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1. Oh K, Willett WC, Wu K, Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL: Calcium and vitamin D intakes in relation to risk of distal colorectal adenoma in women. Am J Epidemiol; 2007 May 15;165(10):1178-86
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  • [Title] Calcium and vitamin D intakes in relation to risk of distal colorectal adenoma in women.
  • The authors examined intakes of calcium and vitamin D, and interaction with retinol, in relation to risk of adenoma of the distal colon or rectum among 48,115 US women who were free of colorectal cancer or polyps, completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1980, and underwent endoscopy by 2002.
  • They documented 2,747 cases of adenoma (1,064 large, 1,531 small, 2,085 distal colon, and 779 rectal).
  • Total calcium intake was weakly associated with distal colorectal adenoma risk (multivariable relative risk (RR) for extreme quintiles = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74, 1.04; p(trend) = 0.06), particularly for large adenoma (RR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96; p(trend) = 0.02).
  • Total vitamin D intake was weakly associated with reduced risk of distal colorectal adenoma (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99; p(trend) = 0.07), but more strongly with distal colon adenoma risk (RR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.87; p(trend) = 0.004).
  • The combinations of high vitamin D and low retinol intake (RR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.28, 1.10) further decreased risk of distal colorectal adenoma when compared with the opposite extreme.

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  • (PMID = 17379616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9262
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Epidemiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561; None / None / / P30 DK040561-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 87969; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 55075
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium, Dietary; 11103-57-4 / Vitamin A; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
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2. Wang D, Wang H, Guo Y, Ning W, Katkuri S, Wahli W, Desvergne B, Dey SK, DuBois RN: Crosstalk between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and VEGF stimulates cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Dec 12;103(50):19069-74
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  • Here, we present genetic and pharmacologic evidence demonstrating that deletion of PPARdelta decreases intestinal adenoma growth in Apc(Min/+) mice and inhibits tumor-promoting effects of a PPARdelta agonist GW501516.
  • More importantly, we found that activation of PPARdelta up-regulated VEGF in colon carcinoma cells.
  • VEGF directly promotes colon tumor epithelial cell survival through activation of PI3K-Akt signaling.

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  • (PMID = 17148604.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 77839; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK 62112; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R37 HD 12304; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R37 DK 47297; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P30 HD033994; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R37 HD012304; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA077839; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 068485; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA068485; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R37 DK047297; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK062112; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD033994
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GW 501516; 0 / PPAR delta; 0 / Thiazoles; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1748178
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3. Erdman SH: Pediatric adenomatous polyposis syndromes: an update. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2007 Jun;9(3):237-44
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  • [Title] Pediatric adenomatous polyposis syndromes: an update.
  • Juvenile polyps are a common finding in the pediatric population.
  • In contrast, colon adenomas, which are viewed as dysplastic precancerous lesions, are found sporadically in late adulthood.
  • These disorders show a predilection to early adenoma formation and can present in childhood.
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis and Lynch syndrome are autosomal dominant, often with involvement of multiple family members, or can be seen in an individual arising from a de novo mutation.
  • The most recently described adenomatous polyposis syndrome, MutYH-associated polyposis, is autosomal recessive, requiring an inherited mutation from each parent.
  • All three adenomatous polyposis disorders can display tremendous variation in expression, even within the same family, and can have a common overlapping phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17511923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8037
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / mutY adenine glycosylase
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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4. Bresalier RS: Early detection of and screening for colorectal neoplasia. Gut Liver; 2009 Jun;3(2):69-80
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  • Currently screening for adenomatous polyps and early-stage cancers is the best methodology for improving survival.
  • The increasing knowledge of CRC pathogenesis and its natural history is allowing the development of new tools to identify patients who will benefit most from colon cancer screening and the defining of appropriate surveillance intervals.
  • The guidelines for screening for colorectal neoplasia have recently been substantially revised by several organizations based on developing technologies and a growing body of data on the efficacy of CRC screening.

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  • (PMID = 20431727.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-1212
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut and liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut Liver
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2852697
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenoma / Colon cancer screening / Colonoscopy / Computed tomographic colonography / Fecal occult blood testing
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5. Yashiro M, Laghi L, Saito K, Carethers JM, Slezak P, Rubio C, Hirakawa K, Boland CR: Serrated adenomas have a pattern of genetic alterations that distinguishes them from other colorectal polyps. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2005 Sep;14(9):2253-6
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  • [Title] Serrated adenomas have a pattern of genetic alterations that distinguishes them from other colorectal polyps.
  • BACKGROUND: Serrated adenomas are characterized by serrated crypts with dysplasia, and are distinguished from other polyps by their histology, but the genetic basis of serrated adenomas is unknown.
  • We investigated genetic alterations in colorectal polyps to determine if a specific pattern were associated with serrated adenomas.
  • METHODS: Sixty-six small (<10 mm) colorectal polyps were studied, including 11 hyperplastic polyps, 27 serrated adenomas, 9 tubular adenomas, 6 tubulovillous adenomas, and 3 villous adenomas.
  • Allelic imbalance of 18q was significantly more common (P < 0.05), whereas allelic imbalance of 5q and K-ras mutations were significantly less common (P < 0.05) in serrated adenomas compared with other polyps.
  • Serrated adenomas seem to evolve through a different genetic pathway than other types of polyps in the colon.

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  • (PMID = 16172239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090231-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090231; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R-01 CA72851; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090231-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Wallace K, Grau MV, Ahnen D, Snover DC, Robertson DJ, Mahnke D, Gui J, Barry EL, Summers RW, McKeown-Eyssen G, Haile RW, Baron JA: The association of lifestyle and dietary factors with the risk for serrated polyps of the colorectum. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 Aug;18(8):2310-7
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  • [Title] The association of lifestyle and dietary factors with the risk for serrated polyps of the colorectum.
  • Some serrated polyps of the colorectum are likely preinvasive lesions, evolving through a newly recognized serrated pathway to colorectal cancer.
  • To assess possible risk and protective factors for serrated polyps and particularly to explore differences in risk factors between polyps in the right and left colorectum, we pooled data from three large multicenter chemoprevention trials.
  • A serrated polyp was defined broadly as any serrated lesion (hyperplastic, sessile serrated adenoma, "traditional" serrated adenoma, mixed adenoma) diagnosed during each trial's main treatment period of approximately 3 to 4 years.
  • Using generalized linear regression, we computed risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of the association between risk for serrated polyps and demographic, lifestyle, and dietary variables.
  • In the left colorectum, obesity, cigarette smoking, dietary fat, total energy intake, and red meat intake were associated with an increased risk for serrated polyps.
  • In the right colon, aspirin treatment was associated with a reduced risk and family history of polyps and folate treatment were associated with an increased risk for serrated polyps.
  • Our results suggest that several common lifestyle and dietary variables are associated with risk for serrated polyps, and some of these may differ for the right and left colorectum.

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  • (PMID = 19661090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA037287; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA046927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antioxidants; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS471973; NLM/ PMC3669681
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7. Michels KB, Giovannucci E, Chan AT, Singhania R, Fuchs CS, Willett WC: Fruit and vegetable consumption and colorectal adenomas in the Nurses' Health Study. Cancer Res; 2006 Apr 1;66(7):3942-53
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  • We examined the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the prevalence and incidence of adenomas of the distal colon and rectum in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS).
  • Consumption of fruits and vegetables was assessed in 1980, 1984, 1986, 1990, and 1994 using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire; 1,720 prevalent cases of adenoma of the distal colon and rectum were diagnosed between 1980 and 1998.
  • Frequent consumption of fruit was inversely related to the risk of being diagnosed with polyps, whereas little association was found for vegetable consumption.

