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1. Soon PS, McDonald KL, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Oncologist; 2008 May;13(5):548-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenal tumors are common, with an estimated incidence of 7.3% in autopsy cases, while adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare, with an estimated prevalence of 4-12 per million population.
  • Because the prognoses for adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and ACCs are vastly different, it is important to be able to accurately differentiate the two tumor types.
  • Advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ACCs is essential for the development of more sensitive means of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in better clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) occur as a component of several hereditary tumor syndromes, which include the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1, Carney complex, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The adrenocorticotropic hormone-cAMP-protein kinase A and Wnt pathways are also implicated in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis, including results of comparative genomic hybridization, loss of heterozygosity, and microarray gene-expression profiling studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18515740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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2. Bakshi N, Kunju LP, Giordano T, Shah RB: Expression of renal cell carcinoma antigen (RCC) in renal epithelial and nonrenal tumors: diagnostic Implications. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Sep;15(3):310-5
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  • [Title] Expression of renal cell carcinoma antigen (RCC) in renal epithelial and nonrenal tumors: diagnostic Implications.
  • Antibody to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) antigen, a normal human proximal brush border antigen, has recently become commercially available and reported to be highly specific and a relatively sensitive marker for RCC.
  • Using tissue microarrays, we investigated the use of RCC on a large number of renal epithelial neoplasms (RENs) and nonrenal tumors, especially those potentially confused with REN.
  • Three tissue microarrays containing 241 REN samples, 192 samples of a wide variety of neoplasms and 170 adrenal tumor samples, respectively, were stained with RCC monoclonal antibody.
  • Out of 241 REN, 173 were positive for RCC (sensitivity 72%): clear cell 72%, papillary 95%, chromophobe 91%, unclassified 85%, oncocytoma 75%, sarcomatoid 20%, and metastatic RCC 40%.
  • The overall immunostaining intensity was consistently much higher in papillary and clear cell RCC than in other tumors.
  • These included: adrenocortical neoplasms 37/170 (22%), colonic 11/29 (37.5%), breast 9/27 (33%), prostate 5/18 (27.7%), ovary 2/17 (11.7%), melanoma 3/18 (16.6%), lung 3/21 (14.2%), and parathyroid 3/3 (100%).
  • RCC expression was seen equally among adrenal adenoma and carcinoma group.
  • Eight out of 28 (28.5%) normal adrenal cores also stained for RCC.
  • RCC is a relatively useful marker in the differential diagnosis of REN only if used in a panel with other positive and negative markers.
  • RCC does not reliably differentiate REN, especially classic clear cell type, from adrenocortical neoplasms, which are frequently confused due to close anatomic proximity and similar morphology.
  • RCC also does not reliably differentiate subtypes of renal epithelial neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17721277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.22 / MOK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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3. Beuschlein F, Reincke M: [Therapy-resistant hypertension--the endocrinological view]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2007 Mar 1;149(9):29-32
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  • This includes primary hyperaldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adenoma, or a bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, hypercortisolism caused by a tumor of the adrenals, or an ACTH-dependent form of Cushing's syndrome, as also excessive catecholamines caused by a pheochromocytoma or a paraganglioma.
  • The diagnostic work-up includes screening tests for the basal hormone status in the serum and urine, together with confirmatory additional hormonal and imaging procedures in suspected cases, or to establish a differential diagnosis.
  • In addition to surgical treatment, specific pharmacotherapeutic measures for the prevention or follow-up treatment of excess adrenal hormones are available.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Resistance. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] MMW Fortschr Med. 2007 Jun 14;149(24):8 [17668740.001]
  • (PMID = 17612246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Catecholamines
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4. Szentirmai O, Winston KR, Jedlicka P, Lum GM: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a child with systemic hypertension and adrenal adenoma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2007 Oct;107(4 Suppl):328-9
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  • [Title] Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a child with systemic hypertension and adrenal adenoma. Case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Basal Ganglia / blood supply. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Hypertension / complications. Hypertension / etiology


5. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of androstenedione (CAS No. 63-05-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2010 Sep;(560):1, 7-31,33-171 passim
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  • The incidences of x-zone atrophy of the adrenal cortex, an androgen-sensitive endpoint, were significantly increased in females administered 5 mg/kg or greater.
  • The incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia were significantly increased in 20 and 50 mg/kg females and significantly decreased in 20 and 50 mg/kg males.
  • Incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in 20 mg/kg males.
  • The incidence of testicular interstitial cell adenoma (including bilateral) was significantly decreased in 50 mg/kg males.
  • In females, the incidences of mammary gland fibroadenoma were significantly decreased in the 20 and 50 mg/kg groups, the incidences of mammary gland hyperplasia were significantly decreased in all dosed groups, and the incidences of mammary gland cyst were significantly decreased in the 10 and 50 mg/kg groups.
  • In the liver of males, the incidences of basophilic focus in all dosed groups, the incidence of clear cell focus in the 20 mg/kg group, and the incidence of eosinophilic focus in the 50 mg/kg group were significantly increased.
  • The incidences of hepatocellular adenoma in males and females were significantly increased in the 50 mg/kg groups.
  • Incidences of hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in males and females were significantly increased in the 50 mg/kg groups.
  • Incidences of multiple hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were significantly increased in 10 and 50 mg/kg males, and there was an increased incidence of multiple hepatocellular adenomas in 50 mg/kg females.
  • The incidence of eosinophilic focus was significantly increased in 50 mg/kg males, and the incidences of mixed cell focus and cytoplasmic vacuolization were significantly increased in 50 mg/kg females.
  • There was a marginally increased incidence of pancreatic islet adenoma in 50 mg/kg males and in 10 and 50 mg/kg females, with an earlier day of first incidence in males.
  • The incidences of clitoral gland hyperplasia and clitoral gland duct dilatation were significantly increased in 10 and 50 mg/kg females.
  • The incidence of glomerular metaplasia of the kidney was significantly increased in 50 mg/kg females, and the incidences of cytoplasmic alteration of the submandibular salivary gland were significantly increased in all dosed female groups.
  • The increased incidences of cytoplasmic alteration of the submandibular salivary gland and glomerular metaplasia of the kidney in female mice indicated a masculinizing effect from androstenedione treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of androstenedione in male F344/N rats based on increased incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined).
  • There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of androstenedione in female F344/N rats based on increased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia.
  • There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of androstenedione in male B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of multiple hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma and increased incidence of hepatoblastoma.
  • There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of androstenedione in female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Increased incidences of pancreatic islet adenoma in male and female mice were also considered chemical related.
  • Androstenedione administration caused increased incidences in nonneoplastic lesions of the liver in male and female rats and mice; pancreatic islets and exocrine pancreas of female rats; and clitoral gland, kidney, and submandibular salivary gland of female mice.
  • Decreases in the incidences of testicular interstitial cell adenoma in male rats, mammary gland fibroadenoma, cysts, and hyperplasia in female rats, and malignant lymphoma in female mice were considered related to androstenedione administration.

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  • (PMID = 21037592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Mutagens; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione
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6. Trimeche Ajmi S, Marmouch H, Trabelsi A, Ben Abdelkrim S, Chadli Chaieb M, Ach K, Maaroufi A, Chaieb L: Retroperitonial liposarcoma mimicking pheochromocytoma. Pathologica; 2008 Dec;100(6):470-2
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed an 11 cm x 8.5 cm retroperitoneal mass with an enhanced signal in T2, a hypotrophic non-functional left kidney and no adrenal adenoma.
  • Clinical and hormonal features suggested a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • Pathologic examination revealed a well-differentiated liposarcoma, without any pheochromocytoma component, and left adrenal hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liposarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / etiology. Anorexia / etiology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Female. Flushing / etiology. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hyperplasia. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


7. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) (CAS No. 14047-09-7) in Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2010 Nov;(558):1-206
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  • Hematopoietic cell proliferation occurred in most males administered 3 mg/kg or greater and most females administered 10 mg/kg or greater.
  • In the lung, significantly increased incidences of bronchiolar metaplasia of the alveolar epithelium and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration occurred in 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg males.
  • The incidence of interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was also significantly increased in 100 mg/kg females.
  • Significantly increased incidences of hematopoietic cell proliferation of the spleen occurred in males administered 10 mg/kg or greater.
  • A significant dose-related increase in hepatic toxicity was observed in dosed rats and was characterized by increased incidences of numerous lesions including hepatocyte hypertrophy, centrilobular degeneration, hepatocellular necrosis, pigmentation, fatty change, bile duct hyperplasia, oval cell hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, hematopoietic cell proliferation, eosinophilic focus, mixed cell focus, multinucleated hepatocytes, bile duct cyst, toxic hepatopathy, and cholangiofibrosis.
  • Significantly increased incidences of gingival squamous cell carcinoma within the oral mucosa occurred in 10 mg/kg males and 100 mg/kg males and females.
  • The incidences of follicular cell adenoma (single or multiple) of the thyroid gland in 30 and 100 mg/kg males were significantly greater than that in the vehicle control group.
  • The incidences of follicular cell hypertrophy, follicular cell hyperplasia, and inflammation were significantly increased in 30 and 100 mg/kg males.
  • Three incidences of single or multiple squamous cell papilloma of the forestomach occurred in 100 mg/kg females, and single incidences of squamous cell carcinoma of the forestomach occurred in 10 and 100 mg/kg females.
  • In the adrenal cortex of 30 and 100 mg/kg females, there were slightly increased incidences of adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 21383777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Azo Compounds; 0 / Chlorobenzenes; 14047-09-7 / 3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene
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8. Gockel I, Heintz A, Kentner R, Werner C, Junginger T: Changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome. Surg Endosc; 2005 Nov;19(11):1491-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland is regarded as the most common type of endocrine hypertension.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy recorded in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to patients with hormone-inactive incidentaloma and its possible influence by the surgical approach.
  • METHODS: From February 1994 to March 2004, 40 patients underwent endoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome.
  • RESULTS: The adrenal gland was resected using the retroperitoneal in 25 and the transperitoneal approach in 15 patients with Conn's syndrome.
  • The increase in intraoperative blood pressure in patients with Conn's syndrome was significantly higher, for both systolic (p < 0.0001) and diastolic (p = 0.0037) readings, compared to that in patients with incidentaloma undergoing endoscopic adrenalectomy during the same period of time.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that relevant intraoperative increases in blood pressure occur in patients with Conn's syndrome despite prior therapy with an aldosterone antagonist, necessitating specific precautionary measures during anesthesia.

