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1. Miller MA, Pardo ID, Jackson LP, Moore GE, Sojka JE: Correlation of pituitary histomorphometry with adrenocorticotrophic hormone response to domperidone administration in the diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Vet Pathol; 2008 Jan;45(1):26-38
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  • [Title] Correlation of pituitary histomorphometry with adrenocorticotrophic hormone response to domperidone administration in the diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.
  • Functional evaluation of the pars intermedia (PI) is required for the early diagnosis of equine pituitary PI dysfunction (PPID), yet most assays target the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which regulates the pars anterior.
  • In the 33 horses, median age, plasma ACTH concentration 8 hours after domperidone, and PI area in median sagittal sections were associated with histologic grade as follows: pituitary grade 1 (normal), n = 3, 7.5 years, 20.0 pg/ml, 0.16 cm(2); grade 2 (focal hypertrophy or hyperplasia), n = 9, 14.5 years, 27.1 pg/ml, 0.27 cm(2); grade 3 (diffuse adenomatous hyperplasia), n = 5, 21.0 years, 64.4 pg/ml, 0.48 cm(2); grade 4 (microadenomas), n = 12, 23.3 years, 128.0 pg/ml, 0.87 cm(2); grade 5 (adenoma), n = 4, 24.9 years, 720.5 pg/ml, 2.1 cm(2).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Domperidone. Horse Diseases / diagnosis. Pituitary Diseases / veterinary. Pituitary Gland, Intermediate / pathology


2. Perraudin V, Delarue C, Lefebvre H, Do Rego JL, Vaudry H, Kuhn JM: Evidence for a role of vasopressin in the control of aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism: in vitro and in vivo studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1566-72
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  • [Title] Evidence for a role of vasopressin in the control of aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism: in vitro and in vivo studies.
  • CONTEXT: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulates steroid secretion from the normal human adrenal gland and some cortisol-producing adrenocortical tumors or hyperplasia through activation of the V(1a) receptor.
  • DESIGN: The design of the study included immunohistochemical, pharmacological, and molecular studies on aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), followed by a monocentric, crossover trial of the orally active V(1a) receptor antagonist, SR 49059, in a double blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled fashion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cross-Over Studies. Double-Blind Method. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Hormone Antagonists / pharmacology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Indoles / pharmacology. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pyrrolidines / pharmacology. RNA / biosynthesis. RNA / genetics. Receptors, Vasopressin / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16449345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / Receptors, Vasopressin; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; C1GL8G6G0O / relcovaptan
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3. Aydin A, Okmen E, Erdinler I, Sanli A, Cam N: Adrenal adenoma presenting with ventricular fibrillation. Tex Heart Inst J; 2005;32(1):85-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal adenoma presenting with ventricular fibrillation.
  • We report the case of a 58-year-old man who presented with ventricular fibrillation.
  • Computed tomography then revealed a right adrenal mass.
  • The patient was treated with surgical resection of the adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 15902830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-2347
  • [Journal-full-title] Texas Heart Institute journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tex Heart Inst J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC555832
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4. Yu R, Furmark L, Wong C: Cardiac abnormalities associated with pheochromocytoma and other adrenal tumors. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):10-6
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  • [Title] Cardiac abnormalities associated with pheochromocytoma and other adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: In this case-control study, we reviewed pathology records of patients seen at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 1997 and 2007; patients with adrenal or extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma and those with nonfunctioning benign or malignant adrenal tumors were identified.
  • Patients with functioning adrenal adenomas that secreted cortisol or aldosterone were excluded.
  • Clinical history, imaging, pathology, biochemical test results, electrocardiographic findings, and echocardiographic findings were compared between patients with pheochromocytoma and patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • RESULTS: The charts of 22 patients with pheochromocytoma and 35 patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors were included.
  • The average age of patients with pheochromocytoma was similar to that of control patients (51.9 +/- 3.9 years vs 60.2 +/- 2.5 years, respectively), as was the number of patients with known cardiovascular diseases (2 [9%] in the pheochromocytoma group vs 5 [14%] in the control group).
  • Coronary artery disease should be excluded in patients with significant ST-T changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Heart / physiopathology. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology. Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology. Case-Control Studies. Echocardiography. Electrocardiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Norepinephrine / blood. Normetanephrine / blood. Retrospective Studies. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / etiology. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19211391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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5. Murphy JJ, Tawfeeq M, Chang B, Nadel H: Early experience with PET/CT scan in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal neoplasms. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Dec;43(12):2186-92
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  • These included Burkitt's lymphoma (8), neuroblastoma (7), rhabdomyosarcoma (6), ovarian tumor (3), Wilms' tumor (2), hepatocellular carcinoma (2), paraganglioma (1), germ cell tumor (1), undifferentiated sarcoma (1), renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (1), adrenocortical carcinoma (1), inflammatory pseudotumor (1), and adrenal adenoma (1).
  • These include (1) preoperative staging, (2) selection of appropriate site for biopsy, (3) identification of occult metastatic disease, (4) follow-up for residual or recurrent disease, and (5) assessment of response to chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 19040932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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6. Sarzani R, Pietrucci F, Francioni M, Salvi F, Letizia C, D'Erasmo E, Dessì Fulgheri P, Rappelli A: Expression of potassium channel isoforms mRNA in normal human adrenals and aldosterone-secreting adenomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Feb;29(2):147-53
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  • [Title] Expression of potassium channel isoforms mRNA in normal human adrenals and aldosterone-secreting adenomas.
  • Increased aldosterone secretion has been found in a mouse lacking the KCNE1 gene which codes for a regulatory protein of the KCNQ1 gene product, forming the channel for the outward rectifying delayed K+ current.
  • Abnormalities in proteins regulating the K+ fluxes across membranes may be responsible for aldosterone-secreting adenomas (aldosteronomas) also because K+ channels are involved in cell growth.
  • Normal and adenomatous adrenal samples and NCI-H295 cell line were used to: a) evaluate KCNE1 and KCNQ1 gene expression, b) sequence the full length cDNAs of KCNE1 and both KCNQ1 isoforms.
  • These differently spliced KCNE1 and KCNQ1 mRNAs were expressed in adrenal tissue.
  • In contrast, KCNQ1 isoform 2 mRNA was not expressed in kidney control tissues and NCl-H295 cell line.
  • NCI-H295 cell line also had a significantly lower expression of KCNQ1 isoform 1 mRNA than normal adrenals and aldosteronomas.
  • This different expression pattern of KCNQ1 isoforms in NCI-H295 cell line with the lack of the mRNA for the dominant-negative KCNQ1 isoform 2 supports the involvement of voltage-gated K+ channel in cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. KCNQ1 Potassium Channel / metabolism. Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Kidney / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 16610241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KCNE1 protein, human; 0 / KCNQ1 Potassium Channel; 0 / KCNQ1 protein, human; 0 / Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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7. Maurea S, Imbriaco M, D'Angelillo M, Mollica C, Camera L, Salvatore M: Diagnostic accuracy of chemical-shift MR imaging to differentiate between adrenal adenomas and non adenoma adrenal lesions. Radiol Med; 2006 Aug;111(5):674-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic accuracy of chemical-shift MR imaging to differentiate between adrenal adenomas and non adenoma adrenal lesions.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of chemical-shift (CS) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the differential diagnosis of adenoma and nonadenoma adrenal masses.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 36 patients (9 men, 27 women, mean age 51.3+14.4 years) with unilateral (n=31) or bilateral (n=5) adrenal masses incidentally discovered during imaging examinations [ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT)] performed for other indications.
  • A total of 41 adrenal lesions were evaluated (mean diameter 3.0+2.2 cm).
  • Histology (n=19), biopsy (n=3) or clinical-imaging follow-up (n=19) demonstrated 29 adenomas, five pheochromocytomas, three cysts and four carcinomas.
  • MR images were qualitatively assessed for signal intensity of the adrenal mass relative to the liver on T1, T2, CS and T1-Gd scans; diagnostic criteria for adenomas were isointensity or hypointensity on both T1 and T2 scans, out-of-phase CS signal loss and mild transient enhancement after Gd.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CS MR imaging significantly improves characterization of adrenal masses compared with conventional T1-T2-weighted images, providing accuracy similar to that of the T1 sequence after Gd.
  • Therefore, the CS sequence is strongly recommended for MR study of adrenal masses, and its use might obviate the need for Gd administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Cysts / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16791464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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8. Soon PS, McDonald KL, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Oncologist; 2008 May;13(5):548-61
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  • [Title] Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenal tumors are common, with an estimated incidence of 7.3% in autopsy cases, while adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare, with an estimated prevalence of 4-12 per million population.
  • Because the prognoses for adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and ACCs are vastly different, it is important to be able to accurately differentiate the two tumor types.
  • Advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ACCs is essential for the development of more sensitive means of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in better clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) occur as a component of several hereditary tumor syndromes, which include the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1, Carney complex, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The adrenocorticotropic hormone-cAMP-protein kinase A and Wnt pathways are also implicated in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis, including results of comparative genomic hybridization, loss of heterozygosity, and microarray gene-expression profiling studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18515740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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9. Hahner S, Fassnacht M, Hammer F, Schammann M, Weismann D, Hansen IA, Allolio B: Evidence against a role of human airway trypsin-like protease--the human analogue of the growth-promoting rat adrenal secretory protease--in adrenal tumourigenesis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Jan;152(1):143-53
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  • [Title] Evidence against a role of human airway trypsin-like protease--the human analogue of the growth-promoting rat adrenal secretory protease--in adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: A serine protease from rat adrenal cortex was recently characterized and named adrenal secretory protease (AsP).
  • AsP is expressed in the adrenal cortex and is capable of cleaving pro-gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (1-76 N-terminus of pro-opiomelanocortin) into fragments that act as adrenal mitogens.
  • AsP may therefore play a crucial role in adrenal growth and tumourigenesis.
  • The aim of this study was to further characterize the human homologue of AsP and its possible role in adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • Further analysis revealed that the HAT gene is the human homologue of a long splice variant of AsP, which we recently described as rat airway trypsin-like serine protease 1.
  • In contrast to rodents, no short isoform of HAT was found in humans due to a stop codon in exon 6 which prevents the expression of a short isoform.
  • While high expression of HAT mRNA was found in the trachea and in the gastrointestinal tract, expression in the adrenal was only very weak.
  • We further investigated HAT expression in five normal adrenal glands, 15 adrenocortical adenomas (five hormonally inactive adenomas, five aldosterone-producing adenomas and five cortisol-producing adenomas), nine adrenocortical carcinomas, five phaeochromocytomas and two adrenal hyperplasias.
  • Weak HAT expression was detectable in only two out of five normal adrenal glands, in one out of twenty-four adrenocortical tumours and four out of five phaeochromocytomas.
  • However, the expression in the adrenal tissue was several orders of magnitude lower than in the trachea.
  • In addition, we could not detect any HAT transcripts in a sample of fetal adrenal.
  • CONCLUSION: Gene structure and tissue distribution of HAT, the human homologue of the rat adrenal secretory protease AsP, reveal major interspecies differences.
  • The observation of very low expression levels in normal adrenal tissue and adrenocortical tumours casts doubt about a role for HAT in the physiological and pathological growth of adrenocortical cells.