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  • (PMID = 16585224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561; None / None / / P30 DK040561-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 87969; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561-11; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 54900
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Nosho K, Yamamoto H, Takamaru H, Hamamoto Y, Goto A, Yoshida Y, Arimura Y, Endo T, Hirata K, Imai K: A case of colorectal carcinoma in adenoma analyzed by a cDNA array. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2005 May;20(3):287-91
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  • [Title] A case of colorectal carcinoma in adenoma analyzed by a cDNA array.
  • Colonoscopy showed a Is-type tumor of 45 mm in diameter in the cecum and three Is-type tumors in the ascending colon.
  • Microscopically, the large tumor consisted of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with a tubulovillous adenoma (TVA) component (carcinoma in adenoma).
  • Some carcinoma (CA) cells had invaded the submucosal layer, but the lymph nodes were negative for malignancy.
  • The other three polyps were diagnosed as TVAs.
  • Because her family history fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria II for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), genetic analysis was performed.
  • K-ras mutation was detected in both CA and TVA lesions of the carcinoma in adenoma.
  • To clarify relevant alterations of gene expression associated with adenoma-carcinoma progression, the gene expression profiles of these tumor tissues were analyzed by a cDNA array.
  • RESULTS: Although the gene expression profiles were similar, insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) was expressed most differentially in CA and TVA tissues.
  • The results were further substantiated by comparison of the gene expression profiles of CA and TVA lesions of the carcinoma in adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that overexpression of IGF-II played an important role in the progression of adenoma to carcinoma in this patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenoma, Villous / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. DNA, Complementary / analysis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 15490195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Rubio CA, Jónasson JG, Nesi G, Mazur J, Olafsdóttir E: The size of colon polyps revisited: intra- and inter-observer variations. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jun;30(6):2419-23
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  • [Title] The size of colon polyps revisited: intra- and inter-observer variations.
  • BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that the occurrence of invasive carcinoma in a colon adenoma can be predicted by estimating the size of the resected polyp.
  • In this work, the size of a large cohort of endoscopically-resected colon polyps was assessed with a novel method.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three pathologists measured photocopies of 148 resected polyps (adenomas at histology) in two independent trials.
  • CONCLUSION: Present and previous investigations indicate that the lack of reproducibility makes the use of size limits in predicting cancer risk in polyps removed at colonoscopy unreliable.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Observer Variation

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  • (PMID = 20651402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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10. Inoue T, Murano M, Murano N, Kuramoto T, Kawakami K, Abe Y, Morita E, Toshina K, Hoshiro H, Egashira Y, Umegaki E, Higuchi K: Comparative study of conventional colonoscopy and pan-colonic narrow-band imaging system in the detection of neoplastic colonic polyps: a randomized, controlled trial. J Gastroenterol; 2008;43(1):45-50
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  • [Title] Comparative study of conventional colonoscopy and pan-colonic narrow-band imaging system in the detection of neoplastic colonic polyps: a randomized, controlled trial.
  • However, no randomized, controlled trials have evaluated the efficacy of a pan-colonic NBI system in adenoma detection.
  • We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to determine the efficacy of the pancolonic NBI system in adenoma detection.
  • The proportions of patients with at least one adenoma and those with multiple adenomas were not significantly different between groups.
  • The pan-colonic NBI system allowed detection of more diminutive adenomas in the distal colon than did conventional colonoscopy (P < 0.01), and more patients in the NBI group had at least one diminutive adenoma than in the control group (P < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Diagnostic Imaging / instrumentation

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  • [CommentIn] J Gastroenterol. 2008;43(10):809; author reply 809-10 [18958552.001]
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  • (PMID = 18297435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
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  • [Language] eng
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11. Bruce WR, Cirocco M, Giacca A, Kim YI, Marcon N, Minkin S: A pilot randomised controlled trial to reduce colorectal cancer risk markers associated with B-vitamin deficiency, insulin resistance and colonic inflammation. Br J Cancer; 2005 Sep 19;93(6):639-46
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  • Colorectal cancer risk is associated with biochemical markers for B-vitamin deficiency, insulin resistance and colonic inflammation, suggesting that these three conditions are each involved in colon carcinogenesis.
  • We therefore randomised 98 participants, with previous colonic polyps or intramucosal carcinomas, to a combined treatment of supplementary folic acid, fish oil and calcium carbonate, or placebos for 28 days.
  • This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility and practicality of clinical trials aimed at reducing diet-related biochemical risk markers for colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Glucose / metabolism. C-Reactive Protein / metabolism. Calcium Carbonate / administration & dosage. Dietary Supplements. Female. Fish Oils / administration & dosage. Folic Acid / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Risk Factors. Thiamine / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Vitamin B 12 Deficiency / complications. Vitamin B 12 Deficiency / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16136044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Fish Oils; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid; H0G9379FGK / Calcium Carbonate; X66NSO3N35 / Thiamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361622
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12. Terdiman JP, Johnson LK, Kim YS, Sleisenger MH, Gum JR, Hayes A, Weinberg VK, McQuaid KR: Chemoprevention of colonic polyps with balsalazide: an exploratory, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dig Dis Sci; 2009 Nov;54(11):2488-96
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  • [Title] Chemoprevention of colonic polyps with balsalazide: an exploratory, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
  • AIM: To investigate chemoprevention of colonic polyps with balsalazide, a 5-aminosalicylate prodrug.
  • METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, adults diagnosed with small polyps in the rectosigmoid colon were treated with either balsalazide 3 g/d or placebo for 6 months.
  • Follow-up lower endoscopy was performed, and all polyps were measured and analyzed histologically.
  • Balsalazide 3 g/d (n = 38) did not significantly reduce the mean size of the largest colonic polyp or the number of polyps compared with placebo (n = 37).
  • Although not significant, post-hoc analysis revealed that total adenoma burden per subject, calculated as the sum of the volumes of all adenomas in mm3, increased by 55% in the balsalazide group compared with 95% in the placebo group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although balsalazide did not have significant chemopreventive effects on established colonic polyps, these results can aid in designing future prospective studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / prevention & control. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Mesalamine / therapeutic use. Phenylhydrazines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / prevention & control. Aged. Apoptosis / drug effects. Colon, Sigmoid / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / prevention & control. Double-Blind Method. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19757048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 0 / Phenylhydrazines; 4Q81I59GXC / Mesalamine; P80AL8J7ZP / balsalazide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2762046
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13. Shaukat A, Parekh M, Lipscomb J, Ladabaum U: Can calcium chemoprevention of adenoma recurrence substitute or serve as an adjunct for colonoscopic surveillance? Int J Technol Assess Health Care; 2009 Apr;25(2):222-31
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  • [Title] Can calcium chemoprevention of adenoma recurrence substitute or serve as an adjunct for colonoscopic surveillance?
  • METHODS: We constructed a Markov model of post-polypectomy adenoma recurrence and colorectal cancer (CRC) development, calibrated to data from prospective chemoprevention trials of fiber, calcium, antioxidants, and aspirin.
  • (iii) surveillance colonoscopy from age 50-80 every 5 years, or 3 years for large adenoma;.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / prevention & control. Calcium / economics. Colonic Polyps / prevention & control. Colonoscopy. Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19331713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-6348
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of technology assessment in health care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Technol Assess Health Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA101849; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA101849-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA101849-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS209119; NLM/ PMC2972652
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14. Smoot DT, Collins J, Dunlap S, Ali-Ibrahim A, Nouraie M, Lee EL, Ashktorab H: Outcome of colonoscopy in elderly African-American patients. Dig Dis Sci; 2009 Nov;54(11):2484-7
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  • Patients older than age 75 years were then stratified into two groups: one group classified as average risk for colon cancer and a second group classified as higher risk for finding cancer based on indication.
  • Significant findings from colonoscopy were assigned if the patient was found to have an advanced adenoma, such as villous attributes, high-grade dysplasia, adenoma C1 cm, or cancer.
  • Among the preprocedure higher-risk patients, 532 had nonsignificant findings include hemorrhoids, diverticulosis, telangiectasias, lipomas, and inflammatory polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonoscopy

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  • [CommentIn] Dig Dis Sci. 2010 Jan;55(1):220-1; author reply 221 [19921538.001]
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  • (PMID = 19757049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / #CA102681
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Roy HK, Gomes A, Turzhitsky V, Goldberg MJ, Rogers J, Ruderman S, Young KL, Kromine A, Brand RE, Jameel M, Vakil P, Hasabou N, Backman V: Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk. Gastroenterology; 2008 Oct;135(4):1069-78
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  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: We previously used a novel biomedical optics technology, 4-dimensional elastically scattered light fingerprinting, to show that in experimental colon carcinogenesis the predysplastic epithelial microvascular blood content is increased markedly.
  • Microvascular blood content was measured in 222 patients from the endoscopically normal cecum, midtransverse colon, and rectum.
  • EIBS was detectable within 30 cm from the lesion and the magnitude mirrored adenoma proximity.
  • EIBS correlated with adenoma size and was not engendered by nonneoplastic (hyperplastic) polyps.