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  • [ErratumIn] Surg Endosc. 2006 Jan;20(1):180. Wetner, C [corrected to Werner, C]
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  • (PMID = 16222471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Giuliani L, Lenzini L, Antonello M, Aldighieri E, Belloni AS, Fassina A, Gomez-Sanchez C, Rossi GP: Expression and functional role of urotensin-II and its receptor in the adrenal cortex and medulla: novel insights for the pathophysiology of primary aldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Feb;94(2):684-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression and functional role of urotensin-II and its receptor in the adrenal cortex and medulla: novel insights for the pathophysiology of primary aldosteronism.
  • OBJECTIVE: We investigated the expression of urotensin II and urotensin II receptor in adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors and the functional effects of urotensin II receptor activation.
  • DESIGN: The expression of urotensin II and urotensin II receptor was measured by real time RT-PCR in aldosterone-producing adenoma (n = 22) and pheochromocytoma (n = 10), using histologically normal adrenocortical (n = 6) and normal adrenomedullary (n = 5) tissue as control.
  • The adrenocortical effects of urotensin II receptor activation were also assessed by urotensin II infusion with/without the urotensin II receptor antagonist palosuran in rats.
  • RESULTS: Urotensin II was more expressed in pheochromocytoma than in aldosterone-producing adenoma tissue; the opposite was seen for the urotensin II receptor expression.
  • Urotensin II receptor activation in vivo in rats enhanced (by 182 +/- 9%; P < 0.007) the adrenocortical expression of immunoreactive aldosterone synthase.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Urotensin II is a putative mediator of the effects of the adrenal medulla and pheochromocytoma on the adrenocortical zona glomerulosa.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / physiology. Urotensins / genetics. Urotensins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adult. Animals. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 19001524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / UTS2R protein, human; 0 / Urotensins; 9047-55-6 / urotensin II; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2
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10. Sasaki A, Horikawa Y, Suwa T, Enya M, Kawachi S, Takeda J: Case report of familial Carney complex due to novel frameshift mutation c.597del C (p.Phe200LeufsX6) in PRKAR1A. Mol Genet Metab; 2008 Nov;95(3):182-7
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  • Carney complex is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease characterized by skin pigmentation, myxoma, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), and acromegaly.
  • Here, we report a female patient diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome and a GH-producing pituitary adenoma without otherwise evident acromegaly that could be diagnosed only by specialized endocrinological tests.
  • Based on family history of acromegaly (mother and sister) and the fact that the combination of both diseases is very rare, genetic diagnosis involving Carney complex was considered to be appropriate.
  • Even family members with the same mutation can show distinct phenotypes, suggesting that Carney complex is a multifactorial disorder comprising various genetic and environmental factors.
  • Genetic diagnosis makes it possible to prepare more effective therapeutic strategies for patients and gene carriers and to avoid unnecessary tests for non-carriers in the family of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / genetics. Frameshift Mutation

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  • (PMID = 18760947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-7206
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular genetics and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Genet. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human
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11. Gianotti L, Tassone F, Pia A, Bovio S, Reimondo G, Visconti G, Terzolo M, Borretta G: May an altered hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis contribute to cortical bone damage in primary hyperparathyroidism? Calcif Tissue Int; 2009 Jun;84(6):425-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] May an altered hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis contribute to cortical bone damage in primary hyperparathyroidism?
  • Our aim was to evaluate circulating and urinary cortisol levels and the relationships with biochemical and bone parameters in patients with PHPT at the time of diagnosis.
  • We studied 180 consecutive patients with PHPT (mean age +/- SD 60.0 +/- 13.2 years; F/M 140/40, BMI 25.8 +/- 4.8 kg/m(2)) and 56 subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal adenoma who served as controls (age 56.2 +/- 12.8 years, F/M 40/16, BMI 25.7 +/- 3.9 kg/m(2)).
  • Our findings show increased midnight cortisol levels in patients with PHPT, indicating a subtle alteration of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis dynamics that is unrelated to the degree of disease activity; further data are needed to demonstrate the supplementary effect of this subtle alteration to bone damage in this condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / metabolism. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / secretion. Osteoporosis / metabolism. Pituitary-Adrenal System / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Regression Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19381429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0827
  • [Journal-full-title] Calcified tissue international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Calcif. Tissue Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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12. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Rucinski M, Malendowicz LK, De Caro R: Natriuretic peptides in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol; 2010;280:1-39
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  • [Title] Natriuretic peptides in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • All natriuretic peptides and their receptors are widely present in the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal cortex, and medulla.
  • Inhibition or stimulation of glucocorticoid secretion by adrenocortical cells has been reported on the basis of the species involved, and an indirect effect mediated by adrenalmedullary cells has been hypothesized.
  • In the adrenal medulla, natriuretic peptides inhibit catecholamine release and increase catecholamine uptake.
  • It appears that natriuretic peptides may play a role in the pathophysiology of adrenocortical neoplasias and pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Natriuretic Peptides / metabolism. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Receptors, Neuropeptide / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20797680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-6448
  • [Journal-full-title] International review of cell and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Rev Cell Mol Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Natriuretic Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide
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13. Tiryakioglu O, Ugurlu S, Yalin S, Yirmibescik S, Caglar E, Yetkin DO, Kadioglu P: Screening for Cushing's syndrome in obese patients. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010;65(1):9-13
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  • Etiologic reasons for Cushing's syndrome were pituitary microadenoma (9 patients), adrenocortical adenoma (3 patients), and adrenocortical carcinoma (1 patient).
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Obesity / complications

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  • (PMID = 20126340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815288
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenocorticorticotropic hormone / Cortisol / Cushing’s syndrome / Obesity / Screening
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14. Sbiera S, Schmull S, Assie G, Voelker HU, Kraus L, Beyer M, Ragazzon B, Beuschlein F, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Saeger W, Bertherat J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):E161-71
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  • [Title] High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors.
  • CONTEXT: No immunohistochemical marker has been established to reliably differentiate adrenocortical tumors from other adrenal masses.
  • We hypothesized that expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcription factor involved in adrenal development, is of value for the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses and predicts prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples from 167 ACC, 52 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), six normal adrenal glands, six normal ovaries and 73 neoplastic nonsteroidogenic tissues.
  • RESULTS: SF-1 protein staining was detectable in 158 of 161 (98%) evaluable ACC samples including 49 (30%) with strong SF-1 staining and in all normal and benign steroidogenic tissues.
  • In addition, SF-1 mRNA expression was present in all 91 analyzed adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: SF-1 is a highly valuable immunohistochemical marker to determine the adrenocortical origin of an adrenal mass with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20660055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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15. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Buziak-Bereza M, Fedorowicz A, Kuźniarz-Rymarz S, Stochmal E, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A: [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(12):1270-5
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  • [Title] [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome].
  • In the last twenty years the introduction of new imaging techniques has caused increasing incidence of accidental detection of adrenal tumors, which are usually mild and in most cases are hormonally inactive adenomas.
  • Among hormonal disorders in patients with adrenal incidentalomas the hypercortisolism is often described, which, if not treated properly, leads to multiple organ complications, and further to the patient's death.
  • The aim of the study was the retrospective analysis of the group of patients with adrenal incidentaloma, verified by histopathology for assessment of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Among the group of 225 patients: 62 men and 163 women with incidentally detected adrenal tumors in age from 19 to 81 years diagnosed and treated in the Department of Clinical Endocrinology, University Hospital in Krakow, 59 patients was sent to surgery: 15 men and 42 women.
  • Group A consisted of patients with adrenal cortical adenoma: 38 people (11 men and 27 women).
  • In group B there were people with so-called other hormonal inactive adrenal tumors - 17 people (4 men and 13 women).
  • In group A the mean morning level of cortisol was 18.23 +/- 6.42 ug/dl and did not differ statistically significantly from the results of group B (mean morning cortisol level of 15.86 +/- 4.6 ug/dl).
  • A detailed analysis of the clinical signs, meticulously carried out and repeated hormonal diagnosis with the use of functional tests should be focused on the detection of subclinical hormonal disorders, which is crucial in preventing organ damage and making a decision of the right treatment of the patient, which is surgical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hydrocortisone / blood

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  • (PMID = 21591352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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16. Logasundaram R, Parkinson C, Donaldson P, Coode PE: Co-secretion of testosterone and cortisol by a functional adrenocortical oncocytoma. Histopathology; 2007 Sep;51(3):418-20
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  • [Title] Co-secretion of testosterone and cortisol by a functional adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Testosterone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17727488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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17. Lee SS, Baek KH, Lee YS, Lee JM, Kang MI, Cha BY, Lee KW, Son HY, Kang SK: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Jul;31(7):675-9
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  • [Title] Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • Oncocytoma is a neoplasm that can arise in several organs, and it has been more commonly described in the kidney, salivary gland and thyroid.
  • Oncocytoma arising in the adrenal gland is a rare finding.
  • Moreover, functioning adrenocortical oncocytoma is exceptionally rare.
  • A 47-yr-old man was incidentally discovered to have a right adrenal mass.
  • The patient had no clinical features suggestive of increased adrenal function.
  • This is a rare case of subclinical Cushing's syndrome that was caused by adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18787391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / inhibin A; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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18. Nunes ML, Vattaut S, Corcuff JB, Rault A, Loiseau H, Gatta B, Valli N, Letenneur L, Tabarin A: Late-night salivary cortisol for diagnosis of overt and subclinical Cushing's syndrome in hospitalized and ambulatory patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Feb;94(2):456-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late-night salivary cortisol for diagnosis of overt and subclinical Cushing's syndrome in hospitalized and ambulatory patients.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two obese subjects participated in the study, as well as nine patients cured of Cushing's disease, 13 with overt Cushing's syndrome, 14 showing mild recurrence of Cushing's disease, and 48 with adrenal incidentalomas [23 subclinical cortisol-secreting adenomas (SCSA), 25 nonsecreting adenomas].
  • NSC showed acceptable performance in diagnosing recurrence of Cushing's disease (90% sensitivity, 91.8% specificity).
  • On the contrary, NSC was similar between patients with SCSA and nonsecreting adenomas.
  • NSC may be helpful to detect mild recurrence of Cushing's disease after surgery but is of little value in identifying SCSA amongst adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Inpatients. Outpatients
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Ambulatory Care / methods. Case-Control Studies. Female. Hospitalization. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Recurrence. Saliva / chemistry. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19001518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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19. Ercolino T, Becherini L, Valeri A, Maiello M, Gaglianò MS, Parenti G, Ramazzotti M, Piscitelli E, Simi L, Pinzani P, Nesi G, Degl'Innocenti D, Console N, Bergamini C, Mannelli M: Uncommon clinical presentations of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in two different patients affected by two distinct novel VHL germline mutations. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 May;68(5):762-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is an inherited multitumour disorder characterized by clinical heterogeneity and high penetrance.
  • Extra-adrenal Pheos (paragangliomas, PGLs) are rare.
  • One patient was studied for the presence of an adrenal incidentaloma and the other for the presence of a neck tumour.
  • We identified two novel VHL point mutations: a L198V missense mutation in a 32-year-old female affected by a right adrenal compound and mixed tumour constituted by an epinephrine secreting Pheo, a ganglioneuroma and an adrenocortical adenoma, and a T152I missense mutation in a 24-year-old female affected by a left carotid body tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These cases enlarge the list of VHL mutations and add new insights in the clinical variability of VHL disease, thus confirming the importance of genetic testing in patients affected by apparently sporadic Pheos or PGLs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics


20. Sasano H, Suzuki T, Moriya T: [Pathology of primary aldosteronism]. Nihon Rinsho; 2005 Mar;63 Suppl 3:283-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15813081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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21. Nigawara T, Sakihara S, Kageyama K, Terui K, Takayasu S, Hatakeyama S, Ohyama C, Sasano H, Suda T: Endothelial cyst of the adrenal gland associated with adrenocortical adenoma: preoperative images simulate carcinoma. Intern Med; 2009;48(4):235-40
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  • [Title] Endothelial cyst of the adrenal gland associated with adrenocortical adenoma: preoperative images simulate carcinoma.
  • A 68-year-old woman was referred for characterization of a left adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Endocrinological examinations indicated subclinical Cushing's syndrome, whereas the large volume (10 cm in diameter) and heterogeneous configuration of the tumor raised a strong suspicion of adrenal carcinoma.
  • Histopathologically, this lesion was a thick hyaline-walled endothelial cyst, flanked with a compressed adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The puzzling image resemblance of a variation of adrenal cyst to carcinoma necessitated histological examination for confirmative diagnosis.
  • This is the first reported case of adrenal endothelial cyst associated with adrenocortical adenoma, the former of which alone is a rarity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19218775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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22. Takehara K, Sakai H, Shono T, Irie J, Kanetake H: Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Int J Urol; 2005 Feb;12(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine differences in biological features among different adrenal tumors, we investigated the DNA ploidy, numerical chromosomal aberration and proliferative activity in human adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Our study included six adrenal cortical adenomas with Cushing syndrome, 12 adenomas with hyperaldosteronism, three non-functioning adenomas and three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of adrenal cortical carcinomas was markedly higher than that of adrenal cortical adenomas (209.4 vs 8.7).
  • In functional adrenal cortical adenomas, the LI was significantly lower in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004), although FCM results indicated that tetraploid patterns were more frequently observed in the former type.
  • Tumor size was significantly smaller in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004).
  • Chromosome 17 showed disomy in all adrenal cortical adenomas, whereas chromosome 17 abnormalities were found in two of three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study characterized various biological features of benign and malignant adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The use of a combination of markers might provide additional information to assist our understanding of the clinical behavior of an individual adrenal cortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15733104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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23. Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Demir T, Akinci B, Kebapcilar L, Comlekci A, Bayraktar F, Yesil S: Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jan;33(1):32-6
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Because of the increased use of imaging interventions, more subjects have been diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma in recent years.
  • AIM: To evaluate the risk of mass enlargement, hormone hypersecretion and development of adrenal carcinomas during short-term followup.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: There were 317 subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors in the registry.
  • Forty subjects were excluded because of clinically overt hormone secretion at diagnosis and subjects with complete data were included in radiological (no.
  • There were 143 subjects with adrenal adenomas and 7 subjects with other tumor types (cyst or myelolipoma).
  • RESULTS: Increase in tumor size was detected in 25 subjects (17.4%) with adenomas and 1 subject with adrenal myelolipoma (14.3%).
  • Decrease in tumor size was found in 7 subjects (4.8%) with adrenal adenomas.
  • One patient was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma during follow-up.
  • In subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma (NFA, no.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we demonstrated that, despite being infrequent, adrenal tumors may increase in size, develop overt or subclinical hormone secretion or feature malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Adult. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / diagnostic imaging. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / analysis. Dexamethasone. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / diagnostic imaging. Normetanephrine / urine. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19542759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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24. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Cortes O, Kerkebe M, Pinto I, Arellano L: Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endourol; 2007 Sep;21(9):1053-8
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard in the surgical management of adrenal pathology.
  • Bilateral adrenalectomy is indicated in patients with Cushing's disease secondary to macroadenoma or hypophysial hyperplasia in whom medical treatment and transsphenoid surgery have failed.
  • Also, it is the first choice for bilateral benign tumors and metastatic neoplasia.
  • There were 6 cases of bilateral pheochromocytoma, 6 patients with Cushing's disease, 3 cases of metastasis, 3 congenital adrenal hyperplasias, 2 hyperaldosteronisms, and a single case each of adrenal adenoma and myelolipoma.
  • There was only one intraoperative complication (2.2%), a renal-vein injury that was controlled with intracorporeal suturing.

