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1. Moran EM: Epidemiological and clinical aspects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cancer risks. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol; 2002;21(2):193-201
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  • [Title] Epidemiological and clinical aspects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cancer risks.
  • In addition, active chemoprevention has become a major interventional approach following the epidemiological observation of a beneficial effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in colon cancer prevention.
  • Epidemiological studies showed a lower risk of developing cancer of the colon, breast, esophagus, and stomach following the ingestion of NSAIDs.
  • The regressive effects of sulindac on foci of aberrant crypts in the colon (considered to be precursors of adenoma), and on adenocarcinoma of the colon, are of particular interest because this NSAID does not have an inhibitory effect on COX.
  • Similar findings have been reported in the esophagus and stomach, but not in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma.
  • The recent development of selective COX-2 inhibitors resulted in better clinical tolerance than that associated with NSAIDs in general, with the absence of gastrointestinal side effects known to occur after the inhibition of COX-1.
  • Encouraging results have been obtained with these new agents in familial adenomatous polyposis, colon, breast, and prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Colonic Neoplasms / physiopathology. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Isoenzymes / pharmacology. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / prevention & control. Apoptosis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Cohort Studies. Cyclooxygenase 2. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors. Epidemiologic Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Membrane Proteins. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12086406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0731-8898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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2. Dolina J, Hep A, Dítĕ P, Münzová H, Kunovská M, Husová L, Plottová Z: [Barrett's esophagus]. Vnitr Lek; 2002 Jun;48(6):587-90
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  • [Title] [Barrett's esophagus].
  • Due to its relationship with oesophageal reflux disease and the development of adenoma-carcinoma of the oesophagus the problem arouses increasing interest.
  • In the diagnosis in addition to fundamental methods--endoscopy and histology--increasingly chromoendoscopy and fluorescent endoscopy are involved.
  • Treatment of Barrett's oesophagus can be divided into conservative, where the drug of choice are proton pump inhibitors, and surgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Barrett Esophagus

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  • (PMID = 12132367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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3. Hohmann J, Loddenkemper C, Albrecht T: Assessment of a biliary hamartoma with contrast-enhanced sonography using two different contrast agents. Ultraschall Med; 2009 Apr;30(2):185-8
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  • [Title] Assessment of a biliary hamartoma with contrast-enhanced sonography using two different contrast agents.
  • A 49 year old male with carcinoma of the esophagus was staged using conventional US of the abdomen.
  • The findings confirmed that liver-specific contrast agents have the ability to detect very small focal liver lesions not derived from hepatic tissue but may lead to a misinterpretation as a malignant lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Bile Duct / ultrasonography. Bile Duct Diseases / ultrasonography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Hamartoma / ultrasonography. Phospholipids. Polysaccharides. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Humans. Incidental Findings. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18726842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / Polysaccharides; 0 / contrast agent BR1; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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4. Jankowski J, Hunt R: Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer prevention: counterpoint. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Aug;17(8):1858-61
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  • Aspirin is the best chemoprevention agent for colorectal cancer risk reduction despite the fact that the evidence for a decrease in mortality is weak.
  • The cyclooxygenase-2 selective agents (COXIBS) have an efficacy similar to that of aspirin for most gastrointestinal (GI) lesions but not esophagus.
  • Specifically, there are beneficial short term effects of COXIBs on the risk of colorectal adenoma as shown in the Approve, PreSAP, and APC studies.
  • Whereas aspirin reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, COXIBs and most traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (but not all) are both associated with an increased risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events compared with placebo.
  • The value of aspirin remains with respect for efficacy, mainly in the esophagus, and the side effect profile, especially in the elderly if given with acid suppression therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control. Clinical Trials as Topic. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Humans. Proton Pump Inhibitors / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18708372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 4584; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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5. Reichart M, Busch OR, Bruno MJ, Van Lanschot JJ: Black esophagus: a view in the dark. Dis Esophagus; 2000;13(4):311-3
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  • [Title] Black esophagus: a view in the dark.
  • A 73-year-old man had a low anterior resection for a villous adenoma in the rectosigmoid.
  • Aortic dissection was ruled out, but endoscopy showed black mucosa of the entire esophagus.