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  • (PMID = 18722372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA128641-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109861-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R42CA130508; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA118794-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112315-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112315; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128641-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111257-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R42 CA130508; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA128641; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R42 CA130508-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109861-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112315-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA130508-01A1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB003682-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118794-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118794; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111257-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB003682-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB003682
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Hemoglobins; 9008-02-0 / deoxyhemoglobin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS73576; NLM/ PMC3405534
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16. Kawasaki T, Nosho K, Ohnishi M, Suemoto Y, Glickman JN, Chan AT, Kirkner GJ, Mino-Kenudson M, Fuchs CS, Ogino S: Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression is common in serrated and non-serrated colorectal adenoma, but uncommon in hyperplastic polyp and sessile serrated polyp/adenoma. BMC Cancer; 2008 Jan 29;8:33
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression is common in serrated and non-serrated colorectal adenoma, but uncommon in hyperplastic polyp and sessile serrated polyp/adenoma.
  • METHODS: By immunohistochemistry, we assessed COX-2 expression in 24 hyperplastic polyps, 7 sessile serrated polyp/adenomas (SSA), 5 mixed polyps with SSA and adenoma, 27 traditional serrated adenomas, 515 non-serrated adenomas (tubular adenoma, tubulovillous adenoma and villous adenoma), 33 adenomas with intramucosal carcinomas, 96 adenocarcinomas with serration (corkscrew gland) and 111 adenocarcinomas without serration.
  • RESULTS: Strong (2+) COX-2 overexpression was more common in non-serrated adenomas (28% = 143/515) than in hyperplastic polyps (4.2% = 1/24, p = 0.008) and serrated polyps (7 SSAs and 5 mixed polyps) (0% = 0/12, p = 0.04).
  • Furthermore, any (1+/2+) COX-2 overexpression was more frequent in non-serrated adenomas (60% = 307/515) than in hyperplastic polyps (13% = 3/24, p < 0.0001) and serrated polyps (SSAs and mixed polyps) (25% = 3/12, p = 0.03).
  • Tumor location was not significantly correlated with COX-2 overexpression, although there was a trend towards higher frequencies of COX-2 overexpression in distal tumors (than proximal tumors) among hyperplastic polyps, SSAs, mixed polyps, traditional serrated adenomas and adenocarcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: COX-2 overexpression is infrequent in hyperplastic polyp, SSA and mixed polyp with SSA and adenoma, compared to non-serrated and serrated adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 18230181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA087969; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA055075; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA122826; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA87969; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA55075; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA127003
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2257954
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17. Gomes AJ, Roy HK, Turzhitsky V, Kim Y, Rogers JD, Ruderman S, Stoyneva V, Goldberg MJ, Bianchi LK, Yen E, Kromine A, Jameel M, Backman V: Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 May 1;15(9):3110-7
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  • We now investigate whether in situ detection of EIBS in the rectum can predict neoplasia elsewhere in the colon.
  • Logistic regression using mucosal oxyhemoglobin concentration and patient age resulted in a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 82%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.88 for the detection of advanced adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased microvascular blood supply in the normal rectal mucosa is associated with the presence of clinically significant neoplasia elsewhere in the colon, supporting the development of rectal EIBS as a colon cancer risk-stratification tool.

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  • (PMID = 19383816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111257-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R42CA130508; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA109861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA118794-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA130508-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112315; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118794-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111257-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA128641-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109861-04A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R42 CA130508; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA128641; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA118794; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA128641; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128641-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA111257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112315-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118794; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R42 CA130508-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109861-04A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA112315; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112315-04
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS115833; NLM/ PMC2745222
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18. Meng W, Cai SR, Zhou L, Dong Q, Zheng S, Zhang SZ: Performance value of high risk factors in colorectal cancer screening in China. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Dec 28;15(48):6111-6
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  • METHODS: We compared the performance value of the immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) and other high risk factors questionnaire in a population sample of 13 214 community residents who completed both the iFOBT and questionnaire investigation.
  • The iFOBT had the highest sensitivity, lowest number of extra false positive results associated with the detection of one extra abnormality for screening advanced neoplasias and adenomas.
  • A history of chronic cholecystitis or cholecystectomy, chronic appendicitis or appendectomy, and chronic diarrhea also had a higher sensitivity than a history of adenomatous polyps in screening for advanced neoplasias and adenomas.
  • The sensitivity of a history of chronic cholecystitis or cholecystectomy was highest among the 10 high risk factors in screening for non-adenomatous polyps.
  • A history of chronic appendicitis or appendectomy, chronic constipation, chronic diarrhea, mucous and bloody stool, CRC in first degree relatives, malignant tumor and a positive iFOBT also had higher sensitivities than a history of adenomas polyps in screening for non-adenomatous polyps.
  • Except for a history of malignant tumor in screening for non-adenomatous polyps, the gain in sensitivity was associated with an increase in extra false positive results associated with the detection of one extra abnormality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mass Screening

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  • (PMID = 20027686.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2797670
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19. Lam KD, Garcia RT, Nguyen LH, Trinh H, Triadafilopoulos G, Phan JT, Nguyen K, Nguyen H, Ahmed A, Nguyen MH: Prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in Asian Americans. Dig Dis Sci; 2009 Jan;54(1):160-7
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  • PURPOSE: To determine the yield of colonoscopy in a predominantly Asian American gastroenterology practice in California from 8/2003 to 2/2005.
  • Factors associated with presence of advanced neoplasia were total number of polyps and presence of right-sided lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / ethnology. Asian Americans / ethnology. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / ethnology

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  • (PMID = 18975084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Nakanishi M, Montrose DC, Clark P, Nambiar PR, Belinsky GS, Claffey KP, Xu D, Rosenberg DW: Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis. Cancer Res; 2008 May 1;68(9):3251-9
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  • We also examined the effect of mPGES-1 deletion on carcinogen-induced colon cancer.
  • Importantly, mPGES-1 deletion also blocked the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in ACF, confirming that beta-catenin is a critical target of PGE(2) procarcinogenic signaling in the colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Gene Deletion. Intestinal Neoplasms / genetics. Intramolecular Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Dinoprostone / metabolism. Disease Progression. Female. Homozygote. Intestinal Polyps / genetics. Intestinal Polyps / metabolism. Intestinal Polyps / pathology. Intestine, Small / blood supply. Intestine, Small / metabolism. Isoenzymes / genetics. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Protein Transport. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18451151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-114635
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 5.3.- / Intramolecular Oxidoreductases; EC 5.3.99.3 / prostaglandin-E synthase; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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21. Dobrow MJ, Cooper MA, Gayman K, Pennington J, Matthews J, Rabeneck L: Referring patients to nurses: outcomes and evaluation of a nurse flexible sigmoidoscopy training program for colorectal cancer screening. Can J Gastroenterol; 2007 May;21(5):301-8
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  • These nurses performed a total of 77 procedures in patients, 23 of whom had polyps detected and biopsied.
  • Eight patients were advised to undergo colonoscopy because they had one or more neoplastic polyps.
  • Classifying the six patients according to the most advanced polyp histology, one patient had a negative colonoscopy (no polyps found), one patient's polyps were hyperplastic, one had a tubular adenoma, two had advanced neoplasia (tubulovillous adenomas) and one had adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 17505566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0835-7900
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 42
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2657712
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22. Hsiung PL, Hardy J, Friedland S, Soetikno R, Du CB, Wu AP, Sahbaie P, Crawford JM, Lowe AW, Contag CH, Wang TD: Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy. Nat Med; 2008 Apr;14(4):454-8
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  • To develop a probe for detecting colon cancer, we screened phage display peptide libraries against fresh human colonic adenomas for high-affinity ligands with preferential binding to premalignant tissue.

