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6. Sarzani R, Pietrucci F, Francioni M, Salvi F, Letizia C, D'Erasmo E, Dessì Fulgheri P, Rappelli A: Expression of potassium channel isoforms mRNA in normal human adrenals and aldosterone-secreting adenomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Feb;29(2):147-53
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  • [Title] Expression of potassium channel isoforms mRNA in normal human adrenals and aldosterone-secreting adenomas.
  • Increased aldosterone secretion has been found in a mouse lacking the KCNE1 gene which codes for a regulatory protein of the KCNQ1 gene product, forming the channel for the outward rectifying delayed K+ current.
  • Abnormalities in proteins regulating the K+ fluxes across membranes may be responsible for aldosterone-secreting adenomas (aldosteronomas) also because K+ channels are involved in cell growth.
  • Normal and adenomatous adrenal samples and NCI-H295 cell line were used to: a) evaluate KCNE1 and KCNQ1 gene expression, b) sequence the full length cDNAs of KCNE1 and both KCNQ1 isoforms.
  • These differently spliced KCNE1 and KCNQ1 mRNAs were expressed in adrenal tissue.
  • In contrast, KCNQ1 isoform 2 mRNA was not expressed in kidney control tissues and NCl-H295 cell line.
  • NCI-H295 cell line also had a significantly lower expression of KCNQ1 isoform 1 mRNA than normal adrenals and aldosteronomas.
  • This different expression pattern of KCNQ1 isoforms in NCI-H295 cell line with the lack of the mRNA for the dominant-negative KCNQ1 isoform 2 supports the involvement of voltage-gated K+ channel in cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. KCNQ1 Potassium Channel / metabolism. Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Kidney / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 16610241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KCNE1 protein, human; 0 / KCNQ1 Potassium Channel; 0 / KCNQ1 protein, human; 0 / Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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7. Maurea S, Imbriaco M, D'Angelillo M, Mollica C, Camera L, Salvatore M: Diagnostic accuracy of chemical-shift MR imaging to differentiate between adrenal adenomas and non adenoma adrenal lesions. Radiol Med; 2006 Aug;111(5):674-86
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  • [Title] Diagnostic accuracy of chemical-shift MR imaging to differentiate between adrenal adenomas and non adenoma adrenal lesions.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of chemical-shift (CS) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the differential diagnosis of adenoma and nonadenoma adrenal masses.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 36 patients (9 men, 27 women, mean age 51.3+14.4 years) with unilateral (n=31) or bilateral (n=5) adrenal masses incidentally discovered during imaging examinations [ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT)] performed for other indications.
  • A total of 41 adrenal lesions were evaluated (mean diameter 3.0+2.2 cm).
  • Histology (n=19), biopsy (n=3) or clinical-imaging follow-up (n=19) demonstrated 29 adenomas, five pheochromocytomas, three cysts and four carcinomas.
  • MR images were qualitatively assessed for signal intensity of the adrenal mass relative to the liver on T1, T2, CS and T1-Gd scans; diagnostic criteria for adenomas were isointensity or hypointensity on both T1 and T2 scans, out-of-phase CS signal loss and mild transient enhancement after Gd.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CS MR imaging significantly improves characterization of adrenal masses compared with conventional T1-T2-weighted images, providing accuracy similar to that of the T1 sequence after Gd.
  • Therefore, the CS sequence is strongly recommended for MR study of adrenal masses, and its use might obviate the need for Gd administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Cysts / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16791464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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8. Soon PS, McDonald KL, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Oncologist; 2008 May;13(5):548-61
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  • [Title] Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenal tumors are common, with an estimated incidence of 7.3% in autopsy cases, while adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare, with an estimated prevalence of 4-12 per million population.
  • Because the prognoses for adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and ACCs are vastly different, it is important to be able to accurately differentiate the two tumor types.
  • Advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ACCs is essential for the development of more sensitive means of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in better clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) occur as a component of several hereditary tumor syndromes, which include the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1, Carney complex, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The adrenocorticotropic hormone-cAMP-protein kinase A and Wnt pathways are also implicated in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis, including results of comparative genomic hybridization, loss of heterozygosity, and microarray gene-expression profiling studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18515740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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9. Hahner S, Fassnacht M, Hammer F, Schammann M, Weismann D, Hansen IA, Allolio B: Evidence against a role of human airway trypsin-like protease--the human analogue of the growth-promoting rat adrenal secretory protease--in adrenal tumourigenesis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Jan;152(1):143-53
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  • [Title] Evidence against a role of human airway trypsin-like protease--the human analogue of the growth-promoting rat adrenal secretory protease--in adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: A serine protease from rat adrenal cortex was recently characterized and named adrenal secretory protease (AsP).
  • AsP is expressed in the adrenal cortex and is capable of cleaving pro-gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (1-76 N-terminus of pro-opiomelanocortin) into fragments that act as adrenal mitogens.
  • AsP may therefore play a crucial role in adrenal growth and tumourigenesis.
  • The aim of this study was to further characterize the human homologue of AsP and its possible role in adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • Further analysis revealed that the HAT gene is the human homologue of a long splice variant of AsP, which we recently described as rat airway trypsin-like serine protease 1.
  • In contrast to rodents, no short isoform of HAT was found in humans due to a stop codon in exon 6 which prevents the expression of a short isoform.
  • While high expression of HAT mRNA was found in the trachea and in the gastrointestinal tract, expression in the adrenal was only very weak.
  • We further investigated HAT expression in five normal adrenal glands, 15 adrenocortical adenomas (five hormonally inactive adenomas, five aldosterone-producing adenomas and five cortisol-producing adenomas), nine adrenocortical carcinomas, five phaeochromocytomas and two adrenal hyperplasias.
  • Weak HAT expression was detectable in only two out of five normal adrenal glands, in one out of twenty-four adrenocortical tumours and four out of five phaeochromocytomas.
  • However, the expression in the adrenal tissue was several orders of magnitude lower than in the trachea.
  • In addition, we could not detect any HAT transcripts in a sample of fetal adrenal.
  • CONCLUSION: Gene structure and tissue distribution of HAT, the human homologue of the rat adrenal secretory protease AsP, reveal major interspecies differences.
  • The observation of very low expression levels in normal adrenal tissue and adrenocortical tumours casts doubt about a role for HAT in the physiological and pathological growth of adrenocortical cells.