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  • (PMID = 11284980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors; 54182-58-0 / Sucralfate; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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6. Odze RD, Maley CC: Neoplasia without dysplasia: lessons from Barrett esophagus and other tubal gut neoplasms. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Jun;134(6):896-906
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  • [Title] Neoplasia without dysplasia: lessons from Barrett esophagus and other tubal gut neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the biologic and pathologic features of preneoplastic conditions of the tubal gut that reveal evidence of neoplastic alteration, but without the traditional morphologic features of dysplasia, in order to provide guidance on how to identify these lesions.
  • Particular attention is given to Barrett esophagus, a chronic inflammatory condition in which early molecular and morphologic events that drive carcinogenesis are best understood.
  • DATA SOURCES: Selected references and abstracts were obtained by a PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) search by using the search headings neoplasia, preneoplasia, dysplasia, adenoma, serrated polyps, and Barrett's esophagus between the years 1980 and 2009.
  • All of these lesions, such as squamous dysplasia of the esophagus, dysplasia in Barrett esophagus, and hyperplastic/serrated polyps of the colon, represent early neoplastic precursor lesions but without conventional histologic features of dysplasia.
  • It is important for pathologists to be aware of these lesions, both for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, but also so that future studies can be performed with regard to risk stratification of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20524867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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7. Beger HG, Schwarz A, Bergmann U: Progress in gastrointestinal tract surgery: the impact of gastrointestinal endoscopy. Surg Endosc; 2003 Feb;17(2):342-50
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  • METHODS: On the basis of randomized clinical trials, minimal access surgery results in reduced postoperative pain, reduced early postoperative analgetic medication, reduced frequency of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and systemic complications, early restoration of normal bowel function, and minimalization of wounds and skin scars.
  • For neoplastic lesion in the esophagus (> 2 cm, mucosa restricted), Barrett's epithelium, early gastric cancer, adenoma of the ampulla of Vater, T1+, TIM lesion of the large bowel, T1 cancer of the rectum, intraluminal endoscopic treatment methods are increasingly replacing open surgical resection or even a laparoscopic technique.

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  • (PMID = 12457213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Lectures
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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8. Baron JA, Sandler RS: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cancer prevention. Annu Rev Med; 2000;51:511-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cancer prevention.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, appear to have clinically significant anticarcinogenic effects in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Epidemiological data indicate that use of these drugs is inversely associated with the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer, and clinical trials among patients with familial polyposis coli show that NSAIDs can lead to the regression of large bowel adenomas.
  • Epidemiological data also suggest possible protective effects in the stomach and esophagus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / complications. Humans

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  • (PMID = 10774479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4219
  • [Journal-full-title] Annual review of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Annu. Rev. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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9. Weber AL, Randolph G, Aksoy FG: The thyroid and parathyroid glands. CT and MR imaging and correlation with pathology and clinical findings. Radiol Clin North Am; 2000 Sep;38(5):1105-29
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  • Calcifications (amorphous, globular, nodular, and linear) occur in adenomas and carcinomas and have no differential diagnostic features except for psammomatous calcifications, which are a pathognomonic finding in papillary carcinomas and a small percentage of medullary carcinomas.
  • Localized invasion of the larynx, trachea, and esophagus occurs predominantly in papillary and follicular carcinomas; the incidence is less than 5%.
  • Imaging studies may, however, be indicated to confirm a suspected clinical diagnosis and assess compromise of the airway (Riedel's struma).
  • HPT is a clinical diagnosis in which hypercalcemia is the most important finding.
  • Parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma represent underlying lesions.
  • The indications for imaging studies vary but it is generally agreed that reoperation after a previous failed surgical attempt and suspicion of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma should be investigated by imaging.
  • These consist of US, nuclear medicine studies, CT and MR imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis


10. Ramser KL, Sprabery LR, Hamann GL, George CM, Will A: Results of an intervention in an academic Internal Medicine Clinic to continue, step-down, or discontinue proton pump inhibitor therapy related to a tennessee medicaid formulary change. J Manag Care Pharm; 2009 May;15(4):344-50
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  • [Title] Results of an intervention in an academic Internal Medicine Clinic to continue, step-down, or discontinue proton pump inhibitor therapy related to a tennessee medicaid formulary change.
  • In order to obtain an approved PA for a PPI, the patient was required to have either (a) a diagnosis of erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, Schatzki's ring, a pathological hypersecretory condition (e.g., Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, multiple endocrine adenoma), grade III-IV gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy, significant gastrointestinal bleed; or (b) another indication for acid suppression therapy (e.g., GERD, hyperacidity in cystic fibrosis, gastric or duodenal ulcer, gastroparesis) with a history of failure of prior therapy with a histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2-blocker).
  • The internal medicine clinic of a regional medical center implemented an intervention to address these changes in formulary status of PPIs.
  • OBJECTIVE: To (a) describe the process used by an internal medicine clinic to ensure that patients requiring acid suppression therapy received appropriate treatment according to revised TennCare formulary criteria without unnecessary interruption of therapy, and (b) assess self-reported symptom control 8 months after intervention in the patients who either discontinued therapy or stepped-down to H2-blocker therapy.
  • METHODS: This study involved TennCare patients in an internal medicine clinic who received a new or refill prescription for pantoprazole between April 20 and June 20, 2005, from the medical center's outpatient pharmacy.
  • A clinical pharmacist and an internal medicine physician collaborated to develop a protocol for adjusting acid suppression therapy.
  • A clinical pharmacist reviewed medical records for all patients identified to verify indications for acid suppression therapy and review medication history.
  • Patient telephone interviews were also conducted for patients whose indication or medication history could not be determined by chart review.
  • The purpose of this follow-up review was to determine (a) the proportion of patients who were taking acid suppression therapy, (b) the type of acid suppression therapy (PPI or H2-blocker), and (c) self-report of adequate control of symptoms (defined as symptoms once weekly or less).
  • RESULTS: Of 135 TennCare beneficiaries who were active patients of the internal medicine clinic and received a prescription from the outpatient pharmacy for PPI therapy (pantoprazole) between April 20 and June 20, 2005, 6 patients were excluded because they reported stopping PPI therapy on their own.
  • [MeSH-major] Formularies, Hospital. Gastrointestinal Diseases / drug therapy. Health Plan Implementation / statistics & numerical data. Histamine H2 Antagonists / therapeutic use. Medicaid. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data. Proton Pump Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Withholding Treatment
  • [MeSH-minor] Academic Medical Centers. Guidelines as Topic. Humans. Internal Medicine. Patient Selection. Pharmacy Service, Hospital. Tennessee. United States

