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1. Bakshi N, Kunju LP, Giordano T, Shah RB: Expression of renal cell carcinoma antigen (RCC) in renal epithelial and nonrenal tumors: diagnostic Implications. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Sep;15(3):310-5
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  • [Title] Expression of renal cell carcinoma antigen (RCC) in renal epithelial and nonrenal tumors: diagnostic Implications.
  • Antibody to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) antigen, a normal human proximal brush border antigen, has recently become commercially available and reported to be highly specific and a relatively sensitive marker for RCC.
  • Using tissue microarrays, we investigated the use of RCC on a large number of renal epithelial neoplasms (RENs) and nonrenal tumors, especially those potentially confused with REN.
  • Three tissue microarrays containing 241 REN samples, 192 samples of a wide variety of neoplasms and 170 adrenal tumor samples, respectively, were stained with RCC monoclonal antibody.
  • Out of 241 REN, 173 were positive for RCC (sensitivity 72%): clear cell 72%, papillary 95%, chromophobe 91%, unclassified 85%, oncocytoma 75%, sarcomatoid 20%, and metastatic RCC 40%.
  • The overall immunostaining intensity was consistently much higher in papillary and clear cell RCC than in other tumors.
  • These included: adrenocortical neoplasms 37/170 (22%), colonic 11/29 (37.5%), breast 9/27 (33%), prostate 5/18 (27.7%), ovary 2/17 (11.7%), melanoma 3/18 (16.6%), lung 3/21 (14.2%), and parathyroid 3/3 (100%).
  • RCC expression was seen equally among adrenal adenoma and carcinoma group.
  • Eight out of 28 (28.5%) normal adrenal cores also stained for RCC.
  • RCC is a relatively useful marker in the differential diagnosis of REN only if used in a panel with other positive and negative markers.
  • RCC does not reliably differentiate REN, especially classic clear cell type, from adrenocortical neoplasms, which are frequently confused due to close anatomic proximity and similar morphology.
  • RCC also does not reliably differentiate subtypes of renal epithelial neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17721277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.22 / MOK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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2. Garg K, Lee P, Ro JY, Qu Z, Troncoso P, Ayala AG: Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a clinicopathologic study of 3 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;9(1):11-5
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  • [Title] Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a clinicopathologic study of 3 cases.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are relatively uncommon benign neoplasms of mesothelial origin, usually occurring in the male and female genital tracts.
  • Rare extragenital adenomatoid tumors have been identified in the adrenal glands, heart, mesentery, pleura, and lymph nodes.
  • In the adrenal gland, adenomatoid tumors may pose a diagnostic challenge.
  • The differential diagnosis includes adrenocortical carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma, especially signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • We present 3 cases of adrenal adenomatoid tumors, including one with a concurrent large hemorrhagic vascular adrenal cyst.
  • One patient presented with abdominal pain due to the presence of a concurrent large adrenal cyst.
  • The tumor was an incidental radiological finding in another case and was discovered during the course of a workup for hypertension in the third case.
  • In our experience, the key to the diagnosis of this rare benign tumor is to consider adenomatoid tumor in the differential diagnosis of any glandular tumor occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calbindin 2. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Cysts / complications. Cysts / metabolism. Cysts / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15692945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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3. Lamas C, López LM, Lozano E, Atienzar M, Ruiz-Mondéjar R, Alfaro JJ, Botella F: Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Sep;117(8):440-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are uncommon benign tumors, composed of mature adipose tissue and haematopoietic elements in varying proportions.
  • They are usually asymptomatic, non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas, but there have been a few reports of myelolipomatous masses associated with adrenocortical hypersecretion.
  • We report two cases of large mixed adrenal tumors, with heterogeneous appearance and areas of fat density in imaging techniques, and with autonomous cortisol production leading to Cushing's syndrome.
  • Both underwent adrenalectomy and the histological study showed an adrenocortical adenoma with widespread myelolipomatous metaplasia.
  • We review all the previous reported cases of hypercortisolism associated with adrenal myelolipomas.
  • We also discuss the recommended diagnostic approach and therapeutic management of adrenal masses of lipomatous appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Myelolipoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
  • (PMID = 19373749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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4. Rescinito G, Sirlin C, Cittadini G Jr: Body MRI artefacts: from image degradation to diagnostic utility. Radiol Med; 2009 Feb;114(1):18-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Fatty Liver / diagnosis. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Movement. Pelvis. Pulsatile Flow

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  • (PMID = 18836865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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5. Martínez Lesquereux L, Puñal JA, Paredes Cotoré JP, Parada González P, Beiras Sarasquete C, Gamborino Caramés E, Ladra González MJ, Beiras Torrado A: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: presentation of 43 cases]. Cir Esp; 2010 Mar;87(3):159-64
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  • [Transliterated title] Adrenalectomía laparoscópica: presentación de 43 casos.
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to present and analyse our experience in laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive and retrospective study including LA performed over 8 years, between 2000 and 2008 in our hospital.
  • RESULTS: A total of 43 LA were performed to 41 patients using a transperitoneal lateral approach.
  • Indications for adrenalectomy included hyperaldosteronism (19), non-functioning adenoma (8), phaeochromocytoma (6), Cushing's syndrome (6), metastasis (3) and adrenal primary tumour (1).
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and effective method in the treatment of adrenal masses and it can be performed with minimal risk and morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19896122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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6. Yener S, Genc S, Akinci B, Secil M, Demir T, Comlekci A, Ertilav S, Yesil S: Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma. Endocrine; 2009 Jun;35(3):365-70
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  • [Title] Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Data regarding cardiovascular risk in subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma are limited.
  • The objectives of this study are to investigate carotid intima media thickness (IMT) as an indicator of atherosclerosis in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma (AI) and to evaluate the factors that could be associated with IMT.
  • Forty-nine subjects without findings of hypercortisolism or other adrenal gland disorders, 34 body mass index (BMI)-unmatched controls (C) and 18 BMI-matched controls (BC) were enrolled.
  • The correlation between morning cortisol and IMT may be associated with the effect of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis disturbances on vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carotid Arteries / pathology. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Tunica Intima / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Atherosclerosis / complications. Atherosclerosis / diagnosis. Atherosclerosis / metabolism. Atherosclerosis / pathology. Body Mass Index. Case-Control Studies. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19277910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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7. Lee SS, Baek KH, Lee YS, Lee JM, Kang MI, Cha BY, Lee KW, Son HY, Kang SK: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Jul;31(7):675-9
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  • [Title] Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • Oncocytoma is a neoplasm that can arise in several organs, and it has been more commonly described in the kidney, salivary gland and thyroid.
  • Oncocytoma arising in the adrenal gland is a rare finding.
  • Moreover, functioning adrenocortical oncocytoma is exceptionally rare.
  • A 47-yr-old man was incidentally discovered to have a right adrenal mass.
  • The patient had no clinical features suggestive of increased adrenal function.
  • This is a rare case of subclinical Cushing's syndrome that was caused by adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18787391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / inhibin A; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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8. Li FY, Ren XB, Xu EP, Huang Q, Sheng HQ, Lv BJ, Lai MD: RegIV expression showing specificity to gastrointestinal tract and its potential role in diagnosing digestive tract neuroendocrine tumor. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2010 Apr;11(4):258-66
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  • To learn more about RegIV, we evaluated its distribution by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a total of 360 samples including 24 types of normal tissue, 40 benign and malignant lesions, and 18 neuroendocrine tumors.
  • We found that in normal tissues, in addition to its relative specificity for the gastrointestinal tract, RegIV was detected in the adrenal gland and mammary gland.
  • Studies on additional sets of colorectal tumor samples showed that RegIV expression was predominant in colorectal adenoma (87.5%) and peritumoral tissue (100%) but not in cancer tissue (30.8%).

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  • [ErratumIn] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2010 May;11(5):390
  • (PMID = 20349522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1862-1783
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / REG4 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2852542
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9. Hamamatsu A, Arai T, Iwamoto M, Kato T, Sawabe M: Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: case report with immunohistochemical study. Pathol Int; 2005 Oct;55(10):665-9
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  • [Title] Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: case report with immunohistochemical study.
  • Adrenal adenomatoid tumor (AT) is a recently recognized disease with marked male predominance.
  • Herein is presented a case of adrenal AT incidentally found in a 30-year-old man and results of immunohistochemical examination of the tumor.
  • The left adrenal gland, weighing 17 g, contained a mass measuring 3 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm in the cortical tissue.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for calretinin, D2-40, WT1, mesothelial cell antigen, CA125, thrombomodulin, vimentin and cytokeratins (stained by AE1 + AE3, OV-TL 12/30, CAM5.2 and MNF116), and negative for endothelial markers (CD31, CD34 and factor VIII-related antigen) and CD56.
  • CD56-positive adrenocortical cells were diffusely scattered in the tumor, especially in its periphery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16185299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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10. Machens A, Dralle H: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and the RET protooncogene: from bedside to bench to bedside. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2006 Mar 9;247(1-2):34-40
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  • Molecular information has revolutionized our understanding and continues to transform the clinical management of this fascinating endocrine tumor syndrome of neural crest derivation, which consists of medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Age Factors. Animals. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Genotype. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Hyperplasia. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / pathology. Neural Crest / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Phenotype. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Syndrome. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16343738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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11. Bondarenko VO, Lutsevich OE, Poliakova GA: [Competitive hormonally active adrenal tumours (aldosteroma and pheochromocytoma)]. Klin Med (Mosk); 2009;87(9):58-62
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  • [Title] [Competitive hormonally active adrenal tumours (aldosteroma and pheochromocytoma)].
  • The development of two hormonally active tumours in one adrenal gland is a very rare event.
  • Classification of concomitant adrenal pathologies and proposals on its modification are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aldosterone / secretion. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19882884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2149
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia meditsina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Med (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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12. Tiryakioglu O, Ugurlu S, Yalin S, Yirmibescik S, Caglar E, Yetkin DO, Kadioglu P: Screening for Cushing's syndrome in obese patients. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010;65(1):9-13
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  • Etiologic reasons for Cushing's syndrome were pituitary microadenoma (9 patients), adrenocortical adenoma (3 patients), and adrenocortical carcinoma (1 patient).
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Obesity / complications

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  • (PMID = 20126340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815288
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenocorticorticotropic hormone / Cortisol / Cushing’s syndrome / Obesity / Screening
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13. Tsunoda K, Abe K, Yamada M, Kato T, Yaoita H, Taguma Y, Goto Y, Ioridani N: A case of primary aldosteronism associated with renal artery stenosis and preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Hypertens Res; 2008 Aug;31(8):1669-75
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  • [Title] A case of primary aldosteronism associated with renal artery stenosis and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • We identified a left adrenal tumor, left renal atrophy, and left renal artery stenosis (RAS) in a 52-year-old man by MRI/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) during evaluation of hypertension.
  • An excessive response of aldosterone and cortisol to adorenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was found upon selective sampling of the left adrenal vein.
  • Selective renal venous sampling showed a left/right renal venous PRA ratio of 1.7.
  • We diagnosed this patient as having aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma (APA) associated with renovascular hypertension (RVH) and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • As an initial treatment, percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty was performed.
  • The renal dysfuntion that occurred prior to treatment seemed to prevent complete normalization of blood pressure.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension, Renal / etiology. Renal Artery Obstruction / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Angiography. Blood Pressure. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged


14. Bahrami A, Truong LD, Shen SS, Krishnan B: Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Feb;13(1):9-15
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  • [Title] Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases.
  • Synchronous renal and adrenal masses are uncommon.
  • Although adrenal masses in the context of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are often suspected as metastasis, other adrenal lesions with different therapeutic and prognostic implications may coexist with RCC.
  • In a retrospective review of 550 radical nephrectomies with ipsilateral adrenalectomy, 80 cases of coexisting renal and adrenal masses were identified.
  • The renal masses included 76 RCCs, 3 oncocytomas, and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland involving the kidney.
  • Although the gross pathologic impression of adrenal masses in the presence of RCC was metastasis, on histologic examination, 56% of them were found to be benign lesions (mostly adrenal adenoma/hyperplasia), whereas malignant involvement from RCC was seen in 43%.
  • The benign and malignant nature of the adrenal lesions in the context of RCC could not be discriminated based on the size of adrenal mass.
  • Because of the prognostic implication of direct or metastatic involvement of adrenal gland in the setting of RCC and the possibility of finding small metastatic foci, a meticulous gross and microscopic examination of adrenal glands is emphasized.
  • Rare unusual combinations of renal and adrenal lesions such as RCC and adrenal histoplasmosis, RCC and adrenal myelolipoma, renal oncocytoma, and adrenal pheochromocytoma are also described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19118776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Cicala MV, Sartorato P, Mantero F: Incidentally discovered masses in hypertensive patients. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Sep;20(3):451-66
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  • The adrenal glands are the most likely culprits, due either to an excessive production of mineralocorticoids, catecholamines or glucocorticoids.
  • The term 'adrenal incidentaloma' indicates an adrenal mass discovered accidentally during testing or treatment for other clinical conditions unrelated to any suspicion of adrenal disease.
  • In particular, when an adrenal mass is discovered in a hypertensive subject, physicians must check whether the patient has pheochromocytoma, glucocorticoid excess or primary aldosteronism.
  • Although most adrenal masses are non-hypersecretory adenomas, hormone screening can reveal a significant number of cases of clinically unsuspected hormone-secreting adrenal tumors.
  • If the clinical history or physical examination of a patient with unilateral incidentaloma shows signs and symptoms suggestive of glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, adrenal sex hormone or catecholamine excess, which is confirmed biochemically, the treatment of choice is often adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / secretion. Aldosterone / secretion. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Incidental Findings. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16980205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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16. Park BK, Kim CK, Kim B, Lee JH: Comparison of delayed enhanced CT and chemical shift MR for evaluating hyperattenuating incidental adrenal masses. Radiology; 2007 Jun;243(3):760-5
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  • [Title] Comparison of delayed enhanced CT and chemical shift MR for evaluating hyperattenuating incidental adrenal masses.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively compare the accuracy of delayed enhanced computed tomography (CT) and chemical shift magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for characterizing hyperattenuating adrenal masses at CT, with either follow-up imaging or pathologic review as the reference standard.
  • Forty-three hyperattenuating adrenal masses (>10 HU) on unenhanced CT images were found in 34 patients (23 men and 11 women; mean age, 52.7 years) by reviewing radiologic reports.
  • The diagnostic accuracy of CT by using absolute percentage loss of enhancement (PLE) and relative PLE and of chemical shift MR by using adrenal-to-spleen ratio (ASR) or signal intensity index (SII) were obtained to determine which modality was more accurate for lipid-poor adenoma.
  • For CT, an adenoma was diagnosed if a mass had an absolute PLE greater than 60% and a relative PLE greater than 40%.
  • For MR, an adenoma was diagnosed if a mass had an ASR of 0.71 or an SII greater than 16.5%.
  • RESULTS: Hyperattenuating adrenal masses included 37 adenomas and six nonadenomas.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for adenoma at CT were 97% (36 of 37), 100% (six of six), and 98% (42 of 43), respectively, and at MR were 86% (32 of 37), 50% (three of six), and 49% (21 of 43), respectively.
  • CT helped confirm five more adenomas and three more metastatic tumors than did MR.
  • However, there was no significant difference for diagnostic accuracy between these two imaging modalities (P>.05) CONCLUSION: Delayed enhanced CT can characterize additional hyperattenuating adrenal masses that cannot be characterized with chemical shift MR.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2007.
  • (PMID = 17517932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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17. Paik KY: [Paraganglioma of the pancreas metastasized to the adrenal gland: a case report]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2009 Dec;54(6):409-12
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  • [Title] [Paraganglioma of the pancreas metastasized to the adrenal gland: a case report].
  • Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from the neural crest, which includes tissues such as the adrenal medulla, carotid and aortic body, organs of Zuckerkandl, and other unnamed paraganglia.
  • We report our experience of this rare disease.
  • A 70-year old female patient admitted for a pancreas tail mass detected by computed tomography (CT) scan checked for vague left flank pain.
  • A well defined ovoid shape mass in left adrenal gland was suggested adenoma.
  • Microscopic examination with pancreas and adrenal gland revealed that the cells were arranged in a characteristic Zellballen pattern.
  • On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed the tumor as a paraganglioma of the pancreas and adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aged. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Female. Humans. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20026898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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18. Chierigo P, Puccetti O, Visonà A, Bassan F, Rahmati M, Lazzarotto M, Franzolin N: [High alpha-fetoprotein persistence after orchiectomy. On a case of uncommon etiology]. Urologia; 2010 Oct-Dec;77 Suppl 17:27-31
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  • [Transliterated title] Persistenza di alfa-fetoproteina elevata dopo orchiectomia. Su di un caso ad etiologia inusuale.
  • From this age on, serum AFP can rise above normal in some diseases, e.g. liver disorders, and in some kind of tumors.
  • Careful evaluation for occult cancer showed no abnormality.
  • Histology showed necrotic tissue and could not make a reliable diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: AFP was found to be elevated in another four out of six relatives within three generations, unrelated to any disease.
  • The existence of this clinically benign condition needs to be considered in both children and adults with unexplained and persistent elevation of AFP, e.g. those diagnosed or suspected for germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Metabolism, Inborn Errors / diagnosis. Orchiectomy. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Genes, Dominant. Humans. Ischemia / surgery. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Postoperative Period. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testis / blood supply. Testis / pathology. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • (PMID = 21308671.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6075
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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19. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of a mixture of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (Cas No. 1746-01-6), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) (Cas No. 57117-31-4), and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) (Cas No. 57465-28-8) in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2006 Sep;(526):1-180
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  • Hepatic Cell Proliferation Data: To evaluate hepatocyte replication, analysis of labeling of replicating hepatocytes with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was conducted at the interim evaluations.
  • At 2 years, there were significant increases in the incidences of hepatocellular adenoma and cholangiocarcinoma of the liver.
  • There was an increase in hepatic toxicity characterized by increases in the incidences of numerous nonneoplastic lesions including hepatocyte hypertrophy, multinucleated hepatocytes, pigmentation, inflammation, diffuse fatty change, bile duct hyperplasia, oval cell hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, eosinophilic focus, cholangiofibrosis, bile duct cysts, necrosis, portal fibrosis, mixed cell focus, and toxic hepatopathy.
  • At 2 years, incidences of acinar adenoma or acinar carcinoma that exceeded the historical control ranges were seen in all dosed groups except the 100 ng TEQ/kg group.
  • Treatment-related increases in the incidences of nonneoplastic lesions were seen in other organs including hyperplasia, cystic degeneration, atrophy, and cytoplasmic vacuolization of the adrenal cortex; gingival squamous hyperplasia of the oral mucosa; squamous metaplasia of the uterus; atrophy of the thymus (incidence and severity); chronic active inflammation of the ovary; nephropathy of the kidney (incidence and severity); cardiomyopathy; bone marrow hyperplasia; transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder; chronic active inflammation of the mesenteric artery; and follicular cell hypertrophy of the thyroid gland. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED).

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  • (PMID = 17342195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzofurans; 0 / Carcinogens; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; TSH69IA9XF / 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl; U4C2RV3124 / 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran
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20. Popescu I, Ciurea S, Romanescu D, Boros M: Isolated resection of the caudate lobe: indications, technique and results. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 May-Jun;55(84):831-5
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: This paper reports a series of 24 isolated caudate lobe resections (ICLR), performed for 13 benign tumors (10 hemangiomas, 2 focal nodular hyperplasias, 1 adenoma) and 11 malignant tumors (3 hepatocarcinomas, 1 peripheral cholangiocarcinoma and 7 metastatic - 5 colorectal carcinomas, 1 breast carcinoma, 1 adrenal carcinoma).
  • Three patients died from generalized disease.
  • Another patient, with generalized disease, was lost from follow-up.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / mortality. Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Adenoma, Liver Cell / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / mortality. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / surgery. Hemangioma / mortality. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangioma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18705277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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21. Iwase K, Nagasaka A, Kato K, Itoh A, Jimbo S, Hibi Y, Kobayashi N, Yamamoto H, Seko T, Miura K: Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors. J Surg Res; 2006 Sep;135(1):150-5
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  • [Title] Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors.
  • The tissue distribution of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases (SOD) in adrenal tumors was studied by an immunohistochemical technique, and the concentrations of both SODs were measured by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.
  • In the normal adrenal gland, both Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs were localized predominantly in the reticular zone of the cortex.
  • Cu/Zn-SOD was stained clearly in the inner fascicular zone of the cortex, but not in the medulla, whereas Mn-SOD was stained weakly in the medulla.
  • In different adrenal tumors, the localization of both stained SODs reflected the origin of the tumor cell.
  • The concentrations of both SODs in the tissues of medullary tumors were lower than those in the normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • The concentration of Cu/Zn-SOD in the tumor tissue of Cushing's syndrome adenoma was higher, and that of Mn-SOD was lower than the concentrations in the normal adrenal gland.
  • The ratio of the tissue concentrations of Mn-SOD to Cu/Zn-SOD was lower in adrenal medullary tumors and Cushing's syndrome adenomas than in the normal adrenal gland and primary aldosteronism adenomas, indicating the predominance of Cu/Zn-SOD in the former, and Mn-SOD in the latter.
  • These data suggest that the localization of Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs in adrenal tissues reflects the specificity of the adrenal cells that produce the tissue-specific hormones.
  • An investigation of changes in these enzymes in adrenal tumors may also provide useful information on adrenal tumor cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Ganglioneuroma / metabolism. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunohistochemistry. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16780879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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22. Feng C, Li HZ, Xiao H, Yan WG, Li YQ, Xu WF: [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome:analysis of diagnosis and surgical effect]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Dec 15;45(24):1691-3
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  • [Title] [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome:analysis of diagnosis and surgical effect].
  • All the cases were found adrenal tumors by CT scan, 10 cases in left adrenal and 14 cases in right adrenal.
  • All the patients underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic operation and were pathologic diagnosed to adrenal adenomas.
  • CT scan, assays of plasma cortisol, urinary free cortisol and dexamethasone suppression test are most useful in the diagnosis.
  • The potential benefit of surgery should be considered in those who have a definite diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18476528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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23. Altinova AE, Toruner F, Cimen AR, Karakoc A, Atasever T, Yetkin I, Ayvaz G, Cakir N, Arslan M: The association of neurofibromatosis, bilateral pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Jul;115(7):468-70
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  • Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a hereditary disease and carries increased risk of both benign and malignant tumor development.
  • However, the coexistance of pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma in a patient with NF1 is very rare.
  • We report a case of a 37-year-old male with NF1, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Neurofibromatoses / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adult. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications


