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1. Xiao X, Ning L, Chen H: Notch1 mediates growth suppression of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors. Mol Cancer Ther; 2009 Feb;8(2):350-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Notch1 mediates growth suppression of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors.
  • Here, we showed that although there was minimal Notch1 expression in follicular thyroid cancer FTC236 and papillary thyroid cancer DRO cells, transfection of constitutive Notch1 plasmid into these cells led to growth inhibition, down-regulation of cyclin D1, and up-regulation of p21.
  • Treatment of FTC236 cells with HDAC inhibitors valproic acid (1-4 mmol/L) or suberoyl bishydroxamic acid (10-30 micromol/L) induced functional Notch1 protein expression and suppressed cell growth in a dose-dependent manner.
  • These results indicate that HDAC inhibitors activate Notch1 signaling in thyroid cancer cells and lead to the suppression of proliferation by cell cycle arrest.
  • Our findings provide the first documentation of the role of Notch1 signaling as a tumor suppressor in DRO and FTC236 cells, suggesting that Notch1 activation may be a potential therapeutic target for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19190121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117117-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117117; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS92706; NLM/ PMC2673961
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2. Hassan I, Wunderlich A, Burchert A, Hoffmann S, Zielke A: Antisense p53 oligonucleotides inhibit proliferation and induce chemosensitivity in follicular thyroid cancer cells. Anticancer Res; 2006 Mar-Apr;26(2A):1171-6
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  • [Title] Antisense p53 oligonucleotides inhibit proliferation and induce chemosensitivity in follicular thyroid cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: The potential of MTp53 knockout by oligodesoxyribonucleotide phosphothioates (ODNs) to affect proliferation, apoptosis and chemosensitivity in undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) cells with a recessive MTp53 mutation was evaluated.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transient transfections with ODNs complementary to p53 and control ODN (HIV-RT) were carried out in FTC 133 cells.
  • In vitro proliferation was evaluated by cell counting of 10 random fields and by the MTT assay.
  • A single pulse of 100 microg/ml Cytarabine was added to each well and the cells were incubated for an additional day.
  • RESULTS: Transfection of UTC cells with ODN decreased the cell number by up to 70% (p < 0.002).
  • ODNs rendered FTC cells sensitive to treatment with Cytarabine, inducing apoptosis in 35% of cells, as compared to 17% of cells transfected with the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV (ODN-HIV) and less than 10% of non-transfected cells (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Transient MTp53 knockout with ODNs complementary to p53 nucleotide sequences inhibited proliferation and increased chemosensitivity in the UTC cell line FTC133.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Genes, p53. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / genetics. Cell Growth Processes / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / pharmacology. Humans. Point Mutation. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 16619520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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3. Hua SC, Chen SY, Lu CH, Kao YT, Yu HI, Chen PT, Lee YR, Chang TC: The effects of growth inhibitory peptide on follicular thyroid cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion. Tumori; 2010 May-Jun;96(3):448-51
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  • [Title] The effects of growth inhibitory peptide on follicular thyroid cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm worldwide.
  • Although differentiated thyroid cancers are associated with a favorable survival, the prognosis worsens dramatically for patients with distant metastasis.
  • Metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) occur earlier and are more aggressive than those from papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • For FTC that is resistant to radioactive iodine, new treatments are urgently needed.
  • However, the effects of GIP in FTC have not yet been studied.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor ability of GIP in FTC.
  • METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Using both PBS and GIP control peptide as a negative control, the antiproliferative activity of GIP in the WRO human FTC cell line was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay.
  • In addition, cell migration and invasion assays were used to measure tumor metastasis inhibition effects in vitro.
  • RESULTS: GIP did not inhibit WRO cell proliferation in a time- or dose-dependent manner.
  • Cell invasion was also significantly inhibited at 50 and 100 microM (67.1% and 39.0%, respectively; both P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although GIP failed to suppress FTC cell growth, it effectively interrupted both FTC cell migration and invasion abilities in vitro.
  • GIP may potentially serve as an anti-FTC metastasis agent aiding current chemotherapy regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Membrane Proteins / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20845807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / growth inhibitory proteins
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4. Carr K, Wintner T: FTC Versus Congress: The Biosimilars Debate. Biotechnol Healthc; 2009 Oct;6(4):33-4

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  • [Title] FTC Versus Congress: The Biosimilars Debate.
  • The authors argue that the FTC's conclusion -that patent protection alone will fuel biotech R&D after passage of follow-on legislation - is shaky.

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  • (PMID = 22478787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-169X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biotechnology healthcare
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biotechnol Healthc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799095
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5. Algeciras-Schimnich A, Milosevic D, McIver B, Flynn H, Reddi HV, Eberhardt NL, Grebe SK: Evaluation of the PAX8/PPARG translocation in follicular thyroid cancer with a 4-color reverse-transcription PCR assay and automated high-resolution fragment analysis. Clin Chem; 2010 Mar;56(3):391-8
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the PAX8/PPARG translocation in follicular thyroid cancer with a 4-color reverse-transcription PCR assay and automated high-resolution fragment analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Molecular testing of thyroid malignancies, in combination with cytologic and histologic examination, is becoming increasingly attractive as a tool for refining traditional morphologic diagnosis.
  • The molecular changes associated with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) are point mutations in RAS oncogenes or the presence of PAX8/PPARG (paired box 8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) rearrangement.
  • METHODS: We developed and validated a clinical assay for the detection of PAX8/PPARG rearrangements that uses a 4-color reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay and high-resolution fragment analysis.
  • RESULTS: The RT-PCR assay is applicable for detecting the various described fusion transcripts of PAX8/PPARG in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid tissue and in fine-needle aspirate biopsy washes from thyroid nodules.
  • The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 1 abnormal cell in a background of 100-10 000 translocation-negative cells.
  • A comparison of the RT-PCR assay with dual-fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization showed an overall concordance of 95%.
  • With this assay, we obtained a prevalence for the PAX8/PPARG rearrangement in FTC of 62% (13 of 21 cases), compared with a 5% prevalence (3 of 55) for other follicular cell-derived neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of this assay into clinical practice could provide useful information for the diagnosis and possibly for the prognosis and treatment of thyroid cancer in the future.

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  • (PMID = 20056739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA080117; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA80117
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS547600; NLM/ PMC3918957
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6. Lee JJ, Geli J, Larsson C, Wallin G, Karimi M, Zedenius J, Höög A, Foukakis T: Gene-specific promoter hypermethylation without global hypomethylation in follicular thyroid cancer. Int J Oncol; 2008 Oct;33(4):861-9
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  • [Title] Gene-specific promoter hypermethylation without global hypomethylation in follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Genome-wide hypomethylation and hypermethylation at CpG promoters are common in cancer.
  • To date, little is known about global methylation changes in follicular thyroid cancer (FTC).
  • Two independent quantitative methods, bisulphite Pyrosequencing of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements-1 (LINE-1) and LUminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA) were used to quantify genome-wide methylation in 21 FTC and corresponding normal thyroid tissues.
  • Unexpectedly global methylation was not found significantly altered in tumors compared to normal thyroid by either LINE-1 (p=0.57) or LUMA (p=0.42), whilst the promoter of a tumor suppressor that is often epigenetically dysregulated, RASSF1A was found to be significantly hypermethylated by Pyrosequencing (p=0.0001).
  • In summary, the epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A is a frequent event in FTC, but is not coupled to changes in global methylation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. DNA Methylation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18813801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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7. Mäenpää HO, Välimäki MJ: [Follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer--when and where?]. Duodecim; 2010;126(20):2424-30
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  • [Title] [Follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer--when and where?].
  • While papillary and follicular thyroid cancer usually has an excellent prognosis, recurrent and aggressive forms of the disease do occur.
  • Based on investigational results, the patients are divided into three groups: the cancer does not exist, may exist or remains.
  • In cancer-free patients, thyroxine therapy will be implemented as in ordinary hypothyreoidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Ablation Techniques. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroxine / therapeutic use


8. Lin JD, Chao TC, Chen ST, Huang YY, Liou MJ, Hsueh C: Operative strategy for follicular thyroid cancer in risk groups stratified by pTNM staging. Surg Oncol; 2007 Aug;16(2):107-13
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  • [Title] Operative strategy for follicular thyroid cancer in risk groups stratified by pTNM staging.
  • This study determined cancer survival rates and follow-up status at different pTNM stages to stratify risk groups in follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Two hundred and fourteen follicular thyroid cancer patients (167 females, 47 males) who underwent surgery and followed-up treatment at a single medical center were enrolled in this retrospective study.
  • Low risk for follicular thyroid cancer was defined as pT1N0M0. (Moderate-risk group) was defined as all other patients in pTNM stage I, and high risk as patients in stages II-IV.
  • After mean follow-up of 9.6+/-0.3 years, 1.6% (2/120), 21.9% (7/32), 5.6% (1/18) and 52.3% (23/44) of patients in pTNM stages I-IV, respectively, died of thyroid cancer.
  • Of 214 follicular thyroid cancer patients, 35 (16.4%), 85 (39.7%) and 94 (43.9%) were defined as low-, moderate- and high-risk groups at the time of surgery.
  • None of the low-risk patients died, and all achieved disease-free status.
  • In the moderate- and high-risk groups, 2.4% (2/85) and 27.7% (26/94) died of thyroid cancer.
  • The moderate- and high-risk groups underwent near-total thyroidectomy and (131)I therapies, and 15 of 107 (14.9%) died of thyroid cancer while 18 (16.8%) had persistent disease at the end of the study period.
  • In conclusion, the low-risk follicular thyroid cancer group as defined by pTNM staging had excellent prognosis.
  • Over one-fourth of the follicular thyroid cancer patients in the high-risk group died of thyroid cancer despite aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17600699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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9. de Keizer B, Arsos G, Smit JW, Lam MG, Rinkes IH, Goldschmeding R, van Isselt JW: I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2008 Mar;18(3):369-71
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  • [Title] I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Focal I-131 accumulation is generally a reliable indicator of functioning normal thyroid tissue or a differentiated thyroid cancer metastasis.
  • We report a case of focal I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Mesothelioma, Cystic / radionuclide imaging. Peritoneal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18298317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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10. Vorländer C, Lienenlüke RH, Wahl RA: [Lymph node dissection in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer]. Chirurg; 2008 Jun;79(6):564-70
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  • [Title] [Lymph node dissection in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: There is still unresolved debate about the optimal surgical management of papillary (PTC) and follicular (FTC) thyroid cancer regarding lymph node dissection.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is based on 626 patients with PTC and 191 with FTC from a group of 1062 own patients with thyroid malignancies.
  • RESULTS: Tumors < or = 20 mm in size were found significantly more often in PTC than FTC (69.6% vs 28.3%, P<0.05).
  • Positive lymph nodes were found significantly more often in PTC than FTC as well (33.2% vs 5.2%, P<0.05).
  • In FTC positive lymph nodes occurred only in tumors >25 mm.
  • CONCLUSION: Due to prevalence and importance of lymph node metastasis differing between PTC and FTC, we recommend treating both tumor entities differently.
  • In small FTC it seems adequate to limit the operation to thyroidectomy without prophylactic lymph dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods