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  • (PMID = 15762198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / human airway trypsin-like protease
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10. Thorin-Savouré A, Tissier-Rible F, Guignat L, Pellerin A, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Lefebvre H: Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4924-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis.
  • CONTEXT: In patients with a history of extraadrenal tumor, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Detection of the malignant tissue is a difficult challenge when metastasis occurs in an adrenal adenoma, forming a collision/composite tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We report two patients with adrenal collision/composite tumors referred to two French university hospitals.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: Two patients with histories of mammary and sigmoid carcinomas, respectively, presented with adrenal mass discovered 8 and 3 yr after surgical removal of the primary tumor.
  • In the two cases, computerized tomographic scan showed that the adrenal tumor contained two components with low and high attenuation values, respectively.
  • Uptake of iodocholesterol by the adrenal tumor in case 1 and elevated plasma ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone values in case 2 strongly argued for the diagnosis of primary adrenocortical tumors.
  • Enlargement of the adrenal mass during follow-up in case 1 and association of the adrenal lesion with a hepatic mass in case 2 led to adrenalectomy.
  • In both cases, histological examination of the tumor demonstrated the presence of metastatic carcinoma tissue in an adrenocortical adenoma, allowing classification of the neoplasia as a collision/composite tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations show that collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland formed by carcinoma metastasis in benign adenomas are a pitfall of iodocholesterol scintigraphy and/or plasma steroid assays to exclude the diagnosis of adrenal metastasis.
  • Conversely, computerized tomographic scan is a useful tool for the distinction between the benign and malignant tissues in adrenal collision/composite tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15914530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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11. Waalkes MP, Liu J, Diwan BA: Transplacental arsenic carcinogenesis in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2007 Aug 1;222(3):271-80
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  • In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood.
  • Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct.
  • Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes.

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  • (PMID = 17306315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC005488-21; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Estrogens; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; N712M78A8G / Arsenic; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS28781; NLM/ PMC1995036
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12. Boscaro M, Ronconi V, Turchi F, Giacchetti G: Diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Aug;15(4):332-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: It is now widely accepted that primary aldosteronism represents the most common form of endocrine hypertension and its early diagnosis is crucial for hypertensive patients who can be cured by the surgical removal of an aldosterone-secreting adenoma or benefit from a specific medical treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.
  • Recent evidence indicates that hyperaldosteronism is indeed associated with detrimental consequences on cardiovascular system, renal function and glucose metabolism.
  • Finally, although it is technically difficult and the cut-off levels for acceptance of the success are not standardized, the subtype forms should be identified using a selective adrenal venous sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18594273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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13. Pomara G, Cappello F, Barzon L, Morelli G, Rappa F, Benvegna L, Giannarini G, Palù G, Selli C: Cytomegalovirus and BK-Virus co-infection of a clinically non-functioning adrenal adenoma: innocent bystanders or new pathogenetic agents? Eur J Histochem; 2006 Apr-Jun;50(2):131-2
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  • [Title] Cytomegalovirus and BK-Virus co-infection of a clinically non-functioning adrenal adenoma: innocent bystanders or new pathogenetic agents?
  • We report a case of a 64-year-old woman who underwent left adrenalectomy with removal of a 8,5 cm clinically non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma and a 4-cm myelolipoma.
  • Molecular testing for viral infection demonstrated the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA sequences in the adrenal adenoma, but not in the myelolipoma (confirmed by immunohistochemistry).
  • Moreover, the adrenal adenoma was also positive for parvovirus B19, and both adrenal tumor samples were positive for polyomavirus BK (BKV) and adenovirus DNA sequences.
  • This is the first report of co-infection of an adrenocortical adenoma by CMV and BKV.
  • The role of these viruses in adrenal tumorigenesis was postulated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. BK Virus / genetics. Cytomegalovirus / genetics. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Polyomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16864124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-760X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of histochemistry : EJH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Histochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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4. Mohaupt MG: The role of adrenal steroidogenesis in arterial hypertension. Endocr Dev; 2008;13:133-44
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  • [Title] The role of adrenal steroidogenesis in arterial hypertension.
  • Adrenal aldosterone production, the major regulator of salt and water retention, is discussed with respect to hypertensive diseases.
  • Physiological aldosterone production is tightly regulated, either stimulated or inhibited, in the adrenal zona glomerulosa by both circulating factors and/or by locally derived endothelial factors.
  • Excessive aldosterone production is seen in adenomatous disease of the adrenals.
  • The balance between stimulatory/proliferative and antagonistic signaling is disturbed by expression of altered receptor subtypes in the adenomas.
  • Increased aldosterone production without a detectable adenoma is the most frequent form of primary aldosteronism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Hypertension / etiology. Steroids / biosynthesis. Steroids / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18493138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-7082
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoids; 0 / Steroids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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15. Nicol MR, Papacleovoulou G, Evans DB, Penning TM, Strachan MW, Advani A, Johnson SJ, Quinton R, Mason JI: Estrogen biosynthesis in human H295 adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):115-20
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  • [Title] Estrogen biosynthesis in human H295 adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy and feminizing symptoms secondary to adrenal estrogen-secretion are extremely rare.
  • The direct secretion of estradiol by adrenocortical tumors requires, in addition to the expression of aromatase (CYP19), the expression of one or more of the reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.
  • The expression of CYP19 transcripts and protein were markedly induced in the H295 adrenocortical carcinoma cell line after treatment with either forskolin or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).
  • Western immunoblotting of an estrogen-secreting adrenal carcinoma revealed notable levels of both aromatase and AKR1C3 expression while an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma lacked aromatase expression and showed a reduced level of AKR1C3 expression.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the carcinoma-bearing adrenal revealed localization of AKR1C3 not only in the tumor but also principally in the zona reticularis of the normal adrenal tissue.
  • Adrenal aromatase and AKR1C3 expression therefore appear to be features of adrenocortical malignancies that are associated with biosynthesis of active estrogen.