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  • (PMID = 18345013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-170X
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK56339; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK067618; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK067618-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA105296; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA136429; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R03 DK075603-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK056339; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA136429-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R03 DK075603
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Peptide Library; TPY09G7XIR / Fluorescein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS366716; NLM/ PMC3324975
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23. Melstrom LG, Bentrem DJ, Salabat MR, Kennedy TJ, Ding XZ, Strouch M, Rao SM, Witt RC, Ternent CA, Talamonti MS, Bell RH, Adrian TA: Overexpression of 5-lipoxygenase in colon polyps and cancer and the effect of 5-LOX inhibitors in vitro and in a murine model. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Oct 15;14(20):6525-30
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  • [Title] Overexpression of 5-lipoxygenase in colon polyps and cancer and the effect of 5-LOX inhibitors in vitro and in a murine model.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of 5-LOX in colonic polyps and cancer and the effect of 5-LOX inhibition on colon cancer cell proliferation.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Colonic polyps, cancer, and normal mucosa were evaluated for 5-LOX expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • Reverse transcription-PCR was used to establish 5-LOX expression in colon cancer cells.
  • A heterotopic xenograft model in athymic mice using HT29 and LoVo human colon cancer cells was used to evaluate the effect of the 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton on tumor growth.
  • RESULTS: 5-LOX is overexpressed in adenomatous polyps and cancer compared with that of normal colonic mucosa.
  • LOX inhibition and 5-LOX inhibition decreased DNA synthesis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in the Lovo cell line (P < 0.05).
  • Inhibition of 5-LOX in an in vivo colon cancer xenograft model inhibited tumor growth compared with that of controls (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that 5-LOX is up-regulated in adenomatous colon polyps and cancer compared with normal colonic mucosa.
  • The blockade of 5-LOX inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo and may prove a beneficial chemopreventive therapy in colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / enzymology. Colonic Polyps / enzymology. Disease Models, Animal. Lipoxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / pathology. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Vitro Techniques. Masoprocol / therapeutic use. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thymidine / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 18927292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipoxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 7BO8G1BYQU / Masoprocol; EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
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24. Miller J, Mehta N, Feldman M, Furth E, Ginsberg GG, Yang YX, Lewis JD: Findings on serial surveillance colonoscopy in patients with low-risk polyps on initial colonoscopy. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2010 Mar;44(3):e46-50
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  • [Title] Findings on serial surveillance colonoscopy in patients with low-risk polyps on initial colonoscopy.
  • GOALS: This study describes the prevalence of adenomatous polyps at serial follow-up exams after a colonoscopy finding 1 to 2 small tubular adenomas.
  • At the second and third colonoscopy, 31/88 (35.2%) patients and 26/88 (29.6%) patients had at least 1 adenoma, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19620883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-2031
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / K24 DK078228-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK078228; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32DK007740; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007740; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK007740-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK078228-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007740-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24-DK078228
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS118008; NLM/ PMC2828518
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25. Markova M, Koratkar RA, Silverman KA, Sollars VE, MacPhee-Pellini M, Walters R, Palazzo JP, Buchberg AM, Siracusa LD, Farber SA: Diversity in secreted PLA2-IIA activity among inbred mouse strains that are resistant or susceptible to Apc Min/+ tumorigenesis. Oncogene; 2005 Sep 22;24(42):6450-8
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  • The secreted phospholipase A2 type IIA (Pla2g2a) gene was previously identified as a modifier of intestinal adenoma multiplicity in Apc Min/+ mice.
  • Consistent with predictions from the sPLA2-IIA gene sequence in inbred strains, we detected low levels of enzyme activity in inbred strains containing sPLA2-IIA mutations; these strains were also associated with greater numbers of intestinal polyps.
  • This approach enables further studies of the mechanisms of sPLA2 action influencing the development and tumorigenesis of the small intestine and colon in both mice and humans.

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  • (PMID = 16007193.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA72027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA89560; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060369
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene; 0 / Boron Compounds; EC 3.1.1.- / Phospholipases A; EC 3.1.1.4 / Group II Phospholipases A2; EC 3.1.1.4 / Phospholipases A2; EC 3.1.1.4 / Pla2g2a protein, mouse
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26. Rial NS, Meyskens FL, Gerner EW: Polyamines as mediators of APC-dependent intestinal carcinogenesis and cancer chemoprevention. Essays Biochem; 2009;46:111-24
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  • The preclinical rationale for combination chemoprevention with DFMO and the NSAID sulindac, was strengthened by the observation that a SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) in the ODC promoter was prognostic for adenoma recurrence in patients with prior sporadic colon polyps and predicted reduced risk of adenoma in those patients taking aspirin.
  • Recent results from a phase III clinical trial showed a dramatic reduction in metachronous adenoma number, size and grade.
  • A non-significant trend in subclinical ototoxicity was detected by quantitative audiology in a subset of patients identified by a genetic marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Polyamines / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20095973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0071-1365
  • [Journal-full-title] Essays in biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Essays Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA123065
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Polyamines; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; ZQN1G5V6SR / Eflornithine
  • [Number-of-references] 30
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS440127; NLM/ PMC3574816
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27. Ye C, Shrubsole MJ, Cai Q, Ness R, Grady WM, Smalley W, Cai H, Washington K, Zheng W: Promoter methylation status of the MGMT, hMLH1, and CDKN2A/p16 genes in non-neoplastic mucosa of patients with and without colorectal adenomas. Oncol Rep; 2006 Aug;16(2):429-35
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  • CpG island methylation has been observed in aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and adenomas in the colon, implicating it in the earliest aspects of colon cancer formation.
  • In addition, some investigators have identified an age-related increase in DNA methylation of the ESR1 locus in the colon mucosa, suggesting that DNA methylation may be a pre-neoplastic change that increases the risk of colon adenomas and colon cancer.
  • We investigated the methylation status in the promoter regions of the CDKN2A/p16, hMLH1, and MGMT genes in human non-neoplastic rectal mucosa and evaluated whether these methylation markers may predict the presence of adenomatous polyps in the colon.
  • The promoter methylation patterns of these genes were examined in rectal biopsies (mucosa samples) of 97 colorectal adenoma cases and 94 healthy controls using methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assays.
  • The methylation status of these genes in rectal mucosa biopsies detected by MSP assays may not distinguish between patients with and without adenomas in the colon.

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  • (PMID = 16820927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097386; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA95103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA97386
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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28. Selgrad M, Koornstra JJ, Fini L, Blom M, Huang R, Devol EB, Boersma-van Ek W, Dijkstra G, Verdonk RC, de Jong S, Goel A, Williams SL, Meyer RL, Haagsma EB, Ricciardiello L, Boland CR: JC virus infection in colorectal neoplasia that develops after liver transplantation. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Oct 15;14(20):6717-21
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  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: JCV TAg DNA and protein expression were determined in normal colonic epithelium (n = 15) and adenomatous polyps (n = 26) from LTRs and compared with tissue samples from control patients (normal colon, n = 21; adenomas, n = 40).

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  • (PMID = 18927316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098572-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098572; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098572-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA98572
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS187522; NLM/ PMC2846598
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29. Poole EM, Bigler J, Whitton J, Sibert JG, Potter JD, Ulrich CM: C-reactive protein genotypes and haplotypes, polymorphisms in NSAID-metabolizing enzymes, and risk of colorectal polyps. Pharmacogenet Genomics; 2009 Feb;19(2):113-20
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  • [Title] C-reactive protein genotypes and haplotypes, polymorphisms in NSAID-metabolizing enzymes, and risk of colorectal polyps.
  • INTRODUCTION: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific marker of inflammation linked to cardiovascular disease and possibly colon cancer.
  • In a case-control study of adenomatous (n=491) or hyperplastic (n=184) polyps versus polyp-free controls (n=583) we investigated these SNPs in relation to colorectal polyp risk.
  • RESULTS: Individuals with 838 GC or CC genotypes had a modestly, although not statistically significantly, increased risk of adenomas (odds ratio: 1.4 95% confidence interval: 0.9-2.1) and a nearly 2-fold increased risk of concurrent adenomas and hyperplastic polyps (odds ratio: 2.0 95% confidence interval: 1.1-3.6).
  • Increased risk for concurrent adenomas and hyperplastic polyps was also observed for haplotype ACACAC.
  • We also observed interactions between UGT1A1 [TA](7) promoter repeat polymorphism and CRP tagSNPs -390C>T/A and 90A>T, in which only the homozygous variant CRP genotype was associated with increased risk of adenoma among those with the UGT1A1 6rpt/6rpt genotype (P interaction=0.02 and 0.04 for -390C>T/A and 90A>T, respectively).

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  • (PMID = 19077918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-6872
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacogenetics and genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacogenet. Genomics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA89445; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA59045; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA094880; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089445; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114467; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009661
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 1.14.13.- / CYP2C9 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.- / Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases; EC 2.4.1.- / UGT1A1 enzyme; EC 2.4.1.17 / Glucuronosyltransferase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS133466; NLM/ PMC3690930
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30. Padda M, Vadgama J, Sandhu P, Dev A, Giannikopoulos I: Clinical significance of incidental colorectal wall thickening on computed tomography scan in African-American and Hispanic patients. Dig Dis Sci; 2007 Nov;52(11):3159-64
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  • Patients with a history or a family history of colorectal malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease, or colorectal surgery, with an incomplete colonoscopic examination, or <18 years of age were excluded.
  • Abnormal endoscopic examination revealed diverticulosis in 9 (43%), erythematous mucosa in 8 (38%), polyps in 6 (29%), mass in 2 (9%), thickened folds in 1 (5%), and diverticulitis in 1 (5%).
  • Histopathological findings revealed colitis in 7 (33%), adenoma in 4 (19%), hyperplastic polyps in 4 (19%), adenocarcinoma in 2 (9%), lymphoid aggregates in 2 (9%), melanosis coli in 1 (5%), and normal in 1 (5%) in the abnormal examination group.
  • [MeSH-major] African Americans. Colon / radiography. Colonic Diseases / radiography. Hispanic Americans. Rectal Diseases / radiography. Rectum / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


