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1. Imelda F, Bandar IN, Setiyohadi B, Suwondo P, Nasar IM, Darwito: Postural shortening due to primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma. Acta Med Indones; 2006 Apr-Jun;38(2):89-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postural shortening due to primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma.
  • Osteoporosis can be primary or secondary.
  • Secondary osteoporosis is the result of an underlying disease such as an endocrine abnormality, and an example of such is primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism is based on the following biochemical examinations: parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, creatinine clearance, 24 hour urinary calcium, and another examination such as parathyroid gland scan.
  • The patient was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • We found high levels of parathyroid hormone and low levels of serum calcium caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Body Height / physiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / physiopathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16799210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
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2. Zhu X, Zhai H, Tang SF, Cheng Y: Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma presenting with neuromuscular manifestation. Neurol India; 2009 May-Jun;57(3):340-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma presenting with neuromuscular manifestation.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is not an uncommon endocrine disorder.
  • Serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were elevated and serum phosphorus was low.
  • The right lobectomy examination confirmed the diagnosis of an intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma of the right gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Neuromuscular Junction Diseases / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19587481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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3. Smayra T, Abi Khalil S, Abboud B, Halabi G, Slaba S: [Unusual location of a parathyroid adenoma: the carotid sheath]. J Radiol; 2006 Jan;87(1):59-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Unusual location of a parathyroid adenoma: the carotid sheath].
  • [Transliterated title] Localisation atypique d'un adénome parathyroïdien: la gaine carotidienne.
  • We report the imaging features of an occult parathyroid adenoma with unusual location in the carotid sheath.
  • Our patient presented with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Venous sampling of the neck confirmed the left location of the adenoma and a third surgical intervention found the adenoma embedded in the left carotid sheath.
  • This is an unusual case of parathyroid adenoma that necessitated the use of several imaging techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carotid Artery, Common / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiography, Digital Subtraction. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neck Dissection. Thyroid Gland / blood supply. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16415782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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4. Kiverniti E, Kazi R, Rhys-Evans P, Nippah R: Airway obstruction due to giant non-parathyroid hormone-producing parathyroid adenoma. J Cancer Res Ther; 2008 Oct-Dec;4(4):197-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Airway obstruction due to giant non-parathyroid hormone-producing parathyroid adenoma.
  • Parathyroid gland tumors are unusual in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal tumors.
  • The eventual diagnosis on histology was parathyroid adenoma.
  • The patient had no clinical evidence of metabolic abnormalities and her pre- and postoperative calcium and postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were within normal limits.
  • This case poses the interesting question of whether identification of elevated PTH levels is an absolute prerequisite for diagnosing parathyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma. Adult. Airway Obstruction. Esophagus / metabolism. Female. Humans. Mediastinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Medical Oncology / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19052395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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5. Târcoveanu E, Niculescu D, Cotea E, Moldovanu R, Vasilescu A, Crumpei F, Zbranca E, Zugun F, Rusu V, Ferariu D: [Parathyroid glands involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2009 Apr-Jun;113(2):482-96
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  • [Title] [Parathyroid glands involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia].
  • Parathyroid gland involvement is usually noted in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) type I and type II.
  • Parathyroid glands tumor associated with endocrine pancreatic tumor, as well as pituitary tumors is the typical pattern of MEN I.
  • The parathyroid gland is the most frequent abnormality in MEN I.
  • CASES REPORTS: We presented five cases with MEN I and parathyroid glands involvement.
  • In three cases with young ages (28-33 years old) and familial setting, the MEN I syndrome was "complete" (parathyroid adenoma, gastrinoma or insulinoma and pituitary adenoma--prolactinoma or GH-secreting tumors), and, in the other two cases, with 57 and 68 years old respectively, the MEN I syndrome was "incomplete" with parathyroid glands and pituitary gland involvement.
  • Unfortunately one patients died due to severe endocrine disorder.
  • During the necropsy, the pituitary adenoma has been diagnosed.
  • The imagistic and laboratory test diagnosed a tumor situated into the pancreatic body, and an parathyroid adenoma.
  • The resection of pancreatic tumor associated with resection of the parathyroid adenoma, in the same time, were performed.
  • The other two cases with "incomplete" MEN were older then the first patients, and were diagnosed with hyperparathyrodism and pituitary gland tumor.
  • The resection of parathyroid gland adenoma has been performed in both cases, with uneventful postoperative course.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The parathyroid glands involvement in MEN is common.
  • There are two kinds of MEN associated with parathyroid gland involvement: the "complete" form, especially in young patients, with diffuse involvement of the parathyroid glands, and the subtotal parathyroidy is the best choice, and the "incomplete" form, especially in elderly, with the involvement of a single parathyroid gland; in this way, the resection of the adenoma associated with biopsy from the other parathyroid gland is the best approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Gastrinoma / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatectomy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21495355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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6. Knezević-Obad A, Tomić-Brzac H, Zarković K, Dodig D, Stromar IK: Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):25-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology.
  • The aim of this study is to establish possibilities of using cytology in the diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma.
  • 475 patients, all suspected to have parathyroid gland disease, were examined over a three-year period (from 1 of January 2006 to 31 of December 2008) in the Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Protection, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Croatia.
  • The parathyroid hormone (PTH) analysis was made for all punctates.
  • The adenoma was diagnosed via morphological characteristics in 71 out of 288 punctates that were proven adequate for cytological analysis.
  • Increased PTH levels were later on established in all diagnosed adenomas.
  • All patients with cytology-based diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma were sent to surgery, and the cytological diagnosis was confirmed by pathohistology.
  • In three cases, the parathyroid gland adenoma was established by pathohistology, although in these cases the cytological diagnosis was negative.
  • The cytological diagnosis of parathyroid gland adenoma can be considered reliable in 96% of cases, provided that the echosonographic structure and localisation of the punctured node is noted, and assuming that material adequate for cytological analysis is obtained by FNAB.
  • Possible pitfalls are oncocytic types of parathyroid adenoma, intranuclear inclusions and papillary formation of epithelial cells, and cystic degeneration of nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Eosine Yellowish-(YS). Epithelial Cells / pathology. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Methylene Blue. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Reproducibility of Results. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20432729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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7. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Ayoub S, Hachem K, Smayra T, Ghorra C, Abadjian G: Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively? World J Surg; 2007 Apr;31(4):817-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively?
  • INTRODUCTION: The role of cervical ultrasonography (US)-guided surgery for intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism is rarely reported.
  • METHODS: From 1996 to 2003, cervical explorations were performed in 178 patients (mean age 57 years) with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Patients' characteristics were reviewed to identify predictive factors for intrathyroid adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Cervical US identified abnormal parathyroid glands in 163 of 178 patients, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%.
  • Six patients (3.4%) were found to have intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas (two in the superior parathyroid and four in the inferior parathyroid).
  • Cervical US predicted this anomaly in four of six patients (67%) in whom the thyroid gland was not nodular and allowed total enucleation of the adenoma to be performed in three and subtotal thyroid loboisthmectomy in three; these operations were performed uneventfully and rapidly.
  • On multivariable analysis, no factor predicted intrathyroid localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PPV of high-resolution cervical US for identifying an abnormal parathyroid gland was 100% in this series.
  • It was 80% for predicting intrathyroid localization of the adenoma.
  • This method allows us to shorten the operating time by guiding the exploration immediately toward the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17354026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Mydlarz WK, Zhang K, Micchelli ST, Kim M, Tufano RP: Ipsilateral double parathyroid adenoma and thyroid hemiagenesis. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2010;72(5):272-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ipsilateral double parathyroid adenoma and thyroid hemiagenesis.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe a case of left thyroid dysgenesis, accompanied by ipsilateral double parathyroid adenomas in a setting of primary hyperparathyroidism, and to review the pertinent literature on the diagnosis of these rare clinical scenarios.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsies of what was thought to be two concerning thyroid nodules revealed potential double intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas.
  • Video-assisted exploration verified double parathyroid adenomas and revealed concomitant left thyroid lobe dysgenesis.
  • Intact parathyroid hormone level returned to normal and a greater than 50% drop from baseline was achieved intraoperatively with subsequent long-term cure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid dysgenesis is a rare, poorly understood and potentially confusing variety of developmental anomalies, which can be associated with thyroid as well as parathyroid disease.
  • Clinical diagnosis is highly dependent upon the clinician maintaining an index of suspicion for these anomalies, thorough physical examination and careful review of available imaging modalities, especially while investigating thyroid and parathyroid disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Dysgenesis / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 20733341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0275
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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9. Kucera T, Veselý D, Pácová H, Martínek J, Astl J: Expression of nitric oxide synthases in parathyroid gland adenoma and parathyroid gland hyperplasia. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2005 Aug;26(4):373-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of nitric oxide synthases in parathyroid gland adenoma and parathyroid gland hyperplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the presented study was to perform the immunohistochemical detection of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) isoform of nitric oxide synthase in the adenomatous and hyperplastic parathyroid gland in relation to the apoptotic process.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Tissue samples from 12 patients with parathyroid gland adenoma (PGA) and 10 patients with secondary parathyroid gland hyperplasia (PGH) were collected during surgery at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery of The First Faculty of Medicine in Prague.
  • RESULTS: The immunoreactivity to eNOS antibody was observed in the endothelial lining of vessels in PGA, PGH and in the rim of normal parathyroid gland adjacent to PGA sample.
  • CONCLUSION: eNOS observed in the vasculature of the enlarged parathyroid glands can serve as a factor that contributes to the viability of hypertrophic pathologic tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / enzymology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16136006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS3 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
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10. Cappelli C, Pelizzari G, Pirola I, Gandossi E, De Martino E, Delbarba A, Agosti B, Agabiti Rosei E, Castellano M: Modified percutaneous ethanol injection of parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism. QJM; 2008 Aug;101(8):657-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modified percutaneous ethanol injection of parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice for symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism; unlikely few patients do not meet established surgical criteria or have comorbid conditions that prohibit surgery.
  • It is currently in use for the treatment of secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism, however, few studies or case reports suggest it for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Solvents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18499732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2393
  • [Journal-full-title] QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] QJM
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Solvents; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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11. Benhammou A, Meziane M, Dib N, Nazih N, Boulaadas M, Essakali L, Kzadri M: [Maxilla-mandibular brown tumors as a first sign of parathyroid adenoma]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2009 Sep;126(4):216-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Maxilla-mandibular brown tumors as a first sign of parathyroid adenoma].
  • OBJECTIVES: Through a novel observation of parathyroid adenoma revealed by brown tumors of the jaws and a review of the literature, the authors describe this rare mode of primary hyperparathyroidism discovery.
  • The etiologic search consisted of a MRI of the neck, which showed a mass behind the thyroid gland, suggesting a parathyroid adenoma.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed at surgical exploration.
  • CONCLUSION: Brown tumors are a rare mode of parathyroid adenoma discovery, and the jaw location is exceptional.
  • The diagnosis is based on the parathormone rate, and radiological exams generally find the etiology.
  • Treatment is based on surgery of the parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Mandibular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Maxillary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcium / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Phosphorus / blood. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19524874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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12. Souza ER, Scrignoli JA, Bezerra FC, Ribeiro SL, Passos LF: Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma. J Clin Rheumatol; 2008 Oct;14(5):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disease caused by exaggerated secretion of the parathyroid gland hormone, produced by an adenoma in 80% of cases.
  • Ectopic adenomas occur in a small proportion of cases.
  • Herein, the authors report a 72-year-old woman with a delayed diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, produced by an intrathoracic adenoma, with a longstanding course, presenting with severe osteoporosis, multiple fractures, bone deformities, and neurologic impairments.
  • Persistent hypercalcemia, high levels of alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were documented and a paratracheal mass was found on a helicoidal tomography of the thorax.
  • After surgical removal, the histopathological examination confirmed an ectopic adenoma of the parathyroid gland and the patient achieved some improvement in her clinical picture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Bone Diseases, Endocrine / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Choristoma. Female. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Nephrocalcinosis / etiology. Nephrolithiasis / etiology. Osteoporosis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Tracheal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18824925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-7355
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Schachter PP, Ayesh S, Matouk I, Schneider T, Czerniak A, Hochberg A: Differential expression of kinase genes in primary hyperparathyroidism: adenoma versus normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Jan;131(1):126-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of kinase genes in primary hyperparathyroidism: adenoma versus normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue.
  • CONTEXT: Differentiation between adenoma and hyperplasia or even normal parathyroid tissue is difficult and based mainly on the surgeon's skill.
  • Exploration of genes that express differentially in these various tissues using microarrays and other sophisticated research tools will enable identification and perhaps development of new methods of perioperative diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assemble a panel of kinase genes to differentiate parathyroid adenoma from normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue.
  • DESIGN: RNA was extracted from adenoma, hyperplasia, and normal parathyroid tissue and hybridized to a microarray containing 359 human cDNAs of known kinase genes.
  • RESULTS: The ratio values considered significant (<0.5 or >1.5) suggest that genes up-regulated in parathyroid adenoma are those responsible for blood vessel angiogenesis and genes belonging to the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor groups.
  • Genes down-regulated in parathyroid adenoma are related to cellular growth and apoptosis--genes from the mitogen-activated protein kinase group and DNA-dependent protein kinase group.
  • An interesting gene down-regulated in the parathyroid adenoma samples is related to the serine/threonine protein kinases that exert a key function in calcium handling.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The kinase genes panel presented can be used to differentiate parathyroid adenoma from normal and hyperplastic parathyroid tissue in particular when histopathology fails to provide a decisive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Phosphotransferases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17227113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.- / Phosphotransferases
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14. Wani S, Hao Z: Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):389-93