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  • (PMID = 19026713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090744-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090744; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090744-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA90744
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; EC 1.1.- / 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.- / AKR1C3 protein, human; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.145 / 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II; EC 1.1.1.145 / Progesterone Reductase; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS99072; NLM/ PMC2673546
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21. Assié G, Auzan C, Gasc JM, Baviera E, Balaton A, Elalouf JM, Jeunemaitre X, Plouin PF, Corvol P, Clauser E: Steroidogenesis in aldosterone-producing adenoma revisited by transcriptome analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Dec;90(12):6638-49
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  • [Title] Steroidogenesis in aldosterone-producing adenoma revisited by transcriptome analysis.
  • DESIGN: Genomewide gene expression was compared in two tissues differentiated for aldosterone production, both nonstimulated by circulating angiotensin II and differing in their autonomy to produce aldosterone: aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and its adjacent dissected zona glomerulosa (ZG).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Steroids / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16204365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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22. Novitsky YW, Kercher KW, Rosen MJ, Cobb WS, Jyothinagaram S, Heniford BT: Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for lateralizing nodular hyperplasia. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1009-16; discussion 1016-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia (NAH) may mimic the biochemical characteristics of an aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • All patients underwent adrenal venous sampling (94% successfully), which revealed an average adjusted aldosterone ratio of 17.6 (range, 1.2 to 75.9).
  • When lateralization of aldosterone production is noted, laparoscopic adrenalectomy provides significant clinical improvement even in patients with a pathologic diagnosis of NAH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Hypertension / prevention & control. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16360385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Wagner S, Kiupel M, Peterson RA 2nd, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB: Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Pathol; 2008 Jul;45(4):439-42
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  • [Title] Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).
  • Whereas the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets produce only limited amounts of androgenic steroids, adrenocortical neoplasms that arise in neutered ferrets typically secrete androgens or their derivative, estrogen.
  • The 17,20-lyase activity of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) must increase to permit androgen biosynthesis in neoplastic adrenal tissue.
  • We screened ferret adrenocortical tumor specimens for expression of cytochrome b(5) (cyt b(5)), an allosteric regulator that selectively enhances the 17,20-lyase activity of P450c17.
  • Cyt b(5) immunoreactivity was evident in 24 of 25 (96%) adrenocortical adenomas/carcinomas from ferrets with signs of ectopic sex steroid production.
  • Normal adrenocortical cells lacked cyt b(5), which may account for the low production of adrenal androgens in healthy ferrets.
  • We concluded that cyt b(5) is upregulated during gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia and is a marker of androgen synthetic potential in these tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18587089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574-09; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK52574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9035-39-6 / Cytochromes b5
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS45245; NLM/ PMC2497446
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24. Tsunoda K, Abe K, Yamada M, Kato T, Yaoita H, Taguma Y, Goto Y, Ioridani N: A case of primary aldosteronism associated with renal artery stenosis and preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Hypertens Res; 2008 Aug;31(8):1669-75
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  • [Title] A case of primary aldosteronism associated with renal artery stenosis and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • We identified a left adrenal tumor, left renal atrophy, and left renal artery stenosis (RAS) in a 52-year-old man by MRI/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) during evaluation of hypertension.
  • An excessive response of aldosterone and cortisol to adorenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was found upon selective sampling of the left adrenal vein.
  • Selective renal venous sampling showed a left/right renal venous PRA ratio of 1.7.
  • We diagnosed this patient as having aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma (APA) associated with renovascular hypertension (RVH) and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • As an initial treatment, percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty was performed.
  • The renal dysfuntion that occurred prior to treatment seemed to prevent complete normalization of blood pressure.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension, Renal / etiology. Renal Artery Obstruction / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Angiography. Blood Pressure. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged


25. Szentirmai O, Winston KR, Jedlicka P, Lum GM: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a child with systemic hypertension and adrenal adenoma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2007 Oct;107(4 Suppl):328-9
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  • [Title] Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a child with systemic hypertension and adrenal adenoma. Case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Basal Ganglia / blood supply. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Hypertension / complications. Hypertension / etiology