11. Hassan I, Wunderlich A, Slater E, Hoffmann S, Celik I, Zielke A: Antisense p53 decreases production of VEGF in follicular thyroid cancer cells. Endocrine; 2006 Jun;29(3):409-12
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  • [Title] Antisense p53 decreases production of VEGF in follicular thyroid cancer cells.
  • Inactivating mutations of wild-type p53 (WTp53) tumor suppressor gene are common in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and are associated with poor prognosis.
  • Therefore, the potential of MTp53 knockout by oligodeoxyribonucleotide phosphorothioates (ODNs) to affect VEGF production of undifferentiated thyroid cancer cells with a recessive MTp53 mutation was evaluated.
  • Transient transfection with 20 bp ODNs complementary to portions of exon 10 of p53 and a negative control ODN (HIV-RT) were carried out in FTC-133 cells.
  • In vitro secretion of VEGF protein was quantified by EIA and correlated to cell numbers, which was evaluated by in vitro MTT assay.
  • Transfection of undifferentiated thyroid cancer cells with ODN reduced VEGF secretion of FTC-133 cells following transfection by 34% as compared to the negative control (cells transfected with ODN-HIV; p = 0.03).
  • These results suggest that transient MTp53 knockout with ODNs complementary to p53 nucleotide sequences impair secretion of VEGF in the undifferentiated thyroid cancer cell line FTC-133.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Gene Silencing / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Survival. Humans. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / metabolism. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16943578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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12. Passler C, Scheuba C, Asari R, Kaczirek K, Kaserer K, Niederle B: Importance of tumour size in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Br J Surg; 2005 Feb;92(2):184-9
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  • [Title] Importance of tumour size in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The most controversial change in the new pathological tumour node metastasis (pTNM) classification of thyroid tumours is the extension of the pT1 classification to include tumours up to 20 mm.
  • METHODS: Four hundred and three patients with pT1 or pT2 differentiated thyroid carcinomas were divided into three groups according to tumour diameter (group 1, 10 mm or less; group 2, 11-20 mm; group 3, 21-40 mm).
  • They were analysed retrospectively with respect to carcinoma-specific and disease-free survival.
  • RESULTS: No patient in group 1 died from papillary thyroid carcinoma, compared with three patients in group 2 and six in group 3.
  • There was a statistically significant difference in carcinoma-specific survival between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.033).
  • The difference in disease-free survival between groups 1 and 2 was significant (P = 0.025).
  • One patient in group 1, three in group 2 and four in group 3 died from follicular thyroid carcinoma, but there were no significant differences in survival between the three groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Extension of the pT1 classification to cover all tumours up to 20 mm does not appear to be justified for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome


13. Yong W, Goh B, Toh H, Soo R, Diermayr V, Goh A, Ethirajulu K, Lee S, Seah E, Zhu J: Phase I study of SB939 three times weekly for 3 weeks every 4 weeks in patients with advanced solid malignancies. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2560

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  • Of the 13 patients evaluable for response, stable disease was seen in 1 patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma and 1 with hepatocellular carcinoma for 51 and 164 days respectively.

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  • (PMID = 27961888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Kumar A, Nadig M, Patra V, Srivastava DN, Verma K, Bal CS: Adrenal and renal metastases from follicular thyroid cancer. Br J Radiol; 2005 Nov;78(935):1038-41
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  • [Title] Adrenal and renal metastases from follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer may have asymptomatic involvement of renal and/or adrenal gland, particularly if they are elderly and have associated metastases to other organs, which may remain undetected if these patients are not subjected to radioiodine treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery


15. Yamamoto S, Tomita Y, Uruno T, Hoshida Y, Qiu Y, Iizuka N, Nakamichi I, Miyauchi A, Aozasa K: Increased expression of valosin-containing protein (p97) is correlated with disease recurrence in follicular thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Nov;12(11):925-34
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  • [Title] Increased expression of valosin-containing protein (p97) is correlated with disease recurrence in follicular thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is involved in the ubiquitin/proteasome-degradation pathway, which works in proliferation and antiapoptosis in human cancer cells.
  • Our previous study showed that VCP expression levels correlated with the recurrence and prognosis of several human cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and colorectal carcinoma.
  • In this study, the correlation of VCP expression with the prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined.
  • METHODS: VCP expression in 332 patients who underwent operation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma--257 with papillary thyroid carcinoma and 75 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC)--was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
  • However, it correlated with neither any clinicopathologic factor nor prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • VCP expression correlated with extrathyroidal extension (P < .05), pT classification (P < .05), and lymph node metastasis (P < .01) in FTC.
  • Patients with low VCP expressing FTC showed better disease-free and overall survival rates than those with intermediate or high expression (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed VCP expression and extracapsular extension to be independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival in cases of FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic utility of VCP expression in FTC was demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphatases. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16189643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / CDC48 protein
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16. Handkiewicz-Junak D, Czarniecka A, Jarzab B: Molecular prognostic markers in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer: Current status and future directions. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Jun 30;322(1-2):8-28
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  • [Title] Molecular prognostic markers in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer: Current status and future directions.
  • Gene expression profiling shows that, by gene signature, the difference between BRAF-positive and BRAF-negative PTC is so distinct that BRAF-positive cancer may be regarded as a molecular subtype of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
  • The frequency of BRAF mutation in PTC is high-45% on average, with values over 70-80% in some populations.
  • We estimate that 31% of all PTC patients and 39% of those diagnosed with stage I-II disease will face the risk of overtreatment if the decision will be based on the BRAF-positivity of their tumors.
  • Considering this, in the review we summarize the present status of knowledge on other prognosis-related gene expression changes in papillary and follicular cancer and relate them to he tumor's biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mutation. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / metabolism. ras Proteins / genetics. ras Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20138116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 259
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17. von Falck C, Beer G, Gratz KF, Galanski M: Renal metastases from follicular thyroid cancer on SPECT/CT. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Sep;32(9):751-2
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  • [Title] Renal metastases from follicular thyroid cancer on SPECT/CT.
  • In well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, only a subset of patients develop distant metastases, predominantly to the lungs and the skeletal system.
  • We report the case of a 64-year-old woman with a long history of follicular thyroid cancer who developed renal metastases.
  • Subsequent surgery and histopathologic analysis of the renal lesions confirmed the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Iodine Radioisotopes. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


18. Schlumberger M, Hitzel A, Toubert ME, Corone C, Troalen F, Schlageter MH, Claustrat F, Koscielny S, Taieb D, Toubeau M, Bonichon F, Borson-Chazot F, Leenhardt L, Schvartz C, Dejax C, Brenot-Rossi I, Torlontano M, Tenenbaum F, Bardet S, Bussière F, Girard JJ, Morel O, Schneegans O, Schlienger JL, Prost A, So D, Archambeaud F, Ricard M, Benhamou E: Comparison of seven serum thyroglobulin assays in the follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jul;92(7):2487-95
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  • [Title] Comparison of seven serum thyroglobulin assays in the follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is the marker of differentiated thyroid cancer after initial treatment and TSH stimulation increases its sensitivity for the diagnosis of recurrent disease.
  • AIM: The goal of the study is to compare the diagnostic values of seven methods for serum Tg measurement for detecting recurrent disease both during L-T4 treatment and after TSH stimulation.
  • METHODS: Thyroid cancer patients who had no evidence of persistent disease after initial treatment (total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation) were studied at 3 months on L-T4 treatment (Tg1) and then at 9-12 months after withdrawal or recombinant human TSH stimulation (Tg2).
  • Using the two methods with a lowest functional sensitivity at 0.02 and 0.11 ng/ml resulted in a higher sensitivity for Tg1 (81% and 78%), but at the expense of a loss of specificity (42% and 63%); finally, for these two methods, using an optimized functional sensitivity according to receiver operating characteristic curves at 0.22 and 0.27 ng/ml resulted in a sensitivity at 65% and specificity at 85-87% for Tg1.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Chemistry, Clinical / methods. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov;3(11):738-9 [17700550.001]
  • (PMID = 17426102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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19. Kumar A, Klinge CM, Goldstein RE: Estradiol-induced proliferation of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cells is mediated by estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Int J Oncol; 2010 May;36(5):1067-80
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  • [Title] Estradiol-induced proliferation of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cells is mediated by estrogen receptors alpha and beta.
  • Premenopausal women are at highest risk for papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, implicating a role for estrogens in thyroid cancer.
  • The expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER), the effects of estradiol (E2), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) 4-hydroxytamoxifen and raloxifene, and ER subtype selective agonists were examined in NPA87 and KAT5 papillary and WRO follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • All three thyroid cancer cell lines expressed full-length ERalpha and ERbeta proteins with cytoplasmic localization that was unaffected by E2.
  • ICI 182,780 (Fulvestrant, an ER antagonist), and inhibitors of non-genomic E2-activated MAPK and PI3K signaling blocked E2-induced cell proliferation.
  • SERMs acted in a cell line-specific manner.
  • No E2-induced estrogen response element (ERE)-driven reporter activity was observed in transiently transfected thyroid cancer cells.
  • In contrast, E2 did not increase progesterone receptor expression in the thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • GPR30 expression was lower in WRO than MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
  • Overall, these findings suggest E2-mediated thyroid cancer cell proliferation involves ERalpha and ERbeta transcriptional and non-genomic signaling events.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Phosphorylation. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Raloxifene Hydrochloride / pharmacology. Signal Transduction. Tamoxifen / analogs & derivatives. Tamoxifen / pharmacology


20. Weber F, Aldred MA, Morrison CD, Plass C, Frilling A, Broelsch CE, Waite KA, Eng C: Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):1149-55
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  • [Title] Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • The two most common subtypes of thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma, have been extensively studied, but our fundamental understanding of the molecular events in thyroid epithelial oncogenesis is still limited.
  • Unreported data from our previous published global gene expression analysis revealed that the tumor suppressor gene aplysia ras homolog I (ARHI) is frequently underexpressed in FTCs.
  • In this study, we elucidated the frequency and mechanism of ARHI silencing in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia.
  • We demonstrated that underexpression of ARHI occurs principally in FTCs (P = 0.0018), including its oncocytic variant (11 of 13), even at minimally invasive stage but not classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (two of seven) or follicular adenoma (FA) (three of 14).
  • FTCs show strong allelic imbalance with reduction in copy number/loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 69%, compared with less than 10% for FAs.
  • In combination with our LOH data, bisulfite sequencing in a subset of samples revealed that FA displays a symmetric methylation pattern, likely representing one unmethylated allele and one presumptively imprinted allele, whereas FTC shows a virtually complete methylation pattern, representing LOH of the nonimprinted allele with only the hypermethylated allele remaining.
  • Furthermore, we showed that pharmacologic inhibition of histone deacetylation but not demethylation could reactivate ARHI expression in the FTC133 FTC cell line.
  • Therefore, our data suggest that silencing of the putative maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene ARHI, primarily by large genomic deletion in conjunction with hypermethylation of the genomically imprinted allele, serves as a key early event in follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Gene Silencing. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genomic Imprinting / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15546898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA16059
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / DIRAS3 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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21. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Glazer E, Schwartz AM: Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study.
  • Thyroid carcinomas with follicular phenotype have demonstrated changing patterns over 30 years (1973-2003) according to data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute.
  • Papillary carcinomas have significantly increased.
  • They accounted for 74% of all cases of thyroid cancers in 1973 and 87% in 2003.
  • During this period, the incidence rate of papillary carcinoma (including the follicular variant) increased by 189%, the rate of follicular carcinoma remained stable, and the rate of anaplastic carcinoma decreased by 22%.
  • The rate of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma alone increased by 173%.
  • Thyroid cancer was more common in whites than in blacks and in females more than in males.
  • Papillary carcinomas rapidly increased during adolescence and reached a peak around age 52-56, then declined.
  • Follicular carcinomas increased steadily, but at a lower rate until age 80.
  • After 1988, both papillary and follicular carcinomas, less than 2 cm, increased at the same rate as carcinomas larger than 2 cm.
  • However, papillary carcinomas less than 2 cm were more common.
  • Overall, the 10-year relative survival rate was greater than 90% for blacks and whites with the exception of follicular carcinoma in blacks.
  • The 10-year relative survival rate for anaplastic carcinoma in patients over 40 years of age was 4.7%.
  • The decrease in incidence rate of anaplastic carcinoma may be the result of the successful treatment of papillary and follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma, Papillary. Thyroid Neoplasms