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  • (PMID = 17941786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Blanes A, Diaz-Cano SJ: Histologic criteria for adrenocortical proliferative lesions: value of mitotic figure variability. Am J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;127(3):398-408
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  • [Title] Histologic criteria for adrenocortical proliferative lesions: value of mitotic figure variability.
  • This study compared 3 systems and a newly designed stepwise discriminant diagnostic system (SDDS) to assess accuracy, reproducibility, and reliability in adrenocortical nodular hyperplasia (ACNH; n = 82), adenoma (ACA; n = 78), and carcinoma (ACC; n = 32) (diagnoses according to World Health Organization criteria; median follow-up, 135 months).
  • In cross-validations, we studied cortex appearance, growth pattern, cytoplasmic features, nuclear parameters, mitotic figure counting (MFC), necrosis, invasion, and stromal-inflammatory reactions.
  • The SDDS independent predictors were MFC/high-power field SD, anisokaryosis, cortex appearance, and stromal reaction, correctly classifying 100% of ACNH, 91% of ACA, and 88% of ACC cases.
  • The Hough system correctly classified 78% of ACNH, 81% of ACA, and 84% of ACC cases; the Weiss and van Slooten systems correctly classified 100% of ACNH, 0% of ACA, and 92% of ACC cases.
  • MFC variability is the most important adrenocortical malignancy criterion.
  • Accurate malignancy diagnosis requires multiple variable evaluations, provided by SDDS (the most specific system) and the Weiss or van Slooten system (the most sensitive).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17276949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Chiou TT, Chiang PH, Fuh M, Liu RT, Lee WC, Lee WC, Ng HY, Tsai YC, Chuang FR, Huang CC, Lee CT: Factors determining cardiovascular and renal outcomes after adrenalectomy in patients with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma. Tohoku J Exp Med; 2009 May;218(1):17-24
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  • [Title] Factors determining cardiovascular and renal outcomes after adrenalectomy in patients with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma.
  • Primary aldosteronism is an important cause of secondary hypertension, because it is potentially curable, especially in case of unilateral aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma (APA).
  • However, the information is limited concerning the cardiovascular and renal outcomes in this patient population.
  • We studied 52 patients with APA in order to determine the pre-operative and post-operative factors predicting cardiovascular and renal outcomes.
  • Patients whose renal function worsened after adrenalectomy had significantly higher pre-operative plasma active renin levels.
  • Thus, in patients with APA, the presence of LVH is correlated with impaired renal function (lower eGFR).
  • In conclusion, pre-operative BP and post-operative plasma aldosterone are important in predicting post-adrenalectomy hypertension, and a lower pre-operative plasma renin predicts the improvement in renal function after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma. Aldosterone / blood. Cardiovascular System / metabolism. Hypertension. Kidney

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  • (PMID = 19398869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-3329
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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27. Ammoury RF, Heptulla RA, Tatevian N, Elenberg E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient. Pediatr Nephrol; 2006 Mar;21(3):433-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient.
  • Adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma is extremely rare in pediatrics.
  • A 16-year-old patient was diagnosed with severe hypertension associated with a right adrenal mass.
  • MRI of the abdomen showed a heterogeneous adrenal mass 4.2x3.3 cm.
  • Laparoscopic resection of the mass was done, and the pathology revealed an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • This is a case in which an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma, a benign and usually asymptomatic tumor, presented as severe hypertension resolving with surgical resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery


28. Martins AC, Cologna AJ, Tucci S Jr, Suaid HJ, Falconi RA: Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms. J Urol; 2005 Jun;173(6):2138-42
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  • [Title] Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical features and immunoreactivity of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in adrenal neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 26 patients with adrenocortical adenoma and 24 patients with carcinoma were treated with adrenalectomy.
  • RESULTS: There was a bimodal age distribution of carcinomas and adenomas, with a first peak occurring before age 5 years.
  • Carcinoma and adenoma occurring in children presented more commonly as the virilizing syndrome, while in adults Cushing's syndrome was more common.
  • All adenomas in adults were p53 negative, while in children 4 of 11 adenomas (36%) were p53 positive.
  • Histological Weiss criteria were the most reliable pathological features to distinguish adenoma from carcinoma.
  • Other pathological features, including tumor weight, rate of mitotic figures and immunoexpression of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and PCNA, exhibited a striking difference in adenomas and carcinomas but none demonstrated sensitivity or specificity of 100%.
  • Of all the computerized tomographic characteristics analyzed, including tumor size, shape, necrosis/hemorrhage, attenuation and contrast enhancement, only tumor size (greater than 5 cm) showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% in the differential diagnosis.
  • The role of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in discrimination of adenomas from carcinomas is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Cycle Proteins. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drosophila Proteins. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15879867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147979-57-5 / mitotic 15 protein, Drosophila; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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29. Zwermann O, Beuschlein F, Lalli E, Klink A, Sassone-Corsi P, Reincke M: Clinical and molecular evidence for DAX-1 inhibition of steroidogenic factor-1-dependent ACTH receptor gene expression. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 May;152(5):769-76
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  • In non-functional adrenal adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas, ACTH-R expression is low.
  • DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome, gene-1) is a general repressor of steroid production, inhibiting steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1)-dependent expression of multiple steroidogenic enzymes.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether ACTH-R gene transcription is affected by DAX-1 and whether this mechanism is involved in down-regulation of ACTH-R expression in adrenocortical tumors.
  • METHODS: We screened 22 adrenocortical tumors for ACTH-R and DAX-1 mRNA expression by Northern blot.
  • For in vitro analyses we co-transfected mouse Y1 adrenocortical carcinoma cells with the luciferase reporter gene vector pGL3 containing full-length constructs of human (h) or mouse (m) ACTH-R promoter together with a DAX-1 expression plasmid.
  • Mutation of the SF-1-binding sites within the hACTH-R promoter resulted in reduced or abolished DAX-1 inhibition, arguing for a mechanism that involves SF-1 for DAX-1 inhibition.

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  • (PMID = 15879363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Nr0b1 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin
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30. Schteingart DE: Drugs in the medical treatment of Cushing's syndrome. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2009 Dec;14(4):661-71
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  • Transsphenoidal surgery with resection of a pituitary adenoma is successful in 75 - 80% of patients, but approximately 20 - 25% show persistence of Cushing's, and a similar proportion may experience recurrence within 2 - 4 years post-op.
  • Mifepristone is currently being tested in clinical trials in patients with persistent or recurrent Cushing's disease and in patients with metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma or ectopic ACTH syndrome not amenable to surgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / therapeutic use. Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic use. Ergolines / adverse effects. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19939210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7623
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on emerging drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiparkinson Agents; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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31. Gruschwitz T, Breza J, Wunderlich H, Junker K: Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation. World J Urol; 2010 Jun;28(3):329-34
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  • [Title] Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation.
  • PURPOSE: There are often problems in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal gland tumors by imaging and histopathology.
  • On account of considerable differences in the therapy and aftercare of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, correct classification of tumor type is of greatest importance.
  • The purpose of this study was to define specific genetic alterations differentiating between adenomas and carcinomas.
  • Retrospectively, 26 (16 adenomas and 10 carcinomas) tumors of the adrenal cortex were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Genetic alterations were found in 5/16 adenomas (31.25%) and in all adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The benign cortical tumors present 1.6 changes (range 0-3) per tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evaluation facilitates differentiation between adrenal gland tumors.
  • Genetic tests should be used in routine diagnostics of adrenal specimens.
  • Potentially, fine-needle biopsy can be established as standard diagnostics of adrenal tumors with unknown genesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20364258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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32. Prochazkova K, Pavlikova K, Minarik M, Sumerauer D, Kodet R, Sedlacek Z: Somatic TP53 mutation mosaicism in a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Am J Med Genet A; 2009 Feb;149A(2):206-11
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  • We present a girl who developed adrenocortical adenoma at the age of 1 year and osteosarcoma at the age of 5 years.
  • The substitution was found in neither of her parents, which indicated a possibility of a de novo mutation.
  • To our knowledge this is the first description of somatic mosaicism for a de novo TP53 mutation in LFS.