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  • (PMID = 15762198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / human airway trypsin-like protease
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10. Thorin-Savouré A, Tissier-Rible F, Guignat L, Pellerin A, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Lefebvre H: Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4924-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis.
  • CONTEXT: In patients with a history of extraadrenal tumor, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Detection of the malignant tissue is a difficult challenge when metastasis occurs in an adrenal adenoma, forming a collision/composite tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We report two patients with adrenal collision/composite tumors referred to two French university hospitals.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: Two patients with histories of mammary and sigmoid carcinomas, respectively, presented with adrenal mass discovered 8 and 3 yr after surgical removal of the primary tumor.
  • In the two cases, computerized tomographic scan showed that the adrenal tumor contained two components with low and high attenuation values, respectively.
  • Uptake of iodocholesterol by the adrenal tumor in case 1 and elevated plasma ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone values in case 2 strongly argued for the diagnosis of primary adrenocortical tumors.
  • Enlargement of the adrenal mass during follow-up in case 1 and association of the adrenal lesion with a hepatic mass in case 2 led to adrenalectomy.
  • In both cases, histological examination of the tumor demonstrated the presence of metastatic carcinoma tissue in an adrenocortical adenoma, allowing classification of the neoplasia as a collision/composite tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations show that collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland formed by carcinoma metastasis in benign adenomas are a pitfall of iodocholesterol scintigraphy and/or plasma steroid assays to exclude the diagnosis of adrenal metastasis.
  • Conversely, computerized tomographic scan is a useful tool for the distinction between the benign and malignant tissues in adrenal collision/composite tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15914530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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11. Waalkes MP, Liu J, Diwan BA: Transplacental arsenic carcinogenesis in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2007 Aug 1;222(3):271-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood.
  • Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct.
  • Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes.

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  • (PMID = 17306315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC005488-21; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Estrogens; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; N712M78A8G / Arsenic; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS28781; NLM/ PMC1995036
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12. Boscaro M, Ronconi V, Turchi F, Giacchetti G: Diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Aug;15(4):332-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: It is now widely accepted that primary aldosteronism represents the most common form of endocrine hypertension and its early diagnosis is crucial for hypertensive patients who can be cured by the surgical removal of an aldosterone-secreting adenoma or benefit from a specific medical treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.
  • Recent evidence indicates that hyperaldosteronism is indeed associated with detrimental consequences on cardiovascular system, renal function and glucose metabolism.
  • Finally, although it is technically difficult and the cut-off levels for acceptance of the success are not standardized, the subtype forms should be identified using a selective adrenal venous sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18594273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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13. Pomara G, Cappello F, Barzon L, Morelli G, Rappa F, Benvegna L, Giannarini G, Palù G, Selli C: Cytomegalovirus and BK-Virus co-infection of a clinically non-functioning adrenal adenoma: innocent bystanders or new pathogenetic agents? Eur J Histochem; 2006 Apr-Jun;50(2):131-2
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  • [Title] Cytomegalovirus and BK-Virus co-infection of a clinically non-functioning adrenal adenoma: innocent bystanders or new pathogenetic agents?
  • We report a case of a 64-year-old woman who underwent left adrenalectomy with removal of a 8,5 cm clinically non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma and a 4-cm myelolipoma.
  • Molecular testing for viral infection demonstrated the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA sequences in the adrenal adenoma, but not in the myelolipoma (confirmed by immunohistochemistry).
  • Moreover, the adrenal adenoma was also positive for parvovirus B19, and both adrenal tumor samples were positive for polyomavirus BK (BKV) and adenovirus DNA sequences.
  • This is the first report of co-infection of an adrenocortical adenoma by CMV and BKV.
  • The role of these viruses in adrenal tumorigenesis was postulated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. BK Virus / genetics. Cytomegalovirus / genetics. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Polyomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16864124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-760X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of histochemistry : EJH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Histochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Mohaupt MG: The role of adrenal steroidogenesis in arterial hypertension. Endocr Dev; 2008;13:133-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of adrenal steroidogenesis in arterial hypertension.
  • Adrenal aldosterone production, the major regulator of salt and water retention, is discussed with respect to hypertensive diseases.
  • Physiological aldosterone production is tightly regulated, either stimulated or inhibited, in the adrenal zona glomerulosa by both circulating factors and/or by locally derived endothelial factors.
  • Excessive aldosterone production is seen in adenomatous disease of the adrenals.
  • The balance between stimulatory/proliferative and antagonistic signaling is disturbed by expression of altered receptor subtypes in the adenomas.
  • Increased aldosterone production without a detectable adenoma is the most frequent form of primary aldosteronism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Hypertension / etiology. Steroids / biosynthesis. Steroids / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18493138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-7082
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoids; 0 / Steroids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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15. Nicol MR, Papacleovoulou G, Evans DB, Penning TM, Strachan MW, Advani A, Johnson SJ, Quinton R, Mason JI: Estrogen biosynthesis in human H295 adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):115-20
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  • [Title] Estrogen biosynthesis in human H295 adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy and feminizing symptoms secondary to adrenal estrogen-secretion are extremely rare.
  • The direct secretion of estradiol by adrenocortical tumors requires, in addition to the expression of aromatase (CYP19), the expression of one or more of the reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.
  • The expression of CYP19 transcripts and protein were markedly induced in the H295 adrenocortical carcinoma cell line after treatment with either forskolin or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).
  • Western immunoblotting of an estrogen-secreting adrenal carcinoma revealed notable levels of both aromatase and AKR1C3 expression while an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma lacked aromatase expression and showed a reduced level of AKR1C3 expression.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the carcinoma-bearing adrenal revealed localization of AKR1C3 not only in the tumor but also principally in the zona reticularis of the normal adrenal tissue.
  • Adrenal aromatase and AKR1C3 expression therefore appear to be features of adrenocortical malignancies that are associated with biosynthesis of active estrogen.

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  • (PMID = 19026713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090744-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090744; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090744-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA90744
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; EC 1.1.- / 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.- / AKR1C3 protein, human; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.145 / 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II; EC 1.1.1.145 / Progesterone Reductase; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS99072; NLM/ PMC2673546
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16. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1333-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls.
  • The adrenal gland is involved by a range of neoplasms, including primary and metastatic malignant tumors; however, the most common tumor detected is the incidental benign adenoma.
  • Although computed tomographic (CT) findings will not always yield a definitive diagnosis, attention to these findings provides a road map to guide image interpretation.
  • Adenomas typically demonstrate rapid washout, which is defined as an absolute percentage washout (APW) of more than 60% and a relative percentage washout (RPW) of more than 40% on delayed images.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma typically has an RPW of less than 40%; however, large size and heterogeneity are more reliable indicators of the diagnosis than are washout values.
  • Washout characteristics of pheochromocytoma are variable; in conjunction with high levels of dynamic enhancement, pheochromocytomas may mimic adenoma (ie, APW > 60%, RPW > 40%).
  • After contrast material administration, metastases usually demonstrate slower washout on delayed images (APW < 60%, RPW < 40%) than do adenomas, although hypervascular metastases may enhance similarly to pheochromocytoma.
  • Finally, a number of nonadrenal pathologic conditions have been reported to mimic adrenal masses at CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19755599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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17. Slee PH, Verzijlbergen FJ, van Leeuwen JH, van der Waal RI: CASE 2. Acquired hypertrichosis: a rare paraneoplastic syndrome in various cancers. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jan 20;24(3):523-4
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Hypertrichosis / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Colectomy. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16421430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Alevizaki M, Stratakis CA: Multiple endocrine neoplasias: advances and challenges for the future. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):1-4
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  • Several important advances have been made over the last 2 years, since the last international workshop on multiple endocrine neoplasias (MENs) that was held in Marseilles, France (MEN2006).
  • The series of articles that are included in this issue summarize the most important of these advances as they were presented in Delphi, Greece, during the 11th International Workshop on MENs, September 25-27, 2008 (MEN2008).
  • This editorial summarizes some of these advances: the identification of the AIP, and the PDE11A and PDE8B genes by genome-wide association (GWA) studies as predisposing genes for pituitary and adrenal tumours, respectively, the discovery of p27 mutations in a new form of MEN similar to MEN type 1 (MEN 1) that is now known as MEN 4, the molecular investigations of Carney triad (CT), a disorder that associates paragangliomas (PGLs), gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GISTs), and pulmonary chondromas (PCH) with pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical adenomas and other lesions, and the molecular elucidation of the association of GISTs with paragangliomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome) that is now known to be because of SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD mutations.
  • Indeed, new advances in the preventive diagnosis and molecular treatment of MEN 1 and MEN 2, respectively, continued unabated, and an update on this front was also presented at MEN2008 and is included in this issue.

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  • (PMID = 19522821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2796
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD000642-10; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01-HD-000642-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307447; NLM/ PMC3138202
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19. Tauchmanovà L, Pivonello R, De Martino MC, Rusciano A, De Leo M, Ruosi C, Mainolfi C, Lombardi G, Salvatore M, Colao A: Effects of sex steroids on bone in women with subclinical or overt endogenous hypercortisolism. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Sep;157(3):359-66
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  • PATIENTS: Seventy-one consecutive women were enrolled: 36 with overt hypercortisolism (26 with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma and 10 with cortisol-secreting adrenal tumor) and 35 with subclinical hypercortisolism due to adrenal incidentalomas.
  • METHODS: At diagnosis, we measured serum cortisol, FSH, LH, estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione and DHEAS, and urinary cortisol excretion.

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  • (PMID = 17766720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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20. Rossi GP, Sticchi D, Giuliani L, Bernante P, Zavattiero S, Pessina AC, Nussdorfer GG: Adiponectin receptor expression in the human adrenal cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas. Int J Mol Med; 2006 Jun;17(6):975-80
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  • [Title] Adiponectin receptor expression in the human adrenal cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived circulating peptide that plays an important role in adipose tissue metabolism, insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease.
  • The adrenal gland, by secreting glucorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones, intervenes in cardiovascular and glucose metabolism regulation and is surrounded by adipose tissue.
  • Hence, we investigated the hypothesis that adiponectin receptor types 1 and 2 (adipo-R1 and adipo-R2) are expressed in the human adrenal gland and in adrenocortical zona glomerulosa cell-derived aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) tissue.
  • We used real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to demonstrate the mRNA of adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 in 10 histologically normal human adrenal cortexes that were obtained from patients with renal cancer undergoing nephrectomy with ipsilateral adrenalectomy and in 10 APAs.
  • Results consistently showed the expression of specific mRNAs of adiponectin receptors in all histologically normal human adrenal cortexes and APAs.
  • This novel finding suggests that adiponectin could play a regulatory role in adrenocortical function and growth in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16685404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADIPOR1 protein, human; 0 / ADIPOR2 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Adiponectin; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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21. Assié G, Auzan C, Gasc JM, Baviera E, Balaton A, Elalouf JM, Jeunemaitre X, Plouin PF, Corvol P, Clauser E: Steroidogenesis in aldosterone-producing adenoma revisited by transcriptome analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Dec;90(12):6638-49
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  • [Title] Steroidogenesis in aldosterone-producing adenoma revisited by transcriptome analysis.
  • DESIGN: Genomewide gene expression was compared in two tissues differentiated for aldosterone production, both nonstimulated by circulating angiotensin II and differing in their autonomy to produce aldosterone: aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and its adjacent dissected zona glomerulosa (ZG).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Steroids / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16204365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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22. Novitsky YW, Kercher KW, Rosen MJ, Cobb WS, Jyothinagaram S, Heniford BT: Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for lateralizing nodular hyperplasia. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1009-16; discussion 1016-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia (NAH) may mimic the biochemical characteristics of an aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • All patients underwent adrenal venous sampling (94% successfully), which revealed an average adjusted aldosterone ratio of 17.6 (range, 1.2 to 75.9).
  • When lateralization of aldosterone production is noted, laparoscopic adrenalectomy provides significant clinical improvement even in patients with a pathologic diagnosis of NAH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Hypertension / prevention & control. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16360385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Wagner S, Kiupel M, Peterson RA 2nd, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB: Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Pathol; 2008 Jul;45(4):439-42
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  • [Title] Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).
  • Whereas the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets produce only limited amounts of androgenic steroids, adrenocortical neoplasms that arise in neutered ferrets typically secrete androgens or their derivative, estrogen.
  • The 17,20-lyase activity of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) must increase to permit androgen biosynthesis in neoplastic adrenal tissue.
  • We screened ferret adrenocortical tumor specimens for expression of cytochrome b(5) (cyt b(5)), an allosteric regulator that selectively enhances the 17,20-lyase activity of P450c17.
  • Cyt b(5) immunoreactivity was evident in 24 of 25 (96%) adrenocortical adenomas/carcinomas from ferrets with signs of ectopic sex steroid production.
  • Normal adrenocortical cells lacked cyt b(5), which may account for the low production of adrenal androgens in healthy ferrets.
  • We concluded that cyt b(5) is upregulated during gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia and is a marker of androgen synthetic potential in these tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18587089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574-09; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK52574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9035-39-6 / Cytochromes b5
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS45245; NLM/ PMC2497446
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24. Tsunoda K, Abe K, Yamada M, Kato T, Yaoita H, Taguma Y, Goto Y, Ioridani N: A case of primary aldosteronism associated with renal artery stenosis and preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Hypertens Res; 2008 Aug;31(8):1669-75
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  • [Title] A case of primary aldosteronism associated with renal artery stenosis and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • We identified a left adrenal tumor, left renal atrophy, and left renal artery stenosis (RAS) in a 52-year-old man by MRI/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) during evaluation of hypertension.
  • An excessive response of aldosterone and cortisol to adorenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was found upon selective sampling of the left adrenal vein.
  • Selective renal venous sampling showed a left/right renal venous PRA ratio of 1.7.
  • We diagnosed this patient as having aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma (APA) associated with renovascular hypertension (RVH) and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • As an initial treatment, percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty was performed.
  • The renal dysfuntion that occurred prior to treatment seemed to prevent complete normalization of blood pressure.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension, Renal / etiology. Renal Artery Obstruction / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Angiography. Blood Pressure. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged


25. Szentirmai O, Winston KR, Jedlicka P, Lum GM: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a child with systemic hypertension and adrenal adenoma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2007 Oct;107(4 Suppl):328-9
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  • [Title] Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a child with systemic hypertension and adrenal adenoma. Case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Basal Ganglia / blood supply. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Hypertension / complications. Hypertension / etiology


26. Ronchi CL, Ferrante E, Rizzo E, Giavoli C, Verrua E, Bergamaschi S, Lania AG, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A: Long-term basal and dynamic evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in acromegalic patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Oct;69(4):608-12
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  • [Title] Long-term basal and dynamic evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in acromegalic patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Long-term effects of trans-naso-sphenoidal surgery (TNS) or long-acting somatostatin analogs (SSA) on the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been poorly investigated.
  • Aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis integrity during the follow-up in patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and preserved HPA function post-TNS or prior SSA.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / physiopathology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Basal Metabolism / physiology. Delayed-Action Preparations. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Somatostatin / administration & dosage. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18410544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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27. Volpe C, Enberg U, Sjögren A, Wahrenberg H, Jacobsson H, Törring O, Hamberger B, Thorén M: The role of adrenal scintigraphy in the preoperative management of primary aldosteronism. Scand J Surg; 2008;97(3):248-53
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  • [Title] The role of adrenal scintigraphy in the preoperative management of primary aldosteronism.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Differentiation between the two major subgroups of primary aldosteronism, bilateral hyperplasia and aldosterone producing adenoma is essential since therapy in the former is medical and in the latter surgical.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of adrenocortical scintigraphy in the management of primary aldosteronism.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: [131I] norcholesterol (NP-59) scintigraphy with dexamethasone suppression for subclassification and lateralization of primary aldosteronism was evaluated in 49 patients with long-term follow-up after diagnosis and treatment.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with the diagnosis of aldosterone producing adenoma were operated with adrenalectomy.
  • Fourteen patients with a probable diagnosis of bilateral hyperplasia had normal scintigraphies.
  • Scintigraphy may be used as an adjunct in cases where adrenal venous sampling is inconclusive.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenalectomy / methods. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnostic imaging. Preoperative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18812275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1457-4969
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of surgery : SJS : official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Lad SP, Patil CG, Laws ER Jr, Katznelson L: The role of inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the diagnostic localization of Cushing's disease. Neurosurg Focus; 2007;23(3):E2
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  • [Title] The role of inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the diagnostic localization of Cushing's disease.
  • Cushing's syndrome can present a complex problem of differential diagnosis.
  • Of cases in which hypercortisolemia results from an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent process, approximately 80% are due to a pituitary adenoma (Cushing's disease [CD]), 10% are due to adrenal lesions, and the remaining 10% are secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion.
  • For patients with CD, surgical removal of the pituitary adenoma is the treatment of choice.
  • A number of other techniques are discussed including sampling from the cavernous sinus, the jugular vein, and multiple sites to aid the diagnosis and lateralization of ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Petrosal Sinus Sampling / methods. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17961020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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29. Hunger-Battefeld W, Gajda M, Hansch A, Mandecka A, Müller UA, Wolf G: [Diagnostic pitfalls with Cushing's syndrome]. Internist (Berl); 2010 Mar;51 Suppl 1:293-302
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  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare diagnosis and may present with hormone secretion.
  • A histological differentiation between an adrenal cortical adenoma and carcinoma can be very difficult.
  • However, a fast diagnosis including staging and complete surgical resection is pivotal for the prognosis of an adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Metastasing adrenal cortical carcinoma should be treated with a mitotane based chemotherapy, and inclusion in the "firm-act study" is highly recommended.
  • The present case report demonstrates the diagnostic pitfalls in a female patients with Cushing's syndrome who suffered from metastasing adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Obesity, Morbid / etiology. Weight Gain

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  • (PMID = 20012255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1289
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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30. Garduno-García Jde J, Reza-Albarrán A, Márquez MA, Pérez FJ: [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Nov;57(9):421-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma adrenal como etiología de síndrome de Cushing: veinte años de experiencia en un centro mexicano de tercer nivel.
  • Adrenal adenomas are an uncommon cause of adult CS.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcome of patients with CS caused by adrenal adenomas in a referral center.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional observational study of patients with a diagnosis of CS caused by adrenal adenomas managed in our center over a 20-year period.
  • Our clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of this entity was analyzed.
  • The results of dynamic testing with dexamethasone suggested adrenal adenoma in 100% of the patients.
  • Seventy percent of adenomas were found in the left gland.
  • ACTH measurement in our center was not reliable in identifying adrenal adenoma as a cause of CS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20863774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2021
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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31. Miller FH, Wang Y, McCarthy RJ, Yaghmai V, Merrick L, Larson A, Berggruen S, Casalino DD, Nikolaidis P: Utility of diffusion-weighted MRI in characterization of adrenal lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Feb;194(2):W179-85
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  • [Title] Utility of diffusion-weighted MRI in characterization of adrenal lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for characterizing adrenal lesions and determine if diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can distinguish lipid-rich from lipid-poor adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 160 adrenal lesions in 156 patients (96 women and 60 men; mean age, 63 years).
  • ADCs and signal intensity (SI) decrease on chemical shift imaging were measured in adrenal lesions with a wide variety of pathologies.
  • Lipid-rich and lipid-poor adenomas were identified by unenhanced CT.
  • RESULTS: ADCs of adrenal malignancies (median, 1.67 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; interquartile range, 1.41-1.84 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) were not different compared with those of benign lesions (1.61 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; 1.27-1.96 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; p > 0.05).
  • Cysts (2.93 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; 2.70-3.09 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) showed higher ADCs than the remaining adrenal lesions (p < 0.05).
  • The median ADCs of lipid-rich adenomas did not differ from those of lipid-poor ones (p > 0.05).
  • The CT attenuation had no negative or positive correlation with the ADCs of adrenal adenomas (r = -0.05, p = 0.97).
  • CONCLUSION: Unlike lesion size and percentage decrease in SI, the ADCs were not useful in distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal lesions.
  • Lipid-poor adenomas could not be distinguished from lipid-rich adenomas and all other nonfatty lesions of the adrenal gland with DWI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Lipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20093571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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32. Ofei F, Darko R, Appiah-Kusi J, Aduful H, Baddoo H, Adu-Gyamfi Y, Tettey Y, Gyasi R, Aleksenko L, Yeboah E, Arc-Hampong E, Yeboah A, Ogoe E: Surgically correctable adrenal-dependent hypertension: a report of five cases. Ghana Med J; 2007 Jun;41(2):82-7
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  • [Title] Surgically correctable adrenal-dependent hypertension: a report of five cases.
  • Such patients include young individuals, those with difficult-to-treat hypertension and those presenting with symptoms, clinical signs and/or laboratory parameters well-known to be associated with Cushing's syndrome, Conn's syndrome or phaeochromocytoma.This paper reports on 5 patients identified over a 2-year period with various hormonally-active adrenal adenomas causing hypertension in an environment where, hitherto, the occurrence of these conditions was generally thought to be rare.
  • Aspects of the patients' histories, examination and laboratory findings that drew attention to the possibility of the diagnosis in each case are highlighted, as are the confirmatory investigations and management methods used by a multidisciplinary team of medical practitioners.
  • The clinical outcome with appropriate treatment of adrenal-related hypertension is good and can result in significant cost savings in the long term.

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  • (PMID = 17925848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-9560
  • [Journal-full-title] Ghana medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ghana Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ghana
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1976300
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Conn's syndrome / Cushing's syndrome / Secondary hypertension / adrenal adenoma / phaeochromocytoma / primary hyperaldosteronism
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33. Eller-Vainicher C, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Torlontano M, Coletti F, Iorio L, Cuttitta A, Ambrosio A, Vicentini L, Carnevale V, Beck-Peccoz P, Arosio M, Ambrosi B, Scillitani A, Chiodini I: Post-surgical hypocortisolism after removal of an adrenal incidentaloma: is it predictable by an accurate endocrinological work-up before surgery? Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):91-9
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  • [Title] Post-surgical hypocortisolism after removal of an adrenal incidentaloma: is it predictable by an accurate endocrinological work-up before surgery?
  • OBJECTIVE: Few data are available regarding the need of steroid substitutive therapy after unilateral adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma (AI).
  • It is unknown whether, before surgery, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis secretion parameters can predict post-surgical hypocortisolism.
  • A steroid substitutive therapy is indicated after unilateral adrenalectomy for SH or size of the adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 19797503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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34. Tadjine M, Lampron A, Ouadi L, Bourdeau I: Frequent mutations of beta-catenin gene in sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Feb;68(2):264-70
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  • [Title] Frequent mutations of beta-catenin gene in sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Molecular alterations remain largely unknown in most sporadic adrenocortical tumours and hyperplasias.
  • In our previous work, we demonstrated the differential expression of several Wnt/beta-catenin signalling-related genes implicated in ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasias (AIMAH).
  • To better understand the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in adrenocortical tumours, we performed mutational analysis of the beta-catenin gene.
  • METHODS: We studied 53 human adrenocortical samples (33 adenomas, 4 carcinomas, 13 AIMAH, 3 ACTH-dependent adrenal hyperplasias) and the human adrenocortical cancer cell line NCI-H295R.
  • RESULTS: No mutations were detected in adrenocortical carcinomas, AIMAH and ACTH-dependent hyperplasias.
  • Genetic alterations were found in 5 (15%) out of 33 adenomas: three cortisol-secreting adenomas, one aldosterone-secreting adenoma and one nonfunctional adenoma.
  • In addition, cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin was observed in mutated adenomas by immunohistochemistry.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Activating mutations of exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene are frequent in adrenocortical adenomas, and further characterization of the Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway should lead to a better understanding of adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. beta Catenin / genetics. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17854394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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35. Plouin PF, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Bertagna X: [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):73-82; discussion 83-5
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  • [Title] [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Le réseau national COMETE sur les tumeurs de la surrénale.
  • Patients with adrenal tumors are at risk of the consequences of tumor growth (including metastasis) and of hormone hypersecretion.
  • Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas arise from the adrenal medulla and produce catecholamines; they may be benign or malignant, and sporadic or familial.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas arise from the adrenal cortex.
  • Patients with adrenocortical tumors may develop ACTH-independent hypercortisolism, mineralocorticoid excess, and androgen hypersecretion.
  • In 1993, the heads of these departments created the COMETE network (COrtico et MEdullo-surrénale, les Tumeurs Endocrines).
  • The overall objective of COMETE is to promote basic and clinical research into adrenal tumors.
  • This implies - in cross-sectional studies: collecting adrenal tumors, maintaining a collection of tumor and leukocyte DNA samples, keeping a computerized record of relevant biological and clinical data, and distributing biological samples and bioclinical information anonymously to collaborating research laboratories; in prospective studies: ensuring indefinite follow-up of patients with tumors at risk of malignancy or recurrence, which means establishing and maintaining a cohort of patients with large adrenocortical tumors or carcinomas anda cohort of patients with pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Societies, Medical / organization & administration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. France. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Research

