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1. Kurobe M, Abe K, Kinoshita N, Anami M, Tokai H, Ryu Y, Wen CY, Kanematsu T, Hayashi T: Hyperplastic polyposis associated with two asynchronous colon cancers. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Jun 21;13(23):3255-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report a patient with hyperplastic polyposis who had two asynchronous colon cancers, a combined adenoma-hyperplastic polyp, a serrated adenoma, and tubular adenomas.
  • Hyperplastic polyposis is thought to be a precancerous lesion; and adenocarcinoma arises from hyperplastic polyposis through the hyperplastic polyp-adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • Most polyps in patients with hyperplastic polyposis present as bland-looking hyperplastic polyps, which are regarded as non-neoplastic lesions; however, the risk of malignancy should not be underestimated.
  • In patients with multiple hyperplastic polyps, hyperplastic polyposis should be identified and followed up carefully in order to detect malignant transformation in the early stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Intestinal Polyps / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17589908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4436615
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2. Liang JJ, Alrawi S, Tan D: Nomenclature, molecular genetics and clinical significance of the precursor lesions in the serrated polyp pathway of colorectal carcinoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(4):317-24
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  • [Title] Nomenclature, molecular genetics and clinical significance of the precursor lesions in the serrated polyp pathway of colorectal carcinoma.
  • Serrated adenomas (SAs) are part of the distinct serrated polyp pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis characterized by microsatellite instability and deficiency in DNA mismatch repair.
  • Sessile SA is a recently recognized lesion that typically presents as a large sessile polyp, but lacks the conventional dysplasia.
  • It is more frequently found on the right side than on the left side of the colon, and is thought to represent an intermediate form in the hyperplastic polyp to sessile SA, traditional SA, and colon cancer sequence.
  • Many terms have been used and are still in use in the literature to describe this lesion, such as "hyperplastic polyposis", "giant hyperplastic polyposis," "large hyperplastic polyps," "hyperplastic-adenomatous polyposis syndrome," "giant hyperplastic polyp," and "mixed epithelial polyp."
  • The purpose of this paper is to review and clarify the confusing nomenclature, and to provide a framework for understanding the genetic alterations and clinical significance of these precursor lesions in the serrated polyp pathway of colorectal caner.

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  • (PMID = 18787610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480541
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Polyp / adenomatous / carcinoma / colon / hyperplastic / sessile serrated adenoma
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3. Valls Bautista C, Piñol Felis C, Reñé Espinet JM, Buenestado García J, Viñas Salas J: Telomerase activity and telomere length in the colorectal polyp-carcinoma sequence. Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2009 Mar;101(3):179-86
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  • [Title] Telomerase activity and telomere length in the colorectal polyp-carcinoma sequence.
  • OBJECTIVE: The role of telomerase activity and telomere length in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colon carcinogenesis has not been well established.
  • The objective of this study was to determine telomerase activity and telomere length patterns in patients with adenomatous polyps either associated or not with colorectal cancer, as well as the role of telomeric instability in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included in the study 14 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer and/or polyps.
  • In 6 of these patients fresh samples of tumor tissue, polyps, and normal mucosa were obtained; in the 8 remaining cases, we collected only polyps and normal mucosa.
  • RESULTS: Telomerase activity was detected in 86% of polyps and 50% of associated normal mucosa.
  • Mean telomerase activity in polyp tissue was 5.85; in the normal mucosa it was 0.58 TPG.
  • Polyps in patients without synchronous cancer had a telomerase activity that was significantly higher (9.4) than in those with cancer (1.1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Telomerase activity increases in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, concurrently with a decrease in telomere length.
  • The presence of synchronous cancer modifies telomerase activity in polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / enzymology. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / enzymology. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Telomerase / metabolism. Telomere

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  • (PMID = 19388798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-0108
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Enferm Dig
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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4. Tabuchi M, Kitayama J, Nagawa H: Hypertriglyceridemia is positively correlated with the development of colorectal tubular adenoma in Japanese men. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Feb 28;12(8):1261-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hypertriglyceridemia is positively correlated with the development of colorectal tubular adenoma in Japanese men.
  • AIM: To determine the real association between serum lipid levels and colonic polyp formation.
  • METHODS: We performed a large scale retrospective study to analyze the correlation between the incidence of colorectal adenoma or carcinoma and the fasting serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in patients who underwent total colonoscopy for screening for colon cancer.
  • The difference was significant in patients with tubular adenoma but not in those with villous or serrated adenoma.
  • The level of TG in patients with invasive carcinoma did not show a significant elevation from that in patients with adenoma.
  • These findings suggest that hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for colonic adenoma in men.
  • CONCLUSION: Although a high level of serum triglyceride does not appear to be mechanically involved in the development of carcinoma, reduction of serum TG and intensive surveillance with total colonoscopy may have benefit in men with hypertriglyceridemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / etiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Hypertriglyceridemia / complications

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  • (PMID = 16534881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4124439
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5. Jass JR: Serrated adenoma of the colorectum and the DNA-methylator phenotype. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2005 Aug;2(8):398-405
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  • [Title] Serrated adenoma of the colorectum and the DNA-methylator phenotype.
  • Serrated adenomas (SA) of the colorectum show features intermediate between hyperplastic polyps (HP) and adenomas.
  • HP and SA are related lesions and there is now strong evidence for a 'serrated-polyp pathway' to colorectal cancer (CRC) that is largely independent of the classic adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence.
  • Because this lesion lacks the traditional cytology of colorectal adenoma and in order to avoid confusion with SA, it is referred to in this review as sessile serrated polyp.
  • They may develop in HP or sessile serrated polyps, or may arise de novo.
  • Subsets of colorectal cancers with an unusually high number of methylated CpG islands have been described as having the 'CpG-island-methylator phenotype' It is possible that many, if not all, CRCs with the CpG-island-methylator phenotype evolve through the serrated-polyp pathway that would, therefore, explain approximately 20% of all CRCs.
  • The current lack of guidelines for managing serrated polyps may explain the static incidence of proximal CRC, despite the falling incidence rates for left-sided CRC during the same time period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation

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  • (PMID = 16130936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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6. Bouzourene H, Sandmeier D: [Sessile serrated adenoma: an underdiagnosed colonic polyp]. Rev Med Suisse; 2007 Jul 4;3(118):1702-4
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  • [Title] [Sessile serrated adenoma: an underdiagnosed colonic polyp].
  • Serrated polyps of the colon represent a large morphological spectrum of lesions.
  • They comprise the hyperplastic polyp considered as an innocuous lesion for many years, the traditional serrated adenoma presenting a potential of cancerisation and the recently described the sessile serrated adenoma which seems to be a potential precursor of colonic cancer with microsatellite instability and which probably uses an alternate polyp-neoplasia pathway in addition to the classical adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • The aims of this article intend to inform of new concept of colonic carcinogenesis, to be aware of a serrated colonic polyp entity recently described and to use a same nomenclature to facilitate the dialogue between pathologists and clinicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17726906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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7. Matano Y, Okada T, Suzuki A, Yoneda T, Takeda Y, Mabuchi H: Risk of colorectal neoplasm in patients with acromegaly and its relationship with serum growth hormone levels. Am J Gastroenterol; 2005 May;100(5):1154-60
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  • Prevalence of hyperplastic polyp, adenoma, and carcinoma were compared with the prevalence in 76 controls matched for gender, age, and smoking status.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of hyperplastic polyp, adenoma, and carcinoma were significantly higher in the acromegalic patients compared to the controls (p < 0.05, odds ratios; 8.3, 4.2, and 9.8, respectively).
  • In acromegalics, the presence of hyperplastic polyps and carcinomas were significantly associated with higher serum GH levels after adjusting for the other lesions and age (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: After controlling for age, gender, smoking status, and treatment status, acromegaly was associated with significantly higher prevalence of colorectal hyperplastic polyp, adenoma, and carcinoma.
  • High serum GH levels may be associated with the presence of hyperplastic polyp and carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / complications. Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Carcinoma / blood. Carcinoma / complications. Case-Control Studies. Colonic Polyps / blood. Colonic Polyps / complications. Colonoscopy. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Intestinal Polyps / blood. Intestinal Polyps / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Smoking

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  • (PMID = 15842593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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8. Liljegren A, Barker G, Elliott F, Bertario L, Bisgaard ML, Eccles D, Evans G, Macrae F, Maher E, Lindblom A, Rotstein S, Nilsson B, Mecklin JP, Möslein G, Jass J, Fodde R, Mathers J, Burn J, Bishop DT: Prevalence of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps in mismatch repair mutation carriers among CAPP2 participants: report by the colorectal adenoma/carcinoma prevention programme 2. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jul 10;26(20):3434-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps in mismatch repair mutation carriers among CAPP2 participants: report by the colorectal adenoma/carcinoma prevention programme 2.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps in a large cohort of individuals with a germline mutation in a mismatch repair (MMR) gene, the major genetic determinant of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Colorectal Adenoma/Carcinoma Prevention Programme 2 trial is a chemoprevention trial in people classified as having HNPCC.
  • The number, histology, size, and location of polyps found at the participants' first ever colonoscopy were analyzed in a cross-sectional study.
  • RESULTS: Seventy-four patients (10.6%) were found to have at least one adenoma at first colonoscopy, whereas 37 (5.3%) had at least one hyperplastic polyp.
  • The frequency of an adenoma at first colonoscopy increased from 5.0% (95% CI, 2.8% to 8.3%) in patients younger than 35 years old to 18.9% (95% CI, 9.4% to 32.0%) in patients age at least 55 years (P = .0001 for trend).
  • No such trend was observed for hyperplastic polyps.
  • No sex differences were found for either type of polyp.
  • A marginal association was found between the co-occurrence of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps.
  • Adenomas tended to be more proximally distributed through the colon, whereas hyperplastic polyps tended to be located in the distal colon.
  • CONCLUSION: Adenoma prevalence increases with age among MMR mutation carriers, whereas hyperplastic polyp prevalence is consistent.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology. Germ-Line Mutation. Heterozygote

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  • (PMID = 18612159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A4994; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0100496; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2645083
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9. Casper M, Plotz G, Juengling B, Trojan J, Lammert F, Raedle J: Adenoma development in a patient with MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP): new insights into the natural course of polyp development. Dig Dis Sci; 2010 Jun;55(6):1711-5
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  • [Title] Adenoma development in a patient with MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP): new insights into the natural course of polyp development.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen years of colonoscopic surveillance of an MAP patient (compound heterozygous p.Y165C/p.G382D) showed that adenoma development was slow after initial diagnosis of a single colorectal carcinoma at the age of 44, but then the annual number of new adenomas increased substantially in the patient's early fifties.
  • CONCLUSION: This course of the disease, with a strong subsequent acceleration of polyp development, may explain the wide range of polyp numbers counted in newly diagnosed MAP patients as a result of the time of observation.
  • The high frequency of medium and severe dysplasia in the patient's preferential small adenomas suggests accelerated progression from adenoma to carcinoma in MAP, but this observation must be confirmed by further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. DNA Glycosylases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19672709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / mutY adenine glycosylase
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10. Wu X, Liu F, Yao X, Li W, Chen C: Growth hormone receptor expression is up-regulated during tumorigenesis of human colorectal cancer. J Surg Res; 2007 Dec;143(2):294-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence to determine whether its expression correlates with the various stages of cancer transformation.
  • RESULTS: Most of the normal mucous tissues and hyperplastic polyps showed no or weak immunoreactivity for GHR.
  • In contrast, most of the adenoma and adenocarcinoma samples reacted strongly or moderately with monoclonal GHR antibodies.
  • In RT-PCR, amplified fragments of the expected sizes (247bp) were detected in 90 of 90 samples examined, and the semiquantitative RT-PCR result showed an up-regulation of GHR mRNA expression during the polyp-adenoma-carcinoma sequence, which was consistent with the immunohistochemical results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that growth hormone/GHR plays a role in the development of colorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyps / genetics. Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Adenomatous Polyps / physiopathology. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / physiopathology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17764692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / somatotropin-binding protein; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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11. Selcuk H, Korkmaz M, Kanbay M, Tore E, Sumer H, Unal H, Yeloglu O, Gur G, Bilezikci B, Demirhan B, Yilmaz U, Boyacioglu S: Total colonic polyp diameter: a marker for the risk of malignancy? Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 May-Jun;55(84):936-9
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  • [Title] Total colonic polyp diameter: a marker for the risk of malignancy?
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The correlation of the risk of malignancy with the sum of the diameters of small colonic polyps is unknown, and data regarding this topic are lacking.
  • In this study, the relationship between the sum of the diameters of the total number of colonic polyps and poor histopathologic characteristics was examined.
  • METHODS: A total of 920 neoplastic colon polyps were evaluated in 480 patients.
  • The "total polyp diameter" (i.e. the sum of all polyp diameters identified during colonoscopy), which was calculated in each patient by adding the diameter of each polyp to a sum, was categorized as "small" (<10mm in diameter) or "large" (> or =10mm in diameter).
  • The polyps were further categorized by histopathologic component as "unfavorable" or "favorable" and were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (those identified as carci noma, carcinoma in situ, villous adenoma, and tubulovillous adenoma with a villous component of more than 25%) and group 2 (mixed adenomatous polyps with various degrees of hyperplastic or inflammatory components and adenomas with a tubular component of more than 75%).
  • RESULTS: Large polyps that had a total diameter greater than or equal to 10mm tended to have poor histopathologic characteristics (p<0.05).
  • Polyps generally tended to localize in the left portion of the colon, and malignant polyps or those at risk for malignancy in particular tended to localize in the left colon (p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Polypectomy is recommended for patients in whom the sum of the diameter of all colonic polyps exceeds 10mm.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Villous / pathology. Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Colonoscopy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18705301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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12. Jeffery N, McLean MH, El-Omar EM, Murray GI: The matrix metalloproteinase/tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase profile in colorectal polyp cancers. Histopathology; 2009 Jun;54(7):820-8
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  • [Title] The matrix metalloproteinase/tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase profile in colorectal polyp cancers.
  • Roles in pathways involved in early tumour development are also being identified for this system, and the aim of this study was to define the expression profile of the major MMPs and TIMPs in colorectal polyp cancers.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression and cellular localization of individual MMPs and TIMPs was determined in colorectal polyp cancers by immunohistochemistry.
  • MMP1 (P < 0.001), MMP2 (P = 0.003), MMP3 (P = 0.004), TIMP1 (P = 0.01) and TIMP2 (P < 0.001) showed significant increases in immunoreactivity in carcinomatous epithelium compared with adenomatous epithelium.
  • MMP7 showed immunoreactivity in carcinomatous epithelium, but showed no immunoreactivity in either normal epithelium or adenomatous epithelium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study defines the expression profile of MMPs and TIMPs in colorectal polyp cancers and shows that the increased expression of MMPs and TIMPs occurs at an early stage of colorectal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestinal Polyps / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / etiology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / etiology. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19635101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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13. Rüschoff J, Aust D, Hartmann A: [Colorectal serrated adenoma: diagnostic criteria and clinical implications]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2007;91:119-25
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  • [Title] [Colorectal serrated adenoma: diagnostic criteria and clinical implications].
  • More than 40 years ago Morson (1962) coined the paradigm that adenomas are the main precursors of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) whereas hyperplastic polyps are "non-neoplastic" lesions without cancer risk.
  • Later-on (1988) this was supported by Vogelstein's molecular adenoma-carcinoma progression model with APC mutations being a key-initiating molecular event (classic adenoma-carcinoma pathway).
  • It's the merit of Jass (1999) to demonstrate that carcinogenesis in sporadic MSI-positive CRC is associated with serrated polyps.
  • These polyps form the hallmark of a third "serrated (neoplasia) pathway" exhibiting a hyperplastic polyp-like morphology characterized by serrated crypt epithelium.
  • In contrast to adenomatous polyps with readily apparent cytological atypia (dysplasia) the feature of dysplasia in serrated polyps is architectural distortion.
  • Today four categories of serrated lesions can be delineated: (i) the most frequent classic hyperplastic polyp (HP, 80-90%), followed by (ii) sessile serrated adenoma (SSA, 15-20%) and (iii) by the rare traditional serrated adenoma (TSA, < 1%).
  • Whereas HPP are benign, SSA are probably slowly progressing lesions and TSA as well as SSA with APC-type adenomatous atypias (iv. mixed SSA) indicate increased cancer risk.
  • Molecularly serrated polyps seem to share a defect in apoptosis caused by either K-ras or BRAF gene mutation leading to CpG island methylation (CIMP) affecting MLHI (--> MSI type CRC) or non-MMR oncogenes (--> MSI-L or MSS type serrated CRC, Mäkinen 2007).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Colonic Polyps / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Genes, APC. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Mutation


