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6. Conte-Devolx B, Niccoli P, Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines: [Clinical characteristics of multiple endocrine neoplasia]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2010 Jan;194(1):69-78; discussion 78-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most frequent endocrine features of MEN1 are parathyroid involvement (> 95%), duodeno-pancreatic endocrine tissue involvement (80%), pituitary adenoma (30%), and adrenal cortex tumors (25%), with no clear syndromic variants.
  • Identification of the germline MEN1 mutation confirms the diagnosis, but there is no phenotype-genotype correlation.
  • The most distinctive MEN2 variants are MEN2A (MTC+pheochromocytoma+hyperparathyroidism), MEN2B (MTC+pheo), and isolated familial MTC (FMTC).
  • The prognosis of MEN2 is linked to the progression of MTC, which depends mainly on the stage at diagnosis and the quality of initial surgical treatment.
  • This emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and management.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Digestive System Neoplasms / genetics. Digestive System Neoplasms / surgery. Early Diagnosis. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genetic Testing. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20669560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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7. Portela-Gomes GM, Grimelius L, Stridsberg M: Secretogranin III in human neuroendocrine tumours: a comparative immunohistochemical study with chromogranins A and B and secretogranin II. Regul Pept; 2010 Nov 30;165(1):30-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The expression of SgIII agreed well with that of CgA, CgB and SgII, with exceptions of phaeochromocytomas, where more CgB and SgII immunoreactive cells were observed and parathyroid adenomas, which were only stained by CgA.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20550951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1686
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranin B; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Secretogranin II; 0 / secretogranin III
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8. Fuster D, Torregrosa JV, Setoain X, Doménech B, Campistol JM, Rubello D, Pons F: Localising imaging in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;33(3):203-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Localising imaging in secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Preoperative imaging has proved its use successful in the localization of solitary parathyroid adenomas in patients with suspected primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • However, due to multiglandular disease at presentation patients with renal hyperparathyroidism need to be analyzed separately, making the usefulness of imaging techniques controversial.
  • Recently, improved methods of functional imaging like parathyroid scan with 99mTc-sestamibi or positron emission tomography, especially when combined with computed tomography, can provide additional quantitative and qualitative information that has yet to be assessed.
  • Nuclear medicine procedures could prove useful not only in preoperative diagnosis, but also in the selection of medical or surgical therapeutic alternatives in secondary hyperparathyroidism patients.
  • There is evidence that 99mTc-sestamibi uptake in parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma is related to biochemical markers of parathyroid function.
  • We are only beginning to identify the factors involved in radiotracer uptake by parathyroid cells and how it can be modulated to obtain more accurate results.
  • This review analyzes the current use of non-invasive imaging modalities in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, taking into account the latest trends in the field combining anatomic and functional modalities and the relevant factors linked to radiotracer uptake in abnormal hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18846026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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9. Pimenta FJ, Gontijo Silveira LF, Tavares GC, Silva AC, Perdigão PF, Castro WH, Gomez MV, Teh BT, De Marco L, Gomez RS: HRPT2 gene alterations in ossifying fibroma of the jaws. Oral Oncol; 2006 Aug;42(7):735-9
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  • Recently, the candidate tumor suppressor gene HRPT2 was identified and alterations in this gene were related with the Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome that is characterized by parathyroid adenoma or carcinoma, fibro-osseous lesions (mainly OF) of the jaws, and renal lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16458039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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10. Thrumurthy SG, Date RS, Mughal MM, Pursnani KG, Ward JB: The surgical management of pancreaticoduodenal tumours in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Upon investigation, he was found to have renal stone disease secondary to a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Further tests revealed high pituitary hormone and gastrin values, confirming the diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 21686642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Barzon L, Masi G, Iacobone M, Parenti A, Palù G, De Caro R: Immunohistochemical assessment of parafibromin in mouse and human tissues. J Anat; 2006 Dec;209(6):817-27
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  • Parafibromin is a protein encoded by the HRPT2 oncosuppressor gene, whose mutation causes the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome, characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid adenoma or carcinoma, fibro-osseous jaw tumours, and renal neoplastic and non-neoplastic abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Female. Fibroma / genetics. Fibroma / metabolism. Gastric Mucosa / chemistry. Hepatocytes / chemistry. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Jaw Neoplasms / genetics. Jaw Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Tubules / chemistry. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Mutation. Pituitary Gland / chemistry. Species Specificity. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 17118068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of anatomy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Anat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2048996
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12. Lang BH: Minimally invasive thyroid and parathyroid operations: surgical techniques and pearls. Adv Surg; 2010;44:185-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimally invasive thyroid and parathyroid operations: surgical techniques and pearls.
  • With advances in technology and greater demand for minimally invasive procedures, novel minimally invasive approaches to thyroid and parathyroid glands increasingly have been described and practiced worldwide.
  • The addition of the robot such as the de Vinci surgical system could make some of the extracervical approaches technically less challenging and improve patient outcomes.
  • Unlike MIT, MIP has become the standard approach for surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by localized solitary parathyroid adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20919522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-3411
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Bishop J, Brown E, Podesta A, Troy C, Dong XE: Surgical management of calciphylaxis associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Endocrinol; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Surgical management of calciphylaxis associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Here, we present the unusual case of a 56-year-old woman, with extensive medical problems, who developed calciphylaxis in the presence of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The diagnosis of calciphylaxis was rendered histologically by extensive calcification of the subcutaneous blood vessels.
  • Subsequent parathyroidectomy identified the presence of a hyperactive mediastinal parathyroid adenoma, weighing 0.62 grams.
  • Postoperatively, the patient had normalization of hypercalcemia and parathyroid hormone levels, with subsequent healing of her thigh wounds.

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  • (PMID = 20885925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8345
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2946589
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1
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4. Moretz WH 3rd, Watts TL, Virgin FW Jr, Chin E, Gourin CG, Terris DJ: Correlation of intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels with parathyroid gland size. Laryngoscope; 2007 Nov;117(11):1957-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation of intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels with parathyroid gland size.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship of intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone levels (iPTH) with parathyroid adenoma weight and volume in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Data collected include preoperative serum calcium, ionized calcium, and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, iPTH levels at baseline, 5 minutes, and 10 minutes, and parathyroid adenoma weight.
  • Adenoma volume was calculated using an equation for the volume of a spheroid object.
  • RESULTS: Thirty patients underwent minimally invasive parathyroidectomy with iPTH measurement for a single parathyroid adenoma between March 2004 and January 2006.
  • A significant correlation between preoperative serum calcium and ionized calcium levels and parathyroid adenoma weight was identified (P = .0008 and P = .03, respectively).
  • A significant correlation was also shown between baseline iPTH measurements and parathyroid adenoma volume (P = .03).
  • There was no correlation between baseline iPTH levels and parathyroid adenoma weight.
  • There was a significant correlation between parathyroid adenoma weight and percentage decrease of iPTH levels at 10 minutes compared to baseline (P = .04).
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative serum calcium and baseline iPTH levels may be useful in predicting parathyroid adenoma weight and volume, respectively.
  • Adenoma weight may relate to the percentage decrease of iPTH levels at the 10-minute postparathyroidectomy interval.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17891053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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15. Ruf J, Seehofer D, Denecke T, Stelter L, Rayes N, Felix R, Amthauer H: Impact of image fusion and attenuation correction by SPECT-CT on the scintigraphic detection of parathyroid adenomas. Nuklearmedizin; 2007;46(1):15-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of image fusion and attenuation correction by SPECT-CT on the scintigraphic detection of parathyroid adenomas.
  • AIM: In addition to planar parathyroid scintigraphy, SPECT and image fusion with CT/MR improve adenoma detection in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • However, as TB and image contrast is measurably improved after AC there is a potential to improve the sensitivity of parathyroid SPECT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / radiography. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17299650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Souza ER, Scrignoli JA, Bezerra FC, Ribeiro SL, Passos LF: Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma. J Clin Rheumatol; 2008 Oct;14(5):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disease caused by exaggerated secretion of the parathyroid gland hormone, produced by an adenoma in 80% of cases.
  • Ectopic adenomas occur in a small proportion of cases.
  • Herein, the authors report a 72-year-old woman with a delayed diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, produced by an intrathoracic adenoma, with a longstanding course, presenting with severe osteoporosis, multiple fractures, bone deformities, and neurologic impairments.
  • Persistent hypercalcemia, high levels of alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were documented and a paratracheal mass was found on a helicoidal tomography of the thorax.
  • After surgical removal, the histopathological examination confirmed an ectopic adenoma of the parathyroid gland and the patient achieved some improvement in her clinical picture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Bone Diseases, Endocrine / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Choristoma. Female. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Nephrocalcinosis / etiology. Nephrolithiasis / etiology. Osteoporosis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Tracheal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18824925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-7355
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Foppiani L, Del Monte P, Sartini G, Arlandini A, Quilici P, Bandelloni R, Marugo A, Bernasconi D: Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma as cause of hypercalcemia and pitfall of localization techniques: clinical and biologic features. Endocr Pract; 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):176-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma as cause of hypercalcemia and pitfall of localization techniques: clinical and biologic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual case of intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma (PC), which was retrospectively diagnosed in a woman who underwent surgical treatment of a recurrent nodular goiter.
  • METHODS: We report the clinical and biologic features of an intrathyroidal PC, discuss the challenges with distinguishing PC from parathyroid adenoma, and review the related literature.
  • At 1-year follow-up, hypercalcemia (12.1 to 12.6 mg/dL) and low phosphorus levels (2.0 to 2.3 mg/dL) were found, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were profoundly increased (481 to 721 pg/mL).
  • Neck ultrasonography showed a large hypoechogenic solid nodule, not clearly cleaved from the right thyroid lobe, which was possibly compatible with an enlarged parathyroid gland; however, a sestamibi scan was negative.
  • These findings were highly suggestive of and supported the diagnosis of PC.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Goiter / surgery. Humans. Infant. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17490933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Sidoti M, Marino G, Resmini E, Augeri C, Cappi C, Cavallero D, Lagasio C, Ceppa P, Minuto F, Giusti M: The rational use of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in diagnosing thyroid nodules. Minerva Endocrinol; 2006 Jun;31(2):159-72
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  • AIM: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules and enables the number of surgical operations to be reduced.
  • In 50%, 36%, 6%, 3%, 2% and 1% of cases, the echographic diagnosis was of MNG, UNG, pseudo-nodular lesion in ATD, lymph-node, neck cyst, suspected parathyroid lesion and tumefaction of the salivary glands, respectively.
  • Of the 2 Thy 3 cases, 1 was follicular carcinoma and 1 was follicular adenoma with adjacent papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cohort Studies. Evaluation Studies as Topic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16682939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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19. Yun JS, Nam KH, Chung WY, Park CS: Giant posterior mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid; 2008 Apr;18(4):475-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant posterior mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Mediastinum / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Parathyroidectomy. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi / pharmacology. Time Factors. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18399771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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20. Toniato A, Pelizzo MR: Letter 1: Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma (Br J Surg 2007; 94: 566-570). Br J Surg; 2007 Aug;94(8):1042-3; author reply 1043-4
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  • [Title] Letter 1: Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma (Br J Surg 2007; 94: 566-570).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] Br J Surg. 2007 May;94(5):566-70 [17380564.001]
  • (PMID = 17636521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Ypsilantis E, Charfare H, Wassif WS: Intraoperative PTH Assay during Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy May Be Helpful in the Detection of Double Adenomas and May Minimise the Risk of Recurrent Surgery. Int J Endocrinol; 2010;2010:178671
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  • [Title] Intraoperative PTH Assay during Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy May Be Helpful in the Detection of Double Adenomas and May Minimise the Risk of Recurrent Surgery.
  • Background. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is increasingly replacing the traditional bilateral neck exploration in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP).
  • Intraoperative PTH (IOPTH) measurement has recently been introduced as a useful adjunct in confirming successful excision of abnormal parathyroid gland. Aims.
  • Results. All patients had successful removal of the abnormal parathyroid gland.
  • The concordance rate between ultrasound and sestamibi scan in localising the parathyroid adenoma was 82%.
  • IOPTH measurement confirmed the removal of adenoma in all cases and, in one case, led to identification of a second adenoma, not localised preoperatively.