22. Ziad el A, Ruchala M, Breborowicz J, Gembicki M, Sowinski J, Grzymislawski M: Immunoexpression of TTF-1 and Ki-67 in a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid cancer with rare long-life surviving. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(4):461-4
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  • [Title] Immunoexpression of TTF-1 and Ki-67 in a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid cancer with rare long-life surviving.
  • We report the immunohistochemical diagnosis, including TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1) and Ki-67, of a rare mixed thyroid neoplasm composed of minimally invasive well differentiated follicular areas and highly aggressive undifferentiated anaplastic areas.
  • Considering the dynamics of the disease and the multiple challenges presented by the patient: advanced age, tumor size, history of a longstanding goiter we decided to transfer her to the department of surgery.
  • The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • The proliferation index Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, was found to be significantly higher in the anaplastic areas (30 +/- 5%) in the comparison with the follicular areas (2 +/- 1%).
  • The evaluation of the thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) expression revealed a correlation with the tumor cells aggressiveness accordingly to the cancer areas.
  • The patient is alive and more than five years after diagnosis she presented an increase of the serum thyroglobulin level suggesting, probably, a recurrence of the follicular form of the cancer.
  • According to our survey we suggest that in thyroid cancers TTF-1 and Ki-67 could provides useful information on the differentiation activities of thyroid tumor cells and may be helpful to distinguish well differentiated and undifferentiated areas in a mixed thyroid cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19141399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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23. Satoh S, Inoue A, Kidera K, Kuratomi Y, Inokuchi A: [A case of follicular carcinoma of thyroid gland with concurrent tuberculous lymphadenitises]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2007 Jan;110(1):20-3
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  • [Title] [A case of follicular carcinoma of thyroid gland with concurrent tuberculous lymphadenitises].
  • We report a case of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland with concurrent tuberculous lymphadenitises as neck lymph node metastases of thyroid carcinoma.
  • A 71-year-old woman presented with multiple painless masses in the thyroid gland and painless lymphadenopathies in the right neck.
  • A diagnosis of thyroid cancer with lymph node metastases was made, and the patient underwent total thyroidectomy with neck dissection.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was follicular carcinoma and multiple nodes of adenomatous goiter of the thyroid gland, and tuberculous lymphadenitises of lymph nodes in the right neck.
  • The possibility of coexisting tuberculous lymphadenitis must thus be ruled out when we find painless lymph node swelling in aged patients with head and neck cancer including thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / complications

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  • (PMID = 17302297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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24. Pacini F, Schlumberger M, Harmer C, Berg GG, Cohen O, Duntas L, Jamar F, Jarzab B, Limbert E, Lind P, Reiners C, Sanchez Franco F, Smit J, Wiersinga W: Post-surgical use of radioiodine (131I) in patients with papillary and follicular thyroid cancer and the issue of remnant ablation: a consensus report. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Nov;153(5):651-9
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  • [Title] Post-surgical use of radioiodine (131I) in patients with papillary and follicular thyroid cancer and the issue of remnant ablation: a consensus report.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine, based on published literature and expert clinical experience, current indications for the post-surgical administration of a large radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: There is general agreement that patients with unifocal microcarcinomas = 1 cm in diameter and no node or distant metastases have a <2% recurrence rate after surgery alone, and that post-surgical radioiodine confers recurrence and cause-specific survival benefits in patients, strongly suspected of having persistent disease or known to have tumor in the neck or distant sites.


25. Lin JD, Chao TC: Follicular thyroid carcinoma: From diagnosis to treatment. Endocr J; 2006 Aug;53(4):441-8
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid carcinoma: From diagnosis to treatment.
  • Unusual presentations with bone, lung or soft tissue metastases in initial diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma have been reported occasionally.
  • This implies how difficult it is to diagnosis this type of cancer at the pre-operative or intra-operative stage of treatment.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology has been shown to be an ineffective method for diagnosing vascular or capsule invasion of follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Clinical application of various gene expressions in thyroid follicular tumors by needle aspiration using in situ hybridization requires further investigation.
  • Although radioactive iodide (131I) has been used as the standard treatment for follicular thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases, the effectiveness of 131I treatment for follicular thyroid carcinoma depends on the differentiation of cancer cells.
  • The possibility of 131I for thyroid remnant ablation replacing a secondary operation for follicular thyroid carcinoma has been debated.
  • Recent studies applied more expressions of sodium iodide symporters to attain the effect of 131I treatment and slow the proliferation of thyroid cancer cell which, in turn, slows the progression of follicular carcinoma.
  • Consensus for the surgical procedures for the specific prognostic risks for follicular thyroid carcinoma is needed.
  • Dedifferentiated, anti-angiogenic, or gene therapies for follicular thyroid cancer with distant metastases or anaplastic transformation comprise the principal directions in future research for this cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16807500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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26. Kushchayeva Y, Duh QY, Kebebew E, D'Avanzo A, Clark OH: Comparison of clinical characteristics at diagnosis and during follow-up in 118 patients with Hurthle cell or follicular thyroid cancer. Am J Surg; 2008 Apr;195(4):457-62
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  • [Title] Comparison of clinical characteristics at diagnosis and during follow-up in 118 patients with Hurthle cell or follicular thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Hurthle cell cancer (HCC) is considered by some to be a variant of follicular cancer (FC), but many think it is a distinct histologic tumor with a more aggressive behavior.
  • METHODS: The influence of age at diagnosis, tumor stage, gender, and extent of operation on disease-free interval and cause-specific mortality at 5 and 10 years after initial thyroidectomy was analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The 10-year disease-free interval was 75% for FC and 40.5% for HCC (P = .08).
  • The risk factors for HCC progression and survival were extrathyroidal invasion, presence of metastases at diagnosis, male gender, and extent of thyroidectomy, whereas for FC, the only significant risk factors were extrathyroidal invasion and presence of metastases at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


27. Matuszczyk A, Petersenn S, Voigt W, Kegel T, Dralle H, Schmoll HJ, Bockisch A, Mann K: Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Jan;42(1):61-4
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • Nine patients (mean age 53) with metastasizing, progressive, medullary (MTC), thyroid carcinoma and progressive, nonradioiodine accumulating thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium (follicular carcinoma, FTC and papillary carcinoma, PTC) were treated with a combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine between 2004 and 2006.
  • Tumors were histologically classified as follicular in 5 patients (56%), as papillary in 2 patients (22%), and medullary in 2 patients (22%).
  • All patients with papillary, follicular, or medullary thyroid carcinoma had continuous progression during restaging 14.8+/-8.8 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy, including one patient with stable disease after 3 cycles, but continuous progression after 6 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • Paclitaxel and gemcitabine are not a valid chemotherapy option, in particular in patients with progressive, nonradioiodine-accumulating follicular thyroid carcinoma, who were already treated by other chemotherapeutic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
  • (PMID = 19735058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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28. Mullin EJ, Metcalfe MS, Maddern GJ: Differentiation of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer from hepatocellular carcinoma using Hep Par 1. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;22(11):2047-8
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  • [Title] Differentiation of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer from hepatocellular carcinoma using Hep Par 1.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma usually arises in a cirrhotic liver.
  • The case is reported of a middle-aged woman presenting with multiple nodules on computed tomography with no clinically apparent primary for whom results of initial diagnostic investigations were potentially misleading.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans


29. Martínez-Delgado IA, Gómez-Martínez G, Ojeda-Ibarra JM: [Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid and diffuse toxic goiter. Case report]. Cir Cir; 2007 May-Jun;75(3):213-6
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  • [Title] [Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid and diffuse toxic goiter. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer folicular de tiroides y bocio tóxico difuso. Reporte de un caso.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid cancer rarely manifests itself as a distant metastatic lesion.
  • We report a case of a male with follicular thyroid cancer that presented as a distant metastatic lesion and diffuse toxic goiter.
  • CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old man was evaluated because of a soft, painless, pulsating sternal mass of 6 x 6 cm.
  • An incisional biopsy of the soft tissue showed metastatic thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • A thyroid scan revealed uptake of (131)I in all thyroid areas of 36%.
  • Three months later, thyroid scan was negative and thyroglobulin was 17 ng/ml.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report this case of follicular thyroid cancer because of its uncommon initial sternal presentation and soft tissue metastasis with diffuse toxic goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Goiter / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17659173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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30. Woodruff SL, Arowolo OA, Akute OO, Afolabi AO, Nwariaku F: Global variation in the pattern of differentiated thyroid cancer. Am J Surg; 2010 Oct;200(4):462-6
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  • [Title] Global variation in the pattern of differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is increasing worldwide.
  • Iodine deficiency is a risk factor for follicular thyroid cancer (FTC).
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of thyroid cancer at tertiary centers in West Africa and the United States.
  • All patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer from 1980 to 2004 were retrieved from the West African Center's Cancer Registry Database.
  • In the American center, a review of patients undergoing surgery for thyroid cancer from 1997 to 2008 was performed.
  • RESULTS: At the African institution, 322 patients underwent thyroidectomy for cancer from 1980 to 2004.
  • Overall, 31.5% had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and 30.3% had FTC.
  • From 1980 to 1989, 27.3% had PTC and 35.8% had FTC.
  • From 1990 to 2004, 35.7% had PTC and 24.8% had FTC.
  • At the American institution, 105 patients underwent surgery for thyroid cancer from 1997 to 2008; 79% had PTC and 7.6% had FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FTC is still common in developing countries, whereas PTC is the predominant subtype in developed countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. SEER Program. United States / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20887838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Trojanowicz B, Winkler A, Hammje K, Chen Z, Sekulla C, Glanz D, Schmutzler C, Mentrup B, Hombach-Klonisch S, Klonisch T, Finke R, Köhrle J, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C: Retinoic acid-mediated down-regulation of ENO1/MBP-1 gene products caused decreased invasiveness of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines. J Mol Endocrinol; 2009 Mar;42(3):249-60
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  • [Title] Retinoic acid-mediated down-regulation of ENO1/MBP-1 gene products caused decreased invasiveness of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • Retinoic acid (RA) acts as an anti-proliferative and redifferentiation agent in the therapy of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Our previous studies demonstrated that pretreatment of follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines FTC-133 and FTC-238 resulted in decreased in vitro proliferation rates and reduced tumor cell growth of xenotransplants.
  • In addition to the previous results, we found that RA led to decreased vitality and invasiveness of FTC-133 and FTC-238 cells as they reacted with reduction of intracellular ATP levels and number of migrated cells respectively.
  • However, the molecular mechanisms by which RA mediates these effects are not well understood.
  • Two-dimensional (2D) screening of the proteins related to ATP metabolism and western blot analysis revealed alpha-enolase (ENO1) to be down-regulated in FTC-133 and FTC-238 cells after RA treatment.
  • Comparative 2D difference gel electrophoresis analysis of fluorescently labeled protein samples of RA-treated and untreated FTC-133 demonstrated a selective down-regulation of ENO1-A1 which we identified as a phosphoprotein.
  • Both, RA-mediated and specific knock-down of ENO1/MBP-1 resulted in the reduction of MYC oncoprotein, and simultaneously decreased proliferation rates of FTC-133 and FTC-238 cell lines.
  • In summary, the RA-mediated down-regulation of the ENO1 gene products and MYC oncoprotein provides a novel molecular mechanism facilitating the anti-proliferative effect of RA in human thyroid carcinoma cells and suggests new pathways for supportive RA therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Cell Movement / drug effects. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tretinoin / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Humans. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 19060179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6813
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 4.2.1.11 / ENO1 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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32. Blesch G: Finding victory in legal defeat. FTC says ENH can keep Highland Park (Ill.) Hospital, but industry wary of what anti-competitive decision might mean. Mod Healthc; 2007 Aug 13;37(32):6-7, 16, 1

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  • [Title] Finding victory in legal defeat. FTC says ENH can keep Highland Park (Ill.) Hospital, but industry wary of what anti-competitive decision might mean.
  • FTC litigator Tom Brock, left, says the case turned on exorbitant price hikes the system extracted from managed-care plans.

