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1. Bafandeh Y, Khoshbaten M, Eftekhar Sadat AT, Farhang S: Clinical predictors of colorectal polyps and carcinoma in a low prevalence region: results of a colonoscopy based study. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Mar 14;14(10):1534-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical predictors of colorectal polyps and carcinoma in a low prevalence region: results of a colonoscopy based study.
  • AIM: To estimate the prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with long lasting colonic symptoms undergoing total colonoscopy; and to establish clinical features predicting its occurrence.
  • The prevalence of colorectal neoplasia was 15.3% (34 subjects) and 37.7% (181 subjects) had a completely normal colon.
  • Adenomatous polyps were detected in 56 (11.7%) patients, in 12.3% of men and 10.9% of women.
  • The mean age of the patients with a polyp was significantly higher than the others (49.53 +/- 14.16 vs 41.85 +/- 16.26, P = 0.001).
  • Most of the adenomatous polyps were left sided and tubular; only 22.5% of polyps were more than 10 mm.
  • The mean age of patients with cancer was significantly higher than the others (60.25 +/- 8.26 vs 42.13 +/- 16.08, P < 0.005) and higher than patients with polyps [60.25 (8.26) vs 49.53 (1.91) (P < 0.0005)].
  • None of the symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, constipation, altering diarrhea and constipation, history of cancer, known irritable bowel disease, history of polyp and fissure or family history of cancer) were predictors for cancer or polyps, but the age of the patient and unexplained anemia independently predicted cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Less advanced patterns and smaller sizes of adenomas in Iran is compatible with other data from Asia and the Middle East, but in contrast to western countries.
  • Prevalence of colonic neoplasia in our community seems to be lower than that in western population.
  • Colonic symptoms are not predictors for polyps or cancer but unexplained anemia and elder age can predict CRC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Colonic Polyps / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18330943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693747
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2. Osunkoya AO, Cohen C, Lawson D, Picken MM, Amin MB, Young AN: Claudin-7 and claudin-8: immunohistochemical markers for the differential diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma. Hum Pathol; 2009 Feb;40(2):206-10
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  • Specificity was verified by negative control reactions without primary antibody and appropriate membranous staining patterns in positive control tissues (colon carcinoma and adjacent nonneoplastic kidney).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis


3. Oset P, Jasińska A, Szcześniak P, Orszulak-Michalak D, Talar-Wojnarowska R, Małecka-Panas E: [Analysis of serum gastrin levels in patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2009 May;26(155):458-61
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  • [Title] [Analysis of serum gastrin levels in patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon].
  • Adenomatous polyps are known risk factor of colon cancer.
  • Gastrin is a peptide hormone involved in the growth of both normal and malignant intestinal tissue, which probably may promote progression through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • AIM OF OUR STUDY: To assess the association between serum gastrin levels and size, type and localization of colonic adenomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 60 patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon and 30 healthy volunteers.
  • RESULTS: We observed higher serum gastrin levels in patients with colonic adenomas compared to control group (59.65 pg/ml vs. 46.89 pg/ml; p < 0.05).
  • There was no association between gastrin levels and size, number, localisation and histologic type of polyps (p > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Despite of elevated serum levels in patients with colonic adenomas we did not observe the association between gastrin levels and size, grade of dysplasia and histologic type of polyps.
  • The exact role of hipergastrinemia in process of colon carcinogenesis remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / blood. Gastrins / blood

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  • (PMID = 19606697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrins
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4. Boix J, Lorenzo-Zúñiga V, Moreno de Vega V, Añaños FE, Domènech E, Ojanguren I, Gassull MA: Endoscopic removal of large sessile colorectal adenomas: is it safe and effective? Dig Dis Sci; 2007 Mar;52(3):840-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic removal of large sessile colorectal adenomas: is it safe and effective?
  • Large sessile colorectal polyps represent a treatment challenge.
  • This study was performed to determine the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic removal of sessile colorectal adenomas larger than 4 cm.
  • Seventy-four patients with a total of 74 sessile polyps larger than 4 cm in diameter were treated endoscopically.
  • Polyps were removed using argon plasma coagulation (APC) as an adjunct to piecemeal technique.
  • Recurrence rate of polyps with favorable histology was 9.2% (5/54).
  • We conclude that piecemeal polypectomy plus APC without saline injection, performed by an expert endoscopist, is a safe and effective treatment for all LGD or HGD large sessile colorectal polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Colonoscopy. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17253129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Dubé C, Rostom A, Lewin G, Tsertsvadze A, Barrowman N, Code C, Sampson M, Moher D, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: The use of aspirin for primary prevention of colorectal cancer: a systematic review prepared for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med; 2007 Mar 6;146(5):365-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DATA SYNTHESIS: Regular use of aspirin reduced the incidence of colonic adenomas in RCTs (relative risk [RR], 0.82 [95% CI, 0.7 to 0.95]), case-control studies (RR, 0.87 [CI, 0.77 to 0.98]), and cohort studies (RR, 0.72 [CI, 0.61 to 0.85]).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin appears to be effective at reducing the incidence of colonic adenoma and colorectal cancer, especially if used in high doses for more than 10 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Aspirin / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Primary Prevention
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / prevention & control. Adult. Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced. Colonic Polyps / prevention & control. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Incidence. Male. United States / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Intern Med. 2007 Nov 6;147(9):674; author reply 674-5 [17975195.001]
  • [SummaryForPatientsIn] Ann Intern Med. 2007 Mar 6;146(5):I35 [17339615.001]
  • (PMID = 17339622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-3704
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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6. Bernstein CN: Neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: surveillance and management strategies. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2006 Dec;8(6):513-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recently the addition of dye spraying onto the colon to facilitate targeted biopsy has become increasingly associated with enhanced dysplasia surveillance; however, random biopsies are mostly still undertaken, even by those endoscopists who use chromoendoscopy.
  • However, for those with adenoma-like masses, ongoing surveillance after polypectomy could still be considered appropriate.

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  • (PMID = 17105691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8037
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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7. Al-Daraji WI, Abdellaoui A, Salman WD: Osseous metaplasia in a tubular adenoma of the colon. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):220-1
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  • [Title] Osseous metaplasia in a tubular adenoma of the colon.
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed a 1.5 cm polyp 30 cm from the anus.
  • The polyp was removed during the sigmoidoscopy by electrocautery and sent for histological examination.
  • The polyp was a tubular adenoma with mild dysplasia.
  • The adenoma contained numerous foci of metaplastic bone.
  • This is the first case of osseous metaplasia in a tubular adenoma of the colon to be reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Ossification, Heterotopic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colon / pathology. Female. Humans. Metaplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15677548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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8. Patel P, Widjaja D, Blum S, Glandt M, Akella J, Chilimuri S, Balar B: Significance of bowel wall thickening on computed tomography scan: higher risk of pathology among African Americans compared to Hispanics. J Natl Med Assoc; 2009 Apr;101(4):345-8
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  • RESULTS: Of 94 patients with bowel wall thickening on CT scans, 7 (8%) had adenocarcinoma, 5 (5%) had large adenomas, 3 (3%) had infectious colitis, 2 (2%) ischemic colitis, 1 (1%) had inflammatory bowel disease, and 1 (1%) had a benign stricture.
  • [MeSH-major] African Americans / statistics & numerical data. Colon / pathology. Colonic Diseases / diagnosis. Hispanic Americans / statistics & numerical data. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiography. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radiography. Colitis / diagnosis. Colitis / pathology. Colitis / radiography. Colonoscopy. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / diagnosis. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / pathology. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / radiography. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


9. Bae RC, Jeon SW, Cho HJ, Jung MK, Kweon YO, Kim SK: Gastric dysplasia may be an independent risk factor of an advanced colorectal neoplasm. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Dec 7;15(45):5722-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AIM: To evaluate the relationship between gastric dysplasia and Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and the occurrence of colorectal adenoma, and to define the necessity for colonoscopy in patients with gastric dysplasia or H pylori infection.
  • No significant difference was found between the H pylori positive and negative subjects in terms of the prevalence of colorectal adenoma and advanced colorectal adenoma (P = 0.261).
  • Patients with gastric dysplasia showed no elevated risk of colorectal adenoma (OR = 0.910, 95% CI: 0.587-1.411, P = 0.738), but had a significantly higher risk of having advanced colorectal adenoma (OR = 3.382, 95% CI: 1.700-6.342, P = 0.000).
  • CONCLUSION: The study emphasizes the need for colon surveillance in patients with gastric dysplasia, regardless of H pylori infection.

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  • (PMID = 19960571.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2789227
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10. Khatibzadeh N, Ziaee SA, Rahbar N, Molanie S, Arefian L, Fanaie SA: The indirect role of site distribution in high-grade dysplasia in adenomatous colorectal polyps. J Cancer Res Ther; 2005 Oct-Dec;1(4):204-7
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  • [Title] The indirect role of site distribution in high-grade dysplasia in adenomatous colorectal polyps.
  • BACKGROUND: The appropriate application of Endoscopic modalities for polypectomy depends on the likelihood that the adenoma in question harbors invasive cancer.
  • While prior studies have evaluated polyp size and morphology in assessing the risk of malignancy, in recent decay some authorities have paid more attention to dysplasia.
  • All in all, the relative risk of cancer based on polyp distribution in correlation with dysplasia has not been statistically studied which is done in our study.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between June 2001 and March 2004, the distribution of 130 adenomatous polyps was compared with synchronous invasive or in situ cancer.
  • Factors such as Patient age, Patients gender, location of lesion, size of polyp, histological subtype of adenoma on biopsy, degree of dysplasia, synchronous cancer, color of polyp, and number of polyps were included in the data collection.
  • CONCLUSION: Lesions greater than 1 cm in diameter with high-grade dysplasia after splenic flexure should be managed as presumptive malignancies with segmental colon resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17998654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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11. Egan JB, Thompson PA, Ashbeck EL, Conti DV, Duggan D, Hibler E, Jurutka PW, Leroy EC, Martínez ME, Mount D, Jacobs ET: Genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor VDR/RXRA influence the likelihood of colon adenoma recurrence. Cancer Res; 2010 Feb 15;70(4):1496-504
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  • [Title] Genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor VDR/RXRA influence the likelihood of colon adenoma recurrence.
  • No gene-level associations were observed for VDR, nor was any single SNP in VDR related to any metachronous adenoma after correction for multiple comparisons.
  • Haplotypes within linkage blocks of RXRA support an approximately 30% reduction in odds of metachronous neoplasia arising in the proximal colon among carriers of specific haplotypes, which was strongest (OR(proximal), 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.86) for carriers of a CGGGCA haplotype (rs1805352, rs3132297, rs3132296, rs3118529, rs3118536, and rs7861779).

