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1. Caderni G, De Filippo C, Luceri C, Salvadori M, Giannini A, Biggeri A, Remy S, Cheynier V, Dolara P: Effects of black tea, green tea and wine extracts on intestinal carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane in F344 rats. Carcinogenesis; 2000 Nov;21(11):1965-9
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  • [Title] Effects of black tea, green tea and wine extracts on intestinal carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane in F344 rats.
  • We investigated whether polyphenolic extracts from black tea, green tea or red wine affect azoxymethane (AOM)-induced intestinal carcinogenesis.
  • Male F344 rats were treated 10 times (1 week apart) with AOM (7.4 mg/kg, s.c.) and then allocated into groups receiving black tea, green tea or red wine extracts mixed in the diet at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 16 weeks.
  • In the rats treated with black tea or wine extracts, there were significantly fewer colorectal tumours than in controls (the mean +/- SE number of tumours/rat was 2.54 +/- 1.6 in controls, 1.54 +/- 1.4 in the black tea group, 3.2 +/- 1.9 in the green tea group and 1.63 +/- 1.6 in the wine extract group).
  • Significantly fewer rats in the black tea and wine extract groups had adenomas than in controls (86%, 59%, 90% and 50% of rats in the control, black tea, green tea and wine extract groups, respectively, had adenomas).
  • The tumours from the black tea group and, to a lesser extent, those from the wine group, had a significantly greater apoptotic index than tumours in controls (mean +/- SE apoptotic index: 2.92 +/- 0.25, 4.13 +/- 0.46, 2.88 +/- 0.30 and 3.72 +/- 0.46 in controls, black tea, green tea or wine extract groups, respectively).
  • These data indicate that black tea and wine extracts, but not green tea extracts, can protect against AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis by a mechanism probably involving increased apoptosis in tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / prevention & control. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Azoxymethane. Body Weight / drug effects. Carcinogens. Colon / cytology. Colon / drug effects. Intestinal Mucosa / cytology. Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects. Male. Polyphenols. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344

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  • (PMID = 11062155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3334
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polyphenols; 0 / Tea; MO0N1J0SEN / Azoxymethane
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2. Sharma V, Cui H, Whalen G, Khan A, Torres M: A case of trabecular adenoma of the thyroid with black pigmentation. Thyroid; 2007 Jun;17(6):593-4
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  • [Title] A case of trabecular adenoma of the thyroid with black pigmentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acne Vulgaris / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Minocycline / adverse effects. Pigmentation

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  • (PMID = 17614784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] FYY3R43WGO / Minocycline
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3. Reichart M, Busch OR, Bruno MJ, Van Lanschot JJ: Black esophagus: a view in the dark. Dis Esophagus; 2000;13(4):311-3
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  • [Title] Black esophagus: a view in the dark.
  • A 73-year-old man had a low anterior resection for a villous adenoma in the rectosigmoid.
  • Aortic dissection was ruled out, but endoscopy showed black mucosa of the entire esophagus.

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  • (PMID = 11284980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors; 54182-58-0 / Sucralfate; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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4. Kahara T, Seto C, Uchiyama A, Usuda D, Akahori H, Tajika E, Miwa A, Usuda R, Suzuki T, Sasano H: Preclinical Cushing's syndrome resulting from adrenal black adenoma diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis. Endocr J; 2007 Aug;54(4):543-51
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  • [Title] Preclinical Cushing's syndrome resulting from adrenal black adenoma diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • A right adrenal tumor was incidentally discovered on abdominal computed tomography performed on a 53-year-old Japanese man, who had been hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • Normal values were obtained for adrenal hormones in the morning after an overnight fast and urinary cortisol excretion after treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with insulin.
  • Histological examination of the adrenalectomy specimen demonstrated adrenal black adenoma.
  • Blood glucose levels subsequently improved after adrenalectomy, and the patient never developed adrenal insufficiency after hydrocortisone withdrawal.
  • It seems that the existence of PCS in addition to the underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus contributed to aggravation of blood glucose levels.
  • Although there are many aspects of the natural course of PCS that have not been thoroughly elucidated, it is necessary to remain aware that a PCS patient with abnormal glucose metabolism may develop diabetic ketoacidosis by environmental agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology. Diabetic Ketoacidosis / etiology


5. Koren R, Bernheim J, Schachter P, Schwartz A, Siegal A, Gal R: Black thyroid adenoma. Clinical, histochemical, and ultrastructural features. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2000 Mar;8(1):80-4
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  • [Title] Black thyroid adenoma. Clinical, histochemical, and ultrastructural features.
  • A partial thyroidectomy specimen revealed a black adenoma.
  • Microscopically, the black pigment was found in the follicular cells and the colloid of the adenoma.
  • The pigment was bleached with potassium permanganate and was Fontana-Masson stain positive.
  • All these feature suggest a melanin-like pigment.
  • Twenty-six previously reported cases are reviewed, and the possible mechanisms for the deposition of the pigment in the adenoma and its relation to minocycline degradation products are discussed.

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  • (PMID = 10937053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; FYY3R43WGO / Minocycline
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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6. Vuhahula EA: Salivary gland tumors in Uganda: clinical pathological study. Afr Health Sci; 2004 Apr;4(1):15-23
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  • Such efforts would allow comparison and justify any differences between the black African population and the rest of the world.
  • SETTING: Makerere University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology.
  • METHODS: All epithelial tumors from major and minor salivary glands accessioned from 1979 to 1988 were analyzed in respect to sex and age of patients, anatomical location of the tumor and histological type.
  • Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor (74.8%), followed by myoepithelioma (9.8%).
  • CONCLUSION: The pattern of distribution of salivary gland tumors in black African population seems to differ from that of Western series in that;.
  • i) females are more affected than males, ii) there is a low proportion of tumors from the parotid gland and high proportion of tumors from the submandibular and minor salivary glands, iii) the parotid and minor salivary gland tumors have more probability of being malignant than those tumors from the submandibular gland iv) the newly categorized pathological entities are common and v) Whartin's tumor is extremely rare in black African population.