14. Kondo T: Colon invasive micropapillary carcinoma arising in tubulovillous adenoma. Pol J Pathol; 2008;59(3):183-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Colon invasive micropapillary carcinoma arising in tubulovillous adenoma.
  • Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) is defined as a carcinoma composed of small clusters of tumor cells lying within clear spaces which simulate lymphovascular channels.
  • Although rarely observed as a pure histologic component, IMPC is usually mixed with conventional carcinoma, and is therefore often referred to as carcinoma with a micropapillary component.
  • I herein describe a case of primary IMPC originating in colon polyp as a minor histologic component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 19097358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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15. Summers RM, Huang A, Yao J, Campbell SR, Dempsey JE, Dwyer AJ, Franaszek M, Brickman DS, Bitter I, Petrick N, Hara AK: Assessment of polyp and mass histopathology by intravenous contrast-enhanced CT colonography. Acad Radiol; 2006 Dec;13(12):1490-5
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  • [Title] Assessment of polyp and mass histopathology by intravenous contrast-enhanced CT colonography.
  • Standard deviation of mean polyp CT attenuation was computed and assessed using ANOVA and receiver-operating characteristic analyses.
  • RESULTS: Colonoscopy confirmed 32 polyps or masses 1 to 8 cm in size.
  • At a standard deviation threshold of 42 HU, the sensitivity and specificity for classifying a polyp or mass as a carcinoma were 92% and 79%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of the standard deviation of CT attenuation on intravenous contrast-enhanced CTC permits histopathologic classification of polyps 1 cm or larger as carcinomas versus adenomas.
  • The presence of ulceration or absence of muscular invasion in carcinomas creates overlap with adenomas, reducing the specificity of carcinoma classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Carcinoma / radiography. Colonic Neoplasms / radiography. Colonic Polyps / radiography. Colonography, Computed Tomographic

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  • (PMID = 17138117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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16. Byun TJ, Han DS, Ahn SB, Cho HS, Eun CS, Jeon YC, Sohn JH, Oh YH: Pseudoinvasion in an adenomatous polyp of the colon mimicking invasive colon cancer. Gut Liver; 2009 Jun;3(2):130-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pseudoinvasion in an adenomatous polyp of the colon mimicking invasive colon cancer.
  • Pseudoinvasion or pseudocarcinomatous invasion in an adenomatous polyp of the colon can be unfamiliar to an endoscopist.
  • Pseudoinvasion in an adenomatous polyp represents prolapse of the adenomatous epithelium into its stalk.
  • In most cases its morphology does not differ from of general adenomatous polyps, but in some cases it can morphologically mimic a malignant polyp with submucosal invasion due to mass-like lesioning of its stalk.
  • This makes it difficult for endoscopists to differentiate pseudoinvasion in an adenoma from an invasive carcinoma by conventional endoscopy; instead, endoscopic ultrasonography can provide useful information for differentiating these conditions.
  • We report on an 82-year-old man who presented with a large pedunculated polyp with a thick stalk in the sigmoid colon, which mimicked a submucosal invasive carcinoma.
  • The patient was diagnosed with pseudoinvasion in an adenomatous polyp after segmental resection of the sigmoid colon.

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  • (PMID = 20431736.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-1212
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut and liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut Liver
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2852693
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenomatous polyps / EUS / Malignant polyp / Pseudoinvasion
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17. Oono Y, Fu K, Nakamura H, Iriguchi Y, Yamamura A, Tomino Y, Oda J, Mizutani M, Takayanagi S, Kishi D, Shinohara T, Yamada K, Matumoto J, Imamura K: Progression of a sessile serrated adenoma to an early invasive cancer within 8 months. Dig Dis Sci; 2009 Apr;54(4):906-9
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  • [Title] Progression of a sessile serrated adenoma to an early invasive cancer within 8 months.
  • Recent studies suggest that serrated polyps, including hyperplastic polyps, traditional serrated adenomas, and sessile serrated adenomas, may be morphologically and genetically distinct and linked to microsatellite unstable colorectal cancers, and thus the concept of a hyperplastic polyp-serrate adenoma-carcinoma pathway has been suggested.
  • Furthermore, it has been suggested that transformation from serrated polyps to invasive cancers can be rapid and occurs when the lesions are small; however, direct evidence for this issue is scant.
  • We herein describe a case of a sessile serrated adenoma showing rapid transformation into a submucosal invasive carcinoma with remarkable morphological change in a short period of 8 months.
  • This case is unique and suggestive, as it provided information about the natural history of a sessile serrated adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18688718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Jarus K, Braclik M: [Early gastric carcinoma--a case report: removal of gastric polyp in a 50-year-old man]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2007 Nov-Dec;117(11-12):521-3
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  • [Title] [Early gastric carcinoma--a case report: removal of gastric polyp in a 50-year-old man].
  • Two polyps in the stomach were revealed during the examination.
  • The biopsy was made, and the histological examination showed cancer in one of the polyps The endoscopy was performed again and both polyps were removed by endoscopic mucosal resection.
  • In conclusions, polyps, especially adenoma, should be removed shortly after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Polyps / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18363252.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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19. Numata K, Oka H, Morimoto M, Sugimori K, Kunisaki R, Nihonmatsu H, Matsuo K, Nagano Y, Nozawa A, Tanaka K: Differential diagnosis of gallbladder diseases with contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med; 2007 Jun;26(6):763-74
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  • METHODS: We evaluated contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale ultrasonographic images from 33 patients with 35 polypoid gallbladder disease lesions larger than 10 mm in diameter, consisting of 12 biliary sludge lesions, 8 cholesterol polyps, 1 inflammatory polyp, 2 adenomas, and 12 carcinomas.
  • Lesions showing tumor vessels and tumor enhancement on contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale ultrasonography were diagnosed as cholesterol polyp, inflammatory polyp, adenoma, or carcinoma.
  • Three (38%) of the 8 cholesterol polyps showed dotted-type tumor vessels.
  • Branched-type tumor vessels were observed in 5 (62%) of the 8 cholesterol polyps, the 1 (100%) inflammatory polyp, both (100%) adenomas, and 3 (25%) of the 12 carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of tumor vessels on contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale ultrasonography may be a useful modality for differentiating gallbladder carcinoma from other polypoid gallbladder disease lesions.

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  • (PMID = 17526608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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20. Niv Y, Vilkin A, Levi Z: Patients with sporadic colorectal cancer or advanced adenomatous polyp have elevated anti-JC virus antibody titer in comparison with healthy controls: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2010 Aug;44(7):489-94
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  • [Title] Patients with sporadic colorectal cancer or advanced adenomatous polyp have elevated anti-JC virus antibody titer in comparison with healthy controls: a cross-sectional study.
  • Antibodies against JCV can be found in the sera of many people with and without colorectal carcinoma (CRC).
  • We compared JCV antibody titers in patients with simple adenoma, advanced adenomatous polyp (AAP), CRC, and healthy controls, and evaluated JCV DNA in the tissue.
  • Normal colonoscopy, simple adenoma, AAP, and CRC were found in 41, 19, 12, and 25 cases, respectively.
  • The average titer for normal controls, simple polyp, AAP, and CRC was 2.61+/-0.72, 2.95+/-0.77, 3.33+/-0.76, and 3.30+/-0.50 log, respectively (P<0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / virology. Adenomatous Polyps / virology. Colorectal Neoplasms / virology. JC Virus / immunology

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010 Aug;44(7):466-8 [20520564.001]
  • (PMID = 20421810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-2031
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
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21. Smith D, Ballal M, Hodder R, Selvachandran SN, Cade D: The adenoma carcinoma sequence: an indoctrinated model for tumorigenesis, but is it always a clinical reality? Colorectal Dis; 2006 May;8(4):296-301
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonic Polyps.

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  • [Title] The adenoma carcinoma sequence: an indoctrinated model for tumorigenesis, but is it always a clinical reality?
  • OBJECTIVE: Evidence exists to support alternative pathways to the adenoma carcinoma sequence.
  • RESULTS: Of 4089 patients, polyps were identified in 8.0% and cancer in 4.2%.
  • Polyp behaviour along with malignant propensity may actually be site dependent, with rectal polyps harbouring a more aggressive phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16630233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Farris AB, Misdraji J, Srivastava A, Muzikansky A, Deshpande V, Lauwers GY, Mino-Kenudson M: Sessile serrated adenoma: challenging discrimination from other serrated colonic polyps. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jan;32(1):30-5
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  • [Title] Sessile serrated adenoma: challenging discrimination from other serrated colonic polyps.
  • Sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) is the proposed precursor for microsatellite unstable colorectal carcinomas and some authorities recommend that SSAs should be managed similar to adenomas.
  • The aim of our study was to determine whether serrated polyps can be classified with sufficient consistency to support current treatment recommendations.
  • One hundred eighty-five serrated polyps were classified as hyperplastic polyp (HP), SSA, or traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) by 5 pathologists blinded to clinical data.
  • In a second round, the observers were provided with polyp site and size.
  • After reaching a consensus on minimum criteria for SSA and TSA, the pathologists classified another set of 50 polyps.
  • Interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of serrated polyps is moderate.
  • However, this level of variability is acceptable because the presence of SSA indicates increased risk of developing additional serrated polyps and carcinoma, and surveillance is appropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Intestinal Polyps / pathology


23. Krstic M, Alempijevic T, Stimec B, Micev M, Milicevic M, Micic D, Jankovic G: Gallbladder villous adenoma in a patient with acromegaly: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Jun 14;13(22):3144-6
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  • [Title] Gallbladder villous adenoma in a patient with acromegaly: a case report.
  • Ultrasonography and subsequent endosonography diagnosed a large (4.5 cm), hyperechoic, sessile polyp with numerous pedicles.
  • An open cholecystectomy was performed and revealed a villous adenoma with several foci of carcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly. Adenoma, Villous / ultrasonography. Gallbladder Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17589936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4172627
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24. Oh K, Redston M, Odze RD: Support for hMLH1 and MGMT silencing as a mechanism of tumorigenesis in the hyperplastic-adenoma-carcinoma (serrated) carcinogenic pathway in the colon. Hum Pathol; 2005 Jan;36(1):101-11
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  • [Title] Support for hMLH1 and MGMT silencing as a mechanism of tumorigenesis in the hyperplastic-adenoma-carcinoma (serrated) carcinogenic pathway in the colon.
  • This mechanism has also recently been implicated in the newly postulated hyperplastic polyp-serrated adenoma-carcinoma ("serrated") pathway of carcinogenesis, although this has never been investigated thoroughly.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate hMLH1, hMSH2, MGMT, as well as MIB-1, p53, and beta-catenin immunoexpression in an uncommon cohort of mixed colonic polyps that contain a combination of hyperplastic and adenomatous features (n = 21), and in some (n = 7), carcinoma as well.
  • DESIGN: The clinical, pathological, and immunophenotypic (hMLH1, hMSH2, MGMT, MIB-1, p53, and beta-catenin) properties of 28 mixed hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps of the colon (7 of which also contained carcinoma within the same lesion) were evaluated for the above immunopeptides in each of the different morphologic areas of the polyps, and the results were compared to traditional hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, and conventional (nonserrated) adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Clinically, most mixed polyps with carcinoma occurred in the ascending colon (86%), and pathologically, the adenomatous component of most mixed polyps was serrated (96%).
  • Mixed polyps, particularly those with carcinoma, showed loss of hMLH1 (33%), MGMT (37%), and even hMSH2 (11%) with significantly higher frequency compared to hyperplastic polyps, conventional adenomas, and serrated adenomas.
  • More specifically, loss of hMLH1 and MGMT were more frequent in epithelium of higher neoplastic grade in mixed polyps.
  • However, hMSH2 loss was only present in the adenoma component and never in the hyperplastic or carcinomatous areas of these polyps.
  • Defects in MIB-1 proliferation indices and p53 were not significantly different among the same epithelial components in each of the polyp groups.
  • However, conventional adenomas showed significantly higher rates of nuclear beta -catenin staining (100%) in comparison to the adenomatous component of mixed polyps (60%).
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Gene Silencing. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Carrier Proteins. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. MutS Homolog 2 Protein. Nuclear Proteins. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 15712188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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25. Kim DH, Pickhardt PJ, Taylor AJ: Characteristics of advanced adenomas detected at CT colonographic screening: implications for appropriate polyp size thresholds for polypectomy versus surveillance. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2007 Apr;188(4):940-4
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  • [Title] Characteristics of advanced adenomas detected at CT colonographic screening: implications for appropriate polyp size thresholds for polypectomy versus surveillance.
  • The purpose of this study was to delineate the prevalence and imaging characteristics of advanced adenomas detected at screening CT colonography (CTC) and the rates of invasive carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia for various polyp size categories.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The imaging and pathologic findings for polyps measuring 6 mm or more obtained from a CTC screening population of 3,536 persons during a 32-month period were retrospectively reviewed.
  • From this group, prevalence, size, histologic features, morphologic features, and location of advanced adenomas were tabulated.
  • There was a very low prevalence of high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in this series, particularly in the medium-sized group of lesions.
  • These findings lend support to the practice of CTC screening in which large polyp size is used as a surrogate measure for the possible presence of advanced histologic features and medium-sized lesions are followed with noninvasive surveillance protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Colonic Neoplasms / radiography. Colonic Polyps / radiography. Colonography, Computed Tomographic