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  • (PMID = 17958257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0160-7480
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern healthcare
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod Healthc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Asari R, Koperek O, Scheuba C, Riss P, Kaserer K, Hoffmann M, Niederle B: Follicular thyroid carcinoma in an iodine-replete endemic goiter region: a prospectively collected, retrospectively analyzed clinical trial. Ann Surg; 2009 Jun;249(6):1023-31
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid carcinoma in an iodine-replete endemic goiter region: a prospectively collected, retrospectively analyzed clinical trial.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for presence of lymph node or distant metastases in patients with follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) at the time of diagnosis and whether there is a relationship between the type of tumor invasion and metastases.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: FTC often presents distant metastases at the initial diagnosis.
  • METHODS: The prognostic significance of gender (male vs. female), age (<or=40 years vs. <40 years), tumor size (<or=40 mm vs. >40 mm), number of lesions (uni- vs. multifocality), type of invasion (minimally invasive vs. widely invasive), and oncocytic changes (with vs. without) were analyzed in 207 patients, according to presence of lymph node and distant metastases at the time of initial surgery.
  • According to the type of invasion, the carcinoma-specific survival and the disease-free survival of minimally invasive (MI) and widely invasive (WI) FTC were estimated and compared.
  • Overall risk factors for the presence of lymph node metastases at the initial diagnosis were multifocality (P = 0.02) and widely invasion (P = 0.0001) and for distant metastases age >45 years (P = 0.007), tumor size larger than 40 mm (P = 0.03) and widely invasion (P = 0.0001).WI-FTC patients show larger tumors (P = 0.0001), older age (P = 0.0001), and are presented more frequently in recurrent goiter disease (P = 0.0001).
  • The estimated 10 years carcinoma-specific survival and disease-free survival for MI-tumors were significantly better than for WI-tumors (P = 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Total thyroidectomy is recommended in all patients with FTC because of early distant metastases.
  • Patients with WI-FTC need a more aggressive surgical treatment because of higher tendency for lymph node metastases.
  • MI-FTC has an excellent prognosis with no sign of lymph node metastases, which emphasizes a limited need for nodal surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Goiter, Endemic / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19474675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Naoi Y, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Kim SJ, Arai T, Maruyama N, Tamaki Y, Noguchi S: Connexin26 expression is associated with aggressive phenotype in human papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. Cancer Lett; 2008 Apr 18;262(2):248-56
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  • [Title] Connexin26 expression is associated with aggressive phenotype in human papillary and follicular thyroid cancers.
  • Connexin26 (Cx26), a component of GAP junctions and until recently believed to be a tumor suppressor gene, has been shown to play an important role in lymphatic invasion as well as lymph node and distant metastases in squamous lung cancer and breast cancer.
  • In the study presented here, we investigated Cx26 expression in human papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and its relationship with various clinicopathological parameters.
  • Of 69 PTCs, 33 were positive for Cx26 (47.8%), as were five of 11 FTCs (45.5%), all follicular thyroid adenomas (n=22) and normal thyroid tissues (n=20) were negative for Cx26.
  • A statistically significant association was observed between Cx26 expression and large tumor size (p=0.028 for PTC) and lymph node metastases (p=0.053 (marginally significant) for PTC and p=0.035 for FTC).
  • These results suggest that Cx26 may be implicated in the pathogenesis of PTC and FTC and is associated with the biologically aggressive phenotypes of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Connexins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18191019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 127120-53-0 / connexin 26
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35. Kushwaha RA, Verma SK, Mahajan SV: Endobronchial metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as hemoptysis: a case report. J Cancer Res Ther; 2008 Jan-Mar;4(1):44-5
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  • [Title] Endobronchial metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as hemoptysis: a case report.
  • Endobronchial metastasis secondary to follicular thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare.
  • Here, we report a case of follicular thyroid cancer in 58-year-old male who presented with hemoptysis.
  • Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed a fragile polypoid mass 5 cm distal to the vocal cords; biopsy taken from this mass revealed follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18417903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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36. Kim CS, Vasko VV, Kato Y, Kruhlak M, Saji M, Cheng SY, Ringel MD: AKT activation promotes metastasis in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Endocrinology; 2005 Oct;146(10):4456-63
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  • [Title] AKT activation promotes metastasis in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway is crucial to many cell functions, and its dysregulation in tumors is a common finding.
  • The molecular basis of follicular thyroid cancer metastasis is not well understood but may also be influenced by AKT activation.
  • We previously created a knockin mutant mouse that expresses a mutant thyroid hormone receptor-beta gene (TRbetaPV mouse) that spontaneously develops thyroid cancer and distant metastasis similar to human follicular thyroid cancer.
  • In this study, we investigated whether our mouse model exhibits similar AKT activation as human follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Western blot analysis on thyroids from both wild-type and TRbeta(PV/PV) mice revealed elevation of activated AKT in TRbeta(PV/PV) mice.
  • Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy reveal activated AKT in both the thyroid and metastatic lesions of TRbeta(PV/PV) mice.
  • Whereas all three AKT isoforms were overexpressed in primary tumors from TRbeta(PV/PV) mice in the cytoplasm of thyroid cancer cells, only AKT1 was also found in the nucleus, matching the localization of activated AKT in a pattern similar to human follicular thyroid cancer.
  • We created primary thyroid cell lines derived from TRbeta(PV/PV) mice and found reduction of phosphorylated AKT levels or AKT downstream targets diminishes cell motility.
  • Activated AKT is common to both human and mouse follicular thyroid cancer and is correlated with increased cell motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo.
  • Thus, TRbeta(PV/PV) mice could be used to further dissect the detailed pathways underlying the progression and metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Movement. Disease Models, Animal. Enzyme Activation. Humans. Kinetics. Mice. Neoplasm Metastasis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt

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  • (PMID = 16002527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
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37. Lo CY, Chan WF, Lam KY, Wan KY: Follicular thyroid carcinoma: the role of histology and staging systems in predicting survival. Ann Surg; 2005 Nov;242(5):708-15
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid carcinoma: the role of histology and staging systems in predicting survival.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors including tumor histomorphology for survival specific to follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and to apply commonly employed staging systems in predicting survival for patients with FTC.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: FTC is usually analyzed collectively with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in risk group analysis.
  • Risk factors and risk group analysis are important in the management of patients with FTC, although current published therapeutic guidelines call for total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine (I) ablation for all FTC patients.
  • METHODS: Over a 40-year period, 156 patients surgically treated for FTC with an average follow-up of 14.4 years were retrospectively studied after histologic reclassification according to the type and degree of invasiveness of the tumor.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen (11%) patients had distant metastases at presentation, and bilateral thyroid resection was performed for 131 (84%) patients.
  • Seventeen (11%) patients died of recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • The overall and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates at 10 years were 79% and 88%, respectively.
  • None of the patients with minimally invasive (n = 49) or angioinvasive (n = 23) carcinomas died compared with 17 of 84 patients with widely invasive carcinomas (P = 0.0007).
  • For patients who underwent curative treatment, old age and widely invasive carcinoma were risk factors for poor survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Commonly adopted staging systems can be applied specifically to patients with FTC.
  • The distinction of FTC in minimally invasive and widely invasive carcinoma based on the extent of invasiveness rather than vascular invasion is important in identifying low-risk FTC patients for a more conservative management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16244545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1409851
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38. Foukakis T, Au AY, Wallin G, Geli J, Forsberg L, Clifton-Bligh R, Robinson BG, Lui WO, Zedenius J, Larsson C: The Ras effector NORE1A is suppressed in follicular thyroid carcinomas with a PAX8-PPARgamma fusion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):1143-9
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  • [Title] The Ras effector NORE1A is suppressed in follicular thyroid carcinomas with a PAX8-PPARgamma fusion.
  • NORE1A has not been studied in thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether NORE1A is involved in follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) development.
  • DESIGN: We analyzed NORE1A expression in 25 FTCs, eight follicular thyroid adenomas, and seven normal thyroid tissues by TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR.
  • No NORE1A promoter methylation was detected in the 32 thyroid tumors analyzed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments demonstrate the suppression of NORE1A, a known Ras effector, in PAX8-PPARgamma carrying FTCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Methylation. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Exons. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Recombination, Genetic. Restriction Mapping. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Suppression, Genetic / genetics. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16352687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / RASSF5 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.6.5.2 / Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins
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39. Morrison PJ, Atkinson AB: Genetic aspects of familial thyroid cancer. Oncologist; 2009 Jun;14(6):571-7
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  • [Title] Genetic aspects of familial thyroid cancer.
  • Familial thyroid cancer is rare, accounting for <10% of thyroid cancer cases.
  • Activating germline point mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A, 2B, and familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC)-around 3% of thyroid cancer cases.
  • Familial papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) have been identified as a distinct group of familial thyroid cancers.
  • Sporadic nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) accounts for approximately 90% of all thyroid cancers-about 6% of NMTCs are familial (FNMTC).
  • Although multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B and FMTC are well characterized, very little is known about the genetic predisposition to PTC and FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19465682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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40. Soula-Rothhut M, Coissard C, Sartelet H, Boudot C, Bellon G, Martiny L, Rothhut B: The tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in FTC-133 thyroid carcinoma cells. Exp Cell Res; 2005 Mar 10;304(1):187-201
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  • [Title] The tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in FTC-133 thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • In the present study, we found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) up-regulated TSP-1 expression in FTC-133 (primary tumor) but not in FTC-238 (lung metastasis) thyroid cancer cells.
  • In FTC-133 cells, EGF induced proliferation in a TSP-1- and TIMP-1-dependent manner.
  • In addition, we determined that re-expression of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN induced cell death, an effect that correlated with a block of Akt kinase phosphorylation.
  • EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 promoter activity and protein expression were inhibited in FTC-133 cells stably expressing wtPTEN but not in cells expressing mutant PTEN.
  • Furthermore, we found that wtPTEN inhibited EGF--but not TSP-1--stimulated FTC-133 cell migration and also inhibited invasion induced by EGF and by TSP-1.
  • Finally, an antibody against TSP-1 reversed EGF-stimulated FTC-133 cell invasion as well as the constitutive invasive potential of FTC-238 cells.
  • Overall, our results suggest that PTEN can function as an important modulator of extracellular matrix proteins in thyroid cancer.
  • Therefore, analyzing differential regulation of TSP-1 by growth factors such as EGF can be helpful in understanding thyroid cancer development.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / metabolism. Thrombospondin 1 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Humans. MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15707585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4827
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thrombospondin 1; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 1; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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41. Yan J, Zhang Y, Ehret G: Corticofugal shaping of frequency tuning curves in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of mice. J Neurophysiol; 2005 Jan;93(1):71-83
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  • [Title] Corticofugal shaping of frequency tuning curves in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of mice.
  • The latter was used here to measure how stimulation in the tonotopy of the mouse primary auditory cortex influences frequency tuning in the midbrain central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).
  • Shapes of collicular frequency tuning curves (FTCs) were quantified before and after cortical activation by measuring best frequencies, FTC bandwidths at various sound levels, level tolerance, Q-values, steepness of low- and high-frequency slopes, and asymmetries.
  • The changes were dependent not only on the relationship of physiological properties between the stimulated cortical neurons and recorded collicular neurons but also on the tuning curve class of the collicular neuron.
  • Cortical activation assimilated collicular FTC shapes; sharp and broad FTCs were changed to the shapes comparable to those of auditory nerve fibers.
  • Plasticity in the ICC was organized in a center (excitatory)-surround (inhibitory) way with regard to the stimulated location (i.e., the frequency) of cortical tonotopy.
  • This ensures, together with the spatial gradients of distribution of collicular FTC shapes, a sharp spectral filtering at the core of collicular frequency-band laminae and an increase in frequency selectivity at the periphery of the laminae.
  • Mechanisms of FTC plasticity were suggested to comprise both corticofugal and local ICC components of excitatory and inhibitory modulation leading to a temporary change of the balance between excitation and inhibition in the ICC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acoustic Stimulation / methods. Action Potentials / physiology. Action Potentials / radiation effects. Analysis of Variance. Animals. Cell Count. Chi-Square Distribution. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Electric Stimulation / methods. Female. Mice. Sensory Thresholds / physiology. Sensory Thresholds / radiation effects. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15331615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurophysiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Xing M: Genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway in thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2010 Jul;20(7):697-706
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  • [Title] Genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway in thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Aberrant activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway plays a fundamental role in thyroid tumorigenesis, particularly in follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and aggressive thyroid cancer, such as anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC).
  • As the drivers of this process, many genetic alterations activating the PI3K/Akt pathway have been identified in thyroid cancer in recent years.
  • These include PIK3CA mutations and genomic amplification/copy gain, Ras mutations, PTEN mutations, RET/PTC and PPARgamma/Pax8 rearrangements, as well as amplification/copy gain of PIK3CB, PDK1, Akt, and various receptor tyrosine kinase genes.
  • Most of these genetic alterations are particularly common in FTC and many of them are even more common in ATC; they are generally less common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), in which the MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway activated by the BRAF mutation instead plays a major role.
  • Many of these genetic alterations are mutually exclusive in differentiated thyroid tumors, but with increasing concurrence from benign tumors to FTC to ATC.
  • It is proposed that genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway promote thyroid cell transformation to FTC and that genetic alterations in the MAPK pathway promote cell transformation to PTC; accumulation of multiple genetic alterations that can activate both pathways promotes thyroid cancer aggressiveness and progression to ATC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic alterations are common in the PI3K/Akt pathway in thyroid cancer and play a fundamental role in the tumorigenesis and progression of this cancer.
  • This provides a strong basis for the emerging development of novel genetic-based diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies for thyroid cancer.


