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1. Barczyński M, Cichoń S, Konturek A, Cichoń W: Minimally invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy versus open minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for a solitary parathyroid adenoma: a prospective, randomized, blinded trial. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):721-31
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  • [Title] Minimally invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy versus open minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for a solitary parathyroid adenoma: a prospective, randomized, blinded trial.
  • BACKGROUND: A variety of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) techniques have been currently introduced to surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 84 consecutive pHPT patients referred for surgery, 60 individuals with concordant localization of parathyroid adenoma on ultrasound and subtraction Tc99m-MIBI scintigraphy were found eligible for MIP under general anesthesia and were randomized to two groups (n = 30 each): MIVAP and OMIP.
  • An intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) assay was routinely used in both groups to determine the cure.
  • Primary end-points were the success rate in achieving the cure from hyperparathyroid state and hypocalcemia rate.
  • In 2 patients, an intraoperative iPTH assay revealed a need for further exploration: in one MIVAP patient, subtotal parathyroidectomy for parathyroid hyperplasia was performed with the video-assisted approach, and in an OMIP patient, the approach was converted to unilateral neck exploration with the final diagnosis of double adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both MIVAP and OMIP offer a valuable approach for solitary parathyroid adenoma with a similar excellent success rate and a minimal morbidity rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16547619.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics
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2. Alexandrides TK, Kouloubi K, Vagenakis AG, Yarmenitis S, Spyridonidis T, Vassilakos P, Apostolopoulos D: The value of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative localization of parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and concomitant thyroid disease. Hormones (Athens); 2006 Jan-Mar;5(1):42-51
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  • [Title] The value of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative localization of parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and concomitant thyroid disease.
  • Parathyroid scintigraphy and high-resolution ultrasonography are frequently used as preoperative localization procedures in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • DESIGN: 56 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were prospectively evaluated with parathyroid scintigraphy (with either thallium or technetium-99m agents or both) and 44 of them were also evaluated with ultrasonography.
  • Upon operation, 48 patients were found to have a solitary parathyroid adenoma and were all cured.
  • One patient had a carcinoma and 7 had multiglandular parathyroid disease.
  • Regarding solitary lesions, the sensitivity of parathyroid scintigraphy with Tc-agents was 97% and thallium 78%, while that of ultrasonography was 74%.
  • Concomitant thyroid disease had a non-significant effect on the results of parathyroid scintigraphy and ultrasonography.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Parathyroid scintigraphy, in conjunction with Sestamibi or Tetrofosmin, constitutes the most sensitive localizing technique as regards solitary lesions.
  • The complementary use of parathyroid scintigraphy and ultrasonography is beneficial and efficacious in areas with high prevalence of thyroid disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Preoperative Care. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Technetium. Thallium

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  • (PMID = 16728384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7440-26-8 / Technetium; AD84R52XLF / Thallium
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3. Carney JA: Familial multiple endocrine neoplasia: the first 100 years. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Feb;29(2):254-74
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  • In 1903, Erdheim described the case of an acromegalic patient with a pituitary adenoma and three enlarged parathyroid glands.
  • Fifty years later, Underdahl et al reported 8 patients with a syndrome of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet adenomas.
  • The first of these described by Sipple in 1961 comprised pheochromocytoma, MTC, and parathyroid adenoma.
  • In 1974, Sizemore et al concluded that the MEN 2 category included two groups of patients with MTC and pheochromocytoma: one with parathyroid disease and a normal appearance (MEN 2A) and the other without parathyroid disease but with mucosal neuromas and mesodermal abnormalities (MEN 2B).

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  • (PMID = 15644784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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4. Colognesi A, de Tullio D, Messina F, Ferrocci G, Stano R, Azzena G: Primary hyperparathyroidism related to a parathyroid adenoma: the dramatic clinical evolution of a misdiagnosed patient and its surgical solution. Minerva Chir; 2006 Feb;61(1):51-6
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism related to a parathyroid adenoma: the dramatic clinical evolution of a misdiagnosed patient and its surgical solution.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a clinical condition related to an excessive and abnormally regulated secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands which is responsible for an alteration of the calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
  • Parathyroid adenomas are the most important cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (80-85%).
  • A case of parathyroid adenoma observed in a patient aged 47, admitted to the Emergency Medicine Department of our Hospital with a diagnosis of hypertensive crisis, cephalea, vomiting, and a clinical history of recurrent episodes of severe abdominal and renal pain, is presented.
  • The suspect of a primary hyperparathyroidism related to a single adenoma of the parathyroid gland suggested a surgical treatment.
  • The histologycal exam reported a parathyroid adenoma with large areas with haemorrage.
  • Patients affected by primary hyperparathyroidism are often misdiagnosed because their clinical conditions can create differential diagnosis problems with other diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16568023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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5. Wineland A, Siegel E, Stack BC Jr: Reexamining normative radiation data for radioguided parathyroid surgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Nov;134(11):1209-13
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  • [Title] Reexamining normative radiation data for radioguided parathyroid surgery.
  • OBJECTIVES: To reexamine the "Norman rule" (affected parathyroid gland would contain at least 20% radioactivity compared with background), report normative radiation data, offer alternative ratios, and explore the effect of lapsed time on minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIRP).
  • PATIENTS: A total of 116 consecutive patients who had a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, positive findings on sestamibi scan, and complete study data from 2000 to 2005 at a single institution.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy (MIRP) for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • An ex vivo to background ratio greater than 20% as a rule of successful parathyroid adenoma excision was observed in all but 2 cases in our series.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Gamma Cameras. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 19015453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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6. Hindié E, Ugur O, Fuster D, O'Doherty M, Grassetto G, Ureña P, Kettle A, Gulec SA, Pons F, Rubello D, Parathyroid Task Group of the EANM: 2009 EANM parathyroid guidelines. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2009 Jul;36(7):1201-16
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  • [Title] 2009 EANM parathyroid guidelines.
  • The present guidelines were issued by the Parathyroid Task Group of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine.
  • The main focus was imaging of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Dual-tracer and single-tracer parathyroid scintigraphy protocols were discussed as well as the various modalities of image acquisition.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine disorder with high prevalence, typically caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma, less frequently (about 15%) by multiple parathyroid gland disease (MGD) and rarely (1%) by parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Patients with MGD may have a double adenoma or hyperplasia of three or all four parathyroid glands.
  • In this new era, the success of targeted parathyroid surgery depends not only on an experienced surgeon, but also on a sensitive and accurate imaging technique.
  • Scintigraphy should also report on thyroid nodules that may cause confusion with a parathyroid adenoma or require concurrent surgical resection.
  • The guidelines also discuss aspects related to radio-guided surgery of hyperparathyroidism and imaging of chronic kidney disease patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Radiometry. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m / pharmacokinetics. Subtraction Technique. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi / pharmacokinetics. Tissue Distribution. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19471928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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7. Arora S, Balash PR, Yoo J, Smith GS, Prinz RA: Benefits of surgeon-performed ultrasound for primary hyperparathyroidism. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2009 Sep;394(5):861-7
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  • [Title] Benefits of surgeon-performed ultrasound for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND: Focused, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is widely accepted when preoperative imaging localizes a single parathyroid adenoma.
  • We propose that surgeon-performed ultrasound (SUS) is the only imaging modality required in most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), resulting in patient convenience and reduced cost.
  • Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay was used to determine the extent of operation.
  • RESULTS: SUS correctly identified an enlarged parathyroid gland in 119/160 (74%) patients.
  • CONCLUSION: SUS to localize parathyroid adenomas is accurate and facilitates MIP.
  • MIBI can be reserved for those patients in whom ultrasound has failed to localize a parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19547997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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8. Owens CL, Rekhtman N, Sokoll L, Ali SZ: Parathyroid hormone assay in fine-needle aspirate is useful in differentiating inadvertently sampled parathyroid tissue from thyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Apr;36(4):227-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid hormone assay in fine-needle aspirate is useful in differentiating inadvertently sampled parathyroid tissue from thyroid lesions.
  • To assess the utility of chemical analysis for parathyroid hormone in the rinse (PTH-r) obtained via fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in the setting of inadvertently sampled parathyroid tissue or lesions (PTL) during "thyroid" or "neck" FNA, the authors review their experience at a large, tertiary care academic medical center.
  • In all 10 cases with PTH-r the cytologic diagnosis was PTL or included PTL in the differential.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18335560.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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9. Portela-Gomes GM, Grimelius L, Stridsberg M: Secretogranin III in human neuroendocrine tumours: a comparative immunohistochemical study with chromogranins A and B and secretogranin II. Regul Pept; 2010 Nov 30;165(1):30-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The expression of SgIII agreed well with that of CgA, CgB and SgII, with exceptions of phaeochromocytomas, where more CgB and SgII immunoreactive cells were observed and parathyroid adenomas, which were only stained by CgA.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20550951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1686
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranin B; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Secretogranin II; 0 / secretogranin III
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10. Fuster D, Torregrosa JV, Setoain X, Doménech B, Campistol JM, Rubello D, Pons F: Localising imaging in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;33(3):203-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Localising imaging in secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Preoperative imaging has proved its use successful in the localization of solitary parathyroid adenomas in patients with suspected primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • However, due to multiglandular disease at presentation patients with renal hyperparathyroidism need to be analyzed separately, making the usefulness of imaging techniques controversial.
  • Recently, improved methods of functional imaging like parathyroid scan with 99mTc-sestamibi or positron emission tomography, especially when combined with computed tomography, can provide additional quantitative and qualitative information that has yet to be assessed.
  • Nuclear medicine procedures could prove useful not only in preoperative diagnosis, but also in the selection of medical or surgical therapeutic alternatives in secondary hyperparathyroidism patients.
  • There is evidence that 99mTc-sestamibi uptake in parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma is related to biochemical markers of parathyroid function.
  • We are only beginning to identify the factors involved in radiotracer uptake by parathyroid cells and how it can be modulated to obtain more accurate results.
  • This review analyzes the current use of non-invasive imaging modalities in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, taking into account the latest trends in the field combining anatomic and functional modalities and the relevant factors linked to radiotracer uptake in abnormal hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18846026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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11. Pimenta FJ, Gontijo Silveira LF, Tavares GC, Silva AC, Perdigão PF, Castro WH, Gomez MV, Teh BT, De Marco L, Gomez RS: HRPT2 gene alterations in ossifying fibroma of the jaws. Oral Oncol; 2006 Aug;42(7):735-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recently, the candidate tumor suppressor gene HRPT2 was identified and alterations in this gene were related with the Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome that is characterized by parathyroid adenoma or carcinoma, fibro-osseous lesions (mainly OF) of the jaws, and renal lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16458039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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12. Thrumurthy SG, Date RS, Mughal MM, Pursnani KG, Ward JB: The surgical management of pancreaticoduodenal tumours in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Upon investigation, he was found to have renal stone disease secondary to a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Further tests revealed high pituitary hormone and gastrin values, confirming the diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 21686642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027828
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13. Lang BH: Minimally invasive thyroid and parathyroid operations: surgical techniques and pearls. Adv Surg; 2010;44:185-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimally invasive thyroid and parathyroid operations: surgical techniques and pearls.
  • With advances in technology and greater demand for minimally invasive procedures, novel minimally invasive approaches to thyroid and parathyroid glands increasingly have been described and practiced worldwide.
  • The addition of the robot such as the de Vinci surgical system could make some of the extracervical approaches technically less challenging and improve patient outcomes.
  • Unlike MIT, MIP has become the standard approach for surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by localized solitary parathyroid adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20919522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-3411
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Bishop J, Brown E, Podesta A, Troy C, Dong XE: Surgical management of calciphylaxis associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Endocrinol; 2010;2010
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of calciphylaxis associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Here, we present the unusual case of a 56-year-old woman, with extensive medical problems, who developed calciphylaxis in the presence of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The diagnosis of calciphylaxis was rendered histologically by extensive calcification of the subcutaneous blood vessels.
  • Subsequent parathyroidectomy identified the presence of a hyperactive mediastinal parathyroid adenoma, weighing 0.62 grams.
  • Postoperatively, the patient had normalization of hypercalcemia and parathyroid hormone levels, with subsequent healing of her thigh wounds.