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  • (PMID = 20145122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA106269; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA023074-22S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095060-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07CA106269; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA95060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77145; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA041108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA095060-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA123065; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA106269-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023074-22S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA041108-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA41108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA041108-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106269-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Retinoid X Receptor alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS262521; NLM/ PMC3019606
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12. Patel BB, Majumdar AP: Synergistic role of curcumin with current therapeutics in colorectal cancer: minireview. Nutr Cancer; 2009;61(6):842-6
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  • Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the major active ingredient of turmeric (curcuma longa) with no discernable toxicity, has been shown to inhibit the growth of transformed cells and colon carcinogenesis at the initiation, promotion, and progression stages in carcinogen-induced rodent models.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemically induced. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / prevention & control. Animals. Anticarcinogenic Agents / administration & dosage. Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / chemically induced. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Humans. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20155625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7914
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG014343
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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13. Lee HH, Son YJ, Lee WH, Park YW, Chae SW, Cho WJ, Kim YM, Choi HJ, Choi DH, Jung SW, Min YJ, Park SE, Lee BJ, Cha HJ, Park JW: Tristetraprolin regulates expression of VEGF and tumorigenesis in human colon cancer. Int J Cancer; 2010 Apr 15;126(8):1817-27
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  • [Title] Tristetraprolin regulates expression of VEGF and tumorigenesis in human colon cancer.
  • Here, we report that TTP suppress the growth of human colon cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro by regulating of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
  • TTP protein expression in human colonic tissues was markedly decreased in colonic adenocarcinoma compared with in normal mucosa and adenoma.
  • VEGF expression was higher in colonic adenocarcinoma than in normal mucosa and adenoma.
  • Specific inhibition of TTP expression by RNA-interference increased the expression of VEGF in cultured human colon cancer cells, and TTP overexpression markedly decreased it.
  • These findings demonstrate that TTP acts as a negative regulator of VEGF gene expression in colon cancer cells, suggesting that it can be used as novel therapeutic agent to treat colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Tristetraprolin / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA Stability / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Small Interfering. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19697322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Tristetraprolin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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14. Tan KL, Wilson S, O'Neill C, Gordon D, Napier S: Something not quite right: Gardner syndrome diagnosed by multiple cutaneous lesions and genetic testing. Surgeon; 2005 Dec;3(6):412-5
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  • Gardner syndrome is a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis characterized by intestinal adenomatous polyps, which can progress to adenocarcinoma, and a variety of extraintestinal manifestations, including skin cysts, osteomas, soft tissue fibrous tumours and a characteristic ocular lesion.
  • Gardner syndrome was considered only after excision of subcutaneous fibrous tumours from the mastoid region and paraspinal area and was confirmed by genetic testing in spite of the patient's refusal to undergo colonic endoscopic examination.
  • Subsequent resection revealed approximately 70 adenomatous colonic polyps in the colon and rectum but no invasive tumour, highlighting the benefits of genetic testing in treatment planning.

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  • (PMID = 16353862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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15. Law DJ, Labut EM, Merchant JL: Intestinal overexpression of ZNF148 suppresses ApcMin/+ neoplasia. Mamm Genome; 2006 Oct;17(10):999-1004
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  • We sought to determine whether intestinal ZNF148 overexpression would abrogate adenoma development in the ApcMin/+ mouse, i.e., whether ZNF148 is a tumor suppressor.
  • The presence of the ZNF148TgVZ allele in ApcMin/+ mice correlated with reduced gastrointestinal bleeding at 5 weeks, a 50% reduction in adenoma burden at 20-22 weeks, and prolonged survival (median survival of 33.5 days vs. 21.5 days), relative to nontransgenic littermates.
  • They also suggest that ZNF148 is a therapeutic target to inhibit colon cancer development.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Intestines / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / mortality. Alleles. Animals. Apoptosis / physiology. Crosses, Genetic. Gastrointestinal Diseases / genetics. Gastrointestinal Diseases / mortality. Gastrointestinal Diseases / prevention & control. Hemorrhage / genetics. Hemorrhage / mortality. Hemorrhage / prevention & control. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / mortality. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Pedigree. Survival Analysis. Tumor Burden / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17019648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-8990
  • [Journal-full-title] Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mamm. Genome
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5P30CA46592; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK055732-08; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK065004; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK034933; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 2P30DK34933-20; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK055732; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK55732; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK034933-219001
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / ZNF148 protein, human
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16. Marshall JR: Prevention of colorectal cancer: diet, chemoprevention, and lifestyle. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2008 Mar;37(1):73-82, vi
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  • This article focuses on preventing the initiation and promotion of neoplastic growth in colon cancer, particularly with dietary measures.
  • Short-term trials that alter intermediate biomarkers that are more sensitive than the adenoma to interventions may be necessary.

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  • (PMID = 18313540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8553
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA037447-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037447-22
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 55
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44598; NLM/ PMC2637789
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17. Zheng HC, Tsuneyama K, Takahashi H, Miwa S, Sugiyama T, Popivanova BK, Fujii C, Nomoto K, Mukaida N, Takano Y: Aberrant Pim-3 expression is involved in gastric adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence and cancer progression. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Apr;134(4):481-8
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  • [Title] Aberrant Pim-3 expression is involved in gastric adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence and cancer progression.
  • PURPOSE: Pim-3, a member of the proto-oncogene Pim family with serine/threonine kinase activity was aberrantly expressed in cancerous lesions of endoderm-derived organs such as liver, pancreas, and colon.
  • METHODS: Pim-3 expression was immunohistochemically examined on the tissue microarrays containing primary (n = 285) and metastastic (n = 37) sites of gastric carcinomas, in comparison with adenoma (n = 48) and non-cancerous mucosa (n = 84).
  • RESULTS: Pim-3 expression was enhanced in adenoma (64.6%) and metastasis sites of gastric carcinoma (73.0%), to a lesser degree in primary sites of gastric carcinoma (39.3%) when compared to non-cancerous mucosa (13.1%, p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant Pim-3 expression was involved in gastric adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence and subsequent invasion and metastasis process in gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenoma / chemistry. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / analysis. Stomach Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17876606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.11.1 / PIM3 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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18. Jurek D, Fleckl E, Marian B: Bile acid induced gene expression in LT97 colonic adenoma cells. Food Chem Toxicol; 2005 Jan;43(1):87-93
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  • [Title] Bile acid induced gene expression in LT97 colonic adenoma cells.
  • LT97 human colonic adenoma cells reflecting early premalignant genotype and growth characteristics have been posed to tumor promoting bile acids in order to identify marker genes that permit identification of tumor promoters in vitro.
  • Transient induction of c-fos was seen with the non-promoting taurodesoxycholate (TDOC) as well as DOC, however extended induction at 3 h was only achieved by DOC and CDC reaching 3-6-fold as compared to the control.
  • Stimulation of COX-2 expression was completely specific for the tumor promoting analogs DOC and CDC.
  • Expression of VEGF was stimulated 4-5-fold in the tumor promoter (DOC and CDC) groups and about 2-fold in the non-promoting controls TDOC and GCDC.
  • At later times the tumor promoter specific difference was lost.
  • Our results show that all three genes are modulated in a tumor promoter dependent way and that their upregulation in LT97 adenoma cells can be used for in vitro testing of colon tumor promoters and chemopreventive compounds.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Bile Acids and Salts / pharmacology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15582199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-6915
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 005990WHZZ / Deoxycholic Acid; 0GEI24LG0J / Chenodeoxycholic Acid; 516-50-7 / Taurodeoxycholic Acid; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; EC 1.2.1.- / Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases
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19. Petko Z, Ghiassi M, Shuber A, Gorham J, Smalley W, Washington MK, Schultenover S, Gautam S, Markowitz SD, Grady WM: Aberrantly methylated CDKN2A, MGMT, and MLH1 in colon polyps and in fecal DNA from patients with colorectal polyps. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Feb 1;11(3):1203-9
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  • [Title] Aberrantly methylated CDKN2A, MGMT, and MLH1 in colon polyps and in fecal DNA from patients with colorectal polyps.
  • Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, affecting approximately 147,000 people each year.
  • Most colon cancers arise from benign neoplasms and evolve into adenocarcinomas through a stepwise histologic progression sequence that starts from adenomas or hyperplastic polyps/serrated adenomas.
  • Genetic alterations and, more recently, epigenetic alterations have been associated with specific steps in this polyp-adenocarcinoma sequence and likely drive the histologic progression of colon cancer.
  • Consequently, we have assessed in colon adenomas and hyperplastic polyps the methylation status of MGMT, CDKN2A, and MLH1 to determine the timing and frequency of these events in the polyp-carcinoma progression sequence and subsequently to analyze the potential for these methylated genes to be molecular markers for adenomas and hyperplastic polyps.
  • We have found that methylated MGMT, CDKN2A, and MLH1 occur in 49%, 34%, and 7% of adenomas and in 5%, 10%, and 7% of hyperplastic polyps, respectively, and that they are more common in histologically advanced adenomas.
  • Furthermore, analysis of fecal DNA from persons who have undergone colonoscopic exams revealed methylated CDKN2A, MGMT, and MLH1 in fecal DNA from 31%, 48%, and 0% of individuals with adenomas and from 16%, 27%, and 10% of individuals with no detectable polyps, respectively.
  • These results show that aberrant methylated genes can be detected frequently in sporadic colon polyps and that they can be detected in fecal DNA.
  • Notably, improvements in the specificity and sensitivity of the fecal DNA-based assays will be needed to make them clinically useful diagnostic tests for polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Carrier Proteins. Cell Line, Tumor. CpG Islands / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Feces / chemistry. Humans. Hyperplasia. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15709190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA 95103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 094986
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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20. Goldstein NS: Small colonic microsatellite unstable adenocarcinomas and high-grade epithelial dysplasias in sessile serrated adenoma polypectomy specimens: a study of eight cases. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jan;125(1):132-45
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  • [Title] Small colonic microsatellite unstable adenocarcinomas and high-grade epithelial dysplasias in sessile serrated adenoma polypectomy specimens: a study of eight cases.
  • Eight sessile serrated adenoma (SSA), right colon polypectomies with focal invasive adenocarcinoma or high-grade dysplasia were studied to identify features indicating a high risk of transformation and characterize the morphologic features of serrated dysplasia; 6 cases had invasive adenocarcinoma; 2 were high-grade dysplasia.
  • Mean polyp maximum dimension was 8.5 mm (range, 6-12 mm).
  • The majority of each polyp was nonmalignant SSA.
  • Small proximal SSAs can transform into adenocarcinoma without a component of adenomatous dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Chromosomal Instability. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Microsatellite Repeats
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Epithelium / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Nuclear Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16483002.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins
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21. Zoghbi S, Drouin E, Claustre J, Bara J, Scoazec JY, Plaisancié P: Intestinal MUC2 and gastric M1/MUC5AC in preneoplastic lesions induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rat: a sequential analysis. Int J Oncol; 2007 Feb;30(2):489-97
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  • Our study was performed to sequentially analyze the expression of the intestinal mucin MUC2 and of the gastric mucin MUC5AC as indicators during progression of preneoplastic biomarkers in rat colon.
  • Similar alterations in mucin expression were observed in human colonic pre-neoplastic lesions.
  • These findings suggest that a decrease in MUC2 expression and staining of MUC5AC in non-goblet-like cells predicts histological progression of preneoplastic lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Animals. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Colon / metabolism. Humans. Male. Mucin 5AC. Mucin-2. Precancerous Conditions. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17203232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Muc2 protein, rat; 0 / Muc5ac protein, rat; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucins; 0 / beta Catenin; IX068S9745 / 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine
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22. Rutter CM, Savarino JE: An evidence-based microsimulation model for colorectal cancer: validation and application. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2010 Aug;19(8):1992-2002
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  • METHODS: CRC-SPIN simulates individual event histories associated with colorectal cancer, based on the adenoma-carcinoma sequence: adenoma initiation and growth, development of preclinical invasive colorectal cancer, development of clinically detectable colorectal cancer, death from colorectal cancer, and death from other causes.