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  • (PMID = 21197437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8345
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3010640
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22. Shaheen F, Chowdry N, Gojwari T, Wani AI, Khan S: Role of cervical ultrasonography in primary hyperparathyroidism. Indian J Radiol Imaging; 2008 Nov;18(4):302-5
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  • [Title] Role of cervical ultrasonography in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • AIM: To evaluate the role of USG in the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with symptomatic hyperparathyroidism and to compare its usefulness with that of scintigraphy scan and postoperative findings.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism were subjected to USG of the neck and nuclear scintigraphy, followed by surgery.
  • RESULTS: The 25 patients had a total of 28 abnormal glands: 22 solitary adenomas, and 6 multiple adenomas (two each in three patients).
  • USG detected 20 out of 22 solitary adenomas and three out of six multiple adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: As limited neck dissection for primary hyperparathyroidism becomes increasingly popular, USG has been found to be a sensitive, specific, and easily available noninvasive investigation for parathyroid localization.
  • It can be easily offered to patients as a method for preoperative localization prior to limited parathyroid surgery outside tertiary care settings.

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  • (PMID = 19774186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0971-3026
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of radiology & imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Radiol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2747464
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Primary hyperparathyroidism / Tc-sestamibi scan / ultrasonography
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23. Al-Wahhabi B: Parathyroid adenoma and bilateral pheochromocytoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis. Ann Saudi Med; 2005 May-Jun;25(3):255-7
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  • [Title] Parathyroid adenoma and bilateral pheochromocytoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics


24. Pai SI, Goldstein BJ, Studeman KD, Westra WH, Tufano RP: Concurrent sporadic parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol; 2006 Sep-Oct;27(5):346-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concurrent sporadic parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcium / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16935182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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25. Pino Rivero V, Pantoja Hernández CG, González Palomino A, Mora Santos ME, Pardo Romero R, Trinidad Ramos G, Montero García C, Blasco Huelva A: [Reoperation because of ectopic parathyroid adenoma with previous removal of lipothymoma. Importance of intraoperative PTH]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2006;33(6):565-71
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  • [Title] [Reoperation because of ectopic parathyroid adenoma with previous removal of lipothymoma. Importance of intraoperative PTH].
  • [Transliterated title] Reintervención por adenoma ectópico de paratiroides con extirpación previa de lipotimoma. Importancia de la PTH intraoperatoria.
  • Sometimes the surgery of hyperparathyroidism is not easy and the surgical team find difficulties to locate the pathological gland or glands.
  • We report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopic parathyroid adenoma which required two interventions.
  • First we removed what it seems an adenoma but resulted to be a lipotimoma.
  • In the reintervention practiced one week later, having then the rapid or turbo intraoperative PTH and previous digital scintigraphy, it was possible to remove an adenoma histologically confirmed, with 3,5 cm diameter located in depth to right thyroid lobe towards the superior mediastinal straits.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Intraoperative Care. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 17233271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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26. Alavi MS, Azarpira N, Mojallal M: Incidental finding of bilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Hell J Nucl Med; 2010 Jan-Apr;13(1):56-8
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  • [Title] Incidental finding of bilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) affects 0.5%-1% of the adult population and presents with classical signs of renal lithiasis, cholecystolithiasis, gastrointestinal ulcerations, depression, and osteoporosis.
  • Parathyroid adenoma, hyperplasia and rarely carcinoma are the underlying pathology.
  • Synchronous thyroid and parathyroid pathologies are described in multiple endocrine neoplasia.
  • We report a case of a 47 years old woman with non-syndromic concomitant occurrence of bilateral non-medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by histopathology, and with PHP confirmed by (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy, hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone.
  • A head and neck surgeon needs to be aware of the possible coexistence of thyroid and parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 20411173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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27. Yusim A, Aspelund G, Ahrens W, Martel M, Scoutt LM, Donovan PI, Udelsman R: Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid; 2006 Jun;16(6):619-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 16839266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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28. Ros S, Sitges-Serra A, Pereira JA, Jimeno J, Prieto R, Sancho JJ, Pérez-Ruiz L: [Intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas: right and lower]. Cir Esp; 2008 Oct;84(4):196-200
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  • [Title] [Intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas: right and lower].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomas paratiroideos de localización intratiroidea: derechos y bajos.
  • INTRODUCTION: Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas (IPA) are a not an uncommon cause of persistent hyperparathyroidism.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective review of prospectively recorded surgical protocols of patients having had parathyroidectomy for primary (n = 437) or secondary (n = 137) hyperparathyroidism by the same surgeon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18928769.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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29. Bergero N, De Pompa R, Sacerdote C, Gasparri G, Volante M, Bussolati G, Papotti M: Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases. Hum Pathol; 2005 Aug;36(8):908-14
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases.
  • The diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is difficult and based on morphological features that are not totally reliable.
  • With the aim of identifying a marker of malignancy in parathyroid tumors, we tested the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a lectin expressed in several malignant tumors, including follicular carcinomas (but not adenomas) of the thyroid.
  • Twenty-six PCs and 30 control parathyroid adenomas (PAs) were collected.
  • All cases were immunohistochemically tested for Gal-3 and for other markers claimed to be useful in the differential diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasms, namely, Ki67, p27, and bcl2.
  • We conclude that Gal-3 immunostaining is a valuable tool to support a diagnosis of PC in highly proliferating (Ki67 >6%) tumors affecting a single parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16112008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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30. Velázquez-Fernández D, Laurell C, Saqui-Salces M, Pantoja JP, Candanedo-Gonzalez F, Reza-Albarrán A, Gamboa-Dominguez A, Herrera MF: Differential RNA expression profile by cDNA microarray in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT): primary parathyroid hyperplasia versus adenoma. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):705-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential RNA expression profile by cDNA microarray in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT): primary parathyroid hyperplasia versus adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis between adenoma and hyperplasia in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) remains a dilemma.
  • The aim of this study was to assess differences in transcriptional genomic expression profiles between sporadic (nonfamilial) parathyroid hyperplasia (SPH), adenoma, and normal tissue.
  • METHODS: Parathyroid tissue from 12 patients with parathyroid adenoma, 3 with SPH, and 2 with normal glands was selected for analysis.
  • Histopathology was reviewed in all cases, and all patients with adenomas presented normocalcemia for a minimum of 6 months after one gland resection.
  • RESULTS: There were significant statistical differences between SPH and adenomas.
  • When SPH was compared to normal parathyroid tissue, 50 genes were differentially expressed: 42 were upregulated (> 1.89) and 8 were downregulated (> 1.7) with a B > 4.26 (98.6% probability of real differential expression).
  • At least 17 genes were differentially expressed and able to discriminate SPH from adenoma or normal tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that SPH and adenoma have a singular molecular signature that, theoretically, could be used for the differential diagnosis of these entities and normal parathyroid tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Hyperplasia / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. RNA / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16680586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 63231-63-0 / RNA
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31. Ruggeri RM, Calamoneri E, Russo A, Sindoni A, Mondello B, Monaco M, Rosa MA, Baldari S, Benvenga S, Campennì A, Trimarchi F: Supra-acetabular brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal failure. ScientificWorldJournal; 2010;10:799-805
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  • [Title] Supra-acetabular brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal failure.
  • 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy revealed a single focus of sestamibi accumulation in the left retrosternal location, which turned out to be an intrathoracic parathyroid adenoma at surgical exploration.
  • After surgical removal of the parathyroid adenoma, PTH levels decreased to 212 pg/ml.
  • This case is noteworthy because (1) primary hyperparathyroidism was not suspected due to the normocalcemia, likely attributable to the coexistence of chronic renal failure; and (2) it was associated with a brown tumor of unusual location (right supra-acetabular region).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications


32. Richmond BK, Eads K, Flaherty S, Belcher M, Runyon D: Complications of thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy in the rural community hospital setting. Am Surg; 2007 Apr;73(4):332-6
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  • The objective of this study was to examine the complications encountered in a series of 150 consecutive thyroid and parathyroid procedures performed by a single surgeon in a rural community hospital setting.
  • Specifically, these include intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurements, intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring, and the use of the gamma probe for detection of parathyroid adenoma.
  • A retrospective chart review was conducted on a series of 150 patients undergoing any thyroid or parathyroid operation by a single surgeon in a rural setting over a 4-year period.
  • One hundred thirty-one thyroid procedures were performed (71 lobectomies, 60 total or near total procedures) for a diverse range of patholological conditions: multinodular goiter, 76 (50.7%) patients, follicular adenoma, 9 (6.0%) patients, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 13 (8.7%) patients, papillary carcinoma, 14 (9.3%) patients, follicular carcinoma, 5 (3.3%) patients, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, 13 (8.7%) patients, and medullary carcinoma, 1 (0.7%) patient.
  • Nineteen successful parathyroid explorations were performed for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The success of identifying parathyroid adenoma was 100 per cent, despite the absence of intraoperative parathormone assays, and the decision not to perform radio-guided parathyroidectomy.
  • We conclude that outcomes and complications in thyroid and parathyroid surgical procedures are largely dependent on surgeon skill and experience, and can be performed safely in the community setting by an experienced general surgeon despite the absence of advanced technology in this setting.

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  • (PMID = 17439023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Weigel TL, Murphy J, Kabbani L, Ibele A, Chen H: Radioguided thoracoscopic mediastinal parathyroidectomy with intraoperative parathyroid hormone testing. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Oct;80(4):1262-5
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  • [Title] Radioguided thoracoscopic mediastinal parathyroidectomy with intraoperative parathyroid hormone testing.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism is the leading cause of hypercalcemia in the United States.
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of radioguided thoracoscopic mediastinal parathyroidectomy and intraoperative immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level testing to guide completeness of resection.
  • Parathyroid excision was confirmed by ex vivo measurement of specimen radioactivity greater than 20% of background.
  • RESULTS: Four patients had mediastinal parathyroid glands successfully localized and resected thoracoscopically.
  • Mean weight of the excised parathyroid adenoma was 1,714 mg (range, 425 to 4,400 mg).
  • One patient underwent radioguided resection of a second enlarged cervical parathyroid adenoma at the same setting when his intraoperative iPTH levels failed to fall below 50% of baseline, despite resection of a 440 mg mediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • All mediastinal parathyroid glands resected were confirmed adenomas on final histologic examination.
  • Radioguidance facilitates parathyroid localization.
  • Ex vivo specimen radioactivity of greater than 20% of background confirms parathyroid resection and obviates the need for costly, time-consuming frozen section analysis.
  • A 50% decrease in baseline iPTH level 5 minutes postresection confirms complete resection of parathyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Thoracoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16181851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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34. Moore FD Jr: Are scintigraphy, ultrasonography, and the parathyroid hormone assay necessary to identify solitary parathyroid adenomas? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;3(3):214-5
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  • [Title] Are scintigraphy, ultrasonography, and the parathyroid hormone assay necessary to identify solitary parathyroid adenomas?

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  • [CommentOn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Jul;65(1):106-13 [16817828.001]
  • (PMID = 17262065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Fery-Blanco C, Prati C, Ornetti P, Bevalot J, Streit G, Toussirot E, Wendling D: [Hypercalcemia of double origin: association of multiple myeloma and ectopic parathyroidal adenoma]. Rev Med Interne; 2007 Jul;28(7):504-6
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  • [Title] [Hypercalcemia of double origin: association of multiple myeloma and ectopic parathyroidal adenoma].
  • INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma and primary hyperparathyroidism are two causes of hypercalcemia.
  • Biopsy diagnosed an ectopic parathyroidal adenoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Multiple myeloma and primary hyperparathyroidism can be associated.
  • Hypophosphoremia can suggest the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism.
  • Both this observation and litterature (about twenty case reports) suggest that this double diagnosis should be systematicly evoked and explored by an assay of parathormone and a seric proteins electrophoresis in all hypercalcemia.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple myeloma and parathyroidal adenoma should be both explored in all hypercalcemia, because they can be associated.

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  • (PMID = 17395337.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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36. Efremidou EI, Papageorgiou MS, Pavlidou E, Manolas KJ, Liratzopoulos N: Parathyroid apoplexy, the explanation of spontaneous remission of primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report. Cases J; 2009 Mar 10;2:6399
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  • [Title] Parathyroid apoplexy, the explanation of spontaneous remission of primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid adenoma represents an endocrine disease that is usually treated by surgical intervention (parathyroidectomy).
  • In a very few patients, primary hyperparathyroidism can be spontaneously remit either by infraction or hemorrhage of the adenoma,a fact that is almost certain that will not lead to complete and definite cure.
  • We describe a similar case of a 59-year-old male patient who underwent surgery for a cystic degeneration of a parathyroid adenoma, with substantial preoperative reduction of parathyroid hormone and calcium serum levels,and the diagnostic and treatment modalities are discussed, with a brief review of the current literature.

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  • (PMID = 20184676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2827073
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37. Bajoghli M, Muthukrishnan A, Mountz JM: Posterior bulge sign for parathyroid adenoma on Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Aug;31(8):470-1
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  • [Title] Posterior bulge sign for parathyroid adenoma on Tc-99m MIBI SPECT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16855433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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38. Ogawa T, Tsuji E, Kanauchi H, Yamada K, Mimura Y, Kaminishi M: Excision of postesophageal parathyroid adenoma in posterior mediastinum with intraoperative 99mTechnetium sestamibi scanning. Ann Thorac Surg; 2007 Nov;84(5):1754-6
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  • [Title] Excision of postesophageal parathyroid adenoma in posterior mediastinum with intraoperative 99mTechnetium sestamibi scanning.
  • Although approximately 25% of parathyroid tumors in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism are located in the mediastinum, nearly all these tumors can be removed through cervical exploration.
  • The mediastinal tumors are usually located in the inferior parathyroid gland, and the ectopic mediastinal tumors derived from the superior glands are extremely rare.
  • We present a case of retroesophageal mediastinal parathyroid adenoma that developed in the left superior parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Choristoma / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17954108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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39. Charrié A, Chikh K, Peix JL, Berger N, Decaussin M, Veber S, Bienvenu J, Lifante JC, Fabien N: Calcium-sensing receptor autoantibodies in primary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Chim Acta; 2009 Aug;406(1-2):94-7
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  • [Title] Calcium-sensing receptor autoantibodies in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND: Mutations in the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene are known to be implicated in some cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • However, not all patients display such mutations and so the mechanisms of primary hyperparathyroidism are still largely unknown.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of CaSR autoantibodies in a large cohort of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • METHODS: Seventy-five patients were tested for the presence of anti-parathyroid antibodies using an immunoblotting assay with the recombinant extracellular domain of the human CaSR and an immunofluorescence technique with parathyroid adenoma.
  • There was no statistically significant difference in the decrease of parathyroid hormone (PTH) level after surgery between patients with or without autoantibodies.
  • Histological examination of parathyroid tissue did not show greater lymphocytic infiltration in patients with autoantibodies than in those without.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that some patients with primary hyperparathyroidism displayed CaSR autoantibodies.
  • The pathophysiological role of these autoantibodies in hyperparathyroidism needs to be further elucidated.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / immunology. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Autoimmune Diseases / blood. Autoimmune Diseases / immunology. Autoimmune Diseases / pathology. Autoimmune Diseases / surgery. Calcium / blood. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19520070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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40. Masi G, Barzon L, Iacobone M, Viel G, Porzionato A, Macchi V, De Caro R, Favia G, Palù G: Clinical, genetic, and histopathologic investigation of CDC73-related familial hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1115-26
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  • [Title] Clinical, genetic, and histopathologic investigation of CDC73-related familial hyperparathyroidism.
  • CDC73 (HRPT2) germline mutations are responsible for more than half of cases of hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) and for a subset of familial isolated HPT (FIHP).
  • HPT-JT and FIHP patients had similar laboratory, clinical, and demographic features and shared primary HPT and other neoplasms, the most common of which was uterine polyposis.
  • Genetic analysis of tumor samples demonstrated a second somatic CDC73 mutation only in a parathyroid adenoma and no cases with the loss of the wild-type allele or methylation of the CDC73 promoter, even though immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the loss of nuclear parafibromin expression in all tumors, including a uterine polyp.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Jaw Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


41. Palermo A, Mulè G, Guarneri M, Arsena R, Riccobene R, Lorito MC, Vaccaro F, Cerasola G, Cottone S: Parathyroid hormone is inversely related to endothelin-1 in patients on haemodialysis. Nephrology (Carlton); 2008 Dec;13(6):467-71
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  • [Title] Parathyroid hormone is inversely related to endothelin-1 in patients on haemodialysis.
  • AIM: Parathyroid hormone secretion is mainly influenced by hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphataemia and vitamin D deficiency.
  • However, previous in vitro and in vivo studies showed that endothelin-1 can influence parathyroid hormone secretion.
  • METHODS: Parathyroid hormone and endothelin-1 plasma concentrations were measured in 67 haemodialysed patients.
  • Patients with history of cardiovascular diseases and those with parathyroid adenoma were excluded.
  • RESULTS: Plasma levels of endothelin-1 were found to be inversely related to those of parathyroid hormone (P < 0.04) The multiple regression analysis, carried out considering parathyroid hormone as a dependent variable, and including age, sex, blood pressure, calcium x phosphorus product, and endothelin-1, demonstrated that the independent correlates of parathyroid hormone were endothelin-1 (beta = -0.276; P = 0.015), and calcium x phosphorus product (beta = 0.417; P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: For the first time in vivo, we demonstrated an inverse independent relationship between endothelin-1 and parathyroid hormone in haemodialysed patients.
  • Because both endothelin-1 and parathyroid hormone are endowed with well-known harmful actions on cardiovascular apparatus, whether such inverse relation may really influence the natural history of cardiovascular damage due to secondary hyperparathyroidism remains to be elucidated.
  • [MeSH-major] Endothelin-1 / blood. Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Renal Dialysis