43. Murugan AK, Bojdani E, Xing M: Identification and functional characterization of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations in thyroid cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2010 Mar 12;393(3):555-9
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  • [Title] Identification and functional characterization of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations in thyroid cancer.
  • In the present study, we investigated IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), with the latter, like glioblastoma, having a rapidly aggressive and lethal clinical course.
  • By direct genomic DNA sequencing, we analyzed exon 4 of the IDH1 and IDH2 genes that harbored the mutation hot spots codon 132 and 172 of the two genes in glioblastoma, respectively, in 12 thyroid cancer cell lines, 20 FTC, and 18 ATC tumor samples.
  • A previously described IDH1 V71I mutation was found in a case of FTC and a case of ATC and no mutations were found in the cell lines.
  • The overall prevalence of mutations was thus 1/20 (5%) in FTC and 2/18 (11%) in ATC.
  • We did not find mutation in the IDH2 gene in these thyroid cancer cell lines and tumor samples.
  • Sequence alignment analysis of 16 species revealed that the novel IDH1 G123R mutation was located in a highly conserved region, raising the possibility of a serious functional consequence as could also be predicted by the occurrence of a positively charged amino acid from this mutation.
  • Thus, functionally relevant IDH1 mutations can also occur in thyroid cancer, particularly ATC, suggesting a potential tumorigenic role of the IDH1 system that could represent a new therapeutic target for thyroid cancer.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20171178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA134225-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA134225-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA134225-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA134225
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS182112; NLM/ PMC2838977
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44. Miyakawa M, Onoda N, Etoh M, Fukuda I, Takano K, Okamoto T, Obara T: Diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by the vascular pattern and velocimetric parameters using high resolution pulsed and power Doppler ultrasonography. Endocr J; 2005 Apr;52(2):207-12
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by the vascular pattern and velocimetric parameters using high resolution pulsed and power Doppler ultrasonography.
  • The aim of this study was to define the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by the vascular pattern and velocimetric parameters using high resolution pulsed and power Doppler ultrasonography (US).
  • We compared the vascular pattern and the velocimetric parameters, such as peak systolic velocity (Vmax), end-diastolic velocity (Vmin), pulsatility index (PI), or resistance index (RI) between follicular adenoma (FA, n = 25) and follicular carcinoma (FC, n = 10) and analysed them by means of receiver characteristics curves (ROC).
  • These color flow imagings by power Doppler US were suggested to be a reliable tool for the differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular tumor with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 92%.
  • The diagnostic efficiency evaluated by ROC curves were 0.898 for PI, 0.876 for RI, and 0.888 for Vmax/Vmin, respectively.
  • In conclusion, the evaluation of the vascular pattern and the velocimetric parameters using pulsed and power Doppler ultrasound may provide important information that is useful in making correct differential diagnosis of malignant or benign thyroid follicular tumor preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Flow Velocity. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15863949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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45. Lim SG, Krastev Z, Ng TM, Mechkov G, Kotzev IA, Chan S, Mondou E, Snow A, Sorbel J, Rousseau F: Randomized, double-blind study of emtricitabine (FTC) plus clevudine versus FTC alone in treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2006 May;50(5):1642-8
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  • [Title] Randomized, double-blind study of emtricitabine (FTC) plus clevudine versus FTC alone in treatment of chronic hepatitis B.
  • Emtricitabine (FTC) is approved for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus.
  • FTC and clevudine (CLV) have activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV).
  • This report summarizes the results of a double-blind, multicenter study of patients with chronic hepatitis B who had completed a phase 3 study of FTC and were randomized 1:1 to 200 mg FTC once daily (QD) plus 10 mg CLV QD or 200 mg FTC QD plus placebo for 24 weeks with 24 weeks of follow-up.
  • One hundred sixty-three patients were treated (82 with FTC plus CLV [FTC+CLV] and 81 with FTC); 72% were men, 53% were Asian, 47% were Caucasian, and 52% were hepatitis B e antigen positive, and the median baseline HBV DNA level was 6 log(10) copies/ml.
  • After 24 weeks of treatment, 74% (FTC+CLV) versus 65% (FTC alone) had serum HBV DNA levels of <4,700 copies/ml (P = 0.114) (Digene HBV Hybrid Capture II assay).
  • Twenty-four weeks posttreatment, the mean change in serum HBV DNA levels from baseline was -1.25 log(10) copies/ml (FTC+CLV), 40% had undetectable viremia (versus 23% for FTC alone), and 63% had normal alanine aminotransferase levels (versus 42% for FTC alone) (P < or = 0.025 for all endpoints).
  • In summary, after 24 weeks of treatment, no significant difference between arms was observed, but there was a significantly greater virologic and biochemical response 24 weeks posttreatment in the FTC+CLV arm.