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  • [Copyright] (c)2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20647403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097427-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA097427; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA097427-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA97427
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS208492; NLM/ PMC2919657
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23. Oikonomou E, Pintzas A: Cancer genetics of sporadic colorectal cancer: BRAF and PI3KCA mutations, their impact on signaling and novel targeted therapies. Anticancer Res; 2006 Mar-Apr;26(2A):1077-84
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  • These genes, that have been implicated in the adenoma-carcinoma transition, cause deregulation and constitutive activation of the MAP AKT/kinase pathways, rendering growth advantages to colon tumor cells.
  • This review focuses on the key genetic alterations underlying the cumulative effect of multiple mutations within the colon cancer cell.


24. Shaked G, Czeiger D: Distended urinary bladder and diverticulum-a rare cause of large-bowel obstruction. Am J Surg; 2009 Feb;197(2):e23-4
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  • The colonic obstruction was secondary to external compression of the rectosigmoid colon against the sacrum by a distended bladder and diverticulum.
  • Later the patient underwent surgery to remove an enlarged benign prostatic adenoma, which was the underlying cause of the bladder distention.


25. Ahlawat S, Al-Kawas FH: Invagination of the muscularis propria in a polyp stalk: a rare cause of post-polypectomy perforation of the colon. Endoscopy; 2007 Feb;39 Suppl 1:E78-9
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  • [Title] Invagination of the muscularis propria in a polyp stalk: a rare cause of post-polypectomy perforation of the colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / surgery. Colonic Diseases / etiology. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Colonoscopy. Intestinal Mucosa. Intestinal Perforation / etiology. Intussusception / complications. Postoperative Complications / etiology


26. Wang MH, Lee W, Luo YL, Weis MT, Yao HP: Altered expression of the RON receptor tyrosine kinase in various epithelial cancers and its contribution to tumourigenic phenotypes in thyroid cancer cells. J Pathol; 2007 Dec;213(4):402-11
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  • Among 15 types of cancer studied, RON was overexpressed in significant numbers in cancers derived from breast (56%), colon (51%), lung (48), thyroid (42%), skin (37%), bladder (36%), and pancreas (33%).
  • Detailed analysis of thyroid tissues showed that RON was hardly detected in normal thyroid cells, moderately expressed in adenoma samples, but overexpressed in about half of papillary and follicular cancer specimens.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  • (PMID = 17955509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA91980
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / RON protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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27. Dauser B, Winkler T, Salehi B, Riss S, Beer F, Herbst F: Traction-assisted endoscopic mucosal resection for polypectomy in the large intestine. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Nov 21;16(43):5462-6
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  • AIM: To evaluate if traction-assisted endoscopic mucosal resection (TA-EMR) is feasible and if it enables en bloc resection of colorectal lesions.
  • METHODS: Seven patients with a total of 12 colorectal adenomas were prospectively enrolled.
  • RESULTS: All 12 lesions (nine sessile) were resected en bloc with free lateral and vertical margins by using this novel technique, including five lesions (5/12, 41.6%) in less-accessible positions, where TA-EMR enabled complete visualization of the base before resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery

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  • [Cites] Endoscopy. 2001 May;33(5):440-2 [11396764.001]
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  • (PMID = 21086565.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2988240
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28. Su MY, Ho YP, Hsu CM, Chiu CT, Chen PC, Lien JM, Tung SY, Wu CS: How can colorectal neoplasms be treated during colonoscopy? World J Gastroenterol; 2005 May 14;11(18):2806-10
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  • AIM: For many physicians who ordinarily treat patients with colonic diseases, colonoscopy is considered a prime study interest.
  • RESULTS: Histological diagnoses were 4596 neoplastic lesions (4 376 adenomas and 220 adenocarcinomas) and 906 non-neoplastic lesions (891 hyperplastic and 15 inflammatory polyps).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Colonoscopy. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15884128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4305922
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29. Neklason DW, Stevens J, Boucher KM, Kerber RA, Matsunami N, Barlow J, Mineau G, Leppert MF, Burt RW: American founder mutation for attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 Jan;6(1):46-52
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  • [Title] American founder mutation for attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Specific mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene can lead to an attenuated form of familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP).
  • Although AFAP mutation carriers have a 69% risk of colorectal cancer by age 80, clinical recognition remains a challenge in some cases because they present with few colonic adenomas and are difficult to distinguish clinically from patients with sporadic polyps.
  • The data show that 36.6% of the mutation-positive family members have fewer than 10 colonic adenomatous polyps, and 3 (6.8%) of these individuals were diagnosed with colorectal cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In view of the apparent age of this mutation, a notable fraction of both multiple-adenoma patients and perhaps even colon cancer cases in the United States could be related to this founder mutation.
  • The colon cancer risk associated with the mutation makes genetic testing of considerable importance in patients with a personal or family history of either colonic polyps or cancer at a young age.

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  • (PMID = 18063416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / NCI-CN-67000; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA073992; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA040641-21; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA040641; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA073992-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA040641-21; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01 CN067000; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA040641; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA073992; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA073992-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS37623; NLM/ PMC2245898
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30. Arnous W, Beltran S, Berger N, Bournaud C, Lifante JC, Peix JL, Giammarile F, Sassolas G, Borson-Chazot F: Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the sigmoid colon. Thyroid; 2007 Feb;17(2):169-73
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  • [Title] Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the sigmoid colon.
  • We report a case history of Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma metastasized to the sigmoid colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Colon, Sigmoid / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17316120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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31. Lieberman D: Debate: small (6-9 mm) and diminutive (1-5 mm) polyps noted on CTC: how should they be managed? Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am; 2010 Apr;20(2):239-43
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  • [Title] Debate: small (6-9 mm) and diminutive (1-5 mm) polyps noted on CTC: how should they be managed?
  • New diagnostic technologies can visualize colon polyps, but not remove them.
  • There is clear consensus that polyps 10 mm or larger need to be removed.
  • There is still controversy surrounding the appropriate reporting and management of small 1 to 5 mm and 6 to 9 mm polyps.
  • The author recommends that patients whose largest polyp is 6 mm or larger should be offered colonoscopy.
  • If the largest polyp is less than 6 mm in size, and imaged with high reliability, the author recommends reporting the finding, and individualizing the decision to pursue colonoscopy versus repeat imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps. Colonography, Computed Tomographic / methods. Colonoscopy / methods. Decision Making
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / etiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Humans. Mass Screening / methods. Precancerous Conditions. Prevalence. Severity of Illness Index. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20451813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1950
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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32. Shimomura T, Hiyama T, Tanaka S, Yoshihara M, Arihiro K, Chayama K: Synchronous and subsequent lesions of serrated adenomas and tubular adenomas of the colorectum. Pathobiology; 2010;77(5):273-7
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  • [Title] Synchronous and subsequent lesions of serrated adenomas and tubular adenomas of the colorectum.
  • The characteristics of synchronous and subsequent lesions of serrated adenomas (SAs) of the colorectum are still unclear.
  • This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of synchronous and subsequent lesions of SAs compared with tubular adenomas (TAs) of the colorectum.
  • The histology of the index polyp and synchronous and subsequent lesions tended to be identical.
  • Our data suggest that the colonic tumorigenesis potential of patients with SA may differ from that of patients with TA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colon / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polyps / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21116119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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33. Francois F, Park J, Bini EJ: Colon pathology detected after a positive screening flexible sigmoidoscopy: a prospective study in an ethnically diverse cohort. Am J Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr;101(4):823-30
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  • [Title] Colon pathology detected after a positive screening flexible sigmoidoscopy: a prospective study in an ethnically diverse cohort.
  • OBJECTIVES: Although the association between distal neoplasia on sigmoidoscopy and proximal colonic pathology on follow-up colonoscopy has been well-described, it is not known if these findings are consistent across ethnic groups.
  • Colonoscopy was recommended for all patients with a polyp on flexible sigmoidoscopy, regardless of size.
  • Advanced neoplasms were defined as adenomas > or = 10 mm in diameter or any adenoma, regardless of size, with villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or cancer.
  • The prevalence of neoplasia in the distal colon was 12.6% in Caucasians, 11.2% in African Americans, 15.9% in Hispanics, and 24.7% in Asians (p = 0.002).
  • Of the 290 patients with neoplastic lesions on sigmoidoscopy, follow-up colonoscopy identified neoplasms in the proximal colon in 63.9% of Caucasians, 59.3% of African Americans, 66.7% of Hispanics, and 26.3% of Asians (p = 0.01).
  • Advanced neoplasms in the proximal colon were highest in African Americans (34.9%) and lowest in Asians (10.5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our study population, Asians demonstrated a higher prevalence of distal colonic neoplasia and a lower prevalence of proximal colonic neoplasia compared to non-Asians.
  • Future studies should explore ethnic variation in colonic neoplasia prevalence and location since ethnic variation could lead to tailored colorectal cancer screening strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / ethnology. Colonoscopy. Sigmoidoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] African Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data. Aged. Asian Americans / statistics & numerical data. Colon / pathology. Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Colonic Polyps / ethnology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data. Female. Hispanic Americans / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 16494591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Costa-Nogueira C, Villar-Portela S, Cuevas E, Gil-Martín E, Fernández-Briera A: Synthesis and expression of CDw75 antigen in human colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:431
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  • By immunohistochemistry we assessed the CDw75 expression in 25 colorectal adenomas, 43 tumours, 13 transitional and 28 healthy tissues of CRC patients.
  • CDw75 expression was positive in 20% of colorectal adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: The major contribution of this study is the inclusion of data from transitional tissue and the analysis of CDw75 antigen expression in CRC and in colorectal adenomas, little known so far.
  • The expression of CDw75 in colorectal adenomas suggests that this antigen may be a tumour marker in CRC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Sialyltransferases / biosynthesis. Sialyltransferases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20003255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.4.99.- / Sialyltransferases; EC 2.4.99.1 / ST6GAL1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803195
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35. Kobunai T, Watanabe T, Yamamoto Y, Eshima K: The frequency of KRAS mutation detection in human colon carcinoma is influenced by the sensitivity of assay methodology: a comparison between direct sequencing and real-time PCR. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2010 Apr 23;395(1):158-62
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  • [Title] The frequency of KRAS mutation detection in human colon carcinoma is influenced by the sensitivity of assay methodology: a comparison between direct sequencing and real-time PCR.
  • PURPOSE: Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) gene mutations occur early in the progression of colorectal adenoma to carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20361930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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36. Lecomte T, Cellier C, Meatchi T, Barbier JP, Cugnenc PH, Jian R, Laurent-Puig P, Landi B: Chromoendoscopic colonoscopy for detecting preneoplastic lesions in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Sep;3(9):897-902
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  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: In hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome, flat and small adenomas are particularly prone to malignant transformation but might be missed by standard colonoscopy.
  • Conventional colonoscopy was performed first, followed by a second colonoscopy with chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine (.4%) dye sprayed onto the entire proximal colon.
  • Seven lesions, detected in 5 patients, were adenomas, 3 of which were located in the proximal colon.
  • Eleven additional adenomas were detected in the proximal colon of 8 patients, and 8 of these 11 lesions were flat.
  • The use of chromoendoscopy significantly increased the detection rate of adenomas in the proximal colon, from 3 of 33 patients to 10 of 33 patients (P = .045).
  • CONCLUSION: Relative to conventional colonoscopy, high-resolution colonoscopy with chromoendoscopy markedly improves the detection of adenomas in patients with HNPCC syndrome and might help to prevent colorectal carcinoma in these patients with a very high risk of colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Colonoscopy. Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adult. Aged. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Colon / pathology. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Pilot Projects. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16234028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-3565
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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37. East JE, Suzuki N, Arebi N, Bassett P, Saunders BP: Position changes improve visibility during colonoscope withdrawal: a randomized, blinded, crossover trial. Gastrointest Endosc; 2007 Feb;65(2):263-9
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  • INTERVENTIONS: Videotaped, back-to-back examination of colon proximal to rectosigmoid junction in left lateral position only, then with position changes: left lateral for the cecum to the hepatic flexure, supine for the transverse colon, and right lateral for the splenic flexure and the descending colon, or vice versa.
  • Luminal distension was scored on a scale of 1 to 5 for each colonic area: 1, complete collapse; 5, widely distended to limit of view.
  • RESULTS: Scores for the 2 examinations from the blinded video reviewer were significantly higher in the transverse, the splenic flexure, and the descending colon, P = .02, .002, and <.001, respectively.
  • Without position changes, 6 of 14 of patients (43%) would have had a nondiagnostic distension score (1 or 2) in at least 1 colonic area, P = .03.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Position change, a cost-neutral intervention, during colonoscope withdrawal improved luminal distension between hepatic flexure and sigmoid-descending junction and has the potential to reduce adenoma and early cancer miss rates.
  • [MeSH-minor] Colon. Cross-Over Studies. Humans. Single-Blind Method. Videotape Recording