31. Tanaka T: Colorectal carcinogenesis: Review of human and experimental animal studies. J Carcinog; 2009;8:5
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  • The focus is on human and murine colorectal carcinogenesis and the histogenesis of this malignant disorder.
  • A summary of a model of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis (an AOM/DSS model) will also be presented.
  • The earliest phases of colorectal oncogenesis occur in the normal mucosa, with a disorder of cell replication.
  • The large majority of colorectal malignancies develop from an adenomatous polyp (adenoma).
  • Carcinomas usually originate from pre-existing adenomas, but this does not imply that all polyps undergo malignant changes and does not exclude de novo oncogenesis.
  • Besides adenomas, there are other types of pre-neoplasia, which include hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas and dysplasia that occurs in the inflamed colon in associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

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  • (PMID = 19332896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-3163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Carcinog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2678864
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32. Laiyemo AO, Doubeni C, Pinsky PF, Doria-Rose VP, Bresalier R, Lamerato LE, Crawford ED, Kvale P, Fouad M, Hickey T, Riley T, Weissfeld J, Schoen RE, Marcus PM, Prorok PC, Berg CD: Race and colorectal cancer disparities: health-care utilization vs different cancer susceptibilities. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2010 Apr 21;102(8):538-46
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  • Subjects with polyps or mass lesions detected by FSG were referred to their physicians for diagnostic workup, the cost of which was not covered by PLCO.
  • We used log binomial modeling with adjustment for age, education, sex, body mass index, smoking, family history of colorectal cancer, colon examination within previous 3 years, personal history of polyps, and screening center to examine whether utilization of diagnostic colonoscopy and yield of neoplasia differed by race.
  • Overall, among subjects with diagnostic colonoscopy (n = 10 424), there was no statistically significant difference by race in the prevalence of adenoma, advanced adenoma, advanced pathology in small adenomas (high-grade dysplasia or villous histology in adenomas <10 mm), or colorectal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20357245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25524; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25513; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25511; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-75022; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25514; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25512; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25515; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA127118; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA151736; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25404; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25516; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25518; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA151736; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25522
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2857802
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33. Silk AW, Schoen RE, Potter DM, Finn OJ: Humoral immune response to abnormal MUC1 in subjects with colorectal adenoma and cancer. Mol Immunol; 2009 Nov;47(1):52-6
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  • [Title] Humoral immune response to abnormal MUC1 in subjects with colorectal adenoma and cancer.
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) expresses a hypoglycosylated (abnormal) form of MUC1 different than MUC1 expressed in normal colon, which elicits antibodies in patients with CRC.
  • This form of MUC1 is expressed in other abnormal but non-malignant lesions in the colon, such as adenomatous polyps, precursors to CRC.
  • We evaluated IgM and IgG anti-MUC1 antibodies in 148 subjects with non-advanced adenomas (NAA), advanced adenomas (AA), colorectal cancer, hyperplastic polyps (HPP), and normal controls.
  • We hypothesized that the prevalence of anti-MUC1 antibodies would increase along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence as more dysplastic tissues express more abnormal MUC1.
  • We found no significant differences in the prevalence of anti-MUC1 antibodies between subjects along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
  • Our data support further studies into the potential role of anti-MUC1 immunity in preventing progression of premalignant colon lesions to colon cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19217667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9142
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA056103-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA056103; United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA056103-14
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS160621; NLM/ PMC2789300
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34. Jung WT, Li MS, Goel A, Boland CR: JC virus T-antigen expression in sporadic adenomatous polyps of the colon. Cancer; 2008 Mar 1;112(5):1028-36
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  • [Title] JC virus T-antigen expression in sporadic adenomatous polyps of the colon.
  • The hypothesis that JCV DNA sequences and T-antigen (T-Ag) expression may be present in adenomatous polyps of the colon was tested.
  • METHODS: DNA was extracted from 74 paraffin-embedded adenomatous polyps.
  • For microsatellite instability analysis, 5 mononucleotide repeat markers (BAT-25, BAT-26, NR-21, NR-24, and NR-27) were coamplified in a pentaplex PCR and analyzed for deletion mutations.
  • RESULTS: JCV T-Ag sequences were found in 82% (61 of 74) of adenomas, and T-Ag protein was expressed in 16% (12 of 74) of these polyps.
  • The T-Ag staining was localized exclusively in the nuclei of adenoma cells, but never in the cytoplasm or the adjacent nonneoplastic cells.
  • The prevalence of MSI-H and non-MSI-H (MSI-L/MSS) in adenomatous polyps was 9.5% (7 of 74) and 90.5% (67 of 74), respectively.
  • Among the 61 adenomas that harbored JCV sequences, 8% (5 of 61) were MSI-H, and similarly among 12 adenomatous polyps expressing T-Ag protein 8% (1 of 12) of the adenomatous polyps were MSI-H.
  • CONCLUSIONS: JCV T-Ag DNA sequences are frequently present in adenomatous polyps of the colon, and T-Ag is expressed specifically in the nuclei of these premalignant lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18205186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098572-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098572; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 98572; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098572-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS187525; NLM/ PMC2855201
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35. Figueiredo JC, Grau MV, Wallace K, Levine AJ, Shen L, Hamdan R, Chen X, Bresalier RS, McKeown-Eyssen G, Haile RW, Baron JA, Issa JP: Global DNA hypomethylation (LINE-1) in the normal colon and lifestyle characteristics and dietary and genetic factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 Apr;18(4):1041-9
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  • [Title] Global DNA hypomethylation (LINE-1) in the normal colon and lifestyle characteristics and dietary and genetic factors.
  • At a surveillance colonoscopy approximately 3 years after the qualifying exam, we obtained two biopsies of the normal-appearing mucosa from the right colon and two biopsies from the left colon.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LINE-1 methylation is not influenced by folic acid supplementation but differs by colon subsite.

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  • (PMID = 19336559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54-CA-100971; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-059005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-10S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA105346-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-16; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA100971-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-10S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA105346; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105346-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100971-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA100971; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-105346; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-16; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8059-24-3 / Vitamin B 6; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS112791; NLM/ PMC2712652
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36. Paun BC, Kukuruga D, Jin Z, Mori Y, Cheng Y, Duncan M, Stass SA, Montgomery E, Hutcheon D, Meltzer SJ: Relation between normal rectal methylation, smoking status, and the presence or absence of colorectal adenomas. Cancer; 2010 Oct 1;116(19):4495-501
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  • The objectives of the current study were to correlate epigenetic alterations that occur in normal rectal mucosa, smoking status, and age with the presence or absence of concomitant colorectal adenomas and to assess the potential clinical value of methylation in normal rectal biopsies as a screening assay for the presence of polyps and, hence, the need for a full colonoscopy.
  • DNA was extracted, modified with sodium bisulfite, and subjected to real-time quantitative, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis for the following genes: adenomatous polyposis coli (APC); cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial) (CDH1); estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1); cytokine high in normal 1 (HIN1); hyperplastic polyposis protein 1 (HPP1); O-6 methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT); neural epidermal growth factor-like 1 (NELL1); splicing factor 3B, 14-kDa subunit (p14); cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor 2B (inhibits CDK4) (p15); retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ); somatostatin (SST); tachykinin, precursor 1 (TAC1); and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) metallopeptidase inhibitor 3 (TIMP3).
  • The results indicated that these genes may be involved in early stages of adenoma formation.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 20572039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077057-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA095323-09A2; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK047717; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA077057-06; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK047717-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA095323-09A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA095323; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK047717-07
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS251065; NLM/ PMC2988654
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37. Messick CA, Church J, Casey G, Kalady MF: Identification of the methylator (serrated) colorectal cancer phenotype through precursor serrated polyps. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Sep;52(9):1535-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of the methylator (serrated) colorectal cancer phenotype through precursor serrated polyps.
  • PURPOSE: Colorectal cancers arise via cumulative genetic and molecular changes that cause mucosal instability, premalignant polyps, and malignant transformation.
  • Distinct neoplastic pathways characterized by chromosomal instability, genetic mutation, and epigenetic methylation have been described, but their associated precursor polyps have not.
  • This study analyzes characteristics of precursor polyps occurring within different molecular subtypes of sporadic colorectal cancer.
  • The proportion of patients with synchronous polyps and polyp number, size, and location were similar.
  • Microsatellite stable tumors, regardless of methylator status, had a greater proportion of adenomas than microsatellite unstable tumors, which had an increased proportion of serrated polyps (P = 0.029).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with microsatellite unstable colorectal cancers demonstrate an increased serrated polyp-to-adenoma ratio compared with microsatellite stable cancers regardless of methylator status.
  • An increased proportion of serrated polyps to adenomas discovered in patients on colonoscopy should arouse suspicion that cancers arising in these patients are probably microsatellite unstable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Microsatellite Instability