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  • (PMID = 18663983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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36. Rossi GP, Pessina AC: Blood pressure outcome of adrenalectomy in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism with or without unilateral adenoma. J Hypertens; 2009 Mar;27(3):656-7; author reply 657-8
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  • [Title] Blood pressure outcome of adrenalectomy in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism with or without unilateral adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Hypertension / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adult. Aldosterone / urine. Blood Pressure. Cohort Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome


37. Marcondes JA, Curi DD, Matsuzaki CN, Barcellos CR, Rocha MP, Hayashida SA, Baracat EC: Ovarian hyperthecosis in the context of an adrenal incidentaloma in a postmenopausal woman. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2008 Oct;52(7):1184-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian hyperthecosis in the context of an adrenal incidentaloma in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma is not infrequent and can be found in hirsute women.
  • We report a case of a 54-year-old woman with amenorrhea and hirsutism of abrupt onset and mild signs of virilization that had an adrenal incidentaloma coexisting with ovarian hyperthecosis.
  • Pelvic ultrasonography disclosed a right ovary with 10.3 cc and a left ovary with 9.8 cc without nodules or cysts, and computerized tomography of the abdomen disclosed a normal right adrenal gland.
  • On the left adrenal gland a solid nodule with 0.8 cm was seen.
  • In view of a suppression of testosterone by GnRHa, the patient was submitted to a hystero-oophorectomy by laparoscopy.
  • No hilar cell hyperplasia was seen.
  • In conclusion, the presence of an adrenal mass in a hirsute woman can lead to a wrong diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Hirsutism / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19082308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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38. Libé R, Fratticci A, Coste J, Tissier F, Horvath A, Ragazzon B, Rene-Corail F, Groussin L, Bertagna X, Raffin-Sanson ML, Stratakis CA, Bertherat J: Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) and genetic predisposition to adrenocortical tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jun 15;14(12):4016-24
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  • [Title] Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) and genetic predisposition to adrenocortical tumors.
  • PURPOSE: We have reported previously nonsense inactivating mutations of the phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) gene in patients with micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia and Cushing syndrome.
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of somatic or germ-line PDE11A mutations in various types of adrenocortical tumors: ACTH-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH), adrenocortical adenoma (ACA), and adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: PDE11A was sequenced in 117 adrenocortical tumors and 192 controls subjects; immunohistochemistry for PDE11A and tumor cyclic AMP levels were studied in a subgroup of adrenocortical tumors.
  • RESULTS: One PDE11A inactivating mutation (R307X) was found in one ACA, 22 germ-line missense variants (18.8%) were found in adrenocortical tumors, and only 11 missense variants (5.7%) were found in controls.
  • By comparing the common mutations, a higher frequency of mutations in adrenocortical tumors than in age/sex-matched controls were observed [16% versus 10% in ACC, 19% versus 10% in ACA, and 24% versus 9% in AIMAH; odds ratio (OR), 3.53; P = 0.05].
  • Somatic DNA from adrenocortical tumors with missense variants showed a wild-type allelic loss.
  • A significant difference between ACC and controls was observed for a polymorphism in exon 6 (E421E; OR, 2.1; P = 0.03) and three associated polymorphisms located in intron 10-exon 11-intron 11 (OR, 0.5; P = 0.01).
  • In AIMAH/ACA, cyclic AMP levels were higher than in normal adrenals and decreased PDE11A immunostaining was present in adrenocortical tumors with PDE11A variants.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present investigation of a large cohort of adrenocortical tumors suggests that PDE11A sequence defects predispose to a variety of lesions (beyond micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia) and may contribute to the development of these tumors in the general population.

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  • (PMID = 18559625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS306040; NLM/ PMC3134879
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39. Paik KY: [Paraganglioma of the pancreas metastasized to the adrenal gland: a case report]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2009 Dec;54(6):409-12
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  • [Title] [Paraganglioma of the pancreas metastasized to the adrenal gland: a case report].
  • Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from the neural crest, which includes tissues such as the adrenal medulla, carotid and aortic body, organs of Zuckerkandl, and other unnamed paraganglia.
  • We report our experience of this rare disease.
  • A 70-year old female patient admitted for a pancreas tail mass detected by computed tomography (CT) scan checked for vague left flank pain.
  • A well defined ovoid shape mass in left adrenal gland was suggested adenoma.
  • Microscopic examination with pancreas and adrenal gland revealed that the cells were arranged in a characteristic Zellballen pattern.
  • On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed the tumor as a paraganglioma of the pancreas and adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aged. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Female. Humans. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20026898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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40. Contesse V, Reznik Y, Louiset E, Duparc C, Cartier D, Sicard F, Laquerriere A, Parmentier F, Kuhn JM, Vaudry H, Lefebvre H: Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2843-50
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  • [Title] Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies.
  • Two patients with incidentally discovered adrenocortical adenomas underwent a series of pharmacological and physiological tests after pretreatment with dexamethasone.
  • In the two cases, 5-HT stimulated cortisol secretion from tumor cells with increased efficacy and/or potency to activate steroidogenesis by comparison with normal adrenocortical cells.
  • In the two adenoma tissues, immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of 5-HT-like immunoreactivity within clusters of steroidogenic cells, suggesting that 5-HT acted through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism to stimulate steroidogenesis.
  • In conclusion, this study provides the first observation of adrenocortical cortisol-producing adenomas hypersensitive in vivo and in vitro to serotonergic agonists.
  • Our results also show that cortisol-producing adenomas can express simultaneously several illegitimate receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Serotonin / pharmacology

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  • [CommentIn] Horm Metab Res. 2005 Aug;37(8):528-9 [16138268.001]
  • (PMID = 15705918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 158165-40-3 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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41. Wang WJ, Zhang F, Xu GX, Chen C: [Calcium-binding protein secretagogin is a novel neuroendocrine marker]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Sep;39(9):627-8
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21092592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins
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42. Emeriau D, Vallee V, Tauzin-Fin P, Ballanger P: [Morbidity of unilateral and bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy according to the indication. Report of a series of 100 consecutive cases]. Prog Urol; 2005 Sep;15(4):626-31
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  • [Title] [Morbidity of unilateral and bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy according to the indication. Report of a series of 100 consecutive cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Morbidité de la surrénalectomie laparoscopique uni et bilatérale selon l'indication: a propos de 100 cas consécutifs.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the reference technique for the treatment of adrenal tumours.
  • Histology revealed 25 Conn adenomas, 20 cortisol-secreting adenomas and Cushing syndrome, 22 phaeochromocytomas, 20 metastases, 2 adrenal cortical adenomas, and 11 incidentalomas.
  • Four patients in the group with secondary adrenal tumours were alive without recurrence 18, 20, 44 and 48 months after adrenalectomy.
  • Antihypertensive treatment was stopped in 16 of the 25 patients operated for Conn adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 16459675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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43. Legmann P: [Adrenal incidentaloma: management approaches: CT - MRI]. J Radiol; 2009 Mar;90(3 Pt 2):426-43
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma: management approaches: CT - MRI].
  • The adrenal gland may be affected by several pathologies, and the detection of an adrenal nodule may occur during the work-up of a biological abnormality, oncologic work-up, or be incidental.
  • Cross-sectional imaging has had a great impact on the diagnostic work-up of adrenal nodules.
  • CT, without and with intravenous contrast, is the first line imaging study for evaluation of adrenal nodules.
  • A spontaneous density below 10 HU confirms the benign nature of a nodule.
  • When lesions cannot be characterized, postcontrast CT or MR imaging, including in and out of phase imaging, may allow diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / radiography. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Ewing / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Algorithms. Biopsy. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / radiography. Hematoma / diagnosis. Hematoma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / radiography


44. Schaefer S, Meyer S, Brueck CC, Weber M, Luedecke D, Wagner HJ, Kann PH: Sarcoidosis following Cushing's syndrome: A report of two cases and review of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Mar;118(3):147-50
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  • In rare cases, the treatment of Cushing's syndrome may result in unmasking or aggravation of diseases responsive to glucocorticoid medication.
  • A 32 year-old female showed cutaneous sarcoidosis, arthralgia, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and elevation of angiotensin-converting enzyme and interleukin 2-receptor concentrations after traumatic adrenal bleeding, which ceased formerly undiagnosed hypercortisolism caused by an adrenal adenoma.
  • Skin affections were present and suggestive for the diagnosis in all reported cases.
  • As some cases are probably missed when skin affections are lacking, a more frequent evaluation of patients after Cushing's syndrome for the possible diagnosis of sarcoidosis might be necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Sarcoidosis / etiology. Skin Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arthralgia / diagnosis. Arthralgia / etiology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis. Lymphatic Diseases / etiology. Male. Mediastinal Diseases / diagnosis. Mediastinal Diseases / etiology. Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / analysis. Receptors, Interleukin-2 / analysis

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.
  • (PMID = 20162506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-2; EC 3.4.15.1 / Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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45. Shin NY, Kim MJ, Chung JJ, Chung YE, Choi JY, Park YN: The differential imaging features of fat-containing tumors in the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneum: the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Korean J Radiol; 2010 May-Jun;11(3):333-45
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  • Some of these fat-containing lesions, such as liposarcoma and retroperitoneal teratoma, have to be resected, although resection can be deferred for others, such as adrenal adenoma, myelolipoma, angiomyolipoma, ovarian teratoma, and lipoma, until the lesions become large or symptomatic.
  • Identifying factors such as whether the fat is macroscopic or microscopic within the lesion, the origin of the lesions, and the presence of combined calcification is important for narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • The development and wide-spread use of modern imaging modalities make identification of these factors easier so narrowing the differential diagnosis is possible.
  • Classifying lesions in terms of the necessity of performing surgical treatment can provide important information to clinicians, and this is the one of a radiologist's key responsibilities.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Fat / pathology. Abdominal Fat / radiography. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Cavity / pathology. Peritoneal Cavity / radiography. Peritoneal Diseases / pathology. Peritoneal Diseases / radiography. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Retroperitoneal Space / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20461188.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 35
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2864861
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Abdominal cavity / Magnetic resonance (MR) / Neoplasm, adipose tissue / Retroperitoneal space / Tomography, spiral computed
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46. Rockwell J, Monroe WE, Tromblee TC: Spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism in a dog after a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med; 2005 May-Jun;19(3):299-300
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  • [Title] Spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism in a dog after a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism.

