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1. Arasho BD, Schaller B, Sandu N, Zenebe G: Gender-related differences in pituitary adenomas. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Nov;117(10):567-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gender-related differences in pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas account for about 10% of all intracranial neoplasms and for about 85% of all pituitary tumors.
  • In addition, prospective studies of normal persons and postmortem examinations reveal pituitary adenomas in up to 10% of adults indicating that not all pituitary adenomas are clinically significant.
  • With clinically significant pituitary adenomas, patients may present with hyper- or under-secretion of pituitary hormones or with symptoms and signs of space occupying intracranial tumor like headache and visual compromise.
  • Like other differentiated neuroendocrine cells, the anterior pituitary displays remarkable plasticity in response to physiological demands, as exemplified by the lactotroph differentiation and proliferation of pregnancy or the thyrotroph hyperplasia of primary hypothyroidism.
  • These reversible changes are mediated by a diverse array of signals that have been interpreted to support a role for hormonal stimulation in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas.
  • Different investigators have shown a tendency to gender-related differences not only in surgical outcome, but also in the presenting symptoms and signs, duration of symptoms, tumor size, tumor histology, and restoration of normal pituitary function in patients who are surgically treated and histologically proven pituitary adenomas.
  • In this review, we will try to give a systematic insight into gender related differences of pituitary adenomas.
  • The manuscript therefore gives new insights into the cellular understanding of the pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Sex Characteristics
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Pituitary Hormones / secretion. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 19373750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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2. Toledo RA, Mendonca BB, Fragoso MC, Soares IC, Almeida MQ, Moraes MB, Lourenço DM Jr, Alves VA, Bronstein MD, Toledo SP: Isolated familial somatotropinoma: 11q13-loh and gene/protein expression analysis suggests a possible involvement of aip also in non-pituitary tumorigenesis. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Apr;65(4):407-15
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  • [Title] Isolated familial somatotropinoma: 11q13-loh and gene/protein expression analysis suggests a possible involvement of aip also in non-pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Non-pituitary tumors have been reported in a subset of patients harboring germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene.
  • However, no detailed investigations of non-pituitary tumors of AIP-mutated patients have been reported so far.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents the first molecular analysis of non-pituitary tumors in AIP-mutated patients.
  • The finding of AIP inactivation in the adrenocortical tumor suggests that further investigation of the potential role of this recently identified tumor suppressor gene in non-pituitary tumors, mainly in those tumors in which the cAMP and the 11q13 locus are implicated, is likely to be worthwhile.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20454499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2862671
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; AIP / Acromegaly / Adrenocortical tumor / FIPA / pituitary tumor
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3. Cazabat L, Libè R, Perlemoine K, René-Corail F, Burnichon N, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Dupasquier-Fediaevsky L, Bertagna X, Clauser E, Chanson P, Bertherat J, Raffin-Sanson ML: Germline inactivating mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene in a large cohort of sporadic acromegaly: mutations are found in a subset of young patients with macroadenomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Jul;157(1):1-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: Germline mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene (AIP) have recently been described in three families with GH or prolactin-secreting tumors, as well as in a few patients with apparently sporadic somatotropinomas.
  • The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of AIP mutations in a large cohort of patients with apparently sporadic GH-secreting tumors.
  • DESIGN: One hundred and fifty-four patients were included in a prospective cohort designed to study the genetic predisposition to GH-secreting tumors together with 270 controls.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Germline mutations of the AIP gene were found in a small proportion of patients with sporadic pituitary somatotropinomas.
  • It also supports the role of AIP in pituitary tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17609395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon, Nonsense; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
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4. Seda Jr L, Cukiert A, Nogueira KC, Huayllas MK, Liberman B: Intrasellar internal carotid aneurysm coexisting with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma in an acromegalic patient. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2008 Mar;66(1):99-100
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  • [Title] Intrasellar internal carotid aneurysm coexisting with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma in an acromegalic patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Carotid Artery Diseases / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Intracranial Aneurysm / complications

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  • (PMID = 18392428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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5. Schäffler A: [Treatment of pituitary gland hyperfunction: from acromegaly to prolactinoma]. Internist (Berl); 2006 Dec;47(12):1215-6, 1218-20, 1222
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  • [Title] [Treatment of pituitary gland hyperfunction: from acromegaly to prolactinoma].
  • Evidence based drug therapy is currently available for the treatment of prolactinomas and growth hormone secreting adenomas (acromegaly).
  • In therapy-resistant cases, growth hormone receptor antagonists can be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Hyperpituitarism / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17033781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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6. Metzler M, Luedecke DK, Saeger W, Grueters A, Haberl H, Kiess W, Repp R, Rascher W, Doetsch J: Low prevalence of Gs alpha mutations in śomatotroph adenomas of children and adolescents. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Apr 15;166(2):146-51
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  • In this study, we therefore investigated the prevalence of activating Gs alpha mutations in 17 patients younger than 20 years with pituitary growth hormone-secreting adenomas and examined the characteristics of mutation-positive cases.
  • [MeSH-major] GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Mutation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16631471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
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7. Rubinek T, Rubinfeld H, Hadani M, Barkai G, Shimon I: Nitric oxide stimulates growth hormone secretion from human fetal pituitaries and cultured pituitary adenomas. Endocrine; 2005 Nov;28(2):209-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nitric oxide stimulates growth hormone secretion from human fetal pituitaries and cultured pituitary adenomas.
  • In the pituitary, NO was found to increase growth hormone (GH) secretion in several in vitro and in vivomodels.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effects of NO on human GH and prolactin secretion using primary cell cultures of human fetal pituitaries and cultured hormone-secreting adenomas.
  • Incubation of the human fetal pituitaries (21-24 wk gestation) in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 1 mM), a NO donor, for 4 h resulted in a 50-75% increase in GH secretion, similar to the stimulatory effect evoked by growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) (10 nM).
  • GH release was also stimulated (40-70% increase) by SNP in 60% of the cultured GH-secreting adenomas studied.
  • Neuronal NOS (nNOS) was expressed in normal (fetal and adult) human pituitary tissues and in GH-secreting adenomas.
  • Examination of its functional expression using L-arginine (1 microM) yielded a 35% increase in GH release from cultured GH-secreting adenoma.
  • In conclusion, NO stimulates human GH in cultured fetal pituitaries and GH-secreting adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Nitric Oxide / physiology. Pituitary Gland / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16388095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 169D1260KM / Nitroprusside; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I; EC 4.6.1.2 / Guanylate Cyclase; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP
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8. Nishina Y, Takano K, Yasufuku-Takano J, Teramoto A, Fujita T: Mechanism of D(2) agonist-induced inhibition of GH secretion from human GH-secreting adenoma cells. Endocr J; 2005 Dec;52(6):775-9
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  • [Title] Mechanism of D(2) agonist-induced inhibition of GH secretion from human GH-secreting adenoma cells.
  • The mechanism of dopamine D(2) agonist-induced inhibition of GH secretion from GH-secreting adenoma cells was investigated by measurement of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)] (i)) and static incubation experiment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Dopamine Agonists / pharmacology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16410672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channels; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Sodium Channels; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 23583-48-4 / 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 9B627AW319 / Nitrendipine; EC 2.4.2.31 / Pertussis Toxin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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9. Lania AG, Ferrero S, Pivonello R, Mantovani G, Peverelli E, Di Sarno A, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A, Colao A: Evolution of an aggressive prolactinoma into a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor coincident with GNAS gene mutation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jan;95(1):13-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evolution of an aggressive prolactinoma into a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor coincident with GNAS gene mutation.
  • CONTEXT: Mixed PRL- and GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are relatively common because somatotrophs and lactotrophs share the common somato-mammotroph progenitor lineage.
  • OBJECTIVE AND RESULTS: We report a patient with a prolactinoma who after 15 yr of disease control by bromocriptine became resistant to dopaminergic drugs and due to the rapid tumor growth was submitted to four neurosurgeries and two stereotactic radiotherapies in the subsequent 5 yr.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that 1)treatment of prolactinomas resistant to dopaminergic drugs is still a challenge, and 2) the appearance of gsp oncogene in a prolactinoma evolving into acromegaly might be the underlying mechanism of this rare transition, further confirming that this mutational change is associated with somatotroph growth and transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19890024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
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10. Bhatoe HS, Kotwal N, Badwal S: Clival pituitary adenoma with acromegaly: case report and review of literature. Skull Base; 2007 Jul;17(4):265-8
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  • [Title] Clival pituitary adenoma with acromegaly: case report and review of literature.
  • The pituitary develops as a result of complex, intricate, and precise neuro-embryological events in the sixth to eighth weeks of gestation.
  • Rarely, these cell rests in the clivus can be the site of formation of adenoma.
  • Trans-sphenoidal excision was done and immunohistochemistry revealed the tumor to be a growth hormone-secreting tumor.

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  • [Cites] Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2002 Nov;144(11):1221-4 [12434179.001]
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  • (PMID = 18174927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5010
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2039716
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acromegaly / clivus / pituitary tumor
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11. Colao A, Pivonello R, Auriemma RS, Galdiero M, Savastano S, Grasso LF, Lombardi G: Growth hormone-secreting tumor shrinkage after 3 months of octreotide-long-acting release therapy predicts the response at 12 months. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Sep;93(9):3436-42
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  • [Title] Growth hormone-secreting tumor shrinkage after 3 months of octreotide-long-acting release therapy predicts the response at 12 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;93(10):4162
  • (PMID = 18593770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00616408
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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12. Mezosi E, Nemes O: [Treatment of pituitary adenomas]. Orv Hetil; 2009 Sep 27;150(39):1803-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of pituitary adenomas].
  • According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of pituitary adenomas is 16.5% and the majority of them are "incidentalomas".
  • The symptoms of pituitary disorders are often non-specific; disturbances of pituitary function, compression symptoms, hypophysis apoplexy or accidental findings may help the diagnosis.
  • The hormonal evaluation of pituitary adenomas is different from the algorithm used in the disorders of peripheral endocrine organs.
  • The first-line therapy of prolactinomas are the dopamine agonists, and the aims of the treatment are to normalize the prolactin level, restore fertility in child-bearing age, decrease tumor mass, save or improve the residual pituitary function and inhibit the relapse of the disease.
  • The growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant is the newest modality for the treatment of acromegaly.
  • Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of radiosurgery and fractionated stereotaxic irradiation in the treatment of pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Hormones / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / etiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Incidental Findings. Male. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy. Radiosurgery. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • (PMID = 19758960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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13. Goto J, Otsuka F, Inagaki K, Tsukamoto N, Suzuki J, Miyoshi T, Ogura T, Kamada Y, Makino H: Effects of growth hormone reduction in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome complicated with acromegaly. Endocr J; 2009;56(1):157-60
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  • [Title] Effects of growth hormone reduction in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome complicated with acromegaly.
  • We report a rare case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) complicated with acromegaly due to a growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • Complete removal of the pituitary adenoma successfully reduced circulating levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, which, in turn, resulted in the amelioration of gonadal dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, lutenizing hormone hypersecretion, and severe insulin resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Growth Hormone / blood. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / complications

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  • (PMID = 18840925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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14. Dreijerink KM, van Beek AP, Lentjes EG, Post JG, van der Luijt RB, Canninga-van Dijk MR, Lips CJ: Acromegaly in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) family with low penetrance of the disease. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Dec;153(6):741-6
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of tumours in the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, the pituitary gland and the adrenal glands and by neuroendocrine carcinoid tumours, often at a young age.
  • Because MEN1 patients have an increased risk of developing acromegaly, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) levels are monitored periodically.