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  • (PMID = 20885925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8345
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2946589
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15. Gołkowski F, Jabrocka-Hybel A, Trofimiuk M, Huszno B: [Diagnostic problems with recognition of primary hyperparathyroidism]. Przegl Lek; 2005;62(7):685-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnostic problems with recognition of primary hyperparathyroidism].
  • The aim of our study was to compare the results of biochemical and imaging investigations with histopathological diagnosis in operated patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • 46 subjects were included into the study, pathologically demonstrated as parathyroid adenoma--23 subjects, parathyroid hypertrophy--16, parathyroid carcinoma--2 and in 5 patients parathyroid gland was not found in resected tissue.
  • The most frequent complications of primary hyperparathyroidism in our group were osteoporosis (87%) and nephrolithiasis (64.1%).
  • 99mTc-MIBI imaging described as a parathyroid adenoma or parathyroid hypertrophy were confirmed pathologically in 52 and 57.1%, respectively.
  • Three typical symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism assessed in our study (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and increased concentration of parathormone) were observed only in about 50% patients with histopathological diagnosis of adenoma and hypertrophy.
  • The lowest average calcium serum level (2.87 mmol/l), urinary calcium level (7.8 mmol/24h) and parathyroid hormone concentration (209.4 pg/ml) were observed in patients with parathyroid adenoma, the highest levels of these parameters were noticed in patients with parathyroid carcinoma (3.41 mmol/l; 14.6 mmol/24h; 687.8 pg/ml, respectively), patients with parathyroid adenoma were characterized by intermediate values (2.98 mmol/l; 9.7 mmol/24h; 285.5 pg/ml, respectively).
  • After parathyroidectomy lowering in average calcium serum level (2.94 vs. 2.16 mmol/l), parathyroid hormone concentration (244.45 vs. 54.15 pg/ml) and increasing in average phosphate serum level (0.81 vs. 1.04 mmol/24h) were observed in our group.
  • Finally, using different biochemical and imaging investigations is necessary for proper recognition of primary hyperparathyroidism due to occurring of oligosymptomatic cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / urine. Kidney Calculi / etiology. Male. Osteoporosis / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16463702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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16. Yun JS, Nam KH, Chung WY, Park CS: Giant posterior mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid; 2008 Apr;18(4):475-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant posterior mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Mediastinum / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Parathyroidectomy. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi / pharmacology. Time Factors. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18399771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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17. Toniato A, Pelizzo MR: Letter 1: Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma (Br J Surg 2007; 94: 566-570). Br J Surg; 2007 Aug;94(8):1042-3; author reply 1043-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Letter 1: Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma (Br J Surg 2007; 94: 566-570).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] Br J Surg. 2007 May;94(5):566-70 [17380564.001]
  • (PMID = 17636521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Dreijerink KM, van Beek AP, Lentjes EG, Post JG, van der Luijt RB, Canninga-van Dijk MR, Lips CJ: Acromegaly in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) family with low penetrance of the disease. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Dec;153(6):741-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of tumours in the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, the pituitary gland and the adrenal glands and by neuroendocrine carcinoid tumours, often at a young age.
  • We present a patient with a history of parathyroid adenomas also showing signs of acromegaly.


19. Puepet FH, Agaba EI, Chuhwak EK, Ugoya SO: Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting with severe hypertension in a middle aged Nigerian--a case report. Niger Postgrad Med J; 2008 Mar;15(1):58-60
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting with severe hypertension in a middle aged Nigerian--a case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: To draw attention to primary hyperparathyroidism as a cause of severe hypertension.
  • Parathyroid hormone level was raised.
  • A parathyroid MIBI scan study showed an extensive area of significance towards the inferior pole of the right lobe of thyroid medially with a second area of very low significance medial to the left pole.
  • These findings indicated the presence of a right inferior parathyroid adenoma.
  • He had parathyroid surgery and a large adenoma in the right inferior gland and a smaller left inferior gland were removed and confirmed histologically.
  • Corrected calcium and parathyroid hormone levels dropped to normal, and the BP was easily controlled with Lisinopril 5mg daily subsequently.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Hypertension / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Lisinopril / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria. Osteoarthritis, Knee / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18408787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1117-1936
  • [Journal-full-title] The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger Postgrad Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; E7199S1YWR / Lisinopril
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20. Shaheen F, Chowdry N, Gojwari T, Wani AI, Khan S: Role of cervical ultrasonography in primary hyperparathyroidism. Indian J Radiol Imaging; 2008 Nov;18(4):302-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of cervical ultrasonography in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • AIM: To evaluate the role of USG in the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with symptomatic hyperparathyroidism and to compare its usefulness with that of scintigraphy scan and postoperative findings.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism were subjected to USG of the neck and nuclear scintigraphy, followed by surgery.
  • RESULTS: The 25 patients had a total of 28 abnormal glands: 22 solitary adenomas, and 6 multiple adenomas (two each in three patients).
  • USG detected 20 out of 22 solitary adenomas and three out of six multiple adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: As limited neck dissection for primary hyperparathyroidism becomes increasingly popular, USG has been found to be a sensitive, specific, and easily available noninvasive investigation for parathyroid localization.
  • It can be easily offered to patients as a method for preoperative localization prior to limited parathyroid surgery outside tertiary care settings.

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  • (PMID = 19774186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0971-3026
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of radiology & imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Radiol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2747464
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Primary hyperparathyroidism / Tc-sestamibi scan / ultrasonography
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21. Stalberg P, Sidhu S, Sywak M, Robinson B, Wilkinson M, Delbridge L: Intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurement during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: does it "value-add" to decision-making? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Jul;203(1):1-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurement during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: does it "value-add" to decision-making?
  • BACKGROUND: Routine use of intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels (IOPTH) during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) has been challenged simply because the test works best when needed least, ie, once a solitary adenoma has been resected, and is less accurate with multiple gland disease.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The study group comprised 100 consecutive patients with sporadic hyperparathyroidism and an unequivocally positive sestamibi scan who were undergoing MIP in our unit from June 2004 until October 2005, from whom blood was collected for parathyroid hormone measurement preoperatively, preexcision, and at 10 and 30 minutes postremoval.
  • Two patients had persistent hyperparathyroidism, one of whom was cured with subsequent open reexploration and removal of a second adenoma, and the other remains hypercalcemic despite additional open neck exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / blood. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16798481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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22. Pai SI, Goldstein BJ, Studeman KD, Westra WH, Tufano RP: Concurrent sporadic parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol; 2006 Sep-Oct;27(5):346-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concurrent sporadic parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcium / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16935182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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23. Alavi MS, Azarpira N, Mojallal M: Incidental finding of bilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Hell J Nucl Med; 2010 Jan-Apr;13(1):56-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental finding of bilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) affects 0.5%-1% of the adult population and presents with classical signs of renal lithiasis, cholecystolithiasis, gastrointestinal ulcerations, depression, and osteoporosis.
  • Parathyroid adenoma, hyperplasia and rarely carcinoma are the underlying pathology.
  • Synchronous thyroid and parathyroid pathologies are described in multiple endocrine neoplasia.
  • We report a case of a 47 years old woman with non-syndromic concomitant occurrence of bilateral non-medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by histopathology, and with PHP confirmed by (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy, hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone.
  • A head and neck surgeon needs to be aware of the possible coexistence of thyroid and parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 20411173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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24. Ros S, Sitges-Serra A, Pereira JA, Jimeno J, Prieto R, Sancho JJ, Pérez-Ruiz L: [Intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas: right and lower]. Cir Esp; 2008 Oct;84(4):196-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas: right and lower].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomas paratiroideos de localización intratiroidea: derechos y bajos.
  • INTRODUCTION: Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas (IPA) are a not an uncommon cause of persistent hyperparathyroidism.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective review of prospectively recorded surgical protocols of patients having had parathyroidectomy for primary (n = 437) or secondary (n = 137) hyperparathyroidism by the same surgeon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18928769.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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25. Weber T, Cammerer G, Schick C, Solbach C, Hillenbrand A, Barth TF, Henne-Bruns D, Blagieva R, Böhm BO, Reske SN, Luster M: C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography localizes parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Mar;42(3):209-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography localizes parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), positive preoperative localization studies enable to perform a minimally invasive approach for parathyroid surgery.
  • We therefore conducted a study to determine the sensitivity of C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (Met-PET/CT) in localizing parathyroid adenomas in pHPT.
  • Met-PET/CT scans of the neck and mediastinum of 33 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary HPT were compared with intraoperative and histological findings.
  • Primary HPT was caused by a single gland adenoma in 30 patients, while another 3 patients had multiglandular disease.
  • Met-PET/CT scan correctly located a single gland adenoma in 25 out of 30 (83%) patients with pHPT, among them 2 patients with persistent disease, 7 patients with prior neck surgery, and 8 patients with concomitant thyroid nodules.
  • In 3 patients with multiglandular disease, Met-PET/CT showed only one enlarged parathyroid gland in two individuals and was negative in the third patient.
  • Statistical analysis found a significant correlation between true-positive results and the weight (2.42+/-4.05 g) and diameter (2.0+/-1.18 cm) of parathyroid adenomas while the subgroup with false negative findings had significantly smaller (0.98+/-0.54 cm) and lighter (0.5+/-0.38 g) glands.
  • Sensitivity was 83% for single gland adenomas and 67% for multiglandular disease.
  • Met-PET/CT correctly localized 83% of single gland parathyroid adenomas in patients with pHPT.
  • However, preoperative localization of multiglandular disease due to double adenomas or parathyroid hyperplasia remained difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Methionine. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20013649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 58576-49-1 / carbon-11 methionine; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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26. Marcheix B, Brouchet L, Berjaud J, Dahan M: Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2006 Nov;30(5):808-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent hyperparathyroidism: A sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland.
  • We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with recurrent hyperparathyroidism.
  • She underwent first a subtotal resection of the parathyroid glands associated with subtotal thyroidectomy in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism and multi nodular thyroid.
  • Pathologic findings were consistent with hyperplasia and demonstrated a fifth parathyroid gland in the thyroid.
  • Two years later, the patient presented recurrent hyperparathyroidism associated with terminal renal insufficiency, fusion of Sesta Mibi scintigraphy and CT scan demonstrated a sixth mediastinal parathyroid gland in the aorto pulmonary window.
  • Pathologic findings demonstrated a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Mediastinal Diseases / complications. Parathyroid Glands
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Aged. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16979898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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27. Ruggeri RM, Calamoneri E, Russo A, Sindoni A, Mondello B, Monaco M, Rosa MA, Baldari S, Benvenga S, Campennì A, Trimarchi F: Supra-acetabular brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal failure. ScientificWorldJournal; 2010;10:799-805
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  • [Title] Supra-acetabular brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal failure.
  • 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy revealed a single focus of sestamibi accumulation in the left retrosternal location, which turned out to be an intrathoracic parathyroid adenoma at surgical exploration.
  • After surgical removal of the parathyroid adenoma, PTH levels decreased to 212 pg/ml.
  • This case is noteworthy because (1) primary hyperparathyroidism was not suspected due to the normocalcemia, likely attributable to the coexistence of chronic renal failure; and (2) it was associated with a brown tumor of unusual location (right supra-acetabular region).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications


28. Shah-Patel LR, Ghesani M, Connery C, Moore E: Gamma Probe Detection of Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma. Radiol Case Rep; 2008;3(1):161
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  • [Title] Gamma Probe Detection of Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma.
  • This lesion was thought to be consistent with an ectopic parathyroid adenoma.
  • However, abnormal activity was localized to the thymus gland, from which an ectopic parathyroid adenoma was successfully excised.
  • The use of the intraoperative gamma probe was critical in identifying and resecting the ectopic parathyroid adenoma in this patient, and in general, may reduce surgical time and reduce the morbidity and/or complications associated with surgical exploration.