31. Miller FH, Wang Y, McCarthy RJ, Yaghmai V, Merrick L, Larson A, Berggruen S, Casalino DD, Nikolaidis P: Utility of diffusion-weighted MRI in characterization of adrenal lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Feb;194(2):W179-85
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  • [Title] Utility of diffusion-weighted MRI in characterization of adrenal lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for characterizing adrenal lesions and determine if diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can distinguish lipid-rich from lipid-poor adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 160 adrenal lesions in 156 patients (96 women and 60 men; mean age, 63 years).
  • ADCs and signal intensity (SI) decrease on chemical shift imaging were measured in adrenal lesions with a wide variety of pathologies.
  • Lipid-rich and lipid-poor adenomas were identified by unenhanced CT.
  • RESULTS: ADCs of adrenal malignancies (median, 1.67 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; interquartile range, 1.41-1.84 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) were not different compared with those of benign lesions (1.61 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; 1.27-1.96 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; p > 0.05).
  • Cysts (2.93 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; 2.70-3.09 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) showed higher ADCs than the remaining adrenal lesions (p < 0.05).
  • The median ADCs of lipid-rich adenomas did not differ from those of lipid-poor ones (p > 0.05).
  • The CT attenuation had no negative or positive correlation with the ADCs of adrenal adenomas (r = -0.05, p = 0.97).
  • CONCLUSION: Unlike lesion size and percentage decrease in SI, the ADCs were not useful in distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal lesions.
  • Lipid-poor adenomas could not be distinguished from lipid-rich adenomas and all other nonfatty lesions of the adrenal gland with DWI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Lipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20093571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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32. Ofei F, Darko R, Appiah-Kusi J, Aduful H, Baddoo H, Adu-Gyamfi Y, Tettey Y, Gyasi R, Aleksenko L, Yeboah E, Arc-Hampong E, Yeboah A, Ogoe E: Surgically correctable adrenal-dependent hypertension: a report of five cases. Ghana Med J; 2007 Jun;41(2):82-7
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  • [Title] Surgically correctable adrenal-dependent hypertension: a report of five cases.
  • Such patients include young individuals, those with difficult-to-treat hypertension and those presenting with symptoms, clinical signs and/or laboratory parameters well-known to be associated with Cushing's syndrome, Conn's syndrome or phaeochromocytoma.This paper reports on 5 patients identified over a 2-year period with various hormonally-active adrenal adenomas causing hypertension in an environment where, hitherto, the occurrence of these conditions was generally thought to be rare.
  • Aspects of the patients' histories, examination and laboratory findings that drew attention to the possibility of the diagnosis in each case are highlighted, as are the confirmatory investigations and management methods used by a multidisciplinary team of medical practitioners.
  • The clinical outcome with appropriate treatment of adrenal-related hypertension is good and can result in significant cost savings in the long term.

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  • (PMID = 17925848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-9560
  • [Journal-full-title] Ghana medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ghana Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ghana
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1976300
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Conn's syndrome / Cushing's syndrome / Secondary hypertension / adrenal adenoma / phaeochromocytoma / primary hyperaldosteronism
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33. Eller-Vainicher C, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Torlontano M, Coletti F, Iorio L, Cuttitta A, Ambrosio A, Vicentini L, Carnevale V, Beck-Peccoz P, Arosio M, Ambrosi B, Scillitani A, Chiodini I: Post-surgical hypocortisolism after removal of an adrenal incidentaloma: is it predictable by an accurate endocrinological work-up before surgery? Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):91-9
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  • [Title] Post-surgical hypocortisolism after removal of an adrenal incidentaloma: is it predictable by an accurate endocrinological work-up before surgery?
  • OBJECTIVE: Few data are available regarding the need of steroid substitutive therapy after unilateral adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma (AI).
  • It is unknown whether, before surgery, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis secretion parameters can predict post-surgical hypocortisolism.
  • A steroid substitutive therapy is indicated after unilateral adrenalectomy for SH or size of the adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 19797503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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34. Tadjine M, Lampron A, Ouadi L, Bourdeau I: Frequent mutations of beta-catenin gene in sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Feb;68(2):264-70
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  • [Title] Frequent mutations of beta-catenin gene in sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Molecular alterations remain largely unknown in most sporadic adrenocortical tumours and hyperplasias.
  • In our previous work, we demonstrated the differential expression of several Wnt/beta-catenin signalling-related genes implicated in ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasias (AIMAH).
  • To better understand the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in adrenocortical tumours, we performed mutational analysis of the beta-catenin gene.
  • METHODS: We studied 53 human adrenocortical samples (33 adenomas, 4 carcinomas, 13 AIMAH, 3 ACTH-dependent adrenal hyperplasias) and the human adrenocortical cancer cell line NCI-H295R.
  • RESULTS: No mutations were detected in adrenocortical carcinomas, AIMAH and ACTH-dependent hyperplasias.
  • Genetic alterations were found in 5 (15%) out of 33 adenomas: three cortisol-secreting adenomas, one aldosterone-secreting adenoma and one nonfunctional adenoma.
  • In addition, cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin was observed in mutated adenomas by immunohistochemistry.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Activating mutations of exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene are frequent in adrenocortical adenomas, and further characterization of the Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway should lead to a better understanding of adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. beta Catenin / genetics. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17854394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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35. Plouin PF, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Bertagna X: [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):73-82; discussion 83-5
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  • [Title] [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Le réseau national COMETE sur les tumeurs de la surrénale.
  • Patients with adrenal tumors are at risk of the consequences of tumor growth (including metastasis) and of hormone hypersecretion.
  • Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas arise from the adrenal medulla and produce catecholamines; they may be benign or malignant, and sporadic or familial.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas arise from the adrenal cortex.
  • Patients with adrenocortical tumors may develop ACTH-independent hypercortisolism, mineralocorticoid excess, and androgen hypersecretion.
  • In 1993, the heads of these departments created the COMETE network (COrtico et MEdullo-surrénale, les Tumeurs Endocrines).
  • The overall objective of COMETE is to promote basic and clinical research into adrenal tumors.
  • This implies - in cross-sectional studies: collecting adrenal tumors, maintaining a collection of tumor and leukocyte DNA samples, keeping a computerized record of relevant biological and clinical data, and distributing biological samples and bioclinical information anonymously to collaborating research laboratories; in prospective studies: ensuring indefinite follow-up of patients with tumors at risk of malignancy or recurrence, which means establishing and maintaining a cohort of patients with large adrenocortical tumors or carcinomas anda cohort of patients with pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Societies, Medical / organization & administration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. France. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Research