24. Hofland J, Timmerman MA, de Herder WW, van Schaik RH, de Krijger RR, de Jong FH: Expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins in human adrenocortical neoplasms. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Dec;65(6):792-9
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  • [Title] Expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins in human adrenocortical neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: The growth and differentiation factors activin and inhibin can affect tumour formation and steroid production in the adrenal cortex.
  • Expression of these activin-related mRNAs was measured in different types of adrenocortical tissues and tumours to study the relationship with tumorigenesis.
  • DESIGN: Quantitative expression of activin-related mRNAs was investigated in patient adrenocortical samples.
  • PATIENTS: Twenty-eight human adrenocortical samples from normal and hyperplastic adrenals and from adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas were collected after surgery for study purposes.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we investigated the expression of inhibin alpha-, betaA- and betaB-subunits, follistatin, betaglycan, ActRIIA, ActRIIB and Alk-4 in the adrenocortical tissues.
  • RESULTS: All genes studied were expressed in all tissues, with the exception of the inhibin alpha-subunit in one hyperplastic adrenal and three adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • We conclude that the expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins is affected by tumour formation in the adrenal gland and may play a role in tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Activins / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Activin Receptors, Type II / genetics. Activin Receptors, Type II / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adult. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Female. Follistatin / genetics. Follistatin / metabolism. Gene Expression. Humans. Hyperplasia. Inhibin-beta Subunits / genetics. Inhibin-beta Subunits / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Proteoglycans / genetics. Proteoglycans / metabolism. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Statistics, Nonparametric. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17121532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Follistatin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / inhibin beta A subunit; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 145170-29-2 / betaglycan; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 93443-12-0 / Inhibin-beta Subunits; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type II
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25. Türemen EE, Arslan BC, Tarkun I, Cantürk Z: Cushingoid striae and facial appearance in a patient with an adrenal incidentaloma. Endocr Pract; 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):103-4
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  • [Title] Cushingoid striae and facial appearance in a patient with an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Pituitary-Adrenal System. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16524866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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26. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Dobrosz Z, Heitzman M, Cierpka L: [Analysis of adrenocortical tumors morphology as regards their structure and potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Mar-Apr;57(2):136-42
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  • [Title] [Analysis of adrenocortical tumors morphology as regards their structure and potential malignancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Analiza morfologii guzów kory nadnerczy pod wzgledem ich struktury i potencjalnej złośliwości.
  • INTRODUCTION: A consequence of diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is introduction of pharmacological therapy, precise monitoring of the patients and in some cases re-operation.
  • The aim of the study is to analyse morphology of adrenocortical tumours as regards their malignancy by use of criteria proposed by Weiss.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 110 adrenocortical tumours in 107 patients were analysed (M 27.1%, F 72.9%; age 32 to 77 years, mean 55.2 +/- 9.7).
  • Conn syndrome was diagnosed in 16 patients (14.9%), Cushing syndrome in 12 (11.2%), and virilisation in 3 (2.8%).
  • RESULTS: In routine histopatological examination ACC was diagnosed in 6 tumours (5.4%), adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) in 92 (83.6%) and adrenocortical hyperplasia in 12 (10.9%).
  • CONCLUSION: The structure and cell arrangement in adrenocortical adenoma are heterogeneous.
  • Application of criteria proposed by Weiss in histopathological examination of adrenocortical tumours can be useful in differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Adrenocortical Adenoma / ultrastructure. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / ultrastructure. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16773589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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27. Diederich S, Bidlingmaier M, Quinkler M, Reincke M: [Diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism]. Med Klin (Munich); 2007 Jan 15;102(1):16-21
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism].
  • Diagnosis of this entity is recommended in hypokalemic hypertension, in therapy-resistant hypertension (at least three 3 drugs and RR > 140/90 mmHg), and in adrenal incidentalomas (= incidentally discovered adrenal tumors).
  • After confirmation of primary hyperaldosteronism, differential diagnosis between aldosterone-producing adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism has to be done.
  • For this approach, adrenal CT or MRT, posture test and adrenal vein catheterization as gold standard test are available.
  • Whereas therapy of aldosterone-producing adenoma is surgery, idiopathic hyperaldosteronism is to be treated medically by spironolactone.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aldosterone / analogs & derivatives. Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / urine. Humans. Hypertension / blood. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / blood. Hypokalemia / etiology. Mass Screening. Predictive Value of Tests. Renin / blood

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  • (PMID = 17221347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3604-86-2 / aldosterone 18-glucuronide; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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28. Rossi E, Foroni M, Regolisti G, Perazzoli F, Negro A, Santi R, Grasselli C, Galli P, Gardini G: Combined Conn's syndrome and subclinical hypercortisolism from an adrenal adenoma associated with homolateral renal carcinoma. Am J Hypertens; 2008 Nov;21(11):1269-72
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  • [Title] Combined Conn's syndrome and subclinical hypercortisolism from an adrenal adenoma associated with homolateral renal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / complications


29. Kim S, Salibi N, Hardie AD, Xu J, Lim RP, Lee VS, Taouli B: Characterization of adrenal pheochromocytoma using respiratory-triggered proton MR spectroscopy: initial experience. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Feb;192(2):450-4
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  • [Title] Characterization of adrenal pheochromocytoma using respiratory-triggered proton MR spectroscopy: initial experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of respiratory-triggered proton single-voxel MR spectroscopy for the diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma and to determine whether certain spectral resonances detected on single-voxel MR spectroscopy are specific for adrenal pheochromocytomas compared with adrenal adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal pheochromocytomas have a unique MR spectral signature, showing 6.8 ppm resonance that is not seen in adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Catecholamines / metabolism. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Protons. Respiration

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  • (PMID = 19155409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Protons
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30. O'Neill CJ, Spence A, Logan B, Suliburk JW, Soon PS, Learoyd DL, Sidhu SB, Sywak MS: Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct 1;102(5):450-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes.
  • INTRODUCTION: The number of incidentally discovered adrenal lesions is increasing due to the widespread use of abdominal imaging.
  • Although most incidentalomas are benign, larger suspicious lesions will require adrenalectomy.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the risk of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery for adrenal incidentaloma; and to compare clinical outcomes in those with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on the mode of presentation.
  • Data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained adrenal tumor database.
  • Those with adrenal incidentaloma were selected and histopathology reviewed.
  • Benign, non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma was the most common histopathological finding (46 patients, 63%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentalomas have a small but important risk of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] J. Surg. Oncol. 2010;102:450-453. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20734420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Prochazkova K, Pavlikova K, Minarik M, Sumerauer D, Kodet R, Sedlacek Z: Somatic TP53 mutation mosaicism in a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Am J Med Genet A; 2009 Feb;149A(2):206-11
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  • We present a girl who developed adrenocortical adenoma at the age of 1 year and osteosarcoma at the age of 5 years.
  • The substitution was found in neither of her parents, which indicated a possibility of a de novo mutation.
  • To our knowledge this is the first description of somatic mosaicism for a de novo TP53 mutation in LFS.


32. Gosse P, Guiheneuf-Tobie C, Lasserre R, Minifie C, Lemetayer P, Clementy J: [Biochemical detection of Conn's adenoma: definition of criteria and reference values]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss; 2005 Mar;98(3):181-5
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  • [Title] [Biochemical detection of Conn's adenoma: definition of criteria and reference values].
  • [Transliterated title] Dépistage biologique des adénomes de Conn: definition des critères et des seuils.
  • Primary hyperaldosteronism is a diagnosis which should be considered in refractory hypertension even in the absence of any hypokalaemia.
  • The reference values used for the diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism are very variable in the literature, depending not only on the method used but also on the criteria used for their determination.
  • In this study we evaluated the defined reference values prospectively by studying a population of patients with a Conn's adenoma treated surgically.
  • The study included an initial retrospective period which allowed identification of 29 cases of Conn's adenoma treated surgically, and a 9 month prospective period during which 212 reports were collected.
  • During this prospective period a further 9 cases of Conn's adenoma were detected, which were successfully treated with surgery.
  • Analysis to discriminate the 38 Conn's adenomata from the rest showed that 3 parameters contributed significantly and independently to the diagnosis: supine plasma renin activity (ARPc), supine aldosteronaemia and the erect aldosterone/renin ratio, allowing correct classification in 88% of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15816319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9683
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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33. Milliez P, Girerd X, Plouin PF, Blacher J, Safar ME, Mourad JJ: Evidence for an increased rate of cardiovascular events in patients with primary aldosteronism. J Am Coll Cardiol; 2005 Apr 19;45(8):1243-8
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  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this report was to show that the rate of cardiovascular events is increased in patients with either subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA).
  • The two major PA subtypes are unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia.
  • METHODS: During a three-year period, the diagnosis of PA was made in 124 of 5,500 patients referred for comprehensive evaluation and management.
  • Adenomas were diagnosed in 65 patients and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism in 59 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Atrial Fibrillation / etiology. Blood Pressure. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Hypokalemia / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Myocardial Infarction / etiology. Renin / blood. Stroke / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Apr 19;45(8):1249-50 [15837257.001]
  • (PMID = 15837256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-1097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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34. Cazabat L, Ragazzon B, Groussin L, Bertherat J: PRKAR1A mutations in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. Pituitary; 2006;9(3):211-9
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  • [Title] PRKAR1A mutations in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease.
  • Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease (PPNAD) is a rare primary bilateral adrenal defect causing corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome.
  • Macroscopic appearance of the adrenals is characteristic with small pigmented micronodules observed in the cortex.
  • Somatic inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A have been observed in macronodules of PPNAD and in sporadic cortisol secreting adrenal adenomas.
  • Isolated PPNAD is a genetic heterogenous disease, and recently inactivating mutations of the gene of the phosphodiesterase 11A4 (PDE11A4) located at 2q31-2q35 have been identified in patients without PRKAR1A mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / genetics. Mutation. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Hormones / metabolism. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / enzymology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Signal Transduction / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17036196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Hormones; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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35. Majnik J, Patócs A, Balogh K, Luczay A, Török D, Szabó V, Borgulya G, Gergics P, Szappanos A, Bertalan R, Belema B, Toke J, Sereg M, Nagy ZZ, Sólyom J, Tóth M, Gláz E, Rácz K, Németh J, Fekete G, Tulassay Z: [Nucleotide sequence variants of the glucocorticoid receptor gene and their significance in determining glucocorticoid sensitivity]. Orv Hetil; 2006 Nov 5;147(44):2107-15
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  • The physiologic response and sensitivity to glucocorticoids may significantly differ among species, individuals, tissues and cell types.
  • In their own studies the authors found, that the N363S polymorphism, which increases glucocorticoid sensitivity, may play a role in the pathogenesis of bilateral adrenal adenomas, it may modify the clinical phenotype of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and may have an impact on steroid-induced ocular hypertension.
  • It is presumed that further research in other diseases will continue to complete our knowledge on the pathophysiology of glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Asparagine. Base Sequence. Female. Humans. Lasers, Excimer. Male. Ocular Hypertension / chemically induced. Ocular Hypertension / genetics. Ocular Hypertension / metabolism. Ocular Hypertension / surgery. Phenotype. Photorefractive Keratectomy. Protein Isoforms. Retrospective Studies. Serine

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  • (PMID = 17209299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 452VLY9402 / Serine; 7006-34-0 / Asparagine
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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36. de Bruin C, Feelders RA, Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ: Somatostatin and dopamine receptors as targets for medical treatment of Cushing's Syndrome. Rev Endocr Metab Disord; 2009 Jun;10(2):91-102
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  • Increasing knowledge of specific subtype expression within these tumours and the ability to target these receptor subtypes with high-affinity compounds, has driven the search for new SS- or DA-based medical therapies for the various forms of CS.
  • In Cushing's disease, corticotroph adenomas mainly express dopamine receptor subtype 2 (D(2)) and somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (sst(5)), whereas sst(2) is expressed at lower levels.
  • Activation of these receptors can inhibit ACTH-release in primary cultured corticotroph adenomas and compounds that target either sst(5) (pasireotide, or SOM230) or D(2) (cabergoline) have shown significant efficacy in subsets of patients in recent clinical studies.
  • In both normal adrenal tissue as well as in adrenal adenomas and carcinomas that cause CS, sst and DA receptor expression has been demonstrated.
  • Although selected cases of adrenal CS may benefit from sst or DA-targeted treatment, its total contribution to the treatment of these patients is likely to be low as surgery is effective in most cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18642088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2606
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Endocr Metab Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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37. Catena C, Colussi G, Nadalini E, Chiuch A, Baroselli S, Lapenna R, Sechi LA: Cardiovascular outcomes in patients with primary aldosteronism after treatment. Arch Intern Med; 2008 Jan 14;168(1):80-5
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  • Fifty-four patients with or without evidence of adrenal adenomas were prospectively followed up for a mean of 7.4 years after treatment with adrenalectomy or spironolactone.
  • RESULTS: At baseline, the prevalence of cardiovascular events was greater in primary aldosteronism (35%) than in essential hypertension (11%) (odds ratio, 4.61; 95% confidence interval, 2.38-8.95; P< .001), with odds ratios of 4.93, 4.36, and 2.80 for sustained arrhythmias, cerebrovascular events, and coronary heart disease, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldosterone / blood. Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / complications