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  • (PMID = 17377027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Kesse E, Boutron-Ruault MC, Norat T, Riboli E, Clavel-Chapelon F, E3N Group: Dietary calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, dairy products and the risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer among French women of the E3N-EPIC prospective study. Int J Cancer; 2005 Oct 20;117(1):137-44
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  • [Title] Dietary calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, dairy products and the risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer among French women of the E3N-EPIC prospective study.
  • In particular, it is unclear whether they act at a particular step of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • To investigate the effect of dairy product consumption and dietary calcium, vitamin D and phosphorus intake on the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in the French E3N-EPIC prospective study.
  • The population for the study of risk factors for adenomas was composed of 516 adenoma cases, including 175 high-risk adenomas, and of 4,804 polyp-free subjects confirmed by colonoscopy.
  • There was a trend of decreasing risk of both adenoma (ptrend=0.04) and cancer (ptrend=0.08) with increasing calcium intake, with RRs for adenoma and cancer of 0.80 (IC 95%=0.62-1.03) and 0.72 (95% CI=0.47-1.10), respectively, in the fourth quartile compared to the first.
  • A protective effect of dairy products on adenoma (RRQ4 vs. Q1=0.80, 95% CI=0.62-1.05, ptrend=0.04) was observed and of milk consumption on colorectal cancer (RRQ4vs. Q1=0.54, 95% CI=0.33-0.89, ptrend=0.09), although the latter did not reach significance.
  • Phosphorus intake also decreased the risk of adenoma (RRQ4 vs. Q1=0.70, 95% CI=0.54-0.90, ptrend=0.005).
  • Our data support the hypothesis that calcium, dairy products and phosphorus exert a protective effect at certain steps of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Dairy Products. Phosphorus, Dietary / administration & dosage. Vitamin D / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15880532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium, Dietary; 0 / Phosphorus, Dietary; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
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27. Mitchell PJ, Haboubi NY: The malignant adenoma: when to operate and when to watch. Surg Endosc; 2008 Jul;22(7):1563-9
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  • [Title] The malignant adenoma: when to operate and when to watch.
  • METHODS: A literature review of publications regarding the malignant adenoma/polyp using Medline was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: The dilemma as to which course of action is in the best interest of the patient with high-risk adenoma, be it either therapeutic polypectomy alone or surgical resection, is best resolved by a multidisciplinary team involving the surgeon, pathologist and endoscopist, taking the patient's condition and wishes into account.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma / secondary. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18363065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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28. Barreda Costa C, Vila Gutierrez S, Salazar Cabrera F, Barriga Calle E, Velarde Criado H, Barriga Briceño J: [Advanced adenoma in 3700 colonoscopies]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru; 2010 Apr-Jun;30(2):113-20
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  • [Title] [Advanced adenoma in 3700 colonoscopies].
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of colon polyps, distribution in the colon, as well as their histological characteristics, with special mention on advanced adenomas, in an adult population at an endoscopy center in Lima.
  • Each polyp was studied separately and its histological findings recorded.
  • RESULTS: 3,701 colonoscopies were done in 3,690 patients; 1,492 (40,4%) had polyps and were included in the study.
  • 997 (27%) had adenomatous polyps and 495 (13.4%) non adenomatous polyps.
  • Adenomatous polyps were found throughout the colon, with a predominance of hyperplasic polyps in the rectum.
  • 78% of the adenomatous polyps and 84% of the advanced adenomas were found in patients older than 50 years old.
  • In the advanced adenomas group, we found 62 lesions (24%) with high grade dysplasia and 12 (4.5%) with early carcinoma; as well as 37 flat lesions (14%) and 26 serrated adenomas (10%).
  • In this group of patients, significant risk factors were: prior history of adenomas or colorectal cancer (46/203 vs. 63/495; p<0.01), and multiple adenomatous polyps found during colonoscopy (67/203 vs. 121/794; p<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adenomatous polyps were the most frequently found polyps in our study; approximately 20% were advanced lesions, especially in patients older than 50 years old.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / epidemiology. Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonic Polyps / epidemiology. Colonoscopy / statistics & numerical data. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyps / diagnosis. Adenomatous Polyps / epidemiology. Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Early Diagnosis. Humans. Hyperplasia. Middle Aged. Motivation. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Organ Specificity. Peru / epidemiology. Prospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20644602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1609-722X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Peru
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Peru
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29. Khor TS, Brown I, Kattampallil J, Yusoff I, Kumarasinghe MP: Duodenal adenocarcinoma arising from a pyloric gland adenoma with a brief review of the literature. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Duodenal adenocarcinoma arising from a pyloric gland adenoma with a brief review of the literature.
  • Pyloric gland-type adenoma of the duodenum with documented malignant progression is rare.
  • A case is presented of an 87-year-old man with bloating and nausea, who on investigation was found to have a polyp on the anteroinferior wall of the duodenal cap.
  • Histologic examination of the polyp showed features of a pyloric gland adenoma (PGA) demonstrating the full spectrum of progression from low- to high-grade dysplasia and finally invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • The carcinoma showed gastric-type differentiation highlighted by its mucin immunohistochemistry profile and was of advanced stage with lymph node metastasis.
  • The literature on PGAs and the little documentations on progression to carcinoma in duodenal PGAs are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastric Mucosa. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3028104
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30. Bu XD, Li N, Tian XQ, Li L, Wang JS, Yu XJ, Huang PL: Altered expression of MUC2 and MUC5AC in progression of colorectal carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Aug 28;16(32):4089-94
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  • [Title] Altered expression of MUC2 and MUC5AC in progression of colorectal carcinoma.
  • AIM: To study the expression profiles of MUC2 and MUC5AC in tumorigenesis of colorectal carcinoma and in its different pathologic types.
  • Six samples of normal mucosa (NM), 12 samples of hyperplastic polyp (HP), 15 samples of tubular adenoma with low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 14 samples of tubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia (HGD), 26 samples of conventional colorectal adenocarcinoma (CCA), 15 samples of mucinous carcinoma (MC), and 8 samples of signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) were collected.
  • The transformation process in MC and SRCC may be different from that in the traditional adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

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  • (PMID = 20731025.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2928465
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31. Tatsumi N, Mukaisho K, Mitsufuji S, Tatsumi Y, Sugihara H, Okanoue T, Hattori T: Expression of cytokeratins 7 and 20 in serrated adenoma and related diseases. Dig Dis Sci; 2005 Sep;50(9):1741-6
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  • [Title] Expression of cytokeratins 7 and 20 in serrated adenoma and related diseases.
  • The entity of serrated adenoma of the colorectum was first proposed in 1990, and it was characterized as epithelial neoplasia combining the architectural features of a hyperplastic polyp with the cytological features of an adenoma.
  • Over the past few years, various clinicopathological studies on serrated adenoma have been reported, but its histogenesis remains unclear.
  • Recently the existence of a "serrated neoplasia pathway" leading to malignancy, which is different from the so-called adenoma-carcinoma sequence, has been discussed.
  • Yao et al. reported that hyperplastic polyps and serrated adenomas share a common cell lineage with gastric differentiation.
  • To clarify the existence of the serrated neoplasia pathway, we performed immunohistochemical staining of cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and cytokeratin 20 (CK20), which are commonly used to determine the primary site of a metastatic lesion, and we examined the pattern of CK7/CK20 expression in various colorectal lesions including 44 serrated adenomas, 25 hyperplastic polyps, 20 traditional adenomas, and 48 carcinomas.
  • An obvious difference existed in the pattern of CK7/CK20 expression between the serrated lesions (hyperplastic polyps and serrated adenomas) and others.
  • The majority of serrated adenomas and hyperplastic polyps presented a CK7+/CK20+ pattern, whereas most conventional adenomas and adenocarcinomas expressed CK7-/CK20+.
  • Adenocarcinoma developing in serrated adenoma also presented a CK7+/CK20+ pattern.
  • Taken together with the present results, a distinct pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis must exist, which is different from the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Keratins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20. Keratin-7. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16133982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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32. Fostira F, Apessos A, Oikonomou E, Kouklis P, Baratsis S, Manifikos G, Andera L, Yannoukakos D, Pintzas A, Nasioulas G: Culture of primary epithelial adenoma cells from familial adenomatous polyposis patients. Anticancer Res; 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2A):843-6
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  • [Title] Culture of primary epithelial adenoma cells from familial adenomatous polyposis patients.
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis patients carry a germ line mutation in the APC gene leading to the development of thousands of polyps, which, if left untreated, lead to cancer.
  • Successful subculturing of the cell sheets took place only when dispase prepared in Ca2+ and Mg2+ free medium, was used to digest polyp tissue taken from FAP patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The protocol we developed here provides a means of preparing cell cultures from human colorectal adenomas, which aid in the research of the transition from adenoma to carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / pathology. Cell Culture Techniques / methods. Epithelial Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 18507027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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33. Bauer VP, Papaconstantinou HT: Management of serrated adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2008 Nov;21(4):273-9
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  • [Title] Management of serrated adenomas and hyperplastic polyps.
  • The benign serrated architecture of the hyperplastic polyp has now been recognized in morphologically similar lesions with potential for transformation to colorectal carcinoma: the sessile serrated adenoma (SSA), traditional serrated adenoma (TSA), and mixed polyp.
  • These represent a group of serrated polyps with potential to evolve into colorectal cancer through a different molecular pathway than the traditional adenoma-carcinoma sequence, called the serrated pathway.
  • An evidence-based algorithm for the clinical management of this polyp has yet to be determined.
  • The histology of serrated polyps is reviewed, as well as the common characteristics, and implications for treatment and surveillance.