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  • (PMID = 18663983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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36. Rossi GP, Pessina AC: Blood pressure outcome of adrenalectomy in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism with or without unilateral adenoma. J Hypertens; 2009 Mar;27(3):656-7; author reply 657-8
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  • [Title] Blood pressure outcome of adrenalectomy in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism with or without unilateral adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Hypertension / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adult. Aldosterone / urine. Blood Pressure. Cohort Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome


37. Marcondes JA, Curi DD, Matsuzaki CN, Barcellos CR, Rocha MP, Hayashida SA, Baracat EC: Ovarian hyperthecosis in the context of an adrenal incidentaloma in a postmenopausal woman. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2008 Oct;52(7):1184-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian hyperthecosis in the context of an adrenal incidentaloma in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma is not infrequent and can be found in hirsute women.
  • We report a case of a 54-year-old woman with amenorrhea and hirsutism of abrupt onset and mild signs of virilization that had an adrenal incidentaloma coexisting with ovarian hyperthecosis.
  • Pelvic ultrasonography disclosed a right ovary with 10.3 cc and a left ovary with 9.8 cc without nodules or cysts, and computerized tomography of the abdomen disclosed a normal right adrenal gland.
  • On the left adrenal gland a solid nodule with 0.8 cm was seen.
  • In view of a suppression of testosterone by GnRHa, the patient was submitted to a hystero-oophorectomy by laparoscopy.
  • No hilar cell hyperplasia was seen.
  • In conclusion, the presence of an adrenal mass in a hirsute woman can lead to a wrong diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Hirsutism / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19082308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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38. Libé R, Fratticci A, Coste J, Tissier F, Horvath A, Ragazzon B, Rene-Corail F, Groussin L, Bertagna X, Raffin-Sanson ML, Stratakis CA, Bertherat J: Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) and genetic predisposition to adrenocortical tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jun 15;14(12):4016-24
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  • [Title] Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) and genetic predisposition to adrenocortical tumors.
  • PURPOSE: We have reported previously nonsense inactivating mutations of the phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) gene in patients with micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia and Cushing syndrome.
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of somatic or germ-line PDE11A mutations in various types of adrenocortical tumors: ACTH-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH), adrenocortical adenoma (ACA), and adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: PDE11A was sequenced in 117 adrenocortical tumors and 192 controls subjects; immunohistochemistry for PDE11A and tumor cyclic AMP levels were studied in a subgroup of adrenocortical tumors.
  • RESULTS: One PDE11A inactivating mutation (R307X) was found in one ACA, 22 germ-line missense variants (18.8%) were found in adrenocortical tumors, and only 11 missense variants (5.7%) were found in controls.
  • By comparing the common mutations, a higher frequency of mutations in adrenocortical tumors than in age/sex-matched controls were observed [16% versus 10% in ACC, 19% versus 10% in ACA, and 24% versus 9% in AIMAH; odds ratio (OR), 3.53; P = 0.05].
  • Somatic DNA from adrenocortical tumors with missense variants showed a wild-type allelic loss.
  • A significant difference between ACC and controls was observed for a polymorphism in exon 6 (E421E; OR, 2.1; P = 0.03) and three associated polymorphisms located in intron 10-exon 11-intron 11 (OR, 0.5; P = 0.01).
  • In AIMAH/ACA, cyclic AMP levels were higher than in normal adrenals and decreased PDE11A immunostaining was present in adrenocortical tumors with PDE11A variants.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present investigation of a large cohort of adrenocortical tumors suggests that PDE11A sequence defects predispose to a variety of lesions (beyond micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia) and may contribute to the development of these tumors in the general population.