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course of a patient with atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma manifesting as hypercalcemic parathyroid crisis.
  • METHODS: We present a case report and review the relevant literature on parathyroid cysts and atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas.
  • She had severe hypercalcemia (calcium level, 18.3 mg/dL) in conjunction with an elevated parathyroid hormone level of 1,472 pg/mL.
  • Intraoperatively, 25 mL of fluid was aspirated from the cystic mass, and the parathyroid hormone level in the fluid was 7,400,000 pg/mL.
  • The final pathologic diagnosis was an atypical cystic parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid cysts are uncommon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass.
  • Although most parathyroid cysts are nonfunctional, 10% to 15% of such cysts are functional and can rarely manifest as acute parathyroid crisis.
  • Atypical cystic parathyroid adenomas are rare and have an unpredictable clinical course.
  • Treatment options for parathyroid cysts include aspiration, injection of sclerosing agents, and surgical excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 16638726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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15. von Breitenbuch P, Iesalnieks I, Piso P, Schlitt HJ, Agha A: [Primary hyperparathyroidism: clinical symptoms, diagnostic significance and localisation--a retrospective analysis]. Zentralbl Chir; 2007 Dec;132(6):497-503
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary hyperparathyroidism: clinical symptoms, diagnostic significance and localisation--a retrospective analysis].
  • BACKGROUND: The primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is one of the most frequent metabolic diseases.
  • Moreover, the question of the best localisation-diagnostics and the most frequent localisation of the adenoma is not yet clarified.
  • New operation strategies and more cost-efficient strategies for diagnostic and therapy could be developed due to the clinically established electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for intraoperative monitoring of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH).
  • The best preoperative diagnostic procedure for localisation of the adenoma of the parathyroid gland, in non preoperated patients, seemed to be the combination of ultrasound and scintigraphy.
  • The most common localisation of the adenoma was caudal, on the left side.
  • Today, the combination of iPTH-monitoring and minimal invasive unilateral cervical exploration should be considered as standard in the surgery of the adrenal gland.
  • Due to our data we recommend an exploration of the left caudal parathyroid gland first if the localisation of the adenoma could not be clarified preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Electrodiagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Luminescent Measurements. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / surgery. Male. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Postoperative Complications / blood. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [ErratumIn] Zentralbl Chir. 2008 Feb;133(1):85. Pompiliu, P [corrected to Piso, P]
  • (PMID = 18098076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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16. Colognesi A, de Tullio D, Messina F, Ferrocci G, Stano R, Azzena G: Primary hyperparathyroidism related to a parathyroid adenoma: the dramatic clinical evolution of a misdiagnosed patient and its surgical solution. Minerva Chir; 2006 Feb;61(1):51-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism related to a parathyroid adenoma: the dramatic clinical evolution of a misdiagnosed patient and its surgical solution.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a clinical condition related to an excessive and abnormally regulated secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands which is responsible for an alteration of the calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
  • Parathyroid adenomas are the most important cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (80-85%).
  • A case of parathyroid adenoma observed in a patient aged 47, admitted to the Emergency Medicine Department of our Hospital with a diagnosis of hypertensive crisis, cephalea, vomiting, and a clinical history of recurrent episodes of severe abdominal and renal pain, is presented.
  • The suspect of a primary hyperparathyroidism related to a single adenoma of the parathyroid gland suggested a surgical treatment.
  • The histologycal exam reported a parathyroid adenoma with large areas with haemorrage.
  • Patients affected by primary hyperparathyroidism are often misdiagnosed because their clinical conditions can create differential diagnosis problems with other diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16568023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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17. Sato N, Nakagawa T, Kanno M, Nakamura Y, Kishimoto K, Imai T: [Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 Aug;63(9):781-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma].
  • We experienced 3 surgical cases with ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • All patients checked elevated serum calcium levels and parathyroid hormone levels above normal range so we diagnosed their illness as primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • To determine the location of abnormal parathyroid glands, 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy, chest computed tomography (CT) scan and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were done, then posterior and anterior mediastinal tumors were revealed.
  • Especially MIBI scintigraphy was very useful as diagnostic procedure for small ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • It's considered that large tumor in the posterior mediastinum like case 1 is originated from upper parathyroid gland, and small tumor in the anterior mediastinum like case 2, 3 is originated from lower parathyroid gland.
  • Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were normalized immediately.
  • If we can detect the accurate location of small ectopic parathyroid adenoma using some intraoperative method, the tumor is resected by less invasive procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20715458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Muthukrishnan J, Verma A, Modi KD, Kumaresan K, Jha S: Ectopic parathyroid adenoma--the hidden culprit. J Assoc Physicians India; 2007 Jul;55:515-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic parathyroid adenoma--the hidden culprit.
  • Primary Hyperparathyroidism is known to present with protean manifestations leading to misdiagnosis in the initial stages of the disease.
  • Inability to locate the adenoma in an ectopic parathyroid gland may further delay the diagnosis of these cases.
  • Aberrant migration during development may lead to intrathyroidal or other ectopic locations of parathyroid glands.
  • Similarity in cytological picture between thyroids and parathyroids may further complicate diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • We encountered three such cases with the parathyroid gland adenomas in ectopic locations in which pre-operative nuclear imaging played a major role.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17907504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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19. Berland T, Smith SL, Huguet KL: Occult fifth gland intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma identified by gamma probe. Am Surg; 2005 Mar;71(3):264-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Occult fifth gland intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma identified by gamma probe.
  • The gamma probe was instrumental in guiding us to the adenoma in a fifth gland that was not visible and was localized to the parenchyma of the left lobe of the thyroid gland.
  • Many surgeons do not advocate use of the gamma probe in minimally invasive parathyroidectomy and rely solely on focused exploration on the basis of a preoperative sestamibi scan and intraoperative rapid parathyroid hormone assays.
  • This case, however, illustrates the utility of the gamma probe in parathyroid adenoma localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / abnormalities. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gamma Cameras. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / instrumentation. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15869146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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20. Kirov G, Boneva Zh, Protich M, Koleva N, Paskalev V, Iovchevski P, Lozev I, Liutskanov V: [Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma and ectopic parathyroid gland in thyroid nodule - report of two cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2007;(3):64-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma and ectopic parathyroid gland in thyroid nodule - report of two cases].
  • Ectopic locations of parathyroid adenomas are a rare condition and can cause difficulty in their diagnosis and surgical treatment.
  • We report two cases of intrathyroid parathyroid lesions.
  • In the first patient, preoperative localization studies suggested the possibility of a parathyroid adenoma outside the thyroid gland.
  • When a pathological gland is not found during surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism, an ectopic parathyroid gland was found in the thyroid tissue.
  • In the second patient, in an existing thyroid nodule was found an ectopic normal parathyroid gland postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma. Goiter, Nodular. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18437114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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21. Shirzad N, Tehrani MR, Soltani A: A rare association of hyperparathyroidism and Turner's syndrome--a case report. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 May-Jun;59(3):232-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rare association of hyperparathyroidism and Turner's syndrome--a case report.
  • After primary evaluation, she underwent treatment with calcium and vitamin D supplement with the diagnosis of osteomalacia in Turner's syndrome.
  • The rise of serum calcium during medical therapy, which was an unusual finding, attracted the clinician's attention to another underlying disorder.
  • Further evaluation revealed primary hyperparathyroidism due to an adenoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • Even though this is a rare diagnosis, its presence should be considered in any patient with Turner's syndrome presenting with severe osteoporosis and a rise in serum calcium during treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Turner Syndrome / complications

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  • (PMID = 18615398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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22. Chaychi L, Chaidarun S, Golding A, Kinlaw WB, Memoli V, Siegel A: Unusual recurrence of hypercalcemia due to concurrent parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid sarcoidosis with lymph node involvement. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):463-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual recurrence of hypercalcemia due to concurrent parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid sarcoidosis with lymph node involvement.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient presenting with the rare findings of synchronous parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid sarcoidosis.
  • RESULTS: A 67-year-old man had the following initial blood test results: calcium, 11.1 mg/dL (reference range, 8.5-10.6 mg/dL); albumin 4.0 g/dL (reference range, 3.2- 5.2 g/dL); intact parathyroid hormone, 166 pg/mL (reference range, 10-69 pg/mL); creatinine, 1.9 mg/dL; 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 15 ng/mL (reference range, 30-80 ng/mL); and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 44 pg/mL (reference range, 16-72 pg/mL).
  • Pathologic examination of the resected gland confirmed the diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma, and subsequent review disclosed the presence of noncaseating granulomas within the adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sarcoidosis with parathyroid involvement causing severe hypercalcemia is unique to this case.
  • Recurrent hypercalcemia after successful resection of a parathyroid adenoma may require consideration of potential causes other than the initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Imachi H, Murao K, Kontani K, Yokomise H, Miyai Y, Yamamoto Y, Kushida Y, Haba R, Ishida T: Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis. Endocrine; 2009 Oct;36(2):194-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis.
  • After the episode of acute pancreatitis subsided, laboratory investigation revealed increased serum calcium (12.0 mg/dl), decreased serum phosphorus (2.7 mg/dl), and increased serum parathyroid hormone (intact) levels (131 pg/ml).
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck did not reveal any mass lesions in the parathyroid gland.
  • However, (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy revealed that there was one functioning parathyroid gland in the upper mediastinum.
  • Combined (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy and CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in the mediastinum.
  • Microscopic examination revealed the presence of a parathyroid adenoma (1.3 x 0.4 cm(2)) adjacent to the atrophic parathyroid gland in right thymus gland.
  • We report the case of a patient diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • An ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma may manifest as an episode of acute pancreatitis.
  • Preoperative investigation to determine the exact location of an adenoma should include two types of imaging studies, preferably (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy and CT of the neck and chest.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Choristoma. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Pancreatitis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male