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  • (PMID = 20011438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780250
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hyperplastic polyp / management / mixed polyp / sessile serrated adenoma / traditional serrated adenoma
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34. Escalona A, León F, Bellolio F, Pimentel F, Guajardo M, Gennero R, Cruz JP, Viviani P, Ibáñez L: [Gallbladder polyps: correlation between ultrasonographic and histopathological findings]. Rev Med Chil; 2006 Oct;134(10):1237-42
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  • [Title] [Gallbladder polyps: correlation between ultrasonographic and histopathological findings].
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder polyps are becoming a common finding.
  • The management of these polyps is complicated considering that they can bear malignant lesions.
  • AIM: To analyze the ultrasonographic and histopathologic findings of patients operated due to gallbladder polyps.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of patients with ultrasonographic diagnosis of gallbladder polyp and that underwent cholecystectomy in a thirteen years period were reviewed, collecting their demographic, ultrasonographic and histopathological data.
  • The mean size of polyps in ultrasonography was 7.3+/-5 mm.
  • Histopathology confirmed the presence of polyps in 79% of patients, with a mean size and number of lesions of 5.1+/-3.8 mm and 2.1+/-2, respectively.
  • Nine percent of polyps were greater than 10 mm, and single polyps were significantly larger than the multiple ones (p =0.003).
  • Four cases of adenoma (3.2%) were diagnosed; one of them had in situ carcinoma.
  • We found a significant correlation between ultrasonographic and histopathological polyp size determination (r =0.47; p =0.002).
  • Polyp size was also a predictor of the presence of adenoma (p =0.043; confidence intervals: 1.006-1.424).
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a good correlation between the size of the gallbladder polyp in ultrasonography and the size in the histopathology report.
  • Gallbladder adenoma is uncommon and it correlates with the size of the polyp.
  • In this series, size was the only predictor of the presence of adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17186092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
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35. Chlumská A, Boudová L, Zámecník M: Sessile serrated adenomas of the large bowel. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study including comparison with common hyperplastic polyps and adenomas. Cesk Patol; 2006 Jul;42(3):133-8
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  • [Title] Sessile serrated adenomas of the large bowel. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study including comparison with common hyperplastic polyps and adenomas.
  • Sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) is a newly characterized type of the large bowel adenoma.
  • It arises in hyperplastic polyp (HP) and represents a precursor lesion of colorectal carcinoma with microsatellite instability.
  • The sites of SSAs were as follows: 8 in rectum, 4 in rectosigmoid colon, 1 in transverse colon, 1 next to mucinous carcinoma of ascending colon, 1 in anastomosis after resection of the transverse colon adenocarcinoma.
  • Both MUC2 and MUC5A were also positive in mucinous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Intestinal Polyps / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Colonic Polyps / chemistry. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin 5AC. Mucin-2. Mucins / analysis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16955561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucins
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36. Fu KI, Hamahata Y, Tsujinaka Y: Early colon cancer within a diverticulum treated by magnifying chromoendoscopy and laparoscopy. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Mar 28;16(12):1545-7
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  • We report a unique case of intramucosal carcinoma in a tubulovillous adenoma arising from a single diverticulum.
  • A flat elevated polyp was found within a single diverticulum located in the descending colon and diagnosed as an intramucosal carcinoma, as magnifying chromoendoscopy revealed a type IV pit pattern.
  • As his diverticular bleeding repeated, a right-sided hemicolectomy was decided for treatment, the polyp within the diverticulum was also completely removed by EMR with the assistance of laparoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma, Villous / surgery. Colectomy. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Colonoscopy / methods. Diverticulum, Colon / complications. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20333800.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2846265
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37. Mochizuka A, Uehara T, Nakamura T, Kobayashi Y, Ota H: Hyperplastic polyps and sessile serrated 'adenomas' of the colon and rectum display gastric pyloric differentiation. Histochem Cell Biol; 2007 Nov;128(5):445-55
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  • [Title] Hyperplastic polyps and sessile serrated 'adenomas' of the colon and rectum display gastric pyloric differentiation.
  • The serrated polyp-neoplasia pathway is a novel concept that has been demonstrated to differ from the conventional adenoma-carcinoma pathway.
  • To characterize the phenotypic patterns of differentiation in colorectal serrated polyps, we examined the immunohistochemical expression profile of gastric (MUC5AC, TFF1, MUC6, GlcNAcalpha1 --> 4Gal --> R, and PDX1) and intestinal (MUC2, TFF3, and CDX2) epithelial markers in 15 hyperplastic polyps (HPs), 29 sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs),12 traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs), and 16 conventional adenomas (CAs).
  • The colorectal serrated polyps showed higher expression of gastric makers than CAs.
  • PDX1 up-regulation and CDX2 down-regulation could be important for the induction of a gastric pyloric pattern of cell differentiation in colorectal serrated polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Intestinal Polyps / pathology. Pylorus / cytology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17851679.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-6143
  • [Journal-full-title] Histochemistry and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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38. Szalóki T, Tóth V, Tiszlavicz L, Czakó L: [Diagnostic and therapeutic use of endoscopic resection of gastric mucosa]. Orv Hetil; 2006 Mar 19;147(11):501-7
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  • BACKGROUND: EMR is a widely used treatment option for gastric adenoma and early gastric cancer, but, there are no data on its use in Hungary.
  • The diagnosis at first biopsy was in situ carcinoma in 3, adenoma with no dysplasia in 19, adenoma with low-grade dysplasia in 2, adenoma with moderate-grade dysplasia in 6, adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in 7, and hyperplastic lesion in 17 cases.
  • The histology of EMR revealed in situ carcinoma in 5, carcinoid in 1, gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 1, adenoma with no dysplasia in 14, adenoma with low-grade dysplasia in 3, adenoma with moderate-grade dysplasia in 9, adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in 1, hyperplastic lesion in 21, and no diagnosis in 1 case.
  • A Nd YAG laser was used in this patient with in situ carcinoma, where the resection margin was not free of cancer cells.
  • In the follow up period we could not observe gastric malignancy in the previously hyperplastic polyp cases.
  • Among adenoma cases one recurrence was seen in the same place and one in another location.
  • One hyperplastic residuum occurred and in one case adenoma has grown in the same place.
  • Biopsy is generally unreliable to diagnose gastric adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / surgery. Laser Therapy. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16607858.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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39. Markou K, Karasmanis I, Vlachtsis K, Petridis D, Nikolaou A, Vital V: Primary pleomorphic adenoma of the external ear canal. Report of a case and literature review. Am J Otolaryngol; 2008 Mar-Apr;29(2):142-6
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  • [Title] Primary pleomorphic adenoma of the external ear canal. Report of a case and literature review.
  • Ceruminal glands are modified sweat glands of the skin of the external auditory meatus that may give rise to (a) benign tumors such as ceruminous adenoma, pleomorphic adenoma, and syringocystadenoma papilliferum, and (b) malignant tumors such as ceruminous adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • In this report, we describe an unusual case of pleomorphic adenoma of the external auditory canal associated with chronic infection of the middle ear.
  • She had been affected with chronic otitis media and aural polyps for the last 13 years, for which she had received medical treatment only.
  • A canal-filling aural polyp was noted on clinical examination.
  • Subsequent biopsy and histologic examination revealed pleomorphic adenoma of the external ear canal, possibly with malignant elements.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pleomorphic adenoma is an extremely rare tumor arising from the ceruminal glands of the external ear canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Ear, External / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18314029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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40. Micheletto G, Sciannamea I, Zanoni A, Panizzo V, Rubino B, Danelli P: [Intestinal neuroendocrine tumor. Case report and review of the literature]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Jul-Aug;80(4):319-24
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  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma endocrino (carcinoide) ileale. Caso clinico e revisione della letteratura.
  • Here we report a case of a 73-year-old male with an adenomatous colonic polyp, not suitable of endoscopic treatment, and a synchronous carcinoid of small intestine discovered during surgical procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Carcinoid Tumor. Colonic Polyps. Ileal Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Sigmoid Neoplasms


41. Aust DE, Baretton GB, Members of the Working Group GI-Pathology of the German Society of Pathology: Serrated polyps of the colon and rectum (hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas, traditional serrated adenomas, and mixed polyps)-proposal for diagnostic criteria. Virchows Arch; 2010 Sep;457(3):291-7
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  • [Title] Serrated polyps of the colon and rectum (hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas, traditional serrated adenomas, and mixed polyps)-proposal for diagnostic criteria.
  • Until recently, two major types of colorectal epithelial polyps were distinguished: the adenoma and the hyperplastic polyp.
  • While adenomas-because of their cytological atypia-were recognized as the precursor lesions for colorectal carcinoma, hyperplastic polyps were perceived as harmless lesions without any potential for malignant progression mainly because hyperplastic polyps are missing cytological atypia.
  • Meanwhile, it is recognized that the lesions, formerly classified as hyperplastic, represent a heterogeneous group of polyps with characteristic serrated morphology some of which exhibit a significant risk of neoplastic progression.
  • These serrated lesions show characteristic epigenetic alterations not commonly seen in colorectal adenomas and progress to colorectal carcinoma via the so-called serrated pathway (CpG-island-methylation-phenotype pathway).
  • This group of polyps is comprised not only of hyperplastic polyps, but also of sessile serrated adenomas, traditional serrated adenomas and mixed polyps, showing serrated and "classical" adenomatous features.
  • In a consensus conference of the Working Group of Gastroenterological Pathology of the German Society of Pathology, standardization of nomenclature and diagnostic criteria as well as recommendations for clinical management of these serrated polyps were formulated and are presented herein.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Rectum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20617338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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42. Lee SK, Chang HJ, Kim TI, Kim WH, Park CK, Chang DK, Park DI, Sohn JH, Byeon JS, Yang SK, Kim JO, Lee SH, Jin SY, Park CH, Baek IH, Eun CS, Han DS, Park SJ, Chang HK, Jeen YT, Kim HS, Park DH, Shin SJ, Chang MS: Clinicopathologic findings of colorectal traditional and sessile serrated adenomas in Korea: a multicenter study. Digestion; 2008;77(3-4):178-83
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serrated polyps have emerged as important evidence supporting the serrated polyp-neoplasia pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis, an alternate to the classical adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • However, there is confusion over the diagnostic criteria for serrated polyps including traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) and sessile serrated adenoma (SSA).
  • METHODS: The 753 polyps that were previously diagnosed as serrated adenoma (SA) from 14 tertiary care university hospitals in Korea between 2003 and 2005 were evaluated for the clinicopathologic findings of TSA and SSA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Locationand endoscopic features of the polyps with abnormal crypt morphology in histologic findings could be helpful for the diagnosis and classification of SAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18617741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9867
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Digestion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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43. Nagata N, Asai S, Gocho S, Shirakura K, Koike J, Suzuki T, Watanabe N, Shirai T, Minemura T, Mine T, Miyachi H: Ultrasonographic diagnosis of adult intussusception caused by pedunculated colon carcinoma. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2008 Apr;33(1):39-41

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  • [Title] Ultrasonographic diagnosis of adult intussusception caused by pedunculated colon carcinoma.
  • We report a case with colon intussusception caused by a pedunculated polyp of the sigmoid colon in a 54-year-old male.
  • Abdominal ultrasonographic screening for hematochezia showed intussusception in the sigmoid colon, demonstrating a multiple concentric ring sign and a mobile leading colon polyp.
  • Histological examination of a biopsy specimen of the polyp revealed adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / ultrasonography. Intussusception / ultrasonography. Sigmoid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Colonic Polyps. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 21318963.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Rubio CA, Stemme S, Jaramillo E, Lindblom A: Hyperplastic polyposis coli syndrome and colorectal carcinoma. Endoscopy; 2006 Mar;38(3):266-70
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  • [Title] Hyperplastic polyposis coli syndrome and colorectal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with hyperplastic polyposis coli syndrome (HPCS) have a propensity to develop colorectal carcinoma (CRC).
  • A mean of 40.3 hyperplastic polyps per patient were found (range 6-159).
  • Other colorectal lesions were found as follows: two patients each had one mixed polyp; there were 15 serrated adenomas in eight patients; and there were 30 tubular, tubulovillous, or villous adenomas in eight patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Aged. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16528654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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45. Koh DC, Luchtefeld MA, Kim DG, Attal H, Monroe T, Ingersoll K: Microsatellite instability and MLH1 hypermethylation - incidence and significance in colorectal polyps in young patients. Colorectal Dis; 2007 Jul;9(6):521-6
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  • [Title] Microsatellite instability and MLH1 hypermethylation - incidence and significance in colorectal polyps in young patients.
  • We aimed to determine the incidence of MSI and the presence of hypermethylation of the promoter site of the MLH1 gene in these polyps.
  • METHOD: Patients aged <or=40 years diagnosed with colonic polyps removed endoscopically from 1998 to 2003 were identified and their charts reviewed.
  • RESULTS: 23 patients with 38 polyps were analysed.
  • Eight patients had a positive family history colorectal polyp, 11 a family history of CRC.
  • No significant correlation between a family history of colorectal polyps or cancer and polyp location was found.
  • About 53% of the polyps were tubulo-adenomas and 27% tubulovillous adenomas.
  • None of the polyps exhibited MSI.
  • MLH1 'A' hypermethylation was present in 16% of the polyps.
  • A positive family history of colorectal polyps and cancer were associated with a higher incidence of MLH1 'A' hypermethylation.
  • There was no determinable correlation between the clinico-pathological features of the polyp with MLH1 hypermethylation.
  • CONCLUSION: MLH1 HM was found in approximately 16% of polyps found in young patients and represents one of the epigenetic changes that may result in the subsequent progression to carcinoma along an accelerated sequence.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / genetics. Microsatellite Instability
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adenoma / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Nuclear Proteins

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  • (PMID = 17573746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins
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46. Rouillier P, Senesse P, Cottet V, Valléau A, Faivre J, Boutron-Ruault MC: Dietary patterns and the adenomacarcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer. Eur J Nutr; 2005 Aug;44(5):311-8
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  • AIM: The aim of this study was to determine dietary patterns associated with the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma pathway.
  • Patients with hyperplastic polyps (n = 103), adenomas < 10 mm, (n = 154) or larger adenomas (n = 208) were then compared with polyp-free controls (n = 426), and colorectal cancer cases (n = 171) compared with population controls (n = 309) using unconditional logistic regression adjusted on age and gender.
  • There was no relationship between patterns and risk of hyperplastic polyps.
  • CONCLUSION: A lowenergy diet appeared as protective all along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, contrary to a high-energy, high-processed meat and -animal fat diet.