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  • (PMID = 18559625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS306040; NLM/ PMC3134879
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39. Paik KY: [Paraganglioma of the pancreas metastasized to the adrenal gland: a case report]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2009 Dec;54(6):409-12
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  • [Title] [Paraganglioma of the pancreas metastasized to the adrenal gland: a case report].
  • Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from the neural crest, which includes tissues such as the adrenal medulla, carotid and aortic body, organs of Zuckerkandl, and other unnamed paraganglia.
  • We report our experience of this rare disease.
  • A 70-year old female patient admitted for a pancreas tail mass detected by computed tomography (CT) scan checked for vague left flank pain.
  • A well defined ovoid shape mass in left adrenal gland was suggested adenoma.
  • Microscopic examination with pancreas and adrenal gland revealed that the cells were arranged in a characteristic Zellballen pattern.
  • On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed the tumor as a paraganglioma of the pancreas and adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aged. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Female. Humans. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20026898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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40. Contesse V, Reznik Y, Louiset E, Duparc C, Cartier D, Sicard F, Laquerriere A, Parmentier F, Kuhn JM, Vaudry H, Lefebvre H: Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2843-50
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  • [Title] Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies.
  • Two patients with incidentally discovered adrenocortical adenomas underwent a series of pharmacological and physiological tests after pretreatment with dexamethasone.
  • In the two cases, 5-HT stimulated cortisol secretion from tumor cells with increased efficacy and/or potency to activate steroidogenesis by comparison with normal adrenocortical cells.
  • In the two adenoma tissues, immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of 5-HT-like immunoreactivity within clusters of steroidogenic cells, suggesting that 5-HT acted through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism to stimulate steroidogenesis.
  • In conclusion, this study provides the first observation of adrenocortical cortisol-producing adenomas hypersensitive in vivo and in vitro to serotonergic agonists.
  • Our results also show that cortisol-producing adenomas can express simultaneously several illegitimate receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Serotonin / pharmacology

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  • [CommentIn] Horm Metab Res. 2005 Aug;37(8):528-9 [16138268.001]
  • (PMID = 15705918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 158165-40-3 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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81. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Attenuation values of <10 Hounsfield units on an unenhanced CT are practically diagnostic for adenomas.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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82. Ueberberg B, Unger N, Sheu SY, Walz MK, Schmid KW, Saeger W, Mann K, Petersenn S: Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Mar;40(3):181-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • This study compares the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • Normal adrenal tissue was obtained after autopsy.
  • Tissue was obtained from 13 pheochromocytomas (PHEOs), 15 cortisol-secreting adenomas (CPAs), 12 aldosterone-secreting adenomas (APAs), and 16 nonfunctional adenomas (NFAs) following laparoscopic surgery.
  • In the seven normal adrenal glands analyzed, ghrelin mRNA levels were 12-fold lower than in stomach.
  • In all adrenal tumors, relevant levels of ghrelin mRNA were observed, with significantly lower expression in PHEOs and APAs than in normal adrenal gland.
  • GHS-R1a mRNA expression was detectable in normal adrenal gland, but the receptor protein was absent.
  • In adrenal tumors, detectable levels of receptor mRNA were found in 38% of PHEOs, 13% of CPAs, and 25% of NFAs.
  • GHS-R1a protein was absent in the majority of adrenal tumors.
  • Expression of ghrelin in normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors may indicate some unknown physiological function.
  • The pathophysiological relevance of ghrelin expression in adrenal tumors remains to be investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Ghrelin / genetics. Receptors, Ghrelin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Cell Differentiation. DNA Primers. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18246525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin
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83. Arima K, Yamakado K, Suzuki R, Matsuura H, Nakatsuka A, Takeda K, Sugimura Y: Image-guided radiofrequency ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome: outcomes after mean follow-up of 33 months. Urology; 2007 Sep;70(3):407-11
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  • [Title] Image-guided radiofrequency ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome: outcomes after mean follow-up of 33 months.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and therapeutic effects of image-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation used for the treatment of adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome.
  • METHODS: From February 2003 to May 2005, 4 consecutive patients with adrenocortical adenoma and Cushing syndrome received percutaneous RF ablation.
  • All tumors were in the left adrenal gland, with a mean tumor size of 2.7 +/- 0.6 cm (range 2.0 to 3.5).
  • Both the serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels returned to normal and the symptoms related to Cushing syndrome had disappeared at the end of follow-up (range 20 to 46 months, mean 33) for a clinical success rate of 100%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Using RF ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome is a feasible, safe, and promising treatment method in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Fluoroscopy / methods. Radiography, Interventional / methods. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 17905083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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84. Mannelli M, Colagrande S, Valeri A, Parenti G: Incidental and metastatic adrenal masses. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):649-61
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  • [Title] Incidental and metastatic adrenal masses.
  • In the last decades discoveries of adrenal masses incidentally during the course of diagnostic procedures for unrelated disorders (incidentalomas) have become progressively more frequent.
  • The clinician in this position must answer two main questions: Is the mass benign or malignant?
  • , and To what extent is the adrenal secretion altered?
  • To come to a clinical decision, several diagnostic tools need to be engaged, starting with an accurate and correct radiological evaluation and a hormonal assessment of the adrenal function.
  • Most frequently, adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are represented by benign cortical adenomas, a subset of which causes a mild hypercortisolism, known as subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS).
  • Laparoscopic surgery is the recommended procedure to remove benign masses.
  • The surgical procedure for adrenal malignancies is still debated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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85. Lehnert H, Scholz T, Schäfer M, Klose S: [Endocrine hypertension]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2007 Feb 2;132(5):207-17; quiz 219-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / therapy. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / complications. Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / diagnosis. Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2007 Mar 23;132(12):634
  • (PMID = 17252364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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86. Nishimoto K, Nakagawa K, Li D, Kosaka T, Oya M, Mikami S, Shibata H, Itoh H, Mitani F, Yamazaki T, Ogishima T, Suematsu M, Mukai K: Adrenocortical zonation in humans under normal and pathological conditions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;95(5):2296-305
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical zonation in humans under normal and pathological conditions.
  • CONTEXT: Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) catalyze the terminal steps for aldosterone and cortisol syntheses, respectively, thereby determining the functional differentiation of human adrenocortical cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the localization of CYP11B2 and -B1 in human adrenal specimens by using developed antibodies capable of distinguishing the two enzymes from each other.
  • Adrenocortical cells lacking both enzymes were observed in the outer cortical regions.
  • In addition to conventional zonation, we found a variegated zonation consisting of a subcapsular cell cluster expressing CYP11B2, which we termed aldosterone-producing cell cluster, and a CYP11B1-expressing area.
  • Aldosterone-producing adenomas differed in cell populations expressing CYP11B2 from one another, whereas CYP11B1-expressing and double-negative cells were also intermingled.
  • Adenomas from patients with Cushing's syndrome expressed CYP11B1 entirely but not CYP11B2, resulting in atrophic nontumor glands.
  • The nontumor portions of both types of adenomas bore frequently one or more aldosterone-producing cell clusters, which sustained CYP11B2 expression markedly under the conditions of the suppressed renin-angiotensin system.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry of the human normal adrenal cortex for CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 revealed a variegated zonation with cell clusters constitutively expressing CYP11B2.
  • This technique may provide a pathological confirmatory diagnosis of adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antibodies. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / enzymology. Corticosterone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / enzymology. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / deficiency. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / enzymology. Mammals. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Rabbits. Reference Values. Rodentia. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Zona Fasciculata / enzymology. Zona Glomerulosa / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20200334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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87. Tamura Y, Adachi J, Chiba Y, Mori S, Takeda K, Kasuya Y, Murayama T, Sawabe M, Sasano H, Araki A, Ito H, Horiuchi T: Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal microadenoma in an elderly patient: efficacy of selective adrenal venous sampling. Intern Med; 2008;47(1):37-42
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  • [Title] Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal microadenoma in an elderly patient: efficacy of selective adrenal venous sampling.
  • Computed tomography imaging appeared normal for a long duration with a left-sided nodule appearing far later; adrenal scintigraphy was first normal, and the second test showed right-sided uptake.
  • However, a repeat selective adrenal venous sampling (SAVS) indicated a left-sided lateralization of the hypersecretion of aldosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / blood