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  • (PMID = 16641430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Bicarbonates; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Electrolytes; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 0 / Serum Albumin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 3083-77-0 / Arabinofuranosyluracil; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.2.1.- / Amylases; G70B4ETF4S / Emtricitabine; IN51MVP5F1 / Clevudine; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1472200
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46. Penna-Martinez M, Ramos-Lopez E, Stern J, Hinsch N, Hansmann ML, Selkinski I, Grünwald F, Vorländer C, Wahl RA, Bechstein WO, Zeuzem S, Holzer K, Badenhoop K: Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Jun;19(6):623-8
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  • [Title] Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • To investigate the role of the VDR gene and its influence on 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plasma levels in thyroid carcinoma, we analyzed four VDR polymorphisms in patients and healthy controls (HC).
  • METHODS: Patients with thyroid carcinoma (n = 172) (n = 132 for papillary and n = 40 for follicular) and HC (n = 321) were genotyped for the ApaI (rs7975232), TaqI (rs731236), BsmI (rs1544410), and FokI (rs10735810) polymorphisms within the VDR gene and correlated with 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plasma levels.
  • RESULTS: The genotypes AA of the ApaI (rs7975232) and FF of the FokI (rs10735810) polymorphisms were significantly less frequent (12.5% vs. 35.2% and 25% vs. 42.1%, respectively, both corrected p [p(c)] = 0.04) in patients with follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) than in HC.
  • Additionally, the haplotypes, Ta (57.5% vs. 41.4%; p(c) = 0.0207), af (24.6% vs. 14.3%; p(c) = 0.0116), Tab (51.1% vs. 36.8%; p(c) = 0.0495), and Tabf (18.7% vs. 13.6%; p(c) = 0.0240) were more frequent, whereas the haplotypes AF (17.1% vs. 37.2%; p(c) = 0.0008), BF (11.4% vs. 31.9%; p(c) = 0.012), tF (7.9% vs. 25.5%; p(c) = 0.0016), and tABF (7.6% vs. 23%; p(c) = 0.0115) were less frequent in the FTC patients compared to HC.
  • Neither genotype nor haplotype frequencies differed between patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and HC.
  • Further, individuals with PTC and FTC had a significantly lower level of circulating 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) compared to controls.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lower circulating levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) are observed in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Further, while the alleles AA and FF of the ApaI (rs7975232) and FokI (rs10735810) VDR polymorphisms and the haplotype tABF confer to protection from follicular carcinoma, the haplotype Tabf appeared to be associated with an increased FTC risk.
  • Since this is the first report associating VDR polymorphisms with thyroid carcinoma, these findings need to be confirmed in studies with larger numbers of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics. Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoantibodies / immunology. Calcifediol / metabolism. Calcitriol / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Female. Genotype. Haplotypes. Humans. Male. Neutrophil Infiltration. Thyroid Gland / immunology. Vitamin D / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19499989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; P6YZ13C99Q / Calcifediol
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47. Podnos YD, Smith D, Wagman LD, Ellenhorn JD: Radioactive iodine offers survival improvement in patients with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1072-6; discussion 1076-7
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  • [Title] Radioactive iodine offers survival improvement in patients with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of radioactive iodine (RAI) in patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma is well established.
  • It was used to identify patients with follicular thyroid carcinomas and the treatment that they received.
  • RESULTS: A total of 4317 patients were identified with follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Factors that were associated with increased risk of death included distant metastatic disease, cervical lymph node disease, and the lack of RAI use.
  • CONCLUSION: RAI provides survival benefit to some patients with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The greatest improvements were seen in those patients with locoregional or distant disease spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16360393.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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48. Yilike X, Kuerban G, Yang X, Wu S, Abudula A: Expression of MGMT and its clinopathological significance in thyroid carcinoma. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2010 Dec;35(12):1219-24
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  • [Title] Expression of MGMT and its clinopathological significance in thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and its clinicopathological significance in thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of MGMT in 61 thyroid cancer tissues, 21 thyroid adenomas, 15 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 8 nodular goiter, and 12 peri-tumor tissues.
  • RESULTS: There was statistic difference in the expression of MGMT between the normal tissues and thyroid cancers (P<0.05).
  • Expression of MGMT increased from the normal tissue (16.67%, 10/12), nodular goiter (25.00%, 2/8), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (60.00%, 9/15), and thyroid adenoma (52.38%, 11/21)to thyroid cancer (60.66%, 38/61).
  • Expression of MGMT in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) had significant difference (P<0.05), and the expression level of MGMT decreased with the malignancy of thyroid cancer, such as in PTC (72.22%, 26/36), and FTC (50.00%, 8/16).
  • CONCLUSION: High expression of MGMT might be related to the malignancy of thyroid cancer, which may be one of the diagnosis indexes for thyroid cancer.
  • It will be a common clinical index in diagnosing thyroid cancer since there is no difference in MGMT expression among sexes, ages, and nationalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21200087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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49. Matuszczyk A, Petersenn S, Bockisch A, Gorges R, Sheu SY, Veit P, Mann K: Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Mar;40(3):210-3
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • Twenty-two patients (mean age 61) with metastasizing, progressive, nonradioiodine-accumulating thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium were treated with doxorubicin between 2000 and 2005.
  • Tumors were histologically classified as follicular in 15 patients (68%) and papillary in 7 patients (32%).
  • In addition, nine patients (mean age 51 years) with medullary thyroid carcinoma were treated with doxorubicin between 1997 and 2005.
  • In patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma, 5% had a partial regression over 6 months, 42% had stable disease for a median of 7 months (range: 1-22), and 53% had continuous progression established over 5 months (range: 1-11).
  • In patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, 11% had a partial regression over 6 months followed by stable disease for 3 months, 11% had stable disease over 7 months, and 79% demonstrated progressive disease established over 5 months (range: 2-12).
  • Doxorubicin can be a valid chemotherapy option, especially for advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18348081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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50. Eberhardt NL, Grebe SK, McIver B, Reddi HV: The role of the PAX8/PPARgamma fusion oncogene in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 May 28;321(1):50-6
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  • [Title] The role of the PAX8/PPARgamma fusion oncogene in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid cancer.
  • When identified at early stages, most well-differentiated thyroid cancers are readily treated and yield excellent outcomes.
  • Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) however, when diagnosed at a late stage, may be very resistant to treatment, and exhibits 10-year survival rates less than 40%.
  • Despite substantial progress in recent years, we still have limited understanding of the molecular and biological interrelationships between the various subtypes of benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • In contrast to the wealth of information available regarding papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the triggering mechanisms of FTC development and the major underlying genetic alterations leading to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis remain obscure.
  • Recent studies have focused on a chromosomal translocation, t(2;3) (q13;p25), fusing PAX8, a transcription factor that is essential for normal thyroid gland development, with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a member of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor family.
  • This chromatin rearrangement results in the expression of a PAX8/PPARgamma fusion protein, designated PPFP, whose incidence is relatively common in FTC and may represent an initiating event in the genesis of FTC.
  • Here we review progress on the studies of PPFP that assess its involvement in FTC tumorigenesis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 19883731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA080117-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA080117-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX8-PPARgamma fusion protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 85
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS161308; NLM/ PMC2849860
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51. Sawka AM, Brierley JD, Tsang RW, Thabane L, Rotstein L, Gafni A, Straus S, Goldstein DP: An updated systematic review and commentary examining the effectiveness of radioactive iodine remnant ablation in well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;37(2):457-80, x
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  • [Title] An updated systematic review and commentary examining the effectiveness of radioactive iodine remnant ablation in well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Radioactive iodine remnant ablation (RRA) is used to destroy residual normal thyroid tissue after complete gross surgical resection of papillary or follicular thyroid cancer.
  • The article updates a prior systematic review of the literature to determine whether RRA decreases the risk of thyroid cancer-related death or recurrence at 10 years after initial surgery, including data from 28 studies.
  • The incremental benefit of RRA in low risk patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer after total or near-total thyroidectomy who are receiving thyroid hormone suppressive therapy remains unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18502337.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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52. Kołomecki K, Maciaszczyk P, Stepień H, Cywiński J, Cielecka J, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):320-5
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of p53 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) serum level concentration as indicators of apoptosis in serum of patients with benign and malignant primary follicular thyroid tumors].
  • INTRODUCTION: Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is the best described mode of physiological cell death.
  • The first is external protein signal originating from other cell--also named as "death signal".
  • Another one is specific cell reaction for external stress factors.
  • Blood concentration of proteins regulating both pathways of apoptosis may be useful in early diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors.
  • The aim of study was evaluation of p53 and sFasL blood concentration in patients with benign follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was composed of 28 patients: 14 with thyroid carcinoma and 14 patients with follicular neoplasm (NF).
  • P53 and sFasL levels were evaluated before surgery and related to the histopathological diagnosis obtained post-surgery.
  • RESULTS: The analysis revealed high sFasL blood concentration in patients with follicular thyroid cancer in comparison with the group with follicular adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of sFasL serum level concentration may be useful in preoperative diagnosis of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fas Ligand Protein / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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53. Lin HY, Tang HY, Shih A, Keating T, Cao G, Davis PJ, Davis FB: Thyroid hormone is a MAPK-dependent growth factor for thyroid cancer cells and is anti-apoptotic. Steroids; 2007 Feb;72(2):180-7
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  • [Title] Thyroid hormone is a MAPK-dependent growth factor for thyroid cancer cells and is anti-apoptotic.
  • Thyroid hormone (l-thyroxine, T(4), or 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine, T(3)) treatment of human papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines resulted in enhanced cell proliferation, measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).
  • Thyroid hormone also induced activation of the Ras/MAPK (ERK1/2) signal transduction pathway.
  • ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation caused by thyroid hormone were blocked by an iodothyronine analogue, tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), that inhibits binding of iodothyronines to the cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone on integrin alphaVbeta3.
  • A MAPK cascade inhibitor at MEK, PD 98059, also blocked hormone-induced cell proliferation.
  • We then assessed the possibility that thyroid hormone is anti-apoptotic.
  • We first established that resveratrol (10 microM), a pro-apoptotic agent in other cancer cells, induced p53-dependent apoptosis and c-fos, c-jun and p21 gene expression in both papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cells.
  • Resveratrol-induced gene expression and apoptosis were inhibited more than 50% by physiological concentrations of T(4).
  • Thus, plasma membrane-initiated activation of the MAPK cascade by thyroid hormone promotes papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell proliferation in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Growth Substances / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroxine / metabolism. Triiodothyronine / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Humans


54. Randi G, Ferraroni M, Talamini R, Garavello W, Deandrea S, Decarli A, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C: Glycemic index, glycemic load and thyroid cancer risk. Ann Oncol; 2008 Feb;19(2):380-3
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  • [Title] Glycemic index, glycemic load and thyroid cancer risk.
  • BACKGROUND: Risk of thyroid cancer has already been related to refined cereals and starch food, but the association has not been studied in terms of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a case-control study conducted in Italy from 1986 to 1992 and including 399 histologically confirmed and incident cases of thyroid cancer and 616 control subjects.
  • Information on dietary habits was derived through a food-frequency questionnaire and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for GI and GL levels were estimated with adjustment for age, education, sex, area of residence, history of diabetes, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of fruit and vegetables, and noncarbohydrate energy intake.
  • The OR for highest tertile of GI compared with lowest one was 1.70 for papillary and 1.57 for follicular thyroid cancer.
  • The ORs for GL were 2.17 for papillary and 3.33 for follicular thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study shows that high dietary levels of GI and GL are associated with thyroid cancer risk.

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  • (PMID = 17951595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Dietary Carbohydrates
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55. Mendoza PL, Ongkeko EE, Santiago JF: Silent parathyroid adenoma mistakenly interpreted on FDG-PET as thyroid cancer metastasis in a patient with elevated thyroglobulin and negative I-131 whole body scan and removed by radioguided minimally invasive surgery. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jan;33(1):23-5
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  • [Title] Silent parathyroid adenoma mistakenly interpreted on FDG-PET as thyroid cancer metastasis in a patient with elevated thyroglobulin and negative I-131 whole body scan and removed by radioguided minimally invasive surgery.
  • Detection of recurrent and metastatic thyroid cancer remains a considerable challenge in patients presenting with rising thyroglobulin levels but with negative I-131 whole body scintigraphy.
  • Such is the case in this patient with follicular thyroid cancer in whom subsequent FDG PET scanning showed a solitary hypermetabolic cervical lesion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18097251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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56. Krishnamurthy A, Vaidhyanathan A, Krishna KR: Metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma to the maxillary sinus. Indian J Nucl Med; 2010 Oct;25(4):168-70
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  • [Title] Metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma to the maxillary sinus.
  • Thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the paranasal sinuses is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of follicular thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the right maxillary sinus, with extension into the right side of the hard palate in a young lady.
  • She continues to be on follow-up on Eltroxin™ suppression and has remained disease free for the past 4 ½ years.

