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1. Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA: Our approach to follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;60(3):244-50
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  • [Title] Our approach to follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid.
  • Follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid are common; these include hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodules, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and follicular variants of papillary carcinoma.
  • In this review, we present our diagnostic approach based on our experience with the histological diagnosis of these tumours, which can help in appropriate clinical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16798933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 101
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860564
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2. Giorgadze TA, Baloch ZW, Pasha T, Zhang PJ, Livolsi VA: Lymphatic and blood vessel density in the follicular patterned lesions of thyroid. Mod Pathol; 2005 Nov;18(11):1424-31
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  • [Title] Lymphatic and blood vessel density in the follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.
  • The histologic distinction of follicular patterned lesions of thyroid, that is follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma can be extremely difficult.
  • The differential diagnostic criteria regarding nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma are subjective, resulting in high interobserver variability.
  • Although papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasizes mainly via lymphatic vessels, whereas follicular carcinoma spreads mostly hematogenously, there are no data regarding utility of objective quantitative criteria such as lymphatic and general blood vessel density for the differential diagnosis of these lesions.
  • In this study, 35 follicular patterned lesions of thyroid (14 follicular adenomas, 10 follicular carcinomas, and 11 of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas) were evaluated immunohistochemically.
  • There were no significant differences in the intra- and/or peritumoral general vessel densities, and peritumoral lymphatic vessel densities among follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In contrast, the intratumoral lymphatic vessel density was significantly higher in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma than in either follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma (34.63, 15.04, and 0.11 respectively; P<0.0001).
  • The results of the study show that intratumoral lymphatic vessel density may serve as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphangiogenesis / physiology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD31. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [Copyright] Modern Pathology (2005) 18, 1424-1431. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800452; published online 27 May 2005.
  • (PMID = 15920537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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3. Gombos K, Zele E, Kiss I, Varjas T, Puskás L, Kozma L, Juhász F, Kovács E, Szanyi I, Ember I: Characterization of microarray gene expression profiles of early stage thyroid tumours. Cancer Genomics Proteomics; 2007 Nov-Dec;4(6):403-9
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  • [Title] Characterization of microarray gene expression profiles of early stage thyroid tumours.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A high-density oligonucleotide array with 20,000 human gene-specific oligonucleotide was used to analyze benign and early-stage malignant thyroid tumours of epithelial origin: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma, compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • Our findings suggest that modulation of NF-kappaB signalling plays a crucial role in early thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Microarray Analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18204203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genomics & proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genomics Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B
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4. Patel MR, Bryson PC, Shores CG, Hart CF, Thorne LB, Deal AM, Zanation AM: Trefoil factor 3 immunohistochemical characterization of follicular thyroid lesions from tissue microarray. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Jun;135(6):590-6
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  • [Title] Trefoil factor 3 immunohistochemical characterization of follicular thyroid lesions from tissue microarray.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) expression in normal thyroid tissue samples compared with that in follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays.
  • DESIGN: Immunohistochemical analysis of 83 normal thyroid tissue and of 83 follicular neoplasms (26 follicular adenomas, 25 follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 9 papillary thyroid carcinomas) was performed using an antibody to TFF3 on tissue microarray sections composed of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples.
  • PATIENTS: Thyroid tissue samples collected from patients over a 15-year period were obtained from the University of North Carolina Hospitals Division of Surgical Pathology archives.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thyroid tissue samples were graded by a pathologist based on intensity of antibody staining and on percentage of cells stained.
  • Data were analyzed for semiquantitative differences in immunohistochemical intensity of antibody staining and in percentage of cells stained among normal thyroid tissue samples, follicular adenoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Semiquantitative analysis demonstrated that immunohistochemistry detects significant levels of TFF3 expression in normal thyroid tissue samples compared with that in follicular lesions based on intensity of antibody staining (P < .05).
  • Only follicular thyroid carcinoma demonstrated a significant reduction in percentage of cells stained compared with that in normal thyroid tissue samples (P = .03).
  • No significant differences in intensity of antibody staining or in the percentage of cells stained were noted among follicular adenoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, or papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Protein expression data validate gene expression findings that follicular neoplastic lesions have decreased expression of TFF3 compared with that in normal thyroid tissue samples.
  • These findings contribute to evidence suggesting that TFF3 may have a role in normal thyroid tissue function and that thyroid carcinomas may have reduced expression of TFF3, in contradistinction to other carcinomas that overexpress TFF3.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism. Protein Array Analysis. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19528408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 0 / TFF3 protein, human
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5. Eszlinger M, Paschke R: Molecular fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of thyroid nodules by tumor specific mutations and gene expression patterns. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Jun 30;322(1-2):29-37
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  • [Title] Molecular fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of thyroid nodules by tumor specific mutations and gene expression patterns.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is currently the most sensitive and specific tool for the presurgical differential diagnosis of thyroid malignancy, but has also substantial limitations.
  • While approximately 75% of FNAB reveal benign lesions and 5% already cytologically prove malignancy, up to 20% of FNAB show follicular proliferation for which follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma can only be distinguished histologically, thus requiring thyroid surgery.
  • However, new biomarkers that might improve the accuracy of FNAB come along with the discovery of more and more details of the molecular etiology of thyroid tumors.
  • Nevertheless, the application of molecular markers will significantly improve thyroid tumor diagnosis and thus it will help to prevent unnecessary surgeries and it will also help to guide mutation-specific targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Mutation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20083161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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6. Braunschweig T, Kaserer K, Chung JY, Bilke S, Krizman D, Knezevic V, Hewitt SM: Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms. Proteomics Clin Appl; 2007 Mar;1(3):264-71
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  • [Title] Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm with multiple histologic subtypes, each associated with different treatments and outcomes.
  • Differentiating benign neoplasms such as follicular adenomas from malignant entities such as follicular carcinomas and papillary carcinoma can be challenging.
  • To define the proteomic profile of different thyroid tumors, we screened an antibody array of 330 features against five thyroid neoplasms: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma as well as normal thyroid epithelium.
  • Eight candidate biomarkers; c-erbB-2, Stat5a, Annexin IV, IL-11, RARα, FGF7, Caspase 9, and phospho-c-myc were identified as differentially expressed on the antibody array, and validated with immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, with a total of 144 samples of the same variety of thyroid neoplasms.
  • Analysis revealed c-erbB-2, Annexin IV, and Stat5a have potential clinical utility to differentiate follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma from each other.
  • By using an antibody array as a discovery platform and a tissue microarray as a first step in validation on a large number of specimens, we have identified new markers that have potential utility in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
  • (PMID = 21136677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1862-8346
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics. Clinical applications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics Clin Appl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Karslioğlu Y, Celasun B, Günhan O: Contribution of morphometry in the differential diagnosis of fine-needle thyroid aspirates. Cytometry B Clin Cytom; 2005 May;65(1):22-8
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  • [Title] Contribution of morphometry in the differential diagnosis of fine-needle thyroid aspirates.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytologic discrimination of cellular nodules, follicular adenoma, and follicular carcinoma in the thyroid is problematic.
  • Methods are needed to achieve a reliable diagnosis.
  • Some sophisticated tools, such as microarrays, offer great potential but lack accompanying morphologic information.
  • METHODS: One hundred twelve samples obtained from patients with lesions histopathologically diagnosed as nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma were used.
  • In the second, a subset of data representing the most extreme values of variables was extracted from the entire dataset to simulate the "selection procedure" performed during conventional morphologic examination.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Morphologic examination is based primarily on selection.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Cell Biology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Goiter / diagnosis. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Multivariate Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Software. Statistics as Topic / methods. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15779051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4949
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry B Clin Cytom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Wang W, Ozolek JA, Rohde GK: Detection and classification of thyroid follicular lesions based on nuclear structure from histopathology images. Cytometry A; 2010 May;77(5):485-94
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  • [Title] Detection and classification of thyroid follicular lesions based on nuclear structure from histopathology images.
  • Follicular lesions of the thyroid are traditionally difficult and tedious challenges in diagnostic surgical pathology in part due to lack of obvious discriminatory cytological and microarchitectural features.
  • We describe a computerized method to detect and classify follicular adenoma of the thyroid, follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, and normal thyroid based on the nuclear chromatin distribution from digital images of tissue obtained by routine histological methods.
  • Unlike previous attempts in detecting and classifying these thyroid lesions using computational imaging, our results show that our method can automatically classify the data pertaining to 10 different human cases with 100% accuracy after blind cross validation using at most 43 nuclei randomly selected from each patient.
  • We conclude that nuclear structure alone contains enough information to automatically classify the normal thyroid, follicular carcinoma, and follicular adenoma, as long as groups of nuclei (instead of individual ones) are used.
  • We also conclude that the distribution of nuclear size and chromatin concentration (how tightly packed it is) seem to be discriminating features between nuclei of follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and normal thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / classification. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20099247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4930
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R21 GM088816; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R21 GM088816-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS203309; NLM/ PMC3010854
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9. Ulisse S, Baldini E, Toller M, Marchioni E, Giacomelli L, De Antoni E, Ferretti E, Marzullo A, Graziano FM, Trimboli P, Biordi L, Curcio F, Gulino A, Ambesi-Impiombato FS, D'Armiento M: Differential expression of the components of the plasminogen activating system in human thyroid tumour derived cell lines and papillary carcinomas. Eur J Cancer; 2006 Oct;42(15):2631-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of the components of the plasminogen activating system in human thyroid tumour derived cell lines and papillary carcinomas.
  • We characterised the expression of the plasminogen activators (uPA and tPA), the uPA receptor (uPAR) and the PAs inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2) in human thyroid cell lines derived from normal thyroid, follicular adenoma, follicular, papillary and anaplastic carcinomas.
  • Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 mRNAs increased in all carcinoma cells.
  • Similar results were found in 13 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues which were mirrored in Western blot experiments.
  • In conclusion, thyroid carcinoma cell lines and PTC overexpress uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 and the correlation of uPA and its cognate receptor with tumour size and metastasis may suggest their potential prognostic relevance in thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Plasminogen Activators / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16928445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.21.- / Plasminogen Activators; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
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10. Lewy-Trenda I, Janczukowicz J, Wierzchniewska-Lawska A: [Practical application of proliferation markers' (MIB-1, PCNA, AgNOR) expression analysis for differential diagnostics of nodular thyroid lesions]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(1-2):32-7
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  • [Title] [Practical application of proliferation markers' (MIB-1, PCNA, AgNOR) expression analysis for differential diagnostics of nodular thyroid lesions].
  • In the study authors tried to estimate the diagnostic value ofAgNOR number and MIB-1 and PCNA expression in thyreocytes from various pathological lesions, with special attention to differential diagnosis of border-line lesions (nodule in adenomatus goiter--adenoma--follicular carcinoma).
  • Fifty four thyroid glands were examined (10 adenomatous goiters, 20 follicular adenomas, 10 follicular carcinomas, 14 papillary carcinomas).
  • Statistical analysis of obtained results allows in most cases to differentiate carcinomas from benign nodular lesions.
  • The best differentiating factor for border-line lesions (especially differentiation between benign nodular lesions, neoplasms, nodules in adenomatous goiter adenomas and adenomas carcinomas) has turned out to be MIB-1.
  • PCNA expression has differed significant between adenomatous goiter and follicular carcinoma and between adenoma and both carcinomas.
  • AgNOR number has only helped in differentiation between nodules in adenomatous goiter and follicular carcinoma - correlations for other lesions have not been statistically significant.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Antinuclear / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antigens, Nuclear / immunology. Nuclear Proteins / immunology. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16646289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / MIB-1 antibody; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / nucleolar organizer region associated proteins
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11. Foschini MP, Ragazzi M, Parmeggiani AL, Righi A, Flamminio F, Meringolo D, Castaldini L: Comparison between echo-color Doppler sonography features and angioarchitecture of thyroid nodules. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;15(2):135-42
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  • [Title] Comparison between echo-color Doppler sonography features and angioarchitecture of thyroid nodules.
  • This study compared echo-color Doppler sonography features of thyroid nodules with the 3-dimensional reconstruction to find parameters useful for the preoperative diagnosis.
  • After histologic diagnosis, blocks were deparaffinized and prepared for 3-dimensional examination using a stereomicroscope.
  • Type II and III nodules corresponded to colloid goiter with intralesional hemorrhage or were associated with hyperplastic nodules, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma minimally invasive, papillary carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma.
  • Of interest was that 9 of 11 follicular lesions were characterized by a large central vessel, which was also evident in echo-color Doppler images.
  • This architectural pattern is not seen in benign nodules or in papillary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17478766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Kapur U, Wojcik EM: Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis? Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Aug;35(8):525-8
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis?
  • The significance of making a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy remains a controversial issue, considering that the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma is based on histological criteria and the significantly decreasing incidence of follicular carcinoma in the general population.
  • On FNA the main differential diagnoses of follicular neoplasm includes follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and benign solitary nodule occurring in a goiter.
  • Several studies have looked at immunohistochemical and molecular markers to distinguish benign from malignant lesions but none of them have proved to be infallible.
  • Although, FVPC is a distinct entity from the follicular neoplasm group, it is not always possible to separate it from the other follicular lesions because of overlapping cytologic features and often-sporadic presence of nuclear features, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma remains the main pitfall in a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm.
  • Since a significant number of cases that are malignant on follow-up are usually FVPC, consequently, follicular neoplasm is an essential diagnostic consideration on FNA.
  • In addition, follicular carcinoma, despite a decreasing incidence continues to be a real entity.
  • Therefore, it is essential that follicular neoplasm continue to be part of our diagnostic repertoire.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17636488.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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13. Anderson CE, Graham C, Herriot MM, Kamel HM, Salter DM: CD98 expression is decreased in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Histopathology; 2009 Dec;55(6):683-6
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  • [Title] CD98 expression is decreased in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • AIMS: CD98 is a component of the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT), which is a cell surface amino acid transporter.
  • CD98 expression is increased in a variety of carcinomas but its distribution in the normal and neoplastic thyroid gland has not been reported.
  • The aim was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of CD98 in normal and diseased thyroid tissue.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and forty thyroid cases were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, including normal controls, neoplasms (follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma) and non-neoplastic conditions (multinodular goitre, Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis).
  • In normal thyroid, there was moderately strong expression of CD98 in the lateral cell membranes of follicular cells.
  • A similar pattern of expression was seen in follicular adenoma, minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, multinodular goitre and Graves' disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD98 expression is down-regulated in thyroid papillary carcinoma; this may relate to the better prognosis associated with many of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD98 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Hashimoto Disease / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Graves Disease / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19922591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD98
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14. Teixeira CS, Bitar RA, Martinho HS, Santos AB, Kulcsar MA, Friguglietti CU, da Costa RB, Arisawa EA, Martin AA: Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy. Analyst; 2009 Nov;134(11):2361-70
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  • [Title] Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy.
  • The diagnosis of thyroid pathologies is usually made by cytologic analysis of the fine needle aspiration (FNA) material.
  • The application of optical spectroscopy in the characterization of alterations could result in the development of a minimally invasive and non-destructive method for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases.
  • Thus, the objective of this work was to study the biochemical alterations of tissues and hormones (T3 and T4) of the thyroid gland by means of molecular vibrations probed by FT-Raman spectroscopy.
  • Through the discriminative linear analysis of the Raman spectra of the tissue, it was possible to establish (in percentages) the correct classification index among the groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular region, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma.
  • A relevant result was obtained in the analysis of the benign tissues (goitre and follicular adenoma) versus malignant tissues (papillary and follicular carcinomas), for which the index was 72.5% and considered good.
  • In conclusion, some biochemical alterations, represented by the FT-Raman spectra, were identified that could possibly be used to classify histologic groups of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Spectrum Analysis, Raman. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cluster Analysis. Discriminant Analysis. Humans. Principal Component Analysis. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroxine / metabolism. Triiodothyronine / metabolism. Vibration