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  • (PMID = 19598003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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24. Yeşilkaya E, Cinaz P, Bideci A, Camurdan O, Demirel F, Demircan S: Hungry bone syndrome after parathyroidectomy caused by an ectopic parathyroid adenoma. J Bone Miner Metab; 2009;27(1):101-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hungry bone syndrome after parathyroidectomy caused by an ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • Hungry bone syndrome (HBS), i.e., persistent hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia as a result of extensive remineralization, is rarely encountered in children after parathyroid surgery.
  • Herein, we report a 12-year-old girl who was diagnosed to have an ectopic parathyroid adenoma, and HBS was observed in the postsurgical follow-up.
  • The diagnosis and the risk factors are discussed in the light of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypocalcemia / etiology. Hypophosphatemia / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Syndrome. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19057842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-8779
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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25. Libánský P, Astl J, Adámek S, Nanka O, Pafko P, Spacková J, Foltán R, Sedý J: Ectopic parathyroid adenoma in child. Prague Med Rep; 2008;109(2-3):200-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic parathyroid adenoma in child.
  • Ultrasonography and MIBI scintigraphy showed a structure near the lower pole of thyroid gland.
  • The structure macroscopically appeared as adenoma, histologically it was thymic tissue.
  • Bilateral neck exploration together with exploration of cervical thymic extensions was performed; adenoma was not found.
  • Adenoma was located by MIBI-SPECT/CT near the left border of jugulum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / complications. Neck. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19548602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1214-6994
  • [Journal-full-title] Prague medical report
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prague Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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26. Kirk J, Au-Yong I, Ganatra R: Multimodality imaging of a retrosternal parathyroid adenoma with multiple brown tumors. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Sep;34(9):555-9
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  • [Title] Multimodality imaging of a retrosternal parathyroid adenoma with multiple brown tumors.
  • Brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism are rare but can mimic metastatic disease on many imaging modalities.
  • We report the case of a patient presenting with symptomatic brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism due to a large retrosternal parathyroid adenoma, with histopathological correlation of both.
  • The initial imaging findings on plain radiography, computed tomography, and bone scintigraphy were nonspecific and difficult to differentiate from the more common diagnosis of metastatic disease.
  • Whole body sestamibi imaging however demonstrated increased uptake within both the mediastinal mass and multiple bone lesions leading to the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / radiography. Hyperparathyroidism / ultrasonography. Thyroid Gland / radiography. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19692812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Rabaa L, Daher R, Abou Zeid H, Jabbour H, Hachem K, Smayra T: Ultrasonography: highly accuracy technique for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma. Laryngoscope; 2008 Sep;118(9):1574-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasonography: highly accuracy technique for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study evaluates the accuracy of ultrasonography in guided unilateral parathyroidectomy to treat primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • METHODS: Two hundred fifty-three patients with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent preoperative ultrasonography.
  • Group 1 included the patients in whom the preoperative cervical ultrasound localized one abnormal parathyroid gland; these patients underwent unilateral surgical exploration of the neck under local anesthesia.
  • RESULTS: Sensitivity and positive predictive value of ultrasonography in detecting abnormal parathyroid gland were 96% and 98%, respectively.
  • Mediastinal and retroesophageal localizations of abnormal parathyroid gland adversely affected the accuracy of the ultrasound.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Preoperative Care / methods. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18475203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Grosso I, Sargiotto A, D'Amelio P, Tamone C, Gasparri G, De Filippi PG, Picciotto G, Isaia G: Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma with sonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Ultrasound; 2007 May;35(4):186-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma with sonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and usefulness of dual-phase 99mTc-Sestamibi scintigraphy (SS) and sonography (US) of the neck, alone and in combination, as noninvasive adenoma localizing procedures in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism prior to parathyroidectomy.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 79 patients with parathyroid (PT) adenomas and confirmed diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism who were evaluated with SS and US prior to successful parathyroidectomy.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-three adenomas were removed during bilateral neck exploration.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No benefit was gained from using both SS and US for the preoperative localization of PT adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • US, when performed by a skilled operator, is a reliable tool for PT adenoma localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Parathyroidectomy. Postoperative Complications. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17354248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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29. Whyte S, Cannon M: In search of stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychic moans: putting the pieces together--a case of parathyroid adenoma. Perspectives; 2009;33(2):5-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In search of stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychic moans: putting the pieces together--a case of parathyroid adenoma.
  • An often neglected and frequently forgotten gland in the body is the parathyroid.
  • The parathyroid glands (there are four) play a vital role in maintaining body function by regulating calcium levels through the secretion of parathyroid hormone.
  • When function of the parathyroid gland becomes abnormal and calcium regulation is altered, there can be serious consequences to the patient in the form of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Due to the variable symptoms, making an accurate diagnosis can be a challenge for the clinician.
  • This paper will provide an overview of the parathyroid glands, identification of the signs and symptoms of a parathyroid adenoma, a discussion about the tests that facilitate a definitive diagnosis and a review of treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19813385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0831-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Perspectives (Gerontological Nursing Association (Canada))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Perspectives
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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30. Wang G, Zhang XC, Pan BN, Na YQ: [Diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyrodism with urolithiasis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Mar 9;85(9):618-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyrodism with urolithiasis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyroidism with urolithiasis.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 12 patients who were diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism with urolithiasis from January 1998 to June 2004 were analyzed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Four male and five female patients were demonstrated pathologically as parathyroid adenoma, with a mean age of 45.7 +/- 11.8 years (26 approximately 57) and a stone history of 8.3 +/- 6.4 years (0.5 approximately 22).
  • After resection of the parathyroid adenoma, the patients' serum calcium and PTH returned to normal.
  • The other data of 3 cases without parathyroid adenoma. all males aged 45 approximately 54, were also investigated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serum calcium level above 2.96 mmol/L and PTH 3.9 or more times as normal in patients with recurrent or bilateral urolithiasis should be suspected with primary hyperparathyroidism. (99m)TC-MIBI image functions best in preoperative localization of the abnormal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Urinary Calculi / diagnosis. Urinary Calculi / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Retrospective Studies. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 15949360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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31. Ahmad S, Mufti TS, Khan AA, Ahmad S: Parathyroid carcinoma. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2006 Apr-Jun;18(2):84-5
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism and these tumors are usually hyper-functioning as compared to other malignant endocrine tumors.
  • Surgery is the only effective primary treatment.
  • Parathyroid adenoma was initially diagnosed and localized at left lower gland by Sestamibi scan and ultrasonography.
  • She underwent surgery and enlarged parathyroid gland was removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16977824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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32. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Yanik BT, Salmaslioğlu A, Tunaci M, Adalet I, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: Impact of gland morphology and concomitant thyroid nodules on preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Laryngoscope; 2006 Apr;116(4):580-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of gland morphology and concomitant thyroid nodules on preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a common endocrine disease.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the presence of thyroid nodules, adenoma weight, and ectopic localization on the sensitivity of different imaging studies in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • The parathyroid adenoma weight in true-positive imaging studies was significantly higher than those in false-positive and false-negative imaging studies.
  • The numbers of ectopic parathyroid adenomas were found to be higher in the group of parathyroid adenomas undetected with ultrasonography when compared with ultrasonographically detected adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with parathyroid adenoma, the sensitivity of imaging studies correlates with the presence of thyroid nodules, adenoma weight, and ectopic localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care / methods. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16585862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Horányi J, Duffek L, Kemenes M, Szlávik R, Darvas K, Dabasi G, Lakatos P, Tóth M: [New intraoperative diagnostic methods parathyroid surgery. Adenoma localization by gamma probe]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1443-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [New intraoperative diagnostic methods parathyroid surgery. Adenoma localization by gamma probe].
  • [Transliterated title] Uj, intraoperatív diagnosztikus módszerek a mellékpajzsmirigy-sebészetben: gamma-szondás adenoma-lokalizáció.
  • INTRODUCTION: The key to heal primary hyperparathyroidism is to find the hyper functioning parathyroid gland(s).
  • METHODS: At 122 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy in last 5 years with diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism perioperative sestamibi scanning by gamma probe was taken to localize the adenoma.
  • The distribution of activity was measured before operation percutaneously on the neck and during operation directly at explored parathyroid regions.
  • RESULTS: Because of the thyroid lobes also accumulate sestamibi the localizability of adenomas depended on direction of scanning.
  • Important factor is the correct timing of isotope administration in order to achieve domination of parathyroid activity in time of measurement.
  • Localization of adenomas by percutaneous measurement was correct in 36.1% of cases and by perioperative direct scanning in 66.4%.
  • Furthermore, ex vivo scan of removed adenomas showed impressively high activity in all cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In their experience sestamibi scanning lightens the operation only in a part of cases but probably it will be the most important method of localization if isotope selectively accumulating in parathyroid gland could be found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Gamma Rays. Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Diseases / surgery. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16089105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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34. Velázquez-Fernández D, Laurell C, Saqui-Salces M, Pantoja JP, Candanedo-Gonzalez F, Reza-Albarrán A, Gamboa-Dominguez A, Herrera MF: Differential RNA expression profile by cDNA microarray in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT): primary parathyroid hyperplasia versus adenoma. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):705-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential RNA expression profile by cDNA microarray in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT): primary parathyroid hyperplasia versus adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis between adenoma and hyperplasia in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) remains a dilemma.
  • The aim of this study was to assess differences in transcriptional genomic expression profiles between sporadic (nonfamilial) parathyroid hyperplasia (SPH), adenoma, and normal tissue.
  • METHODS: Parathyroid tissue from 12 patients with parathyroid adenoma, 3 with SPH, and 2 with normal glands was selected for analysis.
  • Histopathology was reviewed in all cases, and all patients with adenomas presented normocalcemia for a minimum of 6 months after one gland resection.
  • RESULTS: There were significant statistical differences between SPH and adenomas.
  • When SPH was compared to normal parathyroid tissue, 50 genes were differentially expressed: 42 were upregulated (> 1.89) and 8 were downregulated (> 1.7) with a B > 4.26 (98.6% probability of real differential expression).
  • At least 17 genes were differentially expressed and able to discriminate SPH from adenoma or normal tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that SPH and adenoma have a singular molecular signature that, theoretically, could be used for the differential diagnosis of these entities and normal parathyroid tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Hyperplasia / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. RNA / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16680586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 63231-63-0 / RNA
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35. Rosen JE, Costouros NG, Lorang D, Burns AL, Alexander HR, Skarulis MC, Cochran C, Pingpank JF, Marx SJ, Spiegel AM, Libutti SK: Gland size is associated with changes in gene expression profiles in sporadic parathyroid adenomas. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 May;12(5):412-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gland size is associated with changes in gene expression profiles in sporadic parathyroid adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Sporadic parathyroid adenomas (SPAs) are benign neoplasms responsible for most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • At operation, tissues from SPAs were frozen in liquid nitrogen; total RNA was obtained from sections, and the diagnosis was confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin staining.
  • Control normal parathyroid RNA was age- and sex-matched.
  • Of the clinical parameters, only the mean gland volume was significantly different between group 1 (390 +/- 160 mm(3)) and group 2 (1080 +/- 615 mm(3); P = .032 by Mann-Whitney test).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Differential expression of a few critical genes may contribute to differences in gland volume in SPAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15915376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Enomoto K, Sakurai K, Amano S: [Experience of parathyroid cancer which required a differentiation from adenoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2325-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Experience of parathyroid cancer which required a differentiation from adenoma].
  • We noted a thyroid gland mass by examination and referred for a further checkup.
  • The cervical echography evidence showed a mass image of the border regular in the back of inferior pole of left thyroid gland.
  • It also revealed a mass image with the calcification in the inferior pole of left lobe of thyroid gland at the same time.
  • We performed aspiration biopsy cytology for a thyroid gland mass, and it was class IIIa.
  • We also performed parathyroidectomy and left lobe of thyroid gland ablative surgery because of a diagnosis of the hyperparathyroidism confirmed a primary parathyroid adenoma.
  • Preoperative pathological diagnosis was adenoma.
  • However, histopathology laboratory findings showed it to be of adenocarcinoma of the parathyroid, which metastasized into the thyroid.
  • Many times parathyroid cancer preoperative diagnosis is inconclusive.
  • So we are reporting our experience with parathyroid cancer metastases to the thyroid for reference.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Male. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 21224561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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37. Fakhran S, Branstetter BF 4th, Pryma DA: Parathyroid imaging. Neuroimaging Clin N Am; 2008 Aug;18(3):537-49, ix
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid imaging.
  • The most common indication for parathyroid imaging is hyperparathyroidism, which is caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma in most patients.
  • The primary function of parathyroid imaging is localization of the abnormal parathyroid gland, enabling the surgeon to pursue a minimally invasive resection.
  • In cases of suspected parathyroid carcinoma, preoperative CT or MR imaging is recommended for surgical planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18656034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroimaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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38. Hoshi M, Takami M, Kajikawa M, Teramura K, Okamoto T, Yanagida I, Matsumura A: A case of multiple skeletal lesions of brown tumors, mimicking carcinoma metastases. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2008 Feb;128(2):149-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Brown tumor is not a true tumor, being an unusual reactive lesion in association with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The initial diagnosis of brown tumor was delayed, but later pain in her leg worsened and a sacral lesion was incidentally discovered on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); multiple destructive bone lesions were then found radiologically.
  • However, pathological examination and abnormal laboratory data showing elevated serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone and low serum phosphate confirmed the diagnosis of brown tumor.
  • Adenoma in the parathyroid gland was confirmed and surgically resected.
  • Synthetic analysis of the clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings was necessary for the definite diagnosis of brown tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Hyperparathyroidism / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Calcium / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17354010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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39. Shroff P, McGrath GA, Pezzi CM: Incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland: multiple presentations, variable function, and review of the literature. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):363-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidentalomas of the parathyroid gland: multiple presentations, variable function, and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a series of cases of parathyroid incidentalomas and review the related medical literature.
  • METHODS: The medical records of all patients of one surgeon who underwent unplanned removal of enlarged parathyroid glands found either during a surgical procedure performed for indications other than hyperparathyroidism or by ultrasonography of the thyroid gland between September 1989 and December 2003 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Clinical and laboratory data-- especially serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels--as well as information on postoperative parathyroid function are reported.
  • RESULTS: Among 421 patients (355 who underwent thyroidectomy and 66 who underwent transhiatal esophagectomy), 5 cases of parathyroid incidentalomas (1.2%) were identified.
  • These incidental parathyroid adenomas were found during thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer in two patients, during esophagectomy for esophageal cancer in one patient (the first such reported case), and during ultrasonography of the neck for evaluation of thyroid nodules in two patients.
  • In one patient in whom intraoperative PTH level was determined both before and after resection of a large parathyroid adenoma, the initially high PTH value (180 pg/mL) declined to the normal range (48.2 pg/mL).
  • No patient had persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism or hypoparathyroidism postoperatively or during subsequent follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental identification of enlarged parathyroid glands during a neck surgical procedure is not common but does occur.
  • Intraoperative and postoperative measurements of serum calcium and PTH along with postoperative bone density testing can help determine whether such parathyroid incidentalomas are functional.
  • These enlarged parathyroid glands should be removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16638722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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40. Hussein WI, El-Maghraby TA, Al-Sanea O: Hyperfunctioning intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma. Saudi Med J; 2006 Aug;27(8):1226-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hyperfunctioning intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma is an exceedingly rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism with difficulties in the diagnosis and management.
  • We report a case of hypercalcemia from intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma in a 63-year-old Saudi female.
  • She was diagnosed 2 years earlier with osteoporosis in a primary care clinic and was on alendronate since then.
  • Parathyroid 99mTc-SestaMIBI scintigraphy revealed parathyroid adenoma in the left inferior parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16883457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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41. Ergün S, Saraçoglu A, Güneri P, Ozpinar B: Application of fractal analysis in hyperparathyroidism. Dentomaxillofac Radiol; 2009 Jul;38(5):281-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Application of fractal analysis in hyperparathyroidism.
  • OBJECTIVES: Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a condition caused by an overproduction of parathormone, in excess of the amount required by the body.
  • Its most common cause is a parathyroid gland adenoma and parathyroidectomy is currently the only curative treatment for primary HPT.
  • We present a case history of a 65-year-old patient who was diagnosed with primary HPT after the recognition of dental problems.
  • RESULTS: After consideration of the radiographical, biochemical and clinical evaluations of the patient, the final diagnosis was made as hyperparathyroid adenoma and surgical removal was scheduled.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractals. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radiography. Mandible / radiography. Radiography, Dental, Digital / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / complications. Aged. Algorithms. Alveolar Process / radiography. Humans. Least-Squares Analysis. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Radiography, Panoramic