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  • [Cites] Laryngoscope. 1963 Jul;73:942-53 [14043146.001]
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  • (PMID = 21712913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of nuclear medicine : IJNM : the official journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3109825
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Distant metastasis / paranasal sinuses / thyroid neoplasms
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57. Parlea L, Fahim L, Munoz D, Hanna A, Anderson J, Cusimano M, Kovacs K, Gardiner G: Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with aggressive metastatic behavior in a pregnant woman: report of a case and review of the literature. Hormones (Athens); 2006 Oct-Dec;5(4):295-302
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  • [Title] Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with aggressive metastatic behavior in a pregnant woman: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Distant metastases as initial presentation of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid is rare, especially in young patients.
  • We report the clinical and pathological features of a 33-year old pregnant patient with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid who presented with widespread bone and lung metastases at the time of diagnosis. the resected tumor had a focal insular component that showed extensive vascular invasion spreading beyond the thyroid capsule, and was associated with widespread bone and lung metastases.
  • We suggest that architectural differentiation of the tumor and cell proliferation rate are not reliable markers of metastatic behavior in this particular thyroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cadherins / genetics. Cadherins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17178705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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58. Hachicha M, Kammoun T, Chabchoub I, Bahloul S, Turki H, Drira M, Zahaf A, Triki A: [Cowden's disease: a new paediatric observation]. Arch Pediatr; 2006 May;13(5):459-62
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  • [Title] [Cowden's disease: a new paediatric observation].
  • [Transliterated title] La maladie de Cowden: une nouvelle observation pédiatrique.
  • We report on a paediatric observation of Cowden's disease in a 6-year-old child.
  • Familial steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome was associated to papulous and papillomatous lesions of gingiva and oral mucosa, multiple hamartoma of the back and of upper limbs, facial dysmorphism and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer evolved favorably after surgical treatment, radioactive iodine and L-thyroxin supplementation.
  • The early diagnosis of Cowden's disease, or multiple hamartoma syndrome, allows a careful monitoring of the patients who are facing the risk of cancer transformation, which is the principal complication of the condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16564682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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59. Kebebew E, Weng J, Bauer J, Ranvier G, Clark OH, Duh QY, Shibru D, Bastian B, Griffin A: The prevalence and prognostic value of BRAF mutation in thyroid cancer. Ann Surg; 2007 Sep;246(3):466-70; discussion 470-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prevalence and prognostic value of BRAF mutation in thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of BRAF mutation among thyroid cancer histologic subtypes and determine the association of BRAF mutation with indicators of poor prognosis for papillary thyroid cancer and patient outcome.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The appropriate extent of surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and follow-up monitoring for thyroid cancer remains controversial.
  • Advances in the molecular biology of thyroid cancer have helped to identify candidate markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • A commonly found genetic alternation is a point mutation in the BRAF oncogene (BRAF V600E), which is primarily found in papillary thyroid cancer and is associated with more aggressive disease.
  • METHODS: BRAF V600E mutation status was determined in 347 tumor samples from 314 patients with thyroid cancer (245 with conventional papillary thyroid cancer, 73 with follicular thyroid cancer, and 29 with the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer).
  • RESULTS: : The prevalence of BRAF V600E mutation was higher in conventional papillary thyroid cancer (51.0%) than in follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (24.1%) and follicular thyroid cancer (1.4%) (P < 0.0001).
  • In patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF V600E mutation was associated with older age (P = 0.0381), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0323), distant metastasis (P = 0.045), higher TNM stage (I and II vs. III and IV, P = 0.0389), and recurrent and persistent disease (P = 0.009) with a median follow-up time of 6.0 years.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that BRAF V600E mutation [OR (95% CI) = 4.2 (1.2-14.6)] and lymph node metastasis [OR (95% CI) = 7.75 (2.1-28.5)] were independently associated with recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BRAF V600E mutation is primarily present in conventional papillary thyroid cancer.
  • It is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype and higher risk of recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17717450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA118688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R21 CA 118688-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1959359
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60. Machens A, Dralle H: Decreasing tumor size of thyroid cancer in Germany: institutional experience 1995-2009. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jul;163(1):111-9
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  • [Title] Decreasing tumor size of thyroid cancer in Germany: institutional experience 1995-2009.
  • OBJECTIVE: Decreasing tumor size in a population over time is widely interpreted as a measure of effectiveness of cancer screening programs.
  • Nonetheless, thyroid cancer size is rarely analyzed as a function of time.
  • This study aimed to explore secular trends of thyroid cancer diameter in Germany.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 1644 thyroid cancer patients from a large referral center for thyroid cancer (1995-2009).
  • METHODS: Calculation of largest tumor diameters for each type of cancer as a function of time periods and birth cohorts.
  • RESULTS: Over the past 25 years, subdivided into 5-year periods by year of thyroidectomy (1985-1989; 1990-1994; 1995-1999; 2000-2004; 2005-2009), tumor diameters diminished from 25 to 16 mm (P=0.025) for medullary thyroid cancer and from 28 to 18 mm (P=0.017) for papillary thyroid cancer.
  • This reduction was greater for hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (from 27 to 11 mm; P=0.088) than sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (from 23 to 19 mm; P=0.11).
  • No decline was observed for follicular thyroid cancer (means of 45 to 42 mm; P=0.52).
  • From the first (1921-1940) to the most recent birth cohort (1981-2000), tumor size fell from 22 to 10 mm (P<0.001) for medullary thyroid cancer, from 24 to 22 mm (P<0.001) for papillary thyroid cancer, and from 49 to 38 mm (P=0.011) for follicular thyroid cancer.
  • The reduction of medullary thyroid cancers affected exclusively patients with hereditary disease (from 20 to 7 mm; P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: The consistency and robustness of these data signify powerful secular trends toward smaller papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 20447999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Hay ID: Selective use of radioactive iodine in the postoperative management of patients with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec 15;94(8):692-700
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  • [Title] Selective use of radioactive iodine in the postoperative management of patients with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) was developed in the 1960s to "complete a thyroidectomy" in the initial management of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • By the 1990s, it was claimed that RRA diminished recurrence rates in follicular cell-derived cancer (FCDC) patients and decreased the cause-specific mortality (CSM) in patients more than 40 years old at initial surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Catheter Ablation. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17131429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Thyroid Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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62. Nakamura H: [Management of patients with thyroid tumors; global trends, current status in Japan and clinical problems and questions]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1937-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Management of patients with thyroid tumors; global trends, current status in Japan and clinical problems and questions].
  • The incidence of thyroid cancer clinically detected is increasing, mainly due to the technical progress in thyroid sonography.
  • There are many problems and questions regarding the management of patients with thyroid tumors, including how to distinct thyroid follicular cancer from adenoma (no definite method is available except for the histological examination of the tissue specimen at surgery), how to treat patients with unproved thyroid tumor (thyroidectomy or observation ?
  • ), how to define "poorly differentiated thyroid cancer" (different definition between WHO and Japan) and how to treat patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (total thyroidectomy or subtotal thyroidectomy, with or without prophylactic neck dissection, with or without postoperative remnant ablation by radioactive iodine, with or without postoperative TSH suppression by thyroid hormone, thyroidectomy or observation for micro-carcinoma).
  • Several guidelines for management of thyroid tumors have recently been published from western thyroid associations.
  • Their basic policy how to manage differentiated thyroid cancer is considerably different from, at least, the traditional treatment in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Evidence-Based Medicine. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Japan. Neck Dissection. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18018552.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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63. Suzuki S, Takenoshita S: [Current topics of endoscopic surgery for thyroid cancer]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Mar;107(2):59-63
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  • [Title] [Current topics of endoscopic surgery for thyroid cancer].
  • Endoscopic surgery has been introduced in the field of thyroid disease.
  • Endoscopic thyroid surgery is divided into complete endoscopic surgery using CO2 gas, which is approached from the axilla, mammary areola, and anterior chest; and video-assisted thyroid surgery without CO2 gas, approached from the neck or anterior chest under the clavicula through a small incision.
  • Many thyroid tumors are benign, and cases of thyroid cancer are few.
  • Only 7.9% of patients who underwent endoscopic thyroid surgery in the English and Japanese literature had papillary thyroid cancer.
  • The indications for endoscopic surgery in papillary thyroid cancer is microcancer or small tumor without lympnode metastasis before surgery.
  • In follicular thyroid cancer, minimally invasive thyroid cancer of less than 5cm is recommended for endoscopic thyroid surgery.
  • Furthermore, in medullary carcinoma with multiple endocrine neoplasia, prophylactic thyroidectomy can be performed using these endoscopic techniques.
  • At present, it is still controversial whether endoscopic surgery should be performed to treat thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16613204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gases; 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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64. Kushchayev S, Kushchayeva Y, Theodore N, Preul MC, Clark OH: Percutaneous vertebroplasty for thyroid cancer metastases to the spine. Thyroid; 2010 May;20(5):555-60
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  • [Title] Percutaneous vertebroplasty for thyroid cancer metastases to the spine.
  • BACKGROUND: Spinal metastases secondary to thyroid cancer of follicular and parafollicular cell origin are uncommon but may require stabilization of the compromised vertebrae to prevent fracture with spinal cord injury.
  • The authors present two cases of thyroid cancer with spinal metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: PV is a minimally invasive spinal procedure and should be considered for patients with metastatic thyroid cancer with spinal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vertebroplasty