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  • (PMID = 15126188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1729-0503
  • [Journal-full-title] African health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr Health Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Uganda
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2141656
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7. Veeramachaneni DN, Amann RP, Jacobson JP: Testis and antler dysgenesis in sitka black-tailed deer on Kodiak Island, Alaska: Sequela of environmental endocrine disruption? Environ Health Perspect; 2006 Apr;114 Suppl 1:51-9
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  • [Title] Testis and antler dysgenesis in sitka black-tailed deer on Kodiak Island, Alaska: Sequela of environmental endocrine disruption?
  • It had been observed that many male Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) on Kodiak Island, Alaska, had abnormal antlers, were cryptorchid, and presented no evidence of hypospadias.
  • We sought to better understand the problem and investigated 171 male deer for phenotypic aberrations and 12 for detailed testicular histopathology.
  • All 11 abdominal testes examined had no spermatogenesis but contained abnormalities including carcinoma in situ-like cells, possible precursors of seminoma; Sertoli cell, Leydig cell, and stromal cell tumors; carcinoma and adenoma of rete testis; and microlithiasis or calcifications.
  • However, based on lesions observed, we hypothesize that it is more likely that this testis-antler dysgenesis resulted from continuing exposure of pregnant females to an estrogenic environmental agent(s), thereby transforming testicular cells, affecting development of primordial antler pedicles, and blocking transabdominal descent of fetal testes.
  • A browse (e.g., kelp) favored by deer in this locale might carry the putative estrogenic agent(s).
  • [MeSH-minor] Alaska. Animals. Cryptorchidism / chemically induced. Cryptorchidism / complications. Cryptorchidism / genetics. Environmental Exposure / adverse effects. Estrogens / toxicity. Hyperplasia / chemically induced. Leydig Cells / cytology. Leydig Cells / drug effects. Male. Testicular Neoplasms / chemically induced. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16818246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-6765
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Estrogens
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1874179
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8. Leroux E, Schwedt TJ, Black DF, Dodick DW: Intractable SUNCT cured after resection of a pituitary microadenoma. Can J Neurol Sci; 2006 Nov;33(4):411-3
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  • BACKGROUND: SUNCT is a rare primary headache disorder that is associated with activation of the posterior hypothalamus and often poorly responsive to medication.
  • He has been completely headache-free, without medication, for the past 43 months with the last follow-up being January 2006.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. SUNCT Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17168168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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9. Schuessler G, Ignee A, Hirche T, Dietrich CF: [Improved detection and characterisation of liver tumors with echo-enhanced ultrasound]. Z Gastroenterol; 2003 Dec;41(12):1167-76
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  • Echo-enhancing agents, also known as ultrasound contrast media, have improved the accuracy of liver ultrasound within recent years.
  • The characterisation of focal liver lesions which is possible by flow characteristics and the improved detection of liver tumors give special importance to the contrast agents.
  • The agents consist of air or gas bubbles coated with different shell media.
  • There are differences between blood pool agents and agents with a liver-specific late phase.
  • The agents remain in the vessels during the vascular phase and lead to enhancement of different structures (arterial, capillary, portal venous, and sinusoidal perfusion).
  • Hypoperfused tumours (e. g., liver metastases of the gastrointestinal tract) can be recognised in the portal venous phase as less perfused "black spots".
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Liver Cell / ultrasonography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ultrasonography. Cholangiocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / ultrasonography. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Hepatic Duct, Common / ultrasonography. Klatskin Tumor / ultrasonography. Liver Abscess / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods

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  • (PMID = 14661127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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10. Dietrich CF: Characterisation of focal liver lesions with contrast enhanced ultrasonography. Eur J Radiol; 2004 Jun;51 Suppl:S9-17
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  • Ultrasound contrast agents (USCA) have improved the detection rate of liver tumours in recent years.
  • The role of USCA for better characterisation, which is possible through the analysis of flow characteristics in real time, places a particular emphasis on agent use.
  • Liver tumours known to be hyperperfused in the arterial phase (e.g. focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma, and hyperperfused metastases) can be better detected and characterised.
  • Hypoperfused tumours (e.g. liver metastases of the gastrointestinal tract) can be recognised in the portal venous phase as less perfused "black spots."
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / ultrasonography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ultrasonography. Cholangiocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Cysts / ultrasonography. Fatty Liver / ultrasonography. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / ultrasonography. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Humans. Lymphoma / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 15234021.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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11. Rajendran VM, Black J, Ardito TA, Sangan P, Alper SL, Schweinfest C, Kashgarian M, Binder HJ: Regulation of DRA and AE1 in rat colon by dietary Na depletion. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; 2000 Nov;279(5):G931-42
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  • Two distinct Cl/anion exchange activities (Cl/HCO(3) and Cl/OH) identified in apical membranes of rat distal colon are distributed in cell type-specific patterns.
  • We determined whether anion exchange isoforms (AE) and/or downregulated in adenoma (DRA) are expressed in and related to apical membrane anion exchanges by examining localization of AE isoform-specific and DRA mRNA expression in normal and Na-depleted rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiporters / genetics. Antiporters / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Colon / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Sodium, Dietary / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Animals. Blotting, Northern. Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters. Gene Expression / drug effects. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Intestinal Mucosa / chemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / cytology. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 11052990.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1857
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-14669-26
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiporters; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Slc26a3 protein, rat; 0 / Sodium, Dietary; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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