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  • [CommentOn] J Vet Intern Med. 2005 Mar-Apr;19(2):255-8 [15822572.001]
  • (PMID = 15954541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Riedl M, Maier C, Zettinig G, Nowotny P, Schima W, Luger A: Long term control of hypercortisolism with fluconazole: case report and in vitro studies. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Apr;154(4):519-24
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  • Disease progression was slow and no side effects occurred.
  • IN VITRO RESULTS: Fluconazole in a concentration of 500 microM nearly abolished corticosterone production over 24 h from the adrenal adenoma cell line Y-1 (8.6 +/- 0.5% compared with control, P < 0.0001) and significantly reduced corticosterone production in concentrations of 50 microM (48.3 +/- 1.9% vs. control, P < 0.0001) and 5 microM (80.5 +/- 8.5% vs. control, P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate for the first time that fluconazole normalises cortisol concentrations in vivo in a patient with Cushing's syndrome with adrenal carcinoma and inhibit glucocorticoid production in vitro in a cell line.

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  • (PMID = 16556713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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48. Papotti M, Volante M, Duregon E, Delsedime L, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Rosai J: Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jul;34(7):973-83
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior.
  • Myxoid changes have been rarely reported both in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • The recent observation by our group of an adrenal myxoid tumor with morphologically borderline features, but aggressive clinical behavior prompted us to review a series of 196 adrenocortical lesions, comprising 122 carcinomas and 74 adenomas, to define the morphologic, phenotypical and clinical characteristics of adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features.
  • Fourteen cases, including 12 carcinomas and 2 borderline tumors, formed the basis of this report, and were characterized by a variably abundant myxoid component (from 5% to 90% of tumor) and 2 distinct cellular growth patterns: the first (10 cases), mostly associated with a predominant myxoid stromal component, was made of small cells with mild atypia arranged in cords and microcysts; the second (4 cases) was characterized by focal myxoid changes in tumors otherwise similar to conventional adrenocortical carcinoma, with large atypical cells having an eosinophilic cytoplasm and a diffuse or nodular architecture.
  • The above mentioned patterns were absent in all adenomas reviewed.
  • A peculiar reactivity to neurofilaments was seen, mostly associated to the presence of predominant rather that focal myxoid stromal changes, and in 40% of conventional adrenocortical carcinomas, thus representing an undescribed potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of adrenal lesions.
  • Myxoid adrenocortical tumors probably represent a rare but histologically and phenotipically distinct entity and, although rare cases of benign lesions are on record, they seem to be generally associated to morphologic and clinical features of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Mucins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. Fetal Development. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20534995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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49. Lubikowski J, Umiński M, Andrysiak-Mamos E, Pynka S, Fuchs H, Wójcicki M, Szajko M, Moleda P, Post M, Zochowska E, Kiedrowicz B, Safranow K, Syrenicz A: From open to laparoscopic adrenalectomy: thirty years' experience of one medical centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):94-101
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  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the standardized treatment of benign adrenal lesions over the last two decades, making the indications to open adrenalectomy (OA) limited.
  • The purpose of this study was to show the thirty years of experience in open (OA) and laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) gained in one medical centre as well as to compare the results of OA and LA performed for benign adrenal lesions.
  • Analyzed factors included patients demographic data, ASA score, indication for surgery, tumour size and side, characteristics of the removed tumours, intraoperative and postoperative outcome of LA and OA, postoperative pain sensation, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and conversion rate from LA to OA.
  • The mean operative time was longer in the LA group (137 v. 82 min., p < 0.0001) and the blood loss was lower in LA group (110 v. 254 mL, p < 0.0001).
  • The mean time until resumption of normal diet was shorter after LA (22 v. 44 h), as was the mean time until ambulation (17 v. 36 h), mean length of the hospital stay (4.6 v. 6.8 days), and mean time until return to normal activities (14 v. 23 days, p < 0.0001 for each difference).
  • The analgesic requirement on the first and the second day postoperatively was lower in the LA group (p < 0.0001).
  • The rate of the conversion from LA to OA was 16%.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was adenoma of the adrenal gland in the majority of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that LA is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated procedure.
  • It may be recommended as a "gold standard" surgery in a case of benign functioning or non-functioning adrenal tumours with diameter less than 8 cm. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 94-101).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Poland. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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50. Fukumitsu N, Ashida H, Ogi S, Uchiyama M, Mori Y, Ikemoto I, Sakamoto N, Tojo K, Kawakami M: A case of ganglioneuroma in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol scintigraphy showed high uptake in the adrenal gland leading to a misdiagnosis. Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;20(1):69-73
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  • [Title] A case of ganglioneuroma in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol scintigraphy showed high uptake in the adrenal gland leading to a misdiagnosis.
  • We experienced a case in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol (131I-adosterol) scintigraphy showed high uptake in the right adrenal gland.
  • We diagnosed functional cortical adenoma because of the finding of 131I-adosterol scintigraphy.
  • However, no positive findings for the existence of cortical adenoma were obtained in other examinations and we performed right adrenalectomy.
  • Unexpectedly, pathological finding showed the right adrenal gland was occupied with a large ganglioneuroma.
  • This is an instructive case in which 131I-adosterol scintigraphy showed abnormal high uptake in the adrenal gland, in spite of the fact that the adrenal gland was occupied by a tumor derived from adrenal medulla.
  • [MeSH-major] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Ganglioneuroma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16485578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 68232-36-0 / 6-iodomethylcholesterol
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51. Siddiqi AJ, Miller FH, Kasuganti D, Nikolaidis P: Adrenal hemangioma-adenoma: an exceedingly rare adrenal collision tumor. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2009 Apr;29(4):949-52
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  • [Title] Adrenal hemangioma-adenoma: an exceedingly rare adrenal collision tumor.
  • Adrenal collision tumors are rare clinical entities referring to separate coexisting adjacent tumors involving an adrenal gland with sharp demarcation between the two and without a substantial histologic admixture at the interface.
  • We report a case of a 60-year-old female patient with an exceedingly rare adrenal hemangioma-adenoma collision tumor.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor comprising an adrenal hemangioma and an adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Interventional


52. Chierigo P, Puccetti O, Visonà A, Bassan F, Rahmati M, Lazzarotto M, Franzolin N: [High alpha-fetoprotein persistence after orchiectomy. On a case of uncommon etiology]. Urologia; 2010 Oct-Dec;77 Suppl 17:27-31
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  • [Transliterated title] Persistenza di alfa-fetoproteina elevata dopo orchiectomia. Su di un caso ad etiologia inusuale.
  • From this age on, serum AFP can rise above normal in some diseases, e.g. liver disorders, and in some kind of tumors.
  • Careful evaluation for occult cancer showed no abnormality.
  • Histology showed necrotic tissue and could not make a reliable diagnosis.
  • Thinking of a hereditary trait, we decided to screen patient's blood-related family members.
  • RESULTS: AFP was found to be elevated in another four out of six relatives within three generations, unrelated to any disease.
  • The existence of this clinically benign condition needs to be considered in both children and adults with unexplained and persistent elevation of AFP, e.g. those diagnosed or suspected for germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Metabolism, Inborn Errors / diagnosis. Orchiectomy. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Genes, Dominant. Humans. Ischemia / surgery. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Postoperative Period. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testis / blood supply. Testis / pathology. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • (PMID = 21308671.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6075
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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53. Viterbo R, Greenberg RE, Al-Saleem T, Uzzo RG: Prior abdominal surgery and radiation do not complicate the retroperitoneoscopic approach to the kidney or adrenal gland. J Urol; 2005 Aug;174(2):446-50
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  • [Title] Prior abdominal surgery and radiation do not complicate the retroperitoneoscopic approach to the kidney or adrenal gland.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic renal and adrenal surgery is an accepted standard of care.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated clinical and functional parameters in 78 consecutive patients undergoing retroperitoneoscopic renal or adrenal surgery performed by a single surgeon in a 36-month period, including radical nephrectomy with or without ureterectomy in 50, nerve sparing surgery in 8, ablation in 16 and adrenalectomy in 4.
  • There were no open conversions in group 1, while there were 2 in group 2 (renal vein injury and splenorrhaphy secondary to lymphoma, respectively).
  • Pathological findings showed malignancy in 57 cases (renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, carcinoid disease and metastases) and benign disease in 21 (oncocytoma, adenoma, pyelonephritis and complex cysts).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The retroperitoneoscopic approach to the kidney and adrenal glands can be used in patients with extensive prior open abdominal surgery and/or radiation without significant increases in morbidity or convalescence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Nephrectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16006862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Nogueira EF, Gerry D, Mantero F, Mariniello B, Rainey WE: The role of TASK1 in aldosterone production and its expression in normal adrenal and aldosterone-producing adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Jul;73(1):22-9
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  • [Title] The role of TASK1 in aldosterone production and its expression in normal adrenal and aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Aldosterone production in the adrenal glomerulosa is mainly regulated by angiotensin II and K+.
  • Adrenal glomerulosa cells are uniquely sensitive to extracellular K+.
  • Genetic deletion of subunits of K+-selective leak-channels (KCNK), TASK1 and/or TASK3, in mice generates animals with hyperaldosteronism and histological changes in the adrenal cortex.
  • Herein, we studied the expression of TASK1 in human adrenocortical cells, as well as its role in aldosterone production in H295R cells.
  • DESIGN: TASK1 expression was investigated by comparative microarray analysis of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and normal adrenals (NAs).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals the predominant expression of TASK1 over other KCNK family genes in the human adrenal cortex.

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  • (PMID = 19878209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK043140; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK043140-16S1; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KCNK1 protein, human; 0 / Kcnk1 protein, mouse; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / potassium channel subfamily K member 3; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS156002; NLM/ PMC4158746
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55. Marko NF, Hamrahian AH, Weil RJ: Immediate postoperative cortisol levels accurately predict postoperative hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumors. Pituitary; 2010 Sep;13(3):249-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immediate postoperative cortisol levels accurately predict postoperative hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumors.
  • Accurate assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critical for the appropriate management of patients with pituitary adenoma after transsphenoidal surgery.
  • We examine the role of immediate postoperative cortisol levels to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis function post-operatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Insufficiency / blood. Adrenal Insufficiency / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20339931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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56. Chiang KH, Liou JY, Shyu KG, Yeh CH, Wu CC, Chen TJ, Lo HM: Hypertension due to co-existing paraganglioma and unilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia. J Formos Med Assoc; 2007 Dec;106(12):1043-7
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  • [Title] Hypertension due to co-existing paraganglioma and unilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia.
  • A rare case of combined unilateral adrenal hyperplasia and paraganglioma is reported.
  • Computed tomography showed a microadenoma of the left adrenal gland and a well demarcated left retroperitoneal para-aortic mass.
  • Adrenal vein sampling for aldosterone and renin levels suggested left adrenal lesion.
  • Surgical removal of the left adrenal gland and para-aortic mass was performed.
  • Pathologic examination of the resected left adrenal gland showed adrenal cortical hyperplasia and the left retroperitoneal para-aortic mass showed a paraganglioma.
  • The possible relationship of these two diseases is discussed.