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  • (PMID = 19838427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5528
  • [Journal-full-title] The Analyst
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Analyst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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15. Widder S, Guggisberg K, Khalil M, Pasieka JL: A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery; 2008 Jul;144(1):80-5
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  • [Title] A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Histopathologic criterion for follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC) has only recently been utilized universally.
  • The purpose was to determine whether, on review, these criteria would result in a change in diagnosis of follicular neoplasm (FN).
  • METHODS: A ten-year clinical cohort included patients with a diagnosis of a follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma (FC), or FVPTC.
  • Clinical follow-up, including ultrasonography, was carried out on all patients with a change in diagnosis.
  • Initially, 118 were benign, 56 were FVPTC, and 11 were FC.
  • Overall, 46 (25%) patients had a change in diagnosis on re-review; 35 were reclassified from a benign diagnosis to a re-reviewed malignant diagnosis, with 5 reclassified as minimally invasive FC, 4 as occult PTC, and 26 (74%) as FVPTC.
  • Eleven patients were reclassified to a benign diagnosis.
  • A third independent thyroid pathologist also reviewed the histopathologic slides of these 46 patients and concurred with the change in diagnosis in 41 of the 46 patients.
  • Although there have been no clinical ramifications in the patients with a changed diagnosis, the ethical issues surrounding these 46 patients are important and present a substantive quandary to the clinicians responsible for their care.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / ethics. Ethics, Clinical. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Classification. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] Surgery. 2009 Jun;145(6):687-8; author reply 688-9 [19486776.001]
  • [CommentIn] Surgery. 2008 Jul;144(1):99-100 [18571592.001]
  • (PMID = 18571588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Haghpanah V, Shooshtarizadeh P, Heshmat R, Larijani B, Tavangar SM: Immunohistochemical analysis of survivin expression in thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Dec;14(4):422-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of survivin expression in thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • This retrospective study of thyroid histologic samples aimed to assess the clinical usefulness of survivin immunostaining for discrimination between follicular adenoma and carcinoma of thyroid.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for survivin was performed on 41 lesions from patients who had undergone surgery for either follicular adenoma or carcinoma of thyroid.
  • Survivin expression was significantly (P < 0.005) higher in the cases that received a diagnosis of carcinoma in comparison with follicular adenomas cases.
  • Odds ratio of follicular carcinoma for survivin expression was 21.375 (95% CI: 3.283 to 139.177).
  • Our results showed potential value of survivin in discrimination between follicular thyroid adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • We conclude that survivin is a potential candidate for further investigation in the proper histologic diagnosis of thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 17122639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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17. Nakamura N, Erickson LA, Jin L, Kajita S, Zhang H, Qian X, Rumilla K, Lloyd RV: Immunohistochemical separation of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):213-23
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical separation of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • The accurate diagnosis of differentiated thyroid tumors is very important for clinical management of patients.
  • The histopathological distinction between some types of differentiated thyroid tumors can be very difficult even for experienced pathologists.
  • We used immunohistochemical markers from published data obtained from DNA expression profiling, tissue microarray analysis, and immunohistochemistry to analyze a series of 157 thyroid tumors and 5 normal thyroids.
  • These analyses showed that several antibodies were useful in distinguishing follicular adenomas from follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas including HBME-1, CITED1, galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, and S100A4 (p < 0.0001).
  • A combination of markers consisting of a panel of HBME-1, galectin-3, and CK19 or a panel of HBME-1, CITED1, and galectin-3 was usually most effective in distinguishing follicular adenoma from follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Because individual tumors may not express some of these markers, the use of a panel of antibodies is recommended.
  • These results indicate that some individual antibodies or a panel of antibodies combined with histopathological analysis can be useful in separating follicular adenoma (FA) from follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blotting, Western. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17308358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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18. Harsh M, Dimri P, Nagarkar NM: Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Jul-Sep;52(3):377-8
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  • [Title] Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland.
  • Follicular adenomas of the thyroid may be subjected to degenerative changes like hemorrhagic and cystic changes, fibrosis, and calcification.
  • Mature bone formation is a rare phenomenon, but extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) has also been rarely reported in thyroid gland.
  • We describe a case of follicular adenoma with histologically proven osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with EMH in a middle- aged woman, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in English language literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary. Ossification, Heterotopic. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19679966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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19. Savin S, Cvejic D, Isic T, Paunovic I, Tatic S, Havelka M: The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Exp Oncol; 2006 Mar;28(1):70-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • AIM: Expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in the thyroid gland tissue is well known as a sensitive marker of the thyroid malignancy.
  • We have evaluated immunohistochemical assay of TPO for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sections of formalin-fixed tissues obtained from 92 patients with thyroid tumors (52 follicular carcinomas and 40 follicular adenomas including the Hurthle cell type) were analyzed using a monoclonal antibody (TPO mAb 47) and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique.
  • Lesions with staining of more than 80% of the follicular cells/specimen were considered benign, while less than 80% were considered malignant.
  • RESULTS: TPO immunostaining correlated with the histopathological diagnosis in 24/40 cases of follicular adenomas and 41/52 cases of follicular carcinomas, giving a specificity of 60% and a sensitivity of 79%.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that immunohistochemical assay of TPO expression has limited value for the differential diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma from thyroid follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16614712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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20. Tajiri J: [Approach to thyroid incidentaloma and follicular adenoma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2099-105
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  • [Title] [Approach to thyroid incidentaloma and follicular adenoma].
  • They can choose the thyroid ultrasound optionally, too.
  • Accordingly, a lot of thyroid incidentaloma are found.
  • The leaving is not possible if thyroid incidentaloma is found.
  • At first, I describe how we handle thyroid incidentalomas.
  • Secondly, I describe the differential diagnosis of follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma that we should call the last fort of thyroid medical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / therapy. Incidental Findings. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Radiotherapy. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18018577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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21. Ganguly R, Mitra S, Datta AK: Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):337-9

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  • [Title] Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland.
  • Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis.
  • Accordingly, anaplastic carcinomas have been seen to coincide with simultaneous papillary and follicular cancers.
  • We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years.
  • The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma.
  • The common follicular cell origin will explain the concurrent presence of all these cancers.
  • This could result from the dedifferentiation of a pre-existing differentiated carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):434-5 [21623130.001]
  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):414-5; author reply 415 [21623114.001]
  • (PMID = 20551551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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22. Kim WJ, Souillard R, Brandwein MS, Lawson W, Som PM: Follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst with papillary carcinoma in the adjacent thyroid gland. Am J Otolaryngol; 2005 Sep-Oct;26(5):348-50
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  • [Title] Follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst with papillary carcinoma in the adjacent thyroid gland.
  • This patient presented with a neck mass diagnosed as a papillary thyroid carcinoma by fine-needle aspiration.
  • After surgery, the initial diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • After correlation with the computed tomography, the diagnosis was revised to a papillary thyroid carcinoma plus a follicular adenoma in a juxtathyroidal thyroglossal duct cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroglossal Cyst / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16137536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Bukhari U, Sadiq S, Kehar SI: Differential expression of CK 19 in follicular adenoma, well-differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. J Pak Med Assoc; 2009 Jan;59(1):15-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of CK 19 in follicular adenoma, well-differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To see the expression of cytokeratin 19, a proven helpful marker for the differential diagnosis of neoplastic follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.
  • On the basis of the recent recommendations by Chemobyl Pathologists Group, encapsulated follicular patterned lesions with questionable nuclear changes were categorized as well - differentiated tumours of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP).
  • Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues of follicular adenoma, WDT-UMP and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma were obtained for CK 19 immunostaining.
  • RESULTS: All (16) cases of follicular adenoma were negative for CK19.
  • There were 43 cases of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma with 4+ CK 19 positivity, 14 were 3+ positive and 3 were 2+ positive.
  • CONCLUSION: CK19 is a good and useful diagnostic marker for differential diagnosis of follicular adenoma, WDT-UMP and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. Keratin-19

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  • (PMID = 19213370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-19
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24. Moon WJ, Kwag HJ, Na DG: Are there any specific ultrasound findings of nodular hyperplasia ("leave me alone" lesion) to differentiate it from follicular adenoma? Acta Radiol; 2009 May;50(4):383-8
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  • [Title] Are there any specific ultrasound findings of nodular hyperplasia ("leave me alone" lesion) to differentiate it from follicular adenoma?
  • BACKGROUND: Among benign thyroid nodules, nodular hyperplasia (NH) is the most common and represents a "leave me alone" lesion with no requirement for further treatment, while follicular adenoma (FA) is a lesion that should potentially be removed due to the difficulty of differentiation from a carcinoma on a biopsy alone.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pathologically proven cases of benign thyroid nodules (95 cases: 53 NH, 42 FA) were reviewed retrospectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19241229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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25. Westhoff CC, Hoffmann S, Barth PJ: Clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid--a challenge in intra-operative diagnostics. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Jan;118(1):19-21
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  • [Title] Clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid--a challenge in intra-operative diagnostics.
  • Pure clear cell lesions of the thyroid gland are rare and prone to pose severe diagnostic challenges.
  • We report the case of a 61-year-old man with a clear cell adenoma of the thyroid.
  • The patient presented with a hypoechoic thyroid nodule.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology rendered the primary diagnosis of a follicular neoplasia, and right thyroid lobectomy was performed.
  • By intra-operative frozen section, the diagnosis given was clear cell lesion of unknown malignant potential.
  • Based on the light microscopic findings and the immunohistochemical profile, the lesion was diagnosed as clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid.
  • A follicular thyroid lesion presenting with clear cell changes in fine needle aspiration cytology or intra-operative frozen section consultation constitutes a diagnostic challenge to every surgical pathologist.
  • As immunohistochemistry of cytologic specimens is hampered by several methodological problems, any thyroid lesion with clear cell features warrants further histologic assessment to render the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Frozen Sections. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intraoperative Care. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 19235130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Mansoor I, Zalles C, Zahid F, Gossage K, Levenson RM, Rimm DL: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular adenoma versus parathyroid adenoma: the utility of multispectral imaging in differentiating lesions with subtle cytomorphologic differences. Cancer; 2008 Feb 25;114(1):22-6
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular adenoma versus parathyroid adenoma: the utility of multispectral imaging in differentiating lesions with subtle cytomorphologic differences.
  • BACKGROUND: Multispectral image analysis is an emerging tool that utilizes both spatial and spectral image information to classify images that can be used for the differentiation between benign versus malignant cells.
  • Herein, the authors used fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of follicular adenoma (FA) and parathyroid adenoma (PA) as a test case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spectrum Analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 18085636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R44 CA0088684
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Fadare O, Parkash V, Fiedler PN, Mayerson AB, Asiyanbola B: Tumor-to-tumor metastasis to a thyroid follicular adenoma as the initial presentation of a colonic adenocarcinoma. Pathol Int; 2005 Sep;55(9):574-9
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  • [Title] Tumor-to-tumor metastasis to a thyroid follicular adenoma as the initial presentation of a colonic adenocarcinoma.
  • The incidence of thyroid involvement by metastatic disease from distant organs ranges from an average of 3.1% in surgical series to 5.3% in autopsy series.
  • Typically, they are identified as new manifestations or necropsy findings of a known, pre-existing donor tumor.
  • Herein is described the case of a 59-year-old woman whose thyroid nodule (a follicular adenoma) was resected and found to contain foci of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with a morphologic and immunohistochemical profile consistent with origination from the lower gastrointestinal tract.
  • This is, to the authors' knowledge, the first reported example of a colon adenocarcinoma whose initial clinical manifestation was a metastasis to a thyroid neoplasm and only the third reported example of a colonic adenocarcinoma metastatic to a thyroid tumor.
  • In a review of previously reported examples of tumor-to-tumor metastases involving a thyroid neoplasm as the recipient, the following features were present in the majority: (i) multifocality of the metastatic tumor aggregates;.
  • In general, strikingly divergent morphologic features in an otherwise typical thyroid neoplasm should elicit a differential diagnosis that takes into consideration the possibility of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16143033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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28. Cho Mar K, Eimoto T, Nagaya S, Tateyama H: Cell proliferation marker MCM2, but not Ki67, is helpful for distinguishing between minimally invasive follicular carcinoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid. Histopathology; 2006 Jun;48(7):801-7
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  • [Title] Cell proliferation marker MCM2, but not Ki67, is helpful for distinguishing between minimally invasive follicular carcinoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid.
  • AIMS: To compare cell proliferation markers, minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) and Ki67, in minimally invasive follicular carcinoma (MIFC) and follicular adenoma (FA) of the thyroid and among MIFCs with different diagnostic criteria.
  • The tumour cell proliferative activity supports the histological criteria based on diagnosing MIFC by either capsular or vascular invasion only.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2