38. Kuehle CA, Langhorst J, Ladd SC, Zoepf T, Nuefer M, Grabellus F, Barkhausen J, Gerken G, Lauenstein TC: Magnetic resonance colonography without bowel cleansing: a prospective cross sectional study in a screening population. Gut; 2007 Aug;56(8):1079-85
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance colonography without bowel cleansing: a prospective cross sectional study in a screening population.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) without bowel cleansing in a screening population and compare the results to colonoscopy as a standard of reference.
  • Adenomatous polyps >5 mm were detected by means of MRC, with a sensitivity of 83.0%.
  • However, only 16 of 153 lesions <5 mm and 9 of 127 hyperplastic polyps could be visualised on magnetic resonance images.
  • It provides good accuracy for the detection of relevant (ie, adenomatous) colorectal lesions >5 mm in a screening population.
  • [MeSH-major] Colon / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colonoscopy / methods. Contrast Media. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diatrizoate Meglumine. Feces. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / pathology. Intestinal Polyposis / diagnosis. Intestinal Polyposis / pathology. Male. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Reference Standards. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17341542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 3X9MR4N98U / Diatrizoate Meglumine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955492
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39. Kim S, Baron JA, Mott LA, Burke CA, Church TR, McKeown-Eyssen GE, Cole BF, Haile RW, Sandler RS: Aspirin may be more effective in preventing colorectal adenomas in patients with higher BMI (United States). Cancer Causes Control; 2006 Dec;17(10):1299-304
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  • Obesity is a risk factor for colon cancer, possibly due to elevated levels of circulating cytokines derived from adipose tissue.
  • For the analysis of the effect of aspirin on the recurrence of colorectal adenoma by BMI, we computed risk ratios for aspirin versus placebo within the three BMI strata using a modified Poisson model.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / prevention & control. Aspirin / pharmacology. Body Mass Index. Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17111262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-5243
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK34987; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA59005; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000046
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
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40. Petko Z, Ghiassi M, Shuber A, Gorham J, Smalley W, Washington MK, Schultenover S, Gautam S, Markowitz SD, Grady WM: Aberrantly methylated CDKN2A, MGMT, and MLH1 in colon polyps and in fecal DNA from patients with colorectal polyps. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Feb 1;11(3):1203-9
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  • [Title] Aberrantly methylated CDKN2A, MGMT, and MLH1 in colon polyps and in fecal DNA from patients with colorectal polyps.
  • Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, affecting approximately 147,000 people each year.
  • Most colon cancers arise from benign neoplasms and evolve into adenocarcinomas through a stepwise histologic progression sequence that starts from adenomas or hyperplastic polyps/serrated adenomas.
  • Genetic alterations and, more recently, epigenetic alterations have been associated with specific steps in this polyp-adenocarcinoma sequence and likely drive the histologic progression of colon cancer.
  • Consequently, we have assessed in colon adenomas and hyperplastic polyps the methylation status of MGMT, CDKN2A, and MLH1 to determine the timing and frequency of these events in the polyp-carcinoma progression sequence and subsequently to analyze the potential for these methylated genes to be molecular markers for adenomas and hyperplastic polyps.
  • We have found that methylated MGMT, CDKN2A, and MLH1 occur in 49%, 34%, and 7% of adenomas and in 5%, 10%, and 7% of hyperplastic polyps, respectively, and that they are more common in histologically advanced adenomas.
  • Furthermore, analysis of fecal DNA from persons who have undergone colonoscopic exams revealed methylated CDKN2A, MGMT, and MLH1 in fecal DNA from 31%, 48%, and 0% of individuals with adenomas and from 16%, 27%, and 10% of individuals with no detectable polyps, respectively.
  • These results show that aberrant methylated genes can be detected frequently in sporadic colon polyps and that they can be detected in fecal DNA.
  • Notably, improvements in the specificity and sensitivity of the fecal DNA-based assays will be needed to make them clinically useful diagnostic tests for polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Colonic Polyps / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Carrier Proteins. Cell Line, Tumor. CpG Islands / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Feces / chemistry. Humans. Hyperplasia. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15709190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA 95103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 094986
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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41. Oh K, Willett WC, Fuchs CS, Giovannucci E: Dietary marine n-3 fatty acids in relation to risk of distal colorectal adenoma in women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2005 Apr;14(4):835-41
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  • [Title] Dietary marine n-3 fatty acids in relation to risk of distal colorectal adenoma in women.
  • Epidemiologic studies of dietary marine n-3 fatty acids and risk of colorectal cancer have been inconsistent, and their relation to risk of colorectal adenoma has not been evaluated in detail.
  • We examined dietary marine n-3 fatty acids and the ratio of marine n-3 to total n-6 fatty acids (n-3/n-6 ratio) in relation to risk of adenoma of the distal colon or rectum among 34,451 U.S. women who were initially free of colorectal cancer or polyps, who completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1980, and who underwent endoscopy from 1980 to 1998.
  • We documented 1,719 distal colorectal adenoma cases (705 large adenomas, 897 small adenomas, 1,280 distal colon adenomas, and 505 rectal adenomas) during 18 years of follow-up.
  • Neither dietary marine n-3 fatty acids nor n-3/n-6 ratio were associated with risk of total distal colorectal adenoma after adjustment for age and established risk factors [multivariable relative risk (RR) for extreme quintiles of dietary marine n-3 fatty acids = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.84-1.27, P(trend) = 0.66; RR for extreme quintiles of n-3/n-6 ratio = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.83-1.25; P(trend) = 0.86].
  • Similarly, no significant associations were observed separately for distal colon or rectal adenoma.
  • However, higher intake of dietary marine n-3 fatty acids was nonsignificantly but suggestively inversely associated with large adenoma (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54-1.01; P(trend) = 0.16) but directly associated with small adenoma (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81; P(trend) = 0.09).
  • Our findings do not support the hypothesis that a higher intake of marine n-3 fatty acids or a higher n-3/n-6 ratio reduces the risk of distal colorectal adenoma but are suggestive that higher intake may reduce the progression of small adenomas to large adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / prevention & control. Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Diet. Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Feb;15(2):406-7 [16492940.001]
  • (PMID = 15824153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 87969; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA55075
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fatty Acids, Omega-3; 0 / Fatty Acids, Omega-6; 0RBV727H71 / alpha-Linolenic Acid
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42. Buchanan DD, Sweet K, Drini M, Jenkins MA, Win AK, English DR, Walsh MD, Clendenning M, McKeone DM, Walters RJ, Roberts A, Pearson SA, Pavluk E, Hopper JL, Gattas MR, Goldblatt J, George J, Suthers GK, Phillips KD, Woodall S, Arnold J, Tucker K, Muir A, Field M, Greening S, Gallinger S, Perrier R, Baron JA, Potter JD, Haile R, Frankel W, de la Chapelle A, Macrae F, Rosty C, Walker NI, Parry S, Young JP: Risk factors for colorectal cancer in patients with multiple serrated polyps: a cross-sectional case series from genetics clinics. PLoS One; 2010 Jul 16;5(7):e11636
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  • [Title] Risk factors for colorectal cancer in patients with multiple serrated polyps: a cross-sectional case series from genetics clinics.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple serrated polyps are at an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC).
  • Recent reports have linked cigarette smoking with the subset of CRC that develops from serrated polyps.
  • The aim of this work therefore was to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of CRC in high-risk genetics clinic patients presenting with multiple serrated polyps.
  • METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 151 Caucasian individuals with multiple serrated polyps including at least 5 outside the rectum, and classified patients into non-smokers, current or former smokers at the time of initial diagnosis of polyposis.
  • Cases were individuals with multiple serrated polyps who presented with CRC.
  • Controls were individuals with multiple serrated polyps and no CRC.
  • Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate associations between smoking and CRC with adjustment for age at first presentation, sex and co-existing traditional adenomas, a feature that has been consistently linked with CRC risk in patients with multiple serrated polyps.
  • Patients with at least one adenoma were 4 times more likely to present with CRC compared with patients without adenomas (OR = 4.09; 95%CI 1.27 to 13.14; P = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: A decreased odds for CRC was identified in females with multiple serrated polyps who currently smoke, independent of age and the presence of a traditional adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20661287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA123010; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA097735; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01CA123010
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2905435
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43. Wernli KJ, Newcomb PA, Wang Y, Makar KW, Shadman M, Chia VM, Burnett-Hartman A, Wurscher MA, Zheng Y, Mandelson MT: Body size, IGF and growth hormone polymorphisms, and colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2010 Aug;20(4):305-9
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  • [Title] Body size, IGF and growth hormone polymorphisms, and colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps.
  • OBJECTIVE: We examined the risk of colorectal polyps in relation to body size factors and candidate polymorphisms in selected genes of insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) (rs5742612), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) (rs2229765), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) (rs2854746) and growth hormone (GH1) (rs2665802).
  • DESIGN: Cases with colorectal adenomas (n=519), hyperplastic polyps (n=691), or both lesions (n=227), and controls (n=772), aged 20-74 years, were recruited from patients who underwent colonoscopy between December 2004 and September 2007 at a large integrated-health plan in Washington state.
  • Subjects participated in a 45-minute telephone interview to ascertain body size and physical activity, and provided a buccal DNA sample for genetic analysis.
  • RESULTS: Compared to those of normal weight, higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with elevated risk of colorectal adenomas (OR=1.65, 95% CI 1.22-2.25 BMI>or=30 kg/m(2), p-trend=0.002) and both lesions (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.43-3.22 BMI>or=30 kg/m(2), p-trend=0.003), but there was no relationship with hyperplastic polyps.
  • Obesity at age 18 and a weight gain of >or=21 kg since age 18 were also significantly associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas and both lesions, but not hyperplastic polyps.
  • There was a reduced risk of colorectal adenomas (OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94) and hyperplastic polyps (OR=0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) associated with the homozygous variant genotype for GH1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is an increased risk of colorectal adenomas and presence of both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps in relation to increasing body size.
  • Some genetic variation in GH1 might contribute to a reduced risk of colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Growth Hormone Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20580999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2238
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097325-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA94880; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA094880; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA074794; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA09168-32; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA074794; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009168; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 097325; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K05 CA152715; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097325-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097325
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS202379; NLM/ PMC2918710
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44. Binda V, Pereira-Lima J, Nunes CA, Falkemberg LT, Azambuja DB, Cruz JV: Is there a role for sigmoidoscopy in symptomatic patients? Analysis of a study correlating distal and proximal colonic neoplasias detected by colonoscopy in a symptomatic population. Arq Gastroenterol; 2007 Jan-Mar;44(1):2-7
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  • [Title] Is there a role for sigmoidoscopy in symptomatic patients? Analysis of a study correlating distal and proximal colonic neoplasias detected by colonoscopy in a symptomatic population.
  • AIM: To study the correlation between distal and proximal colonic neoplasias in symptomatic patients 50 years or older and patients 40 to 49 years old who underwent colonoscopy at a gastrointestinal endoscopy unit in 1999 and 2000 with the purpose to evaluate its role in a symptomatic population.
  • The distal colon was defined as the colonic segment aboral to the splenic flexure.
  • Prevalence rates for adenoma, advanced adenoma and carcinoma were 28.9%, 4.6% and 4% in the group of 830 patients 50 years or older (mean age 65 years, 491 women).
  • The finding of one small (<10 mm) adenoma in the distal bowel doubled the likelihood of finding a proximal neoplasia (OR = 2.12, 95% CI, 1.27-3.54), and multiple (OR = 3.99, 95% CI, 1.72-9.28) or advanced (OR = 3.73, 95% CI, 1.81-7.7) adenomas increased this risk even further.
  • Of the patients without adenoma or carcinoma in the distal colon, 1.93% had proximal advanced neoplasia.
  • One out of 52 patients 50 years or older with an apparently normal distal colon has advanced proximal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sigmoidoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Colonoscopy. Evaluation Studies as Topic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17639174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2803
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de gastroenterologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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45. Roy HK, Bianchi LK: Differences in colon adenomas and carcinomas among women and men: potential clinical implications. JAMA; 2009 Oct 21;302(15):1696-7
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  • [Title] Differences in colon adenomas and carcinomas among women and men: potential clinical implications.