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  • (PMID = 27303512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-0433
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4896118
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT, computed tomography / MRI, magnetic resonance imaging / SPECT, single photon emission computed tomography / VATS, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery
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29. Richmond BK, Eads K, Flaherty S, Belcher M, Runyon D: Complications of thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy in the rural community hospital setting. Am Surg; 2007 Apr;73(4):332-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The objective of this study was to examine the complications encountered in a series of 150 consecutive thyroid and parathyroid procedures performed by a single surgeon in a rural community hospital setting.
  • Specifically, these include intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurements, intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring, and the use of the gamma probe for detection of parathyroid adenoma.
  • A retrospective chart review was conducted on a series of 150 patients undergoing any thyroid or parathyroid operation by a single surgeon in a rural setting over a 4-year period.
  • One hundred thirty-one thyroid procedures were performed (71 lobectomies, 60 total or near total procedures) for a diverse range of patholological conditions: multinodular goiter, 76 (50.7%) patients, follicular adenoma, 9 (6.0%) patients, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 13 (8.7%) patients, papillary carcinoma, 14 (9.3%) patients, follicular carcinoma, 5 (3.3%) patients, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, 13 (8.7%) patients, and medullary carcinoma, 1 (0.7%) patient.
  • Nineteen successful parathyroid explorations were performed for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The success of identifying parathyroid adenoma was 100 per cent, despite the absence of intraoperative parathormone assays, and the decision not to perform radio-guided parathyroidectomy.
  • We conclude that outcomes and complications in thyroid and parathyroid surgical procedures are largely dependent on surgeon skill and experience, and can be performed safely in the community setting by an experienced general surgeon despite the absence of advanced technology in this setting.

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  • (PMID = 17439023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Bonczynski J: Primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract; 2007 May;22(2):70-4
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats.
  • The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats is a solitary adenoma involving an extracapsular parathyroid gland.
  • The prognosis is excellent if the affected parathyroid gland is removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Cat Diseases / surgery. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Dog Diseases / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17591292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-2867
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Tech Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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31. Cayo A, Chen H: Radioguided reoperative parathyroidectomy for persistent primary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Oct;33(10):668-70
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  • [Title] Radioguided reoperative parathyroidectomy for persistent primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • We report a case of reoperative radioguided parathyroidectomy in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • A 58-year-old man presented to our center with persistent hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism after 2 previous parathyroid explorations at an outside facility.
  • Despite the use of preoperative and intraoperative localization, identification of the hyperfunctioning gland was unsuccessful during the initial operations.
  • Repeat Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid scan showed an inferior right parathyroid adenoma.
  • With the intraoperative guidance of a hand-held gamma probe, an enlarged parathyroid gland was localized on the spine behind the esophagus on the right, and successfully removed.
  • Intraoperative parathyroid hormone testing confirmed a surgical cure.
  • The use of radioguidance and intraoperative parathyroid hormone testing were essential to the successful resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 18806564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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32. Moore FD Jr: Are scintigraphy, ultrasonography, and the parathyroid hormone assay necessary to identify solitary parathyroid adenomas? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;3(3):214-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Are scintigraphy, ultrasonography, and the parathyroid hormone assay necessary to identify solitary parathyroid adenomas?

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  • [CommentOn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Jul;65(1):106-13 [16817828.001]
  • (PMID = 17262065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Fery-Blanco C, Prati C, Ornetti P, Bevalot J, Streit G, Toussirot E, Wendling D: [Hypercalcemia of double origin: association of multiple myeloma and ectopic parathyroidal adenoma]. Rev Med Interne; 2007 Jul;28(7):504-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Hypercalcemia of double origin: association of multiple myeloma and ectopic parathyroidal adenoma].
  • INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma and primary hyperparathyroidism are two causes of hypercalcemia.
  • Biopsy diagnosed an ectopic parathyroidal adenoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Multiple myeloma and primary hyperparathyroidism can be associated.
  • Hypophosphoremia can suggest the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism.
  • Both this observation and litterature (about twenty case reports) suggest that this double diagnosis should be systematicly evoked and explored by an assay of parathormone and a seric proteins electrophoresis in all hypercalcemia.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple myeloma and parathyroidal adenoma should be both explored in all hypercalcemia, because they can be associated.

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  • (PMID = 17395337.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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34. Efremidou EI, Papageorgiou MS, Pavlidou E, Manolas KJ, Liratzopoulos N: Parathyroid apoplexy, the explanation of spontaneous remission of primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report. Cases J; 2009 Mar 10;2:6399
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  • [Title] Parathyroid apoplexy, the explanation of spontaneous remission of primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid adenoma represents an endocrine disease that is usually treated by surgical intervention (parathyroidectomy).
  • In a very few patients, primary hyperparathyroidism can be spontaneously remit either by infraction or hemorrhage of the adenoma,a fact that is almost certain that will not lead to complete and definite cure.
  • We describe a similar case of a 59-year-old male patient who underwent surgery for a cystic degeneration of a parathyroid adenoma, with substantial preoperative reduction of parathyroid hormone and calcium serum levels,and the diagnostic and treatment modalities are discussed, with a brief review of the current literature.

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  • (PMID = 20184676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2827073
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35. Norman J, Politz D: Measuring individual parathyroid gland hormone production in real-time during radioguided parathyroidectomy. Experience in over 8,000 operations. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;33(3):147-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Measuring individual parathyroid gland hormone production in real-time during radioguided parathyroidectomy. Experience in over 8,000 operations.
  • AIM: Determining the physiologic activity (hormone production) of individual parathyroid glands by measuring their contained radioactivity is extremely accurate and provides tremendous guidance during parathyroidectomy.
  • METHODS: A single-surgeon's experience with over 8,000 radioguided parathyroidectomies, 7,500 of which were for primary, sporadic, non-MEN hyperparathyroidism (HPT).
  • Ex-vivo measures of parathyroid glands, thyroid nodules, lymph nodes, thymus, and fat were obtained from all patients, constituting over 42,000 specimens.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid glands occur in three distinct groups according to their hormone production which very accurately indicates the type of pathology present.
  • Adenomas (N.=7 943) contained 59+/-35% of background radioactivity; hyperplastic glands (N.=876) contained 17+/-5%; and normal glands (N.=13 821) contained 4+/-0.1%, all P<0.00001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Measures of sequestered radioactivity is an extremely accurate estimate of individual parathyroid gland hormone production allowing near 100% distinction between normal, hyperplasic, and adenomatous glands as well as distinguishing parathyroids from other neck tissues (fat, lymph nodes, thyroid).
  • This instantaneous measure can eliminate frozen sections and parathyroid hormone assays in nearly all patients undergoing parathyroid surgery, providing insight that allows the operation to progress rapidly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Computer Systems. Parathyroid Glands / secretion. Parathyroid Hormone / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / secretion. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 18846022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PTH protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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36. Charrié A, Chikh K, Peix JL, Berger N, Decaussin M, Veber S, Bienvenu J, Lifante JC, Fabien N: Calcium-sensing receptor autoantibodies in primary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Chim Acta; 2009 Aug;406(1-2):94-7
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  • [Title] Calcium-sensing receptor autoantibodies in primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND: Mutations in the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene are known to be implicated in some cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • However, not all patients display such mutations and so the mechanisms of primary hyperparathyroidism are still largely unknown.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of CaSR autoantibodies in a large cohort of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • METHODS: Seventy-five patients were tested for the presence of anti-parathyroid antibodies using an immunoblotting assay with the recombinant extracellular domain of the human CaSR and an immunofluorescence technique with parathyroid adenoma.
  • There was no statistically significant difference in the decrease of parathyroid hormone (PTH) level after surgery between patients with or without autoantibodies.
  • Histological examination of parathyroid tissue did not show greater lymphocytic infiltration in patients with autoantibodies than in those without.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that some patients with primary hyperparathyroidism displayed CaSR autoantibodies.
  • The pathophysiological role of these autoantibodies in hyperparathyroidism needs to be further elucidated.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / immunology. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Autoimmune Diseases / blood. Autoimmune Diseases / immunology. Autoimmune Diseases / pathology. Autoimmune Diseases / surgery. Calcium / blood. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19520070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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37. Masi G, Barzon L, Iacobone M, Viel G, Porzionato A, Macchi V, De Caro R, Favia G, Palù G: Clinical, genetic, and histopathologic investigation of CDC73-related familial hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1115-26
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  • [Title] Clinical, genetic, and histopathologic investigation of CDC73-related familial hyperparathyroidism.
  • CDC73 (HRPT2) germline mutations are responsible for more than half of cases of hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) and for a subset of familial isolated HPT (FIHP).
  • HPT-JT and FIHP patients had similar laboratory, clinical, and demographic features and shared primary HPT and other neoplasms, the most common of which was uterine polyposis.
  • Genetic analysis of tumor samples demonstrated a second somatic CDC73 mutation only in a parathyroid adenoma and no cases with the loss of the wild-type allele or methylation of the CDC73 promoter, even though immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the loss of nuclear parafibromin expression in all tumors, including a uterine polyp.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Jaw Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