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  • (PMID = 18195199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9926
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 27O7W4T232 / Spironolactone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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38. Denzinger S, Burger M, Hartmann A, Hofstaedter F, Wieland WF, Ganzer R: Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma. APMIS; 2007 Apr;115(4):381-4
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  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma.
  • We report on a 50-year-old patient with a giant benign adenoma of the adrenal cortex, which ruptured spontaneously, leading to life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
  • Following emergency adrenalectomy with sparing of the ipsilateral kidney, an adenoma of the adrenal cortex with a diameter of 18 cm and a weight of 1400 g was found.
  • A detailed literature search showed this to be the largest benign tumor of the adrenal cortex described so far.
  • We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this unusual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Middle Aged. Rupture, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous / pathology. Rupture, Spontaneous / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17504308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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39. Linder B, Hong Y, Jarrett T: Intra-renal adrenal adenoma: a compelling addition to the differential diagnosis of renal mass. Int J Urol; 2009 Nov;16(11):912-4
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  • [Title] Intra-renal adrenal adenoma: a compelling addition to the differential diagnosis of renal mass.
  • We report a case of an adrenal rest arising in the kidney of a 37-year-old male.
  • Laparoscopic renal exploration and biopsy revealed angiomyolipoma on frozen section.
  • However, final pathological analysis of the partial nephrectomy specimen revealed intra-renal adrenal adenoma.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistries and transmission electron microscopy.
  • We review the reported literature on intra-renal adrenal adenoma and highlight the aspects that raise the index of suspicion for this entity on the differential diagnosis of renal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19863627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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40. Siddiqi AJ, Miller FH, Kasuganti D, Nikolaidis P: Adrenal hemangioma-adenoma: an exceedingly rare adrenal collision tumor. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2009 Apr;29(4):949-52
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  • [Title] Adrenal hemangioma-adenoma: an exceedingly rare adrenal collision tumor.
  • Adrenal collision tumors are rare clinical entities referring to separate coexisting adjacent tumors involving an adrenal gland with sharp demarcation between the two and without a substantial histologic admixture at the interface.
  • We report a case of a 60-year-old female patient with an exceedingly rare adrenal hemangioma-adenoma collision tumor.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor comprising an adrenal hemangioma and an adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Interventional


41. Hamrahian AH, Ioachimescu AG, Remer EM, Motta-Ramirez G, Bogabathina H, Levin HS, Reddy S, Gill IS, Siperstein A, Bravo EL: Clinical utility of noncontrast computed tomography attenuation value (hounsfield units) to differentiate adrenal adenomas/hyperplasias from nonadenomas: Cleveland Clinic experience. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):871-7
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  • [Title] Clinical utility of noncontrast computed tomography attenuation value (hounsfield units) to differentiate adrenal adenomas/hyperplasias from nonadenomas: Cleveland Clinic experience.
  • Radiological characterization of an adrenal tumor as adenoma may decrease the need for follow-up imaging studies, biopsies, and unnecessary adrenalectomies.
  • We retrospectively reviewed 299 adrenalectomies in 290 patients at Cleveland Clinic Foundation over a recent 5-yr period to assess the value of noncontrast Hounsfield units (HU) in characterizing whether an adrenal mass is adenoma or nonadenoma.
  • The mean (+/- SD) HU value for the adrenocortical adenoma/hyperplasia group was 16.2 +/- 13.6 and significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than primary adrenocortical cancers (36.9 +/- 4.1), metastases (39.2 +/- 15.2), and pheochromocytomas (38.6 +/- 8.2).
  • The sensitivity and specificity for 10- and 20-HU cutoff values to differentiate adenomas/hyperplasias from nonadenomas were 40.5 and 100% and 58.2 and 96.9%, respectively.
  • The size of the adrenal tumor had less value with only 40.7 and 81.3% sensitivity and 94.7 and 61.4% specificity for 2- and 4-cm cutoff values.
  • A combination of less than or equal to 4-cm adrenal mass size and noncontrast computed tomography HU less than or equal to 20 had 42.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity.
  • Our study, the largest with surgical histopathology as the gold standard for diagnosis, supports a noncontrast computed tomography attenuation value of 10 HU as a safe cutoff value to differentiate adrenal adenomas/hyperplasias from nonadenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15572420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Vesin C, Chabre O, Mallion JM, Chaffanjon P, Sturm N, Baguet JP: [Diagnosis and post-operative evolution of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome). A 12-years retrospective study]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss; 2007 Feb;100(2):121-5
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and post-operative evolution of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome). A 12-years retrospective study].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostic et évolution postopératoire des patients opérés d'un adénome de Conn. Etude rétrospective sur 12 ans.
  • The prevalence and characteristics of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome) as well as their post-operative arterial pressure evolution are varying through literature.
  • From 1993 to 2005, 24 patients (mean age = 46 +/-11 years) presented the biological criteria of primary hyperaldosteronism and benefited from adrenalectomy with confirmation of adrenal adenoma.
  • All adenomas measured more than 10 mm in scanner imaging.
  • Post-operative spontaneous normotensive patients had, at the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma, a more recent and non-refractory hypertension, with a lower number of antihypertensive drugs, a better response to spirinolactone and higher aldosterone plasmatic levels.
  • 1) Whether 70% of patients operated for adrenal adenoma are normotensive (with or without treatement) post-operatively, only 25% are definitely cured after 4 years.
  • Factors associated to a post-operative cure highlight the interest of an ealy diagnosis.
  • 2) There is probably an underdiagnosis of adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome) because neither adenomas with normokaliemia, nor adenomas <10 mm in scanner imaging have ever been diagnosed or at least, sent to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17474497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9683
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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43. Sugár I, Vörös A, Diczházi C, Barabás L, Valkó L, Kovács GL, Ondrejka P: [Successfully operated cases of mediastinal and retroperitoneal bronchial cysts]. Magy Seb; 2010 Aug;63(4):168-71
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  • In the first case a mediastinal cyst caused severe swallowing problems, while in the second a retroperitoneal cyst resembled to an adrenal adenoma.
  • It was only the postoperative histology, which clarified the exact diagnosis of the removed cysts.
  • In most of the cases the final diagnosis is made only after excision with histological examination of the cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchogenic Cyst / diagnosis. Bronchogenic Cyst / surgery. Mediastinal Cyst / diagnosis. Mediastinal Cyst / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Deglutition. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Retroperitoneal Space / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20724242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar sebészet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Seb
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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44. Barzon L, Masi G, Pacenti M, Trevisan M, Fallo F, Remo A, Martignoni G, Montanaro D, Pezzi V, Palù G: Expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors in human adrenocortical tumors. Virchows Arch; 2008 Feb;452(2):181-91
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  • [Title] Expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors in human adrenocortical tumors.
  • We recently demonstrated that adrenocortical carcinoma cells express aromatase and estrogen receptors (ERs) and that 17beta-estradiol enhances adrenocortical cell proliferation.
  • To provide a clue to the role of estrogens in adrenal tumorigenesis, we investigated the expression profile of genes involved in sex steroid hormone production and activity in a large series of normal and neoplastic human adrenocortical tissues.
  • Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry showed that ERalpha and ERbeta, androgen receptor (AR), and aromatase were expressed in the adrenal cortex and in adrenocortical tumors.
  • ERbeta was the predominant ER subtype and was mainly expressed in the zona glomerulosa and fasciculata.
  • Western blot analysis revealed the presence of a truncated form of AR in adrenocortical tissues.
  • With respect to the normal adrenal cortex and adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas were characterized by significantly lower ERbeta levels, ERalpha upregulation, and aromatase overexpression.
  • In agreement with our in vitro findings, the results of this study suggest that estrogens, locally produced by aromatase, could enhance adrenocortical cell proliferation though autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Aromatase / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / embryology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Virchows Arch. 2008 Aug;453(2):221-2 [18553103.001]
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  • (PMID = 18157729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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45. Tauchmanovà L, Pivonello R, Di Somma C, Rossi R, De Martino MC, Camera L, Klain M, Salvatore M, Lombardi G, Colao A: Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 May;91(5):1779-84
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  • [Title] Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status.
  • Cushing's disease and adrenal and ectopic Cushing's syndrome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients and 80 controls were prospectively enrolled: 37 patients (21 females) with pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma, 18 (14 females) with adrenocortical adenoma, 15 (11 females) with adrenal carcinoma of mixed secretion, and 10 (three females) with ectopic ACTH secretion.
  • At diagnosis, bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck; vertebral fractures were investigated by standard spinal radiographs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers. Body Mass Index. Carcinoma / blood. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16522701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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46. Kimura H, Sato K, Nishimaki M, Miki N, Ono M, Takano K: Symptomatic hypercalcemia due to painless thyroiditis after unilateral adrenalectomy in a patient with Cushing's syndrome. Intern Med; 2008;47(8):751-6
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  • We report a 53-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome due to an adrenocortical adenoma, who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy and developed symptomatic hypercalcemia during the thyrotoxic period of painless thyroiditis, while tapering off a daily supplemented dose of cortisol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Thyroiditis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Bone Resorption / metabolism. Calcium / urine. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18421193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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47. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118) (CAS No. 31508-00-6) in female harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2010 Nov;(559):1-174
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  • There were increases in hepatic cell proliferation in the 4,600 g/kg group at 14, 31, and 53 weeks.
  • At the 53-week interim evaluation, three 4,600 g/kg rats had liver cholangiocarcinoma and one had hepatocellular adenoma.
  • At 2 years, there were significant treatment-related increases in the incidences of cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular adenoma.
  • At 2 years, a significant dose-related increase in hepatic toxicity was observed and was characterized by increased incidences of numerous lesions including hepatocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, oval cell hyperplasia, pigmentation, multinucleated hepatocyte, eosinophilic and mixed cell foci, diffuse fatty change, toxic hepatopathy, nodular hyperplasia, necrosis, bile duct hyperplasia and cyst, and cholangiofibrosis.
  • A marginal increase in squamous cell carcinoma occurred in the 220 g/kg group.
  • At 2 years, there were marginally increased incidences of exocrine pancreatic adenoma or carcinoma in the 460, 1,000, and 4,600 g/kg core study groups.
  • Numerous nonneoplastic effects were seen in other organs including: adrenal cortical atrophy and cytoplasmic vacuolization, pancreatic acinar cell cytoplasmic vacuolization and arterial chronic active inflammation, follicular cell hypertrophy of the thyroid gland, inflammation and respiratory epithelial hyperplasia of the nose, and kidney pigmentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this 2-year gavage study, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCB 118 in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats based on increased incidences of neoplasms of the liver (cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocholangioma, and hepatocellular adenoma) and cystic keratinizing epithelioma of the lung.
  • Occurrences of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterus and acinar neoplasms of the pancreas may have been related to administration of PCB 118.
  • Administration of PCB 118 caused increased incidences of nonneoplastic lesions in the liver, lung, adrenal cortex, pancreas, thyroid gland, nose, and kidney.