15. Kawamata T, Kubo O, Hori T: Surgical removal of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas with intensive microsurgical pseudocapsule resection results in complete remission of acromegaly. Neurosurg Rev; 2005 Jul;28(3):201-8
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  • [Title] Surgical removal of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas with intensive microsurgical pseudocapsule resection results in complete remission of acromegaly.
  • Although some investigators recommended surgical removal of the borders between pituitary adenoma and the surrounding normal pituitary gland, there is so far little documentation of how intensive dissection of the border zone affects the actual clinical remission rate of pituitary adenomas.
  • We investigated the precise histological characteristics of the boundary, using surgical specimens from patients who underwent intensive resection of "microsurgical pseudocapsule" of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Histologically, most adenomas were in direct contact with normal pituitary gland that formed an increased fibrous component facing the adenoma, without a true histological pseudocapsule.
  • It was impossible to dissect the tumor at exactly the tumor--normal pituitary interface for the whole extent of the pituitary adenoma during surgery, and complete removal of the tumor inevitably included a portion of normal tissue (microsurgical pseudocapsule).
  • The biochemical remission rate was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (90.0 vs 61.1%), and Group 1 showed no additional postoperative pituitary hypofunction.
  • The present results suggested that intensive resection of the microsurgical pseudocapsule is essential to accomplish histological and endocrinological total resection of the GH-secreting pituitary adenomas for remission of acromegaly.

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  • (PMID = 15765245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Marzocchi N, Cainazzo MM, Catellani D, Pini LA: A case of a GH-producing pituitary adenoma associated with a unilateral headache with autonomic signs. J Headache Pain; 2005 Jun;6(3):152-5
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  • [Title] A case of a GH-producing pituitary adenoma associated with a unilateral headache with autonomic signs.
  • Further endocrinological tests demonstrated an increase of IGF-1 (somatomedin C), and another MRI scan of the sellar region confirmed the presence of a pituitary macroadenoma on the left paramedian side.
  • [MeSH-major] Autonomic Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Headache / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Bromhexine. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Myocardial Infarction. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secretion. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / pathology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / radiography. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / secretion. Sella Turcica / pathology. Sella Turcica / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16355297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1129-2369
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of headache and pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Headache Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; Q1J152VB1P / Bromhexine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3451631
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17. Lonser RR, Kindzelski BA, Mehta GU, Jane JA Jr, Oldfield EH: Acromegaly without imaging evidence of pituitary adenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Sep;95(9):4192-6
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  • [Title] Acromegaly without imaging evidence of pituitary adenoma.
  • CONTEXT: GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are nearly always visible on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.
  • However, management and outcome of acromegalic patients lacking imaging evidence of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are undefined.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate surgical exploration for MR-invisible GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive acromegalic patients without imaging evidence of a pituitary adenoma on pre- and postcontrast, spin echo T1-weighted MR imaging and who lacked evidence of an ectopic (nonpituitary) source causing GH excess were included.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Surgical exploration with identification and resection of a pituitary adenoma was performed.
  • RESULTS: Six patients (three males, three females; 3% of all patients) with suspected GH-secreting adenomas did not demonstrate imaging evidence of pituitary adenoma on conventional MR imaging.
  • Three patients underwent a postcontrast, volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination MR-imaging sequence (1.2-mm slice thickness), which revealed a 4-mm pituitary adenoma not seen on the spin echo T1-weighted MR imaging in one patient.
  • A pituitary adenoma was identified and removed in all patients (mean diameter, 5.6 mm; range, 5 to 6.7 mm).
  • Histological analysis confirmed that the lesions were GH-secreting adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Acromegaly can be caused by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas that are not evident on conventional MR imaging.
  • Surgical exploration of the pituitary gland in acromegalic patients with endocrine findings consistent with a GH-secreting adenoma but negative MR imaging can lead to identification and removal of an adenoma.


18. Kurosaki M, Saegert W, Abe T, Lüdecke DK: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: special reference to the octreotide treatment. Neurol Res; 2008 Jun;30(5):518-22
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  • [Title] Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: special reference to the octreotide treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the localization of VEGF in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and to evaluate the characteristic differences of VEGF expression in relation to the clinical effect of preoperative treatment with octreotide.
  • METHODS: Fifty-six cases of GH-secreting adenomas, which were divided into three groups and three normal pituitary glands, were studied using immunohistochemistry for expression of VEGF.
  • VEGF staining was strongly seen in the cytoplasm in normal pituitary glands.
  • Age, gender, tumor size, tumor invasiveness and adenoma type did not influence VEGF expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Technology, Radiologic / methods

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  • (PMID = 18953743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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19. Campbell PG, Kenning E, Andrews DW, Yadla S, Rosen M, Evans JJ: Outcomes after a purely endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. Neurosurg Focus; 2010 Oct;29(4):E5
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  • [Title] Outcomes after a purely endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECT: Using strict biochemical remission criteria, the authors assessed surgical outcomes after endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas and identified preoperative factors that significantly influence the rate of remission.
  • The authors reviewed cases in which an endoscopic resection of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas was performed.
  • The thresholds of an age-appropriate, normalized insulin-like growth factor-I concentration, a nadir GH level after oral glucose load of less than 1.0 μg/l, and a random GH value of less than 2.5 μg/l were required to establish biochemical cure postoperatively.
  • RESULTS: Overall, in 57.7% of patients undergoing a purely endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenectomy for acromegaly, an endocrinological cure was achieved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A purely endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to GH-secreting pituitary adenomas leads to similar outcome for noninvasive macroadenomas compared with traditional microsurgical techniques.
  • Furthermore, this approach may often provide maximal visualization of the tumor, the pituitary gland, and the surrounding neurovascular structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Human Growth Hormone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Microsurgery / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Remission Induction. Sphenoid Bone. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20887130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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20. Guerrero CA, Krayenbühl N, Husain M, Krisht AF: Ectopic suprasellar growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma: case report. Neurosurgery; 2007 Oct;61(4):E879; discussion E879
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic suprasellar growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are rare.
  • We present an unusual case of an ectopic growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma in the suprasellar space.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a suprasellar mass not arising from the normal looking pituitary gland.
  • Histological examination showed a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma CONCLUSION: Although uncommon, growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas are encountered in the suprasellar region.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Choristoma. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / radiography


21. Koga Y, Ohe K, Gondo S, Watanabe T, Sakamoto R, Nomura M, Okabe T, Kawazoe N, Sasano K, Yanase T: [MEN type I presenting hypokalemia and hypertension, complicated with acromegaly, adrenal cortical tumor and rectal carcinoid tumor]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Nov 10;95(11):2298-301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Rectal Neoplasms / complications


22. Schwarz ER, Jammula P, Gupta R, Rosanio S: A case and review of acromegaly-induced cardiomyopathy and the relationship between growth hormone and heart failure: cause or cure or neither or both? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther; 2006 Dec;11(4):232-44
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  • [Title] A case and review of acromegaly-induced cardiomyopathy and the relationship between growth hormone and heart failure: cause or cure or neither or both?
  • Growth hormone plays an integral role in the development and maintenance of structure and function of the heart.
  • Current treatment options include different approaches to lower elevated growth hormone levels with improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance, and echocardiographic improvement in regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and indices of diastolic dysfunction.
  • On the other hand, growth hormone is essential for cardiac growth and function and exerts beneficial and protective effects on the cardiovascular system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Cardiac Output, Low / etiology. Cardiomegaly / etiology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Human Growth Hormone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / blood. Acromegaly / etiology. Acromegaly / pathology. Acromegaly / physiopathology. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Cardiovascular System / drug effects. Cardiovascular System / metabolism. Disease Progression. Ghrelin. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptide Hormones / pharmacology. Peptide Hormones / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17220469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1074-2484
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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23. Mercado M, Galeana M: [Pharmacological treatment of acromegaly]. Gac Med Mex; 2006 Jul-Aug;142(4):327-31
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  • Acromegaly is an endocrine disorder usually due to a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Pituitary transsesphenoidal surgery has been considered the treatment of choice, however, even in the most experienced hands this procedure succeeds in curing only 50 to 60% of the patients.

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  • (PMID = 17022308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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24. Furgal-Borzych A, Lis GJ, Litwin JA, Rzepecka-Wozniak E, Trela F, Cichocki T: Increased incidence of pituitary microadenomas in suicide victims. Neuropsychobiology; 2007;55(3-4):163-6
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  • [Title] Increased incidence of pituitary microadenomas in suicide victims.
  • BACKGROUND: Current data suggest an influence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis on suicidal behavior.
  • The frequency of pituitary adenomas in suicide victims has not yet been investigated.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether the incidence of pituitary adenomas is correlated with suicide.
  • METHODS: Serial sections of 151 human pituitary glands obtained upon autopsy were examined microscopically.
  • The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the presence of adenoma was confirmed by immunostaining for collagen III.
  • RESULTS: In the suicidal group, pituitary microadenomas were found in 32 cases (47.7%), while in the nonsuicidal group microadenomas were detected in 15 cases (18.3%).
  • The relative risk ratio of suicide in persons with pituitary adenomas was estimated at 1.9.
  • The immunohistochemical phenotyping revealed a higher percentage of immunopositive (secreting) microadenomas in the nonsuicidal group as compared to the suicidal group (80.0 vs. 59.38%) and a predominance of growth hormone-secreting microadenomas in both groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that pituitary adenomas belong to suicide risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / psychology. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / psychology. Suicide / psychology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17657169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0224
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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25. Carrasco de la Fuente M, González-Albarrán O, Pérez López G, Cano Megías M: [Diabetic ketoacidosis as the first manifestation of a mixed growth hormone and prolactin-secreting tumor]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Dec;57(10):507-9
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  • [Title] [Diabetic ketoacidosis as the first manifestation of a mixed growth hormone and prolactin-secreting tumor].
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetic Ketoacidosis / etiology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / etiology. Diabetic Coma / drug therapy. Diabetic Coma / etiology. Female. Humans. Hyperglycemia / drug therapy. Hyperglycemia / etiology. Insulin / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Pituitary Hormones, Anterior / blood

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  • (PMID = 20705526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2021
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Pituitary Hormones, Anterior; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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26. Fusco A, Gunz G, Jaquet P, Dufour H, Germanetti AL, Culler MD, Barlier A, Saveanu A: Somatostatinergic ligands in dopamine-sensitive and -resistant prolactinomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 May;158(5):595-603
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  • [Title] Somatostatinergic ligands in dopamine-sensitive and -resistant prolactinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Ten percent of patients with prolactinoma fail to respond with normalization of prolactin (PRL) and tumor shrinkage under dopamine agonist (DA) therapy.
  • The resistance to treatment is linked to a loss of dopamine receptor 2 (D2DR).
  • Prolactinomas express somatostatin (SST) receptor subtypes, SSTR1, 2, and 5.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether different SST compounds could overcome the resistance to DA in prolactinomas.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: The efficacy of SSTR1, SSTR2, and SSTR5 ligands; the universal SST ligand, SOM230; and the chimeric SST-DA compound, BIM-23A760, was compared with cabergoline in suppressing PRL secretion from primary cultures of ten prolactinomas (six DA responders and four DA resistant).
  • Receptor mRNAs were assessed by quantitative PCR.
  • RESULTS: The mean mRNA levels for D2DR, SSTR1, SSTR2, and SSTR5 were 92.3+/-47.3, 2.2+/-1.4, 1.1+/-0.7, and 1.6+/-0.6 copy/copy beta-glucuronidase (beta-Gus) respectively.
  • The SSTR1 agonist, BIM-23926, did not suppress PRL in prolactinomas.
  • In a DA-resistant prolactinoma, it did not inhibit [(3)H]thymidine incorporation.
  • The SSTR5 compound, BIM-23206, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of PRL release similar to that of cabergoline in three DA-sensitive prolactinomas.
  • BIM-23A760 produced a maximal PRL inhibition superimposable to that obtained with cabergoline with a lower EC(50) (0.5+/-0.1 vs 2.5+/-1.5 pmol/l).
  • In DA-resistant prolactinomas, BIM-23206 and SOM230 were ineffective.
  • Cabergoline and BIM-23A760 produced a partial inhibition of PRL secretion (19+/-6 and 21+/-3% respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: Although the SSTRs are expressed in prolactinomas, the somatostatinergic ligands analyzed do not appear to be highly effective in suppressing PRL.
  • D2DR remains the primary target for effective treatment of prolactinomas.