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur J Nutr. 2005 Aug;44(5):318
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  • (PMID = 15316829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-6207
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Barone M, Tanzi S, Lofano K, Scavo MP, Pricci M, Demarinis L, Papagni S, Guido R, Maiorano E, Ingravallo G, Comelli MC, Francavilla A, Di Leo A: Dietary-induced ERbeta upregulation counteracts intestinal neoplasia development in intact male ApcMin/+ mice. Carcinogenesis; 2010 Feb;31(2):269-74
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  • Most sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) develop through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence pathway and are initiated by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutations.
  • Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) is recognized to progressively reduce its expression in adenomatous and carcinomatous tissues in humans.
  • In the Apc(Min/+) mouse model, we evaluated intestinal polyp development and ERbeta expression plus other biological parameters influencing tumor growth (epithelial cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration) following the addition of a combination of the ERbeta-selective agonist silymarin (SIL) and/or lignin (LIG) to a high-fat/low-fiber diet.
  • In these animals, we assessed polyp number and volume and their degree of dysplasia together with ERbeta messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels and epithelial cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis.
  • The latter group of parameters was evaluated in normal and adenomatous mucosa and the results compared with those found in wild-type (WT) mice fed on the control diet.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / physiology. Diet. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / etiology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Animals. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Intestinal Polyps / etiology. Intestinal Polyps / metabolism. Intestinal Polyps / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19945967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2180
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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48. O'Brien MJ: Hyperplastic and serrated polyps of the colorectum. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2007 Dec;36(4):947-68, viii
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  • [Title] Hyperplastic and serrated polyps of the colorectum.
  • The serrated polyp pathway is a histopathological sequence that begins in a hyperplastic polyp, or precursor serrated aberrant crypt focus, and has the potential to end in a colonic adenocarcinoma that is CIMP-high and, in most cases, also MSI.
  • There is evidence that aberrant CpG-island methylation is the molecular engine that drives the progression through sequential steps of the pathway, from hyperplastic polyp to a form of atypical hyperplastic polyp (termed sessile serrated adenoma) to dysplastic serrated polyp and, ultimately to serrated carcinoma.
  • A second serrated pathway, identified by mutations of KRAS in serrated adenoma, is delineated less completely.
  • Its endpoint is a colorectal carcinoma that is CIMP-low and MSS, and both the advanced serrated adenoma and carcinoma stages of this pathway show molecular genetic and morphologic features that overlap with those of the conventional APC carcinogenic pathway.
  • Clinical studies are needed to elucidate the natural history of serrated neoplasia, and provide evidence-based guidance for risk assessment and surveillance of individuals discovered to harbor its various serrated polyp precursors.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Rectum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17996799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8553
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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49. Einspahr JG, Martinez ME, Jiang R, Hsu CH, Rashid A, Bhattacharrya AK, Ahnen DJ, Jacobs ET, Houlihan PS, Webb CR, Alberts DS, Hamilton SR: Associations of Ki-ras proto-oncogene mutation and p53 gene overexpression in sporadic colorectal adenomas with demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Aug;15(8):1443-50
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  • In colorectal tumorigenesis, Ki-ras proto-oncogene mutation often occurs early in the adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence, whereas mutation of the p53 gene is associated with late progression to carcinoma.
  • Individuals with an advanced adenoma (>or=1 cm or high-grade dysplasia or villous histology) had a 4-fold higher likelihood of Ki-ras mutation [odds ratios (OR), 3.96; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 2.54-6.18].
  • Multivariate analysis showed that previous history of a polyp (P = 0.03) was inversely associated with p53 overexpression.
  • Large adenoma size (>or=1 cm), high-grade dysplasia, and villous histology were independently associated with p53 overexpression, with the strongest association for advanced adenomas (OR, 7.20; 95% CI, 3.01-17.22).
  • Individuals with a Ki-ras mutated adenoma were more likely to overexpress p53 (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.36-4.46), and 94.8% of adenomas with both alterations were classified as advanced (P <or= 0.0001).
  • Our large cross-sectional study supports the role of both Ki-ras and p53 in the progression of adenomas and shows that their molecular pathogenesis differs by anatomic location, age, and mucosal predisposition as evidenced by previous history of a polyp.

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  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Oct;15(10):2016. Rashid, Asif [added]
  • (PMID = 16896030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA041108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA41108
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS430412; NLM/ PMC3547362
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50. Selçuk D, Demirel K, Ozer H, Baca B, Hatemi I, Mihmanli I, Korman U, Oğüt G: Comparison of virtual colonoscopy with conventional colonoscopy in detection of colorectal polyps. Turk J Gastroenterol; 2006 Dec;17(4):288-93
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  • [Title] Comparison of virtual colonoscopy with conventional colonoscopy in detection of colorectal polyps.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of multidetector computed tomography-based virtual colonoscopy for colorectal polyp detection by using conventional colonoscopy as the reference standard.
  • RESULTS: Virtual colonoscopy correctly depicted 19 of 22 polyps (sensitivity, 86%) that were detected in conventional colonoscopy.
  • All 4 polyps that were greater than 10 mm in size (100%), 6 of 7 polyps 6-9 mm in size (85%), and 9 of 11 polyps 5 mm in size or smaller (81%) were correctly depicted with virtual colonoscopy.
  • CONCLUSION: Multidetector computed tomography-based virtual colonoscopy has excellent sensitivity for the detection of clinically important colorectal polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Carcinoma / radiography. Colonic Polyps / radiography. Colonography, Computed Tomographic. Colorectal Neoplasms / radiography. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 17205408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-4948
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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51. Simsek BC, Pehlivan S, Karaoglu A: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression in colorectal tumors: correlations with immunohistochemical expression and clinicopathologic features. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Dec;14(6):413-7
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  • Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) proteins in colorectal cancer investigated in several studies, but to our knowledge, hTERT expression has not been evaluated in all of colorectal tumors, including hyperplastic polyps (HPs), adenomas, and carcinomas, on paraffin-embedded tissue sections.
  • In this study, hTERT expression was determined in HP (n = 20), adenomatous polyp (AP) (n = 20), colorectal adenocarcinomas (n = 20), and normal mucosa (n = 20) by immunohistochemical method.
  • There was no significant association of hTERT expression in cancerous, precancerous, or normal mucosa related to clinicopathologic parameters including age, sex, and size of lesion, (P > .05), but only association with histologic grade for carcinoma was found (P < .05).
  • Levels of hTERT by immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expression of hTERT was very little in normal mucosa and HP, moderate in AP, and highest in carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenomatous Polyps / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21074689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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52. Leedham SJ, Thliveris AT, Halberg RB, Newton MA, Wright NA: Gastrointestinal stem cells and cancer: bridging the molecular gap. Stem Cell Rev; 2005;1(3):233-41
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  • Work on the hereditary cancer syndromes including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has led to significant advances, including the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • The initial mutation involved in this stepwise progression is in the "gatekeeper" tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC).
  • This model has been used to suggest that short-range interaction between adjacent initiated crypts, not random polyp collision, is responsible for tumor polyclonality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Mutation. Neoplastic Stem Cells. X Chromosome Inactivation
  • [MeSH-minor] Alleles. Animals. Chimera / genetics. Disease Models, Animal. Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Mice

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  • (PMID = 17142860.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Stem cell reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stem Cell Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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53. Stergiou N, Frenz MB, Menke D, Riphaus A, Wehrmann T: Reduction of miss rates of colonic adenomas by zoom chromoendoscopy. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2006 Sep;21(6):560-5
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  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the detection rate of polyps using zoom chromoendoscopy (ZE) compared with standard video colonoscopy.
  • During C1, 56 lesions were detected in 26 of 50 patients (34 hyperplastic and 22 adenomatous).
  • During C2, 19 additional polyps were documented prior to ZE (15% tandem miss rate), and 20 further lesions were detected with ZE (21% additional polyp detection rate compared to C1 and C2 without ZE).
  • Of the 39 additional lesions removed during C2 after ZE, 29 were hyperplastic and 10 were adenomatous.
  • Most adenomas detected during the second investigation were found in patients in whom adenomatous polyps had already been removed during the initial colonoscopy (9 of 26 patients vs 1 of 24 patients, p<0.02).
  • No carcinoma was detected.
  • The pit pattern classification allowed a correct differentiation between hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps (accuracy 93%, sensitivity 90%, specificity 97%).
  • CONCLUSION: Using zoom chromoendoscopy, the rate of detecting colonic polyps can be increased at the cost of a longer retrieval time.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Coloring Agents. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Indigo Carmine

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  • (PMID = 16283340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; D3741U8K7L / Indigo Carmine
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54. Suehiro Y, Hinoda Y: Genetic and epigenetic changes in aberrant crypt foci and serrated polyps. Cancer Sci; 2008 Jun;99(6):1071-6
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  • [Title] Genetic and epigenetic changes in aberrant crypt foci and serrated polyps.
  • Serrated adenoma (SA) is a polyp with serrated architecture and dysplasia, and can be subclassified as traditional SA or sessile SA.
  • Serrated polyps include hyperplastic polyps (HP), SA, and admixed hyperplastic-adenomatous polyps and are considered a morphological continuum encompassing heteroplastic ACF, HP, admixed hyperplastic-adenomatous polyps, and SA.
  • Recent studies have uncovered other developmental pathways including a heteroplastic ACF-HP/SA-carcinoma sequence and a heteroplastic ACF-adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • Our goal is to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the heteroplastic ACF-HP/SA-carcinoma sequence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18384435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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55. Cole BF, Baron JA, Sandler RS, Haile RW, Ahnen DJ, Bresalier RS, McKeown-Eyssen G, Summers RW, Rothstein RI, Burke CA, Snover DC, Church TR, Allen JI, Robertson DJ, Beck GJ, Bond JH, Byers T, Mandel JS, Mott LA, Pearson LH, Barry EL, Rees JR, Marcon N, Saibil F, Ueland PM, Greenberg ER, Polyp Prevention Study Group: Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA; 2007 Jun 6;297(21):2351-9
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  • Participants included 1021 men and women with a recent history of colorectal adenomas and no previous invasive large intestine carcinoma.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was occurrence of at least 1 colorectal adenoma.
  • Secondary outcomes were the occurrence of advanced lesions (> or =25% villous features, high-grade dysplasia, size > or =1 cm, or invasive cancer) and adenoma multiplicity (0, 1-2, or > or =3 adenomas).
  • RESULTS: During the first 3 years, 987 participants (96.7%) underwent colonoscopic follow-up, and the incidence of at least 1 colorectal adenoma was 44.1% for folic acid (n = 221) and 42.4% for placebo (n = 206) (unadjusted risk ratio [RR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-1.20; P = .58).
  • A total of 607 participants (59.5%) underwent a second follow-up, and the incidence of at least 1 colorectal adenoma was 41.9% for folic acid (n = 127) and 37.2% for placebo (n = 113) (unadjusted RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.93-1.37; P = .23); and incidence of at least 1 advanced lesion was 11.6% for folic acid (n = 35) and 6.9% for placebo (n = 21) (unadjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.00-2.80; P = .05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Folic acid at 1 mg/d does not reduce colorectal adenoma risk.


56. Bossard C, Denis MG, Bézieau S, Bach-Ngohou K, Bourreille A, Laboisse CL, Mosnier JF: Involvement of the serrated neoplasia pathway in inflammatory bowel disease-related colorectal oncogenesis. Oncol Rep; 2007 Nov;18(5):1093-7
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  • Neoplastic lesions from 36 patients with IBD were reviewed retrospectively, including 13 adenocarcinomas (1 mucinous and 12 conventional), 28 dysplasias [1 traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) and 27 conventional adenomas] and 1 hyperplastic polyp (HP).
  • Serrated lesions exist in the inflammatory mucosa of IBD and are associated with a characteristic molecular profile, i.e. the appearance of the BRAF mutation as early as the hyperplastic polyp stage followed by MSI at the carcinoma stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Markers / genetics. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / etiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. CpG Islands / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA Mismatch Repair. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Humans. Microsatellite Instability. Mutation. Phenotype. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 17914558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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57. Kesse E, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC: Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal tumors: a cohort of French women of the National Education System (E3N). Am J Epidemiol; 2006 Dec 1;164(11):1085-93
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  • Little is known about the dietary patterns associated with colorectal tumors along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • Their association with colorectal tumors was investigated in 516 adenoma cases (175 high-risk adenomas) and 4,804 polyp-free women and in 172 colorectal cancer cases and 67,312 cancer-free women.
  • For quartile 4 versus quartile 1, an increased risk of adenoma was observed with high scores of the Western pattern (multivariate relative risk (RR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.94; p(trend) = 0.03) and the drinker pattern (RR = 1.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.83; p(trend) = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Diet. Food Habits

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  • (PMID = 16990408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9262
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Epidemiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ HALMS143640; NLM/ PMC2175071
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58. Weissfeld JL, Schoen RE, Pinsky PF, Bresalier RS, Church T, Yurgalevitch S, Austin JH, Prorok PC, Gohagan JK, PLCO Project Team: Flexible sigmoidoscopy in the PLCO cancer screening trial: results from the baseline screening examination of a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Jul 6;97(13):989-97
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  • The trial administered baseline risk factor questionnaires, offered 60-cm flexible sigmoidoscopy examinations, referred patients with screen-detected colorectal polyps or masses to personal physicians, and tracked subjects with polyps or masses to determine results from diagnostic follow-up.
  • RESULTS: A total of 64 658 subjects (83.5%) underwent screening flexible sigmoidoscopy, and at least one polyp or mass was identified in 15,150 subjects (23.4%).
  • Follow-up lower endoscopy was more frequent in subjects with at least one larger (> or = 0.5 cm) polyp or mass (86.0% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 84.6% to 87.4%] and 81.0% [95% CI = 79.8% to 82.2%] in women and men, respectively) than in those with a smaller (< 0.5 cm) polyp or mass (69.1% [95% CI = 67.5% to 70.6%] and 65.4% [95% CI = 64.1% to 66.7%] in women and men, respectively).
  • The yields per 1000 screened, depending on 5-year age group, were as follows: for colorectal cancer, 1.1-2.5 in women and 2.4-5.6 in men; for advanced adenoma, 18.0-30.4 in women and 36.1-49.1 in men; and for colorectal cancer or any adenoma, 50.6-79.6 in women and 101.9-128.6 in men.
  • Diagnostic follow-up varied according to polyp size, yet cancer or adenoma detection rates met expectations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / mortality. Age Distribution. Aged. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / mortality. Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Colonic Polyps / mortality. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Distribution. Surveys and Questionnaires. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15998952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. O'Brien MJ, Yang S, Mack C, Xu H, Huang CS, Mulcahy E, Amorosino M, Farraye FA: Comparison of microsatellite instability, CpG island methylation phenotype, BRAF and KRAS status in serrated polyps and traditional adenomas indicates separate pathways to distinct colorectal carcinoma end points. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Dec;30(12):1491-501
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  • [Title] Comparison of microsatellite instability, CpG island methylation phenotype, BRAF and KRAS status in serrated polyps and traditional adenomas indicates separate pathways to distinct colorectal carcinoma end points.
  • The aim of this study was to compare BRAF and KRAS, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI) status in each of the histologic categories, including end-point carcinomas with residual adenoma, of the serrated polyp neoplasia pathway and the traditional (nonserrated) adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • A BRAF mutation was present in 82% of serrated carcinomas (SCas), 62% of serrated adenomas (SAs), 83% of serrated polyps with abnormal proliferation (SPAPs-syn. sessile serrated adenoma [SSA]), 76% of microvesicular serrated polyps (MVSPs), and was not found in any of the histologic categories of the traditional adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • KRAS2 mutations were found in 43% of the goblet cell serrated polyp (GCSP) category, 13% of MVSPs, 7% of SPAPs, and 24% of SAs; in 26% of large traditional adenoma (lTAs) compared with small traditional adenomas (sTAs) (0/30; P<0.005) and in 37.3% of traditional carcinomas (TCa).
  • The findings indicate that a BRAF mutation is a specific marker for a serrated polyp pathway that has its origin in a hyperplastic polyp (MVSP) and a potential end point as MSI carcinoma.
  • The data provided a less complete picture of a second serrated pathway, identified by a KRAS2 mutation in SAs, but showed that the progressive stages of both iterations of the serrated neoplasia pathway are separate and distinct from those of the traditional adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. CpG Islands / genetics. Microsatellite Instability. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics