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  • (PMID = 21383778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 31508-00-6 / 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; DO80M48B6O / Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
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48. Spinazzi R, Rucinski M, Neri G, Malendowicz LK, Nussdorfer GG: Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;90(6):3544-9
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  • [Title] Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells.
  • We previously found that orexin-A, via the OX1-R, stimulates cortisol secretion from dispersed human adrenocortical cells.
  • In this study, we demonstrate that six of eight cortisol-secreting adenomas expressed preproorexin mRNA, and seven of 10 adenomas contained measurable amounts of orexin-A but not orexin-B.
  • Normal adrenal cortexes neither expressed preproorexin nor contained orexins.
  • All adenomas expressed OX1-R and OX2-R mRNAs, and real-time PCR showed that the expression of both receptors was up-regulated in adenomas, compared with normal adrenal cortex.
  • Orexin-A concentration-dependently raised basal cortisol secretion from freshly dispersed normal and adenomatous cells, minimal and maximal effective concentrations being 10(-10) and 10(-8) m, and the peptide efficacy (percent increase elicited by 10(-8) m orexin-A) was significantly higher in adenomas than in the normal adrenal cortex.
  • Collectively, our findings allow us to conclude that the orexin system is overexpressed in cortisol-secreting adenomas and suggest that orexin-A may act as an autocrine-paracrine regulator of the secretory activity and growth of some of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15797953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / HCRT protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Orexin Receptors; 0 / Orexins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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49. Volante M, Sperone P, Bollito E, Frangipane E, Rosas R, Daffara F, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Papotti M: Matrix metalloproteinase type 2 expression in malignant adrenocortical tumors: Diagnostic and prognostic significance in a series of 50 adrenocortical carcinomas. Mod Pathol; 2006 Dec;19(12):1563-9
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  • [Title] Matrix metalloproteinase type 2 expression in malignant adrenocortical tumors: Diagnostic and prognostic significance in a series of 50 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The differential diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma from adrenocortical adenoma is based on different pathological parameters, usually incorporated in scoring systems, which unfortunately lack a 100% sensitivity and specificity.
  • Little is known on the molecular mechanisms leading to the malignant phenotype in adrenocortical tumors.
  • Therefore, we aimed to investigate metalloproteinases and their inhibitors expression in a series of 50 adrenocortical carcinomas and 50 control adrenocortical adenomas, diagnosed according to the Weiss histological criteria.
  • Metalloproteinase type 2 gave the most significant result, being detected in neoplastic cells in 1/50 adrenocortical adenomas (2%) and 37/50 adrenocortical carcinomas (74%) (P < 0.001), with a focal (score 1, <20% of positive cells--two-thirds of cases) or diffuse (score 2, >20% of positive cells--one-third of cases) pattern.
  • In addition, diffuse (score 2) metalloproteinase type 2 protein expression, as compared to focal or negative immunostaining, correlated with shorter survival (P < 0.02) and disease-free interval (P = 0.05).
  • Our data indicate that metalloproteinase type 2 immunohistochemical localization in tumor cells is significantly restricted to malignant adrenocortical tumors, with high specificity but low sensitivity.
  • In addition, a strong metalloproteinase type 2 expression in adrenocortical carcinoma was for the first time recognized as an unfavorable prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / enzymology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16980949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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50. Al-Hawary MM, Francis IR, Korobkin M: Non-invasive evaluation of the incidentally detected indeterminate adrenal mass. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;19(2):277-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-invasive evaluation of the incidentally detected indeterminate adrenal mass.
  • Clinically silent adrenal masses are discovered incidentally during diagnostic testing or treatment for clinical conditions that are not related to suspicion of adrenal disease; thus, they are commonly referred to as 'incidentalomas'.
  • In many patients without a known extra-adrenal primary malignancy--and even in patients with a primary neoplasm--most adrenal masses ultimately prove to be benign.
  • However, it remains important that these adrenal masses are accurately characterized to exclude the treatable causes of adrenal disease, and also to accurately stage the oncology patient.
  • The purpose of this chapter is to describe the findings and recent advances in non-invasive imaging methods that are now available for the accurate characterization of incidentally detected adrenal masses (i.e. the differentiation of benign from malignant masses).
  • The imaging techniques and the algorithms that are used in our institution for the evaluation of incidentally detected adrenal mass will be described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15763701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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51. Pugeat M, Déchaud H, Raverot V, Denuzière A, Cohen R, Boudou P, French Endocrine Society: Recommendations for investigation of hyperandrogenism. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Feb;71(1):2-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DHEAS is primarily of cortico-adrenal origin in women.
  • Thus, a DHEAS level over 600 mg/dl indicates a diagnosis of androgen-secreting adrenal cortical adenoma..
  • If DHEAS is normal, the diagnosis could be either ovarian hyperthecosis, normally associated with insulin resistance, or androgen-secreting ovarian tumour.
  • 4. More rarely, elevated testosterone is associated with a marked elevation of SHBG possibly as the result of use of medication having an estrogenic effect (tamoxifen, raloxifene, Op'DDD), or of hyperthyroidism or liver disease.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
  • (PMID = 20096825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Guideline; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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52. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1333-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls.
  • The adrenal gland is involved by a range of neoplasms, including primary and metastatic malignant tumors; however, the most common tumor detected is the incidental benign adenoma.
  • Although computed tomographic (CT) findings will not always yield a definitive diagnosis, attention to these findings provides a road map to guide image interpretation.
  • Adenomas typically demonstrate rapid washout, which is defined as an absolute percentage washout (APW) of more than 60% and a relative percentage washout (RPW) of more than 40% on delayed images.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma typically has an RPW of less than 40%; however, large size and heterogeneity are more reliable indicators of the diagnosis than are washout values.
  • Washout characteristics of pheochromocytoma are variable; in conjunction with high levels of dynamic enhancement, pheochromocytomas may mimic adenoma (ie, APW > 60%, RPW > 40%).
  • After contrast material administration, metastases usually demonstrate slower washout on delayed images (APW < 60%, RPW < 40%) than do adenomas, although hypervascular metastases may enhance similarly to pheochromocytoma.
  • Finally, a number of nonadrenal pathologic conditions have been reported to mimic adrenal masses at CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19755599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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53. Sampol Bas C, Peña Viloria C: [Uptake of 123I-MIBG in a hepatic hemangioma in the scintigraphic study of an adrenal gland lesion]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2005 May-Jun;24(3):191-4
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  • [Title] [Uptake of 123I-MIBG in a hepatic hemangioma in the scintigraphic study of an adrenal gland lesion].
  • [Transliterated title] Captación de 123I-MIBG en un hemangioma hepático en el estudio gammagráfico de una lesión suprarrenal.
  • A 60 year old symptom free female in whom a lesion in left adrenal gland was found by chance in a CT scan is presented.
  • 123I-MIBG scintigraphy showed a non-physiological uptake in right adrenal gland that is still seen in the delayed image, with normal left gland.
  • MRI confirmed the presence of a mass in the left adrenal gland suggestive of an adenoma and found a lesion in the right hepatic area at the level of the previously seen MIBG image.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Diagnostic Errors. Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / adverse effects. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antidepressive Agents / adverse effects. Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology. Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use. Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects. Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology. Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use. Catecholamines / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Interactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fibula / injuries. Fibula / radiography. Fractures, Bone / complications. Fractures, Bone / radiography. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Psychotic Disorders / complications. Psychotic Disorders / drug therapy. Tibial Fractures / complications. Tibial Fractures / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15847786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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54. Akos MB, Péter K, Edina N, János H, Eszter S: [Laparoscopic extirpation of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst]. Magy Seb; 2006 Feb;59(1):37-41
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  • During the examination of an 18-year-old female patient due to her extreme thinness, the abdominal ultrasound and later the CT indicated as an accidental finding--a left side adrenal/suprarenal adenoma, which turned out to be hormonally inactive.
  • The left suprarenal gland had normal size and appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchogenic Cyst / diagnosis. Bronchogenic Cyst / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16637389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar sebészet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Seb
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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55. Song JH, Lee KH, Kim SD, Cho BS: Long-term Follow up of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients with Hyponatremia. Electrolyte Blood Press; 2007 Dec;5(2):140-6
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  • [Title] Long-term Follow up of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients with Hyponatremia.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease, which leads to cortisol and aldosterone deficiency and hyperandrogenism.
  • Typical medical treatment includes oral glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid administration to suppress adrenal androgens and to compensate for adrenal steroid deficiencies.
  • Among these patients, four cases of CAH patients showing the presence of hyponatremia as an initial electrolyte disorder were found with adrenal adenoma.
  • Hypersecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and chronic poor compliance to therapy appears to be associated with the development of the adrenal tumor.
  • Two cases were managed with adrenalectomy because of increasing adrenal tumor size and virilization.
  • Therefore, it is important that patients with CAH maintain steroid medication to avoid the appearance of adrenal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 24459514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-5997
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrolyte & blood pressure : E & BP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrolyte Blood Press
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3894515
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 21-hydroxylase deficiency / Adrenal tumor / Congenital adrenal hyperplasia / Hyponatremia
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56. Pereira JM, Sirlin CB, Pinto PS, Casola G: CT and MR imaging of extrahepatic fatty masses of the abdomen and pelvis: techniques, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1):69-85
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  • [Title] CT and MR imaging of extrahepatic fatty masses of the abdomen and pelvis: techniques, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls.
  • The differential diagnosis of extrahepatic abdominopelvic masses is wide.
  • Demonstration of fat within a lesion at noninvasive imaging is an important clue for narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • Lesions with predominantly microscopic fat include adrenal adenoma and some teratomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Teratoma / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15653588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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57. Dubova EA, Mishnev OD, Shchegolev AI: [Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal gland]. Arkh Patol; 2007 Nov-Dec;69(6):38-9
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  • [Title] [Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal gland].
  • Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal is described in a 44-year-old female patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18290380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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58. Terzolo M, Reimondo G, Bovio S, Daffara F, Allasino B, Minetto M, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentalomas. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Mar;115(3):166-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / therapy. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17427104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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59. Leitolf H, Dixit KC, Higham CE, Brabant G: Licorice - or more? Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Apr;118(4):250-3
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  • Abdominal imaging with US and MRI showed a 2.7 cmx2.2 cmx1.7 cm left adrenal mass.
  • He underwent laparoscopic left adrenalectomy and histology confirmed aldosterone producing adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / ultrasonography. Aldosterone / blood. Glycyrrhiza / adverse effects. Hypokalemia / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Potassium, Dietary. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.
  • (PMID = 20213599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Potassium, Dietary; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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60. Anagnostis P, Karagiannis A, Tziomalos K, Kakafika AI, Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP: Adrenal incidentaloma: a diagnostic challenge. Hormones (Athens); 2009 Jul-Sep;8(3):163-84
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: a diagnostic challenge.
  • The widespread application of abdominal imaging procedures has resulted in an increased frequency of clinically silent adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is a term applied to an accidentally discovered adrenal mass on imaging performed for the investigation of an unrelated complaint.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are a cluster of different pathologies, the majority of which are benign and non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Algorithms. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19671516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 181
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61. Schwab CW 2nd, Vingan H, Fabrizio MD: Usefulness of adrenal vein sampling in the evaluation of aldosteronism. J Endourol; 2008 Jun;22(6):1247-50
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  • [Title] Usefulness of adrenal vein sampling in the evaluation of aldosteronism.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the usefulness of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) in patients referred for surgical management of primary aldosteronism (PA).
  • Ten patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for resection of an aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • RESULTS: All patients had an adrenal adenoma seen on CT, mean size 14.8 mm (range 6-27 mm).
  • When compared with CT findings, eight (73%) patients demonstrated aldosterone hypersecretion from the adrenal with the adenoma.
  • Two (18%) patients demonstrated hypersecretion from the contralateral, normal-appearing gland.
  • One (9%) patient demonstrated bilateral aldosterone hypersecretion, consistent with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia.
  • After surgical removal of the gland that demonstrated hypersecretion on AVS, all patients experienced resolution of hypokalemia, five (50%) patients had resolution of hypertension, and five (50%) patients had significant reductions in the number of hypertensive medications.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AVS is a superior test when compared with CT imaging in subtype identification of PA and for determination of occult hypersecretion from the adrenal.