33. Tokar EJ, Diwan BA, Waalkes MP: Arsenic exposure in utero and nonepidermal proliferative response in adulthood in Tg.AC mice. Int J Toxicol; 2010 May-Jun;29(3):291-6
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  • Arsenic increased adrenal cortical adenomas (ACAs; 25%-29%) compared with control (0%) independent of TPA in all male groups.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemically induced. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemically induced. Aging. Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Hyperplasia / chemically induced. Male. Maternal Exposure / adverse effects. Mice. Papilloma / chemically induced. Precancerous Conditions / chemically induced. Pregnancy. Random Allocation. Sex Characteristics. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / toxicity. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / chemically induced. Uterine Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 20448261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenites; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Sodium Compounds; 48OVY2OC72 / sodium arsenite; N712M78A8G / Arsenic; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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34. Aliaev IuG, Akhvlediani ND, Blokhin PS: [Ipsilateral adrenalectomy is not obligatory in nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma]. Urologiia; 2008 Mar-Apr;(2):16-22
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  • [Title] [Ipsilateral adrenalectomy is not obligatory in nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma].
  • To analyse the necessity of obligatory ipsilateral adrenalectomy (IA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we made a study of 329 RCC patients operated from 2002 to 2007.
  • Nephrectomy was conducted in 208 (63.2%) patients, renal resection--in 121 (36.8%), adrenalectomy--in 19 (5.8%) patients.
  • Preoperative HCMCT detected adrenal lesions in 62 (18.84%) patients.
  • Adrenal adenoma was suspected in 39 (11.8%) patients: ipsilateral in 19 (48.77%), contralateral in 11 (28.23%), bilateral in 9 (23%) patients.
  • Adrenal hyperplasy was diagnosed in 11 (3.34%) patients.
  • The tumor invaded the ipsilateral adrenal in 4 (1.2%) patients.
  • A RCC metastasis into the adrenal was suspected in 8 (2.4%) patients.
  • RCC invaded the ipsilateral adrenal in 1.2% patients with RCC, its adrenal metastasis was detected in 1.5% RCC patients.
  • In preservation of the adrenal in adenoma or hyperplasy 5-year follow-up registered no changes.
  • Neither pathological processes were diagnosed for 5 years in preservation of unaffected adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18574876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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35. Rossi GP, Belfiore A, Bernini G, Desideri G, Fabris B, Ferri C, Giacchetti G, Letizia C, Maccario M, Mallamaci F, Mannelli M, Palumbo G, Rizzoni D, Rossi E, Agabiti-Rosei E, Pessina AC, Mantero F, Primary Aldosteronism Prevalence in Italy Study Investigators: Comparison of the captopril and the saline infusion test for excluding aldosterone-producing adenoma. Hypertension; 2007 Aug;50(2):424-31
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  • [Title] Comparison of the captopril and the saline infusion test for excluding aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • We performed a prospective head-to-head comparison of the accuracy of the captopril test (CAPT) and the saline infusion test (SAL) for confirming primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) in patients with different sodium intake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Captopril. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Sodium Chloride
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Probability. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17592070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4563
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertension
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 9G64RSX1XD / Captopril
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36. Fukuda T, Takahashi K, Suzuki T, Saruta M, Watanabe M, Nakata T, Sasano H: Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4671-8
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  • [Title] Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders.
  • Recently, direct involvement of the locally synthesized CRF family in adrenocortical function has been proposed.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We examined in situ expression of Ucn and CRF receptors in nonpathological human adrenal gland and its disorders using immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization.
  • RESULTS: Ucn immunoreactivity was localized in the cortex and medulla of nonpathological adrenal glands.
  • Ucn1 immunoreactivity was marked in the medulla, whereas Ucn3 was immunostained mostly in the cortex.
  • Both CRF type 1 and CRF2 were expressed in the cortex, particularly in the zonae fasciculata and reticularis but very weakly or undetectably in the medulla.
  • Immunohistochemistry in serial tissue sections with mirror images revealed that both Ucn3 and CRF2 were colocalized in more than 85% of the adrenocortical cells. mRNA in situ hybridization confirmed these findings above.
  • In fetal adrenals, Ucn and CRF receptors were expressed in both fetal and definitive zones of the cortex.
  • Ucn and CRF receptors were all expressed in the tumor cells of pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical adenomas, and carcinomas, but its positivity was less than that in nonpathological adrenal glands, suggesting that Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors were down-regulated in these adrenal neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors are all expressed in human adrenal cortex and medulla and may play important roles in physiological adrenal functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Urocortins

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  • (PMID = 15914529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / UCN3 protein, human; 0 / Urocortins; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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37. De Groot PC, Van Kamp IL, Zweers EJ, De Kroon CD, Van Wijngaarden WJ: Oligohydramnios in a pregnant woman with Cushing's syndrome caused by an adrenocortical adenoma. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med; 2007 May;20(5):431-4
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  • [Title] Oligohydramnios in a pregnant woman with Cushing's syndrome caused by an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • A 28-year-old primigravida with severe oligohydramnios and pre-eclamptic symptoms was found to have Cushing's syndrome caused by an adrenocortical tumor.
  • As clinical features of pre-eclampsia and Cushing's syndrome may overlap, diagnosis can be delayed or even missed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Oligohydramnios / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fetal Death. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Pre-Eclampsia. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17674251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-7058
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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38. Nugent M, Waterman GS: An adrenal adenoma presenting with psychosis. Psychosomatics; 2006 Mar-Apr;47(2):175-7
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  • [Title] An adrenal adenoma presenting with psychosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / psychology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / psychology. Psychotic Disorders / diagnosis. Psychotic Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Dibenzothiazepines / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Quetiapine Fumarate

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  • (PMID = 16508033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychosomatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychosomatics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Dibenzothiazepines; 2S3PL1B6UJ / Quetiapine Fumarate
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39. Bouizar Z, Ragazzon B, Viou L, Hortane M, Bertherat J, Rizk-Rabin M: 8Cl-cAMP modifies the balance between PKAR1 and PKAR2 and modulates the cell cycle, growth and apoptosis in human adrenocortical H295R cells. J Mol Endocrinol; 2010 Jun;44(6):331-47
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  • [Title] 8Cl-cAMP modifies the balance between PKAR1 and PKAR2 and modulates the cell cycle, growth and apoptosis in human adrenocortical H295R cells.
  • Various types of protein kinase A (PKA) alterations have been observed in adrenocortical tumours and Carney complex (CNC).
  • A decrease in R2B protein levels has been observed in adrenal adenoma, whereas tumours from patients with CNC display a decrease in R1A protein levels.
  • Dysregulation of the balance between R1A and R2B may thus be involved in adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • We investigated the impact of the differences in the balance of PKA subunits on cell growth using specific cAMP analogues.
  • We assessed the effects of 8-chloroadenosine-cAMP (8Cl-cAMP), a site-selective activator of PKA R2B, in H295R adrenocortical cells.
  • We observed an initial accumulation of cells in the S phase, translocation of cyclin A to the nucleus, CDK2 activation, sustained DNA synthesis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen accumulation.
  • Cell cycle arrest in the G(2) phase was parallel with the accumulation of cyclin B and the inactivation of CDC2 kinase.
  • Thus, R2B is a key regulator of proliferation/differentiation in H295R cell line along with the complex balance between the PKA subunits.
  • Activation of PKA R2B and dysregulation of the R1A/R2B balance regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in adrenocortical cells by modulating cyclin production and cyclin-dependent kinase activities.
  • [MeSH-major] 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / analogs & derivatives. Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIalpha Subunit / metabolism. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 / metabolism. DNA Replication / drug effects. Humans. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20237143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6813
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIalpha Subunit; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 23583-48-4 / 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate; 41941-56-4 / 8-chloro-cyclic adenosine monophosphate; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
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40. Happel B, Heinz-Peer G: Enhancement characteristics of pheochromocytomas. Radiology; 2006 Jan;238(1):373; author reply 373-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity


41. Cazabat L, Ragazzon B, Groussin L, Bertherat J: PRKAR1A mutations in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. Pituitary; 2006;9(3):211-9
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  • [Title] PRKAR1A mutations in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease.
  • Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease (PPNAD) is a rare primary bilateral adrenal defect causing corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome.
  • Macroscopic appearance of the adrenals is characteristic with small pigmented micronodules observed in the cortex.
  • Somatic inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A have been observed in macronodules of PPNAD and in sporadic cortisol secreting adrenal adenomas.
  • Isolated PPNAD is a genetic heterogenous disease, and recently inactivating mutations of the gene of the phosphodiesterase 11A4 (PDE11A4) located at 2q31-2q35 have been identified in patients without PRKAR1A mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / genetics. Mutation. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Hormones / metabolism. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / enzymology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Signal Transduction / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17036196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Hormones; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
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42. de Bruin C, Feelders RA, Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ: Somatostatin and dopamine receptors as targets for medical treatment of Cushing's Syndrome. Rev Endocr Metab Disord; 2009 Jun;10(2):91-102
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  • Increasing knowledge of specific subtype expression within these tumours and the ability to target these receptor subtypes with high-affinity compounds, has driven the search for new SS- or DA-based medical therapies for the various forms of CS.
  • In Cushing's disease, corticotroph adenomas mainly express dopamine receptor subtype 2 (D(2)) and somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (sst(5)), whereas sst(2) is expressed at lower levels.
  • Activation of these receptors can inhibit ACTH-release in primary cultured corticotroph adenomas and compounds that target either sst(5) (pasireotide, or SOM230) or D(2) (cabergoline) have shown significant efficacy in subsets of patients in recent clinical studies.
  • In both normal adrenal tissue as well as in adrenal adenomas and carcinomas that cause CS, sst and DA receptor expression has been demonstrated.
  • Although selected cases of adrenal CS may benefit from sst or DA-targeted treatment, its total contribution to the treatment of these patients is likely to be low as surgery is effective in most cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18642088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2606
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Endocr Metab Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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43. Catena C, Colussi G, Nadalini E, Chiuch A, Baroselli S, Lapenna R, Sechi LA: Cardiovascular outcomes in patients with primary aldosteronism after treatment. Arch Intern Med; 2008 Jan 14;168(1):80-5
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  • Fifty-four patients with or without evidence of adrenal adenomas were prospectively followed up for a mean of 7.4 years after treatment with adrenalectomy or spironolactone.
  • RESULTS: At baseline, the prevalence of cardiovascular events was greater in primary aldosteronism (35%) than in essential hypertension (11%) (odds ratio, 4.61; 95% confidence interval, 2.38-8.95; P< .001), with odds ratios of 4.93, 4.36, and 2.80 for sustained arrhythmias, cerebrovascular events, and coronary heart disease, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldosterone / blood. Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / complications

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  • (PMID = 18195199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9926
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 27O7W4T232 / Spironolactone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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44. Eldeiry LS, Garber JR: Adrenal incidentalomas, 2003 to 2005: experience after publication of the National Institutes of Health consensus statement. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):279-84
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas, 2003 to 2005: experience after publication of the National Institutes of Health consensus statement.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical outcomes and follow-up imaging characteristics for incidentally discovered adrenal nodules at a large metropolitan health care center, as well as compliance with National Institutes of Health guidelines for the evaluation of these lesions.
  • METHODS: Between October 2003 and June 2005, computed tomographic (CT) scanning performed at Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates detected 165 adrenal nodules (incidentalomas) in 129 patients without extra-adrenal malignant lesions or evidence of adrenal hyperfunction.
  • RESULTS: Of the 165 adrenal incidentalomas, 96% were smaller than 4 cm.
  • For 95% of patients, the adrenal nodule did not necessitate intervention, including change in medication or surgical treatment.
  • Biochemical studies for adrenal hyperfunction were done in 39 of the overall 129 patients (30%), but in only 20 of 109 patients (18%) not seen by endocrinologists.
  • CONCLUSION: Most adrenal incidentalomas are benign, nonfunctional tumors.
  • Despite the 2002 National Institutes of Health guidelines, 82% of patients at our medical center with adrenal nodules who were not seen by endocrinologists did not have hormonal testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Incidental Findings

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8 [18463031.001]
  • (PMID = 18463033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Ong K, Tan KB, Putti TC: Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma. Singapore Med J; 2007 Jul;48(7):e200-2
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • Myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma is a very rare cause of adrenal incidentaloma, and only nine cases have been reported in the English and Japanese literature.
  • Clinical history, physical examination and laboratory results did not show any evidence to suggest metabolic disorder such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism or catecholamine hypersecretion.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma reported; in the nine cases of myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma reported previously, all the patients had Cushing's syndrome.
  • The literature on synchronous myelolipoma with adrenal adenoma, and myelolipoma within functional adrenal adenoma, is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17609815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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46. Zhu Y, Wu YX, Zhang CY, Zhao JP, Rui WB, He HC, Shen ZJ: Myxoid adrenocortical adenoma: a case report. Chin Med J (Engl); 2008 Aug 20;121(16):1598-600
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  • [Title] Myxoid adrenocortical adenoma: a case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myxoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18982876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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47. Majnik J, Patócs A, Balogh K, Luczay A, Török D, Szabó V, Borgulya G, Gergics P, Szappanos A, Bertalan R, Belema B, Toke J, Sereg M, Nagy ZZ, Sólyom J, Tóth M, Gláz E, Rácz K, Németh J, Fekete G, Tulassay Z: [Nucleotide sequence variants of the glucocorticoid receptor gene and their significance in determining glucocorticoid sensitivity]. Orv Hetil; 2006 Nov 5;147(44):2107-15
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  • The physiologic response and sensitivity to glucocorticoids may significantly differ among species, individuals, tissues and cell types.
  • In their own studies the authors found, that the N363S polymorphism, which increases glucocorticoid sensitivity, may play a role in the pathogenesis of bilateral adrenal adenomas, it may modify the clinical phenotype of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and may have an impact on steroid-induced ocular hypertension.
  • It is presumed that further research in other diseases will continue to complete our knowledge on the pathophysiology of glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Asparagine. Base Sequence. Female. Humans. Lasers, Excimer. Male. Ocular Hypertension / chemically induced. Ocular Hypertension / genetics. Ocular Hypertension / metabolism. Ocular Hypertension / surgery. Phenotype. Photorefractive Keratectomy. Protein Isoforms. Retrospective Studies. Serine

