological and endocrinological total resection of the GH-secreting pituitary adenomas for remission of acromegaly.

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  • (PMID = 15765245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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34. Nielsen EH, Lindholm J, Bjerre P, Christiansen JS, Hagen C, Juul S, Jørgensen J, Kruse A, Laurberg P: Frequent occurrence of pituitary apoplexy in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Mar;64(3):319-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequent occurrence of pituitary apoplexy in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is agreement in the literature that pituitary apoplexy is a rare disorder.
  • As our experience differs from this view, we analysed the incidence in patients operated on for a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma.
  • PATIENTS AND DESIGN: One hundred ninety-two consecutive patients with a suprasellar, clinically inactive adenoma operated on during the period 1985-1996 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • A diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy was made from relevant neurological symptoms together with pertinent findings at operation.
  • RESULTS: Pituitary apoplexy occurred in 41 patients (21%), in 23 patients within 12 days prior to the operation.
  • During this period, 12 patients had died, yielding a standard mortality ratio of 1.09 (95% CI 0.62-1.92), similar to that in the patients who had not sustained pituitary apoplexy.
  • Postoperatively, 24% of the patients had normal pituitary function, 38% were panhypopituitary and partial pituitary insufficiency was present in 38%.
  • CONCLUSION: Most of our findings add little to what is known about pituitary apoplexy.
  • We found a much higher incidence of pituitary apoplexy despite rather rigorous criteria for the diagnosis.
  • The outcome as regards survival and endocrine function was not different from that in patients with a nonfunctioning adenoma who did not suffer pituitary apoplexy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Pituitary Apoplexy / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Postoperative Period. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16487443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Vieira JO Jr, Cukiert A, Liberman B: Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging criteria for cavernous sinus invasion in patients with pituitary adenomas: logistic regression analysis and correlation with surgical findings. Surg Neurol; 2006 Feb;65(2):130-5; discussion 135
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging criteria for cavernous sinus invasion in patients with pituitary adenomas: logistic regression analysis and correlation with surgical findings.
  • BACKGROUND: This study used high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (1.5 T) to define and evaluate preoperative imaging criteria for cavernous sinus invasion (CSI) by pituitary adenoma (PA).
  • (1) presence of normal pituitary gland between the adenoma and cavernous sinus (CS), (2) status of the CS venous compartments, (3) CS size, (4) CS lateral wall bulging, (5) displacement of the intracavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) by adenoma, (6) grade of parasellar extension (Knosp-Steiner classification), and (7) percentage of intracavernous ICA encased by the tumor.
  • (1) normal pituitary gland interposed between the adenoma and the CS (PPV, 100.0%), (2) intact medial venous compartment (PPV, 100.0%), and (3) percentage of encasement of the intracavernous ICA lower than 25% (NPV, 100.0%).
  • CONCLUSION: The preoperative diagnosis of CSI by PA is extremely important because endocrinologic remission is rarely obtained after microsurgery alone in patients with invasive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16427401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Jia GJ, Wan WQ, Ni M, Jia W, Zhou DB, Zhang BK, Guan SS, Zhang JT: [Preservation of pituitary stalk in the microsurgery of giant pituitary adenoma and its significance]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jun 17;88(23):1627-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Preservation of pituitary stalk in the microsurgery of giant pituitary adenoma and its significance].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate and elucidate how to preserve the pituitary stalk in the microsurgery of giant pituitary adenoma (GPA) and its clinical significance.
  • METHODS: 45 GPA patients, 23 males and 22 female; aged 40.8, including 12 cases of invasive pituitary adenoma (IPA) underwent craniotomy based on the respective preoperative neuroradiological imaging characteristics.
  • The anatomical relationship between the pituitary stalk and tumor was recorded.
  • The methods to protect the pituitary stalk were summarized.
  • During the surgical proceeding, the pituitary stalk was distinguished from the tumor and preserved well in all 33 cases with non-invasive giant pituitary adenoma.
  • On the contrary, in the 12 cases of invasive giant pituitary adenoma (IPA) the pituitary stalk was visualized in only 7 cases.
  • In the patients with visualized pituitary stalks 4 pituitary stalks were not identified very well.
  • In most cases (91%) the pituitary stalks were located laterally (on the left or right side) or supero-posterior to the tumor, only a few were located anteriorly.
  • CONCLUSION: Pituitary stalk has various anatomical relationships to the entity of GPA; most are located lateral or supero-posterior to the tumor.
  • Identifying and preserving the pituitary stalk well during surgical manipulation will be beneficial to get an excellent outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Microsurgery / methods. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19035104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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37. Raappana A, Koivukangas J, Pirilä T: 3D modeling-based surgical planning in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery--preliminary results. Acta Otolaryngol; 2008 Sep;128(9):1011-8
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  • [Title] 3D modeling-based surgical planning in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery--preliminary results.
  • CONCLUSION: The preoperative three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the pituitary adenoma together with pituitary gland, optic nerves, carotid arteries, and the sphenoid sinuses was adopted for routine use in our institution for all pituitary surgery patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of 3D surgical planning for pituitary adenoma surgery using readily available resources.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 40 consecutive patients with pituitary adenoma were used to construct 3D models to be used in preoperative planning and during the surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 19086197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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38. Wang H, Li W, Shi D, Ye Z, Qin F, Guo Y, Yuan X: Expression of TGFbeta1 and pituitary adenoma fibrosis. Br J Neurosurg; 2009 Jun;23(3):293-6
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  • [Title] Expression of TGFbeta1 and pituitary adenoma fibrosis.
  • Transsphenoidal approach has been increasingly used in the resection of pituitary adenomas for its minimal invasiveness.
  • In this work, the object is to study the relationship between expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) and fibrosis of pituitary adenoma.
  • 38 pituitary adenoma specimens were divided into fibrous group (6 cases) and non-fibrous group (32 cases).
  • Collagen deposition is a significant pathological feature in fibrous pituitary adenomas.
  • TGFbeta1 may play an important role in the fibrosis of adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Peptide Fragments / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19533462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-046X
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / transforming growth factor beta1 (41-65); 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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39. Firat AK, Karakas HM, Firat Y, Kahraman B, Erdem G: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension with pituitary adenoma. J Headache Pain; 2006 Feb;7(1):47-50
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  • [Title] Spontaneous intracranial hypotension with pituitary adenoma.
  • The characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are diffuse smooth pachymeningeal thickening and enhancement, downward displacement of posterior fossa structures and pituitary gland enlargement.
  • An unusual case of SIH with pituitary macro-adenoma and subsequent subdural haemorrhage is presented, and its clinical picture, MRI findings and possible pathophysiological mechanism are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Intracranial Hypotension / complications. Intracranial Hypotension / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] J Headache Pain. 2007 Oct;8(5):317. Firat, Zeynep Y [corrected to Firat, Yezdan]
  • [ErratumIn] J Headache Pain. 2008 Apr;9(2):135
  • (PMID = 16485075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1129-2369
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of headache and pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Headache Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3451575
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40. Wolfsberger S, Neubauer A, Bühler K, Wegenkittl R, Czech T, Gentzsch S, Böcher-Schwarz HG, Knosp E: Advanced virtual endoscopy for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Neurosurgery; 2006 Nov;59(5):1001-9; discussion 1009-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advanced virtual endoscopy for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.
  • This article describes the development of an advanced system of vE for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery and its application to teaching, training, and in the routine clinical setting.
  • METHODS: The vE system was applied to a series of 35 patients with pituitary pathology (32 adenomas, three Rathke's cleft cysts) operated endoscopically via the transsphenoidal route at the Department of Neurosurgery of the Medical University Vienna between 2004 and 2006.
  • For planning a safe and tailored opening of the sellar floor, transparent visualization of the pituitary adenoma and the normal gland in relation to the internal carotid arteries was useful.
  • CONCLUSION: According to our experience, vE can be a valuable tool for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for training purposes and preoperative planning.
  • For the experienced pituitary surgeon, vE can depict the individual patient's anatomy, and may, therefore, improve intraoperative orientation.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopes. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / instrumentation. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation. User-Computer Interface