38. Ahmad S, Mufti TS, Khan AA, Ahmad S: Parathyroid carcinoma. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2006 Apr-Jun;18(2):84-5
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism and these tumors are usually hyper-functioning as compared to other malignant endocrine tumors.
  • Surgery is the only effective primary treatment.
  • Parathyroid adenoma was initially diagnosed and localized at left lower gland by Sestamibi scan and ultrasonography.
  • She underwent surgery and enlarged parathyroid gland was removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16977824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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39. Palermo A, Mulè G, Guarneri M, Arsena R, Riccobene R, Lorito MC, Vaccaro F, Cerasola G, Cottone S: Parathyroid hormone is inversely related to endothelin-1 in patients on haemodialysis. Nephrology (Carlton); 2008 Dec;13(6):467-71
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  • [Title] Parathyroid hormone is inversely related to endothelin-1 in patients on haemodialysis.
  • AIM: Parathyroid hormone secretion is mainly influenced by hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphataemia and vitamin D deficiency.
  • However, previous in vitro and in vivo studies showed that endothelin-1 can influence parathyroid hormone secretion.
  • METHODS: Parathyroid hormone and endothelin-1 plasma concentrations were measured in 67 haemodialysed patients.
  • Patients with history of cardiovascular diseases and those with parathyroid adenoma were excluded.
  • RESULTS: Plasma levels of endothelin-1 were found to be inversely related to those of parathyroid hormone (P < 0.04) The multiple regression analysis, carried out considering parathyroid hormone as a dependent variable, and including age, sex, blood pressure, calcium x phosphorus product, and endothelin-1, demonstrated that the independent correlates of parathyroid hormone were endothelin-1 (beta = -0.276; P = 0.015), and calcium x phosphorus product (beta = 0.417; P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: For the first time in vivo, we demonstrated an inverse independent relationship between endothelin-1 and parathyroid hormone in haemodialysed patients.
  • Because both endothelin-1 and parathyroid hormone are endowed with well-known harmful actions on cardiovascular apparatus, whether such inverse relation may really influence the natural history of cardiovascular damage due to secondary hyperparathyroidism remains to be elucidated.
  • [MeSH-major] Endothelin-1 / blood. Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Renal Dialysis

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  • [CommentIn] Nephrology (Carlton). 2008 Dec;13(6):465-6 [19138206.001]
  • (PMID = 18518931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1797
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrology (Carlton)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / PTH protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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40. Raghay K, García-Caballero T, Nogueiras R, Morel G, Beiras A, Diéguez C, Gallego R: Ghrelin localization in rat and human thyroid and parathyroid glands and tumours. Histochem Cell Biol; 2006 Mar;125(3):239-46
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  • [Title] Ghrelin localization in rat and human thyroid and parathyroid glands and tumours.
  • In the current study, we use molecular biology to detect ghrelin transcripts expression in rats, and immunohistochemical techniques to investigate the cellular distribution of this peptide in rat and human thyroid and parathyroid glands and tumours.
  • Ghrelin was localized in thyroid C cells and in parathyroid cells.
  • Thyroid carcinomas (medullar, follicular and papillary) and parathyroid adenomas also showed intense and diffuse immunostaining for ghrelin.
  • The diffuse ghrelin immunostaining found in the parathyroid gland opens up the possibility of its secretion to the bloodstream or its involvement in the regulation of the parathyroid function.
  • Overall, expression of ghrelin in human and rat thyroid and parathyroid glands is highly suggestive of a conserved role of this molecule in the regulation of thyroid and parathyroid cell function.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Peptide Hormones / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16187069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-6143
  • [Journal-full-title] Histochemistry and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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41. Graff-Baker A, Roman SA, Boffa D, Aslanian H, Sosa JA: Diagnosis of ectopic middle mediastinal parathyroid adenoma using endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration with real-time rapid parathyroid hormone assay. J Am Coll Surg; 2009 Sep;209(3):e1-4
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of ectopic middle mediastinal parathyroid adenoma using endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration with real-time rapid parathyroid hormone assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Endosonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 19717031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Yener S, Saklamaz A, Demir T, Kebapcilar L, Bayraktar F, Canda S, Yesil S: Primary hyperparathyroidism due to atypical parathyroid adenoma presenting with peroneus brevis tendon rupture. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 May;30(5):442-4
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism due to atypical parathyroid adenoma presenting with peroneus brevis tendon rupture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Tendon Injuries / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17598980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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43. Balasanthiran A, Sandler B, Amonoo-Kuofi K, Swamy R, Kaniyur S, Kaplan F: Sarcoid granulomas in the parathyroid gland - a case of dual pathology: hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid adenoma and coexistent sarcoidosis with granulomas located within the parathyroid adenoma and thyroid gland. Endocr J; 2010;57(7):603-7
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  • [Title] Sarcoid granulomas in the parathyroid gland - a case of dual pathology: hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid adenoma and coexistent sarcoidosis with granulomas located within the parathyroid adenoma and thyroid gland.
  • We present a highly unusual and interesting case of coexistent hyperparathyroidism and sarcoidosis leading to hypercalcaemia.
  • Parathyroid imaging was then requested and an adenoma was identified.
  • Surprisingly, surgery revealed the coexistence of a parathyroid adenoma with the unexpected finding of sarcoid granulomas within the parathyroid and thyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Granuloma / complications. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Diseases / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Sarcoidosis / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Gland / pathology


44. Nenkov R, Radev R, Hristosov K, Krasnaliev I, Vicheva S, Sechanov T: Locally advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma with coexistent metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma in the thyroid gland and parathyroid adenoma. Thyroid; 2005 Dec;15(12):1415-6
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  • [Title] Locally advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma with coexistent metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma in the thyroid gland and parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16405422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Krausz MM, Ish-Shalom S, Ofer A: [Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma]. Harefuah; 2010 Jun;149(6):353-6, 404
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  • [Title] [Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma].
  • BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is frequently used for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) caused by a single adenoma.
  • This method depends on preoperative localization of the tumor by a sestamibi scan, cervical ultrasound, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurements.
  • When the sestamibi scan is negative, the classical 4-gland exploration is used instead of MIP. AIMS: a.
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of MIP for treatment of PHPT caused by adenoma. b.
  • METHODS: MIP was performed in all patients in whom an adenoma was diagnosed by sestamibi scan and US.
  • When the sestamibi scan was negative, PTH-SVS was performed preoperatively for localization of the adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroidectomy was performed in 541 patients, 458 with PHPT and 83 with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • In 345 of 380 patients (90.8%) with an adenoma, MIP was performed, and in 92 of these patients the operation was performed under local anesthesia.
  • In 56 patients with a negative sestamibi scan, PTH-SVS was used preoperatively for localization of an adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MIP is the treatment of choice for PHPT caused by a single adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anesthesia, Local. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Retrospective Studies. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20941923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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46. Moncet D, Isaac G, Staltari D, Tomasello A, Boronat S: [Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Detection with a radioisotopic probe and resolution with videothoracoscopy]. Medicina (B Aires); 2006;66(5):457-60
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  • [Title] [Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Detection with a radioisotopic probe and resolution with videothoracoscopy].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma paratiroideo ectópico mediastinal. Diagnóstico por sonda de detección gamma y resección por videotoracoscopia.
  • We report a 66 years old woman with a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Localization to mediastinum was obtained with parathyroid scintigraphy using 99mtc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrite (Tc99-MIBI).
  • An attempt to detect the precise site of the adenoma with a Tc99-MIBI probe was unsuccessful because of its proximity to the myocardium, but radioactivity was confirmed on the surgical specimen after resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / radionuclide imaging. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcium / blood. Calcium / urine. Female. Humans. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Preoperative Care. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Medicina (B Aires). 2007;67(1):31
  • (PMID = 17137179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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47. Chen H, Pruhs Z, Starling JR, Mack E: Intraoperative parathyroid hormone testing improves cure rates in patients undergoing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Surgery; 2005 Oct;138(4):583-7; discussion 587-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative parathyroid hormone testing improves cure rates in patients undergoing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (iPTH) testing often is used during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (1 degrees HPT).
  • From January 1990 to June 2004, there were 345 consecutive patients with 1 degrees HPT and positive localization studies for a single parathyroid adenoma who were candidates for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Group 1 patients (n = 157) underwent parathyroid exploration without iPTH testing and group 2 patients (n = 188) had an operation with iPTH testing.
  • RESULTS: Of the group 1 patients, 15 (10%) still were hypercalcemic postoperatively owing to additional unidentified hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands.
  • In contrast, among 188 group 2 patients, 170 (90%) had resection of a single parathyroid adenoma, a greater than 50% decrease in iPTH levels, and were cured.
  • Of these 18 patients, 9 had double adenomas and 9 had 3- or 4-gland hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Intraoperative Care. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Humans. Hyperplasia. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16269285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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48. Souza ER, Scrignoli JA, Bezerra FC, Ribeiro SL, Passos LF: Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma. J Clin Rheumatol; 2008 Oct;14(5):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Devastating skeletal effects of delayed diagnosis of complicated primary hyperparathyroidism because of ectopic adenoma.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disease caused by exaggerated secretion of the parathyroid gland hormone, produced by an adenoma in 80% of cases.
  • Ectopic adenomas occur in a small proportion of cases.
  • Herein, the authors report a 72-year-old woman with a delayed diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, produced by an intrathoracic adenoma, with a longstanding course, presenting with severe osteoporosis, multiple fractures, bone deformities, and neurologic impairments.
  • Persistent hypercalcemia, high levels of alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were documented and a paratracheal mass was found on a helicoidal tomography of the thorax.
  • After surgical removal, the histopathological examination confirmed an ectopic adenoma of the parathyroid gland and the patient achieved some improvement in her clinical picture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Bone Diseases, Endocrine / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Choristoma. Female. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Nephrocalcinosis / etiology. Nephrolithiasis / etiology. Osteoporosis / etiology. Parathyroid Glands. Tracheal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18824925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-7355
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Hussain R, Zaman MU, Ahmed MN: LOCALIZATION OF A PARATHYROID ADENOMA IN A MULTI-NODULAR GOITER USING SESTAMIBI AND Tc-99m PERTECHNETATE SCANS. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2007 Nov;17(11):712-3
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  • [Title] LOCALIZATION OF A PARATHYROID ADENOMA IN A MULTI-NODULAR GOITER USING SESTAMIBI AND Tc-99m PERTECHNETATE SCANS.

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  • (PMID = 18070589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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50. Heizmann O, Viehl CT, Schmid R, Müller-Brand J, Müller B, Oertli D: Impact of concomitant thyroid pathology on preoperative workup for primary hyperparathyroidism. Eur J Med Res; 2009 Jan 28;14(1):37-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of concomitant thyroid pathology on preoperative workup for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND: The former standard surgical treatment in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) has been bilateral cervical exploration.
  • The aim of the present study is to evaluate the value of MIP in respect to coexisting thyroid findings and their impact on preoperative workup for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The conversion rate to a four gland exploration was 6% (1/18).
  • Among patients having pHPT without any thyroid pathology, the adenoma localization is correct with either ultrasonography or 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy in the majority of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Preoperative Care. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi / administration & dosage