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  • (PMID = 17209299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 452VLY9402 / Serine; 7006-34-0 / Asparagine
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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48. Kaşifoğlu T, Korkmaz C, Paşaoğlu O: Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) simulating polymyositis. Rheumatol Int; 2005 Mar;25(2):133-4
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  • [Title] Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) simulating polymyositis.
  • Abdominal CT as well as plasma renin and aldosterone levels showed a right surrenal adenoma secreting aldosterone.
  • Hypokalemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of polymyositis, even in the face of inflammatory cell infiltration in the muscle biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypokalemia / etiology. Polymyositis / diagnosis. Renin / blood

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  • [ISSN] 0172-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] Rheumatology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rheumatol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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49. Ashizawa N, Takagi M, Seto S, Suzuki S, Yano K: Serum adiponectin and leptin in a patient with Cushing's syndrome before and after adrenalectomy. Intern Med; 2007;46(7):383-5
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  • We measured the serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations before and after successful removal of a left adrenal adenoma in a 46-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adiponectin / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Leptin / blood

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  • (PMID = 17409602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Leptin
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50. Faria JF, Goldman SM, Szejnfeld J, Melo H, Kater C, Kenney P, Huayllas MP, Demarchi G, Francisco VV, Andreoni C, Srougi M, Ortiz V, Abdalla N: Adrenal masses: characterization with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy--initial experience. Radiology; 2007 Dec;245(3):788-97
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  • [Title] Adrenal masses: characterization with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy--initial experience.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively determine the accuracy of in vivo proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in distinguishing adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and metastases, with histologic or computed tomographic findings and follow-up data as the reference standards.
  • Sixty consecutive patients (24 male and 36 female patients; mean age, 53 years) harboring adrenal tumors larger than 2 cm in diameter (mean diameter, 4.6 cm +/- 3.4 [standard deviation]) entered the study and were examined with a 1.5-T MR imaging system and point-resolved multivoxel (1)H MR spectroscopy.
  • Thirty-eight patients had adenomas; 10, pheochromocytomas; five, carcinomas; and seven, metastases.
  • Metabolite ratios (choline-creatine, choline-lipid, lipid-creatine, and 4.0-4.3 ppm/creatine) and cutoff values (obtained by using receiver operating characteristic analyses) were obtained and compared for each type of adrenal mass, which was identified previously on the basis of clinical, hormonal, and pathologic evidence.
  • RESULTS: Cutoff values of 1.20 for the choline-creatine ratio (92% sensitivity, 96% specificity; P < .01), 0.38 for the choline-lipid ratio (92% sensitivity, 90% specificity; P < .01), and 2.10 for the lipid-creatine ratio (45% sensitivity, 100% specificity) enabled adenomas and pheochromocytomas to be distinguished from carcinomas and metastases.
  • A 4.0-4.3 ppm/creatine ratio greater than 1.50 enabled distinction of pheochromocytomas and carcinomas from adenomas and metastases (87% sensitivity, 98% specificity; P < .01).
  • CONCLUSION: (1)H MR spectroscopy can be used to characterize adrenal masses on the basis of spectral findings for benign adenomas, carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2007.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2009 Mar;250(3):955-6; author reply 955-6; discussion 956 [19244058.001]
  • (PMID = 18024453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Pugeat M, Déchaud H, Raverot V, Denuzière A, Cohen R, Boudou P, French Endocrine Society: Recommendations for investigation of hyperandrogenism. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Feb;71(1):2-7
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  • DHEAS is primarily of cortico-adrenal origin in women.
  • Thus, a DHEAS level over 600 mg/dl indicates a diagnosis of androgen-secreting adrenal cortical adenoma..
  • If DHEAS is normal, the diagnosis could be either ovarian hyperthecosis, normally associated with insulin resistance, or androgen-secreting ovarian tumour.
  • 4. More rarely, elevated testosterone is associated with a marked elevation of SHBG possibly as the result of use of medication having an estrogenic effect (tamoxifen, raloxifene, Op'DDD), or of hyperthyroidism or liver disease.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
  • (PMID = 20096825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Guideline; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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52. Maurea S, Imbriaco M, D'Angelillo M, Mollica C, Camera L, Salvatore M: Diagnostic accuracy of chemical-shift MR imaging to differentiate between adrenal adenomas and non adenoma adrenal lesions. Radiol Med; 2006 Aug;111(5):674-86
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  • [Title] Diagnostic accuracy of chemical-shift MR imaging to differentiate between adrenal adenomas and non adenoma adrenal lesions.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of chemical-shift (CS) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the differential diagnosis of adenoma and nonadenoma adrenal masses.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 36 patients (9 men, 27 women, mean age 51.3+14.4 years) with unilateral (n=31) or bilateral (n=5) adrenal masses incidentally discovered during imaging examinations [ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT)] performed for other indications.
  • A total of 41 adrenal lesions were evaluated (mean diameter 3.0+2.2 cm).
  • Histology (n=19), biopsy (n=3) or clinical-imaging follow-up (n=19) demonstrated 29 adenomas, five pheochromocytomas, three cysts and four carcinomas.
  • MR images were qualitatively assessed for signal intensity of the adrenal mass relative to the liver on T1, T2, CS and T1-Gd scans; diagnostic criteria for adenomas were isointensity or hypointensity on both T1 and T2 scans, out-of-phase CS signal loss and mild transient enhancement after Gd.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CS MR imaging significantly improves characterization of adrenal masses compared with conventional T1-T2-weighted images, providing accuracy similar to that of the T1 sequence after Gd.
  • Therefore, the CS sequence is strongly recommended for MR study of adrenal masses, and its use might obviate the need for Gd administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Cysts / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16791464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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53. Merkle EM, Schindera ST: MR imaging of the adrenal glands: 1.5T versus 3T. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am; 2007 Aug;15(3):365-72, vii
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  • [Title] MR imaging of the adrenal glands: 1.5T versus 3T.
  • MR imaging at 1.5T is considered the prime cross-sectional imaging modality for characterization of adrenal lesions.
  • This is of utmost clinical importance, because non-functioning adenoma and adrenal metastasis are fairly common.
  • This article reviews the current literature regarding adrenal imaging at 3.0 T with a focus on the chemical shift technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17893056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-9689
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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54. Song JH, Lee KH, Kim SD, Cho BS: Long-term Follow up of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients with Hyponatremia. Electrolyte Blood Press; 2007 Dec;5(2):140-6
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  • [Title] Long-term Follow up of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients with Hyponatremia.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease, which leads to cortisol and aldosterone deficiency and hyperandrogenism.
  • Typical medical treatment includes oral glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid administration to suppress adrenal androgens and to compensate for adrenal steroid deficiencies.
  • Among these patients, four cases of CAH patients showing the presence of hyponatremia as an initial electrolyte disorder were found with adrenal adenoma.
  • Hypersecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and chronic poor compliance to therapy appears to be associated with the development of the adrenal tumor.
  • Two cases were managed with adrenalectomy because of increasing adrenal tumor size and virilization.
  • Therefore, it is important that patients with CAH maintain steroid medication to avoid the appearance of adrenal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 24459514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-5997
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrolyte & blood pressure : E & BP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrolyte Blood Press
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3894515
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 21-hydroxylase deficiency / Adrenal tumor / Congenital adrenal hyperplasia / Hyponatremia
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55. Pereira JM, Sirlin CB, Pinto PS, Casola G: CT and MR imaging of extrahepatic fatty masses of the abdomen and pelvis: techniques, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1):69-85
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  • [Title] CT and MR imaging of extrahepatic fatty masses of the abdomen and pelvis: techniques, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls.
  • The differential diagnosis of extrahepatic abdominopelvic masses is wide.
  • Demonstration of fat within a lesion at noninvasive imaging is an important clue for narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • Lesions with predominantly microscopic fat include adrenal adenoma and some teratomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Teratoma / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15653588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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56. Palazzo FF, Sebag F, Sierra M, Ippolito G, Souteyrand P, Henry JF: Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):893-8
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the procedure of choice for small benign adrenal tumors.
  • In the absence of local invasion or metastases, the preoperative diagnosis of an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is difficult, often leaving size as the principal predictor of malignancy.
  • Large tumors are resectable laparoscopically, but the long-term outcome and therefore appropriateness of LA for cortical tumors > 6 cm is not known.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the LA experience in our institution since its introduction in June 1994.
  • Patients who underwent LA for solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter without preoperative or intraoperative evidence of malignancy were reviewed.
  • Follow-up data, including clinical examination, biochemical analysis, and repeat scans, were reviewed for evidence of local or systemic recurrent disease.
  • Among them, 19 were solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter with no overt malignant preoperative or intraoperative characteristics: 9 nonsecreting tumors, 8 Cushing's syndrome tumors (including 2 virilizing variants), 1 virilizing tumor, and 1 aldosteronoma.
  • Histology confirmed a cortical adenoma in eight patients, malignant tumors in three, and indeterminate tumors in eight.
  • Two patients died of systemic recurrent disease (liver metastases) at 10 and 19 months, respectively, following surgery; two other patients died 12 and 21 months, respectively following surgery owing to unrelated cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology.
  • One patient underwent surgery for local recurrence 54 months after primary surgery; the remaining 14 patients are well with no clinical or radiologic evidence of recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid cortical tumors without pre- or intraoperative evidence of malignancy is not contraindicated, and it is unlikely to have a deleterious effect on long-term outcome.
  • We provide an algorithm for the approach to adrenocortical tumors > or = 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16680605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Foti G, Faccioli N, Manfredi R, Mantovani W, Mucelli RP: Evaluation of relative wash-in ratio of adrenal lesions at early biphasic CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jun;194(6):1484-91
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  • [Title] Evaluation of relative wash-in ratio of adrenal lesions at early biphasic CT.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of unenhanced attenuation and relative percentage wash-in ratio in early, that is, arterial and portal venous phase, biphasic CT in differentiating adrenal adenomas from metastatic lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred seven adrenal masses in 86 consecutively registered patients (45 men, 41 women; mean age, 56 years) were evaluated.
  • Diagnosis was achieved with percutaneous biopsy (n = 6), surgery (n = 13), and at least 1 year of imaging follow-up (n = 88).
  • Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy in differentiation of adenomas from metastatic lesions were calculated for unenhanced attenuation and for wash-in ratio.
  • RESULTS: The final diagnosis was metastasis in 51 cases and adenoma in 56 cases.
  • A significant difference was found between benign and malignant lesions in regard to diameter (p = 0.001), unenhanced CT attenuation (p = 0.001), and relative percentage wash-in ratio from the arterial to the portal venous scan (p = 0.014).
  • In the differentiation of benign from malignant lesions, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of unenhanced CT attenuation (at an 11-HU threshold) were 98%, 86%, 86%, 98%, and 92%, and those of relative percentage wash-in ratio from the arterial to the portal venous phase were 94%, 77%, 79%, 93%, and 85%.
  • CONCLUSION: Relative percentage wash-in ratio may help in differentiating adenoma from metastasis and in guiding the decision to perform CT directed at the adrenal glands when unenhanced CT is not available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Biopsy. Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20489087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Chen W, Chen GY, Tsai SJ, Wang PW, Sheu HM, Shen YS, Chen FF: Mild cutaneous manifestation in two young women with extraordinary hyperandrogenemia. Dermatology; 2005;210(1):49-52
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  • Hyperandrogenism with hyperandrogenemia should be considered in those with severe acne of sudden onset or conspicuous male-pattern baldness with hairline recession, although the majority of female patients with acne or androgenetic alopecia possess no endocrine disorder.
  • The first one presenting vertical alopecia had an elevated level of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (>800 microg/dl) and was suspected to be a case of late-onset, non-classical adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The second case with mild acne had a soaring serum level of total testosterone >9,000 ng/dl derived from an androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma overexpressing steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and aromatase.
  • The possibility of adrenal tumor should be explored in patients with escalated circulating testosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Acne Vulgaris / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Alopecia / complications. Hyperandrogenism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15604546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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59. Aydin A, Okmen E, Erdinler I, Sanli A, Cam N: Adrenal adenoma presenting with ventricular fibrillation. Tex Heart Inst J; 2005;32(1):85-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal adenoma presenting with ventricular fibrillation.
  • Computed tomography then revealed a right adrenal mass.
  • The patient was treated with surgical resection of the adenoma.