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  • (PMID = 17143234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Raica M, Coculescu M, Cimpean AM, Ribatti D: Endocrine gland derived-VEGF is down-regulated in human pituitary adenoma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Oct;30(10):3981-6
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  • [Title] Endocrine gland derived-VEGF is down-regulated in human pituitary adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is an angiogenic molecule restricted to endocrine glands and, particularly, to steroid-secreting cells.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated by immunohistochemistry the expression of EG-VEGF in 2 samples of normal adenohypophysis and 43 bioptic samples of pituitary adenoma.
  • RESULTS: The results of this study for the first time demonstrate a down-regulation of EG-VEGF expression in human pituitary adenoma as compared to normal adenohypophysis, suggesting an impaired function of the neoplastic cells in terms of hormone release in the blood stream, as a consequence of impaired tumor angiogenesis in the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: On the basis of our data showing a marked decrease in the expression of EG-VEGF in pituitary adenoma, with the exception of LH-secreting adenomas, we suggest that LH might be involved in the induction of EG-VEGF secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Endocrine-Gland-Derived / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Down-Regulation. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / biosynthesis. Human Growth Hormone / biosynthesis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Luteinizing Hormone / biosynthesis. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. Prolactin / biosynthesis. Thyrotropin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 21036711.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Endocrine-Gland-Derived; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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42. Rocque BG, Herold KA, Salamat MS, Shenker Y, Kuo JS: Symptomatic hyperprolactinemia from an ectopic pituitary adenoma located in the clivus. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):143-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Symptomatic hyperprolactinemia from an ectopic pituitary adenoma located in the clivus.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of an ectopic pituitary adenoma in the clivus.
  • METHODS: The clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of the case are reviewed, and the embryogenesis of the pituitary gland, the pathophysiologic features of this condition, the diagnosis, and the treatment options are discussed.
  • After the resected tissue was examined, the patient was diagnosed as having an ectopic prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • Surgical resection was undertaken in our patient because of the uncertainty of the diagnosis and the aggressive natural history of more common tumors of the clivus, such as chordomas.
  • Although it is possible that a successful trial of dopaminergic therapy would have obviated surgical intervention, this approach would be associated with additional risks if the diagnosis were incorrect.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Hyperprolactinemia / diagnosis. Hyperprolactinemia / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19289326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Peker S, Sun I, Kurtkaya-Yapicier O, Elmaci I, Pamir MN: Ectopic pituitary adenoma located at the pituitary stalk. Case report. J Neurosurg Sci; 2005 Mar;49(1):25-9
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  • [Title] Ectopic pituitary adenoma located at the pituitary stalk. Case report.
  • Suprasellar located ectopic pituitary adenomas are unusual tumors.
  • The pituitary stalk was preserved.
  • Histopathologic diagnosis was a pituitary adenoma immunoreactive for prolactin.
  • Pituitary hormonal functions returned to normal at 6 months postoperatively.
  • An ectopic adenoma should be suspected in a patient with suprasellar tumor and hyperprolactinemia.
  • Surgical excision of this tumor may result with normal pituitary functions and normal visual acuity.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 15990716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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44. Lee EJ, Ahn JY, Noh T, Kim SH, Kim TS, Kim SH: Tumor tissue identification in the pseudocapsule of pituitary adenoma: should the pseudocapsule be removed for total resection of pituitary adenoma? Neurosurgery; 2009 Mar;64(3 Suppl):ons62-9; discussion ons69-70
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  • [Title] Tumor tissue identification in the pseudocapsule of pituitary adenoma: should the pseudocapsule be removed for total resection of pituitary adenoma?
  • OBJECTIVE: The microsurgical pseudocapsule can be found in the transition zone between an adenoma and the surrounding normal pituitary tissue.
  • Furthermore, we evaluated the remission rate, the changes in pituitary function, and the recurrence rate after intensive resection of the pseudocapsule.
  • METHODS: In 616 patients with pituitary adenomas (Hardy Types I-III) over a period of 14 years, we introduced intensive resection of the microsurgical pseudocapsule to achieve complete tumor removal.
  • A combined pituitary function test and radiological study were performed on the patients before surgery, 1 year after surgery, and at subsequent 1.5-year intervals 2 to 13 years postoperatively.
  • In the 243 patients of the total resection group who underwent combined pituitary function tests more than 2 times after surgery, the surgical remission rate was 99.1% in clinically nonfunctional tumors, 88% in growth hormone-secreting, 70.6% in prolactin-secreting, and 100% in adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting tumors.
  • There was no statistical difference in improvement or deterioration of pituitary function according to the existence or absence of the pseudocapsule.
  • These results indicate that intensive resection of the pseudocapsule could result in a higher remission rate without deteriorating pituitary function.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Microsurgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Pituitary Function Tests. Postoperative Period. Prolactinoma / surgery. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19240574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Hatiboglu MA, Iplikcioglu AC, Ozcan D: Abscess formation within invasive pituitary adenoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2006 Aug;13(7):774-7
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  • [Title] Abscess formation within invasive pituitary adenoma.
  • Pituitary abscess secondary to an adenoma is rare.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of a pituitary abscess with adenoma.
  • Pituitary abscess with adenoma is a serious condition that has a high mortality rate.
  • Therefore, early diagnosis and surgical intervention with antibiotic therapy are necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Abscess. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16931019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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46. Platta CS, Mackay C, Welsh JS: Pituitary adenoma: a radiotherapeutic perspective. Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Aug;33(4):408-19
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenoma: a radiotherapeutic perspective.
  • Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10% to 20% of all central nervous system neoplasms whereas autopsy series have suggested that the incidence of pituitary adenoma in the general population may approach 25%.
  • Several treatment modalities are used in the treatment of pituitary adenomas, including observation, surgery, medical intervention, and radiotherapy.
  • The treatment modality employed depends greatly on the type of pituitary adenoma and presenting symptoms.
  • This review will discuss the biology of pituitary adenomas and the current management principles for the treatment of prolactinomas, Cushing disease, acromegaly, and nonsecretory adenomas, with an emphasis on the published radiotherapeutic literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypothalamus / physiology. Incidence. Organ Size. Pituitary Gland / anatomy & histology. Pituitary Gland / physiology. Retrospective Studies. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19687730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 155
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47. Davis JR, McNeilly JR, Norris AJ, Pope C, Wilding M, McDowell G, Holland JP, McNeilly AS: Fetal gonadotrope cell origin of FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma - insight into human pituitary tumour pathogenesis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Nov;65(5):648-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fetal gonadotrope cell origin of FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma - insight into human pituitary tumour pathogenesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of human pituitary adenomas remains unclear, but we report a case of FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma whose monohormonal phenotype suggests it was of fetal origin.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Endocrine studies were performed before and after curative surgery, with assessment of tumour hormone secretion in vitro, and immunostaining of tumour tissue for a series of gonadotrope proteins.
  • Human fetal pituitary tissue contained FSH-only cells at 18 weeks gestation, whereas normal adult pituitary tissue contained only bihormonal gonadotropes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We propose that this pituitary adenoma represents an indolent tumour of monohormonal fetal gonadotrope cells that originated early in gestation.
  • Pituitary tumours may therefore arise from abnormal persistence of fetal cell types, with extremely slow growth over many years until reaching a size threshold to generate an endocrine syndrome.
  • Understanding fetal pituitary architecture and function may be more informative for new insights into pituitary tumour pathogenesis than classical theories of cancer biology that invoke unrestrained cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / embryology. Gonadotrophs / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / embryology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Estradiol / blood. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / analysis. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / secretion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Immunoradiometric Assay / methods. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / embryology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / secretion. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / blood. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / embryology. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / etiology. Tissue Culture Techniques

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  • (PMID = 17054468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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48. Guerrero CA, Krayenbühl N, Husain M, Krisht AF: Ectopic suprasellar growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma: case report. Neurosurgery; 2007 Oct;61(4):E879; discussion E879
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  • [Title] Ectopic suprasellar growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are rare.
  • We present an unusual case of an ectopic growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma in the suprasellar space.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a suprasellar mass not arising from the normal looking pituitary gland.
  • Histological examination showed a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma CONCLUSION: Although uncommon, growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas are encountered in the suprasellar region.
  • They should be added to the differential diagnosis of tumors in this location.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Choristoma. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / radiography


49. Korsisaari N, Ross J, Wu X, Kowanetz M, Pal N, Hall L, Eastham-Anderson J, Forrest WF, Van Bruggen N, Peale FV, Ferrara N: Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-A inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 1;14(1):249-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor-A inhibits the growth of pituitary adenomas and lowers serum prolactin level in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • PURPOSE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is defined clinically by the combined occurrence of multiple tumors, typically of the parathyroid glands, pancreatic islet cells, and anterior pituitary gland.
  • We wished to determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in the vascularization and growth of MEN1-associated tumors, with an emphasis on pituitary adenomas.
  • RESULTS: During the treatment with mAb G6-31, a significant inhibition of the pituitary adenoma growth was observed, leading to an increased mean tumor doubling-free survival compared with mice treated with a control antibody.
  • Similarly, the growth of s.c. pituitary adenoma transplants was effectively inhibited by administration of anti-VEGF-A mAb.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that VEGF-A blockade may represent a nonsurgical treatment for benign tumors of the endocrine system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactin / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors