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  • [Cites] Surg Clin North Am. 2000 Oct;80(5):1399-426 [11059711.001]
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  • (PMID = 19258209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3352203
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51. Berber E, Parikh RT, Ballem N, Garner CN, Milas M, Siperstein AE: Factors contributing to negative parathyroid localization: an analysis of 1000 patients. Surgery; 2008 Jul;144(1):74-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Factors contributing to negative parathyroid localization: an analysis of 1000 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Localizing studies are the key for determining the optimal surgical strategy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HP).
  • This is a prospective study looking at the characteristics of the patient and the gland that determine the likelihood of an abnormal parathyroid to be detected by ultrasonography (US) and sestamibi scan (MIBI).
  • The study group included HP with single gland disease (63%), double adenoma (15%), as well as hyperplasia (15%), familial HP (2%), and secondary/tertiary HP (6%).
  • On multivariate analysis, body mass index (BMI), gland size, and gland volume were the statistically significant independent factors predicting detection by both US and MIBI in primary HP.
  • The sensitivity of US was better for single gland disease than for multigland disease in primary HP, but the sensitivity of MIBI was similar in both groups.
  • For a given size, hyperplastic glands in primary HP imaged less well with US and MIBI than in familial or secondary/tertiary HP.
  • CONCLUSION: This prospective study demonstrates that BMI and gland size independently predict accurate detection of abnormal parathyroid glands by US and MIBI in sporadic primary HP.
  • Understanding the factors that affect the accuracy of parathyroid localization tests will allow the surgeon to develop a successful surgical strategy in a given patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18571587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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52. Ogus M, Mayir B, Dinckan A: Mediastinal, cystic and functional parathyroid adenoma in patients with double parathyroid adenomas: a case report. Acta Chir Belg; 2006 Nov-Dec;106(6):736-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mediastinal, cystic and functional parathyroid adenoma in patients with double parathyroid adenomas: a case report.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by single adenoma.
  • Ectopic adenomas are a frequent cause of recurrent or persistent hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid cysts are rarely seen and most of them are non functional.
  • This case report describes a patient with double adenoma, one is solid and cervical, the other is cystic and located in mediastinum; both of them are functional.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Cystadenoma / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17290712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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53. Harrell RM, Bimston DN: Optimization of minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy: the importance of neck ultrasonography and intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay. Endocr Pract; 2008 Oct;14(7):856-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimization of minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy: the importance of neck ultrasonography and intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay.
  • METHODS: Outcome data were collected on patients with primary hyperparathyroidism whom we intended to treat with MIRP at the induction of anesthesia between October 1, 2005, and December 31, 2007.
  • Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring was performed.
  • IOSS correctly identified 1 adenomatous gland in 38 of 46 patients (83%), while GCSS correctly localized 1 adenomatous gland in 30 of 46 patients (65%).
  • In 11 GCSS-negative patients, IOSS identified the abnormal gland in 7 (64%), while ultrasonography identified the abnormal gland in 8 (73%).
  • Every patient exhibited at least a 51% drop in intraoperative PTH levels with resection of the final adenoma; average decrement for the entire group was 79 +/- 8% from the highest baseline level.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / ultrasonography. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Neck / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18996813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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54. Elisei R, Romei C, Cosci B, Agate L, Bottici V, Molinaro E, Sculli M, Miccoli P, Basolo F, Grasso L, Pacini F, Pinchera A: RET genetic screening in patients with medullary thyroid cancer and their relatives: experience with 807 individuals at one center. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Dec;92(12):4725-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Three different syndromes are distinguished: MEN 2A, when medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is associated with pheochromocytoma and/or parathyroid adenomas; MEN 2B, when accompanied by a marfanoid habitus and/or pheochromocytoma; and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC), when only MTC is present.


55. Aziz MM, Khan AW, Uddin MF, Hasanat MA, Kader MA, Chowdhury AJ, Choudhury NA: Endoscopic para-thyroidectomy: a new approach. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Jul;19(3):442-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Two patients (one male and one female) underwent endoscopic para-thyroidectomy for parathyroid adenoma at the Department of Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Both patient's parathyroid hormone (PTH) level dropped to about one fourth the level in 12 to 20 minutes after enucleation (as compared to the immediate pre operative level).

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  • (PMID = 20639842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
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56. Pereira FA, Brandão DF, Elias J Jr, Paula FJ: Parathyroid adenoma apoplexy as a temporary solution of primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2007;1:139
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid adenoma apoplexy as a temporary solution of primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: The natural history of patients with spontaneous parathyroid necrosis is unknown.
  • In this case report we describe the clinical course, laboratory, radiographic, bone densitometry tests, parathyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy examinations of a patient performed over a period of eight years after she first presented with a sudden episode of spontaneous resolution of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
  • Biopsy of a cervical nodule revealed necrotic material compatible with ischemia of the parathyroid.
  • The second phase was characterized by normalization of calcium and parathyroid hormone levels and its end was difficult to define.
  • During the third phase there was a recurrence of hypercalcemia associated with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and loss of bone mass.
  • CONCLUSION: This case report indicates that spontaneous resolution of PHPT by adenoma necrosis is potentially temporary.

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  • [Cites] QJM. 2000 Jun;93(6):365-7 [10873186.001]
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  • (PMID = 18021421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2204027
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57. Bahar G, Feinmesser R, Joshua BZ, Shpitzer T, Morgenstein S, Popovtzer A, Shvero J: Hyperfunctioning intrathyroid parathyroid gland: a potential cause of failure in parathyroidectomy. Surgery; 2006 Jun;139(6):821-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hyperfunctioning intrathyroid parathyroid gland: a potential cause of failure in parathyroidectomy.
  • However, in rare patients, ectopic hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands may be located in the thyroid but missed on imaging studies or during surgery.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perioperative findings in 6 patients with intrathyroid parathyroid glands treated for hyperparathyroidism in our center over a 5-year period and to review the relevant literature.
  • METHODS: Of the 426 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for hyperparathyroidism between 1998 and 2003 in our center, 6 (1.4%) were found to have intrathyroid glands.
  • Their files were reviewed for clinical features, surgical approach, intraoperative findings, parathyroid gland location, and morphologic and histopathologic characteristics.
  • The diagnosis in all patients was based on an increase in serum calcium concentration (10.1-13 mg/100 mL) and parathyroid hormone level (102-320 pg/mL).
  • When the parathyroid glands were not identified, bilateral neck and mediastinum were explored.
  • Adenoma was diagnosed histologically in 4 patients; 2 had a double adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Intrathyroid parathyroid gland is a rare condition in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • In these patients, imaging may miss the pathologic gland.
  • Despite its rarity, the possibility of an intrathyroid parathyroid should be kept in mind, and, when meticulous bilateral exploration of the neck fails to identity the hyperfunctioning gland, the surgeon should consider hemithyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16782440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Adler JT, Chen H, Schaefer S, Sippel RS: Does routine use of ultrasound result in additional thyroid procedures in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism? J Am Coll Surg; 2010 Oct;211(4):536-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does routine use of ultrasound result in additional thyroid procedures in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism?
  • BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism depends on accurate preoperative imaging.
  • Cervical ultrasound is commonly used to localize parathyroid adenomas, but can lead to discovery of concomitant thyroid gland pathology requiring modification of the operative approach.
  • RESULTS: Between July 2002 and November 2009, 310 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent ultrasound.
  • Thirteen patients (4% of all patients) underwent a thyroid operation not related to parathyroid disease: 9 thyroid lobectomies for presumably benign nodules and 4 total thyroidectomies for malignancy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-nine percent of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism had concomitant thyroid pathology on ultrasound.
  • Routine use of ultrasound in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism leads to discovery of unrecognized thyroid pathology and cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Reoperation. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20822743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Altinova AE, Toruner F, Cimen AR, Karakoc A, Atasever T, Yetkin I, Ayvaz G, Cakir N, Arslan M: The association of neurofibromatosis, bilateral pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Jul;115(7):468-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The association of neurofibromatosis, bilateral pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Pheochromocytoma or hyperparathyroidism have been reported to be associated with NF type 1 (NF1).
  • However, the coexistance of pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma in a patient with NF1 is very rare.
  • We report a case of a 37-year-old male with NF1, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Neurofibromatoses / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adult. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications


60. Srivastava R, Jenkinson F, Murphy MJ: A rare case of metabolic bone disease. Ann Clin Biochem; 2007 Mar;44(Pt 2):192-5
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  • Biochemical abnormalities included hypercalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, raised alkaline phosphatase, raised parathyroid hormone and undetectable 25-hydroxy-vitamin D.
  • Bone biopsy was reported as consistent with a brown tumour of primary hyperparathyroidism and a sestamibi scan confirmed the presence of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • Coexistence of primary hyperparathyroidism and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases, Metabolic / diagnosis. Bone and Bones / pathology. Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17362587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Machens A, Dralle H: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and the RET protooncogene: from bedside to bench to bedside. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2006 Mar 9;247(1-2):34-40
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  • Molecular information has revolutionized our understanding and continues to transform the clinical management of this fascinating endocrine tumor syndrome of neural crest derivation, which consists of medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Age Factors. Animals. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Genotype. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Hyperplasia. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / pathology. Neural Crest / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Phenotype. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Syndrome. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16343738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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62. Wiedmann M, Kassahun W, Deckert F, Tröltzsch M, Sturmvoll M, Führer D: [65-year old female patient with persistent hypercalcemia]. Internist (Berl); 2007 Dec;48(12):1436-41
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  • A 65-year old patient presented with newly diagnosed hypercalcemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels.
  • Exploration of parathyroid glands was performed under the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism and was combined with thyreoidectomy due to concomittant multinodular goiter.
  • However, no parathyroid adenoma was identified despite careful exploration.
  • Therefore, the operation was terminated and an ectopic adenoma was suspected.
  • A (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy with SPECT, neck ultrasound, neck CT scan with contrast media and selective venous sampling were performed for further localization of the adenoma.
  • A single adenoma localized in the submandibular area of the left jaw was suspected and confirmed during surgical reexploration.
  • Postoperatively, parathyroid hormone levels were below detection level and the patient required short-term calcium supplementation for symptomatic hypocalcemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Submandibular Gland Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Humans. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroidectomy. Reoperation. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy

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  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
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63. Alifano M, Parri SN, Arab WA, Bonfanti B, Lacava N, Porrello C, Boaron M: Limited upper sternotomy in general thoracic surgery. Surg Today; 2008;38(4):300-4
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  • RESULTS: Thymus surgery represented the main indication for this approach (n = 51): for myasthenia without thymoma in 28 patients, for thymus neoplasms with or without myasthenia in 22, and for intrathymic parathyroid adenoma in 1.