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  • [ISSN] 0730-2347
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60. Myint KS, Watts M, Appleton DS, Lomas DJ, Jamieson N, Taylor KP, Coghill S, Brown MJ: Primary hyperaldosteronism due to adrenal microadenoma: a curable cause of refractory hypertension. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst; 2008 Jun;9(2):103-6
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  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism due to adrenal microadenoma: a curable cause of refractory hypertension.
  • The diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism due to microadenoma or unilateral adrenal hyperplasia can be challenging, since hypokalaemic alkalosis, high plasma aldosterone and a definite adenoma on imaging may all be absent.
  • Hypokalaemia was present in the first two cases but computed tomography did not show clear cut adenomas.
  • Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) revealed lateralisation (> 4 times higher aldosterone to cortisol ratio (ACR) on the affected than contra-lateral side).
  • A suppressed plasma renin indicates abnormal Na+-retention, and--when not overcome by drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers--may be the only clue to a curable adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Hypertension / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18584586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-3203
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : JRAAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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61. Sangwaiya MJ, Boland GW, Cronin CG, Blake MA, Halpern EF, Hahn PF: Incidental adrenal lesions: accuracy of characterization with contrast-enhanced washout multidetector CT--10-minute delayed imaging protocol revisited in a large patient cohort. Radiology; 2010 Aug;256(2):504-10
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  • [Title] Incidental adrenal lesions: accuracy of characterization with contrast-enhanced washout multidetector CT--10-minute delayed imaging protocol revisited in a large patient cohort.
  • A multidetector computed tomography (CT) adrenal protocol (unenhanced, dynamic contrast material-enhanced, and 10-minute delayed CT) was used in 314 consecutive patients (201 women, 113 men; mean age, 63.6 years) for the period from January 2006 through February 2009.
  • The mean adrenal attenuation during all three CT phases was measured by two readers, and the relative percentage washout (RPW) and absolute percentage washout (APW) values were calculated.
  • RESULTS: There were 323 adrenal lesions (213 left, 110 right) consisting of 307 adenomas and 16 nonadenomas.
  • Areas under the ROC curve were 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.75, 0.95) and 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.97) for the APW and RPW tests, respectively, to detect adenomatous disease.
  • CONCLUSION: The 10-minute delayed adrenal enhancement washout test has reduced sensitivity for the characterization of adrenal adenomas compared with results from prior studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Iopamidol / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data

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  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2012 May;263(2):619; author reply 619-20 [22517967.001]
  • (PMID = 20656838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; JR13W81H44 / Iopamidol
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62. Calsyn JD, Green RA, Davis GJ, Reilly CM: Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral adrenocortical adenoma in a cat. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc; 2010 Jan-Feb;46(1):36-42
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  • [Title] Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral adrenocortical adenoma in a cat.
  • An ultrasound revealed bilateral adrenal gland enlargement.
  • Histopathology was consistent with a cortical adenoma in the right adrenal gland and a pheochromocytoma in the left adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenocortical Adenoma / veterinary. Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20045835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Anim Hosp Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Zhang W, Tang ZY, Wang WQ, Ning G: [Metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenocortical adenoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Dec 26;86(48):3397-400
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  • [Title] [Metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenocortical adenoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • METHODS: MS-related indexes, including waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting plasma glucose, plasma and urinary aldosterone, plasma potassium, basic and upright plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma and urinary cortisol, and plasma ACTH, were examined among 61 patients of aldosterone producing adenoma (APA, Group 1), 23 patients of cortisol-secreting adenoma (CSA, Group 2), 24 patients of nonfunctional adrenal adenoma (NAA, Group 3), and 26 healthy controls (Group 4).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with adrenocortical adenoma have a significantly high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially the patients of CSA and NAA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Metabolic Syndrome X / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17313850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Lipids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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64. Inan N, Arslan A, Akansel G, Anik Y, Balci NC, Demirci A: Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant adrenal masses. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Jan;65(1):154-62
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  • [Title] Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant adrenal masses.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of dynamic MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant tumors, especially in cases with atypical adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four masses (48 adenomas, 16 malignant tumors) were included in this prospective study.
  • RESULTS: Chemical shift MR imaging was able to differentiate 44 out of 48 adenomas (91.7%) from non-adenomas.
  • The 4 adenomas (8.3%) which could not be differentiated from non-adenomas by this technique did not exhibit signal loss on out-of-phase images.
  • With a cut-off value of 30, SI indices of adenomas had a sensitivity of 93.8%, specificity of 100% and a positive predictive value of 100%.
  • On visual evaluation of dynamic MR imaging, early phase contrast enhancement patterns were homogeneous in 75% and punctate in 20,83% of the adenomas; while patchy in 56.25% and peripheral in 25% of the malignant tumors.
  • On the late phase images 58.33% of the adenomas showed peripheral ring-shaped enhancement and 10.41% showed heterogeneous enhancement.
  • At the 25th second, the SIs and wash-in rates of the adenomas were significantly higher than those of the malignant masses (p=0.010).
  • Time-to-peak enhancement of the malignant masses was significantly longer than that of the adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemical shift MR has a high sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of adenomas and malignant adrenal masses.
  • However, taking into consideration only the atypical adenomas, chemical shift MRI is of no diagnostic value.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 17466481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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65. Nakamura M, Miki Y, Akahira J, Morimoto R, Satoh F, Ishidoya S, Arai Y, Suzuki T, Hayashi Y, Sasano H: An analysis of potential surrogate markers of target-specific therapy in archival materials of adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(1):17-23
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  • [Title] An analysis of potential surrogate markers of target-specific therapy in archival materials of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm but some of the cases are highly malignant.
  • Therefore, we evaluated expression of potential surrogate markers using immunohistochemistry in archival materials of adrenocortical carcinoma in order to explore the potential application of target specific therapies in ACC in this study.
  • We immunolocalized ten established or potential surrogate markers of target-specific therapies, located in the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathways, in 41 ACC cases, 54 adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) cases, and five nonpathological adrenal glands and correlated the findings with clinicopathological factors of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocortical Adenoma. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19184558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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66. Rohana AG, Ming W, Norlela S, Norazmi MK: Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Med J Malaysia; 2007 Jun;62(2):158-9
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  • [Title] Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • CT abdomen showed a right adrenal tumour and a hyperplastic left adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed followed by histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.
  • This was confirmed to be due to partial or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • We discuss the association of partial CAH and adrenal tumours and the unmasking of the mineralocorticoid deficiency following adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications


67. Tan HS, Thai AC, Nga ME, Mukherjee JJ: Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):271-4
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  • [Title] Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • INTRODUCTION: At times, it may be difficult to differentiate early stage, low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma from benign adrenal adenoma.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: A 53-year-old lady underwent right adrenalectomy for a 4-cm adrenocortical tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Histology revealed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Sixteen years later, she presented with a 14-cm adrenal tumour, again on the right side.
  • Histology confirmed adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OUTCOME: She died of metastatic disease 17 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of long-term, systematic follow-up of patients treated for benign adrenal adenomas, especially if the tumour size exceeds 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


68. Kaspareit J, Friderichs-Gromoll S, Buse E, Habermann G: Spontaneous neoplasms observed in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during a 15-year period. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2007 Nov;59(3-4):163-9
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  • The great majority of neoplasms was benign (23 benign neoplasms versus 10 malignant tumors).
  • Most of the tumors (22) in the cynomolgus monkeys were seen in endocrine organs (adrenal cortical adenoma, adrenal hemangioma, C-cell carcinoma, follicular adenoma), respiratory system (nasal cavity adenoma, pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, bronchio-alveolar carcinoma, bronchiolar papilloma, chondromatous hamartoma) and female genital system (uterine polyp, uterine adenoma, uterine leiomyoma and teratoma of the ovary).
  • [MeSH-major] Macaca fascicularis. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17869495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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69. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
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  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • Histopathological prognostic factors of ACC have not been fully established because of the rarity of the disease.
  • These special type tumors include pediatric adrenocortical tumors, oncocytomas, and aldosterone-producing tumors of pure zona glomerulosa type.
  • Then we present three cases with unusual small adrenocortical tumors.
  • One patient had an unequivocal ACC showing metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
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70. Giordano TJ: Molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors: separating adenomas from carcinomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(4):355-63
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  • [Title] Molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors: separating adenomas from carcinomas.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare but interesting endocrine tumor.
  • Its diagnosis is usually straightforward using morphologic assessment and supplemental immunohistochemistry.
  • Here, the relevant molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors is reviewed with special reference to those methods (e.g., DNA microarrays) that hold promise for improved diagnosis and prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Principal Component Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17525484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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71. Groussin L, Cazabat L, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Bertherat J: Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex. Horm Res; 2005;64(3):132-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex.
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a main characteristic of CNC.
  • PPNAD is a very rare cause of Cushing's syndrome due to a primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations nor familial history.
  • Interestingly, patients with isolated PPNAD and no familial history of CNC can also present a germline de novo mutation of PRKAR1A.
  • Somatic mutations of PRKAR1A have been found in PPNAD as a mechanism of inactivation of the wild-type allele, in a patient already presenting a germline mutation, and in a subset of sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas with clinical, hormonal, and pathological features quite similar to PPNAD.
  • This review will summarize the recent findings on CNC from the perspective of the pathophysiology of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and PPNAD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / physiopathology. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / physiopathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16192737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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72. Solís-López DR, Rodríguez-Hernández Z, Solís-López DH: Incidental adreno-cortical adenoma, why surgery? a case report. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Jun;29(2):130-2
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  • [Title] Incidental adreno-cortical adenoma, why surgery? a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Incidental adrenal tumors are commonly benign, but reports demonstrate that if the characteristics of the tumor are not clear, on images surgery is the procedure of choice.
  • Our objective through this case is to show that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe approach for adrenal incidental tumor regardless of radiological findings.
  • She went for check up and a left adrenal mass on MRI described as myelolipoma was found incidentally.
  • The pathological report was adrenal cortical adenoma with central hemorrhage and not a myelolipoma as described in images on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • CONCLUSION: The use of imaging for diagnosis, clinical management and decision making is very controversial.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for adrenal masses is a safe procedure for tumors of 6 cm regardless of the radiological description.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20496530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-0658
  • [Journal-full-title] Puerto Rico health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] P R Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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73. Stratakis CA, Carney JA: The triad of paragangliomas, gastric stromal tumours and pulmonary chondromas (Carney triad), and the dyad of paragangliomas and gastric stromal sarcomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome): molecular genetics and clinical implications. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):43-52
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  • A number of other lesions have been described in the condition including pheochromocytomas, oesophageal leiomyomas and adrenocortical adenomas; CT is a novel form of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a genetic condition with a female predilection.
  • We recently reported an international series of patients with CT, 34 females and three males (median age of presentation 21 years) who did not carry SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations.


74. Wosnitzer B, Gadiraju R: The role of nuclear imaging in multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1). Radiol Case Rep; 2010;5(4):452
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) is a rare genetic disorder classically characterized by a predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet cells (1).
  • In addition to exhibiting these characteristic tumors, MEN 1 patients also have an increased propensity for other tumors such as carcinoids, adrenal adenomas, angiofibromas, and lipomas (1, 2, 3).
  • The tumors of MEN 1 are usually benign; however, malignancy of some carcinoid, islet cell, and gastrointestinal tract tumors can cause mortality (5, 6, 7, 8).
  • Diagnosis of MEN 1 is usually made by a combination of history and physical examination, biochemical serum testing, and various imaging modalities (9, 10).
  • We present a classic case of MEN 1 with unique presentation and diagnosis using predominantly nuclear imaging in order to emphasize the role of nuclear imaging in diagnosing and treating MEN 1.