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  • [CommentIn] Nephrology (Carlton). 2008 Dec;13(6):465-6 [19138206.001]
  • (PMID = 18518931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1797
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrology (Carlton)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / PTH protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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42. Raghay K, García-Caballero T, Nogueiras R, Morel G, Beiras A, Diéguez C, Gallego R: Ghrelin localization in rat and human thyroid and parathyroid glands and tumours. Histochem Cell Biol; 2006 Mar;125(3):239-46
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  • [Title] Ghrelin localization in rat and human thyroid and parathyroid glands and tumours.
  • In the current study, we use molecular biology to detect ghrelin transcripts expression in rats, and immunohistochemical techniques to investigate the cellular distribution of this peptide in rat and human thyroid and parathyroid glands and tumours.
  • Ghrelin was localized in thyroid C cells and in parathyroid cells.
  • Thyroid carcinomas (medullar, follicular and papillary) and parathyroid adenomas also showed intense and diffuse immunostaining for ghrelin.
  • The diffuse ghrelin immunostaining found in the parathyroid gland opens up the possibility of its secretion to the bloodstream or its involvement in the regulation of the parathyroid function.
  • Overall, expression of ghrelin in human and rat thyroid and parathyroid glands is highly suggestive of a conserved role of this molecule in the regulation of thyroid and parathyroid cell function.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Peptide Hormones / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16187069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-6143
  • [Journal-full-title] Histochemistry and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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43. Berland T, Smith SL, Huguet KL: Occult fifth gland intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma identified by gamma probe. Am Surg; 2005 Mar;71(3):264-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Occult fifth gland intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma identified by gamma probe.
  • The gamma probe was instrumental in guiding us to the adenoma in a fifth gland that was not visible and was localized to the parenchyma of the left lobe of the thyroid gland.
  • Many surgeons do not advocate use of the gamma probe in minimally invasive parathyroidectomy and rely solely on focused exploration on the basis of a preoperative sestamibi scan and intraoperative rapid parathyroid hormone assays.
  • This case, however, illustrates the utility of the gamma probe in parathyroid adenoma localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / abnormalities. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gamma Cameras. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / instrumentation. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15869146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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44. Graff-Baker A, Roman SA, Boffa D, Aslanian H, Sosa JA: Diagnosis of ectopic middle mediastinal parathyroid adenoma using endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration with real-time rapid parathyroid hormone assay. J Am Coll Surg; 2009 Sep;209(3):e1-4
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of ectopic middle mediastinal parathyroid adenoma using endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration with real-time rapid parathyroid hormone assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Endosonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 19717031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Yener S, Saklamaz A, Demir T, Kebapcilar L, Bayraktar F, Canda S, Yesil S: Primary hyperparathyroidism due to atypical parathyroid adenoma presenting with peroneus brevis tendon rupture. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 May;30(5):442-4
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism due to atypical parathyroid adenoma presenting with peroneus brevis tendon rupture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Tendon Injuries / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17598980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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46. Barbaros U, Erbil Y, Salmashoğlu A, Işsever H, Aral F, Tunaci M, Ozarmağan S: The characteristics of concomitant thyroid nodules cause false-positive ultrasonography results in primary hyperparathyroidism. Am J Otolaryngol; 2009 Jul-Aug;30(4):239-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The characteristics of concomitant thyroid nodules cause false-positive ultrasonography results in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND: Concomitant thyroid nodules are the most common reason for false-positive ultrasonography (US) results in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • STUDY DESIGN: This prospective study included 120 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • RESULTS: The risk for false-positive US result was increased 25-fold for patients with parathyroid adenoma weight of more than 500 mg (odds ratio [OR], 25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.6-74.5), 75-fold for more than 1 posteriorly located thyroid (OR, 75; 95% CI, 19.3-293.4), 358-fold for the presence of exophytic thyroid nodules (OR, 358; 95% CI, 42.3-3036), and 423-fold for the presence of posteriorly located thyroid nodules (OR, 423; 95% CI, 49-3662).
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19563934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-818X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Moncet D, Isaac G, Staltari D, Tomasello A, Boronat S: [Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Detection with a radioisotopic probe and resolution with videothoracoscopy]. Medicina (B Aires); 2006;66(5):457-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Detection with a radioisotopic probe and resolution with videothoracoscopy].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma paratiroideo ectópico mediastinal. Diagnóstico por sonda de detección gamma y resección por videotoracoscopia.
  • We report a 66 years old woman with a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Localization to mediastinum was obtained with parathyroid scintigraphy using 99mtc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrite (Tc99-MIBI).
  • An attempt to detect the precise site of the adenoma with a Tc99-MIBI probe was unsuccessful because of its proximity to the myocardium, but radioactivity was confirmed on the surgical specimen after resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcium / blood. Calcium / urine. Female. Humans. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Preoperative Care. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Medicina (B Aires). 2007;67(1):31
  • (PMID = 17137179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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48. Hussain R, Zaman MU, Ahmed MN: LOCALIZATION OF A PARATHYROID ADENOMA IN A MULTI-NODULAR GOITER USING SESTAMIBI AND Tc-99m PERTECHNETATE SCANS. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2007 Nov;17(11):712-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] LOCALIZATION OF A PARATHYROID ADENOMA IN A MULTI-NODULAR GOITER USING SESTAMIBI AND Tc-99m PERTECHNETATE SCANS.

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  • (PMID = 18070589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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49. Ogus M, Mayir B, Dinckan A: Mediastinal, cystic and functional parathyroid adenoma in patients with double parathyroid adenomas: a case report. Acta Chir Belg; 2006 Nov-Dec;106(6):736-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mediastinal, cystic and functional parathyroid adenoma in patients with double parathyroid adenomas: a case report.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by single adenoma.
  • Ectopic adenomas are a frequent cause of recurrent or persistent hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid cysts are rarely seen and most of them are non functional.
  • This case report describes a patient with double adenoma, one is solid and cervical, the other is cystic and located in mediastinum; both of them are functional.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Cystadenoma / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17290712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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50. Elisei R, Romei C, Cosci B, Agate L, Bottici V, Molinaro E, Sculli M, Miccoli P, Basolo F, Grasso L, Pacini F, Pinchera A: RET genetic screening in patients with medullary thyroid cancer and their relatives: experience with 807 individuals at one center. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Dec;92(12):4725-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Three different syndromes are distinguished: MEN 2A, when medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is associated with pheochromocytoma and/or parathyroid adenomas; MEN 2B, when accompanied by a marfanoid habitus and/or pheochromocytoma; and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC), when only MTC is present.


51. Aziz MM, Khan AW, Uddin MF, Hasanat MA, Kader MA, Chowdhury AJ, Choudhury NA: Endoscopic para-thyroidectomy: a new approach. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Jul;19(3):442-6
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  • Two patients (one male and one female) underwent endoscopic para-thyroidectomy for parathyroid adenoma at the Department of Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Both patient's parathyroid hormone (PTH) level dropped to about one fourth the level in 12 to 20 minutes after enucleation (as compared to the immediate pre operative level).

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  • (PMID = 20639842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
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52. Shah S, Win Z, Al-Nahhas A: Multimodality imaging of the parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;33(3):193-202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodality imaging of the parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder, affecting approximately 1 in 500 women and 1 in 2,000 men.
  • Surgical removal of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland is the primary curative treatment.
  • The last decade has witnessed the development of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, which is based on the fact that the vast majority of cases are caused by single adenomas.
  • However, the success of this technique relies on accurate preoperative localisation of the parathyroid lesions.
  • Ultrasound and 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy, particularly when complemented by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are currently the imaging techniques of choice for preoperative localisation of parathyroid adenomas; a combination of the two methods further improves the sensitivity and accuracy of detection.
  • MRI appears to be useful in patients with persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism, who have previously undergone surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Parathyroid Glands / embryology. Parathyroid Glands / physiopathology. Parathyroidectomy. Preoperative Care. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Subtraction Technique. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18846025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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53. Pereira FA, Brandão DF, Elias J Jr, Paula FJ: Parathyroid adenoma apoplexy as a temporary solution of primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2007;1:139
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  • [Title] Parathyroid adenoma apoplexy as a temporary solution of primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: The natural history of patients with spontaneous parathyroid necrosis is unknown.
  • In this case report we describe the clinical course, laboratory, radiographic, bone densitometry tests, parathyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy examinations of a patient performed over a period of eight years after she first presented with a sudden episode of spontaneous resolution of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
  • Biopsy of a cervical nodule revealed necrotic material compatible with ischemia of the parathyroid.
  • The second phase was characterized by normalization of calcium and parathyroid hormone levels and its end was difficult to define.
  • During the third phase there was a recurrence of hypercalcemia associated with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and loss of bone mass.
  • CONCLUSION: This case report indicates that spontaneous resolution of PHPT by adenoma necrosis is potentially temporary.