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  • (PMID = 18368317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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64. Takeshita T, Takeshita K, Abe S, Takami H, Imamura T, Furui S: Brown tumor with fluid-fluid levels in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism: radiological findings. Radiat Med; 2006 Nov;24(9):631-4
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  • [Title] Brown tumor with fluid-fluid levels in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism: radiological findings.
  • We report a case of a brown tumor with fluid-fluid levels in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The laboratory data showed elevated serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone, confirming the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Histopathology of a biopsy specimen showed fibroblastic proliferation, abundant giant cells, and focal hemosiderin deposition, which supported the diagnosis of a brown tumor.
  • After removing the parathyroid adenoma, the brown tumor regressed and became sclerotic on radiographs.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnostic imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications

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  • (PMID = 17111272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0288-2043
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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65. Chaychi L, Chaidarun S, Golding A, Kinlaw WB, Memoli V, Siegel A: Unusual recurrence of hypercalcemia due to concurrent parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid sarcoidosis with lymph node involvement. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):463-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual recurrence of hypercalcemia due to concurrent parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid sarcoidosis with lymph node involvement.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient presenting with the rare findings of synchronous parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid sarcoidosis.
  • RESULTS: A 67-year-old man had the following initial blood test results: calcium, 11.1 mg/dL (reference range, 8.5-10.6 mg/dL); albumin 4.0 g/dL (reference range, 3.2- 5.2 g/dL); intact parathyroid hormone, 166 pg/mL (reference range, 10-69 pg/mL); creatinine, 1.9 mg/dL; 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 15 ng/mL (reference range, 30-80 ng/mL); and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 44 pg/mL (reference range, 16-72 pg/mL).
  • Pathologic examination of the resected gland confirmed the diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma, and subsequent review disclosed the presence of noncaseating granulomas within the adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sarcoidosis with parathyroid involvement causing severe hypercalcemia is unique to this case.
  • Recurrent hypercalcemia after successful resection of a parathyroid adenoma may require consideration of potential causes other than the initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Al-Daraji WI, Prescott RJ: Heterotropic cardiac calcification: a rare presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Histopathology; 2005 Dec;47(6):651-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Calcinosis / complications. Cardiomyopathies / complications. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / complications. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Death, Sudden. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics


67. Ohata Y, Yamamoto T, Kitai Y, Mizoguchi Y, Iwaki M, Sumi K, Fujikawa Y, Koga M, Sugao H, Shimotsuji T, Ozono K: A case of primary hyperparathyroidism in childhood found by a chance hematuria. Clin Pediatr Endocrinol; 2007;16(1):11-6
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  • [Title] A case of primary hyperparathyroidism in childhood found by a chance hematuria.
  • Laboratory investigations revealed hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated serum levels of parathyroid hormone.
  • A parathyroid adenoma was successfully diagnosed with computed tomography, ultrasonography, and methoxy-2-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy.
  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was performed to treat the urolithiasis, and the parathyroid adenoma was surgically removed.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is rare in childhood; however, this case suggests that gross hematuria is an important sign of hyperparathyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 24790339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-5739
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical pediatric endocrinology : case reports and clinical investigations : official journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Pediatr Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4004894
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; bone mineral density / calcium / hematuria / hyperparathyroidism / phosphate
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68. Taïeb D, Hassad R, Sebag F, Colavolpe C, Guedj E, Hindié E, Henry JF, Mundler O: Tomoscintigraphy improves the determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas, especially in apparently inferior glands: imaging features and surgical implications. J Nucl Med Technol; 2007 Sep;35(3):135-9
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  • [Title] Tomoscintigraphy improves the determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas, especially in apparently inferior glands: imaging features and surgical implications.
  • Identification of the embryologic origin of hyperfunctioning parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) could determine the most suitable approach for minimally invasive surgery.
  • The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the reliability of a new, combined protocol for the preoperative localization and determination of the embryologic origin of parathyroid adenomas.
  • On the basis of anatomic considerations, adenomas were classified as superior (P4 derived) if they were located above the isthmus or posterior to the thyroid on SPECT images, despite their apparently middle to inferior position, and as inferior (P3 derived) if the foci were located in inferior and anterior positions or along the thyrothymic tract.
  • Parathyroid ultrasonography was performed on all patients.
  • RESULTS: A total of 36 adenomas were removed: 34 solitary adenomas and 1 double adenoma (for totals of 19 P3-derived and 17 P4-derived adenomas).
  • Pinhole subtraction imaging, SPECT, and ultrasonography sensitivities for detecting adenomas were 86%, 78%, and 77%, respectively.
  • Positive SPECT results were associated with higher gland weights.
  • Only 2 corresponded to large P3-derived adenomas (>2 g).
  • CONCLUSION: By reclassifying apparently inferior adenomas as P4-derived adenomas prolapsed behind the thyroid gland, SPECT provides information about the most suitable surgical approach for avoiding recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.
  • Additional pinhole images should increase the detection of small adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 17702904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-4916
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nucl Med Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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69. Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Nikolaou P, Giannatou E, Marinou K, Safioleas M, Karamanolis D: Gastrinomas associated with MEN-1 syndrome: new insights for the diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Nov-Dec;52(66):1668-76
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  • [Title] Gastrinomas associated with MEN-1 syndrome: new insights for the diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients.
  • The diagnosis of ZES was based upon: a) clinical features and b) high serum gastrin levels, while in 7/11 pts diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically.
  • All pts underwent conventional imaging methods (CT, MRI) and OCTREOSCAN or EUS when necessary, in order to localize the primary lesion or the metastases.
  • The diagnosis of MEN-1 was based upon the presence of the other two MEN-1 related endocrinopathies (hyperparathyroidism, pituitary adenomas), revealed by estimation of several hormones (PTH, Prolactin, ACTH etc.) and performance of imaging studies of the pituitary and parathyroid glands.
  • Serum gastrin levels at the time of diagnosis were greater than 1000pg/mL in 63.5% pts, while at the same time serum CgA levels were greater than 10 times the upper normal limit (<98ng/mL) in all pts.
  • OCTREOSCAN and EUS revealed the primary tumor (in duodenum or pancreas) in 64% pts, in whom conventional methods showed no abnormalities at the same time.
  • Parathyroid adenomas, pituitary adenomas and bronchial carcinoids were revealed in 11, 3 and 1 pts respectively, which were treated surgically.
  • Ten out of 11 pts are alive and in a good condition, whereas 1 patient died 2.8 years after diagnosis.
  • Familiar screening revealed parathyroid adenomas in 4 children of our pts, which were treated surgically.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Digestive System Neoplasms / therapy. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Duodenal Neoplasms / complications. Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Duodenal Neoplasms / therapy. Endosonography / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16334754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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70. Orfanos NF, Mariolis-Sapsakos T, Orfanos FN, Goutas N, Vlachodimitropoulos D, Antoniou AG: Giant parathyroid adenoma with atypical ultrasonographic image. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Mar;32(3):239-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant parathyroid adenoma with atypical ultrasonographic image.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17314610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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71. Prasad B, Fleming RM: Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Jul;30(7):467-9
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  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma.
  • During surgery, the patient underwent a left thyroid lobectomy for an intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15965320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Sandoval MA, Paz-Pacheco E: Primary hyperparathyroidism with classic and severe skeletal involvement. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism with classic and severe skeletal involvement.
  • A diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) was made after she was found to be hypercalcaemic with an elevated level of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH).
  • An enlarged parathyroid gland was seen on ultrasound and CT scan, and hyperfunction was demonstrated by scintigraphy.
  • Histopathologic analysis revealed a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Fractures, Spontaneous / radiography. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Osteoporosis / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Alendronate / therapeutic use. Calcitriol / therapeutic use. Calcium Carbonate / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Postoperative Care / methods. Recurrence. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 22767476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; H0G9379FGK / Calcium Carbonate; X1J18R4W8P / Alendronate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3028290
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73. Turki ZM, Hajri H, Zrig N, Kourda N, Ferjaoui M, Ben Slama C: [Toxic nodular goitre associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord); 2006;127(4):239-42
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  • [Title] [Toxic nodular goitre associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism].
  • [Transliterated title] Association d'un goitre multinodulaire toxique, d'un carcinome papillaire de la thyroïde, et d'une hyperparathyroïdie primaire.
  • The association of a toxic multinodular goitre with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism is very rare.
  • The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was made following renal complications and the discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma was incidental during the surgical treatment of parathyroid adenoma.
  • It is recognised that hyperparathyroidism can be found in hyperthyroid patients, but the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism in these cases is very difficult.
  • The fortuitous discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma during parathyroid surgery has already been reported but in most cases it is a microcarcinoma.
  • The association of primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is rare.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / epidemiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17315788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1334
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de laryngologie - otologie - rhinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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74. Starker LF, Delgado-Verdugo A, Udelsman R, Björklund P, Carling T: Expression and somatic mutations of SDHAF2 (SDH5), a novel endocrine tumor suppressor gene in parathyroid tumors of primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine; 2010 Dec;38(3):397-401
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  • [Title] Expression and somatic mutations of SDHAF2 (SDH5), a novel endocrine tumor suppressor gene in parathyroid tumors of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • To investigate the SDHAF2 gene and its effect on primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid tumors causing primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) are one of the more common endocrine neoplasias.
  • Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 11q13 is the most common chromosomal aberration in parathyroid tumors occurring in about 40% of sporadic tumors.
  • Only 15-19% display somatic mutations in the MEN1 gene, which suggest that this chromosomal region may harbor additional genes of importance in parathyroid tumor development.
  • We demonstrate that the SDHAF2 gene is expressed in parathyroid tissue using RT-PCR.
  • Because detection of inactivating mutations is the major criterion for validating a candidate tumor suppressor, we used automated sequencing of the coding region and intron/exon boundaries in 80 sporadic parathyroid adenomas from patients with pHPT.
  • A known polymorphisms (A to G substitution; rs879647) was identified in 9/80 parathyroid tumors but no tumor-specific somatic mutational aberrations, such as nonsense, frameshift, or other inactivating mutations were identified.
  • The SDHAF2 gene is expressed in parathyroid tissue.
  • However, somatic mutations of the SDHAF2 tumor suppressor gene are unlikely to frequently contribute to parathyroid tumor development in sporadic pHPT.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Mitochondrial Proteins / genetics. Mutation. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20972721.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / SDH5 protein, human
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75. Rubello D, Al-Nahhas A, Mariani G, Gross MD, Rampin L, Pelizzo MR: Feasibility and long-term results of focused radioguided parathyroidectomy using a "low" 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi protocol. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2006;3:30
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  • Aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and long-term results of focused radioguided parathyroidectomy using a "low" 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose protocol compared to conventional "high 740 MBq (20 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi dose protocol" in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
  • The data of focused radioguided surgery obtained in a group of 320 consecutive PHPT patients with high probability of the presence of a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA) were studied.
  • All patients underwent preoperative imaging work-up of double-tracer 99mTc-pertechnetate/99mTc-sestamibi subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy (Sestamibi scintigraphy) and high resolution neck ultrasound (US).
  • Focused low dose radioguided parathyroidectomy is a safe and effective means to localize parathyroid adenomas in patients affected by solitary PA thus reducing by 20 fold the radiation exposure dose to the patients and operating room personnel.

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  • (PMID = 16978398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1584245
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76. Kelly TG, Shattuck TM, Reyes-Mugica M, Stewart AF, Simonds WF, Udelsman R, Arnold A, Carpenter TO: Surveillance for early detection of aggressive parathyroid disease: carcinoma and atypical adenoma in familial isolated hyperparathyroidism associated with a germline HRPT2 mutation. J Bone Miner Res; 2006 Oct;21(10):1666-71
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  • [Title] Surveillance for early detection of aggressive parathyroid disease: carcinoma and atypical adenoma in familial isolated hyperparathyroidism associated with a germline HRPT2 mutation.
  • Familial hyperparathyroid syndromes involving mutations of HRPT2 (also CDC73), a tumor suppressor, are important to identify because the relatively high incidence of parathyroid malignancy associated with such mutations warrants a specific surveillance strategy.
  • However, there is a dearth of reports describing experience with surveillance and early detection informed by genetic insight into this disorder.
  • INTRODUCTION: Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) is a rare cause of parathyroid (PT) tumors without other neoplasms or endocrinopathies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 13-year-old boy, whose father had died of PT carcinoma, developed primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Two years later, under close biochemical surveillance, primary hyperparathyroidism recurred 5 months after documentation of normocalcemia and normal parathyroid status.
  • Ultrasound and MRI identified a newly enlarged right superior PT gland but indicated no recurrent disease in the left neck.
  • Histologic features typical of a benign adenoma were evident after surgical extirpation of the gland.
  • He was found to have a PT adenoma with aggressive features.
  • This information can be used in diagnostic and management considerations, leading to early detection and removal of potentially malignant parathyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Germ-Line Mutation. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16995822.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-0431
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K24-HD01288; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR000125
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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77. Manning AT, O'Brien N, Kerin MJ: Roles for the calcium sensing receptor in primary and metastatic cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Sep;32(7):693-7
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  • [Title] Roles for the calcium sensing receptor in primary and metastatic cancer.
  • AIM: To review the role of the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) in colorectal, breast and parathyroid cancers and related cell lines, and to discuss the effects of CASR in the setting of bone metastases from breast cancer.
  • It is expressed in both normal and malignant breast tissues and has been implicated in the vicious cycle of bone metastases through its interactions with the parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP).
  • In parathyroid tissue, CASR expression has been linked to proliferation of both parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas.
  • CASR has been shown to be involved in the progression and spread of a variety of cancers such as colorectal, breast and parathyroid, and is likely to be the focus of much research to further elucidate its precise role.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / physiopathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology


78. Liu PT, Johnson CD, Miranda R, Patel MD, Phillips CJ: A reference standard-based quality assurance program for radiology. J Am Coll Radiol; 2010 Jan;7(1):61-6
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  • The performance metrics tracked by the QA program include the accuracy of CT colonography for detecting polyps, the false-negative rate for mammographic detection of breast cancer, the accuracy of CT angiography detection of coronary artery stenosis, the accuracy of meniscal tear detection on MRI, the accuracy of carotid artery stenosis detection on MR angiography, the accuracy of parathyroid adenoma detection by parathyroid scintigraphy, the success rate for obtaining cortical tissue on ultrasound-guided core biopsies of pelvic renal transplants, and the technical success rate for peripheral arterial angioplasty procedures.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20129274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-349X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Coll Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Loftus KA, Anderson S, Mulloy AL, Terris DJ: Value of sestamibi scans in tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Laryngoscope; 2007 Dec;117(12):2135-8
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  • [Title] Value of sestamibi scans in tertiary hyperparathyroidism.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of preoperative Tc-sestamibi scans and the incidence of ectopic glands in tertiary hyperparathyroidism.
  • DESIGN: Prospective, non-randomized analysis of a consecutive cohort of surgical patients from the Medical College of Georgia Thyroid/Parathyroid Center.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism undergoing parathyroidectomy was analyzed.
  • Demographic data, preoperative Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy results, location of diseased glands, pre- and postoperative calcium, and parathyroid hormone levels were collected.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-one patients underwent parathyroidectomy for tertiary hyperparathyroidism between March 2004 and September 2006.
  • Of these 21 patients, 3 were re-operative cases for persistent hypercalcemia and each was found to have a single diseased gland.
  • Of the 18 patients undergoing first time surgery, 15 had four-gland hyperplasia, 2 patients had single adenomas, and 1 patient had a double adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tc sestamibi scintigraphy has high positive predictive value and sensitivity in patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Glands / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Preoperative Care / methods. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17891049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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80. Pham TH, Sterioff S, Mullan BP, Wiseman GA, Sebo TJ, Grant CS: Sensitivity and utility of parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with primary versus secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg; 2006 Mar;30(3):327-32
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  • [Title] Sensitivity and utility of parathyroid scintigraphy in patients with primary versus secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.
  • INTRODUCTION: Parathyroid scintigraphy (PS) may be used to localize hyperactive parathyroid glands preoperatively.
  • Performance of PS in the setting of secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is not well quantified.
  • The performance of PS in secondary/tertiary HPT versus primary HPT may reflect physiologic as well as radiopharmaceutical kinetic differences between multigland hyperplasia versus adenoma.
  • The aim of this study was to review the performance of PS in secondary/tertiary HPT with a comparison to that for primary HPT.
  • Moreover, we evaluated (1) the sensitivity of PS in detecting enlarged glands, and (2) PS detectability as a function of gland weight.
  • We identified 40 patients with secondary or tertiary HPT as well as a matched control group of 40 patients with primary HPT who had had preoperative PS and underwent parathyroid surgery.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid scintigraphy correctly localized all enlarged glands in 88% of patients in the primary HPT group.
  • PS failed to identify one enlarged gland in 23% of the patients and two or more enlarged glands in 40% of the patients.
  • PS correctly detects the largest gland in 88% of the patients with secondary and tertiary HPT.
  • The mean gland weight detectable by PS was 612 +/- 120 mg for primary HPT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Parathyroid scintigraphy is a sensitive study for localizing parathyroid glands preoperatively in primary HPT patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Parathyroid Glands / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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81. Abshirini H, Rashidi I, Saki N: Pathologic fractures: a neglected clinical feature of parathyroid adenoma. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010:357029
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  • [Title] Pathologic fractures: a neglected clinical feature of parathyroid adenoma.
  • The pattern of clinical presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) has changed dramatically from a severe disease to an asymptomatic condition in Western countries.
  • Imaging and nuclear medicine studies will be helpful specially in patient who candidate for surgical removal of the abnormal parathyroid gland.
  • Here, we present a 48-year-old man with multiple typical fractures in long bones and a single adenoma in his right inferior parathyroid gland. pHPT is a severe, symptomatic disease with serious complications and high morbidity in Iran.

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  • (PMID = 21209742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3014855
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82. James R, England A: Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas: ultrasonography, sestamibi scintigraphy or both. Clin Otolaryngol; 2005 Aug;30(4):382-3; author reply 383
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas: ultrasonography, sestamibi scintigraphy or both.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Preoperative Care

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Otolaryngol. 2006 Feb;31(1):82 [16441817.001]
  • [CommentOn] Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2004 Oct;29(5):549-52 [15373872.001]
  • (PMID = 16209695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-4478
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical otolaryngology : official journal of ENT-UK ; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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83. Parfitt AM: Weight of normal parathyroid glands in patients with parathyroid adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jan;90(1):595; author reply 596
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  • [Title] Weight of normal parathyroid glands in patients with parathyroid adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jul;89(7):3208-13 [15240594.001]
  • (PMID = 15643025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Barczynski M, Konturek A, Cichon S, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Golkowski F, Huszno B: Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay improves outcomes of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy mainly in patients with a presumed solitary parathyroid adenoma and missing concordance of preoperative imaging. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Jun;66(6):878-85
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  • [Title] Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay improves outcomes of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy mainly in patients with a presumed solitary parathyroid adenoma and missing concordance of preoperative imaging.
  • OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay (IOPTH) is often used during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • The aim of this study was to determine the impact of routine use of IOPTH on the success rate of MIP as the primary outcome, and whether it value-added to surgical decision-making during the operations at our institution.
  • The primary outcome was the cure rate, whereas the secondary outcome was the value-adding of IOPTH to surgical decision-making during MIP.
  • Five (8.1%) of the group 1 patients were hypercalcaemic postoperatively, owing to an additional, overlooked, hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland, whereas among the 115 group 2 patients, 104 (90.4%) underwent resection of a single parathyroid adenoma, met the Miami criterion, and were cured.
  • The remaining 11 (9.6%) patients did not have an adequate reduction in parathyroid hormone levels and underwent further neck exploration, with resection of additional hyperfunctioning parathyroids in nine of them.
  • However, a decrease of less than 50% of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (iPTH) assay correctly identified the risk of persistent disease in that patient.
  • It is a valuable adjunct in surgical decision-making, allowing for intraoperative recognition and resection of additional hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue missed by preoperative imaging studies.
  • However, in patients with concordant results of two imaging studies, the assay offers significantly lower value-adding to surgical decisions, as a vast majority of patients are cured after removal of a two-image-indexed parathyroid lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17437518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PTH protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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85. Chudek J, Nagy A, Kokot F, Podwinski A, Wiecek A, Ritz E, Kovacs G: Phosphatemia is related to chromosomal aberrations of parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroidism. J Nephrol; 2007 Mar-Apr;20(2):164-72
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  • [Title] Phosphatemia is related to chromosomal aberrations of parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been well documented that gene and DNA alterations occur frequently in benign primary parathyroid adenomas as well as in parathyroid glands with secondary hyperplasia.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in adenomas obtained from 25 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and 60 parathyroid nodules from 20 uremic patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT).
  • The relation of chromosomal aberrations to parathyroid hormone, as well as calcium and phosphate serum concentrations, was assessed.
  • RESULTS: Somatic chromosomal aberrations were found in 23 out of 25 adenomas, in hyperplastic lesions from 16 out of 20 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Hyperphosphatemia may increase the risk of specific and random chromosomal aberrations due to increasing proliferation rate of parathyroid cells in patients with sHPT.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Hyperparathyroidism / blood. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Parathyroid Glands / physiopathology. Phosphates / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adult. Aged. Alleles. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / genetics. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17514620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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86. Ruf J, Seehofer D, Denecke T, Stelter L, Rayes N, Felix R, Amthauer H: Impact of image fusion and attenuation correction by SPECT-CT on the scintigraphic detection of parathyroid adenomas. Nuklearmedizin; 2007;46(1):15-21
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  • [Title] Impact of image fusion and attenuation correction by SPECT-CT on the scintigraphic detection of parathyroid adenomas.
  • AIM: In addition to planar parathyroid scintigraphy, SPECT and image fusion with CT/MR improve adenoma detection in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).
  • However, as TB and image contrast is measurably improved after AC there is a potential to improve the sensitivity of parathyroid SPECT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / radiography. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17299650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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87. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Ayoub S, Hachem K, Smayra T, Ghorra C, Abadjian G: Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively? World J Surg; 2007 Apr;31(4):817-23
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  • [Title] Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it be predicted preoperatively?
  • INTRODUCTION: The role of cervical ultrasonography (US)-guided surgery for intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism is rarely reported.
  • METHODS: From 1996 to 2003, cervical explorations were performed in 178 patients (mean age 57 years) with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Patients' characteristics were reviewed to identify predictive factors for intrathyroid adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Cervical US identified abnormal parathyroid glands in 163 of 178 patients, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%.
  • Six patients (3.4%) were found to have intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas (two in the superior parathyroid and four in the inferior parathyroid).
  • Cervical US predicted this anomaly in four of six patients (67%) in whom the thyroid gland was not nodular and allowed total enucleation of the adenoma to be performed in three and subtotal thyroid loboisthmectomy in three; these operations were performed uneventfully and rapidly.
  • On multivariable analysis, no factor predicted intrathyroid localization of parathyroid adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PPV of high-resolution cervical US for identifying an abnormal parathyroid gland was 100% in this series.
  • It was 80% for predicting intrathyroid localization of the adenoma.
  • This method allows us to shorten the operating time by guiding the exploration immediately toward the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17354026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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88. Niccoli-Sire P, Conte-Devolx B: [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Oct;68(5):317-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Néoplasies endocriniennes multiples de type 2.
  • Three phenotypic variants have been identified: MEN2A associates medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) to pheochromocytoma in about 20-50% of cases and to primary hyperparathyroidism in 5-20% of cases; MEN2B associates MTC to pheochromocytoma in 50% of cases, to marphanoid habitus and to mucosal and digestive ganglioneuromatosis whereas in familial isolated medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC), the other components of the disease are absent.
  • In MEN2, natural history of the disease and a common embryologic origin (neural crest) may explain the phenotypes observed in the organ involved, beginning from the stage of hyperplasia to adenoma and cancer.
  • MTC represent the most frequent circumstance of diagnosis.
  • Analysis of the RET gene allows to confirm the diagnosis of MEN2 by identifying the causal germline mutation.
  • Management of MEN2 patients include thyroidectomy associated to cervical central and bilateral lymph nodes dissection for MTC, unilateral adrenalectomy for unilateral pheochromocytoma or bilateral adrenalectomy when both glands are involved, and selective resection of pathologic parathyroid glands for HPT.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. France / epidemiology. Genetic Variation. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Prevalence. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17626779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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89. Mendoza PL, Ongkeko EE, Santiago JF: Silent parathyroid adenoma mistakenly interpreted on FDG-PET as thyroid cancer metastasis in a patient with elevated thyroglobulin and negative I-131 whole body scan and removed by radioguided minimally invasive surgery. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jan;33(1):23-5
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  • [Title] Silent parathyroid adenoma mistakenly interpreted on FDG-PET as thyroid cancer metastasis in a patient with elevated thyroglobulin and negative I-131 whole body scan and removed by radioguided minimally invasive surgery.
  • Histopathology, however, revealed a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroglobulin / blood. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18097251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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90. Chakravarti B, Dwivedi SK, Mithal A, Chattopadhyay N: Calcium-sensing receptor in cancer: good cop or bad cop? Endocrine; 2009 Jun;35(3):271-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CaR plays a key role in the defense against hypercalcemia by "sensing" extracellular calcium levels in the parathyroid and kidney, the key organs maintaining systemic calcium homeostasis.
  • One situation is loss of CaR expression, resulting in loss of growth suppressing effects of elevated extracellular Ca(2+) by CaR, reported in parathyroid adenoma and in colon carcinoma.
  • Another situation is activation of CaR, resulting in increased production of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), a primary causal factor in hypercalcemia of malignancy and a contributor to metastatic processes involving bone.