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  • (PMID = 16722928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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29. Nelson KK, Gattuso P, Xu X, Prinz RA: Expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway molecules in synchronous follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in predicting malignancy. Surgery; 2010 Oct;148(4):654-60; discussion 660
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  • [Title] Expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway molecules in synchronous follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in predicting malignancy.
  • The Sonic Hedgehog pathway is required for normal thyroid gland development, but when activated as a result of gene mutation or overexpression, it may stimulate thyroid tumor cell proliferation.
  • This study determines whether 3 molecules, Patched, Smoothened, and Sonic Hedgehog, involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway are overexpressed equally in synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients with synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent thyroidectomy.
  • Patched expression was detected in 5 of 13 (38%) follicular adenomas and 5 of 12 (42%) papillary carcinomas.
  • Smoothened was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 3 of 13 (23%) papillary carcinomas.
  • Sonic Hedgehog was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 11 of 13 (85%) papillary carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of the 3 molecules involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway was similar in follicular thyroid adenoma, but Sonic Hedgehog expression was a more sensitive indicator of malignancy in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The Sonic Hedgehog molecule may become a diagnostic marker when the cytologic or histologic features are not characteristic of a papillary carcinoma.
  • Greater understanding of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway may provide molecular methods for preventing or treating papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Hedgehog Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20797751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / SHH protein, human
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30. Othman NH, Omar E, Mahmood MH, Madhavan M: RET and p53 expression in thyroid follicular adenoma: a study of 52 cases with 14 years follow-up. Malays J Pathol; 2005 Dec;27(2):91-8
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  • [Title] RET and p53 expression in thyroid follicular adenoma: a study of 52 cases with 14 years follow-up.
  • Most previous studies on RET and p53 proteins have focused on thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • We investigated the role of RET and p53 protein expressions using immunohistochemistry on 52 cases of thyroid follicular adenomas and studied the follow-up records of these patients.
  • 3 had recurrent goitre, 2 of these were diagnosed as colloid goitre while the third was a follicular lesion.
  • In conclusion, unlike papillary carcinoma in which the roles of ret and p53 oncogenes are known, their roles in influencing the behaviour of follicular adenoma has not been ascertained.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17191391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0126-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / TRIM27 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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31. Yüksel M, Eziddin S, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ: 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Sep;25(5):316-9
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  • [Title] 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy.
  • A patient with suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas underwent a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-Pentetreotide.
  • 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy showed discrete uptake of the radiotracer in the head of the pancreas and focal uptake in the right upper thyroid lobe.
  • Normal thyroid tissue and thyroid disorders, such as cancers, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and adenomas often show increased uptake of 111In-pentetreotide resulting in a possible false positive interpretation in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Adding a 48h planar image might contribute to the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant lesions, as in the present case where the uptake decreased in an adenoma after 48 hours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Indium Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranin A / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Serotonin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17173778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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32. Lee HM, Baek SK, Kwon SY, Jung KY, Chae SW, Hwang SJ, Woo JS, Lee JY: Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 expressions in the human thyroid gland. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Mar;263(3):199-204
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 expressions in the human thyroid gland.
  • We investigated the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in normal thyroid tissue, follicular adenoma and well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas and evaluated the difference in COX-1 and COX-2 expression.
  • Ten normal thyroid tissues, ten follicular adenomas, ten papillary carcinomas and ten follicular carcinomas were analyzed by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for expression of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA.
  • In addition, immunohistochemical staining was performed to find the expression of the two enzymes in normal thyroid tissues and thyroid neoplasia.
  • Expression of COX-1 mRNA in the normal thyroid tissues, follicular adenomas and both well-differentiated carcinomas was similar and weak.
  • However, COX-2 mRNA was strongly expressed in the well-differentiated carcinomas compared to those of normal thyroid tissue and follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclooxygenase 1 / genetics. Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Messenger. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16362262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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33. Tabriz HM, Adabi Kh, Lashkari A, Heshmat R, Haghpanah V, Larijani B, Tavangar SM: Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 protein expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma and follicular neoplasm. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):83-7
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 protein expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma and follicular neoplasm.
  • INTRODUCTION: We aimed at assessing the significance of nm23 gene expression in papillary and follicular carcinomas, the two most common differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a cross-sectional study, 173 paraffin blocks, including 131 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 12 follicular carcinomas and 30 follicular adenomas were stained with nm23 marker by immunohistochemistry method.
  • RESULTS: nm23 was positive in 40% of the follicular adenoma, 67.2% of the papillary carcinoma and 66.7% of the follicular carcinoma. p value was more than 0.05 in the assessment of the relationship between nm23 and all of the above-mentioned parameters in differentiated thyroid carcinomas. nm23 expression did not significantly differentiate between follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • Also, nm23 cannot be considered as a useful marker for the evaluation of invasion in differentiated thyroid carcinomas or in distinctions between follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18996649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases; EC 2.7.4.6 / NME1 protein, human
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34. Ferenc T, Lewiński A, Lange D, Niewiadomska H, Sygut J, Sporny S, Jarzab B, Satacińska-Los E, Kulig A, Włoch J: Analysis of cyclin D1 and retinoblastoma protein immunoreactivity in follicular thyroid tumors. Pol J Pathol; 2005;56(1):27-35
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  • [Title] Analysis of cyclin D1 and retinoblastoma protein immunoreactivity in follicular thyroid tumors.
  • Protein products of cyclin D1 and retinoblastoma (Rb) genes play crucial roles in regulation of G1/S transition in the cell cycle.
  • In this study we analyzed, using immunohistochemical methods, the expression of cyclin D1 and Rb proteins in material from medical archives (12 cases of follicular thyroid carcinoma, 57 cases of follicular adenoma and 17 nodular goiter cases).
  • A positive nuclear reaction for cyclin D1 was observed in 83.3% (10/12) of the follicular carcinomas, in 96.5% (55/57) of the follicular adenomas and in 23.5% (4/17) of nodular goiters.
  • Overexpression of cyclin Dl (more than 50% of positively staining cells) was noted in 25% (3/12) of the follicular carcinomas and in 22.8% (13/57) of the follicular adenomas.
  • The number of carcinoma cases with cyclin D1 overexpression did not differ statistically in any significant way from the follicular adenoma group (p = 1.000).
  • A positive nuclear reaction for Rb protein was noted in 100% of the follicular carcinomas (12/12), in 96.5% of the follicular adenomas (55/57) and in 47.1% of the cases (8/17) of nodular goiter.
  • Rb protein overexpression (more than 50% of positively staining cells) was found in 83.3% (10/12) of the follicular carcinomas, in 68.4% (39/57) of the follicular adenomas and in 11.8% (2/17) of the nodular goiters.
  • The number of cases with Rb protein overexpression in the follicular carcinoma group did not differ significantly from that in the follicular adenoma group (p = 0.486).
  • In the follicular carcinoma group, that correlation was borderline (Rp = 0.437; p = 0.072) and, in the follicular adenoma group, it was statistically insignificant (Rs = 0.217; p = 0.105).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15921011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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35. Kameyama K, Ito K, Takami H: [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1973-8
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  • [Title] [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].
  • True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells.
  • Follicular adenoma is well-circumscribed, with no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion.
  • The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor.
  • Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland.
  • The gland is distorted with a nodular surface.
  • Mature or immature teratoma is also observed in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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36. Hosokawa Y, Yamada Y, Iwamoto R, Kurokawa R, Ihara A, Yamamoto K, Sakaguchi K, Nakatsuka S, Minami Y, Matsuzawa Y: Thyroid follicular adenoma producing parathyroid hormone-related protein with a normal serum calcium level. Intern Med; 2009;48(22):1957-61
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular adenoma producing parathyroid hormone-related protein with a normal serum calcium level.
  • Histological examination showed that the resected tumors were thyroid follicular adenomas, while immunohistochemistry revealed positive staining with a monoclonal antibody for PTHrP.
  • This is a rare case of thyroid follicular adenoma producing PTHrP in a patient with a normal serum calcium level despite elevation of plasma PTHrP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Calcium / blood. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / secretion. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19915296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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37. Bradly DP, Reddy V, Prinz RA, Gattuso P: Incidental papillary carcinoma in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases. Surgery; 2009 Dec;146(6):1099-104
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  • [Title] Incidental papillary carcinoma in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases.
  • BACKGROUND: The frequency of incidental papillary carcinoma (IPC) has been reported to be between 4.6 % and 10% in operatively treated benign thyroid diseases.
  • This study reviews the occurrence of IPC in thyroid glands removed for benign disease at our institution.
  • METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-eight patients underwent partial or total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid diseases.
  • The incidence of IPC was compared among patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, multinodular goiter, follicular adenoma, and Graves' disease.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 81 (12.0%) IPCs were recorded with decreasing order of frequency: Hashimoto's thyroiditis, follicular adenoma, goiter, and Graves' disease.
  • Contralateral IPC was detected in 6/15 (40%) patients with follicular adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of IPC in benign operatively resected thyroid disease was 12%.
  • IPC was encountered in the contralateral lobe in 40% of patients with follicular adenoma.
  • The association of IPCs with Hashimoto's thyroiditis may indicate a link to thyroid cancer.
  • Total thyroidectomy may be considered an appropriate operative treatment in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular adenoma requiring operation owing to the high incidence and frequent contralateral involvement of IPC, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chicago / epidemiology. Female. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Graves Disease / complications. Graves Disease / surgery. Hashimoto Disease / complications. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19958937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Ball E, Bond J, Franc B, Demicco C, Wynford-Thomas D: An immunohistochemical study of p16(INK4a) expression in multistep thyroid tumourigenesis. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Jan;43(1):194-201
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  • [Title] An immunohistochemical study of p16(INK4a) expression in multistep thyroid tumourigenesis.
  • Normal human thyroid follicular epithelial cells exhibit a very low proliferative rate which in vitro is dramatically increased by RAS oncogene activation, resulting in clones displaying a phenotype consistent with that of a ras-induced follicular adenoma in vivo.
  • We therefore hypothesised that p16 expression would also increase in vivo in follicular adenomas, and further that escape from growth control in follicular cancers would be accompanied by loss of p16 expression.
  • This was tested using tissue microarrays, representing multiple stages of thyroid tumourigenesis.
  • Whereas the majority of normal thyroids showed no immunostaining, p16 protein was readily detectable in follicular adenomas.
  • Unexpectedly, however, p16 expression was also observed in follicular and papillary carcinomas.
  • We conclude that loss of p16 is not necessary for malignant transformation in thyroid follicular cells, but that it may form one of two or more events needed for progression to more aggressive forms of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cyclin A / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17046239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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39. Buergy D, Weber T, Maurer GD, Mudduluru G, Medved F, Leupold JH, Brauckhoff M, Post S, Dralle H, Allgayer H: Urokinase receptor, MMP-1 and MMP-9 are markers to differentiate prognosis, adenoma and carcinoma in thyroid malignancies. Int J Cancer; 2009 Aug 15;125(4):894-901
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  • [Title] Urokinase receptor, MMP-1 and MMP-9 are markers to differentiate prognosis, adenoma and carcinoma in thyroid malignancies.
  • The identification of high-risk patients with thyroid cancer and the preoperative differentiation between follicular adenoma and carcinoma remain clinically challenging.
  • Our study was conducted to analyze whether the quantification of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and transcription factor binding to the u-PAR promoter improve prognostic predictability and differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors.
  • Tumor/normal tissue was collected from 69 prospectively followed patients with thyroid carcinomas (papillary, medullary, follicular and anaplastic, PTC, MTC, FTC and ATC) or follicular adenomas.
  • Carcinomas except MTC expressed significantly more u-PAR/MMPs than adenomas/normal tissues, this being associated with advanced pT- or M-stages.
  • MMP-1 and MMP-9 were significantly higher in follicular carcinomas than in adenomas.
  • Poor survival in differentiated tumors was associated in trend (p = 0.07); poor survival of all patients (p = 0.043) and especially of patients with carcinomas of follicular origin (including ATC), but not medullary carcinomas, were significantly associated with high u-PAR-protein (p = 0.015).
  • Quantification of u-PAR is of prognostic relevance in thyroid carcinomas of non-c-cell origin, and u-PAR in part may be regulated nontranscriptionally in thyroid cancers.
  • This is the first study to suggest MMP-1/-9 as significant differentiation markers between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Luciferases. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19480010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 3.4.24.23 / MMP7 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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40. Ekinci S, Karnak I, Balci S, Tanyel FC, Büyükpamukçu N: Bannayan-riley-ruvalcaba syndrome from the point of view of the pediatric surgeon. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Jun;16(3):209-13
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  • Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is an overgrowth syndrome and polyposis condition, which carries an increased risk for development of benign and malignant tumors of various tissues and organs.
  • A 9-year-old boy with BRRS who had multiple subcutaneous mesenchymal tumors and follicular adenoma of the thyroid and a 14-year-old boy with multiple subcutaneous mesenchymal tumors and gastrointestinal polyposis are presented, with special emphasis on the surgical management of these patients.