60. Li FE, Ye HJ, Li J, Wang JP, Liu YG, Yu GY, Yin WH: [Clinical, enteroscopic, and pathological characteristics of 796 cases of colorectal polyps]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2005 Aug;30(4):463-6
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  • [Title] [Clinical, enteroscopic, and pathological characteristics of 796 cases of colorectal polyps].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the age, clinical, enteroscopic and pathological characteristics of colorectal polyps and factors affected polyp-carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the clinical, enteroscopic and pathological characteristics of 7276 cases of colorectal polyps.
  • RESULTS: The incidence of colorectal polyps was 10.94%, including 521 men and 275 women.
  • The rate of colorectal polyp was 82.29% in 30-69 year olds.
  • The adenomatous, inflammatory, hyperplastic and juvenile polyps were 43.84%, 42.09%, 11.06% and 1.51%, respectively.
  • Conclusion The ages between 30-69 tend to suffer from colorectal polyps.
  • Colorectal polyps are more likely to locate in left colon.
  • The common pathological types were adenomatous and inflammatory polyps.
  • There is a high canceration of polyps in the left colon, villous adenomas and > or = 2.0 cm polyps.
  • The broader the pedicles and the larger the diameters of polyps are, the higher the canceration rate.
  • All of the colon polyps should be excised and undergo the pathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonoscopy. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Intestinal Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16190400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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61. Spaziani E, Petrozza V, Di Filippo A, Picchio M, Ceci F, Miraglia A, Moretti V, Briganti M, Greco E, Pattaro G, De Angelis F, Salvadori C, Stagnitti F: [Gallbladder polypoid lesions. Three clinical cases with difficult diagnosis and literature review]. G Chir; 2010 Oct;31(10):439-42
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  • CT, which has an accuracy level of 75%, must be carried out there is any possibility of malignant degeneration of the polyp.
  • However, the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, widely discussed in literature, can justifies to the use of CT, MR, PET and surgical treatment after an ultrasound examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Diseases / diagnosis. Polyps / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20939951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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62. Zhou X, Shang JQ, Zhou JN: [Transsacral local wide resection for mid-lower rectal tumors]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jan;12(1):44-7

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  • Postoperative diagnosis was adenoma in 28 patients, hyperplastic polyp in 3 patients, carcinoid in 8 patients, gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 1 patient,adenoma with intra-mucosal carcinogenesis in 29 patients and adenocarcinoma invading into submucosa in 64 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Transsacral local wide resection is simple and safe for mid-lower rectal tumors, which is an appropriate procedure for mid-lower rectal benign tumor and can serve as a sphincter-saving operation for selected T(1) lower rectal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19145503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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63. Alper M, Cukur S, Belenli O, Suna M: Evaluation of the immunohistochemical stain patterns of survivin, Bak and Bag-1 in colorectal cancers and comparison with polyps situated in the colon. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 Jul-Aug;55(85):1269-73
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the immunohistochemical stain patterns of survivin, Bak and Bag-1 in colorectal cancers and comparison with polyps situated in the colon.
  • The adenoma-carcinoma sequence in colorectal cancer has been documented approximately; however, several series of molecular mechanisms still require elucidation.
  • METHODOLOGY: Fifteen colonoscopic biopsy and 25 colectomy colorectal cancer samples, 12 hyperplastic colon polyps, and 18 tubular and 19 villous adenoma cases were studied.
  • Apoptotic markers, such as Bag-1, survivin, and Bak, were used for staining, and relationships between stain features, clinical and prognostic factors, and polyp and tumor staining features were examined.
  • RESULTS: Significantly different staining patterns were observed between polyps and carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Colonic Polyps / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18795671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / BCL2-associated athanogene 1 protein; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein
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64. Joo M, Shahsafaei A, Odze RD: Paneth cell differentiation in colonic epithelial neoplasms: evidence for the role of the Apc/beta-catenin/Tcf pathway. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):872-80

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  • The clinical and pathologic findings, including histologic evidence of Paneth cell differentiation and immunostaining for human defensin 5 and beta-catenin, were evaluated in 29 samples of nonneoplastic colonic mucosa, 18 hyperplastic polyps, 10 sessile serrated adenomas, 12 traditional serrated adenomas, 21 mixed polyps, 39 conventional adenomas, and 40 adenocarcinomas.
  • Human defensin-5 and beta-catenin expression were evaluated for the location and degree of staining in all cell types (dysplastic and nondysplastic) and correlated with histologic areas of Paneth cell differentiation in all types of polyps.
  • Histologic evidence of Paneth cell differentiation was observed in 15 conventional adenomas (38.5%) and 1 adenocarcinoma (2.5%) but not in other types of polyps.
  • Human defensin-5 expression was noted in 0% of hyperplastic polyps, 10% of sessile serrated adenomas, 25% of traditional serrated adenomas, 33.3% of mixed polyps, 82.1% of conventional adenomas, and 17.5% of adenocarcinomas: human defensin 5 expression was significantly higher in conventional adenomas compared to all other groups (P < .01).
  • Seventeen (53.1%) of 32 human defensin 5 positive conventional adenomas, 6 (86%) of 7 of human defensin 5 positive adenocarcinomas, and all human defensin 5-positive sessile serrated adenomas, traditional serrated adenomas, and mixed polyps did not show histologic evidence of Paneth cell differentiation.
  • All mixed polyps (100%) that revealed human defensin 5 expression (7; 33.3%) revealed conventional dysplasia.
  • In the positive mixed polyp cases, human defensin 5 was only positive in areas of conventional dysplasia.
  • A strong topographical correlation was noted between human defensin 5 expression and nuclear beta-catenin expression in conventional adenomas and in conventional dysplastic epithelium of mixed polyps.
  • Paneth cell differentiation is common in early colonic neoplasms that develop via the conventional adenoma-carcinoma carcinogenic pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / physiopathology. Defensins / physiology. Paneth Cells / pathology. beta Catenin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19269007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Defensins; 0 / beta Catenin
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65. Baron JA: Aspirin and NSAIDs for the prevention of colorectal cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2009;181:223-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID .

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  • With few exceptions, epidemiological studies have found that individuals who take nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a reduced risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinoma.
  • Similarly, randomized studies in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis have uniformly found that NSAIDs can lead to polyp regression and prevention of new polyps, and trials in patients with sporadic adenomas document that aspirin reduces the risk of adenoma recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 19213572.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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66. Selcuk A, Ensari S, Cetin MA, Sak SD, Dere H: Ceruminous gland carcinoma of the external auditory canal presenting as chronic otitis media. B-ENT; 2007;3(4):195-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ear Infections.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ceruminous gland carcinoma of the external auditory canal presenting as chronic otitis media.
  • We report a case of carcinoma originating from the ceruminous glands of the external ear canal (EAC), operated based on a diagnosis of chronic otitis media with polyp.
  • Our preliminary diagnosis was chronic otitis media with polyp formation.
  • Histopathology revealed a ceruminous carcinoma, and an additional operation involving lateral temporal bone dissection was performed, followed by 60 Gy radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear, External. Otitis Media / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18265725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1781-782X
  • [Journal-full-title] B-ENT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] B-ENT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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67. Henry ZH, Yeaton P, Shami VM, Kahaleh M, Patrie JT, Cox DG, Peura DA, Emura F, Wang AY: Meshed capillary vessels found on narrow-band imaging without optical magnification effectively identifies colorectal neoplasia: a North American validation of the Japanese experience. Gastrointest Endosc; 2010 Jul;72(1):118-26
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic capabilities of NBI colonoscopy without optical magnification in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps by using the MC pattern.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective comparison of prospectively collected colorectal polyp data.
  • PATIENTS: This study involved 126 consecutive colorectal polyps (median size 3 mm) that were found in 52 patients (33 men) with a median age of 59.5 years.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of identifying neoplastic polyps were calculated.
  • RESULTS: NBI without optical magnification was found to have a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 88%, positive predictive value of 90%, negative predictive value of 91%, and diagnostic accuracy of 91% when all polyp sizes were considered.
  • CONCLUSION: Use of the MC pattern on NBI colonoscopy without optical magnification effectively distinguishes neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps.
  • NBI colonoscopy without optical magnification for neoplastic polyp diagnosis appears to be comparable with NBI with optical magnification when the MC pattern is used.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood supply. Adenoma, Villous / diagnosis. Capillaries / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood supply. Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Colonoscopy. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood supply

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20381799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Ibrahim OO, Anjorin AS, Afolayan AE, Badmos KB: Pathological characterization of colorectal polyps in Ilorin, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci; 2010 Sep;39(3):215-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathological characterization of colorectal polyps in Ilorin, Nigeria.
  • Colorectal polyps especially the adenomas are recognized precursors of colorectal carcinoma.
  • Identification and removal of such polyps before malignant transformation could reduce the burden of colorectal carcinoma.
  • To document the demography and the histopathological types ofcolorectal polyps received by the Department of Pathology of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a period of thirty years.
  • This is a retrospective review of all cases ofcolorectal polyps that were received, processed and had histological diagnosis in our centre between 1979 and 2008 using the request cards and hematoxylin and eosin stained slides.
  • Forty-four cases of colorectal polyps were reviewed constituting 6.7 percent of all colorectal biopsies/resections received in the same period.
  • Seventeen (38.6%) were adenomas, 9 (20.5%) were juvenile polyps, 8 (18.2%) were inflammatory polyps, 4 cases were lipomatous polyps, 3 were leiomatous polyps, and one each of lymphoid polyp, hamartomatous polyp and neurofibromatous polyp.
  • Of the adenomas, 11 (58.8%) were tubular, 5 (29.4%) were villous, 1 (5.9%) was tubulovillous, and one was a villous adenoma with a focus of malignant transformation.
  • Adenomatous polyp is the commonest pathological type ofcolorectal polyps in our centre.
  • This study therefore sets out to review the age and sex distribution, location and morphological characteristics of all cases of colorectal polyps in our centre over the study period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21416791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] African journal of medicine and medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr J Med Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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69. Tanaka S, Tanaka H, Yamamoto T, Shuto T, Takemura S, Hai S, Sakabe K, Uenishi T, Hirohashi K, Kubo S: Immunohistochemical demonstration of c-Kit protooncogene product in gallbladder cancer. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2006;13(3):228-34
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  • We reviewed retrospectively, the clinicopathologic records of 47 patients who had undergone macroscopically complete gallbladder carcinoma resection.
  • Control tissue samples were from five gallbladder specimens each with chronic cholecystitis, polyp, and adenoma.
  • However, microvessel density was significantly higher in c-Kit-positive gallbladder carcinoma compared with c-Kit-negative gallbladder carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16708300.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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70. Ajaj W, Veit P, Kuehle C, Joekel M, Lauenstein TC, Herborn CU: Digital subtraction dark-lumen MR colonography: initial experience. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Jun;21(6):841-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 patients (12 males; 8 females; mean 51.4 years of age) underwent MR colonography after standard cleansing and a rectal water enema on a 1.5-T whole-body MR system.
  • RESULTS: Without subtracted images, MR-colonography detected a total of five polyps, two inflammatory lesions, and one carcinoma in eight patients, which were all verified by endoscopy.
  • Using subtraction, an additional polyp was found, and readout time was significantly shorter (6:41 vs. 7:39 minutes; P<0.05).
  • In two patients, endoscopy detected a flat adenoma and a polyp (0.4 cm) that were missed in the MR exam.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15906327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 15G12L5X8K / gadobenic acid; 6HG8UB2MUY / Meglumine
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71. Song SY, Kim YH, Yu MK, Kim JH, Lee JM, Son HJ, Rhee PL, Kim JJ, Paik SW, Rhee JC: Comparison of malignant potential between serrated adenomas and traditional adenomas. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;22(11):1786-90
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colorectal Cancer.