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  • (PMID = 19474255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Dento maxillo facial radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dentomaxillofac Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Hindié E, Ugur O, Fuster D, O'Doherty M, Grassetto G, Ureña P, Kettle A, Gulec SA, Pons F, Rubello D, Parathyroid Task Group of the EANM: 2009 EANM parathyroid guidelines. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2009 Jul;36(7):1201-16

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 2009 EANM parathyroid guidelines.
  • The present guidelines were issued by the Parathyroid Task Group of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine.
  • The main focus was imaging of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Dual-tracer and single-tracer parathyroid scintigraphy protocols were discussed as well as the various modalities of image acquisition.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine disorder with high prevalence, typically caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma, less frequently (about 15%) by multiple parathyroid gland disease (MGD) and rarely (1%) by parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Patients with MGD may have a double adenoma or hyperplasia of three or all four parathyroid glands.
  • In this new era, the success of targeted parathyroid surgery depends not only on an experienced surgeon, but also on a sensitive and accurate imaging technique.
  • Scintigraphy should also report on thyroid nodules that may cause confusion with a parathyroid adenoma or require concurrent surgical resection.
  • The guidelines also discuss aspects related to radio-guided surgery of hyperparathyroidism and imaging of chronic kidney disease patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Radiometry. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m / pharmacokinetics. Subtraction Technique. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi / pharmacokinetics. Tissue Distribution. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19471928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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43. Fischer I, Wieczorek R, Sidhu GS, Pei Z, West B, Lee P: Myxoid lipoadenoma of parathyroid gland: a case report and literature review. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Oct;10(5):294-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myxoid lipoadenoma of parathyroid gland: a case report and literature review.
  • Myxoid lipoadenoma of the parathyroid gland is a rare variant of parathyroid adenoma.
  • We present the case of a 40-year-old man with asymptomatic hypercalcemia who underwent surgical removal of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of thyroid transcription factor and parathyroid hormone by all tumor cells and a low proliferation rate with a Ki-67 labeling index of at most 5%.
  • Although the lesion exhibited characteristics that have been previously associated with "atypical parathyroid adenoma," such as dense fibrous bands within the tumor and a trabecular growth pattern, there was no further evidence, neither histologically nor clinically, for malignant behavior of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adipose Tissue / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Hypercalcemia / complications. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / pathology. Male. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16979523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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44. Oliveira MA, Maeda SS, Dreyer P, Lobo A, Andrade VP, Hoff AO, Biscolla RP, Smanio P, Brandão CM, Vieira JG: [Importance of parathyroid SPECT and 99mTc scintigraphy, and of clinical, laboratorial, ultrasonographic and citologic correlation in the pre-operative localization of the parathyroid adenoma - pictorial assay]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Jun;54(4):352-61

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  • [Title] [Importance of parathyroid SPECT and 99mTc scintigraphy, and of clinical, laboratorial, ultrasonographic and citologic correlation in the pre-operative localization of the parathyroid adenoma - pictorial assay].
  • [Transliterated title] Importância da complementação com SPECT e 99mTc na cintilografia das paratiroides e da correlação clínica, laboratorial, ultrassonográfica e citológica na localização pré-operatória do adenoma de paratiroide - ensaio pictórico.
  • OBJECTIVE: In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, candidates for surgical intervention, the parathyroid pre-operative localization is of fundamental importance in planning the appropriate surgical approach.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The additional acquisition of SPECT and Technetium-99m images, during parathyroid scintigraphy with Sestamibi, is not common practice.
  • RESULTS: In our experience, the complete protocol in parathyroid scintigraphy increases the accuracy of pre-operative parathyroid localization.
  • CONCLUSION: The complete utilization of all available nuclear medicine methods (SPECT e 99mTc) and image interpretation in a multidisciplinary context can improve the accuracy of parathyroid scintigraphy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / standards

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  • [CommentIn] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2010 Jun;54(4):343-4 [20625644.001]
  • (PMID = 20625646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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45. Romanchishen AF, Matveeva ZS: [A combination of diseases of the thyroid and asymptomatic adenoma of the parathyroid glands]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2006;165(1):40-2
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  • [Title] [A combination of diseases of the thyroid and asymptomatic adenoma of the parathyroid glands].
  • The authors have analyzed the cases of diagnosis of asymptomatic tumors of the parathyroid gland made during 8814 operations on the thyroid in the period from 1995 through 2004.
  • The probability of detecting parathyroid incidentalomas in different forms of goiter was calculated which reaches 0.4%.
  • A precision technique of operating allows the parathyroid tumors to be detected at the preclinical stage in all patients apart from a removal of the necessary volume of the thyroid tissue, guaranteed preservation of the laryngeal nerves and parathyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16568854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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46. Rasmuson T, Tavelin B: Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(8):1059-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine.
  • External ionizing radiation is a risk factor for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Whether exposure to radioactive iodine contributes to the risk of primary hyperparathyroidism is unknown.
  • Patients with thyrotoxicosis are often treated with radioactive iodine and its accumulation in the thyroid gland exposes the adjacent parathyroid glands to radioactivity.
  • Patients with parathyroid adenomas (ICD-9 = 195.1) were recruited from the Swedish Cancer Registry.
  • Eleven patients with parathyroid adenomas following the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis were identified.
  • The median age at exposure was 59 years and the latency period between diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and parathyroid adenoma was 7.4 years (range <1-19 years).
  • This study does not indicate that patients with thyrotoxicosis treated with radioactive iodine in adult age have increased risk of developing parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Parathyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyrotoxicosis / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17118839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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47. Calbo L, Campennì A, Calbo E, Catalfamo A, Sciglitano P, Niceta M, Borzì R, Lizio R, Gorgone S: [Hyperparathyroidism from mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Case report]. G Chir; 2008 Jun-Jul;29(6-7):295-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Hyperparathyroidism from mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Iperparatiroidismo da adenoma paratiroideo a localizzazione mediastinica. Caso clinico.
  • The authors, after reviewing parathyroid gland diseases, their location, and the modern strategies that can be used for their pre-operative detection, describe a case of primary hyperparathyroidism which recently came to their attention.
  • The use of a combination of instrumental techniques (US, scintigraphy and SPEcT) enabled them to establish, prior to surgery, the mediastinal ectopic site of the parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroidectomy. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18544269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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48. Reimer SB, Pelosi A, Frank JD, Steficek BA, Kiupel M, Hauptman JG: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2005 Jul 1;227(1):101-4, 86
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  • After extensive assessment at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Michigan State University, the clinical signs were attributed to an aldosterone-secreting tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Subsequently, an insulin-secreting tumor of the pancreas as well as a functional parathyroid gland adenoma were diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Male. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / veterinary. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / veterinary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16013543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Norman J, Politz D, Browarsky I: Diagnostic aspiration of parathyroid adenomas causes severe fibrosis complicating surgery and final histologic diagnosis. Thyroid; 2007 Dec;17(12):1251-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic aspiration of parathyroid adenomas causes severe fibrosis complicating surgery and final histologic diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of parathyroid adenomas may cause a severe fibrotic reaction of the gland and surrounding structures, making surgery more difficult and histology more confusing.
  • DESIGN: A study was conducted over a 33-month period to compare the operative findings of 30 patients who underwent FNA of a parathyroid adenoma to those of 3000 patients who had not had their parathyroid tumor aspirated.
  • Each patient's normal parathyroid glands also served as internal controls.
  • All aspirations were performed by referring physicians under direct ultrasound guidance within 3 months of surgery, and all adenomas were located in routine positions.
  • Patients who had previous thyroid or parathyroid surgery were not included.
  • Patients with secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism were not included.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA of parathyroid adenomas can cause a severe fibrotic process that typically involves adjacent tissues.
  • FNA of parathyroid adenomas should be avoided unless absolutely necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fibrosis / diagnosis. Fibrosis / etiology. Fibrosis / pathology. Humans. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2008 May;18(5):581-2; author reply 583-4 [18466081.001]
  • (PMID = 17887929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Papathanassiou D, Flament JB, Pochart JM, Patey M, Marty H, Liehn JC, Schvartz C: SPECT/CT in localization of parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia in patients with previous neck surgery. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jun;33(6):394-7
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  • [Title] SPECT/CT in localization of parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia in patients with previous neck surgery.
  • It has proved useful for localization of abnormal parathyroid glands, especially in the case of an ectopic gland.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four patients with prior neck surgery and hyperparathyroidism underwent parathyroid Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy with SPECT/CT.
  • Two patients had undergone surgery for hyperparathyroidism and 2 had undergone thyroidectomy, 1 for thyroid cancer and 1 for multinodular goiter.
  • Parathyroid hormone levels were assessed during surgery, and patients were followed several months after treatment.
  • RESULTS: SPECT/CT successfully localized the abnormal gland, including an uncommon anterior situation for which previous surgery guided by planar imagery failed to cure the hyperparathyroidism.
  • It allowed efficient surgical treatment, as confirmed by parathyroid hormone level normalization, without complications and with a relatively short operation time in those challenging cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPECT/CT seems to be a useful tool for presurgical assessment in hyperparathyroidism, not only for ectopic glands but also for patients with previous neck surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18496444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Marzouki HZ, Chavannes M, Tamilia M, Hier MP, Black MJ, Levental M, Payne RJ: Location of parathyroid adenomas: 7-year experience. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Oct;39(5):551-4
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  • [Title] Location of parathyroid adenomas: 7-year experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the most common location of parathyroid adenomas.
  • METHODS: Data from 147 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism in Montreal at a McGill University teaching hospital between January 2001 and January 2008 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Patients with histopathologic confirmation of parathyroid hyperplasia were excluded from the study (n = 26).
  • The 121 patients with confirmed adenomas were grouped according to the locations of the tumour into right superior, right inferior, left superior, left inferior, and ectopic.
  • RESULTS: The left inferior parathyroid glands were the most common site of adenomas.
  • The right inferior parathyroid glands were the site in 40 patients (33.06% [mean 0.33; 95% CI 0.248-0.422]).
  • The remainder of the adenomas were distributed as follows: the left superior in 19 patients (15.7% [mean 0.157; 95% CI 0.097-0.234]), the right superior in 10 patients (8.26% [mean 0.0826; 95% CI 0.040-0.147]), and the ectopic in 2 patients (1.65% [mean 0.0165; 95% CI 0.002-0.058]).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the most common site of adenoma was the left inferior parathyroid gland.
  • This information provides parathyroid surgeons with a starting point when imaging fails to localize the site of the adenoma, which allows for the possibility of minimally invasive surgery especially if used in conjunction with intraoperative parathyroid hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20828518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1916-0216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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52. Das K, Stone N, Kendall C, Fowler C, Christie-Brown J: Role of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the diagnosis of parathyroid pathology. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2007 Jun;4(2):124-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the diagnosis of parathyroid pathology.
  • BACKGROUND: With the advent of minimally invasive parathyroid surgery (MIPS) accurate pathological diagnosis to differentiate parathyroid adenomas from hyperplasia has become difficult for the pathologist.
  • This is because now single glands are excised, guided by better preoperative localisation scans, while for an accurate pathological diagnosis, at least a two-gland biopsy is required.
  • Ultimately, an accurate pathological diagnosis to establish the aetiology is essential for the management of hyperparathyroidism.
  • To resolve this issue we evaluated the ability of FTIR to accurately differentiate between parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia using their biochemical signatures.
  • Sixteen glands were analysed - eight hyperplasias and eight adenomas.
  • A multivariate statistical predictive model demonstrated the sensitivity of FTIR for adenomas to be 93% and hyperplasia 93%, (88% on cross validation testing).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thus, infrared spectroscopy is potentially an excellent tool to differentiate the two pathologies and could be a useful adjunct to the pathological diagnosis of single glands.