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  • (PMID = 16909363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Went PT, Sauter G, Oberholzer M, Bubendorf L: Abundant expression of AMACR in many distinct tumour types. Pathology; 2006 Oct;38(5):426-32

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  • AIMS: Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), a mitochondrial and peroxisomal enzyme, is a valuable tool to confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer, especially if combined with basal cell markers.
  • RESULTS: Microarray analysis revealed that tumours with prominent AMACR expression included adenocarcinomas of the prostate (72%), hepatocellular carcinomas (77%), papillary renal cell carcinomas (70%), and colorectal adenocarcinomas (71%).
  • AMACR expression was equally frequent in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas.
  • In the thyroid, AMACR expression was found in 42% of the follicular carcinomas but in only 16% of follicular adenomas.
  • However, a more detailed analysis on a thyroid tissue microarray did not confirm a significant difference of AMACR expression in follicular adenoma and carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 17008281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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42. Hu MJ, Xu HD, Zhou R, Li XF, Zhang HY: [Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 3p in thyroid tumors]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 May;37(5):305-8
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  • [Title] [Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 3p in thyroid tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 3p in thyroid tumors.
  • METHODS: LOH at 11 microsatellite loci was analyzed in 74 cases of thyroid tumors (including 20 follicular adenomas, 24 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 30 papillary thyroid carcinomas) by polymerase chain reaction and silver stain.
  • RESULTS: LOH on chromosome 3p was detected in 71% of follicular thyroid carcinoma (17/24), 30% of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (9/30) and 10% of the follicular adenoma (2/20) case.
  • Two minimal common deleted regions (CDR) (3p26-pter and 3p14.2-3p22) involving significant sites of LOH has identified in follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • 2-26.1) in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LOH is more frequently identified in follicular thyroid carcinoma than in papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular adenoma.
  • The 3 CDR on chromosome 3p may harbor tumor suppressor genes involved in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adult. Aged. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18956647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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43. Carroll NM, Carty SE: Promising molecular techniques for discriminating among follicular thyroid neoplasms. Surg Oncol; 2006 Aug;15(2):59-64
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  • [Title] Promising molecular techniques for discriminating among follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • To guide the extent of thyroidectomy for indeterminate follicular neoplasm (FN), clinicians have long sought ways to differentiate follicular adenoma from carcinoma pre- or intraoperatively.
  • These new tools may also prove useful in determining prognosis, thus and allow a paradigm change in current management of the thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16949814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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44. Poloz TL, Shkurupiĭ VA, Poloz VV, Demin AV: [The results of quantitative cytological analysis of the structure of follicular thyroid tumors using computer and neural network technologies]. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk; 2006;(8):7-10
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  • [Title] [The results of quantitative cytological analysis of the structure of follicular thyroid tumors using computer and neural network technologies].
  • This technology was applied to studying cytological diagnostics of thyroid diseases to differentiate between follicular cancer and follicular adenoma.
  • A complex of quantitative cytological characteristics was used to describe cytological preparations by examples of known cytological diagnosis to train the neural network.

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  • (PMID = 17002018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0869-6047
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii meditsinskikh nauk
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Akad. Med. Nauk SSSR
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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45. Marchenko IA, Glukhov AI, Vysotskaia OV, Zimnik OV, Zhulikov DV, Ippolitov LI: [Development of a set of diagnostic test systems for analysis of expression of C-myc, mad1, max, p53, and E2F1 gene oncomarkers by the reverse transcription reaction-polymerase chain reaction alignment technique]. Klin Lab Diagn; 2010 Jan;(1):14-7
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  • [Title] [Development of a set of diagnostic test systems for analysis of expression of C-myc, mad1, max, p53, and E2F1 gene oncomarkers by the reverse transcription reaction-polymerase chain reaction alignment technique].
  • These test systems could reveal a statistically significant difference between follicular adenoma and carcinoma of the thyroid in their expression of p53 mRNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. E2F1 Transcription Factor / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20201372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0869-2084
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia laboratornaia diagnostika
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin. Lab. Diagn.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / E2F1 Transcription Factor; 0 / E2F1 protein, human; 0 / MAD1L1 protein, human; 0 / MAX protein, human; 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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46. Pujani M, Arora B, Pujani M, Singh SK, Tejwani N: Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jul-Sep;47(3):304-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt.
  • RESULTS: Ki-67 labeling index (LI) showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms.
  • A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05) and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Cancer. 2011 Jul-Sep;48(3):378 [21921351.001]
  • (PMID = 20587907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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47. Denning KM, Smyth PC, Cahill SF, Finn SP, Conlon E, Li J, Flavin RJ, Aherne ST, Guenther SM, Ferlinz A, O'Leary JJ, Sheils OM: A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1095-102
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  • [Title] A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples.
  • Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a lesion that frequently causes difficulties from a diagnostic perspective in the laboratory.
  • The purpose of this study was to interrogate a cohort of archival thyroid lesions using gene expression analysis of a panel of markers proposed to have utility as adjunctive markers in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in particular.
  • Laser Capture Microdissection was used to procure pure cell populations for extraction.
  • HLA-DMA, HLA-DQB1, MT1X, CSNK1G2 and RAB23 were found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing follicular adenoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Comparison of follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups showed significant differential expression for MT1K, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Comparison of the papillary thyroid carcinoma group (classic and follicular variants) and the follicular adenoma group showed differential expression for CSNK1G2, HLA-DQB1, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Finally, KRAS2 was found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing the papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups.
  • This panel of molecular targets discriminates between follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma by their expression repertoires.
  • It may have utility for broader use in the setting of fine-needle aspiration cytology and could improve the definitive diagnosis of certain categories of thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Gene Expression. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Markers. Humans. Lasers. Microdissection


48. Zablotska LB, Bogdanova TI, Ron E, Epstein OV, Robbins J, Likhtarev IA, Hatch M, Markov VV, Bouville AC, Olijnyk VA, McConnell RJ, Shpak VM, Brenner A, Terekhova GN, Greenebaum E, Tereshchenko VP, Fink DJ, Brill AB, Zamotayeva GA, Masnyk IJ, Howe GR, Tronko MD: A cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases after the Chornobyl accident: dose-response analysis of thyroid follicular adenomas detected during first screening in Ukraine (1998-2000). Am J Epidemiol; 2008 Feb 1;167(3):305-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases after the Chornobyl accident: dose-response analysis of thyroid follicular adenomas detected during first screening in Ukraine (1998-2000).
  • The Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident in 1986 exposed many individuals to radioactive iodines, chiefly (131)I, the effects of which on benign thyroid diseases are largely unknown.
  • To investigate the risk of follicular adenoma in relation to radiation dose after Chornobyl, the authors analyzed the baseline data from a prospective screening cohort study of those exposed as children or adolescents.
  • A stratified random sample was selected from all individuals who were younger than 18 years, had thyroid radioactivity measurements taken within 2 months after the accident, and resided in the three heavily contaminated areas in Ukraine.
  • This analysis is based on the 23 cases diagnosed in 12,504 subjects for whom personal history of thyroid diseases was known.
  • In conclusion, persons exposed to radioactive iodines as children and adolescents have an increased risk of follicular adenoma, though it is smaller than the risk of thyroid cancer in the same cohort.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology


49. Abrosimov AIu, Dvinskikh NIu: [Morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle nodule biopsy]. Arkh Patol; 2010 Sep-Oct;72(5):39-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle nodule biopsy].
  • The paper considers morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle biopsy of benign and malignant tumors at the above site in 5 patients.
  • The found changes made the postoperative histological diagnosis of a tumor process difficult as;.
  • (a) there was total necrosis (2 cases of follicular tumor and papillary cancer from oxyphilic cells according to the data of a preoperative cytological study);.
  • (b) there were signs that mimicked those of invasive tumor growth in the proper fibrous capsules (2 cases of follicular adenomas);.
  • (c) there was abundant formation of fibrous tissue in the center of follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Preoperative Period. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21313768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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50. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kakudo K, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: HBME-1 expression in follicular tumor of the thyroid: an investigation of whether it can be used as a marker to diagnose follicular carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1A):179-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HBME-1 expression in follicular tumor of the thyroid: an investigation of whether it can be used as a marker to diagnose follicular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: HBME-1 has been recognized as a useful marker for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma.
  • In this study, we investigated whether it has a diagnostic value for discriminating follicular carcinoma from adenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated HBME-1 expression in 138 follicular carcinomas, 155 follicular adenomas, 98 adenomatous nodules and 37 papillary carcinomas, using anti-HBME-1 monoclonal antibody.
  • RESULTS: HBME-1 was positive in 60.9% of follicular carcinoma and the incidence was significantly higher (p<0.0001) than that of follicular adenoma, 30.3%.
  • In adenomatous nodules, only 17.3% were classified as positive, which was lower even than that of follicular adenoma (p=0.0257).
  • We calculated the positive predictive value of HBME-1 in discriminating follicular carcinoma from adenoma as 64.2%.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, although HBME-1 contributes to the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma, it could not be applied in the preoperative diagnosis of follicular carcinoma, for example, using fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 15816536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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51. Haynik DM, Prayson RA: Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Jun;129(6):736-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • However, limited data exist on the role of COX-2 in follicular carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • DESIGN: A retrospective clinicopathologic review with COX-2 immunohistochemical staining of 34 follicular carcinomas and 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration was performed.
  • Seven patients with follicular carcinomas developed recurrent disease: 3 patients were alive (mean follow-up, 10.1 years) and 4 patients died of metastatic disease (mean follow-up, 3.5 years).
  • Only 1 follicular adenoma with incomplete capsular penetration recurred (patient alive at 9 years).
  • The COX-2 staining was positive in 11 tumors (9 of 34 follicular carcinomas, 2 of 7 follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration).
  • CONCLUSION: Only a few follicular carcinomas (26%) and follicular adenomas with incomplete capsular penetration (29%) express COX-2 by immunohistochemical analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005 Dec;129(12):1522-3; author reply 1523 [16329720.001]
  • (PMID = 15913419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
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52. Delbridge L: Solitary thyroid nodule: current management. ANZ J Surg; 2006 May;76(5):381-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary thyroid nodule: current management.
  • Clinically, solitary thyroid nodules are common, being present in up to 50% of the elderly population.
  • The majority are benign with thyroid cancer representing an uncommon clinical problem.
  • Investigation should include careful history and examination and thyroid function tests.
  • Thyroid 'incidentalomas' are a common management problem.
  • Because it is not possible to distinguish a follicular carcinoma from a follicular adenoma on cytological grounds alone, this category must simply be interpreted as indicating a follicular tumour and up to 20% will be malignant.
  • Hemithyroidectomy via a 'collar' incision, with submission of the specimen to formal pathological examination, remains the standard of care, with completion total thyroidectomy for cancers other than low risk papillary cancer and 'minimally invasive' follicular cancer without vascular invasion.
  • The issue of whether follicular adenomas can potentially develop into follicular carcinomas has yet to be satisfactorily resolved.
  • The major challenge in the management of the solitary thyroid nodule remains the assessment as to which nodules require surgical excision and which can be followed conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16768700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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53. Baek SK, Woo JS, Kwon SY, Lee SH, Chae YS, Jung KY: Prognostic significance of the MUC1 and MUC4 expressions in thyroid papillary carcinoma. Laryngoscope; 2007 May;117(5):911-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic significance of the MUC1 and MUC4 expressions in thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the expressions of mucin genes MUC1 and MUC4 and to evaluate the difference of their expressions in normal thyroid tissue, follicular adenoma, and papillary carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We performed semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for determining the MUC1 and MUC4 mRNA expressions, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the MUC1 and MUC4 protein expressions in 22 normal thyroid tissues, 22 follicular adenomas, and 15 papillary carcinomas.
  • The semiquantitative scoring of the immunohistochemical staining was compared with the prognostic factors for thyroid carcinoma to evaluate the prognostic significance in 87 papillary carcinoma patients.
  • MUC4 was not expressed in all thyroid tissues.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Up-regulation of MUC1 may play a more important role than that of MUC4 in the development of thyroid papillary carcinoma, and it may have some significance as a prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Mucins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17473695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC4 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-4; 0 / Mucins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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54. Królicka A, Kobierzycki C, Puła B, Podhorska-Okołów M, Piotrowska A, Rzeszutko M, Rzeszutko W, Rabczyński J, Domosławski P, Wojtczak B, Dawiskiba J, Dzięgiel P: Comparison of metallothionein (MT) and Ki-67 antigen expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4945-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of metallothionein (MT) and Ki-67 antigen expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • Thyroid carcinomas are the most frequently occurring tumours in the endocrine system.
  • Metallothioneins (MT) and Ki-67 proteins are present in intensely proliferating cells, and their expression has been observed in numerous tumours, including thyroid tumours.
  • The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between intensity of MT expression and Ki-67 antigen on one hand and histological features of the examined thyroid tumours on the other.
  • The investigated material included 186 archival paraffin blocks with samples of various thyroid tissues, obtained from the Chair and Department of Pathomorphology, Medical University of Wroclaw.
  • A significant difference in MT expression was noted between different tumours of the thyroid: the highest expression was detected in follicular carcinoma and the lowest was detected in medullary carcinoma.
  • Expression of MT was also significantly elevated in follicular carcinoma as compared to follicular adenoma.
  • On the other hand, no significant differences were seen between expression of Ki-67 antigen in follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • Moreover, these investigations detected no correlation between the expression of MT and Ki-67 antigen in follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • In view of the obtained results, the expression of MT can be considered as a potential marker of differentiation between the two types of thyroid tumours, which are otherwise difficult to differentiate.
  • [MeSH-major] Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Metallothionein / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Paraffin Embedding