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  • (PMID = 19422274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-4087
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of managed care pharmacy : JMCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Manag Care Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histamine H2 Antagonists; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
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11. Taniguchi H, Yamamoto H, Hirata T, Miyamoto N, Oki M, Nosho K, Adachi Y, Endo T, Imai K, Shinomura Y: Frequent epigenetic inactivation of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 in human gastrointestinal cancers. Oncogene; 2005 Nov 24;24(53):7946-52
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  • Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) is a secreted antagonist that can bind to Wnt proteins directly and inhibit Wnt signaling pathway.
  • By using RT-PCR, bisulfite sequence analysis, and methylation-specific PCR, we analysed expression and methylation of WIF-1 in cancer cell lines and freshly resected cancer tissues of the esophagus, stomach, colorectum, and pancreas.
  • Downregulation of WIF-1 mRNA expression was observed in 61 (91.0%) of 67 cancer cell lines, 16 (80.0%) of 20 esophageal, 23 (74.2%) of 31 gastric, 41 (82.0%) of 50 colorectal, and six (75.0%) of eight pancreatic cancer tissues.
  • Indeed, downregulation of WIF-1 expression was observed in 32 (72.7%) of 44 colorectal adenoma tissues and 18 (78.2%) of 23 early mucosal or submucosal colorectal carcinoma tissues.
  • Treatment with demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), restored WIF-1 expression in cancer cell lines.
  • Transfection of the WIF-1 gene construct into TE-1 esophageal cancer cell lines or SW48 colon cancer cell lines lacking WIF-1 expression resulted in a significant inhibition on colony formation, cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar.
  • Modulation of the Wnt pathway, through reversal of WIF-1 silencing by demethylating agents, is a potential target for treatment and/or prevention of gastrointestinal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Down-Regulation. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Silencing. Repressor Proteins / biosynthesis. Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. DNA Methylation. Epigenesis, Genetic. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16007117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / WIF1 protein, human
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12. Fujimura T, Ohta T, Oyama K, Miyashita T, Miwa K: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in carcinogenesis and selective COX-2 inhibitors for chemoprevention in gastrointestinal cancers. J Gastrointest Cancer; 2007;38(2-4):78-82
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  • INTRODUCTION: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to have a property to inhibit tumor development in some cancers while it shows various side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding and renal disorder.
  • Selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors (coxibs) were originally developed as one of anti-inflammatory drugs to avoid side effect of NSAIDs.
  • Three large trials using celecoxib (the Adenoma Prevention with Celebrex and the Prevention of Spontaneous Adenomatopus Polyps) or refecoxib (the Adenomatous Polyp Prevention on Vioxx) for the recurrence of colorectal polyps in patients with a history of colorectal adenoma polypectomized confirmed chemopreventive effects on colorectal adenoma but two of three trails alerted us a hazard of cardiovascular (CV) events.

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  • (PMID = 19031117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-6628
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointest Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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13. Cavallaro G, Albanese V, Taranto F, Pustorino S, Baldari S: Brunner's adenoma, esophageal reflux and gastric ulcer. A case report. Chir Ital; 2000 Nov-Dec;52(6):703-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brunner's adenoma, esophageal reflux and gastric ulcer. A case report.
  • In this work the authors report a clinical case of Brunner's adenoma, which was responsible for the onset of other pathologies in the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as gastroesophageal reflux (GER), esophagitis and ulcerations of the antral mucosa.
  • The preoperative diagnostic procedure (endoscopy, esophageal manometry, gastric emptying) and the follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months from the surgery confirmed the relationship between the Brunner's adenoma and the alterations of the lower esophageal sphyncter (LES) tone and the gastric emptying.
  • [MeSH-major] Brunner Glands / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Gastroesophageal Reflux / drug therapy. Humans. Stomach Ulcer / complications

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Esophageal Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 11200007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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