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  • (PMID = 18426817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BIM 23926; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Ligands; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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27. Pandey P, Ojha BK, Mahapatra AK: Pediatric pituitary adenoma: a series of 42 patients. J Clin Neurosci; 2005 Feb;12(2):124-7
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  • [Title] Pediatric pituitary adenoma: a series of 42 patients.
  • Pituitary adenomas are uncommon in childhood.
  • This report describes the presentation, endocrinological profile, management and outcome of 42 children with pituitary adenomas.
  • Amongst the functioning tumors, there were 20 patients (47.6%) with prolactinomas, 11 patients (26.2%) with Cushing's disease and nine patients (21.4%) with growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas.
  • Of these, 89% of the children with GH-secreting tumors and 100% of the children with Cushing's disease achieved remission.
  • We conclude that the transsphenoidal approach is effective and safe in surgery for pituitary adenomas in children and is the procedure of choice if there is no contraindication.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Pituitary Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15749410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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28. Popovic V: Are there alternative tests for diagnosis of acromegaly? J Endocrinol Invest; 2005;28(11 Suppl International):73-4
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  • Acromegaly is a disfiguring and disabling illness, in which by definition, the disorder is caused by a pituitary GH-secreting adenoma resulting in high circulating levels of GH and IGF-I.
  • The clinical features of acromegaly include those of GH and IGF-I on tissues and the effects of the pituitary tumor itself.
  • [MeSH-minor] Glucose Tolerance Test. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Pituitary Neoplasms. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone

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  • (PMID = 16625850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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29. Livadas S, Hadjidakis DJ, Argyropoulou MI, Stamatelatou M, Kelekis D, Raptis SA: Disappearance of a growth hormone secreting macro adenoma during long-term somatostatin analogue administration and recurrence following somatostatin withdrawal. Hormones (Athens); 2006 Jan-Mar;5(1):57-63
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  • [Title] Disappearance of a growth hormone secreting macro adenoma during long-term somatostatin analogue administration and recurrence following somatostatin withdrawal.
  • Acromegaly is caused by excessive growth hormone secretion, usually from a pituitary adenoma.
  • We are aware of only three reported cases of complete shrinkage of a pituitary adenoma after long-term analogue administration.
  • However in these cases, the reduction in the dimension of the adenoma was obtained with the everyday use of somatostatin analogues and not with the newer longer acting formulations.
  • We report a patient in whom long term (62 months) lanreotide-L.A.R administration resulted in complete disappearance of a growth hormone secreting pituitary macroadenoma, followed by recurrence of the adenoma six months post therapy discontinuation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Peptides, Cyclic / administration & dosage. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16728386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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30. Basiak A, Bolanowski M, Wasikowa R, Noczyńska A, Bednorz W: [Incidentaloma in a 16 years old girl -- 2 year observation]. Endokrynol Diabetol Chor Przemiany Materii Wieku Rozw; 2006;12(2):145-8
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  • The authors present a 16-year-old girl who was admitted to the clinic because of amenorrhoea and an increased growth velocity during the last year.
  • The MRI examination of the hypophysis proved a hypophyseal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16813722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-625X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia, diabetologia i choroby przemiany materii wieku rozwojowego : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Endokrynologów Dziecięcych
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Diabetol Chor Przemiany Materii Wieku Rozw
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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31. Tang BN, Levivier M, Heureux M, Wikler D, Massager N, Devriendt D, David P, Dumarey N, Corvilain B, Goldman S: 11C-methionine PET for the diagnosis and management of recurrent pituitary adenomas. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2006 Feb;33(2):169-78
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  • [Title] 11C-methionine PET for the diagnosis and management of recurrent pituitary adenomas.
  • PURPOSE: The detection of recurrent pituitary adenoma by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rendered uncertain by the tissue remodelling that follows surgery or radiotherapy.
  • We aimed to evaluate the contribution of PET with 11C-methionine (MET-PET) in the detection and management of recurrent pituitary adenoma.
  • METHODS: Thirty-three patients with pituitary adenoma were evaluated postoperatively by MET-PET, either because of biological evidence of active residual tumour or because of MRI demonstration of non-functional adenoma growth.
  • We studied 24 secreting adenomas and nine non-functional adenomas.
  • In these two cases, failure of MET-PET to reveal the adenoma was attributable to concomitant inhibitory therapy.
  • The sensitivity of MET-PET and MRI varied as a function of the tumour type: all non-functional adenomas were localised by both modalities, while MET-PET detected all adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenomas whereas MRI depicted only one of these eight lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: We suggest that MET-PET is a sensitive technique complementary to MRI for the detection of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbon Radioisotopes. Methionine. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16228237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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32. Nishioka H, Haraoka J: Biochemical cure of acromegaly after transsphenoidal surgery despite residual tumor on magnetic resonance imaging: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2008 Jul;48(7):311-3
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  • A 52-year-old acromegalic woman underwent transsphenoidal removal of a pituitary macroadenoma.
  • The histological diagnosis was somatotroph cell adenoma with fibrous bodies.
  • Biochemical cure may not reflect total removal of the tumor, particularly if the growth hormone secretory activity of the residual tumor is low.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone / blood. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Pituitary Function Tests. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18654051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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33. Meyer S, Ipek M, Keth A, Minnemann T, von Mach MA, Weise A, Ittner JR, Nawroth PP, Plöckinger U, Stalla GK, Tuschy U, Weber MM, Kann PH, German KIMS Board, German KIMS Pharmacogenetics Study Group: Short stature and decreased insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)/growth hormone (GH)-ratio in an adult GH-deficient patient pointing to additional partial GH insensitivity due to a R179C mutation of the growth hormone receptor. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2007 Aug;17(4):307-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Short stature and decreased insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)/growth hormone (GH)-ratio in an adult GH-deficient patient pointing to additional partial GH insensitivity due to a R179C mutation of the growth hormone receptor.
  • OBJECTIVE: Genetic factors play an expanding role in understanding growth hormone (GH) disorders, therefore the German KIMS Pharmacogenetics Study was initiated with the aim of genotyping various GH-/IGF-I-axis-related genes of GH-deficient adult patients to investigate genotype:phenotype relationships and response to GH therapy.
  • For further endocrine evaluation, five pituitary stimulation tests (arginine) of this patient were statistically compared to stimulation tests (arginine) of ten GH-deficient control patients, retrospectively.
  • Statistical analysis revealed significant decreased IGF-I/GH(0) ratio (p=0.004) and IGF-I/GH(max) ratio (p=0.001) of the index patient compared to the control patients, implying growth hormone resistance of the index patient at the level of the GHR, according to the detected R179C mutation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study reports on the unusual case of a patient with mild short stature, who acquired GHD in late adulthood due to a non-secreting pituitary adenoma and get additionally diagnosed for pre-existing growth hormone insensitivity due to a formerly in two short statured patients described, single, heterozygous, non-synonymous mutation in the GHR.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Disorders / blood. Growth Disorders / genetics. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / deficiency. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Point Mutation. Receptors, Somatotropin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17462934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6374
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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34. Debono M, Newell-Price J: New formulations and approaches in the medical treatment of acromegaly. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2010 Aug;17(4):350-5
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  • Newer longer-acting somatostatin analogues are in development and combination regimes with the growth hormone receptor antagonist, pegvisomant, given at more cost-effective weekly doses show promising results.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / trends. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20502324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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35. Gołkowski F, Buziak-Bereza M, Stefańska A, Trofimiuk M, Pantofliński J, Huszno B, Czepko R, Adamek D: [A case of GH and TSH secreting pituitary macroadenoma]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(2):106-8
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  • [Title] [A case of GH and TSH secreting pituitary macroadenoma].
  • A case of GH and TSH secreting pituitary macroadenoma is reported.
  • A 45-year-old female presented clinical features of acromegaly (the abnormal growth of the hands and feet, with lower jaw protrusion), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nodular goiter and hyperthyroidism of unclear origin.
  • NMR pituitary imaging revealed intra and extrasellar tumor.
  • Histological and immunohistochemical examination of the tissue obtained at transsphenoidal surgery showed GH and TSH secreting adenoma.
  • The very low plasma levels of TSH and free thyroid hormones after surgery and immunohistochemical examination suggest central hyperthyroidism due to TSH secreting pituitary tumor (thyrotropinoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Chromophobe / secretion. Adenoma, Chromophobe / surgery. Growth Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / diagnosis. Acromegaly / etiology. Acromegaly / surgery. Female. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / blood. Hyperthyroidism / etiology. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16967720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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36. Chesnokova V, Melmed S: Pituitary senescence: the evolving role of Pttg. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Sep 15;326(1-2):55-9
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  • [Title] Pituitary senescence: the evolving role of Pttg.
  • Despite the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas they are invariably benign, indicative of unique intrinsic mechanisms controlling pituitary cell proliferation.
  • Here we discuss prospective mechanisms underlying senescence-associated molecular pathways activated in benign pituitary adenomas.
  • Both deletion and over-expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene (Pttg) promote chromosomal instability and aneuploidy.
  • Abundant PTTG in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas also triggers p21-dependent senescence.
  • Pituitary p21 may therefore safeguard against further chromosomal instability by constraining pituitary tumor growth.
  • These observations point to senescence as a target for effective therapy for both tumor silencing and growth restraint towards development of pituitary malignancy.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20153804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA075979-11A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075979; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075979-11A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS185500; NLM/ PMC2906651
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37. Lau SL, McGrath S, Evain-Brion D, Smith R: Clinical and biochemical improvement in acromegaly during pregnancy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Mar;31(3):255-61
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  • Numerous case reports of pregnancy in acromegaly exist, however detailed descriptions of changes in placental and pituitary GH and IGF-I throughout gestation are rare.
  • A 19-yr-old female presented to this institution with signs and symptoms of a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Human Growth Hormone / analysis. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Placenta / chemistry. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / physiopathology. Pregnancy Outcome. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 18401209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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38. Vazquez-Martinez R, Martinez-Fuentes AJ, Pulido MR, Jimenez-Reina L, Quintero A, Leal-Cerro A, Soto A, Webb SM, Sucunza N, Bartumeus F, Benito-Lopez P, Galvez-Moreno MA, Castaño JP, Malagon MM: Rab18 is reduced in pituitary tumors causing acromegaly and its overexpression reverts growth hormone hypersecretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;93(6):2269-76
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  • [Title] Rab18 is reduced in pituitary tumors causing acromegaly and its overexpression reverts growth hormone hypersecretion.
  • OBJECTIVE: Herein we investigated the role of Rab18, which negatively regulates hormone secretion by interacting with secretory granules, in relation to the altered functioning of tumoral pituitary somatotropes causing acromegaly.
  • PATIENTS: A total of 18 patients diagnosed with pituitary tumors causing acromegaly (nine patients) or nonfunctioning adenomas (nine patients) underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery.
  • RESULTS: We found that somatotropinoma cells are characterized by a high secretory activity concomitantly with a remarkably reduced Rab18 expression (15%) and protein content levels (30%), as compared with cells from nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas derived from patients with normal or reduced GH plasma levels (100%).
  • Furthermore, immunoelectron microscopy revealed that Rab18 association with the surface of GH-containing secretory granules was significantly lower in somatotropes from acromegalies than nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. rab GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18349058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RAB18 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; EC 3.6.1.- / rab GTP-Binding Proteins
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39. Toledo RA, Lourenço DM Jr, Liberman B, Cunha-Neto MB, Cavalcanti MG, Moyses CB, Toledo SP, Dahia PL: Germline mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene in familial somatotropinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 May;92(5):1934-7
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  • CONTEXT: Acromegaly is usually sporadic, but familial cases occur in association with several familial pituitary tumor syndromes.
  • Recently mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene were associated with familial pituitary adenoma predisposition.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the status of AIP in a pituitary tumor predisposition family.
  • This finding increases the spectrum of molecular defects that can give rise to pituitary adenoma susceptibility.
  • Establishment of genotype-phenotype correlations in AIP mutant tumors will determine whether AIP screening can be used as a tool for clinical surveillance and genetic counseling of families with pituitary tumor predisposition.
  • [MeSH-major] Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Proteins / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 May;92(5):1617-9 [17483376.001]
  • (PMID = 17341560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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40. Salgado LR, Fragoso MC, Knoepfelmacher M, Machado MC, Domenice S, Pereira MA, de Mendonça BB: Ectopic ACTH syndrome: our experience with 25 cases. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Nov;155(5):725-33
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  • High dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST), desmopressin test, GHRP-6 test, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test, IPSS, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (111)In-pentetreotide scintigraphy were revised.