50. Yilmazlar S, Bekar A, Taskapilioglu O, Tolunay S: Isolated intrasellar tuberculoma mimicking pituitary adenoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 May;14(5):477-81
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  • [Title] Isolated intrasellar tuberculoma mimicking pituitary adenoma.
  • A 37-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and menstrual irregularity due to an intrasellar lesion of the pituitary gland underwent transsphenoidal surgery for histopathological diagnosis and removal of the lesion.
  • Although differential diagnosis of inflammatory pathologies of the intrasellar region presents difficulties, this patient demonstrates that tuberculoma should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tuberculoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 17346976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
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51. Zhan X, Desiderio DM: Signaling pathway networks mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomics data. BMC Med Genomics; 2010 Apr 28;3:13
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  • [Title] Signaling pathway networks mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomics data.
  • BACKGROUND: We obtained a series of pituitary adenoma proteomic expression data, including protein-mapping data (111 proteins), comparative proteomic data (56 differentially expressed proteins), and nitroproteomic data (17 nitroproteins).
  • There is a pressing need to clarify the significant signaling pathway networks that derive from those proteins in order to clarify and to better understand the molecular basis of pituitary adenoma pathogenesis and to discover biomarkers.
  • Here, we describe the significant signaling pathway networks that were mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomic data with the Ingenuity pathway analysis system.
  • METHODS: The Ingenuity pathway analysis system was used to analyze signal pathway networks and canonical pathways from protein-mapping data, comparative proteomic data, adenoma nitroproteomic data, and control nitroproteomic data.
  • Statistical significant results were rationalized within the pituitary adenoma biological system with literature-based bioinformatics analyses.
  • The nitroproteomic data from a pituitary adenoma were related to cancer, cell death, lipid metabolism, and reproductive system disease, and the top canonical toxicity pathways mainly related to p38 MAPK signaling and cell-cycle G2/M transition regulation.
  • Nitroproteins from a pituitary control related to gene expression and cellular development, and no canonical toxicity pathways were identified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This pathway network analysis demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, cell-cycle dysregulation, and the MAPK-signaling abnormality are significantly associated with a pituitary adenoma.
  • These pathway-network data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of human pituitary adenoma pathogenesis, and new clues for an in-depth investigation of pituitary adenoma and biomarker discovery.

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  • (PMID = 20426862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-8794
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med Genomics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR016679
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2884164
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52. Yoshino A, Katayama Y, Watanabe T, Hirota H: Vanishing pituitary mass revealed by timely magnetic resonance imaging: examples of spontaneous resolution of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Mar;147(3):253-7; discussion 257
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  • [Title] Vanishing pituitary mass revealed by timely magnetic resonance imaging: examples of spontaneous resolution of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma.
  • Spontaneous necrosis of a pituitary adenoma is not rare but represents a very unlikely way of curing a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma.
  • We report two cases of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma, one of them with a family history of pituitary adenoma, in whom spontaneous complete resolution occurred through the necrosis of previously well-delineated adenoma.
  • In the present cases, the pituitary necrosis was entirely asymptomatic with the exception of an initial atypical headache in one case, and cured the patients as well as a surgical procedure would have done.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous / pathology. Pituitary Apoplexy / diagnosis. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15605193.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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53. Liu H, Yamaki T, Oka S, Koyanagi I, Houkin K: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma mimicking pituitary adenoma: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Aug;45(8):418-22
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  • [Title] Metastatic renal cell carcinoma mimicking pituitary adenoma: case report.
  • The initial radiological impression was pituitary adenoma.
  • The clinical characteristics of metastatic pituitary carcinoma appear to be panhypopituitarism, and neuroimaging findings of strong enhancement of the tumor and bony destruction without marked sellar enlargement.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / secondary. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Prolactinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Hypopituitarism / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Sella Turcica / pathology. Sella Turcica / radiography. Sella Turcica / surgery. Treatment Outcome


54. Revill K, Dudley KJ, Clayton RN, McNicol AM, Farrell WE: Loss of neuronatin expression is associated with promoter hypermethylation in pituitary adenoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Jun;16(2):537-48
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  • [Title] Loss of neuronatin expression is associated with promoter hypermethylation in pituitary adenoma.
  • The imprinted gene, neuronatin (NNAT), is one of the most abundant transcripts in the pituitary and is thought to be involved in the development and maturation of this gland.
  • In a recent whole-genome approach, exploiting a pituitary tumour cell line, we identified hypermethylation associated loss of NNAT.
  • In this report, we determined the expression pattern of NNAT in individual cell types of the normal gland and within each of the different pituitary adenoma subtypes.
  • However, 33 out of 47 adenomas comprising, 11 somatotrophinomas, 10 prolactinomas, 12 corticotrophinomas and 14 non-functioning tumours, irrespective of subtype failed to express either NNAT transcript or protein as determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and IHC respectively.
  • In normal pituitaries and adenomas that expressed NNAT the promoter-associated CpG island showed characteristics of an imprinted gene where approximately 50% of molecules were densely methylated.
  • However, in the majority of adenomas that showed loss or significantly reduced expression of NNAT, relative to normal pituitaries, the gene-associated CpG island showed significantly increased methylation.
  • Collectively, these findings point to an important role for NNAT in the pituitary and perhaps tumour development in this gland.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19218280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / NNAT protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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55. Vender JR, Laird MD, Dhandapani KM: Inhibition of NFkappaB reduces cellular viability in GH3 pituitary adenoma cells. Neurosurgery; 2008 May;62(5):1122-7; discussion 1027-8
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  • [Title] Inhibition of NFkappaB reduces cellular viability in GH3 pituitary adenoma cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adenomas of the pituitary gland are among the most common types of tumors of the adult brain.
  • Although adenomas are histologically benign, they may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, mostly because of their invasive growth pattern and hormone hypersecretion.
  • Thus, there is a need to identify novel cellular and molecular targets for pituitary tumors.
  • We investigated the possible role of the NFkappaB transcription factor in pituitary tumor cell growth.
  • METHODS: The effect of NFkappaB pathway inhibition on cellular viability was studied in the GH3 pituitary adenoma cell line, a well-characterized rat cell line that secretes growth hormone and prolactin.
  • Treatment with wedelolactone, an IkappaB kinase inhibitor, or overexpression of an IkappaB super-repressor reduced cell viability, further implicating NFkappaB in pituitary tumor cell growth.
  • CONCLUSION: Directed targeting of the Akt and NFkappaB signaling pathways may be a useful adjunct in the clinical management of pituitary tumors.
  • Further elucidation of this pathway may yield novel information regarding the behavior of pituitary tumors in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] NF-kappa B / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18580810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coumarins; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / NF-kappa B; 524-12-9 / wedelolactone; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
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56. Cross DJ, Flexman JA, Anzai Y, Sasaki T, Treuting PM, Maravilla KR, Minoshima S: In vivo manganese MR imaging of calcium influx in spontaneous rat pituitary adenoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2007 Nov-Dec;28(10):1865-71
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  • [Title] In vivo manganese MR imaging of calcium influx in spontaneous rat pituitary adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rapid uptake of the calcium analog manganese (Mn2+) into spontaneous pituitary adenoma during MR imaging of aged rats generated the hypothesis that neuroendocrine tumors may have a corresponding increase in calcium influx required to trigger hormonal release.
  • A goal of this study was to investigate the potential for clinical evaluation of pituitary adenoma by MR imaging combined with administration of Mn2+ (Mn-MR imaging).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mn-MR imaging was used to characterize the dynamic calcium influx in normal aged rat pituitary gland as well as spontaneous pituitary adenoma.
  • To confirm the validity of Mn2+ as a calcium analog, we inhibited Mn2+ uptake into the olfactory bulb and pituitary gland of normal rats by using the calcium channel blocker verapamil.
  • Rats with adenomas received fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning for characterization of tumor metabolism.
  • Mn2+ influx was characterized in cultured pituitary adenoma cells.
  • RESULTS: Volume of interest analysis of the normal aged pituitary gland versus adenoma indicated faster and increased calcium influx in adenoma at 1, 3, 11, and 48 hours.
  • Mn2+ uptake into the olfactory bulb and pituitary gland of normal rats was inhibited by calcium channel blockers and showed dose-dependent inhibition on dynamic MR imaging.
  • CONCLUSION: These results indicate that adenomas have increased activity-dependent calcium influx compared with normal aged pituitary glands, suggesting a potential for exploitation in the clinical work-up of pituitary and other neuroendocrine tumors by developing Mn-MR imaging for humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / metabolism. Contrast Media. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Manganese. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aging / metabolism. Animals. Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Growth Hormone / metabolism. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Radiopharmaceuticals. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Verapamil / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17925377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 42Z2K6ZL8P / Manganese; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; CJ0O37KU29 / Verapamil; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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57. Rumboldt Z: Pituitary adenomas. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Jul;16(4):277-88
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas are by far the most common sellar tumor and magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for their detection and characterization.
  • One also has to be aware of common other incidental findings and normal age-related changes in the appearance of the gland.
  • For microadenomas, imaging is primarily used for lesion detection and localization, whereas with macroadenomas, the goal is to establish whether the mass represents a pituitary tumor or some other lesion and to precisely delineate its extent.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16785843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-3459
  • [Journal-full-title] Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Top Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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58. So G, Takeshita T, Morofuji Y, Iseki M, Hayashi T, Matsuo T, Suyama K, Nagata I: [Nonfunctioning suprasellar ectopic pituitary adenoma. A case report]. No Shinkei Geka; 2008 Dec;36(12):1121-5
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  • [Title] [Nonfunctioning suprasellar ectopic pituitary adenoma. A case report].
  • A case of nonfunctioning suprasellar ectopic pituitary adenoma in a 49-year-old man is reported.
  • MR imagings revealed an enhancing suprasellar tumor and a normal pituitary gland in the sella turcica.
  • The patient underwent a craniotomy and the tumor was partially removed, although it was firmly attached to the pituitary stalk.
  • The tumor was diagnosed histologically as a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma.
  • Cases of nonfunctioning suprasellar ectopic pituitary adenoma have rarely been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sella Turcica. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Craniotomy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland

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  • (PMID = 19086443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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59. Mikami S, Kameyama K, Takahashi S, Yoshida K, Kawase T, Sano T, Mukai M: Combined gangliocytoma and prolactinoma of the pituitary gland. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):117-21
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  • [Title] Combined gangliocytoma and prolactinoma of the pituitary gland.
  • Gangliocytomas of the pituitary gland are rare lesions that often occur in combination with pituitary adenomas, which are frequently associated with the hypersecretion of pituitary hormones, particularly growth hormones.
  • We report a case of combined gangliocytoma and prolactinoma of the pituitary gland.
  • Histologically, the tumor was composed of adenoma cells, mature ganglion cells and cells with features intermediate between those of adenoma cells and ganglion cells (intermediate cells).
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the ganglion cells and intermediate cells as well as adenoma cells to be positive for prolactin.
  • The first is that adenoma cells transform into ganglion cells, and the second is that both components originate from the embryonal pituitary cell rests, showing intermediate features between ganglion cells and adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Coloring Agents. Eosine Yellowish-(YS). Fluorescent Dyes. Headache / etiology. Hematoxylin. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Paraffin Embedding. Pituitary Hormones / blood. Tissue Fixation. Vertigo / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18651251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS); YKM8PY2Z55 / Hematoxylin
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60. Pawlikowski M, Gruszka A, Kurnatowska I, Winczyk K, Kunert-Radek J, Radek A: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in pituitary adenomas: relationship to the endocrine phenotype of adenoma. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2006;44(1):37-41
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  • [Title] Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in pituitary adenomas: relationship to the endocrine phenotype of adenoma.
  • Since proliferation rate is an important factor determining the tumor aggressiveness, the evaluation of PCNA index (the percentage of PCNA-immunopositive nuclei in the investigated tumor sample) is suggested as useful in predicting pituitary adenoma outcome.
  • Seventy three unselected, surgically removed pituitary adenomas were immunostained with antibodies against the pituitary hormones or their subunits and against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).
  • This value was significantly different in comparison to other adenoma subtypes including corticotropinomas manifesting themselves by Cushing's disease.
  • The adenomas which express more than one hormone (plurihormonal adenomas) seem to have a higher PCNA indices than monohormonal ones; the difference was significant in the case of mono- and plurihormonal prolactinomas.
  • These findings suggest that the proliferative potential of pituitary adenomas is related to the tumor recurrence and hormone expression.

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  • (PMID = 16584090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human; 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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61. Filis A, Schaller B, Buchfelder M: [Trigeminocardiac reflex in pituitary surgery. A prospective pilot study]. Nervenarzt; 2008 Jun;79(6):669-75

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  • [Title] [Trigeminocardiac reflex in pituitary surgery. A prospective pilot study].
  • There was a correlation between tumor necrosis factor A and noradrenalin levels with the size (invasivity) of the pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Baroreflex / physiology. Blood Pressure / physiology. Brain Stem / physiology. Pituitary Gland / physiology. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery. Trigeminal Nerve / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18060379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2804
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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62. Hu J, Song H, Wang X, Shen Y, Chen F, Liu Y, Li S, Wang Y, Shou X, Zhang Y, Hu R: Gene expression profiling in human null cell pituitary adenoma tissue. Pituitary; 2007;10(1):47-52
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling in human null cell pituitary adenoma tissue.
  • It is estimated that up to one in five individuals develops pituitary gland tumors, despite the common occurrence of these tumors, the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying their development mainly remain unknown.
  • We studied the gene expression in null cell adenomas compared with normal pituitary by expressed sequence tags (EST) sequencing and cDNA microarray on large scale.
  • Both approaches of EST sequencing and microarray analysis showed that 17 genes were differentially expressed in human null cell pituitary adenoma tissues, among which 14 genes were overexpressed and three genes were underpressed.
  • In view of our finding that SYT is overexpressed in null cell adenomas, these tumors may be capable of secreting some unknown hormones or peptides.
  • ATP5B and MDH1 were involved in the energy metabolism, whose overexpression in null cell adenomas provide us with a new perspective of exploring the oncogenesis of these tumors.
  • All of these data may contribute to the understanding of null cell adenoma formation and development.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Lymphocytes, Null / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17308960.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 134193-27-4 / Synaptotagmins
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63. Moskowitz SI, Hamrahian A, Prayson RA, Pineyro M, Lorenz RR, Weil RJ: Concurrent lymphocytic hypophysitis and pituitary adenoma. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg; 2006 Aug;105(2):309-14
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  • [Title] Concurrent lymphocytic hypophysitis and pituitary adenoma. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Lymphocytic hypophysitis has been described rarely in the setting of other simultaneous pathological processes that involve the pituitary and sella turcica, and is postulated to arise from an intrinsic inflammatory response.
  • The authors report the case of a 43-year-old woman who presented with a 2-month history of galactorrhea and pseudohyperprolactinemia secondary to a 10-mm lesion within an enlarged pituitary gland.
  • Microscopic and immunohistopathological examinations revealed a nonsecreting pituitary adenoma with concurrent lymphocytic adenohypophysitis.
  • This is the first documented case of LyH in the setting of a null-cell pituitary adenoma.
  • The authors review the related literature and outline potential mechanisms for the concurrent development of LyH and a pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Lymphocytosis / complications. Pituitary Diseases / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Galactorrhea / etiology. Galactorrhea / pathology. Galactorrhea / surgery. Humans. Hyperprolactinemia / etiology. Hyperprolactinemia / pathology. Hyperprolactinemia / surgery. Inflammation / complications. Inflammation / diagnosis. Inflammation / pathology. Inflammation / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Sphenoid Bone / surgery