38. Vasen HF, de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel WH: An evidence-based review on surveillance for Lynch syndrome. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Nov;49(11):1797-8; author reply 1799
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Colonoscopy. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Heterozygote. Humans. Mutation. Population Surveillance

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  • [CommentOn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Jan;49(1):80-93; discussion 94-5 [16284887.001]
  • (PMID = 17053868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Croce MV, Sálice VC, Lacunza E, Segal-Eiras A: Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP): a possible carrier of sialyl lewis X (slewis X) antigen in colorectal carcinoma. Histol Histopathol; 2005 01;20(1):91-7
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: tissue and serum samples from 88 patients with colorectal cancer, 22 adenomas and 23 normal were included.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / immunology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Colon / immunology. Colon / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15578427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-acetylneuraminyl-(2-3)-galactosyl-(1-4)-(fucopyranosyl-(1-3))-N-acetylglucosamine; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Oligosaccharides; 0 / Orosomucoid
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40. Xu J, Yang L, Guo Y, Zhao D, Wang L, Bai L: Perforation of sigmoid diverticulum following endoscopic polypectomy of an adenoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Perforation of sigmoid diverticulum following endoscopic polypectomy of an adenoma.
  • Colonic polyps or carcinomas located within a colonic diverticulum are very rare phenomena.
  • There are a few reports in the literature describing adenocarcinoma arising within colonic diverticulum.
  • Endoscopic resection of the polyp poses a risk of perforation because of the lack of muscular coats in the diverticulum.

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  • (PMID = 22461856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3029913
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41. Anderson C, Ellenhorn J, Hellan M, Pigazzi A: Pilot series of robot-assisted laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. Surg Endosc; 2007 Sep;21(9):1662-6
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  • Six patients had adenocarcinoma and one patient had a high-grade dysplastic adenoma.
  • There was one intraoperative complication requiring a colon resection for a devascularized segment.

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42. Tanaka T: Colorectal carcinogenesis: Review of human and experimental animal studies. J Carcinog; 2009;8:5
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  • The focus is on human and murine colorectal carcinogenesis and the histogenesis of this malignant disorder.
  • A summary of a model of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis (an AOM/DSS model) will also be presented.
  • The earliest phases of colorectal oncogenesis occur in the normal mucosa, with a disorder of cell replication.
  • The large majority of colorectal malignancies develop from an adenomatous polyp (adenoma).
  • Carcinomas usually originate from pre-existing adenomas, but this does not imply that all polyps undergo malignant changes and does not exclude de novo oncogenesis.
  • Besides adenomas, there are other types of pre-neoplasia, which include hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas and dysplasia that occurs in the inflamed colon in associated with inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Colorectal neoplasms and/or pre-neoplasms can be prevented by interfering with the various steps of oncogenesis, which begins with uncontrolled epithelial cell replication, continues with the formation of adenomas and eventually evolves into malignancy.

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  • [ISSN] 1477-3163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Carcinog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2678864
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43. Gordon PV, Paxton JB, Fox NS: A methodology for distinguishing divergent cell fates within a common progenitor population: adenoma- and neuroendocrine-like cells are confounders of rat ileal epithelial cell (IEC-18) culture. BMC Cell Biol; 2005;6(1):2
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  • [Title] A methodology for distinguishing divergent cell fates within a common progenitor population: adenoma- and neuroendocrine-like cells are confounders of rat ileal epithelial cell (IEC-18) culture.
  • BACKGROUND: IEC-18 cells are a non-transformed, immortal cell line derived from juvenile rat ileal crypt cells.
  • We then confirmed the cell-specific phenotype by immunolocalization of proteins corresponding to those genes.
  • The majority of IEC-18 cells in SFM alone had a loss in expression of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene at the mRNA and protein levels, consistent with adenoma-like transformation.
  • The most common fate switch that we were able to detect correlates with a down regulation of the APC gene and transformation into an adenoma-like phenotype.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Animals. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation. Genes, APC. Methods. Phenotype. Rats

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44. V Schönfeld J, Hinzmann S: Missed colonic adenomas in routine primary care endoscopy: a prospective tandem colonoscopy study. Z Gastroenterol; 2010 Oct;48(10):1207-10
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  • [Title] Missed colonic adenomas in routine primary care endoscopy: a prospective tandem colonoscopy study.
  • Several lines of independent evidence, however, suggest that a significant number of small adenomas and also some advanced lesions are missed even by experienced endoscopists.
  • A total of 98 neoplastic lesions were identified in 34 patients at the index colonoscopy, an additional 53 adenomas were removed at the second colonoscopy, 33 of them smaller than 5 mm.
  • 25 out of 53 missed adenomas were identified between the coecum and the right colonic flexure.
  • 12 of the additional lesions were considered significant lesions (larger than 10 mm or tubulovillous adenoma), nine of these were located between the coecum and the right colonic flexure.
  • In 24 patients repeat colonoscopy detected adenomas not described in the original report.
  • In eight patients a total of 12 significant lesions were removed, nine of these were located between the coecum and the right colonic flexure.
  • About one-third of adenomas were missed in 40 routine colonoscopies, most of them only small and therefore probably of little clinical significance.
  • Adenomas in the right colon seem to be a particular problem.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Colonoscopy / statistics & numerical data. Medical Errors / prevention & control

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 20886425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-7803
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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45. Meza R, Jeon J, Renehan AG, Luebeck EG: Colorectal cancer incidence trends in the United States and United kingdom: evidence of right- to left-sided biological gradients with implications for screening. Cancer Res; 2010 Jul 1;70(13):5419-29
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  • Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) and the Office for National Statistics (ONS) registries (both 1973-2006), we derived stochastic multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) models for right-sided (proximal colon) and left-sided (distal colon and rectal) tumors.
  • The MSCE concept is based on the initiation-promotion-progression paradigm of carcinogenesis and provides a quantitative description of natural tumor development from the initiation of an adenoma (via biallelic tumor suppressor gene inactivation) to the clinical detection of CRC.
  • From 1,228,036 (SEER: 340,582; ONS: 887,454) cases, parameter estimates for models adjusted for calendar-year and birth-cohort effects showed that adenoma initiation rates were higher for right-sided tumors, whereas, paradoxically, adenoma growth rates were higher for left-sided tumors.
  • The net effect was a higher cancer risk in the right colon only after age 70 years.
  • Consistent with this finding, simulations of adenoma development predicted that the relative prevalence for right- versus left-sided tumors increases with increasing age, a differential effect most striking in women.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20530677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA107028-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107028; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107028-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107028-05A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA107028-05A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119224
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS205243; NLM/ PMC2914859
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46. Landau D, Garrett C, Chodkiewicz C: A case of primary squamous cell colon cancer. J Oncol Pharm Pract; 2007 Mar;13(1):47-8
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  • [Title] A case of primary squamous cell colon cancer.
  • Carcinomas of the colon are a common cancer seen in both inpatient and outpatient settings with approximately 145,000 new cases being diagnosed every year in the USA.
  • Despite the frequency of these cancers being seen, it continues to be a rarity to see a primary squamous cell cancer of the colon.
  • While the exact aetiology of this rare tumour is currently still not completely understood, various aetiologies include chronic irritation leading to squamous differentiation, embryonic migration of ectodermal cells to the colon, or adenomas undergoing squamous transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17621567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1552
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol Pharm Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Ono S, Fujishiro M, Goto O, Kodashima S, Omata M: Submerging endoscopic submucosal dissection leads to successful en bloc resection of colonic laterally spreading tumor with submucosal fat. Gut Liver; 2008 Dec;2(3):209-12
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  • [Title] Submerging endoscopic submucosal dissection leads to successful en bloc resection of colonic laterally spreading tumor with submucosal fat.
  • A 72-year-old female with a colonic laterally spreading tumor (LST) was referred to our department.
  • A total colonoscopy revealed a large nongranular LST, 30 mm in diameter, in the ascending colon.
  • The lesion was successfully resected en bloc without complications.
  • The pathological examination indicated the curative resection of a tubulovillous adenoma.
  • We propose that a submerged ESD could also be an effective procedure for colonic neoplasms with submucosal fat by avoiding blurring of the endoscopic view.