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  • (PMID = 17062889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligopeptides; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 87616-84-0 / growth hormone releasing hexapeptide; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; ENR1LLB0FP / Deamino Arginine Vasopressin
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41. Takei M, Suzuki M, Kajiya H, Ishii Y, Tahara S, Miyakoshi T, Egashira N, Takekoshi S, Sanno N, Teramoto A, Osamura RY: Immunohistochemical detection of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes 2A and 5 in pituitary adenoma from acromegalic patients: good correlation with preoperative response to octreotide. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(4):208-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes 2A and 5 in pituitary adenoma from acromegalic patients: good correlation with preoperative response to octreotide.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Receptors, Somatostatin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17987403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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42. Pickett CA: Update on the medical management of pituitary adenomas. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2005 May;5(3):178-85
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  • [Title] Update on the medical management of pituitary adenomas.
  • The medical treatment of pituitary adenomas has changed significantly over the past decade.
  • Pharmacologic therapy for prolactinomas in the form of dopamine agonists has been available since the 1970s, and somatostatin analogues for treatment of growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas were introduced in the 1980s.
  • This article highlights some of these evolving new ideas and approaches to the pharmacologic management of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Growth Hormone / metabolism. History, 20th Century. Humans. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 15865883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-4042
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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43. Davis JR, McNeilly JR, Norris AJ, Pope C, Wilding M, McDowell G, Holland JP, McNeilly AS: Fetal gonadotrope cell origin of FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma - insight into human pituitary tumour pathogenesis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Nov;65(5):648-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fetal gonadotrope cell origin of FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma - insight into human pituitary tumour pathogenesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of human pituitary adenomas remains unclear, but we report a case of FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma whose monohormonal phenotype suggests it was of fetal origin.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Endocrine studies were performed before and after curative surgery, with assessment of tumour hormone secretion in vitro, and immunostaining of tumour tissue for a series of gonadotrope proteins.
  • Human fetal pituitary tissue contained FSH-only cells at 18 weeks gestation, whereas normal adult pituitary tissue contained only bihormonal gonadotropes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We propose that this pituitary adenoma represents an indolent tumour of monohormonal fetal gonadotrope cells that originated early in gestation.
  • Pituitary tumours may therefore arise from abnormal persistence of fetal cell types, with extremely slow growth over many years until reaching a size threshold to generate an endocrine syndrome.
  • Understanding fetal pituitary architecture and function may be more informative for new insights into pituitary tumour pathogenesis than classical theories of cancer biology that invoke unrestrained cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / embryology. Gonadotrophs / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / embryology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Estradiol / blood. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / analysis. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / secretion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Immunoradiometric Assay / methods. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / embryology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / secretion. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / blood. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / embryology. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / etiology. Tissue Culture Techniques

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  • (PMID = 17054468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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44. Isidro ML, Castro JA, Penín M, Armenta J, Cordido F: The choice of therapy in acromegaly: results of treatment at a tertiary care hospital. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2008 Dec;29(6):1038-44
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  • RESULTS: In 73.0% of the patients, acromegaly was due to a pituitary macroadenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Not all centres obtain the results reported in the literature in terms of disease control and morbidity after surgical treatment of growth hormone-secreting tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / therapy. Adenoma / complications. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19112390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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45. Vilar L, Czepielewsk MA, Naves LA, Rollin GA, Casulari LA, Coelho CE: Substantial shrinkage of adenomas cosecreting growth hormone and prolactin with use of cabergoline therapy. Endocr Pract; 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):396-402
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  • [Title] Substantial shrinkage of adenomas cosecreting growth hormone and prolactin with use of cabergoline therapy.
  • These patients received first line therapy with cabergoline that resulted not only in clinical improvement and normalization of growth hormone, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels but also in a substantial reduction in the size of their somatotroph macroadenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that cabergoline should be considered for medical treatment of adenomas cosecreting growth hormone and prolactin, even in the presence of large tumors with appreciable suprasellar extension, because substantial tumor shrinkage is possible with this therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Ergolines / administration & dosage. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17669717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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46. Acunzo J, Thirion S, Roche C, Saveanu A, Gunz G, Germanetti AL, Couderc B, Cohen R, Figarella-Branger D, Dufour H, Brue T, Enjalbert A, Barlier A: Somatostatin receptor sst2 decreases cell viability and hormonal hypersecretion and reverses octreotide resistance of human pituitary adenomas. Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 15;68(24):10163-70
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  • [Title] Somatostatin receptor sst2 decreases cell viability and hormonal hypersecretion and reverses octreotide resistance of human pituitary adenomas.
  • In human somatotroph adenomas, growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion can be inhibited by somatostatin analogues such as octreotide.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / drug therapy


47. O'Toole D, Saveanu A, Couvelard A, Gunz G, Enjalbert A, Jaquet P, Ruszniewski P, Barlier A: The analysis of quantitative expression of somatostatin and dopamine receptors in gastro-entero-pancreatic tumours opens new therapeutic strategies. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Dec;155(6):849-57
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  • New chimeric analogues simultaneously recognising sst(2) and sst(5) or sst(2) and D(2) have additive effects in inhibition of GH and prolactin secretion in pituitary adenomas.
  • In pancreatic GEP, high-level sst(3) expression was found in tumours with more active angiogenesis (higher microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (P < 0.03)).