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  • (PMID = 18194911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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57. Hood SJ, Taylor KP, Ashby MJ, Brown MJ: The spironolactone, amiloride, losartan, and thiazide (SALT) double-blind crossover trial in patients with low-renin hypertension and elevated aldosterone-renin ratio. Circulation; 2007 Jul 17;116(3):268-75
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  • BACKGROUND: There is continuing variation in diagnosis and estimated prevalence of primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • The higher estimates encourage search for adrenal adenomas in patients with elevated ratios of plasma aldosterone to renin.
  • However, it is more likely that patients with normal plasma K+ and aldosterone belong to the polygenic spectrum of low-renin hypertension rather than have the same monogenic syndrome as classic Conn's.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In hypertensive patients with a low plasma renin but normal K+, bendroflumethiazide 5 mg was as effective as spironolactone 100 mg in lowering blood pressure, despite patients being selected for a previous large fall in blood pressure on spironolactone.
  • Because this result differs from that expected in primary hyperaldosteronism, our finding argues against low-renin hypertension including a large, undiagnosed pool of primary hyperaldosteronism.


58. Fallo F, Sonino N: Metabolic syndrome and primary aldosteronism: time for reappraisal? J Hum Hypertens; 2010 Oct;24(10):623-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Hyperaldosteronism / epidemiology. Hypertension / epidemiology. Metabolic Syndrome X / epidemiology


59. Boyle B, Butz H, Liko I, Zalatnai A, Toth M, Feldman K, Horanyi J, Igaz P, Racz K, Patocs A: Expression of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in human adrenocortical adenomas. Steroids; 2010 Oct;75(10):695-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in human adrenocortical adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in the normal human adrenal gland, however, no study has been performed to evaluate the separate expression of alpha- and beta-isoforms (GRalpha and GRbeta) in normal human adrenals and in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL: GRalpha and GRbeta mRNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR in 31 adrenal tissues including 19 non-functioning adenomas (NFA), 6 cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) and 6 normal adrenocortical tissues.
  • In addition, the presence and cellular localization of GRalpha and GRbeta proteins in adrenal tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Compared to normal adrenocortical tissues, both GRalpha and GRbeta mRNAs were significantly increased in CPA but not in NFA.
  • Using anti-GRalpha antibody a strong nuclear staining was observed in NFA and CPA, and a less remarkable immunoreactivity was detected in some nuclei of normal adrenocortical cells.
  • GRbeta immunostaining was absent in normal adrenal tissues and NFA, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear immunoreaction was found in CPA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Altered expression of GRalpha and GRbeta in CPA raises their possible role in the pathophysiology of these adrenal tumors, although further studies are needed to elucidate the potential significance of these findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20438742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5867
  • [Journal-full-title] Steroids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Steroids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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60. Santori C, Di Veroli C, Di Lazzaro F, Caliumi C, Petramala L, Cotesta D, Iorio M, Serra V, Celi M, D'Erasmo E, Letizia C: [High prevalence of thyroid disfunction in primary hyperaldosteronism]. Recenti Prog Med; 2005 Jul-Aug;96(7-8):352-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Alta prevalenza di disfunzioni della tiroide nell'iperaldosteronismo primario.
  • Furthermore, association between hyperaldosteronism and thyroid diseases were already pointed out.
  • Aim of the study was to value the prevalence of some thyroid diseases in a series of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • We studied 105 consecutive patients with primary hyperaldosteronism, 43 (40.95%) with adrenal adenoma, 62 (50.05%) with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and a control group of 223 patients with essential arterial hypertension.
  • In all patients we tested thyroid function (FT3, FT4, TSH), thyroid antibodies (AbTPO, AbTG) and, sometimes, thyroid morphology by ultrasonography (US scan).
  • At present, the relationship between primary hyperaldosteronism and thyroid diseases is unclear, but it can be hypothesized that there are common pathogenetic mechanisms, like an imbalance between various growth factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperaldosteronism / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / epidemiology. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid Hormones / blood

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  • (PMID = 16209115.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones
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61. Prasad SR, Wang H, Rosas H, Menias CO, Narra VR, Middleton WD, Heiken JP: Fat-containing lesions of the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2005 Mar-Apr;25(2):321-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Benign liver lesions that contain fat include focal or geographic fatty change (steatosis), pseudolesions due to postoperative packing material (omentum), adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, lipoma, angiomyolipoma, cystic teratoma, hepatic adrenal rest tumor, pseudolipoma of the Glisson capsule, and xanthomatous lesions in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
  • The imaging characteristics of a lesion coupled with the pattern of intratumoral fatty change are helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Liver / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15798052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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62. Trezzi R, Poli F, Fellegara G: "Dedifferentiated" adrenal cortical neoplasm. Int J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;17(4):343-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] "Dedifferentiated" adrenal cortical neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Dedifferentiation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic

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  • (PMID = 19443867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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63. Smart JL, Tolle V, Otero-Corchon V, Low MJ: Central dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neuron-specific proopiomelanocortin-deficient mice. Endocrinology; 2007 Feb;148(2):647-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Central dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neuron-specific proopiomelanocortin-deficient mice.
  • Corticotroph-derived ACTH mediates basal and stress-induced glucocorticoid secretion, but it is uncertain whether POMC peptides produced in the brain also regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • Selective restoration of pituitary POMC prevented the adrenal insufficiency and neonatal mortality characteristic of Pomc(-/-) mice.
  • However, adult Pomc(-/-)Tg/+ mice expressing the pituitary-specific transgene exhibited adrenal cortical hypertrophy, elevated basal plasma corticosterone, elevated basal but attenuated stress-induced ACTH secretion, and inappropriately elevated CRH expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.
  • In addition, Pomc(-/-)Tg/+, Pomc(+/-)Tg/+, and Pomc(+/-) mice, which all displayed varying degrees of elevated CRH, frequently developed melanotroph adenomas after 1 yr of age, whereas Pomc(-/-) mice, with maximal CRH expression and glucocorticoid disinhibition, developed corticotroph and melanotroph adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / etiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Adrenal Insufficiency / mortality. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Animals. Corticosterone / blood. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Female. Hypertrophy. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Male. Melanotrophs / pathology. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Transgenic. Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Stress, Physiological / metabolism. Stress, Physiological / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17095588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK066604; United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / HG000201
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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64. Acar C, Akkas BE, Sen I, Sozen S, Kitapci MT: False positive 18F-FDG PET scan in adrenal oncocytoma. Urol Int; 2008;80(4):444-7
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  • [Title] False positive 18F-FDG PET scan in adrenal oncocytoma.
  • 18F-FDG whole-body positron emulsion tomography (18F-FDG PET) has become an established imaging modality for a variety of cancers.
  • Today, 18F-FDG PET is utilized to differentiate benign from malignant non-functioning adrenal masses.
  • Abdominal CT revealed a left 6.5 x 4.5 cm adrenal mass with regular margins and focal calcification.
  • To make a differential diagnosis, 18F-FDG PET was performed.
  • The final pathologic evaluation revealed adrenal oncocytoma.
  • We present the disassociation between preoperative 18F-FDG PET and pathologic findings of a benign adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18587259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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65. Brunt LM: Minimal access adrenal surgery. Surg Endosc; 2006 Mar;20(3):351-61
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  • [Title] Minimal access adrenal surgery.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred method for removal of most adrenal tumors.
  • An important component in selecting patients for this operation is to understand the clinical presentation and diagnostic workup for the various functioning and nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • In this review, an overview of the key clinical and diagnostic aspects of the most common adrenal tumors is presented.
  • The indications and contraindications for a laparoscopic approach are discussed and the technique for laparoscopic adrenalectomy is then presented with inclusion of video links to demonstrate the technique.
  • A current controversy in adrenal surgery is the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the management of patients with large tumors and malignant or potentially malignant adrenal lesions and the literature on this topic is reviewed in detail.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / secretion. Dissection. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Myelolipoma / diagnostic imaging. Radiography. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16437282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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66. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Buziak-Bereza M, Fedorowicz A, Kuźniarz-Rymarz S, Stochmal E, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A: [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(12):1270-5
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  • [Title] [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome].
  • In the last twenty years the introduction of new imaging techniques has caused increasing incidence of accidental detection of adrenal tumors, which are usually mild and in most cases are hormonally inactive adenomas.
  • Among hormonal disorders in patients with adrenal incidentalomas the hypercortisolism is often described, which, if not treated properly, leads to multiple organ complications, and further to the patient's death.
  • The aim of the study was the retrospective analysis of the group of patients with adrenal incidentaloma, verified by histopathology for assessment of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Among the group of 225 patients: 62 men and 163 women with incidentally detected adrenal tumors in age from 19 to 81 years diagnosed and treated in the Department of Clinical Endocrinology, University Hospital in Krakow, 59 patients was sent to surgery: 15 men and 42 women.
  • Group A consisted of patients with adrenal cortical adenoma: 38 people (11 men and 27 women).
  • In group B there were people with so-called other hormonal inactive adrenal tumors - 17 people (4 men and 13 women).
  • In group A the mean morning level of cortisol was 18.23 +/- 6.42 ug/dl and did not differ statistically significantly from the results of group B (mean morning cortisol level of 15.86 +/- 4.6 ug/dl).
  • A detailed analysis of the clinical signs, meticulously carried out and repeated hormonal diagnosis with the use of functional tests should be focused on the detection of subclinical hormonal disorders, which is crucial in preventing organ damage and making a decision of the right treatment of the patient, which is surgical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hydrocortisone / blood

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  • (PMID = 21591352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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67. Cindolo L, Gidaro S, Tamburro FR, Schips L: Laparo-endoscopic single-site left transperitoneal adrenalectomy. Eur Urol; 2010 May;57(5):911-4
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  • Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and an endocrinologic work-up revealed a 4-cm nonfunctional left adrenal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 May;57(5):e47; author reply e48-9 [19747762.001]
  • (PMID = 19608330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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68. Iorio L, Rigolini R, Costa E, Cotta O, Cannavò S, Ambrosi B: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide determination as a possible marker of cardiac dysfunction in patients with adrenal disorders. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jul-Aug;33(7):509-10
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  • [Title] N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide determination as a possible marker of cardiac dysfunction in patients with adrenal disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / etiology. Insulin Resistance / physiology. Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / blood. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • [CommentOn] J Endocrinol Invest. 2009 Nov;32(10):805-9 [19468263.001]
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  • (PMID = 20671412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / pro-brain natriuretic peptide (1-76); 114471-18-0 / Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
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69. Boylu U, Oommen M, Lee BR, Thomas R: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses: pushing the envelope. J Endourol; 2009 Jun;23(6):971-5
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses: pushing the envelope.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the role of laparoscopy for large adrenal tumors in terms of outcomes, pathology, operative time, and morbidity.
  • Pathologic examination revealed eight adrenal cortical adenomas, five myolipomas, four pheochromocytomas, four cysts/pseudocysts, and three adrenocortical hyperplasias.
  • Our findings suggest, however, that laparoscopic adrenalectomy for masses larger than 8 cm can produce comparable results concerning hospital stay, conversion to open surgery rate, and pathologic outcome in comparison with results for adrenal masses smaller than 8 cm.