64. Zerikly RK, Eray E, Faiman C, Prayson R, Lorenz RR, Weil RJ, Hamrahian AH: Cyclic Cushing syndrome due to an ectopic pituitary adenoma. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Mar;5(3):174-9
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  • [Title] Cyclic Cushing syndrome due to an ectopic pituitary adenoma.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Measurements of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, 24 h urine free cortisol excretion, late-night salivary cortisol, serum cortisol levels before and after corticotropin-releasing hormone administration during a dexamethasone suppression/corticotropin-releasing hormone-stimulation test, pituitary MRI, and inferior petrosal sinus sampling.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Cyclic Cushing syndrome secondary to an ectopic pituitary adenoma.
  • At microscopic examination, the lesion was found to be a pituitary adenoma, which stained diffusely with antiadrenocorticotropic-hormone antibodies.
  • Explorations of the sella and pituitary did not reveal any abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19107133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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65. Jain D, Sharma MC, Sarkar C, Suri V, Garg A, Mahapatra AK, Kumar L: Pituitary gland involvement by a gamma delta hepatosplenic lymphoma, a mimicker of pituitary adenoma: report of a rare case. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jun;88(2):237-41
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  • [Title] Pituitary gland involvement by a gamma delta hepatosplenic lymphoma, a mimicker of pituitary adenoma: report of a rare case.
  • A provisional diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia was made.
  • Finally, based on overall clinical, histomorphological and immunophenotypic features, a diagnosis of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma, possibly gamma delta type, involving pituitary gland was established.
  • On follow up, this patient showed evidence of bone marrow involvement and died after 1.5-year of diagnosis.
  • This case highlights the involvement of rare site by a rare lymphoma and should be kept in mind in the differential diagnoses of pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / complications. Lymphoma, T-Cell / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta / metabolism. Splenic Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18317685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta
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66. Delides A, Velegrakis G, Kontogeorgos G, Karagianni E, Nakas D, Helidonis E: Familial bilateral acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid synchronous with pituitary adenoma: case report. Head Neck; 2005 Sep;27(9):825-8
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  • [Title] Familial bilateral acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid synchronous with pituitary adenoma: case report.
  • METHODS: History files and histologic reports of a patient with bilateral multifocal acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid and a synchronous pituitary adenoma, and of the patient's sister and his father, also treated for parotid tumours, were retrieved.
  • A pituitary tumor was a chromophobe gonotrophic adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the 17th case of bilateral acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland and the second reported case with a familial recurrence.
  • It is the first with a synchronous pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15920750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Ballian N, Chrisoulidou A, Nomikos P, Samara C, Kontogeorgos G, Kaltsas GA: Hypophysitis superimposed on a non-functioning pituitary adenoma: diagnostic clinical, endocrine, and radiologic features. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Sep;30(8):677-83
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  • [Title] Hypophysitis superimposed on a non-functioning pituitary adenoma: diagnostic clinical, endocrine, and radiologic features.
  • Pituitary adenomas are common neoplasms requiring medical and/or surgical treatment when associated with hormonal hypersecretion.
  • Treatment of non-functioning pituitary adenomas is necessary when symptoms of mass effect or hormonal deficits occur.
  • Hence, it is important to consider disorders that could present in a similar manner to pituitary adenomas, for which surgery is not the indicated therapeutic approach.
  • We describe herein a 38-yr-old woman who presented with a pituitary lesion that was considered to be a non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • Fifteen months after initial diagnosis, considerable enlargement of the lesion was noted, extending mainly superiorly and indenting the optic chiasm.
  • Repeated endocrine investigation revealed partial anterior pituitary insufficiency.
  • The patient underwent trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary lesion; histology revealed a null cell pituitary adenoma and lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH) of the non-neoplastic adenohypophysial gland.
  • Post-operatively, complete anterior and partial posterior pituitary insufficiency developed.
  • This case illustrates the effects of new-onset LYH in a patient with a pre-existing non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • Being aware of this rare possibility is important, as enlargement of the pituitary lesion may not be caused by expansion of the preexisting tumor, but by the onset of LYH of the nonneoplastic pituitary tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Hypopituitarism / pathology. Inflammation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17923800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones
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68. Mounier C, Pasquet F, Trouillas J, Perrin G, Jouanneau E, Borson-Chazot F, Colle B: [Nelson's syndrome: course of aggressive pituitary corticotroph adenoma]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Feb;68(1):28-33
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  • [Title] [Nelson's syndrome: course of aggressive pituitary corticotroph adenoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Syndrome de Nelson: évolution d'un adénome hypophysaire corticotrope agressif.
  • Nelson's syndrome was defined in 1958 as the association of an expanding pituitary tumor with high ACTH secretion after bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease.
  • Pituitary MRI and ACTH measurements led to the definition of Nelson's syndrome as the proliferation of a corticotrophic microadenoma or an aggressive and highly proliferative tumor residue induced by the decreased glucocorticoid inhibition after bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • Based on a typical case and a review of the literature, we point out some predictive markers of tumor growth after bilateral adrenalectomy: young age at diagnosis, presence of tumor residue on pituitary MRI before adrenalectomy, markers of tumor aggressiveness (Ki-67>3%, mitoses, nuclear PTTG) and increase of ACTH levels during the first months following adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Nelson Syndrome / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17306208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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69. Ulitin AIu, Oliushin VE, Mel'kishev VF: [Pituitary apoplexy in giant cell adenoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2007;53(3):339-44
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  • [Title] [Pituitary apoplexy in giant cell adenoma].
  • Hemorrhage in giant cell adenomas of the pituitary gland was detected in 20.8%.
  • There was a relationship between pituitary apoplexy course, on the one hand, and age and tumor growth, on the other.
  • Since postoperative complication and lethality rates were relatively higher in younger patients, it is suggested that differentiated approach be taken to the diagnosis and management of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / complications. Pituitary Apoplexy / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18198618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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70. Romeike BF, Joellenbeck B, Stein H, Loddenkemper C, Hummel M, Firsching R, Mawrin C: Precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma within a recurrent pituitary adenoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Aug;150(8):833-6
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  • [Title] Precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma within a recurrent pituitary adenoma.
  • Only single examples of lymphoma associated with pituitary adenoma have been reported.
  • In our patient, a precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma developed within a recurrent pituitary adenoma 17 years after the first resection.
  • Histomorphologically, lymphoma and adenoma components were tightly admixed.
  • In both patients the lymphomas were composed of T-cells, there was no evidence of further sites involved, and both adenomas expressed follicle-stimulating hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endoscopy. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / analysis. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 18574548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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71. Aste L, Bellinzona M, Meleddu V, Farci G, Manieli C, Godano U: Xanthomatous hypophysitis mimicking a pituitary adenoma: case report and review of the literature. J Oncol; 2010;2010:195323

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Xanthomatous hypophysitis mimicking a pituitary adenoma: case report and review of the literature.
  • Background. Hypophysitis is an inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland that may mimic pituitary tumors clinically and radiologically.
  • We report a case of a xanthomatous hypophysitis initially diagnosed as pituitary adenoma.
  • The intraoperative histological examination suggested a pituitary adenoma.
  • Conclusion. We describe an unusual inflammatory lesion of the pituitary gland mimicking an adenoma.
  • A high level of clinical suspicion of inflammatory disorders is necessary for correct diagnosis and optimal management.

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2005 Mar;29(3):329-38 [15725801.001]
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  • (PMID = 20671950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8469
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2910471
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72. Donangelo I, Melmed S: Pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005;28(11 Suppl International):100-5
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  • [Title] Pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary tumor initiation and progression are associated with a plethora of genetic imbalances.
  • The role of pituitary trophic status as determinant of neoplastic potential is not clear.
  • The pituitary gland responds to diverse central and peripheral signals by undergoing reversible plastic and functional changes.
  • The resulting hyperplasia/excess hormone production, or involution/hyposecretion in pituitary cells may correlate with the ability to develop pituitary tumors.
  • It is difficult to test this hypothesis, in part due to limitations on the definition of human pituitary cell trophic status and because this organ is not readily accessible for serial histopathological analysis.
  • Transgenic mouse models of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) inactivation or overexpression support the notion that a permissive trophic environment may be required for pituitary tumor formation.
  • Mechanisms underlying changes in pituitary plasticity and their relationship to tumor development may account for the diverse genetic abnormalities observed in pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Expression. Humans. Hypertrophy. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Securin

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  • (PMID = 16625857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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73. Benoit I, Drui D, Chaillous L, Dupas B, Mosnier JF, Charbonnel B, Cariou B: A corticotroph pituitary adenoma as the initial presentation of familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Jul;161(1):195-9
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  • [Title] A corticotroph pituitary adenoma as the initial presentation of familial glucocorticoid deficiency.
  • Here, we report the case of a young woman with a corticotroph pituitary adenoma as the initial presentation of FGD.
  • CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old girl was referred to our institution for a 16 mm pituitary adenoma associated with glucocorticoid deficiency.
  • Despite adequate glucocorticoid replacement, plasma ACTH levels remained increased and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a progression of the tumour size resulting in optic chiasm compression with intra-tumoural haemorrhaging.
  • The histomorphological analysis identified a well-individualized pituitary adenoma immunoreactive for ACTH.
  • The proband's sister also exhibited type 3 FGD associated with pituitary hyperplasia upon MRI.
  • CONCLUSION: This case highlights the relationship between FGD and hyperplasia of ACTH-producing cells, potentially leading to histologically proven pituitary corticotroph adenomas.
  • This observation raises the question of the pituitary MRI's significance in the follow-up of FGD.