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  • (PMID = 17132755.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5
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48. Nakashima M, Takano K, Matsuno A: Analyses of factors influencing the acute effect of octreotide in growth hormone-secreting adenomas. Endocr J; 2009;56(2):295-304
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  • [Title] Analyses of factors influencing the acute effect of octreotide in growth hormone-secreting adenomas.
  • Somatostatin analogues such as octreotide are used to treat active acromegalic patients by reducing serum growth hormone (GH) levels.
  • To elucidate factors influencing the acute effect of octreotide, we collected data from 56 patients with somatotroph adenoma from two institutions.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19164866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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49. Mehrazin M: Pituitary tumors in children: clinical analysis of 21 cases. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Apr;23(4):391-8
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  • [Title] Pituitary tumors in children: clinical analysis of 21 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the results of surgery for pituitary adenomas in children less than 18 years old.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was done of pituitary adenoma patients with the age of less than 18 years who were treated in the period 1979-2003 at Dr.
  • Eight patients (38.1%) had adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting tumors, 33.3% had prolactin-secreting tumors, 19% had growth hormone-secreting tumors, and 9.53% had nonfunctioning adenomas.
  • The biological behavior of pediatric pituitary adenomas seems more aggressive than adults' adenomas.
  • The chance of pituitary apoplexy in pediatric invasive pituitary adenoma is high.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / classification. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma. Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prolactinoma. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17143643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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50. Jeong SY, Lee SW, Lee HJ, Kang S, Seo JH, Chun KA, Cho IH, Won KS, Zeon SK, Ahn BC, Lee J: Incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT: a multicentre study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Dec;37(12):2334-43
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  • [Title] Incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT: a multicentre study.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and to investigate its clinical significance.
  • Quantification of pituitary metabolic activity was obtained by using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax).
  • Hormone assays and pituitary MRIs were performed to assess pituitary lesions.
  • RESULTS: Focally increased pituitary FDG uptake on PET/CT was found in 30 of 40,967 patients, accounting for an incidence of 0.073%.
  • Histological diagnosis was obtained in three patients and included two growth hormone-secreting adenomas and one non-functioning adenoma.
  • Hormone assays were performed on serum samples from 11 patients, 2 of whom were shown to have hypersecretion of pituitary hormone.
  • Abnormal MRI findings suggesting a pituitary mass were found in 18 of 19 cases (94.7%).
  • There were no cases diagnosed with metastasis to the pituitary gland during clinical follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Incidental pituitary FDG uptake was a very rare finding.
  • Cases with incidental pituitary FDG uptake were diagnosed primarily with clinically non-functioning adenomas, and there were also a few functioning adenomas.
  • Further evaluations, including hormone assays and pituitary MRI, are warranted when pituitary uptake is found on FDG PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Positron-Emission Tomography / statistics & numerical data. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data. Whole Body Imaging / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 20661556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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51. Valentinis L, Tuniz F, Mucchiut M, Vindigni M, Skrap M, Bergonzi P, Zanchin G: Hypnic headache secondary to a growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumour. Cephalalgia; 2009 Jan;29(1):82-4
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  • [Title] Hypnic headache secondary to a growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Headache Disorders, Primary / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18771490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2982
  • [Journal-full-title] Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cephalalgia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Segal-Lieberman G, Rubinfeld H, Glick M, Kronfeld-Schor N, Shimon I: Melanin-concentrating hormone stimulates human growth hormone secretion: a novel effect of MCH on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2006 May;290(5):E982-8
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  • [Title] Melanin-concentrating hormone stimulates human growth hormone secretion: a novel effect of MCH on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.
  • Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a 19-amino acid orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) hypothalamic peptide, is an important regulator of energy homeostasis.
  • Because pituitary hormones such as growth hormone (GH), ACTH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone affect body weight and composition, appetite, insulin sensitivity, and lipoprotein metabolism, we investigated whether MCH exerts direct effects on the human pituitary to regulate energy balance using dispersed human fetal pituitaries (21-22 wk gestation) and cultured GH-secreting adenomas.
  • We found that MCH receptor-1 (MCH-R1), but not MCH receptor-2, is expressed in both normal (fetal and adult) human pituitary tissues and in GH cell adenomas.
  • MCH (10 nM) stimulated GH release from human fetal pituitary cultures by up to 62% during a 4-h incubation (P < 0.05).
  • A milder, albeit significant, induction of GH secretion by MCH (20%) was seen in cultured GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • A comparable stimulation of GH secretion was seen when cultured mouse pituitary cells were treated with MCH.
  • Treatment of cultured GH adenoma cells with MCH (100 nM) induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation, suggesting activation of MCH-R1.
  • In aggregate, these data suggest that MCH may regulate pituitary GH secretion and imply a potential cross-talk mechanism between appetite-regulating neuropeptides and pituitary hormones.
  • [MeSH-major] Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Hypothalamic Hormones / pharmacology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / drug effects. Melanins / pharmacology. Pituitary Hormones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cells, Cultured. Fetus. Gene Expression / genetics. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / cytology. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16603725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1849
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypothalamic Hormones; 0 / MCHR1 protein, human; 0 / Melanins; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / neuropeptide EI; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67382-96-1 / melanin-concentrating hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
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53. Ewing I, Pedder-Smith S, Franchi G, Ruscica M, Emery M, Vax V, Garcia E, Czirják S, Hanzély Z, Kola B, Korbonits M, Grossman AB: A mutation and expression analysis of the oncogene BRAF in pituitary adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Mar;66(3):348-52
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  • [Title] A mutation and expression analysis of the oncogene BRAF in pituitary adenomas.
  • We speculated that this same gene may be either mutated at this site, or overexpressed, in pituitary adenomas.
  • DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: We sequenced 37 pituitary adenomas for a mutation at the V600E position.
  • In addition, we investigated B-Raf mRNA expression in normal pituitary (n = 5) and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) (n = 6) by semiquantitative PCR, and in a further 27 pituitary adenomas of various types and 10 normal pituitaries using real-time quantitative PCR.
  • B-Raf mRNA was overexpressed in pituitary adenomas compared to normal pituitary, and this was entirely due to overexpression in NFPAs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mutations previously seen in the majority of melanomas and a substantial minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas are not a frequent finding in pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. DNA Mutational Analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Pituitary Neoplasms / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / chemistry. Case-Control Studies. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / chemistry. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Prolactinoma / chemistry. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 17302867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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54. Yano S, Kawano T, Kudo M, Makino K, Nakamura H, Kai Y, Morioka M, Kuratsu J: Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach through the bilateral nostrils for pituitary adenomas. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2009 Jan;49(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach through the bilateral nostrils for pituitary adenomas.
  • The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach through the bilateral nostrils was evaluated for the treatment of pituitary adenoma.
  • In addition, neuronavigation and real-time hormone monitoring are used.
  • Tumor removal rate, endocrinological outcomes, and complications were retrospectively assessed in 194 patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent 213 procedures between December 2001 and March 2008.
  • Endocrinological remission was achieved in 20 of 26 growth hormone-secreting tumors of Knosp grades 0-2, 16 of 17 microprolactinomas, and 6 of 9 cases of pure Cushing's disease.
  • Postoperative complications were cerebrospinal fluid leakage in 9 cases, visual worsening in 5, anterior pituitary insufficiency in 5, and permanent diabetes insipidus in 2.
  • The use of neuronavigation or intraoperative hormone monitoring leads to improved surgical results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / etiology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Female. Humans. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Neuronavigation. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Prolactinoma / surgery. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Sphenoid Bone / surgery. Subdural Effusion / etiology. Vision Disorders / etiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19168995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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55. Hofstetter CP, Mannaa RH, Mubita L, Anand VK, Kennedy JW, Dehdashti AR, Schwartz TH: Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. Neurosurg Focus; 2010 Oct;29(4):E6
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  • [Title] Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECT: The aim of this study was to determine the preoperative predictors of the extent of resection and endocrinological remission following endonasal endoscopic removal of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Endocrinological remission was defined as normal insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) serum levels and either a nadir GH level of < 0.4 ng/ml after an oral glucose load or a basal GH serum level < 1 ng/ml.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A purely endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal adenoma resection leads to a high rate of gross-total tumor resection and endocrinological remission in acromegalic patients, even those harboring macroadenomas with wide suprasellar extension.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Endoscopy. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Postoperative Period. Preoperative Period. Remission Induction. Sphenoid Bone. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20887131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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56. Teshima T, Hara Y, Takekoshi S, Teramoto A, Osamura RY, Tagawa M: Expression of genes related to corticotropin production and glucocorticoid feedback in corticotroph adenomas of dogs with Cushing's disease. Domest Anim Endocrinol; 2009 Jan;36(1):3-12
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  • Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs.
  • In this study, we examined gene expression related to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production and secretion, and the negative feedback by glucocorticoids in canine corticotroph adenoma.
  • In order to investigate the alteration of gene expression between corticotroph adenoma and normal corticotrophic cells, ACTH-positive cells in the anterior lobe were microdissected using a laser-capture microdissection system, and mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD) type 1 and type 2 were determined using real-time RT-PCR.
  • POMC, CRHR1, and 11HSD2 mRNA levels in corticotroph adenoma were greater than those in normal corticotrophic cells (POMC, 5.5-fold; CRHR1, 4.9-fold; 11HSD2, 4.2-fold, P<0.01, respectively).
  • MR and 11HSD1 mRNA levels in corticotroph adenoma were lower than those in normal corticotrophic cells (MR, 2.2-fold; 11HSD1, 2.9-fold, P<0.01, respectively).
  • GR mRNA levels did not differ between corticotroph adenoma and normal corticotrophic cells.
  • These changes in gene expression may have a role in the growth of canine corticotroph adenoma, and help elucidate the pathophysiology of dogs with Cushing's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / veterinary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Dog Diseases / genetics. Glucocorticoids / physiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / veterinary. Pituitary Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / genetics. Animals. Dogs. Feedback, Physiological. Female. Gene Expression / genetics. Male. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics. Receptors, Mineralocorticoid / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18818046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0054
  • [Journal-full-title] Domestic animal endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 0 / Receptors, Mineralocorticoid; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
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57. Barahona MJ, Sojo L, Wägner AM, Bartumeus F, Oliver B, Cano P, Webb SM: Determinants of neurosurgical outcome in pituitary tumors. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Oct;28(9):787-94
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  • [Title] Determinants of neurosurgical outcome in pituitary tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: Neurosurgery is one of the main therapies for pituitary tumors; optimising outcome is highly desirable for the patient and the health system.
  • We have analysed predictors of outcome in surgically treated pituitary adenomas operated in this centre.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A total of 289 patients underwent neurosurgery for a pituitary tumor, by the same two neurosurgeons, between 1982 and 2001.
  • Hormonally, PRL-secretion by the tumor was a predictor of poor prognosis (OR 3.29 for cure of non-PRL-secreting tumors, p=0.005), as was tumor size (OR 0.45 for cure of macroadenomas, p=0.005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: PRL secretion, tumor size and operation date are the main predictors of neurosurgical outcome in pituitary tumors, the latter suggesting that neurosurgical experience plays an important role.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Morbidity. Radiography. Regression Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16370556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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58. Kepron C, Cusimano M, Pollanen MS: Fatal hemorrhage following trans--sphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma: a case report and review of the literature. Forensic Sci Med Pathol; 2010 Dec;6(4):282-7
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  • [Title] Fatal hemorrhage following trans--sphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • A 58-year-old woman with acromegaly developed massive epistaxis 7 days following trans-sphenoidal resection of a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Arteritis / etiology. Carotid Artery, Internal / surgery. Epistaxis / etiology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Postoperative Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20306333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-2891
  • [Journal-full-title] Forensic science, medicine, and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Forensic Sci Med Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Sue M, Yoshihara A, Okubo Y, Ishikawa M, Ando Y, Hiroi N, Shibuya K, Yoshino G: A case of juvenile acromegaly that was initially diagnosed as severe congestive heart failure from acromegaly-induced dilated cardiomyopathy. Intern Med; 2010;49(19):2117-21
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  • Acromegaly is characterized by chronic hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) and is associated with increased mortality rate because of the potential complications such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, or malignancy, which are probably caused by the long-term exposure of tissues to excess GH, for at least 10 years, before diagnosis and treatment.
  • Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed microadenoma.
  • After the successful transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma, the level of GH was normalized.
  • We report a case of a patient with juvenile acromegaly who was diagnosed with severe cardiac failure at the time of diagnosis and failed to recover cardiac function even after the successful resection of the pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Young Adult


60. Casarini AP, Pinto EM, Jallad RS, Giorgi RR, Giannella-Neto D, Bronstein MD: Dissociation between tumor shrinkage and hormonal response during somatostatin analog treatment in an acromegalic patient: preferential expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 3. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Oct;29(9):826-30
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  • SSTR2 and SSTR5 are usually expressed in GH-secreting pituitary tumors, and both SA bind preferentially to SSTR2 and, to a lesser extent, to SSTR5.
  • Subsequently, he underwent pituitary surgery and expression of SSTR in the removed tumor was performed by real time RT-PCR by the 2-deltaCt method, using GAPDH as internal control.
  • The low affinity of LAN and OCT for this SSTR subtype could be compensated by its high expression in this GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Pituitary Gland / diagnostic imaging. Radiography. Remission Induction / methods

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  • (PMID = 17114915.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0G3DE8943Y / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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61. Daly AF, Vanbellinghen JF, Khoo SK, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Naves LA, Guitelman MA, Murat A, Emy P, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Tamburrano G, Raverot G, Barlier A, De Herder W, Penfornis A, Ciccarelli E, Estour B, Lecomte P, Gatta B, Chabre O, Sabaté MI, Bertagna X, Garcia Basavilbaso N, Stalldecker G, Colao A, Ferolla P, Wémeau JL, Caron P, Sadoul JL, Oneto A, Archambeaud F, Calender A, Sinilnikova O, Montañana CF, Cavagnini F, Hana V, Solano A, Delettieres D, Luccio-Camelo DC, Basso A, Rohmer V, Brue T, Bours V, Teh BT, Beckers A: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene mutations in familial isolated pituitary adenomas: analysis in 73 families. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 May;92(5):1891-6
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  • [Title] Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene mutations in familial isolated pituitary adenomas: analysis in 73 families.
  • CONTEXT: An association between germline aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene mutations and pituitary adenomas was recently shown.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the frequency of AIP gene mutations in a large cohort of patients with familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA).
  • RESULTS: Seventy-three FIPA families were identified, with 156 patients with pituitary adenomas; the FIPA cohort was evenly divided between families with homogeneous and heterogeneous tumor expression.
  • Somatotropinomas predominated among FIPA families with AIP mutations, but mixed GH/prolactin-secreting tumors, prolactinomas, and nonsecreting adenomas were also noted.
  • Although pituitary tumors occurring in association with AIP mutations are predominantly somatotropinomas, other tumor types are also seen.
  • Further study of the impact of AIP mutations on protein expression and activity is necessary to elucidate their role in pituitary tumorigenesis in FIPA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Gene Frequency. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation / physiology. Prolactinoma / genetics. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Prolactinoma / pathology


62. Melmed S: Medical progress: Acromegaly. N Engl J Med; 2006 Dec 14;355(24):2558-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly. Adenoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Human Growth Hormone / physiology. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Mar 22;356(12):1275; author reply 1275-6 [17378103.001]
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Mar 22;356(12):1274; author reply 1275-6 [17377171.001]
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Mar 22;356(12):1274-5; author reply 1275-6 [17380585.001]
  • [ErratumIn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 22;356(8):879
  • (PMID = 17167139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 75979
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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63. Lee EJ, Ahn JY, Noh T, Kim SH, Kim TS, Kim SH: Tumor tissue identification in the pseudocapsule of pituitary adenoma: should the pseudocapsule be removed for total resection of pituitary adenoma? Neurosurgery; 2009 Mar;64(3 Suppl):ons62-9; discussion ons69-70
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  • [Title] Tumor tissue identification in the pseudocapsule of pituitary adenoma: should the pseudocapsule be removed for total resection of pituitary adenoma?
  • OBJECTIVE: The microsurgical pseudocapsule can be found in the transition zone between an adenoma and the surrounding normal pituitary tissue.
  • Furthermore, we evaluated the remission rate, the changes in pituitary function, and the recurrence rate after intensive resection of the pseudocapsule.
  • METHODS: In 616 patients with pituitary adenomas (Hardy Types I-III) over a period of 14 years, we introduced intensive resection of the microsurgical pseudocapsule to achieve complete tumor removal.
  • A combined pituitary function test and radiological study were performed on the patients before surgery, 1 year after surgery, and at subsequent 1.5-year intervals 2 to 13 years postoperatively.
  • The presence of a pseudocapsule was slightly more frequent in prolactin-secreting tumors (70.9%) than in growth hormone-secreting (55.0%) and adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting (40.0%) tumors.
  • In the 243 patients of the total resection group who underwent combined pituitary function tests more than 2 times after surgery, the surgical remission rate was 99.1% in clinically nonfunctional tumors, 88% in growth hormone-secreting, 70.6% in prolactin-secreting, and 100% in adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting tumors.
  • There was no statistical difference in improvement or deterioration of pituitary function according to the existence or absence of the pseudocapsule.
  • These results indicate that intensive resection of the pseudocapsule could result in a higher remission rate without deteriorating pituitary function.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Microsurgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Pituitary Function Tests. Postoperative Period. Prolactinoma / surgery. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19240574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Koutourousiou M, Seretis A, Kontogeorgos G: Intra-sellar schwannoma co-existing with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Dec;151(12):1693-7
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  • [Title] Intra-sellar schwannoma co-existing with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We present a unique example of an intra-sellar schwannoma co-existing with a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Histopathology demonstrated the presence of a GH-secreting adenoma as well as a schwannoma at the periphery of the adenoma.
  • Follow-up monitoring showed no evidence of recurrence of the adenoma two years after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of an intra-sellar schwannoma co-existing with a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Sella Turcica / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19350200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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65. Castinetti F, Nagai M, Morange I, Dufour H, Caron P, Chanson P, Cortet-Rudelli C, Kuhn JM, Conte-Devolx B, Regis J, Brue T: Long-term results of stereotactic radiosurgery in secretory pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Sep;94(9):3400-7
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  • [Title] Long-term results of stereotactic radiosurgery in secretory pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine long-term efficacy and adverse effects of SR in secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Target volume and initial hormone levels were significant predictive factors of remission in univariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SR is an effective and safe primary or adjunctive treatment in selected patients with secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / surgery. Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies