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  • (PMID = 20485649.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-1212
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut and liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut Liver
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2871645
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adipose tissue / Colonic neoplasms / Colonoscopy / Resection / Submucosa
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48. Paimela H, Malila N, Palva T, Hakulinen T, Vertio H, Järvinen H: Early detection of colorectal cancer with faecal occult blood test screening. Br J Surg; 2010 Oct;97(10):1567-71
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  • The prevalence of adenomas and colorectal cancer was 31.5 and 8.2 per cent respectively among the 806 subjects with a positive FOBT.
  • The tumour was located in the right colon in 28.9 per cent of the screened subjects and 22 per cent of controls (P = 0.255).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods. Female. Finland. Humans. Male. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Patient Compliance

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  • (PMID = 20603855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Hoffman A, Kagel C, Goetz M, Tresch A, Mudter J, Biesterfeld S, Galle PR, Neurath MF, Kiesslich R: Recognition and characterization of small colonic neoplasia with high-definition colonoscopy using i-Scan is as precise as chromoendoscopy. Dig Liver Dis; 2010 Jan;42(1):45-50
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  • [Title] Recognition and characterization of small colonic neoplasia with high-definition colonoscopy using i-Scan is as precise as chromoendoscopy.
  • METHODS: The last 30 cm of the colon in a screening population were inspected with HD+ alone, in combination with i-Scan (2:1 randomisation) and subsequently with chromoendoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Dig Liver Dis. 2010 Jan;42(1):18-9 [19955024.001]
  • (PMID = 19473893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
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50. Carneiro FP, Ramalho LN, Britto-Garcia S, Ribeiro-Silva A, Zucoloto S: Immunohistochemical expression of p16, p53, and p63 in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 May;49(5):588-94
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of p16, p53, and p63 in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of p16, p53, and p63 proteins according to some pathologic parameters related to colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas such as grade of dysplasia and histologic type.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry with the antibodies p16, p53, and p63 was performed in tubular, tubular-villous, and villous adenomas (n = 30) and in well, moderately, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas (n = 30).
  • RESULTS: The p16 and p53 labelings were observed in some adenomas and adenocarcinomas but without any association with p63 expression, histologic type, or grade of differentiation of the neoplasm.
  • P63 expression was found mainly in the villous adenomas and in the poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas.
  • However, p63 expression was closely associated with villous adenomas and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma. Adenoma. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16575619.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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51. Petersen M, Evert M, Schneider-Stock R, Pross M, Rüschoff J, Roessner A, Lippert H, Meyer F: Serous oligocystic adenoma (SOIA) of the pancreas--first reported case of a genetically fixed association in a patient with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(11):801-6
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  • [Title] Serous oligocystic adenoma (SOIA) of the pancreas--first reported case of a genetically fixed association in a patient with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).
  • One of these classified cystic neoplasms of the pancreas is serous oligocystic adenoma (SOIA), a rare and benign tumor lesion.
  • He had a medical history significant for subtotal colectomy because of a synchronous double colonic carcinoma.
  • Both tumor tissue specimens had been characterized for a high level of microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of hMLH1, as well as for a corresponding germ line mutation in hMLH1 gene, leading to the diagnosis of hereditary non-polyposis associated colon cancer (HNPCC).


52. Bastos P, Cardoso H, Ferreira F, Pimentel-Nunes P, Bartosch C, Souto-Moura C, Ribeiro A, Macedo G: Adenocarcinoma of the colon associated with hyperplastic polyposis. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Jun-Jul;33(6):470-1
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of the colon associated with hyperplastic polyposis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Villous / pathology. Adenoma, Villous / surgery. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / diagnosis. Adult. Colectomy. Colonoscopy. CpG Islands. DNA Methylation / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20363055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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53. Sacher-Huvelin S, Coron E, Gaudric M, Planche L, Benamouzig R, Maunoury V, Filoche B, Frédéric M, Saurin JC, Subtil C, Lecleire S, Cellier C, Coumaros D, Heresbach D, Galmiche JP: Colon capsule endoscopy vs. colonoscopy in patients at average or increased risk of colorectal cancer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2010 Nov;32(9):1145-53
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  • [Title] Colon capsule endoscopy vs. colonoscopy in patients at average or increased risk of colorectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is a new, non-invasive technology.
  • Colon cleanliness was excellent or good in 52% of cases at CCE.
  • CCE accuracy for the detection of polyps ≥ 6 mm was 39% (95% CI 30-48) for sensitivity, 88% (95% CI 85-91) for specificity, 47% (95% CI 37-57) for positive predictive value and 85% (95% CI 82-88) for negative predictive value.
  • CCE accuracy was better for the detection of advanced adenoma, in patients with good or excellent cleanliness and after re-interpretation of the CCE videos by an independent expert panel.
  • Further studies should pay attention to colonic preparation (Clinicaltrial.gov number NCT00436514).

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 21039676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2036
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00436514
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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54. Bouzourene H, Sandmeier D: [Sessile serrated adenoma: an underdiagnosed colonic polyp]. Rev Med Suisse; 2007 Jul 4;3(118):1702-4
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  • [Title] [Sessile serrated adenoma: an underdiagnosed colonic polyp].
  • [Transliterated title] L'adénome dentelé sessile, un polype colique à ne pas méconnaître.
  • Serrated polyps of the colon represent a large morphological spectrum of lesions.
  • They comprise the hyperplastic polyp considered as an innocuous lesion for many years, the traditional serrated adenoma presenting a potential of cancerisation and the recently described the sessile serrated adenoma which seems to be a potential precursor of colonic cancer with microsatellite instability and which probably uses an alternate polyp-neoplasia pathway in addition to the classical adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • The aims of this article intend to inform of new concept of colonic carcinogenesis, to be aware of a serrated colonic polyp entity recently described and to use a same nomenclature to facilitate the dialogue between pathologists and clinicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17726906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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55. Douma KF, Aaronson NK, Vasen HF, Bleiker EM: Psychosocial issues in genetic testing for familial adenomatous polyposis: a review of the literature. Psychooncology; 2008 Aug;17(8):737-45
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  • [Title] Psychosocial issues in genetic testing for familial adenomatous polyposis: a review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the development of multiple adenomas in the colon that can lead to colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / genetics. Adenomatous Polyps / psychology. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / psychology. Genetic Techniques / instrumentation


56. Lee EJ, Choi C, Park CK, Maeng L, Lee J, Lee A, Kim KM: Tracing origin of serrated adenomas with BRAF and KRAS mutations. Virchows Arch; 2005 Sep;447(3):597-602
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  • [Title] Tracing origin of serrated adenomas with BRAF and KRAS mutations.
  • To characterize serrated neoplasia pathway, we investigated BRAF and KRAS mutations in 35 traditional serrated adenomas.
  • BRAF V599E mutation was found in 27 serrated adenomas (77.1%), and KRAS mutations were found in 3 (8.6%) of 35 traditional serrated adenomas.
  • In 13 cases, mixed polyps composed of traditional serrated adenomas and hyperplastic (serrated) polyps were observed, and seven of them showed the same BRAF mutations in both components.
  • These findings suggest that BRAF mutations are early and a critical event in the serrated adenomas, and most serrated adenomas in both sides of colon may progress from microvesicular hyperplastic polyps via BRAF mutations, and some left-sided serrated adenomas develop via KRAS mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics

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  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras); EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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57. Hai S, Yamamoto S, Tanaka H, Takemura S, Ichikawa T, Kodai S, Shinkawa H, Yamamoto T, Kubo S: Adenomyoma of the common hepatic duct mimicking bile duct cancer: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(7):608-11
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Hepatic Duct, Common

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  • (PMID = 17593484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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58. Celestino C, Harz C, Decaestecker J, Sáenz R: Endoscopic treatment of an iatrogenic perforation of the colon by using endoloop. Gastrointest Endosc; 2006 Oct;64(4):653-4
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  • [Title] Endoscopic treatment of an iatrogenic perforation of the colon by using endoloop.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Colonoscopes. Iatrogenic Disease. Intestinal Perforation / surgery. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Suture Techniques / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 16996368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Terhaar sive Droste JS, van Wanrooij RL, Morsink LM, van der Hulst RW, Craanen ME, Bartelsman JW, Meijer GA, Mulder CJ: [Diagnosis of colorectal tumours in daily clinical practice: comparison of colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2009;153:A731
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  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostiek van colorectale tumoren in de dagelijkse praktijk. Vergelijking van coloscopie en sigmoïdoscopie.
  • The locations and the histological features of all colonic neoplasia and the indications for endoscopy were recorded.
  • Advanced neoplasm was defined as adenoma >or=10 mm in size, an adenoma with any villous features, or high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma.
  • Of the advanced neoplasia found on colonoscopy, 67% were located in the distal colon and 33% in the proximal colon.
  • Of the patients with advanced neoplasia in the proximal colon (n = 228), 51% had no abnormalities in the distal colon.
  • The percentage of advanced neoplasia in the proximal colon varied from 23% in patients younger than 50 years to 41% in patients aged 80 years and older.
  • Depending on the indication for endoscopy, the prevalence of advanced neoplasia in the proximal colon varied from 11-57%.
  • CONCLUSION: Of the advanced colorectal neoplasms 33% were located in the proximal colon.
  • With increasing age, a shift in tumour localization occurs from distal to proximal in the colon.