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  • (PMID = 25047346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-1000
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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53. Lazaris AC, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Papathomas T, Brousalis T, Thomopoulou G, Agrogiannis G, Patsouris ES: Immunohistochemical investigation of angiogenic factors in parathyroid proliferative lesions. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Jun;154(6):827-33
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical investigation of angiogenic factors in parathyroid proliferative lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The pathological distinction between parathyroid neoplasms and hyperplasias remains difficult in several cases.
  • We attempted to examine whether immunohistochemical expression of CD105, VEGF and VEGF-R2 may be useful in distinguishing between parathyroid hyperplasia and neoplasia as well as to elucidate, to some extent, the mechanism of neovascularization in proliferative lesions of the parathyroid gland.
  • DESIGN: Tissue specimens were taken from 38 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) (17 adenomas and 21 primary hyperplasias) and from 30 patients with secondary HPT.
  • RESULTS: Positive CD105 immunoreaction was significantly increased in parathyroid adenomas by comparison with primary hyperplasias (P = 0.033) and with secondary hyperplasias (P = 0.033).
  • When parathyroid adenomas, primary hyperplasia and secondary hyperplasia specimens were comparatively evaluated, VEGF immunoreaction was much more common in adenomas (P = 0.018).
  • In addition, in samples with secondary hyperplasia, VEGF-R2 immunoreactivity was positively linked with VEGF expression as well as with the apoptotic index of parathyroid cells (P = 0.038 and 0.010 respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows increased angiogenesis in parathyroid adenomas compared with parathyroid proliferative lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16728542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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54. Malinvaud D, Potard G, Martins-Carvalho C, Jézéquel JA, Marianowski R: [Parathyroid adenoma: surgical strategy]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2006 Dec;123(6):333-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Parathyroid adenoma: surgical strategy].
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to reach a better understanding in the handling of parathyroid adenomas, and to emphasize the importance of pre-operatory explorations in order to establish the best surgical approach and its cost.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We are using a retrospective study of 51 patients that underwent surgery in our department between the years 1997 and 2002, for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Every patient received to a pre-operatory exploration in order to localize the parathyroid tumors, including cervical echography in 51 of the cases, and a sestamibi scintigraphy in 49 of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17202992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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55. González VG, Orellana BP, Manuel López MJ, Jiménez MM, Quintana YJ: Early parathyroid MIBI SPECT imaging in the diagnosis of persistent hyperparathyroidism. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jul;33(7):475-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early parathyroid MIBI SPECT imaging in the diagnosis of persistent hyperparathyroidism.
  • We present a case that demonstrates the utility of early SPECT images associated with fusion images with MRI for presurgical localization in a case of persistent hyperparathyroidism after a first surgery.
  • MRI and SPECT parathyroid scintigraphy showed an abnormal parathyroid lesion localized behind the inferior pole of the thyroid right lobe.
  • At surgical reexploration a right inferior parathyroid adenoma was removed (258 mg).
  • After that, the elevated PTH persisted and an ectopic parathyroid gland was identified in the tracheoesophageal groove (958 mg), corresponding with the lesion seen on the fusion image of MRI and SPECT.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Radionuclide Imaging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 18580233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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56. Oztürk M, Ustek D, Akbas F, Kösem M, Abaci N, Alagöl F, Oztürk G, Kotan C: The presence of erythropoietin receptor in parathyroid cells. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Dec;30(11):RC35-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The presence of erythropoietin receptor in parathyroid cells.
  • CONTEXT: Effects of erythropoietin on parathyroid cell function has not been studied before.
  • OBJECTIVE: We aimed to demonstrate whether erythropoietin receptor present in parathyroid cells.
  • DESIGN: The specimens of normal parathyroid gland, parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia were retrieved from our pathology archives.
  • Its density was higher in normal parathyroid, followed by parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: Erythropoietin receptor is present in normal parathyroid, parathyroid adenoma, and hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Erythropoietin / metabolism

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  • [Cites] J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Jan;15 Suppl 1:S21-4 [14684666.001]
  • [Cites] Adv Clin Path. 1997 Oct;1(4):275-280 [10352490.001]
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  • (PMID = 18250608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Erythropoietin; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin
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57. Lieu D: Cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 May;38(5):327-32

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions.
  • The gold standard to determine the cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is bilateral neck exploration.
  • As most cases are caused by parathyroid adenoma, there is a movement toward preoperative localization of the abnormal gland by ultrasound and/or Tc(99)-sestamibi scan and minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Nonpalpable thyroid nodules are common and cannot be differentiated from parathyroid lesions by imaging alone.
  • This study examines cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (UG-FNA) in diagnosis of parathyroid lesions.
  • Between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008, seven patients with PHPT or other parathyroid lesions with one or more sonographically-visible thyroid masses underwent cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA with immediate cytological evaluation (ICE).
  • Three parathyroid adenomas, two benign colloid nodules, one papillary carcinoma, three parathyroid cysts, and one thyroid cyst were diagnosed.
  • The nodules in three patients with parathyroid adenomas were identified as follicular lesion/neoplasm on ICE.
  • Additional UG-FNA passes were made to obtain tissue for immunohistochemistry stains, which confirmed parathyroid origin.
  • The PHPT patient with papillary carcinoma on UG-FNA had the malignancy confirmed at surgery and a sonographically occult parathyroid adenoma.
  • The three patients with thyroid cysts identified by radiology were suspected of being parathyroid cysts on the basis of real-time sonographic features at the biopsy table.
  • Cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA can distinguish between parathyroid and thyroid nodules in patients with suspected parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19845029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Shanmugam N, Johns W, Chasse K, Gupta SM: Serendipitous detection of metastatic thyroid cancer during I-123 Tc-99m sestamibi dual parathyroid imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Aug;30(8):550-1
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  • [Title] Serendipitous detection of metastatic thyroid cancer during I-123 Tc-99m sestamibi dual parathyroid imaging.
  • Dual isotope parathyroid imaging performed on a 47-year-old man with known papillary thyroid cancer and biochemical hyperparathyroidism showed residual concentration of sestamibi consistent with a right inferior parathyroid adenoma.
  • Histology revealed a left superior parathyroid adenoma and normal right inferior parathyroid gland.
  • Right inferior parathyroid adenoma on scintigraphy was, in fact, a cervical lymph node metastasis from the papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16024952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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59. Wirowski D, Wicke C, Böhner H, Lammers BJ, Pohl P, Schwarz K, Goretzki PE: Presentation of 6 cases with parathyroid cysts and discussion of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Aug;116(8):501-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Parathyroid Disorders.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presentation of 6 cases with parathyroid cysts and discussion of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cystic lesions of the parathyroid glands are uncommon, and rare are those that cause primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Preoperative diagnosis can be challenging and some of these tumors might be misinterpreted as parathyroid carcinoma.
  • With an expertise of more than 1700 patients operated on primary hyperparathyroidism, we present six cases with cystic degeneration of a parathyroid gland causing primary hyperparathyroidism in five patients.
  • CASE REPORTS: A woman at the age of 67 presented with hypercalcaemic crisis due to persistent primary hyperparathyroidism after an operation four years ago.
  • As cervical exploration was unsuccessful, sternotomy was performed and a cystic adenoma of a parathyroid gland could be resected from the anterior mediastinum.
  • The second patient - a 63-year-old female with severe hypercalcaemic crisis, operated on under suspicion of a parathyroid carcinoma - had a functional cyst of the parathyroid gland with a parathyroid hormone level of 700,000 pg/ml in the aspirated fluid.
  • Third, operation on a 70-year-old woman with a benign euthyreot goiter and the laboratory findings of primary hyperparathyroidism revealed a cystic adenoma adjacent to the thyroid gland, whose aspirate had a parathyroid hormone level of 1,500,000 pg/ml.
  • In the fourth case of a 67-year-old female with an adenoma of the right inferior parathyroid gland localized by ultrasonography, the cystic parathyroid adenoma was operated on by video-assistance.
  • It was suspected to be a thyroid cyst at the left-lower pole of the thyroid gland.
  • After hemithyroidectomy pathological evaluation revealed a large parathyroid cyst.
  • The last case of a 56-year-old male illustrates the extensive preoperative work-up of a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism who was preoperatively diagnosed as having a thyroid cyst.
  • Final histopathological examination exposed multiple gland disease with a parathyroid adenoma as well as a cystic parathyroid gland.
  • DISCUSSION: Cystic adenomas of the parathyroid glands are often misdiagnosed as thyroid cysts or - in the case of extremely elevated parathyroid hormone levels - even as parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The routine preoperative diagnostic tools, such as ultrasonography or (99m)Tc-sestamibi-scintigraphy, cannot clearly distinguish between these entities and might be jeopardized by mediastinal localization, which is not uncommon in parathyroid adenomas with cystic degeneration.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Diseases / pathology. Parathyroid Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18523916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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60. Hunt JL, Carty SE, Yim JH, Murphy J, Barnes L: Allelic loss in parathyroid neoplasia can help characterize malignancy. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Aug;29(8):1049-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Allelic loss in parathyroid neoplasia can help characterize malignancy.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma can be difficult to diagnose, and the final pathologic diagnosis relies on clinicopathologic correlation.
  • Clinical features of malignancy include high preoperative calcium levels and an intraoperative impression that the gland is adherent to local structures.
  • This study used molecular genotyping to assess parathyroid neoplasia for loss of heterozygosity across a panel of known tumor suppressor genes that have been previously identified as being important in the pathogenesis of parathyroid diseases.
  • Parathyroid adenomas, hyperplasia, and carcinomas were included in the study, and a fractional allelic loss was calculated for each lesion.
  • In addition, almost all adenomas and carcinomas had loss of the markers for 1p.
  • The benign parathyroid diseases (adenomas and hyperplasia) had low mean fractional allelic loss (11% and 15%, respectively).
  • The parathyroid carcinomas, in contrast, showed high mean fractional allelic loss (63%).
  • This difference in the mutational profile suggests that this type of assay may be useful as an adjunctive diagnostic test in cases of parathyroid neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Hyperplasia. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16006799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Ak I, Acikalin MF: Hyperparathyroidism with a functioning parathyroid cyst. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Sep;32(9):713-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hyperparathyroidism with a functioning parathyroid cyst.
  • A rare case of primary hyperparathyroidism with a functioning parathyroid cyst in whom Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy failed to detect a parathyroid tumor is presented.
  • A 62-year-old woman with primary hyperparathyroidism was referred for Tc-99m MIBI imaging to investigate a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Plasma levels of intact parathyroid hormone were elevated to 2250 pg/mL.
  • Neck ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion measured 30 x 42 x 35 mm on the right inferior side of the thyroid gland.
  • Pathologic diagnosis revealed a benign parathyroid cyst.
  • Her postoperative course was uneventful and plasma levels of intact parathyroid hormone normalized after operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / complications. Cysts / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17710026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Pino Rivero V, Pantoja Hernández CG, Mora Santos ME, González Palomino A, Pardo Romero G, Gómez de Tejada Romero R, Blasco Huelva A: [Morphology of the parathyroid glands. A study of 146 samples and review of the literature]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2007;34(2):135-42