66. Khoo SK, Pendek R, Nickolov R, Luccio-Camelo DC, Newton TL, Massie A, Petillo D, Menon J, Cameron D, Teh BT, Chan SP: Genome-wide scan identifies novel modifier loci of acromegalic phenotypes for isolated familial somatotropinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):1057-63
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  • Isolated familial somatotropinoma (IFS) accounts for 18% of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) cases.
  • Recently, germline mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene (AIP) have been found in families with pituitary adenoma predisposition, FIPA, and IFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Genetic Loci. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Family. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genome-Wide Association Study. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Lod Score. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Phenotype. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19443539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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67. Bolanowski M, Kos-Kudła B, Rzeszutko M, Marciniak M, Zatońska K: [Five year remission of GHRH secreting bronchial neuroendocrine tumor with symptoms of acromegaly. Utility of chromogranin A in the monitoring of the disease]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jan-Feb;57(1):32-6
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  • [Title] [Five year remission of GHRH secreting bronchial neuroendocrine tumor with symptoms of acromegaly. Utility of chromogranin A in the monitoring of the disease].
  • Acromegaly is usually caused by excess GH (growth hormone) secretion by pituitary adenoma.
  • Extremely rare (< 1% of cases) acromegaly can be a result of ectopic GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone) secretion by bronchial tubes, lung, pancreatic or intestinal tumor.
  • The diagnosis of acromegaly in 61-year old woman was based on typical clinical picture and elevated GH and IGF-1(insulin-like growth factor-1) levels.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) images revealed no tumor in the pituitary but only the pituitary enlargement.
  • Currently, 5 year after surgery, acromegaly is still in the remission, as the normal levels of GH, IGF-1, chromogranin A and normal chest and pituitary images confirm.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bronchial Neoplasms / secretion. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Chromogranin A / blood. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / diagnosis. Acromegaly / etiology. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Growth Hormone / blood. Hormones, Ectopic / blood. Humans. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 16575760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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68. Sheehan JM, Douds GL, Hill K, Farace E: Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma in elderly patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Jun;150(6):571-4; discussion 574
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  • [Title] Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma in elderly patients.
  • BACKGROUND: As the population continues to age, the number of elderly patients with symptomatic pituitary tumours will continue to increase.
  • Little information exists as to the safety of pituitary surgery in this patient population.
  • Symptoms of mass effect were the presenting complaint in 72% of patients while 9% had documentation of growth on imaging studies.
  • Surgical removal of pituitary adenomas should be considered the mainstay of treatment in elderly patients in whom treatment is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Microsurgery / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Risk Factors


69. Rubinfeld H, Hadani M, Barkai G, Taylor JE, Culler MD, Shimon I: Cortistatin inhibits growth hormone release from human fetal and adenoma pituitary cells and prolactin secretion from cultured prolactinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2257-63
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  • [Title] Cortistatin inhibits growth hormone release from human fetal and adenoma pituitary cells and prolactin secretion from cultured prolactinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: The objective of the study was to assess the direct in vitro effects of CST on human pituitary hormone secretion.
  • MATERIALS: Primary cell cultures of human fetal (21-25 wk gestation) pituitary tissues and cultured hormone-secreting adenoma cells were used in this study.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Cell cultures were incubated with CST-14 or CST-17, somatostatin, GHRH, SSTR analogs, and ghrelin analogs, and hormone secretion was analyzed.
  • OUTCOME MEASURES: GH and prolactin (PRL) medium concentrations were tested by hormone assay, and SSTR mRNA was tested by RT-PCR.
  • RESULTS: CST-14 (10 nm) inhibited GH secretion by up to 65% in all fetal pituitary specimens after 4-h incubation (P < 0.05).
  • RT-PCR revealed the expression of both SSTR2 and SSTR5 in all GH-cell and mixed adenomas studied and all PRL-secreting adenomas studied, except for two of the CST-resistant prolactinomas, in which SSTR5 was absent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of in vitro CST suppression of human GH and PRL in cultured pituitary tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Fetus / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Neuropeptides / pharmacology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16595604.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / cortistatin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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70. Chanson P, Brochier S: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005;28(11 Suppl International):93-9
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  • [Title] Non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • The vast majority (>80%) of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are gonadotroph-cell adenomas, as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry.
  • The main problems raised by NFPA are mass effects problems, responsible for optic chiasm compression or deficient hormone secretion resulting from compression of normal anterior pituitary cells.
  • The strategy of observation only for patients with incidentally discovered pituitary adenomas may be appropriate, provided that the tumor is well-delimited, small, has no extension with risk of neurological or visual chiasm compression, and that a meticulous hormonal work-up has ruled out the possibility of a minimal hormonal hypersecretion.
  • Transsphenoidal surgery allows improvement in visual disturbances due to chiasmal syndrome in most patients, and sometimes, in pituitary function.
  • Prolonged administration of GnRH antagonist in a small number of patients with a secreting gonadotroph cell adenoma has been reported to reduce supranormal gonadotropins levels but not to produce any change in tumoral size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Pituitary Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prolactin / secretion. Radiosurgery. Radiotherapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16625856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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71. Barbieri F, Bajetto A, Stumm R, Pattarozzi A, Porcile C, Zona G, Dorcaratto A, Ravetti JL, Minuto F, Spaziante R, Schettini G, Ferone D, Florio T: Overexpression of stromal cell-derived factor 1 and its receptor CXCR4 induces autocrine/paracrine cell proliferation in human pituitary adenomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 15;14(16):5022-32
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  • [Title] Overexpression of stromal cell-derived factor 1 and its receptor CXCR4 induces autocrine/paracrine cell proliferation in human pituitary adenomas.
  • PURPOSE: Hypothalamic or locally produced growth factors and cytokines control pituitary development, functioning, and cell division.
  • We evaluated the expression of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1) and its receptor CXCR4 in human pituitary adenomas and normal pituitary tissues and their role in cell proliferation.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The expression of SDF1 and CXCR4 in 65 human pituitary adenomas and 4 human normal pituitaries was determined by reverse transcription-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and confocal immunofluorescence.
  • The proliferative effect of SDF1 was evaluated in eight fibroblast-free human pituitary adenoma cell cultures.
  • RESULTS: CXCR4 mRNA was expressed in 92% of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas (GHoma) and 81% of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), whereas SDF1 was identified in 63% and 78% of GHomas and NFPAs, respectively.
  • In normal tissues, CXCR4 and SDF1 were expressed only in a subset of anterior pituitary cells, with a lower expression of SDF1 compared with its cognate receptor.
  • CXCR4 and SDF1 were not confined to a specific cell population in the anterior pituitary but colocalized with discrete subpopulations of GH-, prolactin-, and adrenocorticorticotropic hormone-secreting cells.
  • In six of eight pituitary adenoma primary cultures, SDF1 induced a statistically significant increase in DNA synthesis that was prevented by the treatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or somatostatin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CXCR4 and SDF1 are overexpressed in human pituitary adenomas and CXCR4 activation may contribute to pituitary cell proliferation and, possibly, to adenoma development in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemokine CXCL12 / biosynthesis. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR4 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18698020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
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72. Kapoor S: Acromegaly. N Engl J Med; 2007 Mar 22;356(12):1274-5; author reply 1275-6
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  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Humans

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  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 14;355(24):2558-73 [17167139.001]
  • (PMID = 17380585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. McClelland S 3rd, Higgins PD, Gerbi BJ, Orner JB, Hall WA: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas following microsurgical resection: safety and efficacy. Technol Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Jun;6(3):177-80
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  • [Title] Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas following microsurgical resection: safety and efficacy.
  • The treatment of pituitary adenomas following medical management has historically involved surgical excision or stereotactic radiosurgery, with the two modalities often utilized collectively.
  • However, there have been only a limited number of reports on the use of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • To enhance the existing knowledge regarding the safety and efficacy of this treatment modality, we describe our initial experience with FSRT for residual pituitary adenomas following microsurgical resection.
  • From 1999 to 2005, 14 patients (7F, 7M) with residual pituitary adenomas (7 nonsecretory, 2 growth hormone secreting, 2 prolactin secreting, 2 thyrotropin secreting, 1 adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting) underwent FSRT.
  • These results demonstrate the efficacy and safety of FSRT for achieving long-term local tumor control for pituitary adenomas, further validating this technique as an appropriate treatment modality for residual adenomas following microsurgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Microsurgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 17535025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0346
  • [Journal-full-title] Technology in cancer research & treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Kitano M, Taneda M, Shimono T, Nakao Y: Extended transsphenoidal approach for surgical management of pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus. J Neurosurg; 2008 Jan;108(1):26-36
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  • [Title] Extended transsphenoidal approach for surgical management of pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus.
  • METHODS: During a 9-year period, 36 patients with pituitary adenomas extending into the cavernous sinus underwent tumor removal at Kinki University Hospital.
  • In eight (67%) of 12 patients with growth hormone-secreting adenomas, hormonal remission was achieved postoperatively.
  • These preliminary results may lead to a reevaluation of the role of surgery as the therapeutic strategy for invasive pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2008 Aug;109(2):362-3; author reply 363-4 [18671656.001]
  • (PMID = 18173307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Alarifi A, Alzahrani AS, Salam SA, Ahmed M, Kanaan I: Repeated remissions of Cushing's disease due to recurrent infarctions of an ACTH-producing pituitary macroadenoma. Pituitary; 2005;8(2):81-7
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  • [Title] Repeated remissions of Cushing's disease due to recurrent infarctions of an ACTH-producing pituitary macroadenoma.
  • Infarction of prolactin-secreting or growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas is not unusual.
  • However, Infarction of ACTH-secreting adenomas has rarely been reported.
  • Cyclical course of Cushing's syndrome alternating with adrenal insufficiency due to recurrent infarction of an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma has not been reported.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland showed that she had infarction of an ACTH-secreting macroadenoma.
  • Over the next 6 years, her disease ran a cyclical course characterized by periods of hypercortisolism alternating with adrenal insufficiency due to repeated episodes of infarctions of the ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma with corresponding changes in the pituitary adenoma on serial MRIs.
  • It also suggests that silent or subclinical infarction of pituitary adenomas is not uncommon and is probably under diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood supply. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Infarction / physiopathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 16195779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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76. Losa M, Gioia L, Picozzi P, Franzin A, Valle M, Giovanelli M, Mortini P: The role of stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jul;93(7):2546-52
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  • [Title] The role of stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • INTERVENTION: The patients were treated with SR for residual or recurrent GH-secreting adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Nov;4(11):592-3 [18762791.001]
  • (PMID = 18413424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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77. Mao ZG, Zhu YH, Tang HL, Wang DY, Zhou J, He DS, Lan H, Luo BN, Wang HJ: Preoperative lanreotide treatment in acromegalic patients with macroadenomas increases short-term postoperative cure rates: a prospective, randomised trial. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Apr;162(4):661-6
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  • CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with lanreotide before transsphenoidal surgery improves surgical cure rates in patients with GH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas.