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  • (PMID = 19843905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA140936; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA140936-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA140936; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA141112; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111257-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111257-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111257-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA111257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA141112; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA140936-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS214510; NLM/ PMC2913287
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46. Leman ES, Schoen RE, Magheli A, Sokoll LJ, Chan DW, Getzenberg RH: Evaluation of colon cancer-specific antigen 2 as a potential serum marker for colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Mar 1;14(5):1349-54
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  • [Title] Evaluation of colon cancer-specific antigen 2 as a potential serum marker for colorectal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: A blood test to detect colon cancer at a preventable stage would represent a major advancement.
  • We have previously identified colon cancer-specific markers using focused proteomics analysis of nuclear structural proteins.
  • Two of these markers, colon cancer-specific antigen (CCSA)-3 and CCSA-4, have been developed into blood-based markers that are able to distinguish individuals with colorectal cancer from those without.
  • CCSA-2 is a distinct novel colon cancer marker identified using focused proteomics.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using an indirect ELISA on serum samples obtained from two institutions, we evaluated CCSA-2 as a serum-based colon cancer marker.
  • A total of 111 serum samples from individuals who underwent colonoscopy and were subsequently diagnosed as either being normal or having hyperplastic polyps, nonadvanced adenomas, advanced adenomas, and colorectal cancer were evaluated.
  • CCSA-2 at a cutoff of 10.8 mug/mL has overall specificity of 78.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 67.3-87.1%] and sensitivity of 97.3% (95% CI, 85.8-99.5%) in separating individuals with advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer from normal, hyperplastic, and nonadvanced adenoma populations.
  • CONCLUSION: Our initial study shows that CCSA-2 is a potential serum-based marker for colon cancer detection with high sensitivity and specificity.

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  • [RetractionIn] Schoen RE, Magheli A, Sokoll LJ, Chan DW, Getzenberg RH. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Jan 15;19(2):508 [23271798.001]
  • (PMID = 18316554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA084968; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA084968-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA084968
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Retracted Publication
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / colon cancer-specific antigen 2, human; 0 / colon-specific antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS371863; NLM/ PMC4664476
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47. Friedland S, Soetikno R, Carlisle M, Taur A, Kaltenbach T, Segall G: 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography has limited sensitivity for colonic adenoma and early stage colon cancer. Gastrointest Endosc; 2005 Mar;61(3):395-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography has limited sensitivity for colonic adenoma and early stage colon cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is used clinically to detect recurrent colon cancer after surgical resection, but the sensitivity of PET for premalignant colon lesions and early stage colon cancer is not well defined.
  • METHODS: In a prospective study, 45 patients with a total of 58 colonic neoplasms, including premalignant polyps, premalignant, flat lesions, and early stage cancers, were evaluated by PET.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PET has limited sensitivity for flat, premalignant lesions; protruded, premalignant lesions smaller than 3 cm; and colon cancers smaller than 2 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Precancerous Conditions / diagnostic imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 15758910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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48. Jacobs ET, Martínez ME, Alberts DS, Jiang R, Lance P, Lowe KA, Thompson PA: Association between body size and colorectal adenoma recurrence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Aug;5(8):982-90
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  • [Title] Association between body size and colorectal adenoma recurrence.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity has been associated with increased risk for colorectal adenoma, although its role as a risk factor after polypectomy for recurrence is unclear.
  • Therefore, we sought to evaluate the effect of anthropometric measures of obesity on adenoma after polypectomy.
  • METHODS: Subjects with baseline adenomas (n = 2465) and follow-up colonoscopy data were drawn from 2 randomized trials designed to prevent adenoma recurrence.
  • RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up period of 3.1 years presence of a body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m2 was associated with a nonsignificant 17% increase in the odds for any adenoma recurrence among all subjects (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.48).
  • Analyses of the effects of obesity on more clinically significant lesions demonstrated that high BMI was a slightly stronger risk factor for advanced adenoma recurrences in men (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.04-2.53) when compared with non-advanced lesions (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.91-1.75).
  • In addition, we observed an association for obesity and odds of adenoma recurrence among participants reporting a family history of colorectal cancer (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.32-3.84) but not for those without (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.31; P(int) = P = .008).

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  • (PMID = 17553754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA106269; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1K07CA10629-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA95060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-41108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA041108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-23074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA106269-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106269-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-77145
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS29366; NLM/ PMC2729188
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49. Wallace K, Grau MV, Levine AJ, Shen L, Hamdan R, Chen X, Gui J, Haile RW, Barry EL, Ahnen D, McKeown-Eyssen G, Baron JA, Issa JP: Association between folate levels and CpG Island hypermethylation in normal colorectal mucosa. Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2010 Dec;3(12):1552-64
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  • Subjects were enrolled in a multicenter chemoprevention trial of aspirin or folic acid for the prevention of large bowel adenomas.
  • We collected 1,000 biopsy specimens from 389 patients, 501 samples from the right colon and 499 from the rectum at the follow-up colonoscopy.
  • For both ERα and SFRP1, percentage methylation was significantly higher in the rectum than in the right colon (P = 0.001).
  • For each 10 years of age, we observed a 1.7% increase in methylation level for ERα and a 2.9% increase for SFRP1 (P < 0.0001).