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  • BACKGROUND: Serrated adenoma is a discrete colorectal epithelial neoplastic lesion that can evolve into colorectal cancer.
  • The combination of nuclear dysplasia and serration of > or =20% of crypts was regarded as serrated adenoma.
  • The clinicopathological features of serrated and traditional adenomas were compared, and multivariate analysis performed to confirm whether the malignant potential of serrated adenoma was similar to that of traditional adenoma.
  • RESULTS: The differences in age, sex, total number of adenomas, and synchronous lesions including adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma between subjects with and without serrated adenoma were not significant.
  • The incidence of malignant lesions including high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma in serrated adenomas was found to be lower than in traditional adenomas (3.2% vs 9.3%, P < 0.05).
  • In the multivariate analysis, adenoma type and polyp size constituted the risk factors for the incidence of high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serrated adenoma is a premalignant lesion, but it has a lower potential for the development of malignancy than traditional adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Colon, Sigmoid / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Intestinal Polyps / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Rectum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors

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  • [CommentIn] J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Nov;22(11):1701-3 [17914936.001]
  • (PMID = 17914951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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72. Kristjansdottir S, Jonasson JG, Cariglia N, Thjodleifsson B: Colonic adenomas found via colonoscopy: yield and risk factors for high-grade dysplasia. Digestion; 2010;82(4):252-7
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  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The adenoma-carcinoma sequence is the model for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) developing through high-grade dysplasia (HGD) to CRC.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based study using all colonoscopies and polyp specimens registered between 2000 and 2004 in Iceland.
  • The prevalence of HGD in the group with an adenoma size of 0.6-1.0 cm was 4.1% and in the 40- to 69-year age group it was 3.7%.
  • There is an appreciable risk of HGD in diminutive polyps and in middle age.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20588041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9867
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Digestion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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73. Hattori M, Inui K, Yoshino J, Miyoshi H, Okushima K, Nakamura Y, Naito T, Imaeda Y, Horibe Y, Hattori T, Nakazawa S: [Usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of polypoid gallbladder lesions]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Jun;104(6):790-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gallbladder Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We investigated the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for differential diagnosis of polypoid gallbladder lesions in 60 patients, consisting of gallbladder carcinoma in 20, adenoma in 2, benign polyp in 29, and adenomyomatosis in 9, comparing contrast enhancement patterns with pathologic findings.
  • In gallbladder carcinoma, the TIC rose from no contrast to early-phase contrast sooner than in other diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Gallbladder Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Polyps / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods

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  • (PMID = 17548945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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74. Lo SH, Law WL: Laparoscopic colorectal resection for polyps not suitable for colonoscopic removal. Surg Endosc; 2005 Sep;19(9):1252-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonic Polyps.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic colorectal resection for polyps not suitable for colonoscopic removal.
  • BACKGROUND: Endoscopic removal of large sessile polyps is sometimes technically difficult and is associated with an increased risk of complications.
  • Moreover, the incidence of invasive carcinoma within these polyps is not negligible.
  • Laparoscopic colorectal resection has been recommended in the treatment of these large polyps.
  • This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal resection for polyps that were not suitable for colonoscopic removal.
  • METHODS: Forty-five patients (28 men and 17 women) who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection with the preoperative diagnosis of colorectal polyps were analyzed.
  • The reasons for surgical resection were large sessile polyps (n = 34), difficult position (n = 2), recurrence after transanal endoscopic microsurgery (n = 1), and the presence of intramucosal malignancy on histology after colonoscopic polypectomy (n = 8).
  • Two patients underwent subtotal colectomy because of multiple polyps (14 and 19, respectively).
  • Synchronous resection of other organs was performed in two patients (a right salpingo-oophorectomy and a right adrenalectomy).
  • The histopathology of colorectal polyps showed tubular (n = 12), tubulovillous (n = 13), and villous adenoma (n = 12); mixed adenomatous/hyperolastic polyps (n = 2); inflammatory polyp (n = 1); and colonic lipoma (n = 1).
  • Invasive carcinoma was found in 16 patients (35.6%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Colonic polyps that were not amendable for colonoscopic removal were associated with a high incidence of malignant invasion.
  • Laparoscopic colectomy offers safe and effective management of these polyps with the benefits of early postoperative recovery.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / surgery. Laparoscopy. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16132333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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75. Bafandeh Y, Khoshbaten M, Eftekhar Sadat AT, Farhang S: Clinical predictors of colorectal polyps and carcinoma in a low prevalence region: results of a colonoscopy based study. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Mar 14;14(10):1534-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colorectal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical predictors of colorectal polyps and carcinoma in a low prevalence region: results of a colonoscopy based study.
  • The endoscopist visualized the caecum documented by a photo and/or a specimen from terminal ileum.
  • Adenomatous polyps were detected in 56 (11.7%) patients, in 12.3% of men and 10.9% of women.
  • The mean age of the patients with a polyp was significantly higher than the others (49.53 +/- 14.16 vs 41.85 +/- 16.26, P = 0.001).
  • Most of the adenomatous polyps were left sided and tubular; only 22.5% of polyps were more than 10 mm.
  • The mean age of patients with cancer was significantly higher than the others (60.25 +/- 8.26 vs 42.13 +/- 16.08, P < 0.005) and higher than patients with polyps [60.25 (8.26) vs 49.53 (1.91) (P < 0.0005)].
  • None of the symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, constipation, altering diarrhea and constipation, history of cancer, known irritable bowel disease, history of polyp and fissure or family history of cancer) were predictors for cancer or polyps, but the age of the patient and unexplained anemia independently predicted cancer.
  • Colonic symptoms are not predictors for polyps or cancer but unexplained anemia and elder age can predict CRC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Colonic Polyps / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18330943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693747
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76. Hasan N, Pollack A, Cho I: Infectious causes of colorectal cancer. Infect Dis Clin North Am; 2010 Dec;24(4):1019-39, x
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Viral Infections.

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  • Our understanding of the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, from the precursor adenomatous polyp to adenocarcinoma, has evolved rapidly.
  • External or environmental factors presumably play a significant role, and inflammatory bowel diseases, obesity, alcohol consumption, and a diet high in fat and low in fiber have all been implicated as risk factors for the development of either colonic adenomas or carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Bacterial Infections / complications. Carcinoma / etiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Virus Diseases / complications

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20937463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9824
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious disease clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Gill S, Sinicrope FA: Colorectal cancer prevention: is an ounce of prevention worth a pound of cure? Semin Oncol; 2005 Feb;32(1):24-34
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SELENIUM, ELEMENTAL .

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  • Colorectal carcinogenesis is a multistep process characterized by molecular and cellular alterations that result in an identifiable precursor lesion, ie, the adenomatous polyp.
  • The transition from normal mucosa to adenoma and its subsequent progression to carcinoma are protracted events that offer opportunities for preventive interventions.
  • Interest in this field derives from multiple epidemiologic studies showing that regular and continued use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), predominantly aspirin, is associated with significant reductions in both colorectal adenoma and carcinoma incidence.
  • NSAIDs were first shown to be effective in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
  • Based on the aforementioned data, aspirin and coxibs have been or are currently being evaluated for the prevention of sporadic adenoma recurrence in high-risk patient populations.
  • Evidence indicates that aspirin can reduce adenoma recurrence rates in patients with prior colorectal neoplasia; however, questions remain, including the optimal dosage, timing of initiation and duration of treatment, and clinical benefit versus potential harm to patients.
  • Apart from aspirin, calcium carbonate is the only other agent that has been shown to modestly reduce sporadic adenoma recurrence rates in a randomized trial.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Animals. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Aspirin / therapeutic use. Calcium / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Eflornithine / therapeutic use. Folic Acid / therapeutic use. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Selenium / therapeutic use. Ursodeoxycholic Acid / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15726503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid; H6241UJ22B / Selenium; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium; ZQN1G5V6SR / Eflornithine
  • [Number-of-references] 122
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78. Johnson MD, Mackey R, Brown N, Church J, Burke C, Walsh RM: Outcome based on management for duodenal adenomas: sporadic versus familial disease. J Gastrointest Surg; 2010 Feb;14(2):229-35
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  • We reviewed the records of patients managed at our institution for duodenal adenomatous polyps for the 20-year period ending July 2006.
  • DISCUSSION: Methods of polyp resection (endoscopic, local surgical resection, or definitive surgical resection) within both sporadic and familial patient groups were compared.
  • Two hundred seventy-eight patients with duodenal polyps were followed during this time period: 110 patients (39.6%) with sporadic polyps and 168 (60.4%) with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
  • In summary, endoscopic and local surgical management for both sporadic and familial duodenal polyps are associated with a high rate of local recurrence.
  • Definitive resection in the form of pancreaticoduodenectomy, pancreas-sparing duodenectomy, or segmental duodenectomy offers the best chance for polyp eradication and prevention of carcinoma, regardless of polyp etiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Duodenal Neoplasms / surgery. Duodenum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19937193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Cafferty FH, Sasieni PD, Duffy SW: A deterministic model for estimating the reduction in colorectal cancer incidence due to endoscopic surveillance. Stat Methods Med Res; 2009 Apr;18(2):163-82
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colorectal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Studies of cohorts of adenoma patients typically rely on comparisons with groups of historical controls.
  • Models are applied to data from the National Polyp Study.
  • Rates of adenoma recurrence and progression to carcinoma are estimated based on study data and relevant literature.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Aged. Biometry. Colonoscopy / statistics & numerical data. Female. Great Britain / epidemiology. Humans. Intestinal Polyps / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 18765505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0962-2802
  • [Journal-full-title] Statistical methods in medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stat Methods Med Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10406
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Lenhart DK, Zalis ME: Debate: diminutive polyps noted at CT colonography need not be reported. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am; 2010 Apr;20(2):227-37
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonic Polyps.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Debate: diminutive polyps noted at CT colonography need not be reported.
  • Colorectal polyps less than 6 mm in size pose a negligible risk to the development of colorectal carcinoma.
  • In the context of regular screening, the low clinical significance and slow to negligible growth of diminutive polyps, as well as the low detection performance of CTC and OC for these lesions, would contribute to wasted health care resource and excess morbidity if each diminutive polyp were referred for potential resection.
  • Respect for patient safety, attention to proper use of resources, and appropriate focus on larger, clinically significant polyps lead the authors to the conclusion that colonic polyps of less than 6 mm should not be separately reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / radiography. Colonography, Computed Tomographic / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / etiology. Colonoscopy. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Humans. Mass Screening / methods. Precancerous Conditions. Prevalence. Severity of Illness Index. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20451812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1950
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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81. Cappell MS: Reducing the incidence and mortality of colon cancer: mass screening and colonoscopic polypectomy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2008 Mar;37(1):129-60, vii-viii
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Most colon cancers arise from conventional adenomatous polyps (conventional adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence), while some colon cancers appear to arise from the recently recognized serrated adenomatous polyp (serrated adenoma-to-carcinoma theory).
  • A minimal colonoscopic withdrawal time of 6 minutes is important to maximize polyp detection at colonoscopy.
  • Chromoendoscopy is an experimental technique used to highlight abnormal colonic areas to identify neoplastic tissue and to potentially determine the histology of colonic polyps at colonoscopy based on superficial pit anatomy.

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  • (PMID = 18313544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8553
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 118
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82. Becker F, Nusko G, Welke J, Hahn EG, Mansmann U: Benefit-risk analysis of different risk-related surveillance schedules following colorectal polypectomy. Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Dec;54(80):2249-58
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonoscopy.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODOLOGY: A Markov model based on time-dependent transition possibilities was developed to compare two surveillance schedules: recommendations based on the Erlangen Registry of Colorectal Polyps (ERCRP) and the National Polyp Study (NPS).
  • Approximately 84% and 79% of deaths from colorectal carcinoma (CRC) could be prevented if patients were followed up according to the recommendations of the ERCRP and the NPS, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Colonoscopy. Continuity of Patient Care / standards. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 18265643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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83. Chan AO, Rashid A: CpG island methylation in precursors of gastrointestinal malignancies. Curr Mol Med; 2006 Jun;6(4):401-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It is widely accepted that cancer evolves through several stepwise morphological stages such as the adenoma-carcinoma and hyperplastic polyp-serrated adenoma-carcinoma sequences in colorectal cancers, and the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequences in esophageal and gastric cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Epigenesis, Genetic / genetics. Humans. Polyps / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16900663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1566-5240
  • [Journal-full-title] Current molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 143
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84. Wang J, Wang H, Tang G, Hou Z, Wang G: Transitional cell carcinoma of upper urinary tract vs. benign lesions: distinctive MSCT features. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Jan-Feb;34(1):94-106
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transitional cell carcinoma of upper urinary tract vs. benign lesions: distinctive MSCT features.
  • The transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract is relatively uncommon.
  • These lesions include endometriosis, nephrogenic adenoma, mycetomas, malacoplakia, and inflammatory pseudotumor which are similar to infiltrating papillary TCCs; complex urolithiasis, passed stone of ureter and ureteropelvic junction, chronic ureteropelvic junction obstruction with superimposed infection, atypical pyelonephritis, and tuberculosis which mimic diffusely infiltrating TCCs, and fibroepithelial polyp which has the same CT appearances as papillary TCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods. Urologic Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18581162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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85. Langeveld D, van Hattem WA, de Leng WW, Morsink FH, Ten Kate FJ, Giardiello FM, Offerhaus GJ, Brosens LA: SMAD4 immunohistochemistry reflects genetic status in juvenile polyposis syndrome. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Aug 15;16(16):4126-34
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Here, SMAD4 immunohistochemistry as a marker of SMAD4 gene status and the role of SMAD4 in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in neoplastic progression in JPS are studied.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twenty polyps with a SMAD4 germline defect and 38 control polyps were studied by SMAD4 immunohistochemistry.
  • APC, beta-catenin, p53, and K-ras were studied to evaluate the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • RESULTS: Nine of 20 polyps with a SMAD4 germline defect showed loss of epithelial SMAD4 expression.
  • Loss of heterozygosity of SMAD4 was found in five polyps and a somatic stop codon mutation was found in two polyps without loss of heterozygosity.
  • Remarkably, somatic inactivation of epithelial SMAD4 did not always coincide with dysplasia and aberrant p53 staining was found in four of six dysplastic polyps with normal SMAD4 staining.
  • One K-ras mutation was found in nine juvenile polyps with dysplasia.
  • However, epithelial SMAD4 inactivation is not required for polyp formation and is not obligatory for neoplastic progression in JPS.

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  • (PMID = 20682711.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA053801; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA053801-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 51085; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 53801; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA053801-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 63721; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA 93-16
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / SMAD4 protein, human; 0 / Smad4 Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS216995; NLM/ PMC2921472
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86. Rubio CA, Jónasson JG, Nesi G, Mazur J, Olafsdóttir E: The size of colon polyps revisited: intra- and inter-observer variations. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jun;30(6):2419-23
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonic Polyps.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The size of colon polyps revisited: intra- and inter-observer variations.
  • BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that the occurrence of invasive carcinoma in a colon adenoma can be predicted by estimating the size of the resected polyp.
  • Recently, significant intra- and inter-observer differences in size were found when 22 pathologists estimated the size of 12 polyp phantoms.
  • In this work, the size of a large cohort of endoscopically-resected colon polyps was assessed with a novel method.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three pathologists measured photocopies of 148 resected polyps (adenomas at histology) in two independent trials.
  • When 6 possible combinations (the 3 size limits proposed for predicting cancer risk in adenomas, and 2 different trials) were tested for the 13 adenomas showing invasive carcinoma, merely one of the three participants recorded the same size, but only in 11% of the 6 possible combinations.
  • CONCLUSION: Present and previous investigations indicate that the lack of reproducibility makes the use of size limits in predicting cancer risk in polyps removed at colonoscopy unreliable.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Observer Variation

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  • (PMID = 20651402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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87. Barry EL, Baron JA, Grau MV, Wallace K, Haile RW: K-ras mutations in incident sporadic colorectal adenomas. Cancer; 2006 Mar 1;106(5):1036-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Although K-ras is the most frequently mutated protooncogene in colorectal carcinoma, the specific role and timing of K-ras mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis remains controversial.
  • METHODS: K-ras genotyping was performed on 303 colorectal adenomas that were removed from 207 participants during the follow-up phase of the Calcium Polyp Prevention Study.
  • The results provided evidence for a very low rate of K-ras mutation among these small, early adenomas and strong support for a role of K-ras mutations in adenoma progression.