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  • (PMID = 20061334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00993356
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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78. Yetkin DO, Boysan SN, Tiryakioglu O, Yalin AS, Kadioglu P: Forty month follow-up of persistent and difficultly controlled acromegalic patients treated with depot long acting somatostatin analog octreotide. Endocr J; 2007 Jun;54(3):459-64
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  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide long acting release (S-LAR) preparation on GH and IGF-1 serum concentrations and pituitary tumor size in patients with persistent and difficultly controlled acromegaly even after adjuvant irradiation and/or dopamine agonists.
  • Initially, pituitary adenoma volume was median: 1.18 ml [IQR: 0.08-3.50] and it shrank to 0.21 ml [IQR: 0-2.1] at 40 months (p = 0.08).
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm, Residual / drug therapy. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Comorbidity. Delayed-Action Preparations / adverse effects. Delayed-Action Preparations / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glucose Tolerance Test. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 17495423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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79. Salehi F, Kovacs K, Scheithauer BW, Cantelmi D, Horvath E, Lloyd RV, Cusimano M: Immunohistochemical expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in pituitary adenomas: a correlative study of tumor subtypes. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;18(1):5-13
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in pituitary adenomas: a correlative study of tumor subtypes.
  • OBJECTIVE: We investigated the correlation between immunohistochemical expression of the pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) and pituitary adenoma subtype.
  • METHODS: Pituitary adenomas (n = 89) were stained for PTTG using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method and a monoclonal PTTG antibody.
  • Reactivity was highest in growth hormone (GH) adenomas as compared with other tumors, including prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/alpha subunit, as well as adrenocorticotrophic hormone-secreting adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our finding that PTTG was differentially expressed in pituitary adenoma subtypes suggests a cell-specific function for PTTG.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Securin

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  • (PMID = 20106827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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80. Tateno T, Kato M, Tani Y, Oyama K, Yamada S, Hirata Y: Differential expression of somatostatin and dopamine receptor subtype genes in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumors and silent corticotroph adenomas. Endocr J; 2009;56(4):579-84
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  • [Title] Differential expression of somatostatin and dopamine receptor subtype genes in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumors and silent corticotroph adenomas.
  • Somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists are clinically used for medical therapy of functioning pituitary tumors, such as growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting tumors, however, their effects on ACTH-secreting tumors are controversial.
  • This study was aimed to determine whether somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtype (1-5) and dopamine receptor type 2 (D2R) are differentially expressed in pituitary tumors causing Cushing's disease (CD), silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA), and non-functioning pituitary tumor (NFT).
  • Tissue specimens were obtained from 35 pituitary tumors during transsphenoidal surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19318729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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81. Zada G, Lin N, Laws ER Jr: Patterns of extrasellar extension in growth hormone-secreting and nonfunctional pituitary macroadenomas. Neurosurg Focus; 2010 Oct;29(4):E4
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  • [Title] Patterns of extrasellar extension in growth hormone-secreting and nonfunctional pituitary macroadenomas.
  • OBJECT: Growth patterns of pituitary adenomas have been observed to vary by histopathological subtype.
  • The authors aimed to analyze variations in the patterns of extrasellar extension of nonfunctional macroadenomas (NFMAs) and growth hormone (GH)-secreting macroadenomas.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of data obtained in 75 patients who underwent transsphenoidal operations for histologically confirmed NFMAs (50 patients) and GH-secreting macroadenomas (25 patients) at the Brigham and Women's Hospital over an 18-month period.
  • RESULTS: The mean maximal tumor diameter in NFMAs and GH-secreting macroadenomas was 26 and 16 mm, respectively (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Substantial differences in extrasellar growth patterns were observed among varying histological subtypes of pituitary macroadenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20887129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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82. Chanson P, Salenave S: Acromegaly. Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2008;3:17
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  • Acromegaly is an acquired disorder related to excessive production of growth hormone (GH) and characterized by progressive somatic disfigurement (mainly involving the face and extremities) and systemic manifestations.
  • In the majority of cases, acromegaly is related to a pituitary adenoma, either purely GH-secreting (60%) or mixed.
  • In very rare cases, acromegaly is due to ectopic secretion of growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) responsible for pituitary hyperplasia.
  • The clinical diagnosis is confirmed biochemically by an increased serum GH concentration following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and by detection of increased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I).
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly. Human Growth Hormone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiography. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 18578866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 103
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2459162
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83. Schmid C, Goede DL, Hauser RS, Brändle M: Increased prevalence of high Body Mass Index in patients presenting with pituitary tumours: severe obesity in patients with macroprolactinoma. Swiss Med Wkly; 2006 Apr 15;136(15-16):254-8
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  • [Title] Increased prevalence of high Body Mass Index in patients presenting with pituitary tumours: severe obesity in patients with macroprolactinoma.
  • As opposed to ACTH- and GH-secreting adenoma, the mechanism by which macroprolactinoma causes obesity has not been fully understood.
  • METHODS: Data of patients with pituitary adenomas were collected retrospectively over a period of 20 years.
  • 399 patients with well-documented pituitary adenomas and information about pre-treatment body mass index (BMI), age, sex, and tumour type were analysed.
  • [MeSH-major] Obesity / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prolactinoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Adolescent. Adult. Body Mass Index. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16708311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-7860
  • [Journal-full-title] Swiss medical weekly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Swiss Med Wkly
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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84. Kim MS, Jang HD, Kim OL: Surgical results of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2009 May;45(5):271-4
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  • [Title] Surgical results of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively analyzed the surgical outcomes of 42 patients with growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma to evaluate the clinical manifestations and to determine which preoperative factors that significantly influence the remission.
  • METHODS: Forty-two patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma underwent transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) between 1995 and 2007.
  • For comparable radiological criteria, we classified parasellar growth into five grades according to the Knosp classification.
  • CONCLUSION: TSS is thought to be an effective primary treatment for GH-secreting pituitary adenomas according to the most recent criteria of cure.

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  • (PMID = 19516943.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693785
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cavernous sinus / Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma / Remission induction
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85. Brue T, Castinetti F, Lundgren F, Koltowska-Häggström M, Petrossians P, ACROSTUDY investigators: Which patients with acromegaly are treated with pegvisomant? An overview of methodology and baseline data in ACROSTUDY. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Nov;161 Suppl 1:S11-7
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  • [Title] Which patients with acromegaly are treated with pegvisomant? An overview of methodology and baseline data in ACROSTUDY.
  • Context Pegvisomant (Somavert, Pfizer Inc.) is the first and only available GH receptor antagonist.
  • ACROSTUDY is an international surveillance study that offers inclusion in a web-based registry to all patients with acromegaly treated with pegvisomant; it aims at monitoring long-term safety and efficacy of this compound.
  • Patients and methods This report summarizes the main baseline characteristics of this particular population of patients.
  • In February 2009, over 300 centres in 10 countries had contributed 792 patients.
  • A gradual increase in cumulative patient recruitment was observed since the launching of ACROSTUDY in 2004: from 116 patients in 2005, it steeply increased to 792 at the latest data freeze in February 2009.
  • At the time of enrolment, 91.8% of patients were already treated with pegvisomant but baseline was considered at the time of pegvisomant start.
  • IGF1 concentrations were measured at local laboratories.
  • Results Of all patients, 80% were reported to have had surgery and 33% to have received radiation therapy.
  • Of the 792 patients, 14% had received no prior medical treatment before pegvisomant start, 65.9% had received somatostatin analogues and 18.6% dopamine agonists.
  • Interestingly, 66.7% had received only pegvisomant at study start, while it was taken in association with dopamine agonists in 5.7%, with somatostatin analogues in 23.4% and with both types of agents in 3.8%.
  • Mean IGF1 at baseline was 522 ng/ml.
  • Conclusion Analysis of the baseline features of these patients treated with pegvisomant and reported in the ACROSTUDY database underscores the severity of the disease in this subset of the population of patients with acromegaly previously unresponsive to several medical, surgical or radiation treatment approaches.

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  • (PMID = 19684051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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86. Yin J, Su CB, Xu ZQ, Yang Y, Ma WB, Tao W, Yang Z, Xia XW: Effect of preoperative use of long-acting octreotide on growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma and transsphenoidal surgery. Chin Med Sci J; 2005 Mar;20(1):23-6
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  • [Title] Effect of preoperative use of long-acting octreotide on growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma and transsphenoidal surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether somatostatin analog octreotide long acting release (LAR) shrinks growth hormone (GH) secreting adenomas, and improves the results of subsequent transsphenoidal surgery.
  • METHODS: Seventeen previously untreated active acromegalic patients with pituitary adenomas were treated with LAR (30 mg intramuscular injection every 28 days) for 3 months prior to transsphenoidal surgery.
  • During operation, adenoma was soft in 15 cases, with the exception of 2 cases in which the soft tumor was divided by fibrous septa, but all tumor removal was smooth.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A short term administration of preoperative LAR may induce a significant decrease in GH-secretion level and adenoma volume.