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  • (PMID = 21187474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein
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55. Dabelić N, Matesa N, Matesa-Anić D, Kusić Z: Malignancy risk assessment in adenomatoid nodules and suspicious follicular lesions of the thyroid obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):349-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignancy risk assessment in adenomatoid nodules and suspicious follicular lesions of the thyroid obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • Our aim was to assess malignancy risk in adenomatoid nodules and suspicious follicular lesions of the thyroid obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology.
  • Retrospective research was performed of 276 patients who underwent thyroid surgery after preoperative ultrasound-guided FNA diagnosis of either adenomatoid nodule, cellular follicular lesion, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" or follicular neoplasm.
  • Out of 276 patients, FNA reports showed 15 diagnoses (5%) of adenomatoid nodules, 73 (26%) cellular follicular lesions, 76 (28%) "suspicious for follicular neoplasm", and 112 diagnoses (41%) of follicular neoplasm.
  • In FNA reports of adenomatoid nodule (N = 15), there were seven (47%) pathohistological diagnoses (PHDs) of nodular goiter, and eight (53%) PHDs of follicular adenoma.
  • In FNA reports of cellular follicular lesion (N = 73), there were 2 (3%) PHDs of thyroiditis, 32 (44%) PHDs of nodular goiter, 38 (52%) PHDs of follicular adenoma, and one (1%) PHD of papillary carcinoma.
  • In FNA reports of "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" (N = 76), there was one (1%) PHD of thyroiditis, 24 (32%) PHDs of nodular goiter, 47 (62%) PHDs of follicular adenoma and four (5%) diagnoses of papillary carcinoma.
  • In FNA reports of follicular neoplasm (N = 112), there were 25 (22%) PHDs of nodular goiter, 72 (64%) PHDs of follicular adenoma, and 15 (14%) PHDs of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Stratification of cytologic diagnoses of follicular thyroid lesions into different subcategories with various probabilities of malignancy allows more accurate estimation of malignancy risk and individualized patient treatment, when deciding between immediate operation and close follow-ups with repeat FNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 20698101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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56. Yasuda M, Ogane N, Hayashi H, Kameda Y, Miyagi Y, Iida T, Mori Y, Tsukinoki K, Minematsu T, Osamura Y: Glucose transporter-1 expression in the thyroid gland: clinicopathological significance for papillary carcinoma. Oncol Rep; 2005 Dec;14(6):1499-504

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Glucose transporter-1 expression in the thyroid gland: clinicopathological significance for papillary carcinoma.
  • Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expression was immunohistochemically analysed in a total of 268 cases of thyroid gland disease, including 129 cases of papillary carcinoma (PC), 60 cases of follicular carcinoma (FC), 57 cases of follicular adenoma, and 22 cases of adenomatous goitre.
  • GLUT-1 expression was observed in 5% (3/60) of FC cases, but all follicular adenomas and adenomatous goitres were negative for GLUT-1 (PC vs. FC, p<0.0001).
  • Semi-quantitative analysis of glut-1 mRNA by RT-PCR showed a tendency toward higher expression in PCs compared to FCs, follicular adenomas and adenomatous goitres, and the mRNA expression in PCs with a membrane-like pattern was higher than those showing cytoplasm-predominance.
  • 1) GLUT-1 is immunohistochemically useful in distinguishing PC from FC and benign diseases;.
  • [MeSH-major] Glucose Transporter Type 1 / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16273245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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57. Wang SL, Li SH, Chen WT, Chai CY: Expression of D2-40 in adjunct diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. APMIS; 2007 Aug;115(8):906-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of D2-40 in adjunct diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The clinical pathologic criteria for nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma are subjective and sometimes cannot distinguish carcinoma from adenomatous goiter and follicular neoplasms.
  • Controls included 36 follicular adenomas, 36 follicular carcinomas, and 20 adenomatous goiters with papillary hyperplasia.
  • Cytoplasmic D2-40 immunoreactivity was present in 60 of 72 papillary carcinomas, 2 cases of follicular adenoma and 2 cases of follicular carcinoma, whereas no adenomatous goiter or normal thyroid glands contained positive epithelial cells.
  • Overexpression of D2-40 in papillary thyroid carcinomas thus has potential diagnostic utility in differentiating these tumors from their potential histologic mimics.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17696946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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58. Ciobanu D, Căruntu ID, Vulpoi C, Florea N, Giuşcă SE: Morphometric parameters and silver stain used in diagnosis of thyroid follicular diseases. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2006;47(4):323-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Morphometric parameters and silver stain used in diagnosis of thyroid follicular diseases.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid is limited in distinguishing hyperplastic nodular goiter from true follicular neoplasm and in separating follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma.
  • The present study was done to evaluate if the morphologic and morphometric investigations and silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), either alone or in association would help to differentiate the thyroid follicular diseases.
  • 40 FNAB smears of thyroid follicular diseases, histopathologically diagnosed as nodular goiter, lymphocytic thyroiditis, follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, were analyzed using the standard cytological exam, quantitative analysis and NORs assessment.
  • The qualitative evaluation, correlated with the numerical results obtained from the quantitative analysis, revealed that the cellular pattern, mean nuclear diameter and NORs area are valuable criteria in the diagnosis of the benign and malign follicular lesions, respectively.
  • The results attained through morphometry increase the sensibility and the specificity of FNAB in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Silver Staining. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / diagnosis. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17392977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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59. Sillery JC, Reading CC, Charboneau JW, Henrichsen TL, Hay ID, Mandrekar JN: Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jan;194(1):44-54
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate sonography of thyroid follicular neoplasms for features that would aid in distinguishing follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma and for any imaging features that distinguish the Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma from classic follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of patients with the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma and patients with the diagnosis of follicular adenoma.
  • Fifty patients (25 men and 25 women; median age, 59.5 years) with a diagnosis of follicular carcinoma (27 with classic follicular carcinoma, 22 with Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma, and one insular variant) in a 6-year period were included.
  • Fifty-two control patients (10 men and 42 women; median age, 46.5 years) were selected from a random sampling of all cases of follicular adenoma during the same time period.
  • All study patients and control patients underwent surgical resection and pathologic analysis of their thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Hypoechoic appearance (82% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 50% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; odds ratio [OR]), 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7), absence of halo (64% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 42% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9), absence of cystic change (90% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 69% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), greater patient age (median age of 59.5 years for follicular carcinoma patients vs 46.5 years for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), size of the tumor (median size of 11.75 mL for follicular carcinoma patients vs 5.95 mL for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), and male sex (50% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 19.2% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.9) were more frequently associated with follicular thyroid cancer than with benign adenoma.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, homogeneous or predominantly homogeneous echotexture (67% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 36% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1-11.4) and the presence of calcifications (22% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 4% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients [multivariate analysis including age]; p < 0.05; OR, 22.9; 95% CI, 2.0-261.9) were associated with classic follicular carcinoma.
  • Greater patient age (median age of 53 years for classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 64.5 years for Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05) was associated with Hürthle-cell variant follicular carcinoma.
  • There was no association between tumor volume, sex, sonographic halo, refractive shadowing, echogenicity, visible invasion, lymph node enlargement, adjacent nonfollicular suspicious lesions, vascularity subtype, and cystic change between the subgroups of follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The sonographic features of follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are very similar, but larger lesion size, lack of a sonographic halo, hypoechoic appearance, and absence of cystic change favored a follicular carcinoma diagnosis.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma is more often seen in older patients with nodules having a heterogeneous appearance and lacking internal calcifications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20028904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Tuttle RM, Lukes Y, Onstad L, Lushnikov E, Abrosimov A, Troshin V, Tsyb A, Davis S, Kopecky KJ, Francis G: ret/PTC activation is not associated with individual radiation dose estimates in a pilot study of neoplastic thyroid nodules arising in Russian children and adults exposed to Chernobyl fallout. Thyroid; 2008 Aug;18(8):839-46
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  • [Title] ret/PTC activation is not associated with individual radiation dose estimates in a pilot study of neoplastic thyroid nodules arising in Russian children and adults exposed to Chernobyl fallout.
  • BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation is the strongest risk factor known for the development of thyroid neoplasia.
  • While previous studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of ret/papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) activation in cohorts of patients developing thyroid nodules after childhood exposure to ionizing radiation, no study has directly compared ret/PTC activation with individual estimates of radiation dose to the thyroid.
  • This study combines individual thyroid dosimetry data with molecular analysis of surgically removed thyroid nodules in order to determine if ret/PTC activation in thyroid nodules is associated with increasing estimated radiation dose from Chernobyl.
  • METHODS: This pilot study included adults and children diagnosed with PTC (n = 76) and children diagnosed with follicular adenomas (n = 24) during May 1986 through December 1999, who were living in the Bryansk Oblast of the Russian Federation at the time of the Chernobyl accident, who had paraffin-embedded thyroid surgical samples available and for whom an individual dose to the thyroid could be estimated.
  • The frequency of ret/PTC activation was determined using RT-PCR analysis.
  • Individual radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated using a semiempirical model, and data were collected by detailed interview, primarily of the participant's mother.
  • RESULTS: ret/PTC oncogene activation was detected in 23.8% (5/21) and 14.5% (8/55) of the childhood and adult PTC cases, respectively, and 8.3% (2/24) of the follicular adenoma cases.
  • No statistically significant differences were noted in age at the time of exposure or diagnosis, gender, latency period, or estimated radiation dose between PTC patients with or without ret/PTC activation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Factors other than individual thyroid radiation doses may influence the development and subsequent detection of ret/PTC oncogene activation in radiation related PTC arising in the Bryansk Oblast of the Russian Federation in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident.
  • [MeSH-major] Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology. Thyroid Nodule / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18690796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ret-PTC fusion oncoproteins, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2857448
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61. Ge Y, Luna MA, Cowan DF, Truong LD, Ayala AG: Thyrolipoma and thyrolipomatosis: 5 case reports and historical review of the literature. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Dec;13(6):384-9
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  • Because thyrolipoma (adenolipoma of thyroid) and thyrolipomatosis (diffuse lipomatosis of thyroid) are distinctively rare conditions with only few cases reported in the literature, we are reporting 5 additional cases.
  • All the 5 patients were adult females, with ages from 38 to 79 years, who presented with thyroid masses.
  • Four of the patients had normal thyroid function tests and one had mild hypothyroidism.
  • The thyroid specimens showed either circumscribed yellow-tan masses (cases 1, 2, and 3) or diffuse yellow-brown discoloration (cases 4 and 5).
  • Histologic examination revealed abundant mature fat infiltrating the affected thyroid tissue in 3 distinct patterns:.
  • (1) fat infiltration limited to follicular adenomas (thyrolipoma);.
  • (2) fat diffusely infiltrating throughout the thyroid gland (thyrolipomatosis); or (3) fat infiltration involving both follicular adenoma and their surrounding thyroid tissue.
  • Because of the rarity of thyroid fat-containing lesions, confusion in differential diagnosis may occasionally occur.
  • In addition, a papillary thyroid carcinoma was also identified in one case of thyrolipomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lipoma / pathology. Lipomatosis / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19917474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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62. Elsheikh TM, Asa SL, Chan JK, DeLellis RA, Heffess CS, LiVolsi VA, Wenig BM: Interobserver and intraobserver variation among experts in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions with borderline nuclear features of papillary carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Nov;130(5):736-44
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  • [Title] Interobserver and intraobserver variation among experts in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions with borderline nuclear features of papillary carcinoma.
  • Distinguishing follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) from follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma can be difficult if nuclear features of papillary carcinoma are not well developed or only focally present.
  • We assessed interobserver and intraobserver agreement among 6 thyroid experts by using 15 cases in which original pathologists suspected FVPC.
  • Unanimous agreement on benign and malignant diagnoses was seen in 4 cases (27%) and majority agreement on malignancy in 8 cases (53%).
  • This considerable interobserver and intraobserver variability in the diagnosis of FVPC seems to result from lack of agreement on the minimal criteria needed to diagnose FVPC, even among experts.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Pathology, Surgical / standards