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  • (PMID = 20003556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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60. Galamb O: [mRNA expression analysis and classification of colonic biopsy samples using oligonucleotide and cDNA microarray techniques]. Orv Hetil; 2008 Jul 20;149(29):1373-7
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  • [Title] [mRNA expression analysis and classification of colonic biopsy samples using oligonucleotide and cDNA microarray techniques].
  • We have shown that the sequential overexpression of osteopontin and osteonectin mRNAs and proteins significantly correlates with the progression of the colorectal adenoma-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence.
  • We have identified and validated ten novel markers with continuously increasing mRNA expression in line with the adenoma-dysplasia-carcinoma transition.
  • We have identified the top 27, 13 and 10 genes associated with adenoma, colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Colon / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Osteonectin / metabolism. Osteopontin / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression. Humans. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / genetics. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18617470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Osteonectin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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61. Redente EF, Orlicky DJ, Bouchard RJ, Malkinson AM: Tumor signaling to the bone marrow changes the phenotype of monocytes and pulmonary macrophages during urethane-induced primary lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. Am J Pathol; 2007 Feb;170(2):693-708
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  • Neutrophils infiltrated the alveoli of tumor-bearing lungs and within the periphery of macroscopic adenomas and adenocarcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 17255336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA033497; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096133; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33497; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA96133
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinogens; 3IN71E75Z5 / Urethane; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nos2 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1851863
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62. Strum WB: Impact of adenoma size in distal colon on risk for advanced adenoma of the proximal colon. Dig Dis Sci; 2006 Nov;51(11):2064-7
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  • [Title] Impact of adenoma size in distal colon on risk for advanced adenoma of the proximal colon.
  • Adenomas of the rectosigmoid colon are considered markers of risk for advanced adenomas of the proximal colon.
  • This study was designed to determine the risk for advanced adenomas in the proximal colon in patients from a large, homogeneous population with an advanced or nonadvanced adenoma of the distal colon.
  • We designed a prospective study of 7157 patients who were evaluated for neoplasia by flexible sigmoidoscopy and, when adenomas were found, by colonoscopy.
  • Adenomas were considered advanced if they were > or =10 mm in size or had villous or dysplastic features.
  • Ninety-seven patients had an advanced adenoma of the distal colon (Group A) and were compared with 183 patients who had a nonadvanced adenoma (Group B).
  • Seven patients (7.2%) in Group A had an advanced adenoma of the proximal colon, compared with four patients (2.2%) in Group B (P < 0.05, relative risk = 3.3).
  • When patients with adenomas of the distal colon >5 mm (Group C) were compared to patients with adenomas < or =5 mm (Group D), the prevalence of advanced adenomas of the proximal colon remained at 7% (10/143) for Group C but fell to 0.73% (1/137) for Group D (P = 0.011, relative risk = 9.6).
  • By expanding the criteria for risk from adenomas of the distal colon to include all adenomas >5 mm, the relative risk for advanced adenoma of the proximal colon was increased threefold.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17021962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Robertson DJ, Sandler RS, Haile R, Tosteson TD, Greenberg ER, Grau M, Baron JA: Fat, fiber, meat and the risk of colorectal adenomas. Am J Gastroenterol; 2005 Dec;100(12):2789-95
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  • [Title] Fat, fiber, meat and the risk of colorectal adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between fat, fiber, and meat intake, and risk of colorectal adenoma recurrence.
  • METHODS: We determined adenoma recurrence and dietary intake for 1,520 participants in two randomized trials: The Antioxidant Polyp Prevention Study and Calcium Polyp Prevention Study.
  • Subjects underwent baseline colonoscopy with removal of all adenomas, and dietary intake was estimated with a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.
  • Pooled risk ratios for adenoma recurrence were obtained by generalized linear regression, with adjustment for age, sex, clinical center, treatment category, study, and duration of observation.
  • RESULTS: In the total colorectum, fiber intake was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with a risk for all adenomas (RR quartile 4 vs quartile 1=0.85, 95% CI 0.69-1.05) and advanced adenomas (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.54-1.44).
  • Associations were stronger for adenomas in the proximal colon (RR=0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.97) and some fiber subtypes (fruit and vegetable, grain).
  • There was no association between fat or total red meat intake and risk of adenoma or advanced adenoma recurrence.
  • However, when considering other meats, risk (quartile 4 vs quartile 1) for advanced adenoma was increased for processed meat (RR=1.75, 95% CI 1.02-2.99) and decreased for chicken (RR=0.61, 95% CI 0.38-0.98).
  • CONCLUSION: The inverse associations between fiber intake and risk of adenoma recurrence we observed are weak, and not statistically significant.
  • Our data indicate that intake of specific meats may have different effects on risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Diet. Dietary Fats / adverse effects. Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16393237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46927
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Fats
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64. Ravizza D, Fiori G, Trovato C, Maisonneuve P, Bocciolone L, Crosta C: Is colonoscopy a suitable investigation in the preoperative staging of ovarian cancer patients? Dig Liver Dis; 2005 Jan;37(1):57-61
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  • AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of preoperative colonoscopy in ovarian cancer patients and the prevalence of adenomas in this population.
  • All the polyps observed were removed.
  • Thirty-six adenomas were removed in 26 (20%) women.
  • An increased prevalence of adenomas was not observed in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / secondary. Colonoscopy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colon / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15702861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8658
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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65. García Sánchez Mdel V, González R, Iglesias Flores E, Gómez Camacho F, Casais Juanena L, Cerezo Ruiz A, Montero Pérez-Barquero M, Muntané J, de Dios Vega JF: [Diagnostic value of fecal calprotectin in predicting an abnormal colonoscopy]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Jun 10;127(2):41-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Precisión diagnóstica de la calprotectina fecal para predecir una colonoscopia patológica.
  • The colonoscopy is the gold standard method of detecting an organic pathology in the colon.
  • Fecal calprotectin (FCP) is a marker that may detect organic pathologies of the colon.
  • People were divided in: normal colonoscopy: 117 people, and 28 colon adenomas, 20 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 25 IBD.
  • 217 mg/kg was the best cut-off for discriminating patients with organic colon disorders.
  • The measurement of FCP is a non-invasive, inexpensive, reliable and easily measured test.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Diseases / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonoscopy. Feces / chemistry. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / diagnosis. Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16801001.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
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66. Galamb O, Spisák S, Sipos F, Tóth K, Solymosi N, Wichmann B, Krenács T, Valcz G, Tulassay Z, Molnár B: Reversal of gene expression changes in the colorectal normal-adenoma pathway by NS398 selective COX2 inhibitor. Br J Cancer; 2010 Feb 16;102(4):765-73
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  • [Title] Reversal of gene expression changes in the colorectal normal-adenoma pathway by NS398 selective COX2 inhibitor.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Treatment of colorectal adenomas with selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors can contribute to the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the molecular background of their effect is not fully understood.
  • METHODS: HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells were treated with NS398, and global mRNA expression was analysed on HGU133Plus2.0 microarrays.
  • Discriminatory transcripts between normal and adenoma and between adenoma and CRC biopsy samples were identified using HGU133Plus2.0 microarrays.
  • RESULTS: Between normal and adenoma samples, 20 classifiers were identified, including overexpressed cadherin 3, KIAA1199, and downregulated peptide YY, glucagon, claudin 8.
  • CONCLUSION: NS398 has a reversal effect on the expression of several genes that altered in colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • NS398 more efficiently inverted the expression changes seen in the normal-adenoma than in the normal-carcinoma transition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Colon / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Nitrobenzenes / pharmacology. Sulfonamides / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 20087348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Nitrobenzenes; 0 / Sulfonamides; 123653-11-2 / N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methanesulfonamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2837560
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67. Yuan B, Jin X, Zhu R, Zhang X, Liu J, Wan H, Lu H, Shen Y, Wang F: Cronkhite-Canada syndrome associated with rib fractures: a case report. BMC Gastroenterol; 2010;10:121
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  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, video capsule endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed various sizes of generalized gastrointestinal polyps.
  • Histological examination of the biopsy specimens obtained from the stomach and the colon showed adenomatous polyp and inflammatory polyp respectively.

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  • (PMID = 20955587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2972238
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68. Guz J, Foksinski M, Siomek A, Gackowski D, Rozalski R, Dziaman T, Szpila A, Olinski R: The relationship between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine level and extent of cytosine methylation in leukocytes DNA of healthy subjects and in patients with colon adenomas and carcinomas. Mutat Res; 2008 Apr 2;640(1-2):170-3
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  • [Title] The relationship between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine level and extent of cytosine methylation in leukocytes DNA of healthy subjects and in patients with colon adenomas and carcinomas.
  • Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess a possible link between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) background level and 5-methylcytosine content in DNA from human leukocytes of healthy subjects (n=105) as well as in patients with colon adenomas (n=39) and carcinomas (n=50).
  • The mean content of 5-methylcytosine was significantly lower, while 8-oxodG level was significantly higher in leukocytes DNA of patients with colon adenomas and carcinomas in comparison with healthy subjects.
  • The mean values for 5-methylcytosine were: 3.59+/-0.173% (healthy subjects), 3.38+/-0.128% (patients with adenomas), 3.40+/-0.208% (colon cancer patients).
  • DNA from affected tissue (colon) suffered from significant, about 10% reduction in cytosine methylation in comparison with leukocytes of the paired subjects.
  • [MeSH-major] 5-Methylcytosine / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 18281064.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6R795CQT4H / 5-Methylcytosine; 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; 8J337D1HZY / Cytosine; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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69. Gunter MJ, Hayes RB, Chatterjee N, Yeager M, Welch R, Schoen RE, Yakochi L, Schatzkin A, Peters U: Insulin resistance-related genes and advanced left-sided colorectal adenoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Apr;16(4):703-8
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  • [Title] Insulin resistance-related genes and advanced left-sided colorectal adenoma.
  • METHODS: We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the INS, INSR, IRS1, and IRS2 genes are associated with risk of advanced left-sided colorectal adenoma, a cancer precursor.
  • We analyzed 20 SNPs in a largely Caucasian study population comprising 766 cases with advanced adenomas of the distal colon and 771 controls, all of whom had undergone flexible sigmoidoscopy as part of the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.
  • RESULTS: Overall, we found limited evidence for a role of gene variants of the insulin signaling pathway and prevalence of advanced colorectal adenoma.
  • We observed a statistically significant interaction between INSR genotypes and body mass index (BMI) with colorectal adenoma prevalence (P value for global test = 0.003) and suggestion of an interaction between INSR genotypes and glycemic load (P value for global test = 0.06); however, exploration of the interaction of BMI and glycemic load with the individual SNPs in INSR did not suggest a single SNP that may explain the significance of these global tests of interaction and did not yield any consistent patterns.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings do not provide strong evidence for associations between polymorphic variation in genes of the insulin signaling pathway and advanced left-sided colorectal adenoma.
  • Evidence for interaction between INSR variants and BMI and glycemic load for risk of advanced left-sided colorectal adenoma requires independent confirmation, and genotyping of INSR across a broader region and at greater density may be necessary to fully elucidate the nature of these interactions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Insulin Resistance / genetics. Receptor, Insulin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17416760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Insulin
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70. Micheletto G, Sciannamea I, Zanoni A, Panizzo V, Rubino B, Danelli P: [Intestinal neuroendocrine tumor. Case report and review of the literature]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Jul-Aug;80(4):319-24
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  • Symptoms are non specific; the most common are abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, weight loss and gastrointestinal (GI) blood loss.
  • Here we report a case of a 73-year-old male with an adenomatous colonic polyp, not suitable of endoscopic treatment, and a synchronous carcinoid of small intestine discovered during surgical procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Carcinoid Tumor. Colonic Polyps. Ileal Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Sigmoid Neoplasms


71. Schick V, Franzius C, Beyna T, Oei ML, Schnekenburger J, Weckesser M, Domschke W, Schober O, Heindel W, Pohle T, Juergens KU: Diagnostic impact of 18F-FDG PET-CT evaluating solid pancreatic lesions versus endosonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography with intraductal ultrasonography and abdominal ultrasound. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2008 Oct;35(10):1775-85
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  • PET-CT revealed cervical lymphonodal metastasis from occult bronchogenic carcinoma and a tubular colon adenoma with intermediate dysplasia on polypectomy, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 18481063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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72. Fre S, Pallavi SK, Huyghe M, Laé M, Janssen KP, Robine S, Artavanis-Tsakonas S, Louvard D: Notch and Wnt signals cooperatively control cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the intestine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Apr 14;106(15):6309-14
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  • We also demonstrate a striking synergy between Notch and Wnt signals that results in inducing the formation of intestinal adenomas, particularly in the colon, a region rarely affected in available mouse tumor models, but the primary target organ in human patients.