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  • (PMID = 15844307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-9294
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. Sci. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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87. Clarke MJ, Erickson D, Castro MR, Atkinson JL: Thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg; 2008 Jul;109(1):17-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECT: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, representing < 2% of all pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with TSH-secreting or clinically silent TSH-immunostaining pituitary tumors among all pituitary adenomas followed at their institution between 1987 and 2003.
  • Of these, 10 patients had a history of clinical hyperthyroidism, of whom 7 had undergone ablative thyroid procedures (thyroid surgery/(131)I ablation) prior to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma.
  • Patients with TSH-secreting tumors were defined as in remission after surgery if they had no residual adenoma on imaging and had biochemical evidence of hypo-or euthyroidism.
  • On pathological analysis and immunostaining of the surgical specimen, 17 patients had samples that stained positively for TSH, 8 for alpha-subunit, 10 for growth hormone, 7 for prolactin, 2 for adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and 1 for follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone.
  • Eleven patients (61%) ultimately required thyroid hormone replacement therapy, and 5 (24%) required additional pituitary hormone replacement.
  • Of these, 2 patients required treatment for new anterior pituitary dysfunction as a complication of surgery, and 2 patients with preoperative partial anterior pituitary dysfunction developed complete panhypopituitarism.
  • The remainder had no change in pituitary function from their preoperative state.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary lesions are often delayed in diagnosis, are frequently macroadenomas and plurihormonal in terms of their pathological characteristics, have a heterogeneous clinical picture, and are difficult to treat.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 18590428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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88. Sidhaye A, Burger P, Rigamonti D, Salvatori R: Giant somatotrophinoma without acromegalic features: more "quiet" than "silent": case report. Neurosurgery; 2005 May;56(5):E1154; discussion E1154
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  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: "Silent" somatotrophinomas are very rare, typically large pituitary adenomas that present with mild or no acromegalic features despite positive immunostaining for growth hormone and autonomous (nonglucose-suppressible) growth hormone secretion.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We report a giant somatotrophinoma (7 cm in maximal diameter) in a young woman with 6 years of amenorrhea who had no clinical features of acromegaly despite frankly elevated serum insulin-like growth factor 1 level at the time of diagnosis.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed focal strong positive staining for growth hormone in only 10% of the surgical specimen.
  • As insulin-like growth factor 1 levels remained elevated, treatment with somatostatin analogue is being pursued.
  • CONCLUSION: This case represents one of the largest somatotrophinomas described to date, and it demonstrates that serum insulin-like growth factor 1 should be measured even in the absence of acromegalic features in patients presenting with apparently nonsecreting macroadenomas.
  • In addition to surgery and radiotherapy, somatostatin analogues may play an important role in controlling tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amenorrhea / etiology. Female. Growth Hormone / analysis. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15854264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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89. Takano K, Yasufuku-Takano J, Morita K, Mori S, Takei M, Osamura RY, Teramoto A, Fujita T: Evidence that PKA activity is constitutively activated in human GH-secreting adenoma cells in a patient with Carney complex harbouring a PRKAR1A mutation. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 May;70(5):769-75
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  • [Title] Evidence that PKA activity is constitutively activated in human GH-secreting adenoma cells in a patient with Carney complex harbouring a PRKAR1A mutation.
  • The basal PKA activity of somatotroph adenoma cells from CNC has not been evaluated because of a limited amount of available tissue.
  • Primary cultured adenoma cells were subjected to electrophysiological experiments to evaluate PKA signalling in individual cells.
  • RESULTS: GHRH did not increase the nonselective cation current or the voltage-gated calcium current in these adenoma cells, in contrast to nonadenomatous somatotroph cells in which these currents increase through the PKA pathway.
  • Application of a PKA inhibitor inhibited the basal currents in these adenoma cells, results that were not observed in nonadenomatous somatotrophs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that PKA is activated at the basal state in these adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / enzymology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Lentigo / enzymology. Lentigo / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / enzymology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 19178533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channels; 0 / Codon, Nonsense; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
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90. Ozbek M, Erdogan M, Akbal E, Gönülalan G: Disappearance of a GH secreting macroadenoma, during long-term somatostatin analogue administration. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Jul;117(7):309-11
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  • [Title] Disappearance of a GH secreting macroadenoma, during long-term somatostatin analogue administration.
  • Acromegaly is caused by excessive growth hormone secretion, usually from a pituitary adenoma.
  • A few cases have been reported in the literature, complete shrinkage of a pituitary GH secreting macroadenoma after long-term somatostatin analogue administration.
  • We report a patient in whom long term (60 months) octreotide-L.A.R administration resulted in complete disappearance of a growth hormone secreting pituitary macroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 18841538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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91. Norberg L, Johansson R, Rasmuson T: Pituitary adenomas in northern Sweden: a study on therapy choices and the risk of second primary tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 May;68(5):780-5
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas in northern Sweden: a study on therapy choices and the risk of second primary tumours.
  • OBJECTIVES: To present the incidence of pituitary adenomas in northern Sweden and to determine whether the incidence of second primary tumours differs from the incidence in the general population or might be related to radiotherapy.
  • PATIENTS: A total of 546 patients with pituitary adenomas were identified in the Cancer Registry of northern Sweden between 1958 and 2004.
  • Only patients with histopathological verification and/or endocrine activity of the adenoma and more than 12 months of follow-up were included, resulting in 376 patients in the study.
  • Forty patients had second primary tumours diagnosed more than 12 months after diagnosis of the pituitary adenoma (expected 42.6, SIR 0.94, 95% CI 0.67-1.28).
  • A significantly increased incidence of second primary tumours was seen in 42 men with GH-secreting adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No significant increase was found in the incidence of second primary tumours in general in patients with pituitary adenomas.
  • An increased incidence of second primary tumours was seen in men with GH-secreting adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17980004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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92. Nomikos P, Buchfelder M, Fahlbusch R: The outcome of surgery in 668 patients with acromegaly using current criteria of biochemical 'cure'. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Mar;152(3):379-87
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  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to illustrate the present role of transsphenoidal surgery as primary therapy in GH-secreting adenomas, and to compare the results concerning control of disease with previous series using older criteria of cure.

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  • (PMID = 15757854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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93. Okinaga H, Takano K, Hayashi S, Yasufuku-Takano J, Teramoto A, Fujita T: Mechanisms of TRH-induced GH release (paradoxical response) in human somatotroph adenoma cells. Endocr J; 2005 Dec;52(6):763-7
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  • [Title] Mechanisms of TRH-induced GH release (paradoxical response) in human somatotroph adenoma cells.
  • The mechanisms of paradoxical TRH response in human somatotroph adenoma cells were investigated using intracellular calcium measurement and static incubation assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16410670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channels; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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94. Machiavelli G, Cotignola J, Danilowicz K, Carbonara C, Paes de Lima A, Basso A, Bruno OD, Szijan I: Expression of p16(INK4A) gene in human pituitary tumours. Pituitary; 2008;11(1):71-5
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  • [Title] Expression of p16(INK4A) gene in human pituitary tumours.
  • Pituitary adenomas comprise 10-15% of primary intracranial tumours but the mechanisms leading to tumour development are yet to be clearly established.
  • We studied the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4A) gene expression at mRNA level in human pituitary adenomas.
  • Forty-six tumour specimens of different subtypes, 21 clinically non-functioning, 12 growth hormone-secreting, 6 prolactin-secreting, 6 adrenocorticotropin-secreting, and 1 thyrotropin-secreting tumours were studied.
  • All clinically non-functioning and most of the hormone-secreting tumours were macroadenomas (38/46).
  • The RT-PCR assay and electrophoresis of the PCR-products showed that p16(INK4A) mRNA was undetectable in: 62% of non-functioning, 8% of growth hormone-secreting, 17% of prolactin-secreting and 17% of adrenocorticotropin-secreting adenomas.
  • Within the non-functioning adenomas 63% were "null cell" and 37% were positive for some hormone, both subgroups showed similar percentage of cases with absence of p16(INK4A) mRNA.
  • Our results show that clinically non-functioning macroadenomas have impaired p16(INK4A) expression in a clearly higher proportion than any other pituitary tumour subtype investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18058237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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95. Raitila A, Georgitsi M, Karhu A, Tuppurainen K, Mäkinen MJ, Birkenkamp-Demtröder K, Salmenkivi K, Orntoft TF, Arola J, Launonen V, Vahteristo P, Aaltonen LA: No evidence of somatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations in sporadic endocrine neoplasia. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):901-6
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  • Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene were recently observed in patients with pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP).
  • Though AIP mutation-positive individuals with prolactin-, mixed growth hormone/prolactin-, and ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas as well as non-secreting pituitary adenomas have been reported, most mutation-positive patients have had growth hormone-producing adenomas diagnosed at relatively young age.
  • Pituitary adenomas are also component tumors of some familial endocrine neoplasia syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC).
  • Genes underlying MEN1 and CNC are rarely mutated in sporadic pituitary adenomas, but more often in other lesions contributing to these two syndromes.
  • Thus far, the occurrence of somatic AIP mutations has not been studied in endocrine tumors other than pituitary adenomas.
  • Here, we have analyzed 32 pituitary adenomas and 79 other tumors of the endocrine system for somatic AIP mutations by direct sequencing.
  • However, two out of nine patients with prolactin-producing adenoma were shown to harbor a Finnish founder mutation (Q14X) with a complete loss of the wild-type allele in the tumors.
  • The data also support the previous finding that somatic AIP mutations are not common in pituitary adenomas and suggest that such mutations are rare in other endocrine tumors as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation. Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17914118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
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96. Grottoli S, Celleno R, Gasco V, Pivonello R, Caramella D, Barreca A, Ragazzoni F, Pigliaru F, Alberti D, Ferrara R, Angeletti G: Efficacy and safety of 48 weeks of treatment with octreotide LAR in newly diagnosed acromegalic patients with macroadenomas: an open-label, multicenter, non-comparative study. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Dec;28(11):978-83
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  • The aim of the present multicentric, open-label, non-comparative study was to evaluate the role of octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR) as primary therapy for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas.
  • This study shows that octreotide LAR is effective in suppressing GH/IGF-I secretion and inducing tumor shrinkage in GH-secreting macroadenomas in a 48-week treatment.
  • Octreotide LAR could be used as primary therapy in patients harbouring large pituitary tumors, who are less likely to be cured by neurosurgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16483175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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97. Chan MR, Ziebert M, Maas DL, Chan PS: "My rings won't fit anymore". Ectopic growth hormone-secreting tumor. Am Fam Physician; 2005 May 1;71(9):1766-7
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  • [Title] "My rings won't fit anymore". Ectopic growth hormone-secreting tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion

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  • (PMID = 15887456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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98. Mantovani G, Lania AG, Bondioni S, Peverelli E, Pedroni C, Ferrero S, Pellegrini C, Vicentini L, Arnaldi G, Bosari S, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A: Different expression of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors: relationship with cell proliferation. Exp Cell Res; 2008 Jan 1;314(1):123-30
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  • [Title] Different expression of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors: relationship with cell proliferation.
  • The four regulatory subunits (R1A, R1B, R2A, R2B) of protein kinase A (PKA) are differentially expressed in several cancer cell lines and exert distinct roles in growth control.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of PKA regulatory subunits in non-PPNAD adrenocortical tumors causing ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and to test the impact of differential expression of these subunits on cell growth.
  • Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a defective expression of R2B in all cortisol-secreting adenomas (n=16) compared with the normal counterpart, while both R1A and R2A were expressed at high levels in the same tissues.
  • In conclusion, we propose that a high R1/R2 ratio favors the proliferation of well differentiated and hormone producing adrenocortical cells, while unbalanced expression of these subunits is not required for malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / enzymology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics. Hydrocortisone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17904549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4827
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 23583-48-4 / 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate; 41941-56-4 / 8-chloro-cyclic adenosine monophosphate; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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99. Burdman JA, Pauni M, Heredia Sereno GM, Bordón AE: Estrogen receptors in human pituitary tumors. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Aug;40(8):524-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estrogen receptors in human pituitary tumors.
  • The relationship between the presence of estrogen receptors in pituitary adenomas and the post surgical evolution of the patients in order to find another prognostic parameter for these tumors have been studied to improve the treatment selection.
  • Estrogen receptors were studied by immunocytochemistry in histological sections of paraffin embedded 42 pituitary adenomas.
  • As expected, the higher concentration (60%) was found in prolactin secreting adenomas, although we found estrogen receptors in one somatotroph and in one nonsecreting.
  • The results of this work suggest that the determination of estrogen receptors in pituitary tumors might help as a prognostic factor in these adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Adult. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prolactinoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18398784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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100. Swords FM, Monson JP, Besser GM, Chew SL, Drake WM, Grossman AB, Plowman PN: Gamma knife radiosurgery: a safe and effective salvage treatment for pituitary tumours not controlled despite conventional radiotherapy. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Dec;161(6):819-28
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  • [Title] Gamma knife radiosurgery: a safe and effective salvage treatment for pituitary tumours not controlled despite conventional radiotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the use of 'gamma knife' (GK) radiosurgery in 25 patients with pituitary adenomas not cured despite conventional therapy, including external beam radiotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients had previously received conventional radiotherapy for a mean of 11.8 years prior to receiving GK; 23 out of 25 had also undergone pituitary surgery on at least one occasion.
  • Seventeen had hyperfunctioning adenomas that still required medical therapy without an adequate biochemical control--ten somatotroph adenomas, six corticotroph adenomas and one prolactinoma, while eight patients had non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs).
  • Prior to GK, 72% of the patients were panhypopituitary, and 42% of the remainder have developed new anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies to date.

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  • (PMID = 19773368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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