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  • (PMID = 18484874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Park SH, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Lim JS, Kim KW: Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation. Korean J Radiol; 2007 Jul-Aug;8(4):328-35
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  • [Title] Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal threshold for the attenuation values in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and assess the value of the size criteria for differentiating between an adrenal adenoma and a nonadenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The unenhanced CT images of 45 patients at our institution, who underwent a surgical resection of an adrenal masses between January 2001 and July 2005, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Forty-five adrenal masses included 25 cortical adenomas, 12 pheochromocytomas, three lymphomas, and five metastases confirmed by pathology were examined.
  • The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test.
  • RESULTS: The twenty-five adenomas showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) attenuation values (mean+/-SD; 16.3+/-14.9) than the nonadenomas (38.1+/-6.8).
  • The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were 36%, 100%, 100%, 56%, and 64%, respectively, at a threshold of 10 HU; 60%, 100%, 100%, 67%, and 78%, respectively, at a threshold of 20 HU; and 72%, 95%, 95%, 73%, and 82%, respectively, at a threshold of 25 HU.
  • The adenomas had a significantly (p < 0.05) smaller diameter (2.44+/-1.24 cm) than the nonadenomas (5.09+/-2.37 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: The threshold attenuation values of 20 or 25 HU in the unenhanced CT appear optimal for discriminating an adrenal adenoma from a nonadenoma.
  • The size criteria are of little value in differentiating adrenal masses because of their low specificity or low sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17673844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627166
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63. Fukumitsu N, Ashida H, Ogi S, Uchiyama M, Mori Y, Ikemoto I, Sakamoto N, Tojo K, Kawakami M: A case of ganglioneuroma in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol scintigraphy showed high uptake in the adrenal gland leading to a misdiagnosis. Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;20(1):69-73
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  • [Title] A case of ganglioneuroma in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol scintigraphy showed high uptake in the adrenal gland leading to a misdiagnosis.
  • We experienced a case in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol (131I-adosterol) scintigraphy showed high uptake in the right adrenal gland.
  • We diagnosed functional cortical adenoma because of the finding of 131I-adosterol scintigraphy.
  • However, no positive findings for the existence of cortical adenoma were obtained in other examinations and we performed right adrenalectomy.
  • Unexpectedly, pathological finding showed the right adrenal gland was occupied with a large ganglioneuroma.
  • This is an instructive case in which 131I-adosterol scintigraphy showed abnormal high uptake in the adrenal gland, in spite of the fact that the adrenal gland was occupied by a tumor derived from adrenal medulla.
  • [MeSH-major] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Ganglioneuroma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16485578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 68232-36-0 / 6-iodomethylcholesterol
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64. Zhang W, Tang ZY, Wang WQ, Ning G: [Metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenocortical adenoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Dec 26;86(48):3397-400
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  • [Title] [Metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenocortical adenoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • METHODS: MS-related indexes, including waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting plasma glucose, plasma and urinary aldosterone, plasma potassium, basic and upright plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma and urinary cortisol, and plasma ACTH, were examined among 61 patients of aldosterone producing adenoma (APA, Group 1), 23 patients of cortisol-secreting adenoma (CSA, Group 2), 24 patients of nonfunctional adrenal adenoma (NAA, Group 3), and 26 healthy controls (Group 4).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with adrenocortical adenoma have a significantly high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially the patients of CSA and NAA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Metabolic Syndrome X / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17313850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Lipids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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65. Chen W, Chen GY, Tsai SJ, Wang PW, Sheu HM, Shen YS, Chen FF: Mild cutaneous manifestation in two young women with extraordinary hyperandrogenemia. Dermatology; 2005;210(1):49-52
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  • Hyperandrogenism with hyperandrogenemia should be considered in those with severe acne of sudden onset or conspicuous male-pattern baldness with hairline recession, although the majority of female patients with acne or androgenetic alopecia possess no endocrine disorder.
  • The first one presenting vertical alopecia had an elevated level of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (>800 microg/dl) and was suspected to be a case of late-onset, non-classical adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The second case with mild acne had a soaring serum level of total testosterone >9,000 ng/dl derived from an androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma overexpressing steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and aromatase.
  • The possibility of adrenal tumor should be explored in patients with escalated circulating testosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Acne Vulgaris / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Alopecia / complications. Hyperandrogenism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15604546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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66. Leung AM, Sasano H, Nishikwa T, McAneny DB, Malabanan AO: Multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas in a patient with primary hyperaldosteronism. Endocr Pract; 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):76-9
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  • [Title] Multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas in a patient with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a rare case of multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas in which immunohistochemistry results confirmed primary hyperaldosteronism in each of 3 adenomas.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and pathologic findings of a case of multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Although multiple nodules in both adrenal glands are fairly common in patients with bilateral hyperplasia, multiple unilateral nodules are extremely rare.
  • A 45-year-old woman with a long-standing history of severe hypertension was found to have biochemical parameters consistent with primary hyperaldosteronism, multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas, and immunohistochemical test results confirming primary hyperaldosteronism arising from each of 3 adrenal nodules (measuring 2.2 x 2.2 cm, 1.7 x 0.7 cm, and 0.5 x 0.5 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the rare presentation of primary hyperaldosteronism as multiple unilateral adrenal adenomas in which immunohistochemistry results can confirm the suspected preoperative diagnosis as suggested by biochemical and radiographic evidence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18238744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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67. Morello F, Schiavone D, Mengozzi G, Bertello C, Liew CC, Bisbocci D, Mulatero P, Veglio F: Adrenal endothelin-1 levels are not associated with aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Mar;160(3):453-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal endothelin-1 levels are not associated with aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism.
  • In the present study, we sought to examine ET-1 secretion from the adrenal glands in patients with PA.
  • DESIGN: We determined ET-1 levels in blood samples obtained during adrenal venous sampling of patients affected by PA (n=17).
  • Furthermore, we examined the mRNA expression of the ET system in tissue samples from aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs, n=9) and control normal adrenals (n=3).
  • RESULTS: ET-1 levels did not differ between inferior vena cava and adrenal vein blood in both bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and APA patients.
  • Moreover, cortisol-normalized ET-1 levels did not show lateralized adrenal ET-1 secretion in APAs.
  • Through gene expression profiling with microarray performed in a distinct set of APA individuals (n=9), we confirmed the adrenal expression of a complete ET system, but we did not detect a significant upregulation of ET components within the APA tissue compared with normal adrenals.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present data argue against the hypothesis of increased ET-1 secretion from APAs and do not support a general role for adrenal ET-1 in the vascular pathophysiology of PA.

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  • (PMID = 19073831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.71 / endothelin-converting enzyme
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68. van Aken MO, Pereira AM, van Thiel SW, van den Berg G, Frölich M, Veldhuis JD, Romijn JA, Roelfsema F: Irregular and frequent cortisol secretory episodes with preserved diurnal rhythmicity in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1570-7
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  • [Title] Irregular and frequent cortisol secretory episodes with preserved diurnal rhythmicity in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome.
  • To evaluate the pathophysiology of altered cortisol secretion in patients with primary adrenal hypercortisolism, cortisol secretion was investigated in 12 patients, seven with a unilateral adenoma and five with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia compared with age- and gender-matched controls and with patients with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism.
  • Cortisol burst-mass tended to be smaller in patients with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia than in unilateral adenoma (P = 0.06).
  • In conclusion, increased cortisol secretion in patients with primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome is caused by amplified pulsatile secretion via event frequency modulation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / secretion. Adult. Aged. Entropy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15598691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060717
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS3327; NLM/ PMC1237022
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69. Oki K, Yamane K, Nakanishi S, Nakashima R, Jitsuiki K, Kohno N: Improvement of hypercortisolism by β-blocker therapy in subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia. Endocrine; 2009 Dec;36(3):372-6
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  • [Title] Improvement of hypercortisolism by β-blocker therapy in subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia.
  • A 61-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes was referred for the evaluation of multiple bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed as having ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) with subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with the aberrant expression of β-adrenergic receptors.
  • While the suppression of cortisol secretion was sustained for 24 months, glucose metabolism and adrenal size were unaffected.
  • Additional cases or controlled studies are needed to determine the potential effect of propranolol on metabolic disorders and adrenal size in patients with AIMAH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Propranolol / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19813002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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70. Kaspareit J, Friderichs-Gromoll S, Buse E, Habermann G: Spontaneous neoplasms observed in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during a 15-year period. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2007 Nov;59(3-4):163-9
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  • The great majority of neoplasms was benign (23 benign neoplasms versus 10 malignant tumors).
  • Most of the tumors (22) in the cynomolgus monkeys were seen in endocrine organs (adrenal cortical adenoma, adrenal hemangioma, C-cell carcinoma, follicular adenoma), respiratory system (nasal cavity adenoma, pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, bronchio-alveolar carcinoma, bronchiolar papilloma, chondromatous hamartoma) and female genital system (uterine polyp, uterine adenoma, uterine leiomyoma and teratoma of the ovary).
  • [MeSH-major] Macaca fascicularis. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17869495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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71. Ctvrtlík F, Herman M, Student V, Tichá V, Minarík J: Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Feb;69(2):243-52
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare CT findings of adrenal incidentalomas with a definitive histological diagnosis in order to establish CT features characteristic for individual types of lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The retrospective study comprised of patients with adrenal lesions detected on abdominal CT.
  • The study consisted of 62 adrenal expansions found in 55 patients (in seven patients bilateral lesions were found).
  • According to the definitive histological diagnosis after adrenalectomy, the lesions were divided into the following six groups: primary adrenocortical carcinoma (n=4), metastasis (n=7), adrenocortical adenoma (n=37), pheochromocytoma (n=9), myelolipoma (n=2), and others (n=3).
  • Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value for distinguishing adenomas and non-adenomas using a cut-off diameter of 41.5mm were 81.1%, 70.0%, 77.2%, 83.3%, 66.7%, respectively; using the non-contrast density threshold of 23 HU, they were 89.2%, 100%, 93%, 100%, 83.3%, respectively; using the post-contrast density threshold of 47.5 HU, they were 80.6%, 100%, 88.2%, 100%, 76.9%, respectively; using the increase of density threshold of 34.5 HU, they were 74.2%, 70.0%, 72.5%, 79.3%, 63.6%, respectively.
  • A study of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses resulted in the following conclusions: (a) the most accurate parameter for distinguishing adenomas from non-adenomas is the value of non-contrast density, (b) the second most accurate parameter is the post-contrast density, (c) the least suitable parameters are the size of the lesion and increase of density, (d) therefore, in practice, the value of non-contrast density parameter should be used.
  • CONCLUSION: Standard CT of the abdomen (not specifically aimed at adrenal glands) is a suitable method for distinguishing adrenal lesions which need to be operated on from those which are probably benign but need to be monitored.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiography, Abdominal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18226485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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72. Marabelle A, Campagne D, Déchelotte P, Chipponi J, Deméocq F, Kanold J: Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in patients previously treated for pediatric neoplastic diseases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Jul;30(7):546-9
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  • [Title] Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in patients previously treated for pediatric neoplastic diseases.
  • However, patients previously treated for pediatric cancers are at greater risk of developing benign hepatic tumors, raising the problems of getting an accurate noninvasive diagnosis.
  • Here we report 3 cases of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in patients previously treated for pediatric neoplastic diseases.
  • Only surgical resection led to positive diagnosis and prevented complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neuroblastoma / complications. Wilms Tumor / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Cicatrix / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / pathology. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver / radiography. Liver / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Monosomy. Pancytopenia / complications. Pancytopenia / genetics. Pancytopenia / surgery. Remission Induction