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  • (PMID = 19456243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Waldmann J, Feldmann G, Slater EP, Langer P, Buchholz M, Ramaswamy A, Saeger W, Rothmund M, Fendrich V: Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival. Br J Cancer; 2008 Dec 2;99(11):1900-7
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  • [Title] Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival.
  • In this study, we evaluate whether Snail is expressed in adrenocortical cancer (ACC) and if its expression is related to patient outcome.
  • Snail expression was neither detected in normal adrenocortical tissue, nor in benign adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Survival rates were significantly decreased in Snail-positive tumours compared to Snail-negative tumours: 10 out of 16 vs one out of eight patients succumbed to disease after a median follow up of 14.5 and 28.5 months, respectively (P=0.03).
  • Patients with Snail-expressing ACCs presented in advanced disease (11 out of 12 vs 6 out of 14, P=0.01) and tend to develop distant metastases more frequently than patients with negative staining (7 out of 11 vs two out of eight, P=0.19).
  • Furthermore, Snail expression is associated with decreased survival, advanced disease and higher risk of developing distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19018264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600683
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71. Srimanee D, Bhidayasiri R, Phanthumchinda K: Extrapontine myelinolysis in preoperative sellar region tumor: report of two cases. J Med Assoc Thai; 2009 Nov;92(11):1548-53
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  • Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a well-known disorder caused by rapid correction of serum sodium.
  • Many conditions including hormonal abnormality are associated with this syndrome.
  • The authors describe two cases of preoperative sellar region tumor associated with hypopituitarism and secondary adrenal insufficiency.
  • The second case was a 24-year-old man with gonadotroph pituitary adenoma who developed generalized dystonia, dysarthria, and dysphagia in the course of hyponatremia.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Myelinolysis, Central Pontine / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Insufficiency / complications. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Hyponatremia / complications. Hypopituitarism / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19938750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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72. Yip L, Tublin ME, Falcone JA, Nordman CR, Stang MT, Ogilvie JB, Carty SE, Yim JH: The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Mar;17(3):846-52
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  • [Title] The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging.
  • BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help diagnose benign adrenal adenomas, but prior studies rely on nonoperative follow-up as proof of a lesion's benign nature.
  • Imaging results were considered to signify benign adrenal adenoma if one or more of the following was present: Hounsfield units <10 on unenhanced CT, contrast-enhanced CT quantifying absolute contrast washout of >60% or relative contrast washout of >40%, or MR with chemical-shift imaging demonstrating loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase images.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative imaging in predicting benign adrenal adenoma were 57 and 94%, respectively.
  • Histopathology confirmed that all 66 adrenal masses with imaging characteristics suggesting benign adenoma were indeed benign lesions and included 61 benign adrenal adenomas and 5 benign nonadenomatous lesions (3 myelolipomas, 1 composite myelolipoma/adenoma, and 1 ganglioliponeuroma).
  • Malignant adrenal lesions were diagnosed in 17/130 (13%) masses: 8 metastases, 7 adrenal cortical carcinomas, 1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CT or MR characteristics predicted the presence of benign lesions with 100% specificity.
  • Every adrenal malignancy had CT or MR results that were inconsistent with benign adenoma (100% sensitivity).
  • To exclude malignancy, adrenal masses with non-benign imaging characteristics should be resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19960266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Li P, Sun F, Cao HM, Ma QY, Pan CM, Ma JH, Zhang XN, Jiang H, Song HD, Chen MD: Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2009 Dec 25;390(4):1208-13
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  • [Title] Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis.
  • Obesity is frequently associated with malfunctions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hyperaldosteronism, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear.
  • Since the adrenal glands are embedded in adipose tissue, direct cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland has been proposed.
  • A previous study found that adiponectin receptor mRNA was expressed in human adrenal glands and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).
  • However, the expression of adiponectin receptors in adrenal glands has not been confirmed at the protein level or in other species.
  • Furthermore, it is unclear whether adiponectin receptors expressed in adrenal cells are functional.
  • We found, for the first time, that adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) mRNA and protein were expressed in mouse adrenal and adrenocortical Y-1 cells.
  • However, adiponectin itself was not expressed in mouse adrenal or Y-1 cells.
  • Thus, adiponectin is likely to have physiological and/or pathophysiological significance as an endocrine regulator of adrenocortical function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adiponectin / physiology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis. Receptors, Adiponectin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line. Humans. Male. Mice

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  • (PMID = 19878661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / Receptors, Adiponectin; 0 / adiponectin receptor 1, mouse; 0 / adiponectin receptor 2, mouse; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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74. Weickert MO, Schöfl-Siegert B, Arafat AM, Pfeiffer AF, Möhlig M, Schöfl C: A reverse postural test as a screening tool for aldosterone-producing adenoma: a pilot study. Endocrine; 2009 Aug;36(1):75-82
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  • [Title] A reverse postural test as a screening tool for aldosterone-producing adenoma: a pilot study.
  • An ambulatory case finding test to separate surgically remediable aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) from other forms of PA, however, is currently not available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Mass Screening / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Exercise. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Renin / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Supine Position

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  • (PMID = 19399649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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75. Odagiri E, Naruse M, Tanabe A, Ohmura M, Oki T, Katabami T, Saitoh J, Nishika T, Shibata H, Doi M, Hirata Y: [Problems of cortisol assay: confusion in the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndorme]. Rinsho Byori; 2007 Jun;55(6):549-54
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  • [Title] [Problems of cortisol assay: confusion in the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndorme].
  • Cortisol assay is used for the diagnosis of hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal disorders.
  • The Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma has been increasing with advances in imaging tools.
  • The criteria for the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndrome in Japan was made by the Nawata group supported by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1995.
  • The presence of adrenal adenoma, a lack of overt signs of Cushing's syndrome and autonomic cortisol secretion are essential for the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • For the diagnosis of autonomy of cortisol secretion, cortisol should not be suppressed by either low dose dexamethasone (DEX) of 1 mg (cortisol > or =3 microg/dl) or high dose DEX of 8 mg (cortisol > or =1 microg/dl).
  • We have reported that two doses of DEX suppression tests revealed a discrepancy in several cases of adrenal incidentaloma; therefore, we studied the cortisol values of DEX suppression tests in 47 cases with adrenal incidentaloma using four different cortisol kits (TFB, SPAC, TDX and TOSOH).
  • These results revealed that the clinical diagnosis varies according to the cortisol kit used.
  • It is suggested that standardization of the cortisol assay is necessary for the accurate diagnosis of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Function Tests / methods. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / blood. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic / standards

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  • (PMID = 17657989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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76. Ouzounian S, Tissier F, Gouya H, Kujas M, Louvel A, Legmann P, Bertagna X: [Cushing's syndrome and adrenal adenoma. Two surprising associations]. Presse Med; 2005 Apr 09;34(7):511-5
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  • [Title] [Cushing's syndrome and adrenal adenoma. Two surprising associations].
  • [Transliterated title] Maladie de Cushing et adénome cortico-surrénalien. Deux associations étonnantes.
  • CASES: In the first case, we describe the case of a patient with an adrenal adenoma 20 years before the occurrence of Cushing's disease related to the pineal gland.
  • In the second case, two members of the same family were diagnosed almost simultaneously with adrenal cortical adenoma (mother) and Cushing's disease (daughter).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology


77. Desmarchelier M, Lair S, Dunn M, Langlois I: Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2008 Oct 15;233(8):1297-301
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  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • CLINICAL FINDINGS: On initial examination, nonregenerative anemia, mild azotemia, and a large left adrenal gland mass were identified.
  • Plasma aldosterone concentration was >3329 pmol/L, confirming a provisional diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism.
  • Histologic examination revealed a large left adrenal gland adenoma, progressive chronic nephropathy, severe pulmonary edema, and focal fibrosis in the left ventricle.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of the adrenal gland mass revealed aldosterone within neoplastic adrenocortical cells.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that primary hyperaldosteronism should be considered as a possible cause in ferrets with hypokalemia, hypertension, and an adrenal gland mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenocortical Adenoma / veterinary. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Fatal Outcome. Female. Ferrets. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / blood. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Hypertension / veterinary. Hypokalemia / blood. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / etiology. Hypokalemia / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19180717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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78. Al-Wahhabi B: Parathyroid adenoma and bilateral pheochromocytoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis. Ann Saudi Med; 2005 May-Jun;25(3):255-7
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  • [Title] Parathyroid adenoma and bilateral pheochromocytoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics


79. Weng SW, Yang CH, Huang WT, Chen MC, Wang PW: Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour. N Z Med J; 2005 Jun 3;118(1216):U1498
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  • [Title] Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • Adrenal cortical tumour-induced malignant hypertension is rare, except for some documented aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • This case in Taiwan is only the second reported case with malignant hypertension secondary to a cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15937532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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80. Zhou G, Wei Y, Chen X, Jiang X, Gu W, Li X, Peng C, Ning G, Li H: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 simultaneous with various types of enteropancreatic endocrine tumors: one case report: lessons learned. Pancreas; 2010 Jul;39(5):680-3
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of parathyroid hyperplasia, pancreatic endocrine tumors, pituitary adenomas, and adrenal adenomas.


81. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Attenuation values of <10 Hounsfield units on an unenhanced CT are practically diagnostic for adenomas.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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82. Ueberberg B, Unger N, Sheu SY, Walz MK, Schmid KW, Saeger W, Mann K, Petersenn S: Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Mar;40(3):181-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • This study compares the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • Normal adrenal tissue was obtained after autopsy.
  • Tissue was obtained from 13 pheochromocytomas (PHEOs), 15 cortisol-secreting adenomas (CPAs), 12 aldosterone-secreting adenomas (APAs), and 16 nonfunctional adenomas (NFAs) following laparoscopic surgery.
  • In the seven normal adrenal glands analyzed, ghrelin mRNA levels were 12-fold lower than in stomach.
  • In all adrenal tumors, relevant levels of ghrelin mRNA were observed, with significantly lower expression in PHEOs and APAs than in normal adrenal gland.
  • GHS-R1a mRNA expression was detectable in normal adrenal gland, but the receptor protein was absent.
  • In adrenal tumors, detectable levels of receptor mRNA were found in 38% of PHEOs, 13% of CPAs, and 25% of NFAs.
  • GHS-R1a protein was absent in the majority of adrenal tumors.
  • Expression of ghrelin in normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors may indicate some unknown physiological function.
  • The pathophysiological relevance of ghrelin expression in adrenal tumors remains to be investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Ghrelin / genetics. Receptors, Ghrelin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Cell Differentiation. DNA Primers. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18246525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin
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83. Arima K, Yamakado K, Suzuki R, Matsuura H, Nakatsuka A, Takeda K, Sugimura Y: Image-guided radiofrequency ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome: outcomes after mean follow-up of 33 months. Urology; 2007 Sep;70(3):407-11
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  • [Title] Image-guided radiofrequency ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome: outcomes after mean follow-up of 33 months.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and therapeutic effects of image-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation used for the treatment of adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome.
  • METHODS: From February 2003 to May 2005, 4 consecutive patients with adrenocortical adenoma and Cushing syndrome received percutaneous RF ablation.
  • All tumors were in the left adrenal gland, with a mean tumor size of 2.7 +/- 0.6 cm (range 2.0 to 3.5).
  • Both the serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels returned to normal and the symptoms related to Cushing syndrome had disappeared at the end of follow-up (range 20 to 46 months, mean 33) for a clinical success rate of 100%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Using RF ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome is a feasible, safe, and promising treatment method in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Fluoroscopy / methods. Radiography, Interventional / methods. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 17905083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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84. Mannelli M, Colagrande S, Valeri A, Parenti G: Incidental and metastatic adrenal masses. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):649-61
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  • [Title] Incidental and metastatic adrenal masses.
  • In the last decades discoveries of adrenal masses incidentally during the course of diagnostic procedures for unrelated disorders (incidentalomas) have become progressively more frequent.
  • The clinician in this position must answer two main questions: Is the mass benign or malignant?
  • , and To what extent is the adrenal secretion altered?
  • To come to a clinical decision, several diagnostic tools need to be engaged, starting with an accurate and correct radiological evaluation and a hormonal assessment of the adrenal function.
  • Most frequently, adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are represented by benign cortical adenomas, a subset of which causes a mild hypercortisolism, known as subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS).
  • Laparoscopic surgery is the recommended procedure to remove benign masses.
  • The surgical procedure for adrenal malignancies is still debated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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85. Lehnert H, Scholz T, Schäfer M, Klose S: [Endocrine hypertension]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2007 Feb 2;132(5):207-17; quiz 219-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / therapy. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / complications. Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / diagnosis. Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2007 Mar 23;132(12):634
  • (PMID = 17252364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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86. Nishimoto K, Nakagawa K, Li D, Kosaka T, Oya M, Mikami S, Shibata H, Itoh H, Mitani F, Yamazaki T, Ogishima T, Suematsu M, Mukai K: Adrenocortical zonation in humans under normal and pathological conditions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;95(5):2296-305
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical zonation in humans under normal and pathological conditions.
  • CONTEXT: Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) catalyze the terminal steps for aldosterone and cortisol syntheses, respectively, thereby determining the functional differentiation of human adrenocortical cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the localization of CYP11B2 and -B1 in human adrenal specimens by using developed antibodies capable of distinguishing the two enzymes from each other.
  • Adrenocortical cells lacking both enzymes were observed in the outer cortical regions.
  • In addition to conventional zonation, we found a variegated zonation consisting of a subcapsular cell cluster expressing CYP11B2, which we termed aldosterone-producing cell cluster, and a CYP11B1-expressing area.
  • Aldosterone-producing adenomas differed in cell populations expressing CYP11B2 from one another, whereas CYP11B1-expressing and double-negative cells were also intermingled.
  • Adenomas from patients with Cushing's syndrome expressed CYP11B1 entirely but not CYP11B2, resulting in atrophic nontumor glands.
  • The nontumor portions of both types of adenomas bore frequently one or more aldosterone-producing cell clusters, which sustained CYP11B2 expression markedly under the conditions of the suppressed renin-angiotensin system.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry of the human normal adrenal cortex for CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 revealed a variegated zonation with cell clusters constitutively expressing CYP11B2.
  • This technique may provide a pathological confirmatory diagnosis of adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antibodies. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / enzymology. Corticosterone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / enzymology. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / deficiency. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / enzymology. Mammals. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Rabbits. Reference Values. Rodentia. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Zona Fasciculata / enzymology. Zona Glomerulosa / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20200334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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87. Tamura Y, Adachi J, Chiba Y, Mori S, Takeda K, Kasuya Y, Murayama T, Sawabe M, Sasano H, Araki A, Ito H, Horiuchi T: Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal microadenoma in an elderly patient: efficacy of selective adrenal venous sampling. Intern Med; 2008;47(1):37-42
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  • [Title] Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal microadenoma in an elderly patient: efficacy of selective adrenal venous sampling.
  • Computed tomography imaging appeared normal for a long duration with a left-sided nodule appearing far later; adrenal scintigraphy was first normal, and the second test showed right-sided uptake.
  • However, a repeat selective adrenal venous sampling (SAVS) indicated a left-sided lateralization of the hypersecretion of aldosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / blood