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  • (PMID = 27307880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-0433
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4901017
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT, computed tomography / EGD, esophagogastroduodenoscopy / MEN 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 / MRI, magnetic resonance imaging
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75. de Matos LL, Trufelli DC, das Neves-Pereira JC, Danel C, Riquet M: Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review. Lung Cancer; 2006 Sep;53(3):381-6
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  • Neither of these patients had hypophysary microadenomas, adrenal adenomas or recurrence of CS after surgical treatment, demonstrating that CS was caused solely by the presence of the bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis


76. Cartier D, Jégou S, Parmentier F, Lihrmann I, Louiset E, Kuhn JM, Bastard C, Plouin PF, Godin M, Vaudry H, Lefebvre H: Expression profile of serotonin4 (5-HT4) receptors in adrenocortical aldosterone-producing adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Dec;153(6):939-47
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  • [Title] Expression profile of serotonin4 (5-HT4) receptors in adrenocortical aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the expression profile of serotonin4 (5-HT4) receptors in adrenocortical aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) tissues in comparison with normal adrenal cortex.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Total 5-HT4 receptor mRNAs were quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and the mRNAs encoding the 5-HT4 receptor isoforms were characterized by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR in seven normal adrenal cortices and 11 APA tissues.
  • The distribution of 5-HT4 receptor mRNAs was investigated by in situ hybridization in both normal adrenal and APA tissues, and the presence of 5-HT in APA tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry.
  • In situ hybridization studies showed that 5-HT4 receptor mRNAs were expressed in both zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata/reticularis of the normal cortex and in groups of APA steroidogenic cells disseminated in the tumor tissues.
  • Isoforms (a) and (b) were not expressed in any APA but were present in the majority of normal adrenocortical tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results show overexpression and different splicing of the 5-HT4 receptor in APA tissues in comparison with normal adrenocortical tissue.
  • They also demonstrate the presence of 5-HT in both mast cells and tumor steroidogenic cells, providing evidence for a possible autocrine/paracrine activation of aldosterone secretion within adenoma tissues.

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  • (PMID = 16322401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 158165-40-3 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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77. Halefoglu AM, Yasar A, Bas N, Ozel A, Erturk SM, Basak M: Comparison of computed tomography histogram analysis and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging for adrenal mass characterization. Acta Radiol; 2009 Nov;50(9):1071-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of computed tomography histogram analysis and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging for adrenal mass characterization.
  • BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) histogram analysis and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently used modalities for adrenal mass characterization.
  • However, it is not yet clear which modality can be regarded as most sensitive in terms of adrenal mass characterization.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively compare CT histogram analysis and chemical-shift MRI in the characterization of adrenal masses.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between May 2007 and November 2008, 93 patients (45 males, 48 females; mean age 56.7 years, range 22-85 years) with 109 adrenal masses prospectively underwent both unenhanced CT and chemical-shift MRI examinations.
  • These masses consisted of 67 adenomas and 42 metastases.
  • Histogram analysis was applied with a circular region of interest (ROI) that recorded mean attenuation, total number of pixels, number of negative pixels, and the percentage of negative pixels on unenhanced CT images for each adrenal mass.
  • In chemical-shift MRI, signal intensity drop between in-phase and opposed-phase images was quantitatively calculated so that adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratios and adrenal signal intensity indexes were determined for each of the adrenal masses.
  • A mass was regarded as an adenoma if it contained more than 10% negative pixels by CT histogram analysis, showed an adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratio of less than 0.71, and had an adrenal signal intensity index of more than 16.5% by chemical-shift MRI.
  • The results were compared to reveal which method was most sensitive in the diagnosis of adrenal masses and whether or not a correlation exists between these two modalities.
  • Final diagnoses were based on imaging follow-up of minimum 6 months, biopsy, surgery, and adrenal washout study.
  • RESULTS: On unenhanced CT examinations, all of the 67 adenomas and 21 out of 42 metastases exhibited negative pixels.
  • CT histogram analysis using a 10% negative pixel threshold gave a 91% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the diagnosis of an adenoma.
  • On chemical-shift MRI, for an adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratio of less than 0.71, a 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity were achieved, while a 97% sensitivity and 93% specificity were obtained for an adrenal signal intensity index of more than 16.5% for adenoma diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: CT histogram analysis method using a 10% negative pixel threshold on unenhanced CT had a good sensitivity and perfect specificity for the differentiation of adrenal adenomas from non-adenomas.
  • In spite of the good results obtained with the CT histogram analysis method, chemical-shift MRI using adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratio and adrenal signal intensity index formulas had a higher sensitivity and could help in the characterization of adrenal masses appearing indeterminate by CT histogram analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19863419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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78. Lachenmayer A, Lichtenauer UD, Cox T, Schott M, Malendowicz LK, Goretzki PE, Cupisti K, Scherbaum WA, Bornstein SR, Willenberg HS: Nestin as a marker in the classification of adrenocortical tumors. Horm Metab Res; 2009 May;41(5):397-401
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  • [Title] Nestin as a marker in the classification of adrenocortical tumors.
  • Since adrenocortical carcinoma, a tumor entity still very difficult to classify, may gain the ability to aberrantly express neuroectodermal proteins including chromogranin A and synaptophysin, we asked the question whether nestin might also be detected in adrenocortical carcinomas, and if so, whether it might serve as a tool for clinical pathology.
  • Therefore, we studied the expression of nestin in normal adrenal glands, adrenocortical adenomas, and adrenocortical cancers using specific immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
  • Immunostaining was nestin-positive in 1 out of 9 normal adrenal glands (11%), 2 out of 20 adrenocortical adenomas (10%), and 13 out of 16 adrenocortical carcinomas (81%).
  • We conclude that our findings provide further evidence that nestin, as a marker, is not restricted to neuronal stem cells and nestin expression is worth to be studied in adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / classification. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nestin

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  • (PMID = 19294612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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79. Watson T, Karthikeyan VJ, Lip GY, Beevers DG: Atrial fibrillation in primary aldosteronism. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst; 2009 Dec;10(4):190-4
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  • INTRODUCTION: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is caused by autonomous hypersecretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex, classically from an adenoma, resulting in sodium and water retention, hypokalaemia and raised blood pressure.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with hypertension and AF, who have no evidence of coronary disease or any other underlying cause of AF with preserved systolic function, a diagnosis of PA should be considered.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Female. Humans. Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / diagnosis. Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / etiology. Hypokalemia / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Renin / blood


81. Tissier F, Cavard C, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Hagneré AM, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Gicquel C, Bertagna X, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Perret C, Bertherat J: Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 1;65(17):7622-7
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  • [Title] Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a rare cancer with a very poor prognosis.
  • The genetic alterations identified to date in adrenocortical tumors are limited.
  • We investigated whether Wnt pathway activation is involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • In a series of 39 adrenocortical tumors, immunohistochemistry revealed abnormal cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in 10 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 11 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • An activating somatic mutation of the beta-catenin gene was shown in 7 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 4 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas; these mutations were observed only in adrenocortical tumors with abnormal beta-catenin accumulation and most were point mutations altering the Ser45 of exon 3 (in the consensus GSK3-beta/CK1 phosphorylation site).
  • Functional studies showed that the activating Ser45 beta-catenin mutation found in the adrenocortical cancer H295R cell line leads to constitutive activation of T-cell factor-dependent transcription.
  • This is the first molecular defect to be reported with the same prevalence in both benign (27%) and malignant (31%) adrenocortical tumors. beta-Catenin mutations are also the most frequent genetic defect currently known in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • In adrenocortical adenomas, beta-catenin alterations are more frequent in nonfunctioning tumors, suggesting that beta-catenin pathway activation might be mostly involved in the development of nonsecreting adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The very frequent and substantial accumulation of beta-catenin in adrenocortical carcinomas suggests that other alterations might also be involved.
  • This finding may contribute to new therapeutic approaches targeting the Wnt pathway in malignant adrenocortical tumors, for which limited medical therapy is available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16140927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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82. Mazzuco TL, Chabre O, Sturm N, Feige JJ, Thomas M: Ectopic expression of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor gene is a sufficient genetic event to induce benign adrenocortical tumor in a xenotransplantation model. Endocrinology; 2006 Feb;147(2):782-90
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  • [Title] Ectopic expression of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor gene is a sufficient genetic event to induce benign adrenocortical tumor in a xenotransplantation model.
  • Aberrant expression of ectopic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in adrenal cortex tissue has been observed in several cases of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasias and adenomas associated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • Although there is clear clinical evidence for the implication of these ectopic receptors in abnormal regulation of cortisol production, whether this aberrant GPCR expression is the cause or the consequence of the development of an adrenal hyperplasia is still an open question.
  • To answer it, we genetically engineered primary bovine adrenocortical cells to have them express the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor.
  • After transplantation of these modified cells under the renal capsule of adrenalectomized immunodeficient mice, tissues formed had their functional and histological characteristics analyzed.
  • We observed the formation of an enlarged and hyperproliferative adenomatous adrenocortical tissue that secreted cortisol in a gastric inhibitory polypeptide-dependent manner and induced a mild Cushing's syndrome with hyperglycemia.
  • Thus, a single genetic event, inappropriate expression of a nonmutated GPCR gene, is sufficient to initiate the complete phenotypic alterations that ultimately lead to the formation of a benign adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cattle. Cell Transplantation. Female. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hyperplasia. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mice, SCID. Nutritional Status. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism. Transfection. Transgenes. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16254030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone; 0 / gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor; 128559-51-3 / RAG-1 protein; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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83. Blanes A, Diaz-Cano SJ: DNA and kinetic heterogeneity during the clonal evolution of adrenocortical proliferative lesions. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1295-303
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  • [Title] DNA and kinetic heterogeneity during the clonal evolution of adrenocortical proliferative lesions.
  • Monoclonal adrenocortical lesions show inverse correlation between proliferation and apoptosis, with proliferation being the single most important criterion of malignancy in adrenal lesions.
  • No study yet has evaluated the variability of proliferation regarding the clonal pattern and diagnosis in adrenocortical nodular hyperplasias (ACNHs), adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), and adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs).
  • Statistics included analysis of variance/Student t tests regarding the clonal patterns and diagnosis.
  • Only tetraploid percentage (P = .0496) and 5cER (P = .0352) distinguished polyclonal (3.64 +/- 2.20 and 0.14 +/- 0.15) from monoclonal (7.25 +/- 7.52 and 1.00 +/- 1.74) benign lesions.
  • Cell kinetic heterogeneity is the hallmark of adrenocortical neoplasms: tetraploid/hypertetraploid cell accumulation characterizes monoclonal lesions (suggesting nondisjunctional mitoses), whereas heterogeneously distributed mitotic figures and decreased diploid percentage define ACCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Nucleus / genetics. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Clone Cells. Disease Progression. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Hyperplasia. Image Cytometry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Kinetics. Mitotic Index. Polyploidy. X Chromosome Inactivation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16949934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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84. Kim E, Aguayo P, St Peter SD, Holcomb GW 3rd: Adrenocortical adenoma expressing glucocorticoid in an 8-month-old female. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Aug;19(4):265-7
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical adenoma expressing glucocorticoid in an 8-month-old female.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Glucocorticoids / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19197833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-359X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
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85. Yaneva M, Vandeva S, Zacharieva S, Daly AF, Beckers A: Genetics of Cushing's syndrome. Neuroendocrinology; 2010;92 Suppl 1:6-10
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  • Endogenous hypercortisolism is usually due to ACTH-secreting pituitary corticotropic adenomas and less often due to ectopic ACTH-secreting neuroendocrine neoplasms or ACTH-independent adrenal cortisol hypersecretion.
  • CS is a serious chronic disease leading to a several-fold increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
  • Changes in the expression profiles have been demonstrated in growth factors and their receptors, cell-cycle regulators and in various genes related to hormonal gene transcription, synthesis and secretion.
  • Sporadic adrenal adenomas and carcinomas may demonstrate dysfunction in genes such as TP53 among others.
  • Cushing's disease can be an inherited condition also.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) together account for 5% of pituitary adenomas.
  • Cushing's disease occurs infrequently in an inherited setting in both of these conditions.
  • To date only 2 cases of Cushing's disease have been described in association with mutations in AIP.
  • One case of Cushing's disease has been reported as part of MEN4, a rare MEN1-like syndrome due to mutation in the CDKN1B gene.
  • Carney complex (CNC) due to PRKAR1A mutations in most cases is associated with CS, mainly as a cause of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics