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  • (PMID = 18021421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2204027
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54. Adler JT, Chen H, Schaefer S, Sippel RS: Does routine use of ultrasound result in additional thyroid procedures in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism? J Am Coll Surg; 2010 Oct;211(4):536-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does routine use of ultrasound result in additional thyroid procedures in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism?
  • BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism depends on accurate preoperative imaging.
  • Cervical ultrasound is commonly used to localize parathyroid adenomas, but can lead to discovery of concomitant thyroid gland pathology requiring modification of the operative approach.
  • RESULTS: Between July 2002 and November 2009, 310 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent ultrasound.
  • Thirteen patients (4% of all patients) underwent a thyroid operation not related to parathyroid disease: 9 thyroid lobectomies for presumably benign nodules and 4 total thyroidectomies for malignancy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-nine percent of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism had concomitant thyroid pathology on ultrasound.
  • Routine use of ultrasound in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism leads to discovery of unrecognized thyroid pathology and cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Reoperation. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20822743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Alfadda A, Hagr A, Al-Qahtani K, Tabah R: Radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy under local anesthesia. West Afr J Med; 2006 Apr-Jun;25(2):134-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Despite the high success rate of the complete bilateral neck exploration to treat primary hyperparathyroidism, less invasive alternatives have been emerging.
  • The main outcome measures were the accuracy of localizing the parathyroid adenoma, operative time, achievement of normocalcemia post-operatively and perioperative morbidity.
  • Four patients required an additional procedure: In two because of failure to remove a diseased gland, and in two because of multiglandular disease.
  • The preoperative sestamibi scan accurately predicted the location of all abnormal parathyroid glands in 53 cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RMIP under local anesthesia is a safe and effective modality to treat primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 16918186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] West African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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56. Thongtang N, Plengvidhaya N, Lertwattnarak R, Peepatdit T: Primary hyperparathyroidism due to cystic parathyroid adenoma: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai; 2007 Nov;90 Suppl 2:79-84
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism due to cystic parathyroid adenoma: a case report.
  • Raw Cystic parathyroid adenoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The authors report one case of cystic parathyroid adenoma, who presented with progressive right hip pain for one year.
  • Parathyroid hormone level was evaluated later and was found to be high, 1,555 pg/ml (15-65 pg/ml).
  • An MRI study of the neck was done and revealed a cystic mass 38 x 36 x 40 mm in diameter just below the left lower pole of the thyroid gland.
  • Hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland was considered.
  • Parathyroidectomy was done and histopathology revealed cystic parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19230428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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57. Srivastava R, Jenkinson F, Murphy MJ: A rare case of metabolic bone disease. Ann Clin Biochem; 2007 Mar;44(Pt 2):192-5
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  • Biochemical abnormalities included hypercalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, raised alkaline phosphatase, raised parathyroid hormone and undetectable 25-hydroxy-vitamin D.
  • Bone biopsy was reported as consistent with a brown tumour of primary hyperparathyroidism and a sestamibi scan confirmed the presence of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Coexistence of primary hyperparathyroidism and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases, Metabolic / diagnosis. Bone and Bones / pathology. Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17362587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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58. Kandil E, Alabbas HH, Lum YW, Tufaro AP: Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism with double adenoma. South Med J; 2010 Mar;103(3):236-8
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  • [Title] Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism with double adenoma.
  • Familial hyperparathyroidism includes the diagnoses of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, type 2A, and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare, distinct form of familial primary hyperparathyroidism, mainly due to four-gland hyperplasia or single-gland adenoma.
  • We describe our success in treating a 24-year-old woman with familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism with resection of double adenoma, using the guide of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring.
  • Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism usually presents with four-gland hyperplasia or single-gland adenoma.
  • However, double adenoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • Using intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels and minimal-access surgery in familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism may be promising.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Pedigree


59. Zhou GW, Wei Y, Chen X, Jiang XH, Li XY, Ning G, Li HW: Diagnosis and surgical treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Jul 5;122(13):1495-500
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and surgical treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia.
  • We discuss the diagnosis and surgical treatment of MEN.
  • There were 22 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), 10 cases of enteropanceatic tumor including 9 cases of insulinoma, 15 cases of pituitary adenoma, 9 cases of adrenal adenoma, 2 cases of thymic carcinoid.
  • Two patients had 4 glands involved, 3 patients had 3 glands involved, 16 patients had 2 glands involved, and 6 patients had only one gland involved.
  • 13 patients presented with hyperparathyroidism.
  • RESULTS: In MEN1, subtotal parathyroidectomy was performed in 12 patients with PHPT and one patient received parathyroid adenoma enucleation.
  • Germline mutation test is helpful in establishing a diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19719936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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60. Usmani S, Khan HA, al Mohannadi S, Javed A, al Nafisi N, abu Huda F, Tuli M, Amanguno HG, Abdulla MA, Al Khalidi K: Minimally invasive radionuclide-guided parathyroidectomy using 99mTc-sestamibi in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: a single-institution experience. Med Princ Pract; 2009;18(5):373-7
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  • [Title] Minimally invasive radionuclide-guided parathyroidectomy using 99mTc-sestamibi in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: a single-institution experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and usefulness of (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy and gamma probe localization of parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and establish radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy at Hussain Makki Al Jumma Center for Specialized Surgery, Kuwait.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (mean age: 48 +/- 14 years; median age: 46 years; age range: 29-68 years) were evaluated.
  • The diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism was established by elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels.
  • All patients had a well-defined parathyroid lesion on previous standard (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy with or without ultrasound study.
  • All had a normal thyroid gland, no history of familial hyperparathyroidism or multiple endocrine neoplasia nor any history of previous neck irradiation.
  • RESULTS: The preoperative localization of the affected gland was successful in all cases using a gamma probe and (99m)Tc -sestamibi scintigraphy.
  • The pathological parathyroid tissue was localized and successfully removed with the gamma probe.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was parathyroid adenoma in 11 cases and hyperplasia in the remaining one.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our initial experience with intraoperative use of a gamma probe to carry out minimally invasive parathyroidectomy was a useful, easy and safe procedure for treating patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroidectomy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19648760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0151
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Princ Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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61. Dreijerink KM, van Beek AP, Lentjes EG, Post JG, van der Luijt RB, Canninga-van Dijk MR, Lips CJ: Acromegaly in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) family with low penetrance of the disease. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Dec;153(6):741-6
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of tumours in the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, the pituitary gland and the adrenal glands and by neuroendocrine carcinoid tumours, often at a young age.
  • We present a patient with a history of parathyroid adenomas also showing signs of acromegaly.


62. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Yanik BT, Salmaslioğlu A, Tunaci M, Adalet I, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: Impact of gland morphology and concomitant thyroid nodules on preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Laryngoscope; 2006 Apr;116(4):580-5
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  • [Title] Impact of gland morphology and concomitant thyroid nodules on preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a common endocrine disease.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the presence of thyroid nodules, adenoma weight, and ectopic localization on the sensitivity of different imaging studies in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • The parathyroid adenoma weight in true-positive imaging studies was significantly higher than those in false-positive and false-negative imaging studies.
  • The numbers of ectopic parathyroid adenomas were found to be higher in the group of parathyroid adenomas undetected with ultrasonography when compared with ultrasonographically detected adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with parathyroid adenoma, the sensitivity of imaging studies correlates with the presence of thyroid nodules, adenoma weight, and ectopic localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care / methods. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16585862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Alifano M, Parri SN, Arab WA, Bonfanti B, Lacava N, Porrello C, Boaron M: Limited upper sternotomy in general thoracic surgery. Surg Today; 2008;38(4):300-4
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  • RESULTS: Thymus surgery represented the main indication for this approach (n = 51): for myasthenia without thymoma in 28 patients, for thymus neoplasms with or without myasthenia in 22, and for intrathymic parathyroid adenoma in 1.

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  • (PMID = 18368317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
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64. Takeshita T, Takeshita K, Abe S, Takami H, Imamura T, Furui S: Brown tumor with fluid-fluid levels in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism: radiological findings. Radiat Med; 2006 Nov;24(9):631-4
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  • [Title] Brown tumor with fluid-fluid levels in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism: radiological findings.
  • We report a case of a brown tumor with fluid-fluid levels in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The laboratory data showed elevated serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone, confirming the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Histopathology of a biopsy specimen showed fibroblastic proliferation, abundant giant cells, and focal hemosiderin deposition, which supported the diagnosis of a brown tumor.
  • After removing the parathyroid adenoma, the brown tumor regressed and became sclerotic on radiographs.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnostic imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications