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Morphology of the parathyroid glands. A study of 146 samples and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Morfología de las glándulas paratiroides. Estudio de 146 muestras y revisión de la literatura.
  • Parathyroid hyperfunction condition has a very diverse and unspecific symptoms and signs.
  • We have performed an anatomopathologic study of 146 parathyroid gland from patients diagnosed from hyperparathyroidism.
  • About a 72.6% of the patients presented a parathyroid adenoma while in the rest 27.4% it was observed principal cells hyperplasia.
  • Up to now we have not registered any cases of parathyroid carcinoma after anatomopathological exam of the removed gland.
  • The mayority of the adenomas (85%) were found on the lower parathyroids and its size varied between 6 mm and 5 cm.
  • In one case an double adenoma was diagnosed and in another two cases the adenoma was located in the superior mediastine.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17549960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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63. Wineland A, Siegel E, Stack BC Jr: Reexamining normative radiation data for radioguided parathyroid surgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Nov;134(11):1209-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reexamining normative radiation data for radioguided parathyroid surgery.
  • OBJECTIVES: To reexamine the "Norman rule" (affected parathyroid gland would contain at least 20% radioactivity compared with background), report normative radiation data, offer alternative ratios, and explore the effect of lapsed time on minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIRP).
  • PATIENTS: A total of 116 consecutive patients who had a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, positive findings on sestamibi scan, and complete study data from 2000 to 2005 at a single institution.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy (MIRP) for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • An ex vivo to background ratio greater than 20% as a rule of successful parathyroid adenoma excision was observed in all but 2 cases in our series.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Gamma Cameras. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 19015453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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64. Kung B, Winokur R, Cognetti D, O'Hara B, Rosen D: Parathyroid carcinoma: a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Sep;88(9):E10-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (80 to 90%) are caused by a parathyroid adenoma; most of the rest are caused by either parathyroid gland hyperplasia or multiple adenomas.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma can be the cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in 1 to 5% of patients.
  • When the appropriate clinical scenario is presented, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • A sestamibi scan and magnetic resonance imaging detected the presence of what appeared to be a right inferior parathyroid adenoma.
  • Her intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 2,257 pg/ml.
  • Following placement of bilateral ureteral stents and adequate hydration, the patient was taken to the operating room for a neck exploration and removal of a parathyroid adenoma with rapid intraoperative PTH monitoring.
  • A 4 x 2.5-cm, 10-g mass was removed from the right inferior pole of the thyroid gland.
  • On final pathologic examination, the mass was confirmed to be a parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19750462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Kabala JE: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Jun;66(3):480-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid.
  • Disease of the parathyroid glands presents most often with hypercalcaemia secondary to excess parathormone (PTH) production.
  • This is due to a solitary functioning parathyroid adenoma.
  • The role of imaging is primarily to localise the functioning adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Parathyroid Glands / abnormalities. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Thyroid Gland / abnormalities. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18502599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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66. Hamdy NA: A patient with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism due to a second ectopic adenoma. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;3(3):311-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A patient with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism due to a second ectopic adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: A 33-year-old woman presented with recurrent renal stones and malaise to her primary-care physician.
  • Laboratory investigations revealed the patient had hypercalcemia and an elevated serum parathyroid hormone concentration.
  • A diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was established and the patient was referred for parathyroidectomy.
  • At neck exploration, three parathyroid glands were visualized, one of which was enlarged and subsequently removed.
  • The patient's serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels decreased postoperatively but did not normalize, and her symptoms persisted.
  • Planar (99m)Tc-sestamibi and ultrasound scans failed to provide conclusive localization for another enlarged parathyroid gland.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Laboratory investigations, ultrasound of the kidneys, BMD measurements, selective venous sampling for parathyroid hormone, and (99m)Tc-sestamibi single photon emission CT imaging.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Persistent hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopically located parathyroid adenoma.
  • MANAGEMENT: At further neck exploration, a 1.5 cm by 0.7 cm by 0.5 cm ectopic parathyroid adenoma was excised from the site indicated by the localization studies.
  • No further exploration was attempted after intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels fell by 70%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17315039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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67. Dugonjić S, Ajdinović B, Cerović S, Janković Z: Validity of dual tracer 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2009 Dec;66(12):949-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Validity of dual tracer 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is an endocrine disease with the third highest incidence of all endocrine disorders after diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. pHPT is typically caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma, less frequently by multiple parathyroid gland disease (MGD) and rarely by parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to estimate sensitivity of dual tracer 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy in detection of abnormal parathyroid glands in patients with pHPT and sHPT confirmed by histopathology.
  • METHODS: In 46 patients, (77 abnormal parathyroid glands), 30 with pHPT and 16 with sHPT parathyroid scintigraphy was done preoperatively.
  • All the patients had histopathological confirmation of diagnosis.
  • Abnormal parathyroid glands weighted from 0.1 to 7 g.
  • In the patients with sHPT scintigraphy detected 30 of 47 abnormal parathyroid glands (sensitivity 64%).
  • An overall sensitivity of scintigraphy per gland, for pHPT and sHPT in detecting 58 of 77 abnormal parathyroid glands was 75%.
  • CONCLUSION: An abnormal scintigraphic result per patient was found in 44 patients (sensitivity 96%) and 58 of 77 abnormal parathyroid glands were detected (sensitivity 750/0).
  • A high sensitivity of dual tracer subtraction 99mTc-tetrofosmin/99mTc-pertechnetate parathyroid scintigraphy in detecting abnormal parathyroid glands in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism was achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Organophosphorus Compounds. Organotechnetium Compounds. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m

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  • (PMID = 20095513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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68. Mellanby RJ, Craig R, Evans H, Herrtage ME: Plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone-related protein in dogs with potential disorders of calcium metabolism. Vet Rec; 2006 Dec 16;159(25):833-8
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  • [Title] Plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone-related protein in dogs with potential disorders of calcium metabolism.
  • The plasma concentrations of total calcium, ionised calcium, albumin, parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrp) were measured in 25 dogs with lymphoma, nine dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism and seven dogs with adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac.
  • Plasma total calcium, ionised calcium, albumin and parathyroid hormone-related protein were measured in 18 clinically normal control dogs.
  • The concentration of PTHrp was high in 12 of the 14 dogs that were hypercalcaemic because of an underlying malignancy but was within the reference range in all the control dogs, in the 17 normocalcaemic dogs with lymphoma and in the seven dogs which were hypercalcaemic because of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / veterinary. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Anal Sacs. Animals. Case-Control Studies. Dogs. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / veterinary. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / veterinary. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17172477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4900
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary record
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Rec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
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69. Foppiani L, Del Monte P, Sartini G, Arlandini A, Quilici P, Bandelloni R, Marugo A, Bernasconi D: Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma as cause of hypercalcemia and pitfall of localization techniques: clinical and biologic features. Endocr Pract; 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):176-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma as cause of hypercalcemia and pitfall of localization techniques: clinical and biologic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual case of intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma (PC), which was retrospectively diagnosed in a woman who underwent surgical treatment of a recurrent nodular goiter.
  • METHODS: We report the clinical and biologic features of an intrathyroidal PC, discuss the challenges with distinguishing PC from parathyroid adenoma, and review the related literature.
  • At 1-year follow-up, hypercalcemia (12.1 to 12.6 mg/dL) and low phosphorus levels (2.0 to 2.3 mg/dL) were found, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were profoundly increased (481 to 721 pg/mL).
  • Neck ultrasonography showed a large hypoechogenic solid nodule, not clearly cleaved from the right thyroid lobe, which was possibly compatible with an enlarged parathyroid gland; however, a sestamibi scan was negative.
  • These findings were highly suggestive of and supported the diagnosis of PC.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Goiter / surgery. Humans. Infant. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17490933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Verdú J, Lizárraga C, Clavel J, Prata I, Calbo J, Pomares F: [High retention of (99m)Tc-MIBI in delayed phase as a pitfall in the combined parathyroid-thyroid scintigraphy]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2010 Sep-Oct;29(5):251-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [High retention of (99m)Tc-MIBI in delayed phase as a pitfall in the combined parathyroid-thyroid scintigraphy].
  • [Transliterated title] Intensa retención de (⁹⁹m)Tc-MIBI en la fase tardía como causa de error diagnóstico en la gammagrafía combinada paratiroides-tiroides.
  • Dual phase parathyroid scintigraphy with (⁹⁹m)Tc-sestaMIBI is a very sensitive technique in the preoperative localization and diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma.
  • To solve this problem, a thyroid scintigraphy with (⁹⁹m)Tc-pertechnetate is usually performed following the parathyroid study.
  • Occasionally, as in our patient the parathyroid lesion may show high MIBI uptake and delayed washout that interfere with the subsequent thyroid scintigraphy giving the false appearance of a pertechnetate avid lesion.
  • To avoid it, the parathyroid and thyroid scintigraphies can be performed on separate days.
  • We have also found it useful to compare our results with that of ultrasound and fine needle aspiration puncture with measurement of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroglobulin in the aspirated material.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Artifacts. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi / pharmacokinetics. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cysts / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20381207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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71. Eslamy HK, Ziessman HA: Parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: 99mTc sestamibi SPECT and SPECT/CT. Radiographics; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5):1461-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: 99mTc sestamibi SPECT and SPECT/CT.
  • The clinical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism is based largely on serum laboratory test results, as patients often are asymptomatic.
  • However, given that approximately 90% of cases are due to a single parathyroid adenoma, a better treatment may be the selective surgical excision of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland after its preoperative identification and localization at radiologic imaging.
  • In addition, knowledge of the anatomy and embryologic development of the parathyroid glands and the pathophysiology of primary hyperparathyroidism aid in the identification and localization of hyperfunctioning glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands / radiography. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Subtraction Technique. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2008.
  • (PMID = 18794320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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72. Bergero N, De Pompa R, Sacerdote C, Gasparri G, Volante M, Bussolati G, Papotti M: Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases. Hum Pathol; 2005 Aug;36(8):908-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases.
  • The diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is difficult and based on morphological features that are not totally reliable.
  • With the aim of identifying a marker of malignancy in parathyroid tumors, we tested the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a lectin expressed in several malignant tumors, including follicular carcinomas (but not adenomas) of the thyroid.
  • Twenty-six PCs and 30 control parathyroid adenomas (PAs) were collected.
  • All cases were immunohistochemically tested for Gal-3 and for other markers claimed to be useful in the differential diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasms, namely, Ki67, p27, and bcl2.
  • We conclude that Gal-3 immunostaining is a valuable tool to support a diagnosis of PC in highly proliferating (Ki67 >6%) tumors affecting a single parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16112008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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73. Wild JL, Weigel T, Chen H: The need for intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring during radioguided parathyroidectomy by video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS). Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;31(1):9-12

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The need for intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring during radioguided parathyroidectomy by video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS).
  • PURPOSE: We report on a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism (1HPT) who had a preoperative Tc-99m sestamibi scan localizing a single parathyroid adenoma in the mediastinum.
  • METHODS: On removal of this hyperfunctioning adenoma by radioguided video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), intraoperative PTH levels failed to decline in the appropriate manner consistent with curative resection.
  • This prompted the surgical team to investigate further for a second adenoma, which revealed a 2 x 1-cm mass near the inferior border of the thyroid gland on the right lateral aspect of the trachea.
  • RESULTS: In the absence of intraoperative PTH monitoring, the operation would have been terminated after the removal of the mediastinal adenoma, leading to an incomplete surgical resection and persistent 1HPT.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 16374113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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74. Ogawa T, Kanauchi H, Kammori M, Mimura Y, Ota S, Kaminishi M: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the thyroid gland associated with primary hyperparathyroidism. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Feb;12(1):48-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the thyroid gland associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • We report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism associated with a malignant lymphoma in the thyroid gland.
  • Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) revealed a hypoechoic, multinodular tumor in the left thyroid gland.
  • The coexistence of parathyroid adenoma in this patient was revealed by a sestamibi scintigram, performed prior to chemotherapy.
  • Following the complete remission of the lymphoma by chemotherapy, we carried out an excision of the single parathyroid adenoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe a malignant thyroid lymphoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis


75. Szende B, Arvai K, Peták I, Nagy K, Végsô G, Perner F: [Changes in gene expression in the course of proliferative processes in the parathyroid gland]. Magy Onkol; 2006;50(2):137-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Changes in gene expression in the course of proliferative processes in the parathyroid gland].
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in expression pattern of the most important genes connected with apoptosis in proliferative apoptotic lesions (hyperplasia, adenoma), applying cDNA microarray technique, in order to promote the possible diagnostic or therapeutic utilisation of any difference in gene expression compared to the healthy (normal) parathyroid gland.
  • Samples were taken from surgically removed 2 hyperplasias, 2 adenomas and 2 normal parathyroid glands.
  • The samples deriving from hyperplasia or adenoma were compared to samples from normal parathyroid glands.
  • The following genes were overexpressed in both hyperplasia and adenoma: CHEK1, ATM, BCL-XL, FAS, TNF, cIAP1, TRAIL, FADD, CASP 4,5,6,8, CD120b, CD137, LTA, TANK, TARF2, CAD, LIGHTR, DR3LG.
  • CASP1,10, BFAR, BOD, BCL2L2, TRANCE were underexpressed in both hyperplasia and adenoma.
  • Overexpressed only in adenoma: APOLLON, RIPK1, LTB, LTBR, CASP2,13, cIAP2, CIDEB.
  • Underexpressed only in adenoma: TRAF4 and FASLG.
  • As a result of this study, both pro-apoptotic and antiapoptotic genes were identified in hyperplasia and adenoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Apoptosis / genetics. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics


76. Fan J, Yang Y, Lin S, Sun A: [Ectopic parathyroid gland hyperplasia in the pyriform sinus]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Nov;21(21):979-80, 984
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ectopic parathyroid gland hyperplasia in the pyriform sinus].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnosis and treatment of the ectopic parathyroid gland in the pyriform sinus.
  • METHOD: Retrospectively analysis of 1 case with ectopic parathyroid gland in the pyriform sinus and retrospectively review the past literatures.
  • RESULT: The cases with the ectopic parathyroid gland in the pyriform sinus reported in the past literatures included: 2 with parathyroid gland tissues, 3 with hyperplasia, the other 1 with adenoma.
  • The case reported by us was with adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The ectopic parathyroid gland hyperplasia in the pyriform sinus is rarely reported before and it usually causes misdiagnosis.
  • Better knowledge of the different position of the ectopic parathyroid gland hyperplasia in the pyriform sinus will help diagnosing and treating it.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Diseases / therapy. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Pyriform Sinus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Choristoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / therapy. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / therapy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18309653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
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77. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Tükenmez M, Işsever H, Salmaslioğlu A, Adalet I, Ozarmağan S, Tezelman S: Impact of adenoma weight and ectopic location of parathyroid adenoma on localization study results. World J Surg; 2008 Apr;32(4):566-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of adenoma weight and ectopic location of parathyroid adenoma on localization study results.
  • Although the sensitivity of preoperative localization techniques is high for solitary parathyroid adenomas, negative imaging study results are inevitable.
  • The weight and location of the parathyroid adenoma may contribute to the negative results.
  • We aimed to study the impact of adenoma weight and ectopic location of the parathyroid adenoma on ultrasonography and sestamibi scan results.
  • The patients were divided into two groups according to adenoma location.
  • Parathyroid adenoma weight and the results of imaging studies were determined in all patients.
  • Of 185 patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism, 36 (19.4%) had ectopic parathyroid glands.
  • There was a positive correlation between adenoma weight and positive imaging studies, whereas ectopic location did not correlate with negative imaging study results.
  • There was no significant difference between the ectopic adenoma ratio of patients with negative and positive imaging study results.
  • The weight of the ectopic parathyroid adenoma was significantly lower in patients with negative imaging study results than in patients with positive imaging study results (p = 0.001).
  • According to the analysis of variance, patients with higher-weight adenomas have positive imaging study results irrespective of ectopic location.
  • For both normal and ectopic adenoma locations, adenoma weight was found only to be a factor that positively influences imaging study results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Calcium / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Radionuclide Imaging. Retrospective Studies. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18210183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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78. Tunali S, Celik HH, Uslu SS, Aldur MM: Scanning electron microscopic observation of the brown tumor of the head of mandible. Saudi Med J; 2005 May;26(5):856-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Brown tumors are tumor-like, expansile osteolytic lesions of bone which are seen in both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • They generally resolve after surgical treatment of the parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Mandible. Mandibular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning / methods. Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15951883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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79. Harimaya A, Tsubota H, Hoki K, Sato J, Kondo A, Yamada T, Seki N, Ikeda H, Himi T: Ossifying fibroma of the mandible with primary hyperparathyroidism due to non-familial parathyroid adenoma. J Laryngol Otol; 2007 Mar;121(3):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ossifying fibroma of the mandible with primary hyperparathyroidism due to non-familial parathyroid adenoma.
  • The neoplasm sometimes presents with hyperparathyroidism, most of which cases are due to familial parathyroid tumours.
  • We report a rare case of ossifying fibroma of the mandible which showed very rapid growth and presented with primary hyperparathyroidism due to non-familial parathyroid adenoma.
  • Despite improvement of parathyroid dysfunction after removal of the parathyroid adenoma, the tumour continued to grow very aggressively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Fibroma, Ossifying / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Mandibular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17134536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Miyakoshi M, Kamoi K, Takano T, Nishihara M, Kawashima T, Sudo N, Togashi K, Emura I, Williams D: Multiple brown tumors in primary hyperparathyroidism caused by an adenoma mimicking metastatic bone disease with false positive results on computed tomography and Tc-99m sestamibi imaging: MR findings. Endocr J; 2007 Apr;54(2):205-10
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  • [Title] Multiple brown tumors in primary hyperparathyroidism caused by an adenoma mimicking metastatic bone disease with false positive results on computed tomography and Tc-99m sestamibi imaging: MR findings.
  • We encountered an unusual case of hyperparathyroidism with both hemosiderin deposits on the ribs and low intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) caused by a parathyroid adenoma with multiple brown tumors that mimicked metastatic bone tumor due to false positive results on computed tomography (CT) and Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) imaging.
  • These findings suggested that the patient had hyperparathyroidism with multiple bone metastases due to carcinoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • However, on pathology, the resected tumor of lower portion of the left lobe of thyroid was diagnosed as a parathyroid adenoma, and the tumors of the left 3rd and 7th ribs, as well as the right 2nd rib, were shown to be brown tumors.
  • It is necessary to determine whether MRI can be used to distinguish between brown tumors and metastases caused by carcinoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Ribs. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Hemosiderin / metabolism. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17237612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9011-92-1 / Hemosiderin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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81. Van den Hauwe K, Oeyen SG, Schrijvers BF, Decruyenaere JM, Buylaert WA: A 50-year-old man with severe hypercalcemia: a case report. Acta Clin Belg; 2009 Sep-Oct;64(5):442-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: We present this case to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of an acute severe hypercalcemic syndrome due to primary hyperparathyroidism as a consequence of an undiagnosed adenoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • Serum levels of calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were markedly increased to 23.6 mg/dL (reference values 8.6-10.2 mg/dL) and > 1900 ng/L (reference values 14-72 ng/L) respectively.
  • A parathyroid adenoma was diagnosed and a few days later a parathyroidectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Acute primary hyperparathyroidism, also known as parathyroid storm or parathyroid crisis, is a rare but potentially fatal endocrine emergency if unrecognized and untreated.
  • Appropriate diagnosis and immediate adequate management of hypercalcemia are important in reducing mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / radiography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Parathyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19999395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3286
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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82. Lenz JI, Jacobs JM, Op de Beeck B, Huyghe IA, Pelckmans PA, Moreels TG: Acute necrotizing pancreatitis as first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Jun 21;16(23):2959-62
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  • [Title] Acute necrotizing pancreatitis as first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • We report the case of a female patient with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis associated with hypercalcemia as first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by a benign parathyroid adenoma.
  • The patient subsequently underwent surgical resection of the parathyroid adenoma and surgical clearance of a large infected pancreatic pseudocyst.
  • Although the association of parathyroid adenoma-induced hypercalcemia and acute pancreatitis is a known medical entity, it is very uncommon.
  • Surgical resection of the parathyroid adenoma is the ultimate therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / complications. Pancreatic Pseudocyst / complications. Pancreatic Pseudocyst / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20556845.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2887595
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83. Bahar G, Feinmesser R, Joshua BZ, Shpitzer T, Morgenstein S, Popovtzer A, Shvero J: Hyperfunctioning intrathyroid parathyroid gland: a potential cause of failure in parathyroidectomy. Surgery; 2006 Jun;139(6):821-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hyperfunctioning intrathyroid parathyroid gland: a potential cause of failure in parathyroidectomy.
  • However, in rare patients, ectopic hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands may be located in the thyroid but missed on imaging studies or during surgery.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perioperative findings in 6 patients with intrathyroid parathyroid glands treated for hyperparathyroidism in our center over a 5-year period and to review the relevant literature.
  • METHODS: Of the 426 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for hyperparathyroidism between 1998 and 2003 in our center, 6 (1.4%) were found to have intrathyroid glands.
  • Their files were reviewed for clinical features, surgical approach, intraoperative findings, parathyroid gland location, and morphologic and histopathologic characteristics.
  • The diagnosis in all patients was based on an increase in serum calcium concentration (10.1-13 mg/100 mL) and parathyroid hormone level (102-320 pg/mL).
  • When the parathyroid glands were not identified, bilateral neck and mediastinum were explored.
  • Adenoma was diagnosed histologically in 4 patients; 2 had a double adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Intrathyroid parathyroid gland is a rare condition in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • In these patients, imaging may miss the pathologic gland.
  • Despite its rarity, the possibility of an intrathyroid parathyroid should be kept in mind, and, when meticulous bilateral exploration of the neck fails to identity the hyperfunctioning gland, the surgeon should consider hemithyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16782440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Doğan R, Kara M, Yazicioğlu A, Kaynaroğlu V: The use of gamma probe for the intraoperative localization of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma. Tuberk Toraks; 2009;57(2):208-11

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The use of gamma probe for the intraoperative localization of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • The most common etiologic factor of primary hyperparathyroidism is a solitary parathyroid adenoma that might be located in the mediastinum.
  • The mediastinally located ectopic parathyroid adenomas are often out of reach with a cervical incision and require a thoracic approach.
  • We present a case of 55 year-old female patient with a parathyroid adenoma located anterior to the ascending aorta within the thymus resulting in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The patient underwent an extended thymectomy with intraoperative use of a gamma probe as an adjunct to surgical resection which provided the accurate localization of the parathyroid adenoma.
  • Histologic diagnosis confirmed the tumor to be an ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • The patient showed an uneventful postoperative period with decreased levels of both calcium and parathyroid hormone.
  • We emphasize that the gamma probe serves as a very useful device to differentiate the ectopic parathyroid adenoma from surrounding tissues for complete surgical excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Mediastinal Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Radiopharmaceuticals. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19714514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0494-1373
  • [Journal-full-title] Tüberküloz ve toraks
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tuberk Toraks
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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85. Bharadwaj R, Nema SK, Pujahari AK, Patkar N: Parathyroid adenoma with ectopic intrathymic parathyroid--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Jan;48(1):37-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid adenoma with ectopic intrathymic parathyroid--a case report.
  • Relevant investigations suggested a parathyroid adenoma.
  • The adenoma was excised along with a suprasternal swelling.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed the parathyroid adenoma of the mixed chief and oxyphil type.
  • An incidental finding of an intrathymic parathyroid was also made.
  • They are also subject to functional activity and hence necessitate removal by the surgeon at the first sitting, having detected these abnormally located parathyroid tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16758787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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86. Johnson SJ, Sheffield EA, McNicol AM: Best practice no 183. Examination of parathyroid gland specimens. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Apr;58(4):338-42

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Best practice no 183. Examination of parathyroid gland specimens.
  • The pathological examination of parathyroid glands is an essential component of the evaluation of hyperparathyroidism.
  • Traditionally, this has involved intraoperative frozen sections during bilateral surgical exploration of the neck, to confirm removal of parathyroid tissue.
  • With recent developments in imaging, some diseased glands can be localised preoperatively, enabling removal by minimally invasive, targetted surgery, with or without additional non-histological intraoperative procedures to confirm the removal of all hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue.
  • This article reviews these developments and describes the ideal approach to reporting parathyroid specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Cryopreservation / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Intraoperative Care / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Preoperative Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 15790694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 52
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770637
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87. Kandil E, Alabbas HH, Lum YW, Tufaro AP: Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism with double adenoma. South Med J; 2010 Mar;103(3):236-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism with double adenoma.
  • Familial hyperparathyroidism includes the diagnoses of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, type 2A, and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare, distinct form of familial primary hyperparathyroidism, mainly due to four-gland hyperplasia or single-gland adenoma.
  • We describe our success in treating a 24-year-old woman with familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism with resection of double adenoma, using the guide of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring.
  • Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism usually presents with four-gland hyperplasia or single-gland adenoma.
  • However, double adenoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • Using intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels and minimal-access surgery in familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism may be promising.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Pedigree