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  • (PMID = 19423561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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74. Occhi G, Albiger N, Berlucchi S, Gardiman M, Scanarini M, Scienza R, Fassina A, Mantero F, Scaroni C: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the human pituitary gland: expression and splicing pattern in adenomas versus normal pituitary. J Neuroendocrinol; 2007 Jul;19(7):552-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the human pituitary gland: expression and splicing pattern in adenomas versus normal pituitary.
  • Pituitary adenomas are slow-growing tumours arising within the pituitary gland.
  • If secreting, they give rise to well-known syndromes such as Cushing's disease or acromegaly; when hormonally inactive, they come to clinical attention often with local mass effects or pituitary deficiency.
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear hormone receptor with a key role in fat and glucose metabolism, but also involved in several neoplasia, has recently been detected in pituitary adenomas.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the occurrence and splicing profile of PPARgamma in 43 cases of pituitary adenoma of different subtypes and compared it to 12 normal pituitary glands.
  • By real-time polymerase chain reaction, PPARgamma was expressed as much in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and ACTH-silent adenomas as in controls, with a moderate underexpression in somatotrophinomas and prolactinomas and overexpression in 54% of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA).
  • There was no apparent qualitative change in the splicing profile of pathological pituitary glands, nor was the presence of specific isoforms with dominant negative effects against PPARgamma detected.
  • Western blotting revealed similar expression levels in the different subgroups of pituitary adenomas and normal glands.
  • The intra- and intergroup differences observed in pituitary adenomas may represent new elements in the process of understanding the different clinical responses of Cushing's and Nelson patients to PPARgamma-ligand treatment.
  • Moreover, the higher level of PPARgamma expression detected in the NFPA subgroup may suggest its possible role as a molecular target in these pituitary adenomas, paving the way for investigations on the effectiveness of treatment with thiazolidinediones in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. RNA Splicing

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  • (PMID = 17561883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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75. Taguchi T, Takao T, Iwasaki Y, Oyama K, Yamada S, Inoue M, Terada Y: Diagnostic value of 18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):78-9

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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of 18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the presence of an intrasellar mass lesion (5.9 x 2.8 mm) in the left part of her pituitary gland (Fig.
  • Subsequent histological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of a GH-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • PET scans are reported to be a valuable tool for the detection of pituitary adenomas [2-4].
  • PET scans are recommended for patients with equivocal pituitary mass lesions on conventional MRI, and for follow-up examinations after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Dihydroxyphenylalanine. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19915981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 63-84-3 / Dihydroxyphenylalanine
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76. Cuthbertson DJ, Ritchie D, Crooks D, Main G, Smith C, Vora J, Eljamel MS, Leese GP: Lymphocytic hypophysitis occurring simultaneously with a functioning pituitary adenoma. Endocr J; 2008 Aug;55(4):729-35
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  • [Title] Lymphocytic hypophysitis occurring simultaneously with a functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • Lymphocytic Hypophysitis (LH) is a rare and previously under-recognised disorder, most commonly affecting young females in the post-partum period.
  • It presents clinically with symptoms and signs related to either a pituitary mass or hypopituitarism, frequently mimicking a pituitary adenoma; the diagnosis of LH can only be made histologically with the presence of a dense lymphocytic infiltration usually confined to the anterior pituitary.
  • We present two case histories of patients who presented with symptoms suggestive of a functioning pituitary adenoma who also had concomitant LH confirmed histologically.
  • In both patients, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary demonstrated an enlarged partially cystic pituitary mass with slight suprasellar extension.
  • Both patients were treated surgically with transphenoidal drainage and excision and histological examination of the surgical specimens demonstrated a mixture of pathologies with fragments of adenohypophyseal tissue (staining positive for ACTH and prolactin respectively) with a dense chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate suggestive of LH in nearby normal anterior pituitary.
  • In both cases a joint diagnosis of a functioning pituitary adenoma with LH was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Pituitary Diseases / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18497455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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77. Pappa T, Papanastasiou L, Markou A, Androulakis I, Kontogeorgos G, Seretis A, Piaditis G: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis as the first manifestation of a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma. Hormones (Athens); 2010 Jan-Mar;9(1):82-6
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  • [Title] Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis as the first manifestation of a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is a rare cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • Even more rare is the occurrence of TPP as the first manifestation of a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • We report a 31-year-old Asian male patient suffering from TPP caused by a TSH-secreting adenoma, who was evaluated for persistent episodes of muscle paralysis.
  • The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland revealed a microadenoma, thus suggesting the presence of a TSH-secreting adenoma.
  • The patient underwent transphenoidal resection and the pathological investigation confirmed the diagnosis of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Despite its rarity, TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of TPP.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthyroidism / etiology. Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Thyroid Hormones / blood. Treatment Outcome


78. Güzel A, Er U, Tatli M, Uzunlar AK, Belen D, Bavbek M: Pituitary adenoma coexisting with a suprasellar arachnoid cyst. Turk Neurosurg; 2007 Apr;17(2):138-41
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenoma coexisting with a suprasellar arachnoid cyst.
  • This leads to a difficulty in preoperative diagnosis.
  • Here, a pituitary adenoma and a suprasellar arachnoid cyst in the same patient is presented, and possible etiopathogenetic mechanisms and surgical treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachnoid Cysts / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Sella Turcica / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17935032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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79. Kurowska M, Tarach JS, Zgliczyński W, Malicka J, Zieliński G, Janczarek M: Acromegaly in a patient with normal pituitary gland and somatotropic adenoma located in the sphenoid sinus. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jul-Aug;59(4):348-51
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  • [Title] Acromegaly in a patient with normal pituitary gland and somatotropic adenoma located in the sphenoid sinus.
  • Even rarer are ectopic pituitary adenomas located in the sphenoid sinus or nasopharynx that originate from pituitary remnants in the craniopharyngeal duct.
  • This dissertation presents the difficulties in visualizing GH-secreting adenoma located in the sphenoid sinus.
  • MRI imaging revealed a slightly asymmetric pituitary gland (14 yen 4 mm) without focal lesions.
  • After preliminary treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue, transsphenoidal pituitary tumour removal was performed.
  • Histopathological, electron microscopical and immunohistochemical analysis revealed densely granulated somatotropic pituitary adenoma: GH(+), PRL(-), ACTH(-), TSH(-), FSH(-), LH(-), MIB1 < 1%, SSTR3(+) and SSTR5(+).
  • Post-surgical evaluation showed normal pituitary MRI scans, GH and IGF-1 levels 0.18 mug/l and 140 mg/l, respectively, as well as normal GH suppression with oral glucose.
  • The careful analysis of possible pituitary embryonic malformations points out their significance for proper localization of extrapituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / complications. Choristoma / complications. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Gland. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Sphenoid Sinus
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18777506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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80. Lupi I, Manetti L, Caturegli P, Menicagli M, Cosottini M, Iannelli A, Acerbi G, Bevilacqua G, Bogazzi F, Martino E: Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes but not serum pituitary antibodies are associated with poor clinical outcome after surgery in patients with pituitary adenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jan;95(1):289-96
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  • [Title] Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes but not serum pituitary antibodies are associated with poor clinical outcome after surgery in patients with pituitary adenoma.
  • CONTEXT: Serum pituitary antibodies (Pit Abs) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been described in pituitary adenomas, but their clinical significance remains unknown.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess Pit Abs and TILs prevalence in pituitary adenomas and their influence on clinical outcome.
  • PATIENTS AND SETTING: Two hundred ninety-one pituitary adenoma cases (110 non-secreting, 30 ACTH-69 GH-71 prolactin- and 13 TSH-secreting adenoma; 177 operated and 114 untreated), 409 healthy controls, and 14 autoimmune hypophysitis were enrolled in a tertiary referral center.
  • The presence of TILs was evaluated using CD45 staining in a subset of adenomas surgically treated (n = 72).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical response of pituitary adenoma after surgery was evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Pit Abs prevalence was higher in adenomas (5.1%) than healthy subjects (0.7%, P < 0.0001) and lower than in autoimmune hypophysitis patients (57%, P < 0.0001).
  • Similarly, TILs prevalence was higher in adenomas than normal pituitary (P = 0.01) and lower than in autoimmune hypophysitis (P < 0.0001).
  • A poor clinical outcome was more common in adenoma patients with TILs (11 of 18, 61%) than in those without (17 of 54, 31%, P = 0.026).
  • Multivariate regression analysis identified the presence of TILs as independent prognostic factor for persistence/recurrence of pituitary adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TILs and Pit Abs are present in a significant number of pituitary adenoma patients.

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  • (PMID = 19875479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R21 DK080351; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK080351
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2805498
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81. Meriden Z, Bullock GC, Bagg A, Bonatti H, Cousar JB, Lopes MB, Robbins MK, Cathro HP: Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland. Hum Pathol; 2010 Nov;41(11):1641-5
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  • [Title] Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.
  • Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported.
  • We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes.
  • This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Transplantation. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / etiology. Pituitary Diseases / etiology. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Postoperative Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Clone Cells. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain. Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor. Humans. Ileum / pathology. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / genetics. Immunohistochemistry. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20656316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
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82. Luu ST, Billing K, Crompton JL, Blumbergs P, Lee AW, Chen CS: Clinicopathological correlation in pituitary gland metastasis presenting as anterior visual pathway compression. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Jun;17(6):790-3
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological correlation in pituitary gland metastasis presenting as anterior visual pathway compression.
  • Pituitary gland metastases, albeit rare, remain an important differential in sellar and suprasellar tumours.
  • Clinical and radiological features of pituitary metastases may be indistinguishable from benign suprasellar lesions such as a pituitary adenoma.
  • Histopathology with immunohistochemical assay remains the key to the diagnosis of pituitary metastasis.
  • We describe four patients with sellar lesions presenting with anterior visual pathway compression initially diagnosed as pituitary adenomas who on immunohistochemistry were found to have metastases to the pituitary.
  • Classification of the cell histology determined the primary site of origin in some patients.
  • This series demonstrates the importance of combining histopathology and immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of suprasellar lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Nerve Compression Syndromes / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20382025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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83. Buchfelder M, Kreutzer J: Transcranial surgery for pituitary adenomas. Pituitary; 2008;11(4):375-84
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  • [Title] Transcranial surgery for pituitary adenomas.
  • Following a century of evolution and refinements in standard surgical techniques, the vast majority of operations for pituitary adenoma to date are performed utilizing transsphenoidal approaches.
  • The goal of surgical treatment is rapid eradication of the tumor mass, decompression of visual pathways and elimination of hormonal oversecretion whilst preserving the normal gland and avoiding potential surgical complications.
  • In this article current indications and limitations for transcranial surgery of pituitary adenomas, the preoperative workup, surgical techniques, results, and complications are briefly reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18421581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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84. Błaut K, Wiśniewski P, Syrenicz A, Sworczak K: Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2006 Oct;27(5):569-72
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  • [Title] Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog.
  • Since now, only few cases of an apoplexy of previously undiagnosed pituitary adenoma (usually gonadotropinoma) at the beginning of therapy have been described in the medical literature.
  • Imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) revealed the presence of a pituitary tumor and hemorrhage within the gland.
  • There was no evidence of pituitary dysfunction in hormonal studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy


85. La Rosa S, Vigetti D, Placidi C, Finzi G, Uccella S, Clerici M, Bartolini B, Carnevali I, Losa M, Capella C: Localization of carboxyl ester lipase in human pituitary gland and pituitary adenomas. J Histochem Cytochem; 2010 Oct;58(10):881-9
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  • [Title] Localization of carboxyl ester lipase in human pituitary gland and pituitary adenomas.
  • Carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes a wide variety of lipid substrates, including ceramides, which are known to show inhibitory regulation of pituitary hormone secretion in experimental models.
  • Because no studies on CEL expression in human pituitary and pituitary adenomas have been reported in the literature, we investigated CEL expression in 10 normal pituitary glands and 86 well-characterized pituitary adenomas [12 FSH/LH cell, 17 α-subunit/null cell, 6 TSH cell, 21 ACTH cell, 11 prolactin (PRL) cell, and 19 GH cell adenomas] using IHC, immunoelectron microscopy, Western blotting, and quantitative RT-PCR.
  • In adenomas, it was mainly found in functioning GH, ACTH, and TSH tumors, whereas its expression was poor in the corresponding silent adenomas and was lacking in FSH/LH cell, null cell, and PRL cell adenomas.
  • This is the first study demonstrating CEL expression in normal human pituitary glands and in functioning GH, ACTH, and TSH adenomas.
  • Considering that CEL hydrolyzes ceramides, inactivating their inhibitory function on pituitary hormone secretion, our findings suggest a possible role of CEL in the regulation of hormone secretion in both normal and adenomatous pituitary cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / enzymology. Lipase / biosynthesis. Pituitary Gland / enzymology. Pituitary Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20566755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-5044
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.1.3 / CEL protein, human; EC 3.1.1.3 / Lipase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2942741
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86. Rotondo F, Sharma S, Scheithauer BW, Horvath E, Syro LV, Cusimano M, Nassiri F, Yousef GM, Kovacs K: Endoglin and CD-34 immunoreactivity in the assessment of microvessel density in normal pituitary and adenoma subtypes. Neoplasma; 2010;57(6):590-3
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  • [Title] Endoglin and CD-34 immunoreactivity in the assessment of microvessel density in normal pituitary and adenoma subtypes.
  • Fifty endocrinologically active and 36 clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, all surgically resected, as well as 10 autopsy-derived normal adenohypophyses were investigated by immunohistochemistry.
  • The results showed that in every pituitary adenoma type endoglin, an assumed biomarker of proliferating endothelial cells, immunostained fewer vessels than CD-34 which revealed immunopositivity in all capillaries.
  • Differences in endoglin versus CD-34 immunoexpression indicate varying degrees of vascularity in pituitary adenoma subtypes.
  • The low levels of endoglin immunoexpression in pituitary tumors exposed to long-acting somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists are consistent with the view that these agents inhibit angiogenesis.
  • KEYWORDS: immunohistochemistry, endoglin, CD34, microvascular density, angiogenesis, pituitary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood supply. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Pituitary Gland / blood supply. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood supply. Receptors, Cell Surface / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20845998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
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87. Ma CY, Shi JX: [Male infertility caused by pituitary adenoma]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2006 Jan;12(1):75-7, 79
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  • [Title] [Male infertility caused by pituitary adenoma].
  • Pituitary adenoma is one of the important etiologies of male infertility.
  • The early diagnosis of pituitary adenoma that caused infertility is not difficult with the help of modem incretion examination and imaging technique.
  • The treatment focused on pituitary adenoma is no doubt the optimal choice of this kind of male infertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Infertility, Male / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16483168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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88. Bogazzi F, Manetti L, Tomisti L, Rossi G, Cosci C, Sardella C, Bartalena L, Gasperi M, Macchia E, Vitti P, Martino E: Thyroid color flow Doppler sonography: an adjunctive tool for differentiating patients with inappropriate thyrotropin (TSH) secretion due to TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma or resistance to thyroid hormone. Thyroid; 2006 Oct;16(10):989-95
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  • [Title] Thyroid color flow Doppler sonography: an adjunctive tool for differentiating patients with inappropriate thyrotropin (TSH) secretion due to TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma or resistance to thyroid hormone.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) and resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) are two forms of inappropriate TSH secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Hyperpituitarism / ultrasonography. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Hormones / physiology. Thyrotropin / secretion. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • (PMID = 17042684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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89. Florio T, Casagrande S, Diana F, Bajetto A, Porcile C, Zona G, Thellung S, Arena S, Pattarozzi A, Corsaro A, Spaziante R, Robello M, Schettini G: Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha induces proliferation and growth hormone release in GH4C1 rat pituitary adenoma cell line through multiple intracellular signals. Mol Pharmacol; 2006 Feb;69(2):539-46
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  • [Title] Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha induces proliferation and growth hormone release in GH4C1 rat pituitary adenoma cell line through multiple intracellular signals.
  • We used GH4C1 cells as a model to study the effects of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1) in pituitary functions.
  • In these cells, SDF1alpha induced proliferation and growth hormone secretion, suggesting a possible regulatory role for this chemokine at pituitary level.
  • In conclusion, we demonstrate that SDF1alpha causes both proliferation and growth hormone release from pituitary adenoma cells, suggesting that the activation of CXCR4 may represent a novel regulatory mechanism for growth hormone secretion and pituitary cell proliferation, which may contribute to pituitary adenoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Chemokines, CXC / pharmacology. Growth Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR4 / agonists