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Clin Pathol. 2008 Nov;130(5):683-6 [18854259.001]
  • (PMID = 18854266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Fukunari N: [Ultrasonography of thyroid cancer]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1997-2002
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  • [Title] [Ultrasonography of thyroid cancer].
  • The diagnosis and management of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland remains a controversial topic.
  • Color-Doppler (CD) imaging has been expected for the differential diagnosis between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • CD imaging examination of follicular tumors has revealed that high-velocity pulsative blood flow penetrating the tumor is a characteristic finding of follicular carcinoma.
  • Real-time tissue elastography (RTE), which enable to demonstrate the tissue elasticity, has begun to be applied for the thyroid disease.
  • In follicular cancer, the difference of elasticity from core of the tumor and periphery is supposed to be depend on the difference of hypercellurality.
  • RTE can provide new useful information for the differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Elasticity Imaging Techniques. Humans. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 18018561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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64. Ito Y, Yabuta T, Hirokawa M, Fukushima M, Inoue H, Uruno T, Kihara M, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Amino N, Miyauchi A: Distant and lymph node metastases of thyroid nodules with no pathological evidence of malignancy: a limitation of pathological examination. Endocr J; 2008 Oct;55(5):889-94
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  • [Title] Distant and lymph node metastases of thyroid nodules with no pathological evidence of malignancy: a limitation of pathological examination.
  • Among thyroid nodules arising from follicular cells, benign nodular goiter is thought not to metastasize to regional or distant organs.
  • However, we encountered five cases that were pathologically diagnosed as benign nodular goiter but showed metastasis.
  • The prevalence of benign nodular goiter showing metastasis was 0.17% (5 of 2978 patients).
  • On pathology, there were no detectable signs of carcinoma or follicular adenoma lesions.
  • Pathological diagnosis of thyroid nodules has limitations, and cases diagnosed as benign nodular goiter should still undergo careful follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 18552462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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65. Kołomecki K, Maciaszczyk P, Stepień H, Cywiński J, Cielecka J, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):320-5
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors].
  • INTRODUCTION: Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is the best described mode of physiological cell death.
  • The first is external protein signal originating from other cell--also named as "death signal".
  • Another one is specific cell reaction for external stress factors.
  • Blood concentration of proteins regulating both pathways of apoptosis may be useful in early diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors.
  • The aim of study was evaluation of p53 and sFasL blood concentration in patients with benign follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was composed of 28 patients: 14 with thyroid carcinoma and 14 patients with follicular neoplasm (NF).
  • P53 and sFasL levels were evaluated before surgery and related to the histopathological diagnosis obtained post-surgery.
  • RESULTS: The analysis revealed high sFasL blood concentration in patients with follicular thyroid cancer in comparison with the group with follicular adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of sFasL serum level concentration may be useful in preoperative diagnosis of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fas Ligand Protein / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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66. Yeager N, Klein-Szanto A, Kimura S, Di Cristofano A: Pten loss in the mouse thyroid causes goiter and follicular adenomas: insights into thyroid function and Cowden disease pathogenesis. Cancer Res; 2007 Feb 1;67(3):959-66
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  • [Title] Pten loss in the mouse thyroid causes goiter and follicular adenomas: insights into thyroid function and Cowden disease pathogenesis.
  • Inactivation and silencing of the tumor suppressor PTEN are found in many different epithelial tumors, including thyroid neoplasia.
  • Cowden Disease patients, who harbor germ-line PTEN mutations, often display thyroid abnormalities, including multinodular goiter and follicular adenomas, and are at increased risk of thyroid cancer.
  • To gain insights into the role PTEN plays in thyroid function and disease, we have generated a mouse strain, in which Cre-mediated recombination is used to specifically delete Pten in the thyrocytes.
  • We found that Pten mutant mice develop diffuse goiter characterized by extremely enlarged follicles, in the presence of normal thyroid-stimulating hormone and T4 hormone levels.
  • Loss of Pten resulted in a significant increase in the thyrocyte proliferative index, which was more prominent in the female mice, and in increased cell density in the female thyroid glands.
  • Surprisingly, goitrogen treatment did not cause a substantial increase of the mutant thyroid size and increased only to some extent the proliferation index of the female thyrocytes, suggesting that a relevant part of the thyroid-stimulating hormone-induced proliferation signals are funneled through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade.
  • Although complete loss of Pten was not sufficient to cause invasive tumors, over two thirds of the mutant females developed follicular adenomas by 10 months of age, showing that loss of Pten renders the thyroid highly susceptible to neoplastic transformation through mechanisms that include increased thyrocyte proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Goiter / genetics. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Growth Processes / genetics. Female. Gene Deletion. Male. Mice. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Gland / enzymology. Thyroid Gland / physiopathology


67. Schmid KW, Farid NR: How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma? Virchows Arch; 2006 Apr;448(4):385-93
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  • [Title] How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma?
  • The appropriate diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) still depends on its histological discrimination from follicular adenoma (including the distinction of benign from malignant oncocytic variants), papillary thyroid carcinoma (particularly from the follicular variants) and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • The introduction of the micro array technique, however, may offer the possibility of getting a better insight into the natural history, as well as predicting the clinical course, of a given thyroid nodule.
  • This review attempts to recapitulate common standards in the diagnosis of FTC, to summarise current molecular data available to distinguish FTC from other benign and malignant tumours and, finally, to outline future perspectives to define FTC on its specific genetic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Protein Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16506015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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68. Cantara S, Capezzone M, Marchisotta S, Capuano S, Busonero G, Toti P, Di Santo A, Caruso G, Carli AF, Brilli L, Montanaro A, Pacini F: Impact of proto-oncogene mutation detection in cytological specimens from thyroid nodules improves the diagnostic accuracy of cytology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Mar;95(3):1365-9
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  • [Title] Impact of proto-oncogene mutation detection in cytological specimens from thyroid nodules improves the diagnostic accuracy of cytology.
  • CONTEXT: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the gold standard for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules but has the limitation of inadequate sampling or indeterminate lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: We aimed to verify whether search of thyroid cancer-associated protooncogene mutations in cytological samples may improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC.
  • STUDY DESIGN: One hundred seventy-four consecutive patients undergoing thyroid surgery were submitted to FNAC (on 235 thyroid nodules) that was used for cytology and molecular analysis of BRAF, RAS, RET, TRK, and PPRgamma mutations.
  • The presence of mutations at cytology was associated with cancer 91.1% of the times and follicular adenoma 8.9% of the time.
  • BRAF or RET/PTC mutations were always associated with cancer, whereas RAS mutations were mainly associated with cancer (74%) but also follicular adenoma (26%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


69. Faquin WC: The thyroid gland: recurring problems in histologic and cytologic evaluation. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Apr;132(4):622-32
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  • [Title] The thyroid gland: recurring problems in histologic and cytologic evaluation.
  • Nodules of the thyroid gland are frequently encountered, occurring in up to 7% of the population, and although most of these nodules are benign, carcinomas of the thyroid gland are the most common malignancy of the endocrine system.
  • Although the different types of thyroid carcinoma are few, a wide variety of recurring problems exists in both their histologic and cytologic evaluation.
  • Here, I will review a selected group of problematic areas, including unusual histologic variants of follicular adenoma, criteria for diagnosing minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, the use of fine-needle aspiration as a screening test for follicular neoplasia, challenging variants of papillary carcinoma, and features of poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Pathology / education. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18384214.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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70. Ito Y, Arai K, Nozawa R, Yoshida H, Hirokawa M, Fukushima M, Inoue H, Tomoda C, Kihara M, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Miyauchi A: S100A8 and S100A9 expression is a crucial factor for dedifferentiation in thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Oct;29(10):4157-61
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  • [Title] S100A8 and S100A9 expression is a crucial factor for dedifferentiation in thyroid carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the protein expression of S100A8 as well as that of S100A9 was investigated in thyroid tumors.
  • Papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, follicular adenoma and medullary carcinoma and normal follicules were negative for both proteins.
  • CONCLUSION: S100A8 plays an important role in dedifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma possibly by forming a complex with S100A9.
  • [MeSH-major] Calgranulin A / biosynthesis. Calgranulin B / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 19846966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calgranulin A; 0 / Calgranulin B
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71. Lee SH, Lee JK, Jin SM, Lee KC, Sohn JH, Chae SW, Kim DH: Expression of cell-cycle regulators (cyclin D1, cyclin E, p27kip1, p57kip2) in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Mar;142(3):332-7
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  • [Title] Expression of cell-cycle regulators (cyclin D1, cyclin E, p27kip1, p57kip2) in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of cell-cycle regulators in papillary thyroid carcinoma in relation to lymph node metastatic features, and to determine whether immunohistochemical staining of cell-cycle markers can predict lymph node metastasis.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the clinical records of patients who had undergone surgery for thyroid cancer and follicular adenoma between January 2005 and May 2008 at our clinic.
  • Among these cases, 92 patients, comprising 28 patients with follicular adenoma, 32 with papillary thyroid carcinoma without lymph node metastasis, and 32 with papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis, were selected randomly.
  • RESULTS: Tumor specimens from the papillary thyroid carcinoma group had significantly higher expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and cytoplasmic expression of p57(kip2) than the other two groups (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that immunohistochemistry of certain cell-cycle regulators may be helpful in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and that cyclin D1 in particular may be a useful marker for evaluating lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20172376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6817
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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72. Talsania N, Harwood CA, Piras D, Cerio R: Paraneoplastic Acanthosis Nigricans: The importance of exhaustive and repeated malignancy screening. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(8):8
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  • After exhaustive and repeated investigations a papillary thyroid carcinoma and a follicular adenoma were identified and he improved upon its resection.
  • To our knowledge, P-AN in association with thyroid neoplasm has been reported on only one previous occasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthosis Nigricans / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20804685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Itoh A, Iwase K, Jimbo S, Yamamoto H, Yamamoto N, Kokubo M, Senda T, Nakai A, Nagagasaka A, Nagasaka T, Hibi Y, Seko T: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and presence of angiovascular cells in tissues from different thyroid disorders. World J Surg; 2010 Feb;34(2):242-8
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  • [Title] Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and presence of angiovascular cells in tissues from different thyroid disorders.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the localization of VEGF in human thyroid tissues to clarify its involvement in proliferative processes in a variety of thyroid disorders.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis using purified rabbit polyclonal anti-human VEGF or anti-human CD34 antibody and a streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex detection system was performed on 58 tissue specimens from 53 patients with different thyroid disorders and 5 normal thyroid glands.
  • RESULTS: Vascular endothelial growth factor was not detected in normal thyroid follicular cells.
  • However, some thyroid tumor cells expressed VEGF in the cytoplasm (papillary carcinoma, 10/18; follicular carcinoma, 1/3; medullary carcinoma, 2/2; follicular adenoma, 3/11; adenomatous goiter, 2/4).
  • In benign follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter, weak expression of VEGF was found in small areas of the tumor, whereas in malignant thyroid tumors, it was strongly expressed in many cells.
  • Angiovascular cells stained with CD34 antibody in tissues from different thyroid disorders reflected statistically significant differences in papillary carcinoma, follicular adenoma, and Graves' disease compared with normal thyroids, and such cells showed a trend toward increases in medullary carcinoma and adenomatous goiter.
  • In contrast, low vascularity was observed in anaplastic carcinoma, malignant lymphoma, and follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because VEGF probably functions as a hypoxia-inducible angiogenic factor, overexpression of this mediator, concomitant with hypervascularity, may be induced more strongly in malignant thyroid tumors, which need more oxygen to proliferate, than in benign follicular tumors.
  • However, neither VEGF nor CD34 was expressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is an extremely poorly differentiated malignant tumor.
  • CD34 but not VEGF was expressed in the hyperplastic thyroid tissues of Graves' disease composed of nontransformed cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20041248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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74. Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA: Unusual tumors of the thyroid gland. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;37(2):297-310, vii
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  • [Title] Unusual tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid neoplasms are classified into three major categories: epithelial, nonepithelial, and secondary.
  • Most primary epithelial tumors of thyroid are derived from follicular cells.
  • These include follicular adenoma and carcinoma (Hürthle and non-Hürthle), and papillary carcinoma and its variants.
  • Other primary epithelial tumors include medullary carcinoma, mixed medullary and follicular carcinomas, insular and poorly differentiated carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and the least common squamous carcinoma and related tumors.
  • The secondary tumors represent metastatic tumors to the thyroid usually originating in lung, kidney, and breast.
  • In this article, the authors review the unusual tumors of the thyroid, their morphologic features, and clinical and prognostic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Rare Diseases / diagnosis. Rare Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18502328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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75. Kim HJ, Kim KR, Park HS, Jang KY, Chung MJ, Shong M, Moon WS: The expression and role of serum response factor in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Int J Oncol; 2009 Jul;35(1):49-55
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  • [Title] The expression and role of serum response factor in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • SRF is involved in various cellular processes such as expression of immediate early and tissue-specific genes, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.
  • The expression of SRF in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and its role have not been investigated, forming the basis for this study.
  • Surgical specimens of 63 conventional PTCs along with 30 follicular adenoma, 30 adenomatous hyperplasia and 9 anaplastic carcinoma specimens were obtained from the surgical archives.
  • We also investigated the expression level of SRF and an SRF target gene, c-fos in fresh PTC tissues and thyroid cancer cell lines (NPA, FRO and ARO) by Western blot analyses.
  • In addition, we examined the role of SRF in PTC by overexpresion of SRF in the NPA cell line.
  • SRF was expressed in 50 of 63 cases of papillary carcinoma (79%), 18 of 30 cases of follicular adenoma (60%), 10 of 30 cases of nodular hyperplasia (33%) and 6 of 9 cases of anaplastic carcinoma (67%).
  • The expression level of SRF was significantly up-regulated in PTC (combined staining score of 5.21+/-0.43) and anaplastic carcinoma (5.67+/-1.45) compared to that of follicular adenoma (2.30+/-0.44) (P<0.001), or adenomatous goiter (1.13+/-0.28) (P<0.001).
  • Western blot analyses showed an increased expression of the spliced form of SRF protein and c-Fos protein in PTC as compared to non-tumor thyroid tissues.
  • Overexpression of SRF in papillary carcinoma cells enhanced cell motility and invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Serum Response Factor / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Goiter / metabolism. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Protein Isoforms. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Thyroidectomy. Transfection. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19513551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / SRF protein, human; 0 / Serum Response Factor
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76. Lee SK, Rho BH: Follicular thyroid adenoma with eggshell calcification presenting as an intensely hypermetabolic lesion on 18F-FDG PET/CT. J Clin Ultrasound; 2010 Feb;38(2):107-10
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid adenoma with eggshell calcification presenting as an intensely hypermetabolic lesion on 18F-FDG PET/CT.
  • We report herein a case of follicular thyroid adenoma with an eggshell calcification presenting as an intensely hypermetabolic lesion on combined (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose whole-body PET and CT ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) performed for staging work-up in a 68-year-old woman who had undergone distal gastrectomy with Billroth II anastomosis for early gastric carcinoma.
  • Follicular adenoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a mass with an eggshell calcification on US and intense hypermetabolism on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19655340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0096
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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77. Ip YT, Dias Filho MA, Chan JK: Nuclear inclusions and pseudoinclusions: friends or foes of the surgical pathologist? Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;18(6):465-81