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  • (PMID = 17111272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0288-2043
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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65. Ohata Y, Yamamoto T, Kitai Y, Mizoguchi Y, Iwaki M, Sumi K, Fujikawa Y, Koga M, Sugao H, Shimotsuji T, Ozono K: A case of primary hyperparathyroidism in childhood found by a chance hematuria. Clin Pediatr Endocrinol; 2007;16(1):11-6
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  • [Title] A case of primary hyperparathyroidism in childhood found by a chance hematuria.
  • Laboratory investigations revealed hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated serum levels of parathyroid hormone.
  • A parathyroid adenoma was successfully diagnosed with computed tomography, ultrasonography, and methoxy-2-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy.
  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was performed to treat the urolithiasis, and the parathyroid adenoma was surgically removed.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is rare in childhood; however, this case suggests that gross hematuria is an important sign of hyperparathyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 24790339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-5739
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical pediatric endocrinology : case reports and clinical investigations : official journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Pediatr Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4004894
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; bone mineral density / calcium / hematuria / hyperparathyroidism / phosphate
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66. Gołkowski F, Jabrocka-Hybel A, Trofimiuk M, Huszno B: [Diagnostic problems with recognition of primary hyperparathyroidism]. Przegl Lek; 2005;62(7):685-9
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic problems with recognition of primary hyperparathyroidism].
  • The aim of our study was to compare the results of biochemical and imaging investigations with histopathological diagnosis in operated patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • 46 subjects were included into the study, pathologically demonstrated as parathyroid adenoma--23 subjects, parathyroid hypertrophy--16, parathyroid carcinoma--2 and in 5 patients parathyroid gland was not found in resected tissue.
  • The most frequent complications of primary hyperparathyroidism in our group were osteoporosis (87%) and nephrolithiasis (64.1%).
  • 99mTc-MIBI imaging described as a parathyroid adenoma or parathyroid hypertrophy were confirmed pathologically in 52 and 57.1%, respectively.
  • Three typical symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism assessed in our study (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and increased concentration of parathormone) were observed only in about 50% patients with histopathological diagnosis of adenoma and hypertrophy.
  • The lowest average calcium serum level (2.87 mmol/l), urinary calcium level (7.8 mmol/24h) and parathyroid hormone concentration (209.4 pg/ml) were observed in patients with parathyroid adenoma, the highest levels of these parameters were noticed in patients with parathyroid carcinoma (3.41 mmol/l; 14.6 mmol/24h; 687.8 pg/ml, respectively), patients with parathyroid adenoma were characterized by intermediate values (2.98 mmol/l; 9.7 mmol/24h; 285.5 pg/ml, respectively).
  • After parathyroidectomy lowering in average calcium serum level (2.94 vs. 2.16 mmol/l), parathyroid hormone concentration (244.45 vs. 54.15 pg/ml) and increasing in average phosphate serum level (0.81 vs. 1.04 mmol/24h) were observed in our group.
  • Finally, using different biochemical and imaging investigations is necessary for proper recognition of primary hyperparathyroidism due to occurring of oligosymptomatic cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / urine. Kidney Calculi / etiology. Male. Osteoporosis / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16463702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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67. Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Nikolaou P, Giannatou E, Marinou K, Safioleas M, Karamanolis D: Gastrinomas associated with MEN-1 syndrome: new insights for the diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Nov-Dec;52(66):1668-76
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  • [Title] Gastrinomas associated with MEN-1 syndrome: new insights for the diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients.
  • The diagnosis of ZES was based upon: a) clinical features and b) high serum gastrin levels, while in 7/11 pts diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically.
  • All pts underwent conventional imaging methods (CT, MRI) and OCTREOSCAN or EUS when necessary, in order to localize the primary lesion or the metastases.
  • The diagnosis of MEN-1 was based upon the presence of the other two MEN-1 related endocrinopathies (hyperparathyroidism, pituitary adenomas), revealed by estimation of several hormones (PTH, Prolactin, ACTH etc.) and performance of imaging studies of the pituitary and parathyroid glands.
  • Serum gastrin levels at the time of diagnosis were greater than 1000pg/mL in 63.5% pts, while at the same time serum CgA levels were greater than 10 times the upper normal limit (<98ng/mL) in all pts.
  • OCTREOSCAN and EUS revealed the primary tumor (in duodenum or pancreas) in 64% pts, in whom conventional methods showed no abnormalities at the same time.
  • Parathyroid adenomas, pituitary adenomas and bronchial carcinoids were revealed in 11, 3 and 1 pts respectively, which were treated surgically.
  • Ten out of 11 pts are alive and in a good condition, whereas 1 patient died 2.8 years after diagnosis.
  • Familiar screening revealed parathyroid adenomas in 4 children of our pts, which were treated surgically.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Digestive System Neoplasms / therapy. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Duodenal Neoplasms / complications. Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Duodenal Neoplasms / therapy. Endosonography / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16334754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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68. Hunt JL, Carty SE, Yim JH, Murphy J, Barnes L: Allelic loss in parathyroid neoplasia can help characterize malignancy. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Aug;29(8):1049-55
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  • [Title] Allelic loss in parathyroid neoplasia can help characterize malignancy.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma can be difficult to diagnose, and the final pathologic diagnosis relies on clinicopathologic correlation.
  • Clinical features of malignancy include high preoperative calcium levels and an intraoperative impression that the gland is adherent to local structures.
  • This study used molecular genotyping to assess parathyroid neoplasia for loss of heterozygosity across a panel of known tumor suppressor genes that have been previously identified as being important in the pathogenesis of parathyroid diseases.
  • Parathyroid adenomas, hyperplasia, and carcinomas were included in the study, and a fractional allelic loss was calculated for each lesion.
  • In addition, almost all adenomas and carcinomas had loss of the markers for 1p.
  • The benign parathyroid diseases (adenomas and hyperplasia) had low mean fractional allelic loss (11% and 15%, respectively).
  • The parathyroid carcinomas, in contrast, showed high mean fractional allelic loss (63%).
  • This difference in the mutational profile suggests that this type of assay may be useful as an adjunctive diagnostic test in cases of parathyroid neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Hyperplasia. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16006799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Oztürk M, Ustek D, Akbas F, Kösem M, Abaci N, Alagöl F, Oztürk G, Kotan C: The presence of erythropoietin receptor in parathyroid cells. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Dec;30(11):RC35-7
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  • [Title] The presence of erythropoietin receptor in parathyroid cells.
  • CONTEXT: Effects of erythropoietin on parathyroid cell function has not been studied before.
  • OBJECTIVE: We aimed to demonstrate whether erythropoietin receptor present in parathyroid cells.
  • DESIGN: The specimens of normal parathyroid gland, parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia were retrieved from our pathology archives.
  • Its density was higher in normal parathyroid, followed by parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: Erythropoietin receptor is present in normal parathyroid, parathyroid adenoma, and hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Erythropoietin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18250608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Erythropoietin; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin
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70. Orfanos NF, Mariolis-Sapsakos T, Orfanos FN, Goutas N, Vlachodimitropoulos D, Antoniou AG: Giant parathyroid adenoma with atypical ultrasonographic image. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Mar;32(3):239-41
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  • [Title] Giant parathyroid adenoma with atypical ultrasonographic image.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17314610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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71. Prasad B, Fleming RM: Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Jul;30(7):467-9
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  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma.
  • During surgery, the patient underwent a left thyroid lobectomy for an intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15965320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Turki ZM, Hajri H, Zrig N, Kourda N, Ferjaoui M, Ben Slama C: [Toxic nodular goitre associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord); 2006;127(4):239-42
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  • [Title] [Toxic nodular goitre associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism].
  • [Transliterated title] Association d'un goitre multinodulaire toxique, d'un carcinome papillaire de la thyroïde, et d'une hyperparathyroïdie primaire.
  • The association of a toxic multinodular goitre with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism is very rare.
  • The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was made following renal complications and the discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma was incidental during the surgical treatment of parathyroid adenoma.
  • It is recognised that hyperparathyroidism can be found in hyperthyroid patients, but the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism in these cases is very difficult.
  • The fortuitous discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma during parathyroid surgery has already been reported but in most cases it is a microcarcinoma.
  • The association of primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is rare.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / epidemiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17315788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1334
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de laryngologie - otologie - rhinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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73. Starker LF, Delgado-Verdugo A, Udelsman R, Björklund P, Carling T: Expression and somatic mutations of SDHAF2 (SDH5), a novel endocrine tumor suppressor gene in parathyroid tumors of primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine; 2010 Dec;38(3):397-401
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  • [Title] Expression and somatic mutations of SDHAF2 (SDH5), a novel endocrine tumor suppressor gene in parathyroid tumors of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • To investigate the SDHAF2 gene and its effect on primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid tumors causing primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) are one of the more common endocrine neoplasias.
  • Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 11q13 is the most common chromosomal aberration in parathyroid tumors occurring in about 40% of sporadic tumors.
  • Only 15-19% display somatic mutations in the MEN1 gene, which suggest that this chromosomal region may harbor additional genes of importance in parathyroid tumor development.
  • We demonstrate that the SDHAF2 gene is expressed in parathyroid tissue using RT-PCR.
  • Because detection of inactivating mutations is the major criterion for validating a candidate tumor suppressor, we used automated sequencing of the coding region and intron/exon boundaries in 80 sporadic parathyroid adenomas from patients with pHPT.
  • A known polymorphisms (A to G substitution; rs879647) was identified in 9/80 parathyroid tumors but no tumor-specific somatic mutational aberrations, such as nonsense, frameshift, or other inactivating mutations were identified.
  • The SDHAF2 gene is expressed in parathyroid tissue.
  • However, somatic mutations of the SDHAF2 tumor suppressor gene are unlikely to frequently contribute to parathyroid tumor development in sporadic pHPT.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Mitochondrial Proteins / genetics. Mutation. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20972721.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / SDH5 protein, human
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74. Rubello D, Al-Nahhas A, Mariani G, Gross MD, Rampin L, Pelizzo MR: Feasibility and long-term results of focused radioguided parathyroidectomy using a "low" 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi protocol. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2006;3:30
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  • Aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and long-term results of focused radioguided parathyroidectomy using a "low" 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose protocol compared to conventional "high 740 MBq (20 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose protocol" in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
  • The data of focused radioguided surgery obtained in a group of 320 consecutive PHPT patients with high probability of the presence of a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA) were studied.
  • All patients underwent preoperative imaging work-up of double-tracer 99mTc-pertechnetate/99mTc-sestamibi subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy (Sestamibi scintigraphy) and high resolution neck ultrasound (US).
  • Focused low dose radioguided parathyroidectomy is a safe and effective means to localize parathyroid adenomas in patients affected by solitary PA thus reducing by 20 fold the radiation exposure dose to the patients and operating room personnel.