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  • (PMID = 16258074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-895X
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 0 / Cxcr4 protein, rat; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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90. Eljamel MS, Leese G, Moseley H: Intraoperative optical identification of pituitary adenomas. J Neurooncol; 2009 May;92(3):417-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative optical identification of pituitary adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: The main goals of transsphenoidal pituitary surgery are total removal of pituitary adenomas (PAs) and preservation of normal pituitary functions.
  • After the dura of the floor of the sella was incised a laser probe was inserted into the pituitary gland to identify the ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX spectroscopy at 632 nm, using an optical biopsy system (OBS).
  • Once the adenoma was identified by the OBS it was exposed and examined by the PD system to detect fluorescence.
  • PATIENTS: Thirty consecutive patients were studied: 14 were non-functioning macroadenomas (NFA), 12 were secreting PAs and 4 pituitary cysts.
  • CONCLUSION: Intraoperative optical identification of pituitary adenomas is a feasible and reliable way to localize pituitary adenomas during transsphenoidal surgery and it may lead to improved cure rate and preservation of normal pituitary functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19357967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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91. Castinetti F, Brue T: [Radiotherapy and radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas]. Presse Med; 2009 Jan;38(1):133-9
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  • [Title] [Radiotherapy and radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas].
  • There are two principal types of treatment for pituitary adenomas: fractionated conventional radiation therapy, based on biological selectivity, and radiosurgery, which is delivered in a single dose, based on anatomic selectivity and indicated preferentially for small tumors sufficiently distant from the optic chiasm.
  • This is especially useful in the case of an active residue after surgery for non-secreting adenoma, but the long-term side effects of radiation must be borne in mind.
  • The principal side effect is the onset of a pituitary deficiency (in more than 50% of cases after radiation therapy, 20% after radiosurgery).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Decision Trees. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / therapy. Pituitary Gland / radiation effects. Pituitary Gland / secretion. Postoperative Complications. Prolactinoma / radiotherapy. Prolactinoma / secretion. Prolactinoma / surgery. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18954960.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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92. Kararizou E, Stamboulis E, Markou I, Alevizaki M, Gkiatas K: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prolactinoma. Funct Neurol; 2007 Jan-Apr;22(1):39-41
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  • Investigations revealed the co-existence of a pituitary adenoma of the prolactinoma type.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prolactinoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 17509242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-5264
  • [Journal-full-title] Functional neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Funct. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine
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93. Szepietowska B, Myśliwiec J, Telejko B: [Subacute thyroiditis in woman presenting with thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2005 Apr;113(4):364-8
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  • [Title] [Subacute thyroiditis in woman presenting with thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma].
  • Thyrotropin secreting tumors constitute 0,9 to 2,8% of all pituitary tumors.
  • Thus, it is very rare tumor of this endocrine gland.
  • Standards of the diagnosis of TSH-omas are based on me lack of inhibition of TSH levels in the presence of increased free thyroid hormones and abnormal, neoplastic intrasellar or parasellar mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Thyroiditis, Subacute / etiology. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16209252.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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94. van den Bergh AC, van den Berg G, Schoorl MA, Sluiter WJ, van der Vliet AM, Hoving EW, Szabó BG, Langendijk JA, Wolffenbuttel BH, Dullaart RP: Immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: beneficial effect on local control without additional negative impact on pituitary function and life expectancy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Mar 1;67(3):863-9
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  • [Title] Immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: beneficial effect on local control without additional negative impact on pituitary function and life expectancy.
  • PURPOSE: To demonstrate the benefit of immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) in perspective to the need for hormonal substitution and life expectancy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immediate postoperative radiotherapy provides a marked improvement of local control among patients with residual NFA compared with surgery alone, without an additional deleterious effect on pituitary function and life expectancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Life Expectancy. Pituitary Gland / radiation effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17197121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Mittelbronn M, Psaras T, Capper D, Meyermann R, Honegger J: ACTH- and prolactin-producing pituitary gland microadenoma with biphasic features of atypia and intermediate filament expression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2006 Feb-Apr;27(1-2):89-92
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  • [Title] ACTH- and prolactin-producing pituitary gland microadenoma with biphasic features of atypia and intermediate filament expression.
  • Endocrinological examinations led to the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.
  • Histological and immunohistochemical investigations revealed a pituitary gland adenoma showing a biphasic tumor growth pattern with two morphologically different tumor areas producing ACTH and prolactin respectively.
  • Co-expression of ACTH and prolactin is exceedingly rare in pituitary adenoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of an ACTH- and prolactin-producing pituitary gland adenoma exhibiting biphasic features of atypia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Prolactin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Pituitary Hormones / chemistry. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16648816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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96. Leenstra JL, Tanaka S, Kline RW, Brown PD, Link MJ, Nippoldt TB, Young WF Jr, Pollock BE: Factors associated with endocrine deficits after stereotactic radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas. Neurosurgery; 2010 Jul;67(1):27-32; discussion 32-3
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  • [Title] Factors associated with endocrine deficits after stereotactic radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with anterior pituitary deficits after pituitary adenoma stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).
  • METHODS: The tumor, pituitary stalk, and pituitary gland were segmented on the dose plans of 82 patients (secreting tumors, n = 53; nonsecreting tumors, n=29) for dose-volume analysis.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (41%) developed new anterior pituitary deficits at a median of 32 months (range, 2-118) after SRS.
  • The risk of developing new anterior pituitary deficits was 16% and 45% at 2 and 5 years, respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis of the entire group showed that poor visualization of the pituitary gland (hazard ratio [HR]=2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-6.25, P=.03) was associated with a higher rate of new anterior pituitary deficits.
  • Dosimetric analysis of 60 patients whose pituitary gland could be clearly identified showed that increasing mean pituitary gland radiation dose correlated with new anterior pituitary deficits (HR=1.11, 95% CI=1.02-1.20, P=.02).
  • New anterior pituitary deficits stratified by mean pituitary gland radiation dose: <or=7.5 Gy, 0% (0/7); 7.6 to 13.2 Gy, 29% (7/24); 13.3 to 19.1 Gy, 39% (9/23); >19.1 Gy, 83% (5/6).
  • CONCLUSION: New endocrine deficits after pituitary adenoma radiosurgery were correlated with increasing radiation dose to the pituitary gland.
  • Methods that limit the radiation dose to the pituitary gland during SRS may increase the probability of preserving pituitary function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / radiation effects. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Radiosurgery / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20559089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Rotondo F, Scheithauer BW, Kovacs K, Bell DC: Rab3B immunoexpression in human pituitary adenomas. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 May;17(3):185-8
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  • [Title] Rab3B immunoexpression in human pituitary adenomas.
  • To shed light on its presence in the normal human pituitary and in adenomas, a detailed immunohistochemical study of 130 surgically removed human pituitary adenomas was undertaken, including 23 somatotroph, 32 lactotroph, 19 functional corticotroph, 10 silent subtype 1 and 8 silent subtype 2 corticotroph adenomas, 12 gonadotroph hormone producing, 10 thyrotroph, 7 silent subtype 3 adenomas, and 9 null cell adenomas, 5 of the latter being of oncocytic type.
  • Among the 32 prolactin lactotroph adenomas, 10 had been treated preoperatively with bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist.
  • Among the 23 somatotroph adenomas, 10 were pretreated with octreotide, a long acting somatostatin analog.
  • The results showed Rab3B immunopositivity to be strongest in corticotroph adenomas followed by thyrotroph, lactotroph, gonadotroph, null cell, and somatotroph adenomas.
  • No difference was noted between endocrinologically active and silent corticotroph adenomas.
  • Our results add new information to the view that Rab3B is involved in the regulation of pituitary hormone secretion.

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  • (PMID = 19384079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; EC 3.6.1.- / RAB3B protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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98. La Rosa S, Uccella S, Dainese L, Marchet S, Placidi C, Vigetti D, Capella C: Characterization of c-kit (CD117) expression in human normal pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):104-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of c-kit (CD117) expression in human normal pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas.
  • In experimental animal models, c-kit has been detected in the pars intermedia of the normal pituitary gland and in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-positive adenomas and it has been suggested that it plays a role in regulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion.
  • To the best of our knowledge, the expression of c-kit in normal human pituitary cells and in pituitary adenomas has never been reported, so the possible biological role of this receptor in the control of pituitary hormone secretion remains unclear.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of c-kit in normal human pituitary glands and in a series of 62 well-characterized pituitary adenomas.
  • Out of 62 adenomas, 15 (24%) were c-kit-IR, including 7/16 (44%) ACTH cell, 3/7 (42%) null cell, 4/11 (36%) alpha-subunit cell, and 1/11 (10%) follicle-stimulating hormone-luteinizing hormone cell adenomas.
  • By contrast, all ten prolactin cell and seven growth hormone cell adenomas were c-kit negative.
  • These data suggest that, in normal conditions, c-kit may be involved in the pituitary-adrenal axis regulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Child. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Paraffin Embedding. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Prolactinoma / pathology. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 18568298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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99. Sikoski P, Trybus J, Cline JM, Muhammad FS, Eckhoff A, Tan J, Lockard M, Jolley T, Britt S, Kock ND: Cystic mammary adenocarcinoma associated with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Comp Med; 2008 Jun;58(3):297-300
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  • [Title] Cystic mammary adenocarcinoma associated with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
  • Pituitary adenoma in a rabbitA 44-mo-old, female, nulliparous New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) presented with bilaterally diffusely enlarged mammary glands with enlarged, discolored teats that exuded brown, mucoid discharge.
  • Computed tomography and serum prolactin levels supported the diagnosis of mammary gland dysplasia, possibly due to a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Histologic evaluation confirmed the presence of a pituitary adenoma, mammary hyperplasia, dysplasia, and cystic mammary adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of abundant prolactin secreting cells in the pituitary adenoma.
  • This is the second report of hyperprolactinemia with mammary dysplasia in rabbits, and the first report of cystic mammary adenocarcinoma associated with a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a rabbit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / secretion. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Prolactin / secretion

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  • [Cites] Comp Med. 2003 Aug;53(4):424-32 [14524419.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1976 Aug;82(4):746-52 [181935.001]
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  • (PMID = 18589874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0820
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2704120
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100. Goto J, Otsuka F, Inagaki K, Tsukamoto N, Suzuki J, Miyoshi T, Ogura T, Kamada Y, Makino H: Effects of growth hormone reduction in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome complicated with acromegaly. Endocr J; 2009;56(1):157-60
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  • We report a rare case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) complicated with acromegaly due to a growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • Complete removal of the pituitary adenoma successfully reduced circulating levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, which, in turn, resulted in the amelioration of gonadal dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, lutenizing hormone hypersecretion, and severe insulin resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Growth Hormone / blood. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / complications

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  • (PMID = 18840925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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