88. Delellis RA: Challenging lesions in the differential diagnosis of endocrine tumors: parathyroid carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):221-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Challenging lesions in the differential diagnosis of endocrine tumors: parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid neoplasms encompass a spectrum of proliferative lesions that include adenomas, atypical adenomas, and carcinomas.
  • While the diagnosis of adenomas is usually straightforward, parathyroid carcinomas (PTCAs) often present considerable diagnostic challenges.
  • An unequivocal diagnosis of PTCA should be restricted to those tumors that invade adjacent soft tissues, thyroid gland, blood vessels, or perineural spaces or to those cases with documented metastases.
  • Atypical adenomas include those tumors that share some of the features of PTCA but lack evidence of invasive growth.
  • Mutations of the HRPT2 gene, which encodes parafibromin, are responsible for the development of the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and have also been implicated in the development of a high proportion of sporadic PTCAs.
  • Correlative immunohistochemical studies have revealed nuclear parafibromin immunoreactivity in adenomas but absence or partial loss of staining in PTCAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19058032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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89. Patel N, Talwar A, Donahue L, John V, Margouleff D: Hyperparathyroidism accompanying multiple myeloma. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Aug;30(8):540-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hyperparathyroidism accompanying multiple myeloma.
  • These conditions are not mutually exclusive, and we present a case report of a patient first diagnosed with the classic findings of multiple myeloma who, after appropriate therapy, demonstrated persistent hypercalcemia and was found on further testing to have an elevated parathormone level (PTH) and scintigraphic evidence of a benign parathyroid adenoma.
  • Hypercalcemia responded to excision of the parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 16024948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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90. Kebebew E, Hwang J, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH: Predictors of single-gland vs multigland parathyroid disease in primary hyperparathyroidism: a simple and accurate scoring model. Arch Surg; 2006 Aug;141(8):777-82; discussion 782
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictors of single-gland vs multigland parathyroid disease in primary hyperparathyroidism: a simple and accurate scoring model.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Preoperative clinical, biochemical, and imaging studies could be used to reliably select patients with single-gland primary hyperparathyroidism who could undergo minimally invasive parathyroidectomy and to determine whether additional perioperative testing is necessary.
  • PATIENTS: A total of 238 patients who underwent neck surgical exploration and parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism from January 7, 2002, to December 23, 2004.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic, clinical, biochemical, and imaging factors that predict single-gland vs multigland parathyroid disease, and biochemical cure.
  • RESULTS: Of the 238 patients, 75.2% had a single adenoma, 21.4% had asymmetric 4-gland hyperplasia, and 3.4% had double adenomas.
  • Preoperative calcium and intact parathyroid hormone levels were significantly higher (P = .03 and .04, respectively) and ultrasound and sestamibi scan results were more likely to be positive (both P<.001) in single-gland primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • A dichotomous scoring model based on preoperative total calcium level (>/=3 mmol/L [>/=12 mg/dL]), intact parathyroid hormone level (>/=2 times the upper limit of normal levels), positive ultrasound and sestamibi scan results for 1 enlarged gland, and concordant ultrasound and sestamibi scan findings reliably distinguished single-gland vs multigland cases (P<.001).
  • The positive predictive value of this scoring model to correctly predict single-gland disease was 100% for a total score of 3 or higher.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative biochemical and imaging study results reliably distinguished single-gland vs multigland parathyroid disease in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Our findings suggest that patients with a score of 3 or higher can undergo a minimally invasive parathyroidectomy without the routine use of intraoperative parathyroid hormone or additional imaging studies, and those with a score of less than 3 should have additional testing to ensure that multigland disease is not overlooked.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcium / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. ROC Curve. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16924085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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91. Dimashkieh H, Krishnamurthy S: Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions. Cytojournal; 2006;3:6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of parathyroid gland and lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid gland and their tumors comprise a small proportion of non-palpable neck masses that are investigated by ultrasound (US) guided fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • We reviewed our institution's cases of US guided FNAB of parathyroid gland and their lesions to determine the role of cytology for the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid gland and their lesions.
  • METHOD: All cases of FNAB of parathyroid gland and lesions in the last 10 years were reviewed in detail with respect to clinical history and correlated with the histopathologic findings in available cases.
  • Immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH) was performed on selected cases using either destained Pap smears or cell block sections.
  • RESULTS: Twenty cases of US-guided FNAB of parathyroid glands and their lesions including 13 in the expected locations in the neck, 3 in intrathyroid region, 3 in thyroid bed, and 1 metastatic to liver were studied.
  • There was no significant difference in the cytomorphologic features between normal gland, hyperplasia adenoma, or carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: US-guided FNAB is a useful test for confirming the diagnosis of not only clinically suspected parathyroid gland and lesions but also for detecting parathyroid glands in unexpected locations such as in thyroid bed or within the thyroid gland.
  • Although there is significant overlap in the cytomorphologic features of cells derived from parathyroid and thyroid gland, the presence of stippled nuclear chromatin, prominent vascular proliferation with attached epithelial cells, and frequent occurrence of single cells/naked nuclei are useful clues that favor parathyroid origin.
  • Distinction of the different parathyroid lesions including hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma cannot be made solely on cytology.
  • Immunostaining for PTH can be performed on destained Pap smears and cell block sections which can be valuable for confirming parathyroid origin of the cells.

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  • (PMID = 16569241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1435923
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92. Mallya SM, Wu HI, Saria EA, Corrado KR, Arnold A: Tissue-specific regulatory regions of the PTH gene localized by novel chromosome 11 rearrangement breakpoints in a parathyroid adenoma. J Bone Miner Res; 2010 Dec;25(12):2606-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tissue-specific regulatory regions of the PTH gene localized by novel chromosome 11 rearrangement breakpoints in a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Parathyroid adenomas can contain clonal rearrangements of chromosome 11 that activate the cyclin D1 oncogene through juxtaposition with the PTH gene.
  • Southern blot analyses of the parathyroid adenoma revealed rearrangement in the PTH gene locus.
  • Thus, PTH-cyclin D1 gene rearrangement breakpoints in parathyroid tumors can be located far from those previously recognized.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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  • (PMID = 20641034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R03 DE016337-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE016337; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE14773; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE016337-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R03 DE016337; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE014773-05; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014773; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014773-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Transcription Factors; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS301996; NLM/ PMC3119366
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93. Norman J, Politz D: 5,000 parathyroid operations without frozen section or PTH assays: measuring individual parathyroid gland hormone production in real time. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;16(3):656-66

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 5,000 parathyroid operations without frozen section or PTH assays: measuring individual parathyroid gland hormone production in real time.
  • BACKGROUND: Determining the physiologic activity (hormone production) of individual parathyroid glands can provide tremendous guidance during parathyroidectomy.
  • METHODS: A 6.5-year prospective study of 5,000 patients with sporadic, non-multiple endocrime neoplasia (MEN) primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent surgery without frozen section or parathyroid hormone (PTH) assays was conducted.
  • Patients who had a frozen section were not included; the removal of parathyroid glands was determined solely by the physiologic activity of each gland as determined by contained radioactivity.
  • Ex vivo measurements of parathyroid glands, thyroid nodules, lymph nodes, thymus, and fat were obtained from all patients, constituting >32,000 specimens.
  • All patients had at least two parathyroid glands evaluated; 59% had four glands evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid glands occur in three distinct groups according to their hormone production, indicating the type of pathology present.
  • Adenomas (n=5,120) contained 57+/-38% of background radioactivity; hyperplastic glands (n=640) contained 16+/-4%; and normal glands (n=9,400) contained 4+/-0.1% (all p<0.00001).
  • The initial cure rate was 99.23% with missed contralateral second adenomas causing all failures (subsequently cured).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Measures of sequestered radioactivity is an extremely accurate estimate of individual parathyroid gland hormone production allowing near 100% distinction between normal, hyperplasic, and adenomatous glands as well as distinguishing parathyroids from other neck tissues (fat, lymph nodes, thyroid).
  • This instantaneous measurement is sufficient to determine which glands should be removed and which should remain in situ, while eliminating frozen sections and PTH assays in nearly all patients undergoing parathyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Frozen Sections. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19130135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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94. Chang MC, Tsai SC, Lin WY: Dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI parathyroid imaging reveals synchronous parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2008 Oct;24(10):542-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI parathyroid imaging reveals synchronous parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report.
  • The possibility of a coincidental appearance of hyperparathyroidism and thyroid cancer is not often considered because of its low incidence.
  • Here, we present a case of a 49-year-old woman with a parathyroid adenoma coexisting with two sites of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Dual-phase 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) parathyroid imaging before the operation correctly visualized the site of the parathyroid adenoma.
  • Total thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy of a solitary parathyroid adenoma were performed.
  • This case illustrates the need for clinical awareness of concomitant hyperparathyroidism and thyroid cancer.
  • Dual-phase 99mTc- MIBI parathyroid imaging may be useful for detecting indolent thyroid cancer before it becomes a distinct disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19181586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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95. Agarwal AM, Bentz JS, Hungerford R, Abraham D: Parathyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of parathyroid adenoma: cytologic findings from 53 patients. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Jun;37(6):407-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of parathyroid adenoma: cytologic findings from 53 patients.
  • This study was designed to assess the utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma (PA).
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) estimation was performed on the supernatant of the aspirated fluid on all cases.
  • Parathyroid cells were seen in 23 samples (40.4%).
  • Majority of the samples with parathyroid cells showed moderate cellularity with monomorphous round to slightly oval cells predominantly arranged in loose two-dimensional clusters with occasional papillary fragments.
  • In conclusion, US-guided FNAC has its limitations because of low sensitivity in primary localization of the parathyroid adenoma in cases of primary hyperparathyroidism and is not a useful mode of investigation in cases of PA.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19283690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromatin
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96. Kelly TG, Shattuck TM, Reyes-Mugica M, Stewart AF, Simonds WF, Udelsman R, Arnold A, Carpenter TO: Surveillance for early detection of aggressive parathyroid disease: carcinoma and atypical adenoma in familial isolated hyperparathyroidism associated with a germline HRPT2 mutation. J Bone Miner Res; 2006 Oct;21(10):1666-71
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surveillance for early detection of aggressive parathyroid disease: carcinoma and atypical adenoma in familial isolated hyperparathyroidism associated with a germline HRPT2 mutation.
  • Familial hyperparathyroid syndromes involving mutations of HRPT2 (also CDC73), a tumor suppressor, are important to identify because the relatively high incidence of parathyroid malignancy associated with such mutations warrants a specific surveillance strategy.
  • However, there is a dearth of reports describing experience with surveillance and early detection informed by genetic insight into this disorder.
  • INTRODUCTION: Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) is a rare cause of parathyroid (PT) tumors without other neoplasms or endocrinopathies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 13-year-old boy, whose father had died of PT carcinoma, developed primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Two years later, under close biochemical surveillance, primary hyperparathyroidism recurred 5 months after documentation of normocalcemia and normal parathyroid status.
  • Ultrasound and MRI identified a newly enlarged right superior PT gland but indicated no recurrent disease in the left neck.
  • Histologic features typical of a benign adenoma were evident after surgical extirpation of the gland.
  • He was found to have a PT adenoma with aggressive features.
  • This information can be used in diagnostic and management considerations, leading to early detection and removal of potentially malignant parathyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Germ-Line Mutation. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16995822.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-0431
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K24-HD01288; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR000125
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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97. Owens CL, Rekhtman N, Sokoll L, Ali SZ: Parathyroid hormone assay in fine-needle aspirate is useful in differentiating inadvertently sampled parathyroid tissue from thyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Apr;36(4):227-31
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid hormone assay in fine-needle aspirate is useful in differentiating inadvertently sampled parathyroid tissue from thyroid lesions.
  • To assess the utility of chemical analysis for parathyroid hormone in the rinse (PTH-r) obtained via fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in the setting of inadvertently sampled parathyroid tissue or lesions (PTL) during "thyroid" or "neck" FNA, the authors review their experience at a large, tertiary care academic medical center.
  • In all 10 cases with PTH-r the cytologic diagnosis was PTL or included PTL in the differential.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18335560.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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98. Uruno T, Kebebew E: How to localize parathyroid tumors in primary hyperparathyroidism? J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Oct;29(9):840-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] How to localize parathyroid tumors in primary hyperparathyroidism?
  • The management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has dramatically changed in the last 5 yr.
  • This change has taken place because of the improved accuracy of pre-operative localizing studies in selecting patients who have single-gland parathyroid disease (single adenoma) and can therefore have a minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Sestamibi scanning followed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans are most accurate for localizing parathyroid tumors in patients with PHPT.
  • The routine use of one or more localizing studies commonly identifies the parathyroid tumor in patients with single-gland disease; but if localizing studies are negative or discordant, patients should have intra-operative PTH levels monitored or have a bilateral neck exploration to ensure a high rate of biochemical cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17114918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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99. Pitukcheewanont P, Numbenjapon N, Costin G: Ectopic thymic parathyroid adenoma and vitamin D deficiency rickets: a 5-year-follow-up case report and review of literature. Bone; 2008 Apr;42(4):819-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic thymic parathyroid adenoma and vitamin D deficiency rickets: a 5-year-follow-up case report and review of literature.
  • Sixteen patients with primary hyperparathyroidism presenting as rickets have so far been reported in the English literature.
  • However, no report of an ectopic thymic parathyroid adenoma presenting as rickets has been published.
  • Following the intramuscular administration of 125,000 U ergocalciferol (vitamin D2), he developed hypercalcemia with persistently elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels suggestive of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Sestamibi scan demonstrated significant uptake in the superior chest, without uptake at the normal parathyroid glands location.
  • Surgical exploration revealed normal parathyroid glands and a thymic mass, which was removed and confirmed by pathology to be a parathyroid adenoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of an ectopic thymic parathyroid adenoma in a patient presenting with rickets.
  • Our patient demonstrates that hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemia may be masked by severe vitamin D deficiency.
  • Prolonged treatment with ergocalciferol after removal of the parathyroid adenoma was necessary to normalize iPTH and replenish vitamin D store.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Rickets. Vitamin D Deficiency

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  • (PMID = 18242158.001).
  • [ISSN] 8756-3282
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ergocalciferols; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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100. Carneiro-Pla DM, Romaguera R, Nadji M, Lew JI, Solorzano CC, Irvin GL 3rd: Does histopathology predict parathyroid hypersecretion and influence correctly the extent of parathyroidectomy in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism? Surgery; 2007 Dec;142(6):930-5; discussion 930-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does histopathology predict parathyroid hypersecretion and influence correctly the extent of parathyroidectomy in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism?
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid histopathology has been used to predict single or multiglandular disease (MGD).
  • "Hyperplasia" implies MGD, whereas "adenoma" suggests single gland involvement.
  • Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring (IPM) guides parathyroidectomy based on function.
  • We sought to evaluate the accuracy of histopathology in the diagnosis of single or MGD and in predicting operative success.
  • METHODS: We reexamined the parathyroid glands from 402 patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (SPHPT) who underwent initial IPM-guided parathyroidectomies.
  • RESULTS: Of 402 patients, 384 had 1 gland excised resulting in operative success; hyperplasia was diagnosed in 244 of the 384 (64%), with only 2 developing recurrence.
  • Of the 384 patients, 140 (37%) had adenomas with 1 late recurrence.
  • There were 18 patients with MGD (14 hyperplasias, 4 adenomas).
  • CONCLUSION: Histopathology of excised abnormal parathyroid glands does not predict the secretory function of the remaining parathyroid glands left in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Hyperplasia. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18063078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
  •  go-up   go-down






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