86. Mishra AK, Agarwal A, Gupta S, Agarwal G, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Outcome of adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: experience from a tertiary care center. World J Surg; 2007 Jul;31(7):1425-32
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  • There were various etiologies--unilateral adrenocortical adenoma (n = 11), adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 13), pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma with failed transsphenoidal surgery (n = 4), ectopic unidentified ACTH source (n = 7), bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia (n = 1), primary pigmented nodular adrenal hyperplasia (n = 1) --for which the patients underwent adrenalectomy: unilateral (n = 22), bilateral (n = 13), or adrenonephrectomy (n = 2).
  • The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis recovered as shown by normalization of the short synacthen-stimulated cortisol level (peak level > or = 20 microg/dl) after a median follow-up of 9 months (range 6-18 months).
  • Surgery for adrenocortical adenoma is safe and effective; however, survival of patients with CS due to adrenocortical carcinoma remains poor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17534556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Rossbach HC, Baschinsky D, Wynn T, Obzut D, Sutcliffe M, Tebbi C: Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):681-3
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  • [Title] Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • Such tumors in adrenal glands are usually of neuroendocrine-neural type and occur mostly in adults.
  • We report a patient with composite neuroblastoma (NB), adrenocortical tumor (ACT), and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • LFS predisposes to the development of leukemia, sarcomas, adrenocortical and breast carcinomas, brain tumors and, questionably, NB.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Point Mutation. Virilism / etiology


88. Abdullah N, Khawaja K, Hale J, Barrett AM, Cheetham TD: Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;18(2):215-9
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  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy.
  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome).
  • The hypertension resolved following excision of the adrenal tumour.
  • Normokalaemia with potassium >4.0 mmol/l is very unusual in patients with Conn's syndrome and has not been described in childhood before.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Potassium / blood


89. Araki A, Shinohara M, Yamakawa J, Tanaka M, Natsui S, Izumi Y: Gastric diverticulum preoperatively diagnosed as one of two left adrenal adenomas. Int J Urol; 2006 Jan;13(1):64-6
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  • [Title] Gastric diverticulum preoperatively diagnosed as one of two left adrenal adenomas.
  • A 47-year-old man was diagnosed with primary aldosteronism due to two left adrenal adenomas, suggested on computed tomography (CT) to be located at the upper and lower adrenal portion.
  • However, adosterol scintigraphy revealed negligible uptake at the upper portion of the left adrenal.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, but macroscopic examination of the specimen revealed only one adrenal tumor.
  • Postoperatively, aldosteronism resolved and repeat CT revealed staining of the adrenal pseudotumor when oral contrast was administered.
  • Since organs located near the adrenals can simulate adrenal tumors, caution must be exercised in interpreting suprarenal masses on CT.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of concurrent pseudotumor and true tumor of the ipsilateral adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Diverticulum, Stomach / diagnosis. Preoperative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16448434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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90. Wagnerova H, Lazúrová I, Habalová V, Dudásová D, Vrzgula A: The prevalence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in adrenal incidentalomas - hormonal and mutation screening. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 May;116(5):272-5
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  • [Title] The prevalence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in adrenal incidentalomas - hormonal and mutation screening.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the response of 17 OHP to ACTH stimulation in patients with various types of adrenal incidentalomas and to examine the occurence of germline CYP21 mutation in these patients.
  • 21 of them had unilateral adrenal adenoma, 13 patients had adrenal hyperplasia (six of them unilateral) and 6 patients had CT characteristics of other tumors (myelolipomas, cysts, adrenocortical carcinoma).
  • Stimulated plasma values of DHEA and 17OHP after ACTH administration were significantly higher in patients with adenomas (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) and with hyperplasia (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05) compared with those with other tumors.
  • SUMMARY: Although 12 % of patients with adrenal incidentalomas had an exaggerated response of 17 OHP after ACTH administration indicating a possible 21-hydroxylase deficiency, these findings are not associated with CYP21 mutation estimated in peripheral blood samples.
  • There was found no germline CYP21 mutation in all patients with various adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Hormones / secretion. Incidental Findings. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Cortex Function Tests. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Hyperplasia / blood. Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Hyperplasia / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 18589890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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91. Tzanela M, Zianni D, Stylianidou Ch, Karavitaki N, Tsagarakis S, Thalassinos NC: Evaluation of GH reserve in patients with adrenal incidentalomas and biochemical evidence of subclinical autonomous glucocorticoid hypersecretion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 May;62(5):597-602
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  • [Title] Evaluation of GH reserve in patients with adrenal incidentalomas and biochemical evidence of subclinical autonomous glucocorticoid hypersecretion.
  • OBJECTIVE: Although it is well established that overt hypercortisolism in patients with active Cushing's syndrome leads to a profound suppression of stimulated GH secretion, the role of subclinical autonomous glucocorticoid hypersecretion (SAGH), currently detected with increasing frequency in patients with adrenal incidentalomas, on GH secretory reserve has received little attention.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether SAGH in patients presented with adrenal incidentalomas has a negative effect on GH secretory reserve.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Sixteen patients with overt Cushing's syndrome (CS) and 36 patients with adrenal incidentalomas were investigated.
  • RESULTS: Peak GH levels following PD + GHRH administration were significantly lower in CS patients compared to both the NC and SAGH group of patients with adrenal incidentalomas (2.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 18.9 +/- 2.6 and 21.5 +/- 3.6 microg/l, respectively, P < 0.05); no difference was observed in peak GH responses between the NC and SAGH group of patients.
  • Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between peak GH response to PD + GHRH and plasma cortisol concentrations in CS patients (R =-0.6, P = 0.012), while in patients with adrenal incidentalomas such a correlation was absent.
  • Contrary to patients with CS in whom body mass index (BMI) was not correlated to peak GH, a significant negative correlation between peak GH response to PD + GHRH and BMI was disclosed in patients with adrenal incidentalomas (R =-0.49, P = 0.003).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Growth Hormone / blood. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 15853831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholinesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; KVI301NA53 / Pyridostigmine Bromide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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92. Bourne AE, Bell SW, Wayment RO, Schwartz BF: Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland: a unique case presentation. Can J Urol; 2009 Jun;16(3):4694-6
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  • [Title] Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland: a unique case presentation.
  • Adrenal "incidentalomas" are commonly found on body imaging, and treatment of these lesions 4 cm-6 cm in size is controversial.
  • Most of these lesions are benign adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Lymphoma is a rare disease manifestation in the adrenal gland, and the overwhelming majority are metastatic lesions.
  • Hodgkin lymphoma has never been reported as a primary adrenal lesion.
  • We present a very unique case report of a 5 cm adrenal "incidentaloma" that represents the first reported case of primary Hodgkin lymphoma in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hodgkin Disease / surgery


93. López Martín L, García Cardoso JV, Gómez Muñoz J, González Enguita C: Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 Dec;63(10):880-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the case of adrenal gland myelolipoma.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: The patient was a 29 year old who is diagnosed with an adrenal adenoma during an endocrinology review.
  • The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 21187573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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94. Vesin C, Chabre O, Mallion JM, Chaffanjon P, Sturm N, Baguet JP: [Diagnosis and post-operative evolution of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome). A 12-years retrospective study]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss; 2007 Feb;100(2):121-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and post-operative evolution of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome). A 12-years retrospective study].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostic et évolution postopératoire des patients opérés d'un adénome de Conn. Etude rétrospective sur 12 ans.
  • The prevalence and characteristics of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome) as well as their post-operative arterial pressure evolution are varying through literature.
  • From 1993 to 2005, 24 patients (mean age = 46 +/-11 years) presented the biological criteria of primary hyperaldosteronism and benefited from adrenalectomy with confirmation of adrenal adenoma.
  • All adenomas measured more than 10 mm in scanner imaging.
  • Post-operative spontaneous normotensive patients had, at the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma, a more recent and non-refractory hypertension, with a lower number of antihypertensive drugs, a better response to spirinolactone and higher aldosterone plasmatic levels.
  • 1) Whether 70% of patients operated for adrenal adenoma are normotensive (with or without treatement) post-operatively, only 25% are definitely cured after 4 years.
  • Factors associated to a post-operative cure highlight the interest of an ealy diagnosis.
  • 2) There is probably an underdiagnosis of adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome) because neither adenomas with normokaliemia, nor adenomas <10 mm in scanner imaging have ever been diagnosed or at least, sent to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17474497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9683
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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95. Sawada K, Maehara T, Inaji M, Toriyama H, Okada T, Nariai T, Aoyagi M, Doi M, Ohno K: [Case of ruptured multiple cerebral aneurysms associated with primary aldosteronism]. No Shinkei Geka; 2010 Apr;38(4):347-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary aldosteronism (PA) has been recognized as a relatively benign form of hypertension associated with a low incidence of vascular complications.
  • The initial intervention was aneurysm clipping for a ruptured aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery.
  • She was diagnosed with PA on the basis of elevated plasma aldosterone, suppressed plasma rennin, and a right adrenal tumor detected by abdominal CT scanning.
  • Histological examination revealed an adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Vascular Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 20387576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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96. Lulsegged A: Lesson of the month. Clin Med (Lond); 2008 Feb;8(1):115
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] Clin Med (Lond). 2007 Oct;7(5):530-1 [17990731.001]
  • (PMID = 18335687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2118
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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97. Doghman M, El Wakil A, Cardinaud B, Thomas E, Wang J, Zhao W, Peralta-Del Valle MH, Figueiredo BC, Zambetti GP, Lalli E: Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling by microRNA in childhood adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2010 Jun 1;70(11):4666-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling by microRNA in childhood adrenocortical tumors.
  • Here, we report the identification of a set of miRNAs that are differentially regulated in childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT), including miR-99a and miR-100.
  • Functional analysis of these miRNAs in ACT cell lines showed that they coordinately regulate expression of the insulin-like growth factor-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-raptor signaling pathway through binding sites in their 3'-untranslated regions.
  • In these cells, the active Ser(2448)-phosphorylated form of mTOR is present only in mitotic cells in association with the mitotic spindle and midbody in the G(2)-M phases of the cell cycle.
  • Pharmacologic inhibition of mTOR signaling by everolimus greatly reduces tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
  • Our results reveal a novel mechanism of regulation of mTOR signaling by miRNAs, and they lay the groundwork for clinical evaluation of drugs inhibiting the mTOR pathway for treatment of adrenocortical cancer.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20484036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM083159; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA071907; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM083159; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA071907-060006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA071907-060006
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Somatomedins; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / mTOR protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS192514; NLM/ PMC2880211
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98. Mlika M, Farah F, Jarboui S, Abdessalem M, Zaouche A, Jilani SB, Zermani R: A benign cystic mass of the pancreas mimicking a malignant lesion. Pathologica; 2009 Dec;101(6):261-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A benign cystic mass of the pancreas mimicking a malignant lesion.
  • The case thus demonstrates a rare association between a cystic form of chronic pancreatitis and adrenal adenoma.
  • Imaging findings (ultrasound, CT-scan, MRI) showed a 3-cm cystic lesion of the tail of the pancreas associated with a 3-cm adrenal mass.
  • Because of the suspicion of a malignant disease, surgical treatment was performed.
  • Pathological findings consisted in fibrotic chronic pancreatitis with canal dilatation and an adrenal adenoma.
  • Final diagnosis must be based on pathological features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20387716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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99. Quintos JB, Salas M: Virilizing adrenal adenoma in a 20 month-old girl. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Sep;22(9):779-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Virilizing adrenal adenoma in a 20 month-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19960887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Desai N, Kapoor A, Singh BK, Liu J: Bilateral adrenal adenomas and persistent leukocytosis: a unique case of Cushing's syndrome. Am J Med; 2006 Mar;119(3):e3-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal adenomas and persistent leukocytosis: a unique case of Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Leukocytosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16490458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-7162
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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