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  • (PMID = 16456810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA046927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-046927
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Kim YS, Deng G: Epigenetic changes (aberrant DNA methylation) in colorectal neoplasia. Gut Liver; 2007 Jun;1(1):1-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Both genetic and epigenetic events have been implicated in the stepwise histological progression involving adenoma-carcinoma and hyperplastic polyp/serrated adenoma-carcinoma sequences in the development of colorectal cancer.
  • Genetic changes have been observed at each step in the initiation and progression of polyps to adenocarcinomas.
  • Since aberrant CGI DNA promoter hypermethylation can be detected not only in colorectal polyps and cancers, but also in sera and stool, hypermethylated genes may serve as molecular markers for early detection, risk assessment and diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 20485652.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-1212
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut and liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut Liver
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2871659
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Colorectal cancer / Colorectal polyps / CpG island / DNA hypomethylation / DNA methylation / Epigenetic changes
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89. Liedenbaum MH, de Vries AH, van Rijn AF, Dekker HM, Willemssen FE, van Leerdam ME, van Marrewijk CJ, Fockens P, Bipat S, Bossuyt PM, Dekker E, Stoker J: CT colonography with limited bowel preparation for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in an FOBT positive screening population. Abdom Imaging; 2010 Dec;35(6):661-8
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  • For CTC and for colonoscopy the per-polyp sensitivity and per-patient sensitivity and specificity were calculated for detection of carcinomas, advanced adenomas, and adenomas.
  • RESULTS: In total 22 of 302 included FOBT positive participants had a carcinoma (7%) and 137 had an adenoma or carcinoma ≥10 mm (45%).
  • CTC sensitivity for carcinoma was 95% with one rectal carcinoma as false negative finding.
  • For adenomas and carcinomas ≥10 mm the CTC per-polyp sensitivity was 93% (95% CI: 89-97) vs. 97% (95% CI: 94-99) for colonoscopy (P = 0.17).
  • CONCLUSION: CTC with limited bowel preparation performed in an FOBT positive screening population has high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of adenomas and carcinomas and a sensitivity similar to that of colonoscopy for relevant lesions.

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  • (PMID = 19888629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 16CHD79MIX / Iothalamic Acid; 967RDI7Z6K / ioxitalamic acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2980629
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90. Nagano K, Umeda Y, Senoh H, Gotoh K, Arito H, Yamamoto S, Matsushima T: Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity in rats and mice exposed by inhalation to 1,2-dichloroethane for two years. J Occup Health; 2006 Nov;48(6):424-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The 2-yr exposure to DCE produced a dose-dependent increase in incidences of benign and malignant tumors, including subcutaneous fibroma, mammary gland fibroadenoma and peritoneal mesothelioma in male rats; subcutaneous fibroma and mammary gland adenoma, fibroadenoma and adenocarcinoma in female rats; and bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma and carcinoma, endometrial stromal polyp, mammary gland adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular adenoma in female mice.

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  • (PMID = 17179635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of occupational health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Occup Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Ethylene Dichlorides; 55163IJI47 / ethylene dichloride
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91. Groff RJ, Nash R, Ahnen DJ: Significance of serrated polyps of the colon. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2008 Oct;10(5):490-8
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Significance of serrated polyps of the colon.
  • The fundamental view that colon adenocarcinomas arise only from conventional adenomas has been challenged by the now recognized hyperplastic polyp-serrated adenoma-adenocarcinoma pathway.
  • This article describes the history of the serrated adenoma (both the traditional serrated adenoma and the sessile serrated adenoma) as well as the histology and endoscopic appearance of these lesions in comparison with hyperplastic polyps and mixed polyps.
  • Although the exact pathway is the subject of ongoing research, compelling histologic associations and molecular phenotypes that define the model of the serrated polyp-carcinoma sequence, including microsatellite instability, BRAF/KRAS mutations, and CpG island methylator phenotype, provide strong evidence that this is a genuine pathway.
  • Management of serrated neoplasia of the colon includes careful colonoscopy, complete removal of colonic polyps, sampling fields of diminutive polyps of the rectosigmoid, and basing surveillance on histology of removed polyps.

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  • (PMID = 18799125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-312X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA068099-09S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA068099-09S1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS210910; NLM/ PMC3437745
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92. Cao J, Liu WJ, Xu XY, Zou XP: Endoscopic findings and clinicopathologic characteristics of colonic schistosomiasis: a report of 46 cases. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Feb 14;16(6):723-7
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  • Among the 17 patients with a signal polyp, hyperplastic polyp, canalicular adenoma with a low-grade intraepithelial neoplastic change, tubulovillous adenoma with a high-grade intraepithelial neoplastic change were observed in 10, 5, and 2 patients, respectively.
  • Eight out of the 46 patients were diagnosed as colonic carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20135720.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2817060
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93. Kaspareit J, Friderichs-Gromoll S, Buse E, Habermann G: Spontaneous neoplasms observed in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during a 15-year period. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2007 Nov;59(3-4):163-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Most of the tumors (22) in the cynomolgus monkeys were seen in endocrine organs (adrenal cortical adenoma, adrenal hemangioma, C-cell carcinoma, follicular adenoma), respiratory system (nasal cavity adenoma, pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, bronchio-alveolar carcinoma, bronchiolar papilloma, chondromatous hamartoma) and female genital system (uterine polyp, uterine adenoma, uterine leiomyoma and teratoma of the ovary).

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  • (PMID = 17869495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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94. National Toxicology Program: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of decalin (CAS No. 91-17-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice and a toxicology study of decalin in male NBR rats (inhalation studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2005 Jan;(513):1-316
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of decalin (CAS No. 91-17-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice and a toxicology study of decalin in male NBR rats (inhalation studies).
  • Decalin was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute because of its chemical structure, its potential for consumer exposure, and a lack of adequate testing of the chemical.
  • There was a significant exposure concentration-related decrease in the absolute spermatid head count and a significant decrease in absolute head count of the 400 ppm group compared to the chamber controls.
  • Incidences of renal tubule adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) and of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in 100 and 400 ppm males were significantly increased.
  • The incidences of uterine stromal polyp and stromal polyp or stromal sarcoma (combined) occurred with positive trends in female mice.

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  • (PMID = 15891779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Naphthalenes; 88451Q4XYF / decalin
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95. Thirlwell C, Will OC, Domingo E, Graham TA, McDonald SA, Oukrif D, Jeffrey R, Gorman M, Rodriguez-Justo M, Chin-Aleong J, Clark SK, Novelli MR, Jankowski JA, Wright NA, Tomlinson IP, Leedham SJ: Clonality assessment and clonal ordering of individual neoplastic crypts shows polyclonality of colorectal adenomas. Gastroenterology; 2010 Apr;138(4):1441-54, 1454.e1-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We assessed adenoma clonality on an individual crypt basis and completed a genetic dependency analysis in carcinomas-in-adenomas to assess mutation order and timing.
  • METHODS: Polyp samples were analyzed from the XO/XY individual, patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis, patients with small sporadic adenomas, and patients with sporadic carcinoma-in-adenomas.
  • Clonality was analyzed using X/Y chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization, analysis of 5q loss of heterozygosity in XO/XY tissue, and sequencing of adenomatous polyposis coli.
  • Individual crypts and different phenotypic areas of carcinoma-in-adenoma lesions were analyzed for mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli, p53, and K-RAS; loss of heterozygosity at 5q, 17p, and 18q; and aneuploidy.
  • RESULTS: All familial adenomatous polyposis-associated adenomas and some sporadic lesions had polyclonal genetic defects.
  • Analyses of tumor phylogenies show that most lesions undergo intermittent genetic homogenization, but heterotypic mutation patterns indicate that independent clonal evolution can occur throughout adenoma development.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20102718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10417; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 11363; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Beggs AD, Hodgson SV: The genomics of colorectal cancer: state of the art. Curr Genomics; 2008 Mar;9(1):1-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The concept of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, as first espoused by Morson et al. whereby the development of colorectal cancer is dependent on a stepwise progression from adenomatous polyp to carcinoma is well documented.
  • Initial studies of the genetics of inherited colorectal cancer susceptibility concentrated on the inherited colorectal cancer syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and Lynch Syndrome (also known as HNPCC).
  • Recent research has concentrated on the pathways by which colorectal adenomatous polyps not due to one of these known inherited susceptibilities undergo malignant transformation, and determination of the types of polyps most likely to do so.
  • We will also discuss in detail the genetic changes in polyps that undergo malignant transformation as well as current knowledge with regards to the epigenomic changes found in colorectal polyps.

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  • (PMID = 19424478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-2029
  • [Journal-full-title] Current genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2674304
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Colorectal / cancer / epigenomics. / genomics
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97. Barreda B F, Combe G J, Valdez P LA, Sánchez L J: [Clinical aspects in polyps of the colon]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru; 2007 Apr-Jun;27(2):131-47
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonic Polyps.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical aspects in polyps of the colon].
  • INTRODUCTION: The colonics polyps according to their number, size, location, age of presentation and mainly, according to their histology, have the potentiality of malignant degeneration, which makes of a continuous study and pursuit susceptible.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relation between the histologic type of the colon polyps, its location, the degree of dysplasia, the size, its possible commitment by carcinoma, the age, sex and the handling that has occurred them, in a series of 684 patients of the National Institute of Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN) between the 1 of January from 1974 to the 31 of March of the 2004.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The revision of clinical histories of 840 patients with the diagnosis of colon polyp was made who attended the service of Gastroenterology of the INEN between the 1 of January from 1974 to the 31 of March of 2004 and a card predesigned for each clinical history filled.
  • 1162 resecteds polyps evaluated themselves in this period.
  • The final sample was of 684 patients, in whom it was 1057 polyps.
  • RESULTS: 1057 polyps extirpated, by means of the endoscopy polipectomy were 1016, with colectomy were 32 and with transanal resection without colectomy they 9.
  • Within the histology of the 1057 polyps, 331 was briefed (31.3%) that were hyperplasic, 448 (42.4%) adenomas, 278 (26.3%) others and 35 (8.2%) adenocarcinomas on adenomas.
  • Adenocarcinoma (carcinomas on adenomas), was present mainly in polyps villous type, with dysplasia severe and greater to 10 mm.
  • Nevertheless, in smaller polyps of 5mm with dysplasia severe, was a polyp invaded by cancer, that represents the 0,8% of millimetric polyps.
  • The made handling was mainly endoscopic, with 96% of the resected polyps this way, also slogan transanal resection and segmental colonic resection.
  • The colectomy was necessary in 3% of all the made interventions, dysplasia severe or carcinoma was made in adenomatous polyps with, and in greater percentage in greater polyps of 20 mm (53%).
  • On the other hand, in polyps with level of invasion Haggitt 3 and 4, the colectomy was the election treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The Evaluation of colonic polyps in INEN is predominantly by endoscopy.
  • The polyps are more frequent over the 50 years and have preferred location in the left colon.
  • The carcinoma is more probable with severe dysplasia and greater size of the adenoma.
  • All polyps, from the millimetric ones, including the hyperplasic, must be considered marks of neoplasia and extirpated in its totality.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonic Polyps / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17712391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5129
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Peru
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Peru
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98. Leedham SJ, Wright NA: Expansion of a mutated clone: from stem cell to tumour. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Feb;61(2):164-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Work on the hereditary cancer syndromes, including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), has led to significant advances, including the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • The initial mutation involved in this stepwise progression is in the "gatekeeper" tumour suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC).
  • This model has been used to suggest that short-range interaction between adjacent initiated crypts, not random polyp collision, is responsible for tumour polyclonality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Stem Cells / cytology

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  • (PMID = 17468295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G84/6549
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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99. Niv Y, Half B, Moshkowitz M, Kariv R, Vilkin A, Levi Z: [Surveillance of patients after colonoscopic polypectomy and curative resection of colorectal cancer]. Harefuah; 2010 Oct;149(10):670-3, 682
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colorectal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • After polypectomy of a simple hyperplasic polyp, colonoscopy is repeated in 10 years.
  • Small adenoma dictates colonoscopy after 5-10 years.
  • In the case of advanced adenoma, repeat coLonoscopy is to be conducted after 3 years.
  • The personal impression of the colonoscopists may advance procedures to an earlier colonoscopy, especially after piecemeal polypectomy of a large sessile polyp.
  • Total colonoscopy should be performed before the operation or in cases with obstructive carcinoma, colonic imaging should be completed with virtual colonoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / surgery. Colonoscopy / methods. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Humans. Israel. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Sigmoidoscopy / methods. Time Factors

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Colorectal Cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonic Polyps.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonoscopy.
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  • (PMID = 21568065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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100. Wasilewicz MP, Kołodziej B, Bojułko T, Kaczmarczyk M, Sulzyc-Bielicka V, Bielicki D, Ciepiela K: Overexpression of 5-lipoxygenase in sporadic colonic adenomas and a possible new aspect of colon carcinogenesis. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2010 Sep;25(9):1079-85
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Overexpression of 5-lipoxygenase in sporadic colonic adenomas and a possible new aspect of colon carcinogenesis.
  • METHODS: A total of 111 patients were examined and 120 histologically different colonic adenomas analyzed (including four cases of intramucosal adenocarcinoma in a polyp).
  • RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between high 5-LOX expression and patient age, increased polyp size, high grade of intraepithelial neoplasia, villous and tubulovillous adenoma, and histological epithelial localization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We observed a strong positive correlation between 5-LOX overexpression and the appearance of typical high-risk factors for malignant transformation in adenomatous polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / pathology. Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / enzymology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / enzymology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / enzymology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Colonic Polyps / enzymology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20549218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2912725
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