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  • (PMID = 18176003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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88. Cham E, Watkin W, Goldschmidt R, Liu L: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jul-Aug;54(4):627-34
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (AONs) are rare tumors that typically show marked nuclear pleomorphism and eosinophilic cytoplasm and are highly cellular on fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears.
  • These features, worrisome in conventional adrenocortical tumors, are not necessarily signs of malignancy in AONs.
  • Computed tomography showed a 10-cm, solid, left adrenal mass and a 21-cm complex cystic mass in the pelvis.
  • FNA of the adrenal mass showed hypercellular smears with dyscohesive cells having pleomorphic nuclei and abundant, granular cytoplasm.
  • Resection of the adrenal mass demonstrated an AON without definite malignant features.
  • CONCLUSION: On FNA, cells from an AON can be hypercellular and cytologically atypical, which can be pitfalls for a malignant diagnosis.
  • We review criteria to classify benign vs. malignant AONs and discuss the literature on this topic.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20715669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Sbiera S, Schmull S, Assie G, Voelker HU, Kraus L, Beyer M, Ragazzon B, Beuschlein F, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Saeger W, Bertherat J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):E161-71
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  • [Title] High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors.
  • CONTEXT: No immunohistochemical marker has been established to reliably differentiate adrenocortical tumors from other adrenal masses.
  • We hypothesized that expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcription factor involved in adrenal development, is of value for the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses and predicts prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples from 167 ACC, 52 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), six normal adrenal glands, six normal ovaries and 73 neoplastic nonsteroidogenic tissues.
  • RESULTS: SF-1 protein staining was detectable in 158 of 161 (98%) evaluable ACC samples including 49 (30%) with strong SF-1 staining and in all normal and benign steroidogenic tissues.
  • In addition, SF-1 mRNA expression was present in all 91 analyzed adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: SF-1 is a highly valuable immunohistochemical marker to determine the adrenocortical origin of an adrenal mass with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20660055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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90. Popescu I, Ciurea S, Romanescu D, Boros M: Isolated resection of the caudate lobe: indications, technique and results. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 May-Jun;55(84):831-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: This paper reports a series of 24 isolated caudate lobe resections (ICLR), performed for 13 benign tumors (10 hemangiomas, 2 focal nodular hyperplasias, 1 adenoma) and 11 malignant tumors (3 hepatocarcinomas, 1 peripheral cholangiocarcinoma and 7 metastatic - 5 colorectal carcinomas, 1 breast carcinoma, 1 adrenal carcinoma).
  • Three patients died from generalized disease.
  • Another patient, with generalized disease, was lost from follow-up.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / mortality. Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Adenoma, Liver Cell / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / mortality. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / surgery. Hemangioma / mortality. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangioma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18705277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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91. Li Q, Zhang XQ, Nie L, Chen GS, Li H, Zhang F, Zhang LY, Hong L, Wang SF, Wang H: Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours. Br J Cancer; 2007 Aug 6;97(3):420-5
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  • [Title] Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours.
  • Our previous studies have shown that IFN-gamma-like immunoreactivity also appears in human adrenal cortical tumour and phaeochromocytoma.
  • To investigate whether human tumour cells can produce IFN-gamma, we examined 429 biopsy specimens of 30 kinds of tumour and tumour-surrounding tissues in adrenal glands and in kidneys by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation.
  • IFN-gamma immunoactivity was shown in 34.3% of the adrenal cortical adenomas, 50% of the adrenal cortical carcinomas, 26.7% of the phaeochromocytomas, 26.7% of the clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 22% of the adrenal cortexes and 40% of medullas adjacent to tumours.
  • Western blot analysis has further confirmed the immunohistochemistry results by showing a distinct IFN-gamma band corresponding to 17.4 kDa in tissue extracts from adrenal cortical adenoma, phaeochromocytoma and clear cell RCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17622250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360327
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92. Ors F, Lev-Toaff A, O'Kane P, Qazi N, Bergin D: Paraovarian adrenal rest with MRI features characteristic of an adrenal adenoma. Br J Radiol; 2007 Sep;80(957):e205-8
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  • [Title] Paraovarian adrenal rest with MRI features characteristic of an adrenal adenoma.
  • We report MR and sonographic imaging features of an incidentally detected paraovarian adrenal rest in a 44-year-old woman who was being evaluated for menorrhagia.
  • This is the first report of chemical shift imaging identifying the presence of lipid within an adrenal rest as well as rapid washout of contrast.
  • Both of these MR characteristics are typically seen with an adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Rest Tumor / diagnosis. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17928489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Vascik T: Case of the month. JAAPA; 2009 Dec;22(12):70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Male

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  • (PMID = 24887476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-1896
  • [Journal-full-title] JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAAPA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Schön G: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy]. Aktuelle Urol; 2010 Sep;41(5):329-38; quiz 339-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Hormones / blood. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20824578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8820
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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95. Dluhy RG: Incidentaloma--role of the endocrinologist. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Incidental Findings

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  • [CommentOn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):279-84 [18463033.001]
  • [CommentOn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):269-78 [18463032.001]
  • (PMID = 18463031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Ashizawa N, Takagi M, Seto S, Suzuki S, Yano K: Serum adiponectin and leptin in a patient with Cushing's syndrome before and after adrenalectomy. Intern Med; 2007;46(7):383-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We measured the serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations before and after successful removal of a left adrenal adenoma in a 46-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adiponectin / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Leptin / blood

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  • (PMID = 17409602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Leptin
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97. Greven WL, van Bemmel T: Rare oxygen, a rare way to diagnose Conn's syndrome. NDT Plus; 2008 Dec;1(6):427-428
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  • [Title] Rare oxygen, a rare way to diagnose Conn's syndrome.
  • We present a case of a patient with symptoms of mountain sickness at relatively low altitudes, who appeared to have Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism). <b>Case.
  • A CT scan of the abdomen revealed an adenoma in the left adrenal gland.

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  • (PMID = 28657013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0784
  • [Journal-full-title] NDT plus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NDT Plus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Conn's syndrome / hyperaldosteronism / mountain sickness
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98. Kalra MK, Blake MA, Boland GW, Hahn PF: CT features of adrenal pheochromocytomas: attenuation value and loss of contrast enhancement. Radiology; 2005 Sep;236(3):1112-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CT features of adrenal pheochromocytomas: attenuation value and loss of contrast enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Contrast Media. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity


99. Tacon LJ, Soon PS, Gill AJ, Chou AS, Clarkson A, Botling J, Stalberg PL, Skogseid BM, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB, Clifton-Bligh RJ: The glucocorticoid receptor is overexpressed in malignant adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Nov;94(11):4591-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The glucocorticoid receptor is overexpressed in malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • The Weiss score is the most widely accepted method for distinguishing an ACC from an adrenocortical adenoma (ACA); however, in borderline cases, accurate diagnosis remains problematic.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study GR expression in adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) and to assess its utility as an adjunct to the Weiss score.
  • This finding was validated in an external cohort of ACTs, such that 14 of 18 ACCs (78%) demonstrated positive nuclear staining whereas 32 of 33 ACAs (94%) were negative (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemical finding of nuclear GR staining identified ACCs with high diagnostic accuracy.
  • We propose that GR immunohistochemistry may complement the Weiss score in the diagnosis of ACC in cases that display borderline histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19820023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / NR3C1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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100. Kamiyama T, Fukukura Y, Yoneyama T, Takumi K, Nakajo M: Distinguishing adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas: combined use of diagnostic parameters of unenhanced and short 5-minute dynamic enhanced CT protocol. Radiology; 2009 Feb;250(2):474-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distinguishing adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas: combined use of diagnostic parameters of unenhanced and short 5-minute dynamic enhanced CT protocol.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively examine the diagnostic values of individual parameters obtained from unenhanced and 35-second and 5-minute contrast material-enhanced (enhanced) computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing adenomas, particularly lipid-poor adenomas, from nonadenomas and to determine the best diagnostic method by using these parameters.
  • The study population consisted of 61 patients (20 men and 41 women; mean age, 58 years) with 68 adrenal masses (53 adenomas and 15 nonadenomas).
  • Adenomas were classified as 30 lipid-rich (<or=10 HU) and 23 lipid-poor (>10 HU) adenomas by using unenhanced attenuation.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were calculated by using a threshold level of each parameter determined by the least sum of false-positive and false-negative cases and a combination of the threshold levels with 100% specificity.
  • RESULTS: The best results were obtained by using a combination of the threshold levels with 100% (15 of 15) specificity (presence of at least one of the following criteria for diagnosing adenomas: unenhanced attenuation of <or=19 HU, 5-minute attenuation of <or=50 HU, PEW of >or=45%, and RPEW of >or=31%).
  • Sensitivity was 94% (50 of 53) or 87% (20 of 23) and accuracy was 96% (65 of 68) or 92% (35 of 38) for diagnosing total adrenal adenomas or lipid-poor adenomas, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19037020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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