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  • (PMID = 16978398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1584245
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75. Hamdy NA: A patient with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism due to a second ectopic adenoma. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;3(3):311-5
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  • [Title] A patient with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism due to a second ectopic adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: A 33-year-old woman presented with recurrent renal stones and malaise to her primary-care physician.
  • Laboratory investigations revealed the patient had hypercalcemia and an elevated serum parathyroid hormone concentration.
  • A diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was established and the patient was referred for parathyroidectomy.
  • At neck exploration, three parathyroid glands were visualized, one of which was enlarged and subsequently removed.
  • The patient's serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels decreased postoperatively but did not normalize, and her symptoms persisted.
  • Planar (99m)Tc-sestamibi and ultrasound scans failed to provide conclusive localization for another enlarged parathyroid gland.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Laboratory investigations, ultrasound of the kidneys, BMD measurements, selective venous sampling for parathyroid hormone, and (99m)Tc-sestamibi single photon emission CT imaging.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Persistent hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopically located parathyroid adenoma.
  • MANAGEMENT: At further neck exploration, a 1.5 cm by 0.7 cm by 0.5 cm ectopic parathyroid adenoma was excised from the site indicated by the localization studies.
  • No further exploration was attempted after intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels fell by 70%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17315039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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76. Manning AT, O'Brien N, Kerin MJ: Roles for the calcium sensing receptor in primary and metastatic cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Sep;32(7):693-7
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  • [Title] Roles for the calcium sensing receptor in primary and metastatic cancer.
  • AIM: To review the role of the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) in colorectal, breast and parathyroid cancers and related cell lines, and to discuss the effects of CASR in the setting of bone metastases from breast cancer.
  • It is expressed in both normal and malignant breast tissues and has been implicated in the vicious cycle of bone metastases through its interactions with the parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP).
  • In parathyroid tissue, CASR expression has been linked to proliferation of both parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas.
  • CASR has been shown to be involved in the progression and spread of a variety of cancers such as colorectal, breast and parathyroid, and is likely to be the focus of much research to further elucidate its precise role.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / physiopathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology


77. Liu PT, Johnson CD, Miranda R, Patel MD, Phillips CJ: A reference standard-based quality assurance program for radiology. J Am Coll Radiol; 2010 Jan;7(1):61-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The performance metrics tracked by the QA program include the accuracy of CT colonography for detecting polyps, the false-negative rate for mammographic detection of breast cancer, the accuracy of CT angiography detection of coronary artery stenosis, the accuracy of meniscal tear detection on MRI, the accuracy of carotid artery stenosis detection on MR angiography, the accuracy of parathyroid adenoma detection by parathyroid scintigraphy, the success rate for obtaining cortical tissue on ultrasound-guided core biopsies of pelvic renal transplants, and the technical success rate for peripheral arterial angioplasty procedures.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20129274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-349X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Coll Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. James R, England A: Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas: ultrasonography, sestamibi scintigraphy or both. Clin Otolaryngol; 2005 Aug;30(4):382-3; author reply 383
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  • [Title] Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas: ultrasonography, sestamibi scintigraphy or both.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Preoperative Care

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Otolaryngol. 2006 Feb;31(1):82 [16441817.001]
  • [CommentOn] Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2004 Oct;29(5):549-52 [15373872.001]
  • (PMID = 16209695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-4478
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical otolaryngology : official journal of ENT-UK ; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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79. Parfitt AM: Weight of normal parathyroid glands in patients with parathyroid adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jan;90(1):595; author reply 596
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  • [Title] Weight of normal parathyroid glands in patients with parathyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jul;89(7):3208-13 [15240594.001]
  • (PMID = 15643025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Fischer I, Wieczorek R, Sidhu GS, Pei Z, West B, Lee P: Myxoid lipoadenoma of parathyroid gland: a case report and literature review. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Oct;10(5):294-6
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  • [Title] Myxoid lipoadenoma of parathyroid gland: a case report and literature review.
  • Myxoid lipoadenoma of the parathyroid gland is a rare variant of parathyroid adenoma.
  • We present the case of a 40-year-old man with asymptomatic hypercalcemia who underwent surgical removal of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of thyroid transcription factor and parathyroid hormone by all tumor cells and a low proliferation rate with a Ki-67 labeling index of at most 5%.
  • Although the lesion exhibited characteristics that have been previously associated with "atypical parathyroid adenoma," such as dense fibrous bands within the tumor and a trabecular growth pattern, there was no further evidence, neither histologically nor clinically, for malignant behavior of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adipose Tissue / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Hypercalcemia / complications. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / pathology. Male. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16979523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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81. Krausz MM, Ish-Shalom S, Ofer A: [Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma]. Harefuah; 2010 Jun;149(6):353-6, 404
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  • [Title] [Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma].
  • BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is frequently used for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) caused by a single adenoma.
  • This method depends on preoperative localization of the tumor by a sestamibi scan, cervical ultrasound, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurements.
  • When the sestamibi scan is negative, the classical 4-gland exploration is used instead of MIP. AIMS: a.
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of MIP for treatment of PHPT caused by adenoma. b.
  • METHODS: MIP was performed in all patients in whom an adenoma was diagnosed by sestamibi scan and US.
  • When the sestamibi scan was negative, PTH-SVS was performed preoperatively for localization of the adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroidectomy was performed in 541 patients, 458 with PHPT and 83 with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • In 345 of 380 patients (90.8%) with an adenoma, MIP was performed, and in 92 of these patients the operation was performed under local anesthesia.
  • In 56 patients with a negative sestamibi scan, PTH-SVS was used preoperatively for localization of an adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MIP is the treatment of choice for PHPT caused by a single adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anesthesia, Local. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Retrospective Studies. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20941923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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82. Rubello D, Giannini S, Martini C, Piotto A, Rampin L, Fanti S, Armigliato M, Nardi A, Carpi A, Mariani G, Gross MD, Pelizzo MR: Minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy. Biomed Pharmacother; 2006 Apr;60(3):134-8
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  • We reported here the data on minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy (MIRP) in a large group of 253 patients enrolled from the whole series of 355 consecutive patients affected by primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPT) referred to our center.
  • On the basis of preoperative imaging including Sestamibi scintigraphy and neck ultrasound (US), 263 patients (74% of the whole series) with evidence of a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA) and a normal thyroid gland were addressed to MIRP and in 253 (96%) of them this minimally invasive neck exploration was successfully performed.
  • In conclusion, MIRP is an effective treatment in patients with a high likelihood of a solitary PA and a normal thyroid gland at scintigraphy and US so that an accurate preoperative localizing imaging is required for MIRP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Gamma Cameras. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Radiology, Interventional / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 16524690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0753-3322
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine & pharmacothérapie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Pharmacother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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83. Chudek J, Nagy A, Kokot F, Podwinski A, Wiecek A, Ritz E, Kovacs G: Phosphatemia is related to chromosomal aberrations of parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroidism. J Nephrol; 2007 Mar-Apr;20(2):164-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phosphatemia is related to chromosomal aberrations of parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been well documented that gene and DNA alterations occur frequently in benign primary parathyroid adenomas as well as in parathyroid glands with secondary hyperplasia.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in adenomas obtained from 25 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and 60 parathyroid nodules from 20 uremic patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT).
  • The relation of chromosomal aberrations to parathyroid hormone, as well as calcium and phosphate serum concentrations, was assessed.
  • RESULTS: Somatic chromosomal aberrations were found in 23 out of 25 adenomas, in hyperplastic lesions from 16 out of 20 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Hyperphosphatemia may increase the risk of specific and random chromosomal aberrations due to increasing proliferation rate of parathyroid cells in patients with sHPT.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Hyperparathyroidism / blood. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Parathyroid Glands / physiopathology. Phosphates / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adult. Aged. Alleles. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / genetics. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17514620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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84. Mendoza PL, Ongkeko EE, Santiago JF: Silent parathyroid adenoma mistakenly interpreted on FDG-PET as thyroid cancer metastasis in a patient with elevated thyroglobulin and negative I-131 whole body scan and removed by radioguided minimally invasive surgery. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jan;33(1):23-5
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  • [Title] Silent parathyroid adenoma mistakenly interpreted on FDG-PET as thyroid cancer metastasis in a patient with elevated thyroglobulin and negative I-131 whole body scan and removed by radioguided minimally invasive surgery.
  • Histopathology, however, revealed a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroglobulin / blood. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18097251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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85. Lindstedt EW, van den Born LI, Veckeneer M, Baarsma GS: Sclerochoroidal calcification: idiopathic or associated with systemic disease? Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2007;1(3):141-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Idiopathic sclerochoroidal calcification is a rare disorder that may be confused with a malignant tumor.
  • METHODS: We report the case history of a patient with hypercalcemia and extensive sclerochoroidal calcifications; furthermore, we evaluate a series of seven patients with sclerochoroidal calcification, investigating calcium-phosphorus metabolism and screening for primary renal tubular hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis syndromes.
  • RESULTS: One patient was diagnosed with bilateral sclerochoroidal calcification; she had primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma.
  • None of the other seven patients met the criteria of primary renal tubular hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis syndromes or had significant problems of calcium-phosphorus metabolism.
  • CONCLUSION: For all patients with sclerochoroidal calcification, it is important to exclude primary renal tubular hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis syndromes such as Bartter and Gitelman syndromes, because these patients have a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity especially during anesthesia.