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  • Although their recognition in the appropriate clinicopathological settings can aid in the diagnosis of some disease entities and tumor types, they can also be a source of error.
  • Although not totally specific, they are particularly common in papillary thyroid carcinoma, meningioma, and usual ductal hyperplasia of the breast and hence may aid in the diagnosis of these entities.
  • Nuclear pseudo-pseudoinclusions, which are artefactual bubbles in the nuclei that mimic nuclear pseudoinclusions or clear nuclei, can lead to misdiagnosis of follicular adenoma or hyperplastic nodule as papillary thyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21081532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Rzeszutko M, Rzeszutko W, Dziegiel P, Balcerzak W, Kaliszewski K, Bolanowski M: Expression of FAS/APO 1/CD 95 in thyroid tumors. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2007;45(2):87-91
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  • [Title] Expression of FAS/APO 1/CD 95 in thyroid tumors.
  • Using immunohistochemistry, Fas/Apo-1 protein expression was investigated in thyroid cancers of 67 patients.
  • Thyroid biopsies from twenty eight patients with benign thyroid diseases were also examined.
  • The patients with thyroid cancer manifested a variable histology of the cancer, including 14 patients with follicular carcinoma, 48 with papillary carcinoma, 5 patients with medullary carcinoma.
  • The benign thyroid disease involved nodular goitre in 11 patients and follicular adenoma in other 17 patients.
  • The study aimed at examining immunohistochemical expression of Fas protein in order to determine whether the level of its expression correlated with histological diagnosis.
  • In individual patients Fas expression was more prevalent in thyroid carcinomas as compared to benign tumors (p=0.001).
  • A marked increase in Fas expression was found in papillary carcinoma, as compared to follicular and medullary carcinomas (p=0.02).
  • In conclusion, Fas was significantly more frequently overexpressed in thyroid cancer, indicating its role in thyroid tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17597021.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95
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79. Asaad NY, Abd El-Wahed MM, Mohammed AG: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic and prognostic role. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Mar;18(1):8-16
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  • [Title] Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic and prognostic role.
  • BACKGROUND: The catalytic component of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) has been found to be reactivated in immortalized cell lines and considered as a diagnostic marker for malignancy in different body tissues.
  • AIM OF WORK: Therefore we thought to determine whether hTERT gene detection could serve as an adjunct in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions together with evaluation of its prognostic value.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 50 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma including; 28 papillary carcinoma, 14 follicular carcinoma, 5 anaplastic carcinoma and 3 medullary carcinoma in addition to 5 cases of nodular hyperplasia and 5 cases of follicular adenoma.
  • RNA was extracted from paraffin sections of those patients and hTERT gene expression was identified by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR of hTERT gene revealed expression in 43/50 (86%) malignant thyroid cases; including 25 papillary, 11 follicular, 4 anaplastic and 3 medullary carcinoma cases.
  • On the other hand, hTERT gene expression could not be detected in either hyperplastic nodule or in follicular adenoma cases.
  • The diagnostic validity of hTERT gene detection in benign and malignant thyroid lesions was in the form of 88.3% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 90% negative predictive value.
  • In thyroid carcinoma cases, hTERT gene detection was the most independent predictor of poor survival by multivariate survival analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of hTERT gene expression should be considered in confirmation of malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Moreover it could be one of the helpful tools in addition to grade, tumor type, and age to stratify patients with thyroid carcinoma into different prognostic categories.
  • Hence, inhibition of hTERT could be of use prospectively in the era of cancer therapy as an attractive weapon in thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / enzymology. Telomerase / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 17237847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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80. Lozano-Gómez MJ, Sánchez-Blanco JM, Vázquez-Morón M, Parra-Membrives P, Torres-Arcos C, Jurado-Jiménez R, Gómez-Rubio D, Recio-Moyano G: [Hemithyroidectomy in a unilateral goiter: a valid therapeutic option. Review of the contralateral hemithyroid ten years after treatment]. Cir Esp; 2006 Jul;80(1):23-6
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  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the remaining thyroid in patients with NG compared with those with follicular adenoma who underwent hemithyroidectomy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery for unilateral NG with over 10 years of postoperative follow-up and normal findings on ultrasonography of the contralateral thyroid lobe were selected to form the study group (SG).
  • Patients with follicular adenoma (with normal contralateral ultrasonography) who underwent hemithyroidectomy during the same period were selected to form the control group (CG).
  • Ultrasonographic nodules were found in the remaining thyroid lobe in 70% of patients in the SG and in 60% of those in the CG, with no statistically significant differences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After hemithyroidectomy, both groups of patients developed nodules in the remaining thyroid lobe, with no statistically significant differences.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16796949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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81. Nucera C, Mazzon E, Caillou B, Violi MA, Moleti M, Priolo C, Sturniolo G, Puzzolo D, Cavallari V, Trimarchi F, Vermiglio F: Human galectin-3 immunoexpression in thyroid follicular adenomas with cell atypia. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Feb;28(2):106-12
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  • [Title] Human galectin-3 immunoexpression in thyroid follicular adenomas with cell atypia.
  • Increasing hgal-3 immunoexpression has been reported in several human tumors, including thyroid carcinomas, but not in benign thyroid lesions.
  • We analyzed the immunolocalization of hgal-3 in cell compartments of benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Hgal-3 immunoperoxidase reaction was carried out on 133 thyroid tissue samples obtained from 113 patients; 20 of these were normal (NT), 85 were benign thyroid lesions [20 colloid nodules (CN), 21 nodular hyperplasias (NH), 7 focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT), 15 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), 22 follicular adenomas (FA)], 25 differentiated carcinomas [15 papillary carcinomas (PC), 6 follicular carcinomas (FC) and 4 Hürthle cell carcinomas (HC)] and 3 anaplastic carcinomas (AC).
  • Among the malignant thyroid lesions, hgal-3 was detected in 12/15 (80%) PC, 3/4 (75%) HC and in 4/6 (66.6%) FC, but in none of the 3 AC.
  • Conversely, hgal-3 immunoexpression was absent in NT and in all benign thyroid lesions, but 1/15 HT and 10/22 (45.4%) FA.
  • Hgal-3 cytoplasmic-perinuclear immunolocalization was observed in the majority of thyroid carcinomas and in more than half of the FA, theoretically suggesting an involvement of this protein in thyroid tumorigenesis throughout an antiapoptotic activity.
  • Moreover, hgal-3 expression in FA might anticipate the likelihood of evolution of these benign lesions towards malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Adenoma / pathology. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Middle Aged. Staining and Labeling. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 15887854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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82. Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Abdulkader I, Pérez-Becerra R, Vázquez-Boquete A, Alberte-Lista L, Ruiz-Ponte C, Forteza J, Sobrinho-Simões M: BRAF mutation in solid cell nest hyperplasia associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma. A precursor lesion? Hum Pathol; 2009 Jul;40(7):1029-35
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  • [Title] BRAF mutation in solid cell nest hyperplasia associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma. A precursor lesion?
  • We describe a case of solid cell nest hyperplasia associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man with goiter.
  • The entire gland was examined; in 1 section, the cells of 1 solid cell nest were in close contact with a follicular variant of papillary microcarcinoma.
  • A second follicular variant of papillary microcarcinoma, 1 follicular adenoma, hyperplastic nodules, and some lymphoid aggregates were also found.
  • After microdissection, the same BRAF(V600E) mutation was found both in a pool of 5 solid cell nests and in the adjacent papillary microcarcinoma.
  • BRAF(V600E) mutation and the previously unreported BRAF(G593D) mutation along with p.G606G silent change were found in the second papillary microcarcinoma, but no mutations were detected in the follicular adenoma or in the 2 other pools of solid cell nests screened for BRAF gene mutations.
  • These findings support a histogenetic link between the main cells of solid cell nests and papillary thyroid carcinoma, and suggest solid cell nest hyperplasia as a precursor lesion of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Goiter / etiology. Goiter / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 19269016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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83. Weidinger C, Karger S, Krause K, Schierle K, Steinert F, Gimm O, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: Distinct regulation of intrinsic apoptosis in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Jul;42(8):553-6
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  • [Title] Distinct regulation of intrinsic apoptosis in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • Aberrations in the control of apoptosis represent a central feature of thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • However, little is known about the regulation of components of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in the thyroid.
  • Using a real-time PCR approach we investigated the mRNA expression levels of Caspase3, Caspase3 s, xIAP, Bad, and beta-actin in a panel of 79 thyroid tumours.
  • Thus, malignant thyroid tumours revealed a significant downregulation of the proapoptotic Bad.
  • In contrast Caspase3 s, an alternative splice variant of Caspase3 with anti-apoptotic characteristics, was upregulated in follicular and anaplastic cancers.
  • Moreover, papillary thyroid tumours revealed a significant upregulation of Caspase3 mRNA.
  • On the post-translational level, thyroid malignancies featured an impairment in the activation of Caspase3, since activated Caspase3 accumulated exclusively in the cytoplasm of thyroid cancer cells, whereas follicular adenoma and normal thyroid tissues showed no cytoplasmatic but nuclear Caspase3 distribution.
  • Further knowledge on apoptosis-deregulation during thyroid carcinogenesis might confer diagnostic and therapeutic benefits in the management of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 20446237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / bcl-Associated Death Protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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84. Baloch ZW: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up. Cytojournal; 2006 Apr 07;3:9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up.
  • The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN), follicular neoplasm (FON) and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN).
  • All cases were evaluated for histologic diagnosis, age, sex and size of the nodule.
  • No statistically significant relationship was noted between the sizes of the nodules and benign vs. malignant diagnosis.
  • According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%).

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  • (PMID = 16603062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1458352
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85. Shapiro NA, Poloz TL, Shkurupij VA, Tarkov MS, Poloz VV, Demin AV: Application of artificial neural network for classification of thyroid follicular tumors. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2007 Apr;29(2):87-94
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  • [Title] Application of artificial neural network for classification of thyroid follicular tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze smears of 197 thyroid follicular tumors (adenoma and carcinoma).
  • STUDY DESIGN: Several types of artificial neural networks (ANN) of various designs were used for diagnosis of thyroid follicular tumors.
  • RESULTS: The ANN was trained by means of cytologic features characteristic for a thyroid follicular adenoma and a follicular carcinoma.
  • At subsequent testing, the correct cytologic diagnosis was established in 93% (25 of 27) of cases.
  • The morphometry increased the accuracy of diagnosis for follicular tumors in up to 97% (75 of 78) of cases.
  • ANN correctly distinguished an adenoma or a carcinoma in 87% (73 of 84) of cases when using color microscopic images of tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: The usage of ANN has raised sensitivity of cytologic diagnosis of follicular tumors to 90%, compared with a usual cytologic method (sensitivity of 56%).
  • The automatic classification of thyroid follicular tumors by means of ANN is prospective.