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  • (PMID = 18176003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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88. Cham E, Watkin W, Goldschmidt R, Liu L: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jul-Aug;54(4):627-34
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (AONs) are rare tumors that typically show marked nuclear pleomorphism and eosinophilic cytoplasm and are highly cellular on fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears.
  • These features, worrisome in conventional adrenocortical tumors, are not necessarily signs of malignancy in AONs.
  • Computed tomography showed a 10-cm, solid, left adrenal mass and a 21-cm complex cystic mass in the pelvis.
  • FNA of the adrenal mass showed hypercellular smears with dyscohesive cells having pleomorphic nuclei and abundant, granular cytoplasm.
  • Resection of the adrenal mass demonstrated an AON without definite malignant features.
  • CONCLUSION: On FNA, cells from an AON can be hypercellular and cytologically atypical, which can be pitfalls for a malignant diagnosis.
  • We review criteria to classify benign vs. malignant AONs and discuss the literature on this topic.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20715669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Sbiera S, Schmull S, Assie G, Voelker HU, Kraus L, Beyer M, Ragazzon B, Beuschlein F, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Saeger W, Bertherat J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):E161-71
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  • [Title] High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors.
  • CONTEXT: No immunohistochemical marker has been established to reliably differentiate adrenocortical tumors from other adrenal masses.
  • We hypothesized that expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcription factor involved in adrenal development, is of value for the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses and predicts prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples from 167 ACC, 52 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), six normal adrenal glands, six normal ovaries and 73 neoplastic nonsteroidogenic tissues.
  • RESULTS: SF-1 protein staining was detectable in 158 of 161 (98%) evaluable ACC samples including 49 (30%) with strong SF-1 staining and in all normal and benign steroidogenic tissues.
  • In addition, SF-1 mRNA expression was present in all 91 analyzed adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: SF-1 is a highly valuable immunohistochemical marker to determine the adrenocortical origin of an adrenal mass with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20660055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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90. Popescu I, Ciurea S, Romanescu D, Boros M: Isolated resection of the caudate lobe: indications, technique and results. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 May-Jun;55(84):831-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: This paper reports a series of 24 isolated caudate lobe resections (ICLR), performed for 13 benign tumors (10 hemangiomas, 2 focal nodular hyperplasias, 1 adenoma) and 11 malignant tumors (3 hepatocarcinomas, 1 peripheral cholangiocarcinoma and 7 metastatic - 5 colorectal carcinomas, 1 breast carcinoma, 1 adrenal carcinoma).
  • Three patients died from generalized disease.
  • Another patient, with generalized disease, was lost from follow-up.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / mortality. Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Adenoma, Liver Cell / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / mortality. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / surgery. Hemangioma / mortality. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangioma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18705277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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91. Li Q, Zhang XQ, Nie L, Chen GS, Li H, Zhang F, Zhang LY, Hong L, Wang SF, Wang H: Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours. Br J Cancer; 2007 Aug 6;97(3):420-5
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  • [Title] Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours.
  • Our previous studies have shown that IFN-gamma-like immunoreactivity also appears in human adrenal cortical tumour and phaeochromocytoma.
  • To investigate whether human tumour cells can produce IFN-gamma, we examined 429 biopsy specimens of 30 kinds of tumour and tumour-surrounding tissues in adrenal glands and in kidneys by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation.
  • IFN-gamma immunoactivity was shown in 34.3% of the adrenal cortical adenomas, 50% of the adrenal cortical carcinomas, 26.7% of the phaeochromocytomas, 26.7% of the clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 22% of the adrenal cortexes and 40% of medullas adjacent to tumours.
  • Western blot analysis has further confirmed the immunohistochemistry results by showing a distinct IFN-gamma band corresponding to 17.4 kDa in tissue extracts from adrenal cortical adenoma, phaeochromocytoma and clear cell RCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17622250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360327
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92. Ors F, Lev-Toaff A, O'Kane P, Qazi N, Bergin D: Paraovarian adrenal rest with MRI features characteristic of an adrenal adenoma. Br J Radiol; 2007 Sep;80(957):e205-8
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  • [Title] Paraovarian adrenal rest with MRI features characteristic of an adrenal adenoma.
  • We report MR and sonographic imaging features of an incidentally detected paraovarian adrenal rest in a 44-year-old woman who was being evaluated for menorrhagia.
  • This is the first report of chemical shift imaging identifying the presence of lipid within an adrenal rest as well as rapid washout of contrast.
  • Both of these MR characteristics are typically seen with an adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Rest Tumor / diagnosis. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17928489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Vascik T: Case of the month. JAAPA; 2009 Dec;22(12):70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Male