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  • (PMID = 25390777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Kwak JY, Kim EK, Moon HJ, Kim MJ, Ahn SS, Son EJ, Sohn YM: Parathyroid incidentalomas detected on routine ultrasound-directed fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients referred for thyroid nodules and the role of parathyroid hormone analysis in the samples. Thyroid; 2009 Jul;19(7):743-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid incidentalomas detected on routine ultrasound-directed fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients referred for thyroid nodules and the role of parathyroid hormone analysis in the samples.
  • BACKGROUND: The widespread use of high-resolution ultrasound (US) has allowed the detection of not only nonpalpable thyroid nodules but also parathyroid incidentalomas in the general population.
  • We sought to determine the prevalence of parathyroid incidentalomas in a large group of patients referred for US-guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of suspected thyroid nodules and to investigate the role of additional parathyroid hormone (PTH) analysis in the washouts of FNAB of suspicious papathyroid nodules in these patients.
  • Among them, 112 patients (1.7%) underwent additional PTH analysis in FNAB washouts (FNA-PTH) due to suspected parathyroid lesions.
  • We evaluated the prevalence of parathyroid adenomas that were detected on thyroid US incidentally as well as the results of FNAB and FNA-PTH in parathyroid adenomas that were confirmed histopathologically.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid incidentalomas were identified in 14 patients based on pathology and 10 patients based on elevated FNA-PTH.
  • The occurrence of parathyroid incidentalomas was 0.4% (24=6496) on thyroid US.
  • Four patients noticed symptoms related to hyperparathyroidism after FNA-PTH analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of parathyroid incidentaloma was 0.4% (24=6496) in a large series of patients referred for suspected thyroid nodules.
  • The use of FNA-PTH combined with FNAB can help clinicians accurately diagnose parathyroid incidentalomas at the time of US-guided FNAB.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19593861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PTH protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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87. Gold JS, Donovan PI, Udelsman R: Partial median sternotomy: an attractive approach to mediastinal parathyroid disease. World J Surg; 2006 Jul;30(7):1234-9
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  • [Title] Partial median sternotomy: an attractive approach to mediastinal parathyroid disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid exploration through a standard cervical approach is adequate for the resection of most mediastinal parathyroid glands.
  • A subset of mediastinal parathyroid glands causing hyperparathyroidism, however, cannot be removed in this manner.
  • RESULTS: Over a 14-year period, all but 10 of 937 (1.1%) consecutive patients explored for hyperparathyroidism by a single endocrine surgeon were treated by a cervical approach.
  • Six of these seven patients had failed a previous parathyroid exploration (86%), including one patient who had a previous complete sternotomy.
  • Cure of hyperparathyroidism was achieved in all seven patients undergoing partial median sternotomy.
  • In five patients a mediastinal parathyroid gland was removed (71%), and in one patient a parathyroid adenoma in the carotid sheath was eventually found, and the location of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland in one patient was never determined although the patient was cured.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rarely, mediastinal parathyroid glands cannot be resected through a cervical approach.
  • In these cases the use of partial median sternotomy is an attractive technique in achieving cure of hyperparathyroidism and is associated with minimal morbidity and a short length of hospital stay.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Mediastinal Diseases / surgery. Sternum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16794907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Chen H, Pruhs Z, Starling JR, Mack E: Intraoperative parathyroid hormone testing improves cure rates in patients undergoing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Surgery; 2005 Oct;138(4):583-7; discussion 587-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative parathyroid hormone testing improves cure rates in patients undergoing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (iPTH) testing often is used during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (1 degrees HPT).
  • From January 1990 to June 2004, there were 345 consecutive patients with 1 degrees HPT and positive localization studies for a single parathyroid adenoma who were candidates for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Group 1 patients (n = 157) underwent parathyroid exploration without iPTH testing and group 2 patients (n = 188) had an operation with iPTH testing.
  • RESULTS: Of the group 1 patients, 15 (10%) still were hypercalcemic postoperatively owing to additional unidentified hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands.
  • In contrast, among 188 group 2 patients, 170 (90%) had resection of a single parathyroid adenoma, a greater than 50% decrease in iPTH levels, and were cured.
  • Of these 18 patients, 9 had double adenomas and 9 had 3- or 4-gland hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Intraoperative Care. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Humans. Hyperplasia. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16269285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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89. Abbas F, Biyabani SR, Memon A, Talati J: Mediastinal parathyroid adenoma causing primary hyperparathyroidism. J Pak Med Assoc; 2007 Feb;57(2):93-5
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  • [Title] Mediastinal parathyroid adenoma causing primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • An ectopically placed parathyroid adenoma in the anterior mediastinum is a rare cause of persistent or recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and is recognized as an important cause of failed primary neck exploration.
  • In 2 cases, the offending adenoma could be removed at first exploration whereas in the 3rd case, it was successfully removed with mediastinal exploration after 2 failed neck explorations.
  • In established cases of PHPT with equivocal preoperative localization studies or negative neck explorations, an ectopically placed parathyroid adenoma should be considered and once localized, should be surgically removed for cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17370794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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90. Portela-Gomes GM, Grimelius L, Wilander E, Stridsberg M: Granins and granin-related peptides in neuroendocrine tumours. Regul Pept; 2010 Nov 30;165(1):12-20
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  • SgIII has recently arisen as an important NET marker; it was strongly expressed in NETs, with some exceptions--phaeochromocytomas expressed few cells and parathyroid adenomas none.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20211659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1686
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranin B; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Secretogranin II; 149146-12-3 / secretoneurin
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96. Miyakoshi M, Kamoi K, Takano T, Nishihara M, Kawashima T, Sudo N, Togashi K, Emura I, Williams D: Multiple brown tumors in primary hyperparathyroidism caused by an adenoma mimicking metastatic bone disease with false positive results on computed tomography and Tc-99m sestamibi imaging: MR findings. Endocr J; 2007 Apr;54(2):205-10
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  • [Title] Multiple brown tumors in primary hyperparathyroidism caused by an adenoma mimicking metastatic bone disease with false positive results on computed tomography and Tc-99m sestamibi imaging: MR findings.
  • We encountered an unusual case of hyperparathyroidism with both hemosiderin deposits on the ribs and low intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) caused by a parathyroid adenoma with multiple brown tumors that mimicked metastatic bone tumor due to false positive results on computed tomography (CT) and Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) imaging.
  • These findings suggested that the patient had hyperparathyroidism with multiple bone metastases due to carcinoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • However, on pathology, the resected tumor of lower portion of the left lobe of thyroid was diagnosed as a parathyroid adenoma, and the tumors of the left 3rd and 7th ribs, as well as the right 2nd rib, were shown to be brown tumors.
  • It is necessary to determine whether MRI can be used to distinguish between brown tumors and metastases caused by carcinoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Ribs. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Hemosiderin / metabolism. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17237612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9011-92-1 / Hemosiderin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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97. Lazar HL, Oates E, Beazley RM: Excision of a mediastinal parathyroid adenoma after coronary artery bypass surgery. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Sep;80(3):1105-6
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  • [Title] Excision of a mediastinal parathyroid adenoma after coronary artery bypass surgery.
  • In this report we describe the removal of a mediastinal parathyroid adenoma in a patient who had two previous coronary artery bypass graft procedures.
  • The surgical approach and intraoperative localization of the adenoma under these unusual circumstances are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16122500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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98. Reimer SB, Pelosi A, Frank JD, Steficek BA, Kiupel M, Hauptman JG: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2005 Jul 1;227(1):101-4, 86
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  • After extensive assessment at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Michigan State University, the clinical signs were attributed to an aldosterone-secreting tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Subsequently, an insulin-secreting tumor of the pancreas as well as a functional parathyroid gland adenoma were diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Male. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / veterinary. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / veterinary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16013543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Juhlin CC, Haglund F, Villablanca A, Forsberg L, Sandelin K, Bränström R, Larsson C, Höög A: Loss of expression for the Wnt pathway components adenomatous polyposis coli and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta in parathyroid carcinomas. Int J Oncol; 2009 Feb;34(2):481-92
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  • [Title] Loss of expression for the Wnt pathway components adenomatous polyposis coli and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta in parathyroid carcinomas.
  • The development of parathyroid carcinoma has been associated with inactivating mutations of the Hyperparathyroidism type 2 (HRPT2) gene encoding parafibromin, a member of the human RNA Polymerase II-Associated Factor Complex (hPAF) and functionally linked to the Wingless type (Wnt) pathway.
  • In this study, we characterized the expression of Wnt pathway molecules in parathyroid benign and malignant tumors.
  • The study comprised 13 tumors from 12 cases of unequivocal parathyroid carcinoma, 18 cases of parathyroid adenoma, as well as non-tumorous parathyroid tissue.
  • Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was uniformly expressed in non-tumorous parathyroid tissue and adenomas, but absent in carcinomas from 9 of 12 patients (75%).
  • Expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-beta) was lost in 4/12 carcinomas and in 1/18 adenomas.
  • Loss of APC immunoreactivity was significantly associated with parathyroid carcinoma as compared to adenomas (p<0.001), giving a high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (75%) for the detection of parathyroid malignancy.
  • The results suggest the involvement of Wnt-pathway members APC and GSK3-beta in parathyroid carcinoma development.
  • In addition, APC immunohistochemistry could become a useful tool for improved recognition of parathyroid carcinoma together with immunohistochemistry for parafibromin and proliferation index.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Wnt Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / genetics. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Sensitivity and Specificity


100. Friedman M, Gurpinar B, Schalch P, Joseph NJ: Guidelines for radioguided parathyroid surgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Dec;133(12):1235-9
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  • [Title] Guidelines for radioguided parathyroid surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To confirm or refute the notion that only parathyroid adenomas have radioactivity higher than 20% of background.
  • PATIENTS: Forty-six patients (9 men and 37 women; mean +/- SD age, 53.7 +/- 12.1 years) underwent thyroid and parathyroid surgery between December 2005 and December 2006 to collect data on ex vivo radioactivity percentages on a variety of tissues.
  • Biopsy specimens were taken of normal parathyroid glands, normal thyroid tissue, and lymph nodes and ex vivo radioactivity was recorded.
  • Hyperplastic parathyroid glands and adenomatous glands were excised.
  • RESULTS: The mean +/- SD ex vivo background radioactivity of parathyroid adenomas was 148.5% +/- 83.1% of background activity (range, 40.1%-388.9% but never less than 40%).
  • The mean +/- SD ex vivo background radioactivity of hyperplastic parathyroid glands was 74.6% +/- 18.0% (range, 49.5%-109.1% but never less than 40%).
  • A significant difference was found in ex vivo background radioactivity between pathologic parathyroid tissue and the other tissue specimens studied (normal parathyroid glands [2.4% +/- 1.8%], thyroid tissue [4.5% +/- 2.8%], lymph nodes [1.6% +/- 0.8%], and fat [0.4% +/- 0.3%]).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ex vivo radioactivity percentages can differentiate hyperactive parathyroid tissue from any other tissue, but they cannot differentiate adenoma from hyperplasia and thus are not helpful in ruling out multiglandular disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 18086965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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