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  • (PMID = 17484272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Ito Y, Arai K, Ryushi, Nozawa, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Uruno T, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K, Kakudo K, Miyauchi A: S100A9 expression is significantly linked to dedifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;201(8-9):551-6
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  • [Title] S100A9 expression is significantly linked to dedifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma.
  • S100A9, a calcium-binding protein, is associated with myeloid cell differentiation and is expressed in some adenocarcinomas as well as in squamous epithelia and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In this study, we immunohistochemically investigated S100A9 expression in thyroid neoplasms.
  • S100A9 was absent in normal follicles, follicular adenoma, and follicular and papillary carcinomas with conventional growth structures.
  • One (5.9%) of the 17 follicular carcinomas and three (7.8%) of the 38 papillary carcinomas were regarded as positive for S100A9, but the positive cell areas always accounted for 5% or less.
  • Among them, the positive cell area was greater than 5% in 16 (84.2%), and greater than 25% in six (31.6%) cases.
  • It is therefore suggested that S100A4 protein plays an important role in thyroid carcinoma dedifferentiation, and can be considered a novel characteristic of undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Calgranulin B / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16259107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calgranulin B
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87. Wang SL, Wu MT, Yang SF, Chan HM, Chai CY: Computerized nuclear morphometry in thyroid follicular neoplasms. Pathol Int; 2005 Nov;55(11):703-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Computerized nuclear morphometry in thyroid follicular neoplasms.
  • Differential diagnosis of follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular carcinoma (FC) of the thyroid can be challenging in the routine practice of surgical pathology because the diagnosis of FC is strictly defined and identification depends on the presence of invasion of the capsule or blood vessels.
  • The present study investigated the diagnostic role of objective computerized nuclear morphometry in follicular neoplasms.
  • Thirty-six cases of thyroid FC and 36 cases of FA from patients who were matched by age and sex were studied.
  • In conclusion, computerized nuclear morphometry can be considered a helpful ancillary tool for differential diagnosis of FA and FC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrastructure. Adenoma / ultrastructure. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16271082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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88. Hemachandran M, Rajwanshi A, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R, Radotra BD: Cytology of Hürthle cell neoplasms of thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):859-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytology of Hürthle cell neoplasms of thyroid gland.
  • Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCN) are an uncommon group of tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important diagnostic tool in solitary nodules of the thyroid gland.
  • Four were adenomas and two were carcinomas.
  • In addition, 3 cases that were adenomas on histopathology were reported on cytology as colloid goiter with cystic degeneration in 2 cases and as follicular adenoma in 1 case.
  • There were no specific cytomorphological features that distinguished adenoma from carcinoma.
  • FNAC has a high specificity for a diagnosis of HCN, but the sensitivity is not as high because of sampling error.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18306589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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89. Garcia EA, Simões K, Wakamatsu A, Ressio RA, Alves VA, Longatto-Filho A, Camargo RS: Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):101-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia worldwide.
  • In order to evaluate the value of LVD in benign and malignant thyroid lesions, we analyzed 110 thyroidectomy specimens using D2-40, a specific marker for lymphatic vessels and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), the most potent molecule of lymphatic proliferation.
  • LVD was significantly different between papillary and follicular carcinomas in total (p = 0.045) and peritumoral area (p = 0.042).
  • Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma showed an important difference of intra- (p = 0.019) and peritumoral (p = 0.033) LVD.
  • VEGF-C was more markedly expressed in malignancies than in benign lesions (p = 0.0001).
  • Almost all cancers with high positive VEGF-C expression also exhibited increased peritumoral LVD (p = 0.049) when compared with the benign lesions.
  • Indeed, the high peritumoral LVD of malignant thyroid lesions is an important finding for surgery planning and supports the practice of total thyroidectomy in malignant thyroid neoplasm's since the lymphatic peritumoral vessels definitely are an escape path for tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20336393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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90. Arena S, Salamone S, Cianci R, Scollo C, Masucci R, Giannone G, Manusia M, Vigneri R, La Rosa GL: Aggressive fibromatosis of the neck initiated after thyroidectomy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jan;29(1):78-81
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Fibromatosis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We describe the case of a 44-yr-old woman, who 2 yr after thyroidectomy for a multinodular goiter with a follicular adenoma showed a rapidly growing mass of the neck causing dysphagia and moderate pain.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed the presence of fibroblast-like cells, partially with atypical features and no colloid: the cytological diagnosis was suspicious for an indeterminate (mesenchymal) neoplasm.
  • Histological diagnosis, after extensive surgery, indicated aggressive fibromatosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Postoperative Complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16553038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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91. Bajaj Y, De M, Thompson A: Fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Jun;120(6):467-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis and management of thyroid disease.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules.
  • The study also evaluated the predictive value of pre-operative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in surgical decision making, by comparing the final pathological diagnosis with the initial FNAC result.
  • Failures were mainly noted in cases of follicular neoplasm.
  • Our results indicate that FNAC is helpful in the diagnosis of thyroid pathology.
  • However, complete histopathological analysis is essential to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma.
  • From this study, it can be concluded that FNAC is a cost-effective method of evaluating thyroid pathology pre-operatively and plays a useful role in planning the surgical management of thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16526971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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92. Oka Y, Nishijima J, Azuma T, Inada K, Miyazaki S, Nakano H, Nishida Y, Sakata K, Hashimoto J, Izukura M: Blunt thyroid trauma with acute hemorrhage and respiratory distress. J Emerg Med; 2007 May;32(4):381-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blunt thyroid trauma with acute hemorrhage and respiratory distress.
  • We report a rare event of acute hemorrhage into a thyroid adenoma after blunt trauma and causing respiratory distress.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant tracheal deviation to the right due to an extensive hematoma surrounded by a capsule in the left lobe of the thyroid gland with extension to the upper mediastinum.
  • The patient was referred to our hospital because the diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumor was not completely ruled out.
  • She successfully underwent left lobectomy of the thyroid gland without sternotomy.
  • The pathological examination revealed follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland with massive intratumor bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hemorrhage / etiology. Thyroid Gland / injuries. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Wounds, Nonpenetrating / complications

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  • (PMID = 17499691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-4679
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of emergency medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Emerg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Liu FH, Hsueh C, Chang HY, Liou MJ, Huang BY, Lin JD: Sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of benign versus malignant nodules in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. J Clin Ultrasound; 2009 Nov-Dec;37(9):487-92
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of benign versus malignant nodules in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.
  • PURPOSE: To correlate sonographic (US) characteristics and results of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid nodules in autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) with surgical pathological findings.
  • RESULT: Twenty-four of the 40 nodules were malignant, including 20 papillary carcinomas, 3 follicular carcinomas, and 1 medullary carcinoma.
  • Of the 16 benign nodules, 8 were nodular hyperplasia, 6 lymphocytic thyroiditis, and 1 each follicular adenoma and Hürthle cell adenoma.
  • The only US parameter that was significant in malignant vs. benign nodules was the presence of poorly defined margins.
  • Based on preoperative cytology, 22 of the 23 malignant nodules were correctly diagnosed, and 10 of the 14 benign nodules were correctly identified.
  • CONCLUSION: No single US parameter can predict thyroid malignancy in patients with AT.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / surgery. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19750546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0096
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Zhang P, Zuo H, Nakamura Y, Nakamura M, Wakasa T, Kakudo K: Immunohistochemical analysis of thyroid-specific transcription factors in thyroid tumors. Pathol Int; 2006 May;56(5):240-5
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of thyroid-specific transcription factors in thyroid tumors.
  • Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), thyroid transcription factor 2 (TTF2) and paired box gene 8 (Pax8) are demonstrated to play a crucial role for the differentiation and organogenesis of thyroid follicular cells.
  • Their roles in thyroid carcinogenesis are not very clear.
  • Because dedifferentiation is a common process in thyroid carcinogenesis, thyroid-specific transcription factors seem also to be involving in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • The purpose of the present paper was to investigate their expression in a broad spectrum of follicular cell tumors in different degrees of differentiation, from well-differentiated benign follicular adenoma to anaplastic carcinoma.
  • Medullary (C cell) carcinoma was also included in the investigation.
  • Results of immunohistochemical staining showed that nuclear localization of these transcription factors was gradually decreased corresponding to the progressive dedifferentiation of thyroid tumors.
  • In conclusion, abnormal expression of TTF1, TTF2 and Pax8 was closely related to thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphatases. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16669872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / TTF2 protein, human
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95. Asioli S, Bussolati G: Emerin immunohistochemistry reveals diagnostic features of nuclear membrane arrangement in thyroid lesions. Histopathology; 2009 Apr;54(5):571-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Diseases.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Emerin immunohistochemistry reveals diagnostic features of nuclear membrane arrangement in thyroid lesions.
  • AIMS: Objective appreciation of irregularities of the nuclear shape is a key parameter in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, since foldings of the nuclear membrane (NM) featuring indentations, grooves and pseudoinclusions characterize papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry of the NM with emerin as well as three-dimensional reconstruction of the images (through deconvolution processing) performed on a series of 54 cases (processed following the tissue array procedure) revealed a uniform arrangement of the NM in non-neoplastic lesions (thyroiditis, microfollicular goitre, follicular adenoma) and normal thyroid as well as in follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Decoration of the NM represents an original approach to identify PTC nuclear shape, highlights new structural features and might be helpful in the differential diagnosis between so-called nuclear pseudoinclusions and artefactual 'bubbles'.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Nuclear Envelope / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Membrane Proteins. Nuclear Proteins. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19302538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / emerin
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96. Kessler A, Gavriel H, Zahav S, Vaiman M, Shlamkovitch N, Segal S, Eviatar E: Accuracy and consistency of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis and management of solitary thyroid nodules. Isr Med Assoc J; 2005 Jun;7(6):371-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accuracy and consistency of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis and management of solitary thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy has been well established as a diagnostic technique for selecting patients with thyroid nodules for surgical treatment, thereby reducing the number of unnecessary surgical procedures in cases of non-malignant tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of FNAB in cases of a solitary thyroid nodule.
  • METHODS: The preoperative FNAB results in 170 patients who underwent thyroidectomy due to a solitary thyroid nodule were compared retrospectively with the final postoperative pathologic diagnoses.
  • RESULTS: In cases of a solitary thyroid nodule, FNAB had a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 98.5%, accuracy of 87%, and positive and negative predictive values of 98.75% and 76.6% respectively.
  • All cases of papillary carcinoma diagnosed by FNAB proved to be malignant on final histology, while 8 of 27 cases of follicular adenoma detected by preoperative FNAB were shown to be malignant on final evaluation of the surgical specimen.
  • It proved to be cost-effective and is recommended as the first tool in the diagnostic workup in patients with thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Isr Med Assoc J. 2005 Sep;7(9):616; author reply 616 [16190494.001]
  • (PMID = 15984379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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97. Krause K, Eszlinger M, Gimm O, Karger S, Engelhardt C, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: TFF3-based candidate gene discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid tumors in a region with borderline iodine deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Apr;93(4):1390-3
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] TFF3-based candidate gene discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid tumors in a region with borderline iodine deficiency.
  • BACKGROUND: With the advent of microarray technology, increasing numbers of marker genes are proposed to distinguish benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • In this paper, we re-evaluate the diagnostic potential of 10 proposed candidate genes in benign and malignant thyroid pathologies in a region with borderline iodine deficiency.
  • METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed for CCND2, PLAB, PCSK2, HGD1, TFF3, B4GALT, LGALS3, ETS1, ADM3, and TG in 150 thyroid specimens, including 52 benign thyroid nodules (28 follicular adenoma and 24 adenomatous nodules), 52 corresponding normal thyroid tissues, 20 follicular carcinomas, 20 papillary carcinomas, and six undifferentiated carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: On a single-gene basis, significant differences in mRNA expression were found for TFF3, PLAB, and ADM3 in benign thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancy.
  • Using two-marker gene sets, we identified 11 combinations, which allowed both a distinction of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and a discrimination of follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • However, for cancer prediction, analysis of a minimum of six genes per sample was necessary and allowed correct prediction of a benign thyroid lesion and thyroid cancer with 94% accuracy in the most discriminative set (TFF3/PLAB/TG/ADM3/HGD1/LGALS3).
  • CONCLUSION: We confirm the applicability of a number of recently proposed marker genes for the distinction of benign and malignant thyroid tumor and suggest that their diagnostic usefulness is independent of the iodide supply.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine / deficiency. Peptides / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18198227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TFF3 protein, human; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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98. Kim TY, Kim WB, Song JY, Rhee YS, Gong G, Cho YM, Kim SY, Kim SC, Hong SJ, Shong YK: The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Nov;63(5):588-93
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF(V600E) mutation, the most common genetic alteration reported in papillary thyroid carcinoma, has been associated with poor prognostic factors.
  • AIM: To determine whether the presence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation is associated with poor prognosis in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (micro-PTC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded thyroid tumour specimens taken from 60 patients with conventional micro-PTC, as well as from nine patients with follicular variant papillary carcinoma, six with nodular hyperplasia, four with follicular carcinoma (including one with Hürthle cell carcinoma), four with follicular adenoma (including two with Hürthle cell adenoma) and one each with medullary carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected in tumour samples from 31 of 60 conventional micro-PTC patients (52%), but was not detected in patients with other types of thyroid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16268813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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99. Garg M, Kanojia D, Suri S, Gupta S, Gupta A, Suri A: Sperm-associated antigen 9: a novel diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Nov;94(11):4613-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sperm-associated antigen 9: a novel diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Cancer-testis antigens are the unique class of testis proteins expressed in tumor but not healthy tissue except testis and might represent ideal targets for the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutic methods in thyroid cancer, which is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the clinical relevance of cancer-testis antigen sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) as early diagnostic and therapeutic target in thyroid cancer.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: SPAG9 gene and protein expression was determined in thyroid cancer cell lines in 138 thyroid tumor specimens, 60 adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCT), 22 multinodular goiters (nonneoplastic hyperplasia), and 20 follicular adenoma tissue samples by RT-PCR, in situ RNA hybridization, and immunohistochemistry.
  • Humoral immune response against SPAG9 in thyroid cancer patients was analyzed using ELISA.
  • RESULTS: SPAG9 mRNA and protein expression was detected in 78% of the thyroid cancer patients but not multiple goiters and follicular adenoma disease patients.
  • It is interesting to note that majority of early-stage (T1) thyroid cancer patients exhibited higher antibody response against SPAG9.
  • Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SPAG9 expression in thyroid cancer cell significantly reduced cellular growth and colony formation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPAG9 expression may play a role in cellular growth and thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • These findings support a potential role for SPAG9 as diagnostic biomarker as well as a possible therapeutic target in thyroid cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Goiter / blood. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19820019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SPAG9 protein, human
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100. Lukjanowicz M, Bobrowska-Snarska D, Brzosko M: [Coexistence of hypothyroidism with polymyositis or dermatomyositis]. Ann Acad Med Stetin; 2006;52 Suppl 2:49-55
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYCLOSPORIN A .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 46.1 years (40-54 years).
  • Four patients were diagnosed with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, in two patients the autoimmune etiology was probable, whereas one patient was diagnosed with hypothyroidism secondary to strumectomy for follicular adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Every patient suspected of poly/dermatomyositis should be tested for thyroid hormone levels to exclude hypothyroidism with muscle weakness arising from the polymyositis-like syndrome or alternatively to confirm the coexistence of hypothyroidism and poly/dermatomyositis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatomyositis / complications. Dermatomyositis / diagnosis. Hypothyroidism / drug therapy. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Polymyositis / diagnosis. Polymyositis / drug therapy. Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use

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  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Polymyositis.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Hypothyroidism.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .
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  • (PMID = 17471837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1427-440X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Acad Med Stetin
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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