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  • (PMID = 24887476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-1896
  • [Journal-full-title] JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAAPA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Schön G: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy]. Aktuelle Urol; 2010 Sep;41(5):329-38; quiz 339-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Hormones / blood. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20824578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8820
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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95. Dluhy RG: Incidentaloma--role of the endocrinologist. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Incidental Findings

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  • [CommentOn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):279-84 [18463033.001]
  • [CommentOn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):269-78 [18463032.001]
  • (PMID = 18463031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Ashizawa N, Takagi M, Seto S, Suzuki S, Yano K: Serum adiponectin and leptin in a patient with Cushing's syndrome before and after adrenalectomy. Intern Med; 2007;46(7):383-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We measured the serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations before and after successful removal of a left adrenal adenoma in a 46-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adiponectin / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Leptin / blood

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  • (PMID = 17409602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Leptin
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97. Greven WL, van Bemmel T: Rare oxygen, a rare way to diagnose Conn's syndrome. NDT Plus; 2008 Dec;1(6):427-428
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  • [Title] Rare oxygen, a rare way to diagnose Conn's syndrome.
  • We present a case of a patient with symptoms of mountain sickness at relatively low altitudes, who appeared to have Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism). <b>Case.
  • A CT scan of the abdomen revealed an adenoma in the left adrenal gland.

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  • (PMID = 28657013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Conn's syndrome / hyperaldosteronism / mountain sickness
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98. Kalra MK, Blake MA, Boland GW, Hahn PF: CT features of adrenal pheochromocytomas: attenuation value and loss of contrast enhancement. Radiology; 2005 Sep;236(3):1112-3
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  • [Title] CT features of adrenal pheochromocytomas: attenuation value and loss of contrast enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Contrast Media. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity


99. Tacon LJ, Soon PS, Gill AJ, Chou AS, Clarkson A, Botling J, Stalberg PL, Skogseid BM, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB, Clifton-Bligh RJ: The glucocorticoid receptor is overexpressed in malignant adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Nov;94(11):4591-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The glucocorticoid receptor is overexpressed in malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • The Weiss score is the most widely accepted method for distinguishing an ACC from an adrenocortical adenoma (ACA); however, in borderline cases, accurate diagnosis remains problematic.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study GR expression in adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) and to assess its utility as an adjunct to the Weiss score.
  • This finding was validated in an external cohort of ACTs, such that 14 of 18 ACCs (78%) demonstrated positive nuclear staining whereas 32 of 33 ACAs (94%) were negative (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemical finding of nuclear GR staining identified ACCs with high diagnostic accuracy.
  • We propose that GR immunohistochemistry may complement the Weiss score in the diagnosis of ACC in cases that display borderline histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19820023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / NR3C1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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100. Kamiyama T, Fukukura Y, Yoneyama T, Takumi K, Nakajo M: Distinguishing adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas: combined use of diagnostic parameters of unenhanced and short 5-minute dynamic enhanced CT protocol. Radiology; 2009 Feb;250(2):474-81
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  • [Title] Distinguishing adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas: combined use of diagnostic parameters of unenhanced and short 5-minute dynamic enhanced CT protocol.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively examine the diagnostic values of individual parameters obtained from unenhanced and 35-second and 5-minute contrast material-enhanced (enhanced) computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing adenomas, particularly lipid-poor adenomas, from nonadenomas and to determine the best diagnostic method by using these parameters.
  • The study population consisted of 61 patients (20 men and 41 women; mean age, 58 years) with 68 adrenal masses (53 adenomas and 15 nonadenomas).
  • Adenomas were classified as 30 lipid-rich (<or=10 HU) and 23 lipid-poor (>10 HU) adenomas by using unenhanced attenuation.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were calculated by using a threshold level of each parameter determined by the least sum of false-positive and false-negative cases and a combination of the threshold levels with 100% specificity.
  • RESULTS: The best results were obtained by using a combination of the threshold levels with 100% (15 of 15) specificity (presence of at least one of the following criteria for diagnosing adenomas: unenhanced attenuation of <or=19 HU, 5-minute attenuation of <or=50 HU, PEW of >or=45%, and RPEW of >or=31%).
  • Sensitivity was 94% (50 of 53) or 87% (20 of 23) and accuracy was 96% (65 of 68) or 92% (35 of 38) for diagnosing total adrenal adenomas or lipid-poor adenomas, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19037020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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