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  • (PMID = 19011996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
  • [Number-of-references] 203
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91. Lindstedt EW, van den Born LI, Veckeneer M, Baarsma GS: Sclerochoroidal calcification: idiopathic or associated with systemic disease? Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2007;1(3):141-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Idiopathic sclerochoroidal calcification is a rare disorder that may be confused with a malignant tumor.
  • METHODS: We report the case history of a patient with hypercalcemia and extensive sclerochoroidal calcifications; furthermore, we evaluate a series of seven patients with sclerochoroidal calcification, investigating calcium-phosphorus metabolism and screening for primary renal tubular hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis syndromes.
  • RESULTS: One patient was diagnosed with bilateral sclerochoroidal calcification; she had primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma.
  • None of the other seven patients met the criteria of primary renal tubular hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis syndromes or had significant problems of calcium-phosphorus metabolism.
  • CONCLUSION: For all patients with sclerochoroidal calcification, it is important to exclude primary renal tubular hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis syndromes such as Bartter and Gitelman syndromes, because these patients have a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity especially during anesthesia.

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  • (PMID = 25390777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Kwak JY, Kim EK, Moon HJ, Kim MJ, Ahn SS, Son EJ, Sohn YM: Parathyroid incidentalomas detected on routine ultrasound-directed fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients referred for thyroid nodules and the role of parathyroid hormone analysis in the samples. Thyroid; 2009 Jul;19(7):743-8
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  • [Title] Parathyroid incidentalomas detected on routine ultrasound-directed fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients referred for thyroid nodules and the role of parathyroid hormone analysis in the samples.
  • BACKGROUND: The widespread use of high-resolution ultrasound (US) has allowed the detection of not only nonpalpable thyroid nodules but also parathyroid incidentalomas in the general population.
  • We sought to determine the prevalence of parathyroid incidentalomas in a large group of patients referred for US-guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of suspected thyroid nodules and to investigate the role of additional parathyroid hormone (PTH) analysis in the washouts of FNAB of suspicious papathyroid nodules in these patients.
  • Among them, 112 patients (1.7%) underwent additional PTH analysis in FNAB washouts (FNA-PTH) due to suspected parathyroid lesions.
  • We evaluated the prevalence of parathyroid adenomas that were detected on thyroid US incidentally as well as the results of FNAB and FNA-PTH in parathyroid adenomas that were confirmed histopathologically.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid incidentalomas were identified in 14 patients based on pathology and 10 patients based on elevated FNA-PTH.
  • The occurrence of parathyroid incidentalomas was 0.4% (24=6496) on thyroid US.
  • Four patients noticed symptoms related to hyperparathyroidism after FNA-PTH analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of parathyroid incidentaloma was 0.4% (24=6496) in a large series of patients referred for suspected thyroid nodules.
  • The use of FNA-PTH combined with FNAB can help clinicians accurately diagnose parathyroid incidentalomas at the time of US-guided FNAB.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19593861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PTH protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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93. Abbas F, Biyabani SR, Memon A, Talati J: Mediastinal parathyroid adenoma causing primary hyperparathyroidism. J Pak Med Assoc; 2007 Feb;57(2):93-5
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  • [Title] Mediastinal parathyroid adenoma causing primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • An ectopically placed parathyroid adenoma in the anterior mediastinum is a rare cause of persistent or recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and is recognized as an important cause of failed primary neck exploration.
  • In 2 cases, the offending adenoma could be removed at first exploration whereas in the 3rd case, it was successfully removed with mediastinal exploration after 2 failed neck explorations.
  • In established cases of PHPT with equivocal preoperative localization studies or negative neck explorations, an ectopically placed parathyroid adenoma should be considered and once localized, should be surgically removed for cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17370794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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94. Portela-Gomes GM, Grimelius L, Wilander E, Stridsberg M: Granins and granin-related peptides in neuroendocrine tumours. Regul Pept; 2010 Nov 30;165(1):12-20
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  • SgIII has recently arisen as an important NET marker; it was strongly expressed in NETs, with some exceptions--phaeochromocytomas expressed few cells and parathyroid adenomas none.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20211659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1686
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranin B; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Secretogranin II; 149146-12-3 / secretoneurin
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95. Johnson NA, Yip L, Tublin ME: Cystic parathyroid adenoma: sonographic features and correlation with 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Dec;195(6):1385-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cystic parathyroid adenoma: sonographic features and correlation with 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT findings.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the typical ultrasound features of cystic parathyroid adenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of a surgical database and electronic medical records from 2006 to 2009 identified the cases of 15 patients who underwent preoperative cervical sonography for primary hyperparathyroidism with subsequent resection of pathologically proven parathyroid adenoma with predominantly cystic components.
  • Technetium-99m-sestamibi SPECT findings, surgical and pathologic reports, and the results of parathyroid hormone assay of the cyst fluid also were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Most of the cystic adenomas (14/15, 93%) were deep or inferolateral to the adjacent thyroid.
  • An echogenic border separating the adenoma from the overlying thyroid was identified in 9 of 15 patients (60%).
  • Six of 14 patients underwent preoperative or intraoperative sampling of cyst fluid, and the assay showed the parathyroid hormone levels ranged from 1,198 to greater than 5,000 pg/mL.
  • Fourteen of 15 patients underwent preoperative sestamibi SPECT, and the adenoma was definitively localized in four patients (29%).
  • CONCLUSION: Awareness of typical sonographic features (location, color Doppler vascularity) may aid radiologists in preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas, even when cystic degeneration occurs.
  • In cases in which imaging or clinical features are equivocal, the results of cyst fluid sampling and parathyroid hormone assay are confirmatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 21098199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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96. Derreberry T, Yaqub A: Parathyroid FNA and hormone assay. W V Med J; 2009 Sep-Oct;105(5):30-4
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  • [Title] Parathyroid FNA and hormone assay.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a relatively common problem encountered in clinical endocrine practice.
  • In most cases the diagnosis is relatively straightforward, however, when imaging studies fail to localize the parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia, management can be challenging.
  • We describe here such a case where the diagnosis was made by a novel method of analysis of parathyroid hormone levels in the needle wash obtained during fine-needle aspiration of a suspected parathyroid adenoma.
  • His parathyroid hormone level was within normal limits.
  • He was started on hydrochlorthiazide therapy for a presumptive diagnosis of idiopathic hypercalciuria.
  • Parathyroid hormone level remained in mid-normal range.
  • A diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was considered at this stage and imaging studies were carried out to localize the parathyroid pathology.
  • Parathyroid-sestamibi scan did not reveal any abnormality.
  • A fine needle aspiration of the nodule was carried out with estimation of parathyroid hormone level in the needle wash to indicate the presence of parathyroid adenoma.
  • The current management of hyperparathyroidism is primarily surgical.
  • Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery is the treatment of choice but it requires the clear localization of a parathyroid lesion for successful removal.
  • In cases where preoperative localization is evasive, novel techniques, such as the one described above, can provide useful diagnostic information which can aid in the successful management of hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19806869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Virginia medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] W V Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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97. Soby K, Gupta JD, Neitzschman HR: Radiology case of the month. 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy definitively determines the cause of hypercalcemia. Primary hyperparathyroidism secondary to parathyroid adenoma. J La State Med Soc; 2010 Sep-Oct;162(5):257-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiology case of the month. 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy definitively determines the cause of hypercalcemia. Primary hyperparathyroidism secondary to parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 21141256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-6921
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society : official organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J La State Med Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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98. Sanz C, Vezzosi D, Pigny P, Bennet A, Caron P: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a and germ line C634G RET mutation diagnosed in an 80-year-old patient. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Apr;70(2):141-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Blood tests showed that serum calcium was increased (2.93 mmol/l, normal range 2.20-2.55 mmol/l) and serum concentration of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) inappropriately high (198 pg/ml, normal range 15-85 pg/ml).
  • Neck ultrasonography and Tc-MIBI scintigraphy revealed a right parathyroid adenoma and a multinodular goiter.
  • After right adrenalectomy which confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy with dissection of the central lymph node compartment and right parathyroidectomy.
  • On histopathologic examination, both thyroid lobes presented 13 foci of MTC without lymph node metastasis and the parathyroid gland presented a benign adenoma without hyperplasia.
  • The diagnosis of Men2a at the age of 80 years and the absence of lymph node metastasis of the multiple MTC in a carrier of C634G mutation were unusual and argued for the possible role of genetic modifier(s) in this MEN 2a patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenalectomy. Aged, 80 and over. Calcitonin / blood. Catecholamines / urine. Goiter, Nodular / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroidectomy. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Calcitonin .
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  • (PMID = 19201392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
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99. Birdas TJ, Keenan RJ: Mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Mar;79(3):1097
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Choristoma. Mediastinal Neoplasms. Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • [CommentOn] Ann Thorac Surg. 2004 Feb;77(2):724 [14759477.001]
  • (PMID = 15734465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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100. Riss P, Asari R, Scheuba C, Bieglmayer C, Niederle B: PTH secretion of "manipulated" parathyroid adenomas. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2009 Sep;394(5):891-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PTH secretion of "manipulated" parathyroid adenomas.
  • PURPOSE: Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its fragments intraoperatively may influence PTH monitoring.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether "intended intraoperative manipulation" of parathyroid adenomas through mechanical stimulation (through squeezing or manual rubbing) would lead to increased PTH excretion.
  • METHODS: The enlarged glands of six consecutive patients who underwent open minimally invasive parathyroid exploration were "manipulated" for 30 s as soon as they had been identified.
  • RESULTS: An increased PTH secretion was documented in four of six "manipulated" single adenomas (mean PTH +/- SD 312 +/- 497 pg/ml).
  • CONCLUSIONS: First, secretion of PTH varies widely after manual manipulation of adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19396458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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