73. Groussin L, Cazabat L, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Bertherat J: Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex. Horm Res; 2005;64(3):132-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex.
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a main characteristic of CNC.
  • PPNAD is a very rare cause of Cushing's syndrome due to a primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations nor familial history.
  • Interestingly, patients with isolated PPNAD and no familial history of CNC can also present a germline de novo mutation of PRKAR1A.
  • Somatic mutations of PRKAR1A have been found in PPNAD as a mechanism of inactivation of the wild-type allele, in a patient already presenting a germline mutation, and in a subset of sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas with clinical, hormonal, and pathological features quite similar to PPNAD.
  • This review will summarize the recent findings on CNC from the perspective of the pathophysiology of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and PPNAD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / physiopathology. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / physiopathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16192737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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74. Yaylali GF, Akin F, Bastemir M, Yaylali YT, Ozden A: Phaeochromocytoma combined with subclinical Cushing's syndrome and pituitary microadenoma. Clin Invest Med; 2008;31(3):E176-81
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  • OBJECTIVES: Phaeochromocytoma (PHEO) occasionally associates with pathological lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • The coexistence of PHEO and pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome (PCS) of the same adrenal gland has rarely been reported.
  • We report a case of PHEO and PCS originating from the same adrenal gland and discuss the peculiar diagnostic aspects of this entity.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 64 yr old man was hospitalized to evaluate the right adrenal mass which was discovered incidentally by ultrasonography.
  • CT scan of the adrenal glands showed a 6 cm well encapsulated right adrenal mass together with a clearly normal left adrenal gland.
  • MRI investigation of the sella turcica revealed a pituitary microadenoma on the right side of the adenohypophysis He was treated with alpha and subsequent beta blockers after the diagnosis of PHEO and PCS was made.
  • The pathology showed typical PHEO with adrenocortical hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: The present report is a rare case of PHEO combined with PCS in the same adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications


75. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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76. Catena C, Colussi G, Lapenna R, Nadalini E, Chiuch A, Gianfagna P, Sechi LA: Long-term cardiac effects of adrenalectomy or mineralocorticoid antagonists in patients with primary aldosteronism. Hypertension; 2007 Nov;50(5):911-8
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  • Fifty-four patients with primary aldosteronism were enrolled in a prospective study and were followed for a mean of 6.4 years after treatment with adrenalectomy (n=24) or spironolactone (n=30).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism / physiopathology. Hypertension / physiopathology. Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / therapy. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists

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  • [CommentIn] Hypertension. 2007 Nov;50(5):837-9 [17909118.001]
  • (PMID = 17893375.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4563
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertension
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 27O7W4T232 / Spironolactone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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77. Bohinc BN, Parker JC: Visual vignette. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Incidental Findings. Varicose Veins / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19211407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Willenberg HS, Haase M, Papewalis C, Schott M, Scherbaum WA, Bornstein SR: Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor expression on normal and tumorous human adrenocortical cells. Neuroendocrinology; 2005;82(5-6):274-81
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  • [Title] Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor expression on normal and tumorous human adrenocortical cells.
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is not only the principal regulator of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis but also exerts direct actions on peripheral tissues.
  • We analyzed the expression of CRH receptors in microdissected preparations of normal human adrenal glands and in adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors, employing immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR of microdissected adrenal tissues, and in situ hybridization.
  • The effect of CRH on adrenal steroidogenesis was tested in adrenal cells.
  • In addition, we found a higher expression of CRH type-1 and 2 receptors mRNAs in preparations of adrenal cortices as compared to pheochromocytomas, a 6-fold increase in preparations of clinically unapparent adrenocortical adenomas, and a 10- to 60-fold increase in cortisol-producing adrenal adenomas.
  • Stimulation of the adrenal tumor cell line NCI-H295R with CRH elicited a 1.4-fold increase in DHEA secretion.
  • This result could be reproduced in a culture of primary human adrenocortical cells.
  • We conclude that adrenocortical cells exhibit a higher expression of functional CRH receptors than chromaffin cells and that CRH acts on adrenal DHEA production.
  • The data support the assertion of a direct action of CRH on human adrenocortical cells in addition to an intra-adrenal CRH receptor/adrenocorticotropin system.
  • Enhanced CRH1R expression may be involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / chemistry. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemistry. Adrenocortical Adenoma / chemistry. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / chemistry. Pheochromocytoma / chemistry. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16721033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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79. Arai H, Kobayashi N, Nakatsuru Y, Masuzaki H, Nambu T, Takaya K, Yamanaka Y, Kondo E, Yamada G, Fujii T, Miura M, Komatsu Y, Kanamoto N, Ariyasu H, Moriyama K, Yasoda A, Nakao K: A case of cortisol producing adrenal adenoma without phenotype of Cushing's syndrome due to impaired 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity. Endocr J; 2008 Aug;55(4):709-15
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  • [Title] A case of cortisol producing adrenal adenoma without phenotype of Cushing's syndrome due to impaired 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity.
  • This report concerns a case of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenoma without the phenotype of Cushing's syndrome.
  • A left adrenal tumor was incidentally detected in this patient.
  • A diagnosis of adrenal Cushing's syndrome was based on the results of endocrinological and radiological examinations, although she showed none of the physical signs of Cushing's syndrome, glucose intolerance, hypertension or dyslipidermia.
  • After a successful laparoscopic left adrenalectomy, the pathological diagnosis was adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Slow tapering of glucocorticoids was needed to prevent adrenal insufficiency after surgery, and the plasma ACTH level remained high even though the serum cortisol level had reached the upper limit of the normal range.
  • [MeSH-major] 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18493111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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80. Stratakis CA, Carney JA: The triad of paragangliomas, gastric stromal tumours and pulmonary chondromas (Carney triad), and the dyad of paragangliomas and gastric stromal sarcomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome): molecular genetics and clinical implications. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):43-52
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  • A number of other lesions have been described in the condition including pheochromocytomas, oesophageal leiomyomas and adrenocortical adenomas; CT is a novel form of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a genetic condition with a female predilection.
  • We recently reported an international series of patients with CT, 34 females and three males (median age of presentation 21 years) who did not carry SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations.


81. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Osella G, Borretta G, Angeli A, Reimondo G: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1272-9
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  • Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS) is attracting increasing interest since the serendipitous discovery of an adrenal mass has become a rather frequent event owing to the routine use of sophisticated radiologic techniques.
  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent type of adrenal incidentaloma accounting for approximately 50% of cases in surgical series and even greater shares in medical series.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas may secrete cortisol in an autonomous manner that is not fully restrained by pituitary feedback, in 5 to 20% of cases depending on study protocols and diagnostic criteria.
  • The criteria for qualifying subclinical cortisol excess are controversial and presently there is no consensus on a gold standard for the diagnosis of this condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / epidemiology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Incidental Findings. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18209865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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82. Wosnitzer B, Gadiraju R: The role of nuclear imaging in multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1). Radiol Case Rep; 2010;5(4):452
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) is a rare genetic disorder classically characterized by a predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet cells (1).
  • In addition to exhibiting these characteristic tumors, MEN 1 patients also have an increased propensity for other tumors such as carcinoids, adrenal adenomas, angiofibromas, and lipomas (1, 2, 3).
  • The tumors of MEN 1 are usually benign; however, malignancy of some carcinoid, islet cell, and gastrointestinal tract tumors can cause mortality (5, 6, 7, 8).
  • Diagnosis of MEN 1 is usually made by a combination of history and physical examination, biochemical serum testing, and various imaging modalities (9, 10).
  • We present a classic case of MEN 1 with unique presentation and diagnosis using predominantly nuclear imaging in order to emphasize the role of nuclear imaging in diagnosing and treating MEN 1.

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  • (PMID = 27307880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-0433
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4901017
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT, computed tomography / EGD, esophagogastroduodenoscopy / MEN 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 / MRI, magnetic resonance imaging
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83. de Matos LL, Trufelli DC, das Neves-Pereira JC, Danel C, Riquet M: Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review. Lung Cancer; 2006 Sep;53(3):381-6
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  • Neither of these patients had hypophysary microadenomas, adrenal adenomas or recurrence of CS after surgical treatment, demonstrating that CS was caused solely by the presence of the bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis


84. Mulatero P, Milan A, Fallo F, Regolisti G, Pizzolo F, Fardella C, Mosso L, Marafetti L, Veglio F, Maccario M: Comparison of confirmatory tests for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jul;91(7):2618-23
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  • [Title] Comparison of confirmatory tests for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism.
  • CONTEXT: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most frequent form of secondary hypertension, accounting for up to 5-10% of all hypertensive patients, and the diagnosis of PA can present an important challenge for the clinician.
  • After a positive screening test, the diagnosis is confirmed by a suppression test, often an iv saline load test (SLT) or a fludrocortisone suppression test (FST).
  • OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Our objective was to compare the specificity of SLT with FST for the diagnosis of PA.
  • RESULTS: After iv SLT, 10.4% of the PA patients were negative and 16.1% of patients with essential hypertension were positive after SLT; that is, a correct diagnosis with SLT was obtained in 88% of patients compared with FST.
  • Patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma displayed a smaller reduction of PAC compared with patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia; a PAC after SLT greater than 6 ng/dl identified all patients eventually diagnosed as having aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the iv SLT is a reasonably good alternative to the more expensive and complex FST for the diagnosis of PA after a positive screening test.
  • [MeSH-major] Fludrocortisone. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Sodium Chloride
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Aldosterone / blood. Humans. Hyperplasia. Hypertension / etiology. Middle Aged. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16670162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; U0476M545B / Fludrocortisone
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85. De Filippo M, Onniboni M, Zompatori M: Double oblique approach for MDCT-guided needle biopsy or ablation in adrenal tumors using multiplanar reconstruction. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Aug;191(2):W74; author reply W75
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  • [Title] Double oblique approach for MDCT-guided needle biopsy or ablation in adrenal tumors using multiplanar reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetic Acid / administration & dosage. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy

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  • [CommentOn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Jan;190(1):105-10 [18094300.001]
  • (PMID = 18647891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; Q40Q9N063P / Acetic Acid
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86. Nugent M, Waterman GS: An adrenal adenoma presenting with psychosis. Psychosomatics; 2006 Mar-Apr;47(2):175-7
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  • [Title] An adrenal adenoma presenting with psychosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / psychology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / psychology. Psychotic Disorders / diagnosis. Psychotic Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Dibenzothiazepines / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Quetiapine Fumarate