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  • (PMID = 21149331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-08S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-06A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-06A1S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-07S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-08S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-059005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA105346-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-10S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA89245; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-08S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-07S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105346-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089245; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA105346; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA105346-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-11A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-09S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-08S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO12400; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-10S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA105346; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105346-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA105346-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105346-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA100971; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA105346-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-06A1S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098006-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-09S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059005-11A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54-CA100971; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098006-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105346-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Placebos; 0 / SFRP1 protein, human; 0 / estrogen receptor alpha, human; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS222691; NLM/ PMC3058541
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50. Salcedo R, Worschech A, Cardone M, Jones Y, Gyulai Z, Dai RM, Wang E, Ma W, Haines D, O'hUigin C, Marincola FM, Trinchieri G: MyD88-mediated signaling prevents development of adenocarcinomas of the colon: role of interleukin 18. J Exp Med; 2010 Aug 2;207(8):1625-36
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  • [Title] MyD88-mediated signaling prevents development of adenocarcinomas of the colon: role of interleukin 18.
  • The inability of Myd88(-/-) mice to heal ulcers generated upon injury creates an altered inflammatory environment that induces early alterations in expression of genes encoding proinflammatory factors, as well as pathways regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA repair, resulting in a dramatic increase in adenoma formation and progression to infiltrating adenocarcinomas with frequent clonal mutations in the beta-catenin gene.

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  • (PMID = 20624890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9538
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / CCR NIH HHS / RC / HHSN261200800001C; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / HHSN261200800001E; United States / PHS HHS / / HHSN261200800001E; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Il18r1 protein, mouse; 0 / Interleukin-18; 0 / Interleukin-18 Receptor alpha Subunit; 0 / Myd88 protein, mouse; 0 / Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-1 Type I; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Stat3 protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin; 9042-14-2 / Dextran Sulfate; EC 1.14.99.- / Ptgs2 protein, mouse; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; MO0N1J0SEN / Azoxymethane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2916129
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51. Zhao C, Ivanov I, Dougherty ER, Hartman TJ, Lanza E, Bobe G, Colburn NH, Lupton JR, Davidson LA, Chapkin RS: Noninvasive detection of candidate molecular biomarkers in subjects with a history of insulin resistance and colorectal adenomas. Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2009 Jun;2(6):590-7
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  • We have developed novel molecular methods using a stool sample, which contains intact sloughed colon cells, to quantify colonic gene expression profiles.
  • For this purpose, the effects of a legume-enriched, low glycemic index, high fermentable fiber diet was evaluated in subjects with four possible combinations of risk factors, including insulin resistance and a history of adenomatous polyps.
  • In a randomized crossover design controlled feeding study, each participant (a total of 23; 5-12 per group) consumed the experimental diet (1.5 cups of cooked dry beans) and a control diet (isocaloric average American diet) for 4 weeks with a 3-week washout period between diets.
  • Linear discriminant analysis was successfully used to identify the best single genes and two- to three-gene combinations for distinguishing subjects with insulin resistance, a history of polyps, or exposure to a chemoprotective legume-rich diet.
  • These results support our premise that gene products (RNA) isolated from stool have diagnostic value in terms of assessing colon cancer risk.

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  • (PMID = 19470793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK071707-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129444-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK071707-01A2; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK071707-01A2S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059034-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059034-08; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30ES09106; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059034-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK071707; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034-15; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059034-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034-09; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK071707-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059034-09; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK071707-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129444-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA59034; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059034-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129444-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059034-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034-12; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK071707-01A2S1; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK071707-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129444-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059034-15; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK071707-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059034-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129444; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059034-14; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK071707; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES009106; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA059034-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059034-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129444
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS120536; NLM/ PMC2745241
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52. Roy HK, Turzhitsky V, Kim Y, Goldberg MJ, Watson P, Rogers JD, Gomes AJ, Kromine A, Brand RE, Jameel M, Bogovejic A, Pradhan P, Backman V: Association between rectal optical signatures and colonic neoplasia: potential applications for screening. Cancer Res; 2009 May 15;69(10):4476-83
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  • We found that LEBS signal parameters generally mirrored neoplasia progression from patients with no neoplasia, to 5 to 9 mm adenoma and to advanced adenomas.
  • Moreover, this was independent of CRC risk factors, benign colonic findings, or clinically unimportant lesions (diminutive adenomas, hyperplastic polyps).
  • In conclusion, we provide the first demonstration that LEBS-detectable alterations in the endoscopically normal rectum were associated with the presence of neoplasia located elsewhere in the colon.

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  • (PMID = 19417131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA128641-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111257-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112315-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA130508-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112315; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111257-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128641-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA122017-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R42 CA130508; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA128641; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112315-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA122017; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB003682-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122017-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R42 CA130508-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB003682-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB003682
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS131083; NLM/ PMC2722930
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53. Nagasaka T, Goel A, Notohara K, Takahata T, Sasamoto H, Uchida T, Nishida N, Tanaka N, Boland CR, Matsubara N: Methylation pattern of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene in colon during progressive colorectal tumorigenesis. Int J Cancer; 2008 Jun 1;122(11):2429-36
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  • [Title] Methylation pattern of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene in colon during progressive colorectal tumorigenesis.
  • Two methylation sensitive regions (Mp and Eh region) of MGMT promoter were investigated in 593 specimens of colorectal tissue: 233 CRCs, 104 adenomatous polyps (AP), 220 normal colonic mucosa from CRC patients (N-C) and 36 normal colonic mucosa specimens obtained from subjects without colorectal neoplasia (N-N) by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA).
  • Our data suggest that MGMT methylation may evolve and spread throughout the promoter in a stepwise manner as the colonic epithelial cells progress through the classical-adenoma-cancer multistep cascade.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 18240147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA98572; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098572; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA72851; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA072851-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA072851; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098572-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098572-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS187517; NLM/ PMC2851179
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54. Freeman HJ: Heterogeneity of colorectal adenomas, the serrated adenoma, and implications for screening and surveillance. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jun 14;14(22):3461-3
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  • [Title] Heterogeneity of colorectal adenomas, the serrated adenoma, and implications for screening and surveillance.
  • Current algorithms for screening and surveillance for colon cancer are valuable, but may be limited by the underlying nature of the targeted neoplastic lesions.
  • Although part of the success of adenoma removal relates to interruption of so-called "adenoma-carcinoma sequence", an alternate serrated pathway to colon cancer may pose difficulties with the ultimate results achieved by traditional colonoscopic methods.
  • The endpoint carcinoma in this unique pathway may be derived from a dysplastic serrated adenoma.
  • These tend to be located primarily in the right colon, especially in females, and are frequently associated with co-existent colon cancer.
  • Unfortunately, however, there are few, if any, other identifiable risk factors, including age or family history of colon polyps or colon cancer.
  • Screening algorithms in the future may need to be modified and individualized, depending on new information that likely will emerge on the natural history of these biologically heterogeneous lesions that differs from traditional adenomatous polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Algorithms. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mass Screening / methods

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  • (PMID = 18567071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716605
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55. Burke CA: Colonic complications of obesity. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2010 Mar;39(1):47-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Animals. Body Mass Index. Colonoscopy. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Comorbidity. Diverticulitis, Colonic / epidemiology. Humans. Insulin Resistance / physiology. Intra-Abdominal Fat / physiopathology. Leptin / physiology. Metabolic Syndrome X / epidemiology. Metabolic Syndrome X / physiopathology

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Obesity.
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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Obesity.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20202578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1942
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Leptin
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56. Torlakovic E, Snover DC: Sessile serrated adenoma: a brief history and current status. Crit Rev Oncog; 2006 Jul;12(1-2):27-39
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sessile serrated adenoma: a brief history and current status.
  • Sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) is a polyp of the large intestine, which was first described in 1996.
  • It presents as a solitary lesion or in a setting of a polyposis previously coined as "serrated adenomatous polyposis."
  • The importance of correct recognition of this lesion and distinction from other serrated polyps of the colon is in that the newly described "serrated pathway" of colorectal carcinogenesis seems to apply mostly to SSA and not to other serrated polyps of the colon.
  • This review describes the history of morphologic discovery of SSA and reports on current status of this lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17078205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-9675
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit Rev Oncog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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57. Buchanan DD, Roberts A, Walsh MD, Parry S, Young JP: Lessons from Lynch syndrome: a tumor biology-based approach to familial colorectal cancer. Future Oncol; 2010 Apr;6(4):539-49
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  • The two most common epithelial lesions are the adenoma and the serrated polyp.
  • CRC is also one of the most familial of the common cancers, and just as there are syndromes associated with increased risk of CRC arising in adenomas, there are also syndromes with increased CRC risk associated with serrated polyps.
  • Lynch syndrome CRC arises almost exclusively within adenomatous precursor lesions, in contrast with familial serrated neoplasia where at least half of the cancers develop in serrated polyps.