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  • (PMID = 19251639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098402; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R37 NS026084; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS026084; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098402; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS26084
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / TCF Transcription Factors; 0 / Tcf4 protein, mouse; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / Wnt1 Protein; 0 / wg protein, Drosophila
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2649205
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73. Tzouvala M, Lazaris AC, Papatheodoridis GV, Kouvidou C, Papathomas TG, Kavantzas N, Elemenoglou I, Karamanolis DG, Agapitos E: Potential role of apoptosis and apoptotic regulatory proteins in colorectal neoplasia: correlations with clinico-pathological parameters and survival. Dig Dis Sci; 2008 Feb;53(2):451-60
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  • Biopsies from 46 colorectal cancers, 121 adenomas, and 25 controls were studied using monoclonal antibodies against p53, bcl-2, mdm2 and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method for apoptosis.
  • P53 and bcl2 protein expression was higher in adenomas >or=1 cm (P < 0.03) and tubulovillous-villous adenomas (P < 0.03), and correlated with dysplasia (P < 0.03).
  • In conclusion, both bcl-2 and p53 immunohistochemical profiles may be useful adjuncts in detecting adenomas with a malignant potential, whereas bcl-2 could be used in combination with Dukes' stage as a predictor of prognosis in colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Apoptosis / physiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17562177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.3.2.27 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 2.3.2.27 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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74. Scott RH, Mansour S, Pritchard-Jones K, Kumar D, MacSweeney F, Rahman N: Medulloblastoma, acute myelocytic leukemia and colonic carcinomas in a child with biallelic MSH6 mutations. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2007 Feb;4(2):130-4
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  • [Title] Medulloblastoma, acute myelocytic leukemia and colonic carcinomas in a child with biallelic MSH6 mutations.
  • Background A 13-year-old girl presented with rectal bleeding and was found to have two colonic carcinomas (stage Dukes' C) and multiple colonic polyps.
  • A three-generation family history identified no relatives with colonic carcinomas or polyposis.
  • Investigations Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on a sample of colonic adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics


75. Lenhard K, Bommer GT, Asutay S, Schauer R, Brabletz T, Göke B, Lamerz R, Kolligs FT: Analysis of promoter methylation in stool: a novel method for the detection of colorectal cancer. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Feb;3(2):142-9
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  • We explored the potential of a single epigenetic marker in comparison with fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) for the discrimination of patients with CRCs and adenomas from those without.
  • METHODS: Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to analyze hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1) promoter methylation status in a blinded fashion in stool samples from 26 patients with CRC, 13 with adenoma > or =1 cm, 9 with hyperplastic polyps, 9 with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and 32 with endoscopically normal colon.
  • Forty-two percent of the samples from patients with CRC and 31% of the samples from patients with colorectal adenoma > or =1 cm were positive for HIC1 promoter methylation.
  • No methylated HIC1 promoter DNA was detected in the fecal DNA from patients with endoscopically normal colon or hyperplastic polyps.
  • We postulate that a panel of merely a few genetic and epigenetic markers will be required for the highly sensitive and specific detection of CRCs and adenomas in fecal samples from affected patients.

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  • (PMID = 15704048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-3565
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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76. Yuri M, Sasahira T, Nakai K, Ishimaru S, Ohmori H, Kuniyasu H: Reversal of expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 to cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with development of colonic cancer. Histopathology; 2007 Oct;51(4):520-7
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  • [Title] Reversal of expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 to cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with development of colonic cancer.
  • AIMS: Two different pathways of linoleic acid (LA) metabolism have opposite effects on the development of colonic cancer: a protumoral prostaglandin cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and an antitumoral peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligands metabolized by 15-lipooxygenase (LOX)-1.
  • The aim was to examine the switching of the two LA metabolic pathways in colonic adenomas and carcinomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of 15LOX-1 mRNA and COX-2 protein was examined in 54 adenomas, 21 pTis carcinoma-in-adenoma lesions and 36 pT3/p Stage II carcinomas of the colon by in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
  • RESULTS: 15LOX-1 expression was found in 89% (48 of 54) of adenomas, 43% (nine of 21) of adenomas and 10% (two of 21) of carcinomas in carcinoma-in-adenoma lesions, but not in pT3 carcinomas (P < 0.0001).
  • In contrast, COX-2 production was found in 11% (six of 54) of adenomas, 52% (11 of 21) of adenomas and 71% (15 of 21) of carcinomas in carcinoma-in-adenoma lesions, and 92% (33 of 36) of pT3 carcinomas (P < 0.0001).
  • Concurrence of 15LOX-1 down-regulation and COX-2 up-regulation was found in 6% (three of 54) of adenomas, 33% (seven of 21) of adenomas and 71% (15 of 21) of carcinomas in carcinoma-in-adenoma lesions, and 92% (33 of 36) of pT3 carcinomas (P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that switching of LA metabolism by reversal of the expression of 15LOX-1 and COX-2 is associated with acquisition of malignant potential in colonic neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LINOLEIC ACID .
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  • (PMID = 17711445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9KJL21T0QJ / Linoleic Acid; EC 1.13.11.33 / Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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77. Tomita T: Immunocytochemical localization of lymphatic and venous vessels in colonic polyps and adenomas. Dig Dis Sci; 2008 Jul;53(7):1880-5
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  • [Title] Immunocytochemical localization of lymphatic and venous vessels in colonic polyps and adenomas.
  • Using lymphatic vessels endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) immunocytochemical staining, hyperplastic polyps, tubular adenomas to villous adenomas, were investigated for lymphatic vessels compared with immunostained blood vessels using factor-8.
  • Four cases each of hyperplastic polyps, tubular adenomas to villous adenomas, were routinely fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin and were immunostained using goat anti-LYVE-1 for lymphatic vessels and rabbit anti-factor-8 for blood vessels.
  • In normal colon and hyperplastic polyps, slender lymphatic vessels were noted in muscularis mucosa, which spread into the base of colonic crypt, whereas round venous vessels, they extend into lamina propria.
  • In tubular adenomas, small lymphatic and venous vessels were noted in broad fibrous stalks.
  • In villous adenomas, smaller lymphatic and venous vessels were noted in fine intervillous stroma.
  • In normal colon and hyperplastic polyps, slender, irregularly shaped lymphatic vessels were present in muscularis mucosa, spreading into the base of the colonic crypt.
  • In tubular adenomas, small lymphatic and venous vessels were noted in fibrous stalks.
  • In villous adenomas, smaller lymphatic and venous vessels were noted in intervillous stroma.
  • There are no increased lymphatic and venous vessels in intermucosal stroma and stalks of adenomas compared with normal colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood supply. Colonic Neoplasms / blood supply. Colonic Polyps. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Vessels. Veins

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  • (PMID = 17990106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LYVE1 protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins
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78. Wang TD, Friedland S, Sahbaie P, Soetikno R, Hsiung PL, Liu JT, Crawford JM, Contag CH: Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;5(11):1300-5
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  • [Title] Functional imaging of colonic mucosa with a fibered confocal microscope for real-time in vivo pathology.
  • The aim of this study was to show the use of functional optical imaging of viable mucosa for quantitative evaluation of colonic neoplasia in real time.
  • RESULTS: Normal mucosa showed circular crypts with uniform size, hyperplasia revealed proliferative glands with serrated lumens, and adenomas displayed distorted elongated glands.
  • Passage of fluorescein through adenomatous mucosa was delayed substantially.
  • For t greater than 5 seconds, high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was achieved using a discriminant function to evaluate the contrast ratio to distinguish normal from lesional mucosa (91%, 87%, and 89%, respectively; P < .001), hyperplasia from adenoma (97%, 96%, and 96%, respectively; P < .001), and tubular from villous adenoma (100%, 92%, and 93%, respectively; P < .001).

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  • (PMID = 17936692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK067618-04; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK067618; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA105296; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK067618-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK067618-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; TPY09G7XIR / Fluorescein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS34014; NLM/ PMC2104519
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79. Fujimori S, Kishida T, Kobayashi T, Sekita Y, Seo T, Nagata K, Tatsuguchi A, Gudis K, Yokoi K, Tanaka N, Yamashita K, Tajiri T, Ohaki Y, Sakamoto C: Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma, especially in women. J Gastroenterol; 2005 Sep;40(9):887-93
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  • [Title] Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma, especially in women.
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the association between H. pylori infection and the risk of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma, and to evaluate any differences on the basis of sex.
  • The odds ratios (ORs) for H. pylori-positive patients with colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma, and for tumor patients with either adenoma or adenocarcinoma were calculated.
  • RESULTS: Among the H. pylori-negative patients, there were 52 patients without tumor, 63 with adenoma, 27 with adenocarcinoma, and 90 with tumor.
  • Pooling all subjects, those infected with H. pylori had a significantly increased OR for adenoma, adenocarcinoma, or tumor, compared to H. pylori-free patients (OR, 1.60, 1.80, and 1.66, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results therefore suggest that, in patients aged 40-80 years, H. pylori infection increased the risk of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma, with significantly higher risks for female patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenoma / etiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Helicobacter Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16211345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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80. Fujimoto T, Yoshimatsu K, Watanabe K, Yokomizo H, Otani T, Matsumoto A, Osawa G, Onda M, Ogawa K: Overexpression of human X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Anticancer Res; 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1A):127-31
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  • [Title] Overexpression of human X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas.
  • Recently, overexpression of XBP-1 has been reported in breast cancer including non-invasive carcinomas, and was suggested to play an important role in breast carcinogenesis.
  • To investigate the involvement of XBP-1 in colorectal tumorigenecity, the expression of XBP-1 was examined in four colon cancer cell lines, six colorectal polyps and five colorectal carcinomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of eleven patients who had undergone resection for colorectal cancer or adenoma from 2000 to 2002.
  • Four colon cancer cell lines, DLD1, SW480, HCT15 and WiDr, were also analyzed for expression of XBP-1.
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed using eleven primary colon tumors.
  • RESULTS: The XBP-1 gene was overexpressed in four cases out of five primary colorectal carcinomas and in four cases out of six colorectal adenomas.
  • Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that XBP-1 protein was strongly stained in the cytoplasms of cancer cells, whereas it was unreactive in the normal colon epithelial cells and stromal cells.
  • CONCLUSION: These data indicate that increased expression of XBP-1 gene may play some role in human colon carcinogenesis through impairment of cell differentiation regulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17352224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / regulatory factor X transcription factors
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81. Noguera Aguilar JF, Amengual Antich I, Morón Canis JM, Plaza Martínez A, Martínez Córcoles JA, Tortajada Collado C, Pujol Tugores JJ: Effect of rofecoxib on colon chemical carcinogenesis at colonic anastomotic area in the rat. Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2005 Jun;97(6):405-15
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  • [Title] Effect of rofecoxib on colon chemical carcinogenesis at colonic anastomotic area in the rat.
  • AIM: To investigate the effect of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor rofecoxib on the incidence of perianastomotic colonic tumors in a model of chemical carcinogenesis in the rat.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Experimental study with 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of three groups: control (n = 15) with colocolic anastomosis and chemical carcinogenesis with 1-2 dimethylhydrazine (1-2 DMH); rofecoxib 0.0027% (n = 15) with colonic anastomosis, chemical carcinogenesis and the addition of dietary rofecoxib at doses of 27 parts per million (ppm), and rofecoxib 0.0058% (n = 15) with colonic anastomosis, chemical carcinogenesis and the addition of dietary rofecoxib at doses of 58 ppm.
  • Carcinogenic induction was performed with 1-2 DMH at a weekly dose of 25 mg/kg of weight for 18 weeks, and colonic tumors induced were analyzed in postoperative week 20.
  • The main parameter evaluated was the percentage of colonic neoplastic tissue, which relates tumor surface area to the colon's surface area.
  • RESULTS: Rofecoxib at doses of 2.5 mg/kg or 0.0058 ppm significantly reduced chemical colon carcinogenesis in rats, both in the perianastomotic area and the rest of the colon (p < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rofecoxib causes a reduction in chemical colon carcinogenesis in rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Adenoma / prevention & control. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Lactones / therapeutic use. Sulfones / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16011415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-0108
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Enferm Dig
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Sulfones; 0QTW8Z7MCR / rofecoxib
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82. Ashktorab H, Brim H, Al-Riyami M, Date A, Al-Mawaly K, Kashoub M, Al-Mjeni R, Smoot DT, Al-Moundhri M, Al-Hashemi S, Ganguly SS, Raeburn S: Sporadic colon cancer: mismatch repair immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability in Omani subjects. Dig Dis Sci; 2008 Oct;53(10):2723-31
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  • [Title] Sporadic colon cancer: mismatch repair immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability in Omani subjects.
  • We assessed colonic cancers in an attempt to identify tumors with DNA MMR deficiency and microsatellite instability (MSI).
  • Colon cancer tissue was assayed using immunohistochemistry for expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2, and a panel of five pairs of microsatellite primers (NR21, NR22, NR24, BAT25, and BAT26) for MSI-H analysis and additional dinucleotide markers (D17S250, D5S346, and D2S123) used for MSI-L.
  • The methylation status of the p16 promoter was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • The information currently available indicates that there is an incidence of 4.7% colon cancer (49/1036) and 12.1% (126/1290) colon adenoma among the cases who underwent colonoscopy at these centers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Mismatch Repair. Microsatellite Instability