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  • (PMID = 16508033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychosomatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychosomatics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Dibenzothiazepines; 2S3PL1B6UJ / Quetiapine Fumarate
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87. Bertolini G, Furlanello T, Drigo M, Caldin M: Computed tomographic adrenal gland quantification in canine adrenocorticotroph hormone-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2008 Sep-Oct;49(5):449-53
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  • [Title] Computed tomographic adrenal gland quantification in canine adrenocorticotroph hormone-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
  • We conducted a retrospective study to determine whether multidetector computed tomography (CT) could be of value for adrenal gland assessment in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
  • Adrenal gland attenuation and volume values of 49 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism were recorded and age, body weight, and gender were examined to determine if a relationship existed between these variables and adrenal gland morphology.
  • There was not a statistically significant difference in mean X-ray attenuation of the left vs. right adrenal gland in normal dogs (35.3 +/- 6.1 HU), or in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
  • The mean adrenal X-ray attenuation (+/- standard deviation [SD]) in dogs with microadenoma was 33.1 +/- 6.8 vs. 31.8 +/- 12.7 HU for dogs with macroadenoma, and these values were not statistically different.
  • The mean volume of the left adrenal gland in normal dogs (0.59 +/- 0.17 cm3) was greater than that of the right adrenal gland (0.54 +/- 0.19 cm3) (P < 0.05).
  • The mean CT volume (+/- SD) of the adrenal glands in dogs with microadenoma vs. macroadenoma were 1.60 +/- 1.25 vs. 2.88 +/- 1.60 cm3, respectively.
  • There was no effect of age or gender on adrenal gland morphology or X-ray attenuation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Dog Diseases / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / veterinary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Case-Control Studies. Dogs. Female. Male. Pedigree. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18833952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Saner-Amigh K, Mayhew BA, Mantero F, Schiavi F, White PC, Rao CV, Rainey WE: Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):1136-42
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  • [Title] Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: The mechanisms driving steroid production in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are poorly defined.
  • However, previous studies have shown that steroid production in some cortisol-producing adenomas is regulated by aberrant expression of G protein-coupled receptors.
  • Aberrant adrenal expression of LH receptors has been shown to cause Cushing's syndrome, but the role of LH receptors in Conn's disease (hyperaldosteronism) has not been studied.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether APAs express elevated LH receptor, compared with normal adrenal (NA).
  • Aldosterone synthase transcription was studied in H295R adrenocortical cells transfected with an LH receptor expression construct and reporter constructs prepared from CYP11B2 5'-flanking DNA.
  • PATIENTS: The patient population consisted of 20 normal control adrenals and 18 adenomas from patients with APAs.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Regulation of CYP11B2 gene expression by aberrant LH receptor expression in aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma was measured.
  • CONCLUSION: LH receptor expression is elevated in many APAs, which makes LH a potential cause of the excessive production of aldosterone in a subset of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aldosterone / metabolism. Receptors, LH / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Corpus Luteum / physiology. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Ovarian Follicle / physiology. Plasmids. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16332935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LH; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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89. Ozturk E, Onur Sildiroglu H, Kantarci M, Doganay S, Güven F, Bozkurt M, Sonmez G, Cinar Basekim C: Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2009;121(11-12):372-81
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  • [Title] Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series.
  • With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons.
  • Imaging features on CT can establish a specific diagnosis of many of these lesions, including myelolipoma, hematoma and cysts.
  • Once a diagnostic dilemma, now adenomas can be accurately diagnosed using unenhanced CT, chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging and CT contrast washout analysis.
  • Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases.
  • In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features.
  • It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions.
  • The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer.
  • Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques.
  • Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion.
  • The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19626294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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90. Giuliani L, Lenzini L, Antonello M, Aldighieri E, Belloni AS, Fassina A, Gomez-Sanchez C, Rossi GP: Expression and functional role of urotensin-II and its receptor in the adrenal cortex and medulla: novel insights for the pathophysiology of primary aldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Feb;94(2):684-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression and functional role of urotensin-II and its receptor in the adrenal cortex and medulla: novel insights for the pathophysiology of primary aldosteronism.
  • OBJECTIVE: We investigated the expression of urotensin II and urotensin II receptor in adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors and the functional effects of urotensin II receptor activation.
  • DESIGN: The expression of urotensin II and urotensin II receptor was measured by real time RT-PCR in aldosterone-producing adenoma (n = 22) and pheochromocytoma (n = 10), using histologically normal adrenocortical (n = 6) and normal adrenomedullary (n = 5) tissue as control.
  • The adrenocortical effects of urotensin II receptor activation were also assessed by urotensin II infusion with/without the urotensin II receptor antagonist palosuran in rats.
  • RESULTS: Urotensin II was more expressed in pheochromocytoma than in aldosterone-producing adenoma tissue; the opposite was seen for the urotensin II receptor expression.
  • Urotensin II receptor activation in vivo in rats enhanced (by 182 +/- 9%; P < 0.007) the adrenocortical expression of immunoreactive aldosterone synthase.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Urotensin II is a putative mediator of the effects of the adrenal medulla and pheochromocytoma on the adrenocortical zona glomerulosa.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / physiology. Urotensins / genetics. Urotensins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adult. Animals. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 19001524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / UTS2R protein, human; 0 / Urotensins; 9047-55-6 / urotensin II; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2
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91. Prince EA, Yoo DC, DeLellis RA, Mayo-Smith WW: CT and PET appearance of a pigmented "black" adrenal adenoma in a patient with lung cancer. Clin Radiol; 2007 Dec;62(12):1229-31
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  • [Title] CT and PET appearance of a pigmented "black" adrenal adenoma in a patient with lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / radiotherapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17981173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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92. Seimiya YM, Takahashi M, Furukawa T, Mizutani K, Kimura K, Haritani M: An aged bull with concurrent thyroid C cell carcinoma, adrenal pheochromocytoma and pituitary chromophobe adenoma. J Vet Med Sci; 2009 Feb;71(2):225-8
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  • [Title] An aged bull with concurrent thyroid C cell carcinoma, adrenal pheochromocytoma and pituitary chromophobe adenoma.
  • Pathological examination disclosed multiple endocrine tumors including thyroid C cell carcinoma with metastases to the cervical lymph nodes and lung, adrenal pheochromocytoma and pituitary chromophobe adenoma in the pars distalis.
  • The long-term dietary intake of moderately excessive calcium with vitamin D(3) might be related to the pathogenesis of the thyroid C cell carcinoma.


93. Joubert M, Louiset E, Rego JL, Contesse V, Kong LC, Benhaim A, Mittre H, Lefebvre H, Reznik Y, REHOS Study Group: Aberrant adrenal sensitivity to vasopressin in adrenal tumours associated with subclinical or overt autonomous hypercortisolism: is this explained by an overexpression of vasopressin receptors? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 May;68(5):692-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aberrant adrenal sensitivity to vasopressin in adrenal tumours associated with subclinical or overt autonomous hypercortisolism: is this explained by an overexpression of vasopressin receptors?
  • OBJECTIVE: Abnormal responsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP) was previously observed in cortisol-producing adrenocortical tumours but the mechanism remains unclear.
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of AVP on cortisol secretion from adrenocortical tumours compared to normal human adrenal gland.
  • DESIGN: A multicentre study based on pharmacological, molecular and immunohistochemical experiments performed in adenomatous and normal adrenal tissues.
  • PATIENTS: Twenty patients with adrenocortical adenomas and subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCCS) or Cushing's syndrome (CS) were compared to six control normal subjects.
  • MEASUREMENTS: In vivo and in vitro cortisol response to vasopressin, vasopressin receptor subtype mRNA measurement by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical localization of AVP and its V1a receptor in tumour and normal adrenal tissues.
  • AVP receptor subtype mRNA levels were similar in SCCS, CS cells and normal adrenal cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SCCS and CS adrenocortical tumours often exhibit in vivo and in vitro hyper-responsiveness to AVP, which is not related to vasopressin receptor overexpression, but may be explained by more efficient coupling pathways or by the indirect action of AVP through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Receptors, Vasopressin / biosynthesis. Vasoconstrictor Agents / pharmacology


94. Kalra MK, Blake MA, Boland GW, Hahn PF: CT features of adrenal pheochromocytomas: attenuation value and loss of contrast enhancement. Radiology; 2005 Sep;236(3):1112-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CT features of adrenal pheochromocytomas: attenuation value and loss of contrast enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Contrast Media. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity


96. Rossi GP, Pitter G, Bernante P, Motta R, Feltrin G, Miotto D: Adrenal vein sampling for primary aldosteronism: the assessment of selectivity and lateralization of aldosterone excess baseline and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. J Hypertens; 2008 May;26(5):989-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal vein sampling for primary aldosteronism: the assessment of selectivity and lateralization of aldosterone excess baseline and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal vein sampling is crucial for identifying the primary aldosteronism subtypes, but the cutoff values for ascertaining selectivity of catheterization and lateralization of aldosterone secretion remain controversial.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the safety of adrenal vein sampling, the cutoff values for the selectivity and lateralization indexes, and the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation on selectivity index and lateralization index performance.
  • DESIGN: We assessed the proportion of selective adrenal vein sampling at different selectivity index cutoff values in 151 consecutive patients with primary aldosteronism undergoing bilaterally simultaneous adrenal vein sampling.
  • Aldosterone-producing adenoma was diagnosed on the basis of the evidence of primary aldosteronism and lateralized aldosterone secretion, adenoma at pathological examination, and normokalemia, and correction of primary aldosteronism and cure or improvement of hypertension at follow-up.
  • In 44 patients with bilaterally selective adrenal vein sampling and unequivocal diagnosis of aldosterone-producing adenoma on the basis of all these criteria, we examined the cutoff values of the lateralization index for assessing the lateralization of aldosterone excess and the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation on selectivity index and lateralization index.
  • RESULTS: Adrenal vein rupture occurred in one case (0.7%).
  • Bilaterally selective adrenal vein sampling decreased steadily (from 79.9 to 40.2%) with increase in the selectivity index cutoffs from 1.1 to 5.0.
  • Likewise, the proportion of correctly identified aldosterone-producing adenomas decreased (from 95.5 to 43.2%) with increase in lateralization index cutoffs from 1.125 to 5.0.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal vein sampling is safe; increasing the selectivity index cutoffs lowers the number of usable adrenal vein samplings; higher lateralization index cutoff values lead to missing a proportion of aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Catheterization / methods. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Radiography, Interventional / methods

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  • (PMID = 18398342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0263-6352
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hypertens.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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97. Tissier F, Cavard C, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Hagneré AM, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Gicquel C, Bertagna X, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Perret C, Bertherat J: Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 1;65(17):7622-7
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  • [Title] Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a rare cancer with a very poor prognosis.
  • The genetic alterations identified to date in adrenocortical tumors are limited.
  • We investigated whether Wnt pathway activation is involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • In a series of 39 adrenocortical tumors, immunohistochemistry revealed abnormal cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in 10 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 11 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • An activating somatic mutation of the beta-catenin gene was shown in 7 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 4 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas; these mutations were observed only in adrenocortical tumors with abnormal beta-catenin accumulation and most were point mutations altering the Ser45 of exon 3 (in the consensus GSK3-beta/CK1 phosphorylation site).
  • Functional studies showed that the activating Ser45 beta-catenin mutation found in the adrenocortical cancer H295R cell line leads to constitutive activation of T-cell factor-dependent transcription.
  • This is the first molecular defect to be reported with the same prevalence in both benign (27%) and malignant (31%) adrenocortical tumors. beta-Catenin mutations are also the most frequent genetic defect currently known in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • In adrenocortical adenomas, beta-catenin alterations are more frequent in nonfunctioning tumors, suggesting that beta-catenin pathway activation might be mostly involved in the development of nonsecreting adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The very frequent and substantial accumulation of beta-catenin in adrenocortical carcinomas suggests that other alterations might also be involved.
  • This finding may contribute to new therapeutic approaches targeting the Wnt pathway in malignant adrenocortical tumors, for which limited medical therapy is available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16140927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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98. Garduno-García Jde J, Reza-Albarrán A, Márquez MA, Pérez FJ: [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Nov;57(9):421-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma adrenal como etiología de síndrome de Cushing: veinte años de experiencia en un centro mexicano de tercer nivel.
  • Adrenal adenomas are an uncommon cause of adult CS.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcome of patients with CS caused by adrenal adenomas in a referral center.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional observational study of patients with a diagnosis of CS caused by adrenal adenomas managed in our center over a 20-year period.
  • Our clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of this entity was analyzed.
  • The results of dynamic testing with dexamethasone suggested adrenal adenoma in 100% of the patients.
  • Seventy percent of adenomas were found in the left gland.
  • ACTH measurement in our center was not reliable in identifying adrenal adenoma as a cause of CS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cushing's Syndrome.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20863774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2021
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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99. Terzolo M, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Definition of an optimal strategy to evaluate and follow-up adrenal incidentalomas: time for further research. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Oct;161(4):529-32
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  • [Title] Definition of an optimal strategy to evaluate and follow-up adrenal incidentalomas: time for further research.
  • Clinical endocrinologists have to deal frequently with adrenal incidentalomas in their practice.
  • However, no comprehensive guidelines have been published by professional societies to guide assessment and management of adrenal incidentalomas and current recommendations are mainly based on the NIH state-of-the-science statement or expert opinions.

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  • (PMID = 19692548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Deutschbein T, Unger N, Hinrichs J, Walz MK, Mann K, Petersenn S: Late-night and low-dose dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol in saliva and serum for the diagnosis of cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Nov;161(5):747-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late-night and low-dose dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol in saliva and serum for the diagnosis of cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: In patients with adrenal incidentalomas, hormonally active masses need to be considered, particularly cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA), aldosterone-producing adenomas, and pheochromocytomas.
  • We evaluated the value of SaC and SeC for the diagnosis of CPA.
  • METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with confirmed CPA were compared with 18 healthy subjects as well as 48 control patients suffering from aldosterone-producing adenomas (n=13), pheochromocytomas (n=16), or nonfunctioning adenomas (n=19).
  • Owing to its higher specificity, dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol is preferable to late-night cortisol when screening for Cushing's syndrome in patients with adrenal incidentalomas.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DEXAMETHASONE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCORTISONE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .
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  • (PMID = 19726566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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