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  • (PMID = 18299982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102681
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutL Protein Homolog 1; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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83. Varker KA, Campbell J, Shah MH: Phase II study of thalidomide in patients with metastatic carcinoid and islet cell tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;61(4):661-8
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  • The majority of the patients had gastrointestinal primaries (small bowel, 8; pancreas, 5; colon, 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Islet Cell / drug therapy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Thalidomide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17589846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Pancreatic Hormones; 106477-83-2 / pancreastatin; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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84. Crispin A, Birkner B, Munte A, Nusko G, Mansmann U: Process quality and incidence of acute complications in a series of more than 230,000 outpatient colonoscopies. Endoscopy; 2009 Dec;41(12):1018-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Colon preparation resulted in clear bowels in 76.31 % of patients, liquid residues in 22.22 %, and dirty bowels in 1.47 %.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adenoma / diagnosis. Aged. Colon / injuries. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Female. Heart Diseases / etiology. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Intestinal Perforation / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Respiration Disorders / etiology. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
  • (PMID = 19856246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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85. Takahashi T, Nosho K, Yamamoto H, Mikami M, Taniguchi H, Miyamoto N, Adachi Y, Itoh F, Imai K, Shinomura Y: Flat-type colorectal advanced adenomas (laterally spreading tumors) have different genetic and epigenetic alterations from protruded-type advanced adenomas. Mod Pathol; 2007 Jan;20(1):139-47
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  • [Title] Flat-type colorectal advanced adenomas (laterally spreading tumors) have different genetic and epigenetic alterations from protruded-type advanced adenomas.
  • Morphologically, colorectal adenomas can be divided into two groups, protruded-type and flat-type.
  • However, the accurate frequencies of genetic and epigenetic alterations in flat-type colorectal advanced adenomas (laterally spreading tumors) have remained largely unknown.
  • In the current study, we investigated genetic and epigenetic alterations in 101 flat-type colorectal advanced adenomas and 68 protruded-type colorectal advanced adenomas by using direct DNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (MethyLight), respectively.
  • KRAS mutation was detected in a significantly higher percentage of flat-type adenomas (35%) than in protruded-type adenomas (13%).
  • When the samples were limited to the tumors in the distal colon, the difference of KRAS mutation was still significant.
  • KRAS mutation in G-to-A transitions at codons 12 and 13 was detected in a significantly higher percentage of flat-type adenomas (26%) than in protruded-type adenomas (9%).
  • BRAF and beta-catenin mutations were detected in 3 and 8% of the 101 flat-type adenomas, respectively.
  • No significant difference was found between frequencies of those mutations in flat-type adenomas and protruded-type adenomas.
  • Methylations of MGMT, CDKN2A (p16) and MLH1 were detected in 28, 33 and 9% of the 101 flat-type adenomas, respectively.
  • CDKN2A methylation was detected in a significantly lower percentage of flat-type adenomas than in protruded-type adenomas (63%).
  • Methylation of at least one gene was detected in a significantly lower percentage of flat-type adenomas (54%) than in protruded-type adenomas (78%).
  • In conclusion, KRAS mutation was frequently detected in flat-type advanced adenomas and the mutational patterns in most of them with KRAS mutations were a transition from G-to-A.
  • Therefore, these genetic alterations seem to play an important role in the development of flat-type advanced adenomas, especially in the distal colon.
  • Epigenetic alterations infrequently occurred in flat-type advanced adenomas, suggesting that they have different genetic and epigenetic alterations from those of protruded-type advanced adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. DNA Methylation. Epigenesis, Genetic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic

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  • (PMID = 17143260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; JAC85A2161 / Adenine
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86. Nusko G, Hahn EG, Mansmann U: Characteristics of metachronous colorectal adenomas found during long-term follow-up: analysis of four subsequent generations of adenoma recurrence. Scand J Gastroenterol; 2009;44(6):736-44
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  • [Title] Characteristics of metachronous colorectal adenomas found during long-term follow-up: analysis of four subsequent generations of adenoma recurrence.
  • OBJECTIVE: Because of the high recurrence rates of colorectal adenomas, regular surveillance by colonoscopy has been recommended, but there is still a dearth of information on the long-term results of follow-up colonoscopy after polypectomy.
  • The aims of this study were to determine the differences between initial adenomas and metachronous lesions, to evaluate the effect of long-term surveillance and to describe the hypothetical origin of the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1978 and 2003 a total of 1091 patients undergoing periodic surveillance examinations were prospectively documented at the Erlangen Registry of Colorectal Polyps.
  • Statistical analysis using chi(2) testing of adenoma characteristics found in four subsequent recurrence periods was carried out, and the relative risk (RR) for the development of metachronous adenomas of advanced pathology was calculated.
  • RESULTS: In comparison with the initial findings, metachronous adenomas are generally significantly smaller lesions (p<0.00001), usually tubular in shape (p<0.00001) and bearing high-grade dysplasia less often (p<0.00001) and are usually located in the right colon (p<0.00001).
  • These differences are found between the initial and four subsequent generations of metachronous adenomas.
  • The number of synchronous adenomas is reduced only in the first recurrence (p<0.001); in the further generations equal proportions of multiplicity are found, as in the baseline examination.
  • Patients with adenomas of advanced pathology, i.e. large, tubulovillous or villous adenomas at baseline, have a significantly higher risk for large (RR 2.73; 95% CI 1.77-4.20), tubulovillous or villous (RR 1.55; 95% CI 1.06-2.25) or multiple (RR 2.45; 95% CI 1.83-3.29) metachronous adenomas at the first recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metachronous adenomas show the uniform characteristics of being small tubular lesions rarely bearing high-grade dysplasia, usually located in the right colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary

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  • (PMID = 19277927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1502-7708
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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87. Yoshida I, Suzuki A, Vallée M, Matano Y, Masunaga T, Zenda T, Shinozaki K, Okada T: Serum insulin levels and the prevalence of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps in the proximal colon. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Oct;4(10):1225-31
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  • [Title] Serum insulin levels and the prevalence of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps in the proximal colon.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with an increased incidence of proximal colon cancer.
  • Colonic adenoma that has been reported to be associated with elevated serum insulin levels and subsets of hyperplastic polyps might serve as a precursor of colon cancer.
  • In this study, we sought to determine segment-specific associations between serum insulin levels and the prevalence of adenoma and hyperplastic polyps in the proximal and distal colon.
  • We performed multinomial logistic regression models by using the outcome categories of none (reference), proximal-only, distal-only, and both-segment lesions for the presence of adenoma/hyperplastic polyp with serum insulin, age, gender, lifestyle characteristics, and the presence of other types of lesions as predictors.
  • RESULTS: Overall, serum insulin levels were significantly associated with adenoma (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0; P = .005) and borderline associated with hyperplastic polyps (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7; P = .075).
  • In multinomial logistic regression models, elevated serum insulin levels were significantly associated with proximal-only adenoma (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.5; P = .002), both-side hyperplastic polyp (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5; P = .015), and proximal-only hyperplastic polyp (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1; P = .048) and borderline associated with distal-only adenoma (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1; P =.059) but not with distal-only hyperplastic polyp.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serum insulin levels directly correlate with the presence of adenoma and hyperplastic polyps in the proximal colon and might also less strongly correlate with the presence of distal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Colonic Polyps / blood. Colonic Polyps / epidemiology. Insulin / blood

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Jan;5(1):137
  • (PMID = 16979948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-3565
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Insulin
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88. Ivanov D, Toyonaga T: The first case of endoscopic submucosal dissection of cecal adenoma in Serbia. Med Pregl; 2009 Jan-Feb;62(1-2):27-30
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  • [Title] The first case of endoscopic submucosal dissection of cecal adenoma in Serbia.
  • In 2006, we performed a colonic ESD in Serbia.
  • The adenoma was removed en bloc and prepared for further histopathological examination.
  • Histopathological examination showed that the tumor was a "flat adenoma" of the colon mucosa with a low grade dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Cecal Neoplasms / surgery. Colonoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19514597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pregl.
  • [Language] eng; srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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89. Phelps RA, Broadbent TJ, Stafforini DM, Jones DA: New perspectives on APC control of cell fate and proliferation in colorectal cancer. Cell Cycle; 2009 Aug 15;8(16):2549-56
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  • Aberrant Wnt/beta-catenin signaling following loss of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is thought to initiate colon adenoma formation.
  • However, examination of tumors from familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) patients has failed to confirm the presence of nuclear beta-catenin in early lesions following APC loss despite robust staining in later lesions.
  • This observation presents the possibility that colon adenomas arise through a beta-catenin-independent function of APC.
  • Though there are currently contrasting models to explain colon tumorigenesis, our goal is to begin to reconcile data from multiple different model systems and provide a functional view into the initiation and progression of colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / pathology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19597346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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90. Goodlad RA, Ryan AJ, Wedge SR, Pyrah IT, Alferez D, Poulsom R, Smith NR, Mandir N, Watkins AJ, Wilkinson RW: Inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 signaling reduces tumor burden in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of early intestinal cancer. Carcinogenesis; 2006 Oct;27(10):2133-9
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  • We used AZD2171, an oral, highly potent and selective vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling inhibitor, to investigate the role of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) signaling in adenoma development and growth in Apc(Min/+) mice.
  • In the early-intervention study, AZD2171 reduced the number of macroscopic polyps in the small bowel and colon.
  • Macropolyp diameter was lower in the small bowel, but remained unchanged in the colon.
  • Microscopic analysis revealed that AZD2171 significantly reduced the number of larger micropolyps in the small bowel, with no large micropolyps present in the colon.
  • AZD2171 treatment had no effect on microvessel density or localization of beta-catenin staining in adenomas or non-tumor intestinal tissue, but significantly reduced the number of cells expressing VEGFR-2 mRNA.
  • In conclusion, the effects of AZD2171 in the small intestine of Apc(Min/+) mice are consistent with an antiangiogenic mechanism of action, limiting growth of adenomas to < or =1 mm.
  • These data also suggest that an early step in adenoma development may depend on VEGFR-2 signaling.
  • Together, these results indicate that VEGFR-2 signaling may play key roles in the development and progression of intestinal adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / prevention & control. Genes, APC / physiology. Intestinal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Intestinal Polyps / drug therapy. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / antagonists & inhibitors