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  • (PMID = 20450433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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65. Muresan MM, Olivier P, Leclère J, Sirveaux F, Brunaud L, Klein M, Zarnegar R, Weryha G: Bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Mar;15(1):37-49
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  • [Title] Bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • The presence of distant metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma decreases the 10-year survival of patients by 50%.
  • Bone metastases represent a frequent complication especially of follicular thyroid cancer and severely reduce the quality of life causing pain, fractures, and spinal cord compression.
  • Diagnosis is established by correlating clinical suspicion with imaging.
  • Bone metastases are typically associated with elevated markers of bone turnover, but these markers have not been evaluated in differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • For well-differentiated lesions, iodine-PET scan combined (124)I-PET/CT is the newest imaging development and (131)I is the first line of treatment.
  • Basic research on interactions between tumor cells and bone microenvironment are identifying potential novel targets for future more effective therapeutic interventions for less differentiated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cell Differentiation. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18310274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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66. Weinhaeusel A, Scheuba C, Lauss M, Kriegner A, Kaserer K, Vierlinger K, Haas OA, Niederle B: The influence of gender, age, and RET polymorphisms on C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2008 Dec;18(12):1269-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The influence of gender, age, and RET polymorphisms on C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: RET germline mutations predispose to the development of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (hMTC).
  • However, the findings regarding their influence on the clinical course and biological behavior of this disorder are discordant.
  • To clarify the contradictory findings, we studied the association of certain SNPs considering age, gender, and histopathology in a large Austrian cohort with C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) and MTC.
  • METHODS: Genotyping of SNPs located in RET codons 691, 769, 836, and 904 from 199 patients with MTC and CCH (basal calcitonin > 10 pg/mL, pentagastrin stimulated > 100 pg/mL) was performed, and the results were analyzed considering gender, age at diagnosis, and histopathology.
  • In sMTC and sporadic CCH (sCCH) no significant association of SNP frequency with the age at diagnosis was found.
  • In patients with sporadic C-cell disease (sCCH and sMTC), 3.7 times more males than females suffered synchronously from papillary or follicular thyroid cancer (20/97 [20.6%] males; 3/54 [5.6%] females; p = 0.02).
  • In contrast to males, the ratio of CCH to total C-cell disease was significantly higher in females with hereditary (26/32, 81%) compared to those with sporadic disease (27/54, 50%; p = 0.006).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study RET SNPs had no clinical impact on the development of sporadic C-cell disease when the age of diagnosis or gender is considered.
  • C-cell disease seems to predispose males to the development of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Calcitonin / blood. Female. Gene Frequency. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Sex Factors. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18976163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
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67. Kavanagh DO, McIlroy M, Myers E, Bane F, Crotty TB, McDermott E, Hill AD, Young LS: The role of oestrogen receptor {alpha} in human thyroid cancer: contributions from coregulatory proteins and the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):255-64
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  • [Title] The role of oestrogen receptor {alpha} in human thyroid cancer: contributions from coregulatory proteins and the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2.
  • Epidemiological, clinical, and molecular studies suggest a role for oestrogen in thyroid cancer.
  • Oestrogen induced cell proliferation in the follicular thyroid cancer (FTC)-133 cells, but not in the anaplastic 8305C cell line.
  • Knockdown of the coactivator steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 inhibited FTC-133 basal, but not oestrogen induced, cell proliferation.
  • Oestrogen also increased protein expression of SRC-1 and the ER target gene cyclin D1 in the FTC-133 cell line.
  • ERalpha, ERbeta, the coregulatory proteins SRC-1 and nuclear corepressor (NCoR), and the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2 were localised by immunohistochemistry and immnofluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue from thyroid tumour patients (n=111).
  • Expression of ERalpha and NCoR was found predominantly in non-anaplastic tumours and was significantly associated with well-differentiated tumours and reduced incidence of disease recurrence.
  • In non-anaplastic tumours, HER2 was significantly associated with SRC-1, and these proteins were associated with poorly differentiated tumours, capsular invasion and disease recurrence.
  • Kaplan-Meier estimates of disease-free survival indicated that in thyroid cancer, SRC-1 strongly correlates with reduced disease-free survival (P<0.001), whereas NCoR predicted increased survival (P<0.001).
  • These data suggest opposing roles for the coregulators SRC-1 and NCoR in thyroid tumour progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Estrogen Receptor alpha / physiology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / etiology. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / mortality. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Co-Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Co-Repressor Proteins / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / physiology. Survival Analysis. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Trans-Activators / physiology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20032008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Co-Repressor Proteins; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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68. Woyach JA, Shah MH: New therapeutic advances in the management of progressive thyroid cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):715-31
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  • [Title] New therapeutic advances in the management of progressive thyroid cancer.
  • The spectrum of thyroid cancers ranges from one of the most indolent to one of the most aggressive solid tumors identified.
  • Conventional therapies for thyroid cancers are based on the histologic type of thyroid cancers such as papillary or follicular thyroid cancer (differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC)), medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), or anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC).
  • While surgery is one of the key treatments for all such types of thyroid cancers, additional therapies vary.
  • Effective targeted therapy for DTC is a decades-old practice with systemic therapies of thyroid stimulating hormone suppression and radioactive iodine therapy.
  • Recent advances in understanding pathogenesis of DTC and development of molecular targeted therapy have dramatically transformed the field of clinical research in thyroid cancer.
  • Over the last five years, incredible progress has been made and phases I-III clinical trials have been conducted in various types of thyroid cancers with some remarkable results that has made an impact on lives of patients with thyroid cancer.
  • Such history-making events have boosted enthusiasm and interest among researchers, clinicians, patients, and sponsors and we anticipate ongoing efforts to develop more effective and safe therapies for thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Protocols. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma, Medullary / etiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic / trends. Disease Progression. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / trends. Humans. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 19218279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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69. Kouso H, Ikegami T, Ezaki T, Ishida T, Aimitsu S, Fujihara M, Mori M: Liver metastasis from thyroid carcinoma 32 years after resection of the primary tumor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(6):480-2
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  • [Title] Liver metastasis from thyroid carcinoma 32 years after resection of the primary tumor: report of a case.
  • Follicular thyroid carcinoma is a differentiated cancer originating from the follicular cells in the thyroid gland.
  • A 73-year-old woman, who had undergone curative resection of thyroid carcinoma 32 years earlier, was referred to our hospital after ultrasonography showed a solid mass in the liver.
  • Microscopic examination showed follicular cells with minimal atypia growing in a thyroid follicular pattern with colloids, whereby a diagnosis of metastatic liver cancer from thyroid follicular carcinoma was made.
  • This is a rare case of solitary liver metastasis appearing 32 years after eradication of primary follicular carcinoma.
  • Although the reason for the delayed presentation of the metastatic lesion remains unclear, this case shows that patients with differentiated thyroid cancer should be followed up for their entire life.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15912296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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70. Takeyama H, Tabei I, Uchida K, Morikawa T: Sentinel node biopsy for follicular tumours of the thyroid gland. Br J Surg; 2009 May;96(5):490-5
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  • [Title] Sentinel node biopsy for follicular tumours of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: It is difficult to differentiate histologically between benign and malignant follicular-type tumours of the thyroid gland.
  • The present study evaluated whether sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was helpful in obtaining the correct diagnosis of malignant follicular-type tumours, as metastasis to the lymph nodes is sufficient evidence for a diagnosis of cancer.
  • METHODS: SLN biopsy was performed for 37 follicular-type tumours suspected to be malignant on the basis of preoperative examinations, but for which the diagnosis had not been confirmed.
  • SLN metastases were found in four of 12 patients with a malignant tumour identified by intraoperative frozen-section analysis.
  • Frozen-section analysis of the tumour itself identified only one follicular cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of SLN metastasis was helpful in diagnosing follicular thyroid cancer and thus enabling one-stage surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Body Mass Index. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care. Length of Stay. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19358183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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71. Lui WO, Foukakis T, Lidén J, Thoppe SR, Dwight T, Höög A, Zedenius J, Wallin G, Reimers M, Larsson C: Expression profiling reveals a distinct transcription signature in follicular thyroid carcinomas with a PAX8-PPAR(gamma) fusion oncogene. Oncogene; 2005 Feb 17;24(8):1467-76
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  • [Title] Expression profiling reveals a distinct transcription signature in follicular thyroid carcinomas with a PAX8-PPAR(gamma) fusion oncogene.
  • The demonstration of the PAX8-PPAR(gamma) fusion oncogene in a subset of follicular thyroid tumors provides a new and promising starting point to dissect the molecular genetic events involved in the development of this tumor form.
  • In the present study, we compared the gene expression profiles of follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) bearing a PAX8-PPAR(gamma) fusion against FTCs that lack this fusion.
  • Using unsupervised clustering and multidimensional scaling analyses, we show that FTCs possessing a PAX8-PPAR(gamma) fusion have a highly uniform and distinct gene expression signature that clearly distinguishes them from FTCs without the fusion.
  • The PAX8-PPAR(gamma)(+) FTCs grouped in a defined cluster, where highly ranked genes were mostly associated with signal transduction, cell growth and translation control.
  • Notably, a large number of ribosomal protein and translation-associated genes were concurrently underexpressed in the FTCs with the fusion.
  • Taken together, our findings further support that follicular carcinomas with a PAX8-PPAR(gamma) rearrangement constitute a distinct biological entity.
  • The current data represent one step to elucidate the molecular pathways in the development of FTCs with the specific PAX8-PPAR(gamma) fusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Oxidoreductases. Computational Biology. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Down-Regulation / genetics. Eye Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Nerve Tissue Proteins. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors. Protein Biosynthesis / genetics. Ribosomal Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics. Transcription, Genetic. Up-Regulation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15608688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Ribosomal Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 1.1.- / Alcohol Oxidoreductases; EC 1.1.- / CTBP2 protein, human
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72. Lin X, Zhu B, Liu Y, Silverman JF: Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:8
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels.
  • Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) tends to metastasize to remote organs rather than local lymph nodes.
  • Separation of FTC from follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) relies on detection of vascular and/or capsular invasion.
  • We investigated which vascular markers, CD31, CD34 and D2-40 (lymphatic vessel marker), can best evaluate vascular invasion and why FTC tends to metastasize via blood stream to remote organs.
  • Thirty two FTCs and 34 FTAs were retrieved for evaluation.
  • The average age of patients with FTA was 8 years younger than FTC (p = 0.02).
  • The female to male ratio for follicular neoplasm was 25:8.
  • The average size of FTC was larger than FTA (p = 0.003).
  • Fourteen of 32 (44%) FTCs showed venous invasion and none showed lymphatic invasion, with positive CD31 and CD34 staining and negative D2-40 staining of the involved vessels.
  • All identified FTCs with vascular invasions showed involvement of venous channels, rather than lymphatic spaces, suggesting that FTCs prefer to metastasize via veins to distant organs, instead of lymphatic vessels to local lymph nodes, which correlates with previous clinical observations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20205756.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2822751
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100526
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73. Xing M: Gene methylation in thyroid tumorigenesis. Endocrinology; 2007 Mar;148(3):948-53
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  • [Title] Gene methylation in thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Aberrant gene methylation plays an important role in human tumorigenesis, including thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Many tumor suppressor genes are aberrantly methylated in thyroid cancer, and some even in benign thyroid tumors, suggesting a role of this epigenetic event in early thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Methylation of some of these genes tends to occur in certain types of thyroid cancer and is related to specific signaling pathways.
  • For example, methylation of PTEN and RASSF1A genes occurs mostly in follicular thyroid cancer, and its tumorigenic role may be related to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, whereas methylation of genes for tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, SLC5A8, and death-associated protein kinase occurs in papillary thyroid cancer and is related to the BRAF/MAPK kinase/MAPK pathway.
  • Methylation of thyroid-specific genes, such as those for sodium/iodide symporter and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, is also common in thyroid cancer.
  • Although its tumorigenic role is not clear, methylation, and hence silencing, of these thyroid-specific genes is a cause for the failure of clinical radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • Unlike gene methylation, histone modifications have been relatively poorly investigated in thyroid tumors.
  • Future studies need to emphasize the mechanistic aspects of these two types of epigenetic alterations to uncover new molecular mechanisms in thyroid tumorigenesis and to provide novel therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. DNA Methylation. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16946009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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74. Schmid KW, Farid NR: How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma? Virchows Arch; 2006 Apr;448(4):385-93
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  • [Title] How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma?
  • The appropriate diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) still depends on its histological discrimination from follicular adenoma (including the distinction of benign from malignant oncocytic variants), papillary thyroid carcinoma (particularly from the follicular variants) and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • The use of immunohistochemical markers contributed only marginally to better defining FTC.
  • The introduction of the micro array technique, however, may offer the possibility of getting a better insight into the natural history, as well as predicting the clinical course, of a given thyroid nodule.
  • This review attempts to recapitulate common standards in the diagnosis of FTC, to summarise current molecular data available to distinguish FTC from other benign and malignant tumours and, finally, to outline future perspectives to define FTC on its specific genetic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Protein Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16506015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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75. Kim CS, Furuya F, Ying H, Kato Y, Hanover JA, Cheng SY: Gelsolin: a novel thyroid hormone receptor-beta interacting protein that modulates tumor progression in a mouse model of follicular thyroid cancer. Endocrinology; 2007 Mar;148(3):1306-12
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  • [Title] Gelsolin: a novel thyroid hormone receptor-beta interacting protein that modulates tumor progression in a mouse model of follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) is known to metastasize to distant sites via hematogenous spread; however, the underlying pathways that contribute to metastasis remain unknown.
  • Recent creation of a knockin mutant mouse that expresses a mutant thyroid hormone receptor-beta (TRbeta(PV/PV) mouse) that spontaneously develops thyroid cancer with metastasis similar to humans has provided new opportunities to study contributors to FTC metastasis.
  • This study evaluates the role of gelsolin, an actin-regulatory protein, in modulating the metastatic potential of FTC.
  • Gelsolin was previously found by cDNA microarray analysis to be down-regulated in TRbeta(PV/PV) mice as compared with wild-type mice.
  • Knockdown of gelsolin by small interfering RNA resulted in increased tumor cell motility and increased gelsolin expression by histone deacetylase inhibitor (trichostatin A) led to decreased cell motility.
  • The interaction regions were mapped to the C terminus of gelsolin and the DNA binding domain of TR.
  • These results suggest that PV-induced alteration of the actin/gelsolin cytoskeleton contributes to increased cell motility.
  • Thus, the present study uncovered a novel PV-mediated oncogenic pathway that could contribute to the local tumor progression and metastatic potential of thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Gelsolin / metabolism. Gelsolin / physiology. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Animals. Cell Movement / genetics. Cells, Cultured. Cercopithecus aethiops. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Mutant Proteins / metabolism. Protein Binding. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17170101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Gelsolin; 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta
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76. Kumar PV, Monabati A, Tabei SZ, Ramzy M, Husseini SV, Khajeh F: Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):177-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) usually have a benign clinical course, with an excellent long-term prognosis and a propensity for vascular invasion.
  • Only a few reports are available on fine needle aspiration biopsy findings from metastatic lesions of FTC.
  • CASES: A 68-year-old man presented with a thyroid mass and skin nodule on the scalp.
  • Skin nodule aspiration revealed metastatic FTC.
  • As part of the routine investigation, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were performed from the posterior iliac crest and diagnosed as metastatic FTC.
  • The aspiration material in all 3 cases revealed epithelial cell clusters with marginal (fire-flare) vacuoles.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytologic diagnosis of metastatic FTC has been reported rarely.
  • Marginal (fire-flare) vacuoles aid in making the diagnosis of metastatic FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15839624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Lu C, Zhao L, Ying H, Willingham MC, Cheng SY: Growth activation alone is not sufficient to cause metastatic thyroid cancer in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Endocrinology; 2010 Apr;151(4):1929-39
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  • [Title] Growth activation alone is not sufficient to cause metastatic thyroid cancer in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • TSH is the major stimulator of thyrocyte proliferation, but its role in thyroid carcinogenesis remains unclear.
  • To address this question, we used a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (TRbeta(PV/PV) mice).
  • These mice, harboring a dominantly negative mutation (PV) of the thyroid hormone-beta receptor (TRbeta), exhibit increased serum thyroid hormone and elevated TSH.
  • Wild-type siblings of TRbeta(PV/PV) mice were treated with an antithyroid agent, propylthiouracil, to elevate serum TSH for evaluating long-term TSH effect (WT-PTU mice).
  • Thyroids from TRbeta(PV/PV)TSHR(-/-) showed impaired growth with no occurrence of FTC.
  • Both WT-PTU and TRbeta(PV/PV) mice displayed enlarged thyroids, but only TRbeta(PV/PV) mice developed metastatic FTC.
  • Molecular analyses indicate that PV acted, via multiple mechanisms, to activate the integrins-Src-focal adhesion kinase-p38 MAPK pathway and affect cytoskeletal restructuring to increase tumor cell migration and invasion.
  • Thus, growth stimulated by TSH is a prerequisite but not sufficient for metastatic cancer to occur.
  • Additional genetic alterations (such as PV), destined to alter focal adhesion and migration capacities, are required to empower hyperplastic follicular cells to invade and metastasize.
  • These in vivo findings provide new insights in understanding carcinogenesis of the human thyroid.

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  • (PMID = 20133453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851190
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78. Lang BH, Lo CY, Chan WF, Lam KY, Wan KY: Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: their implications for cancer staging. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):730-8
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: their implications for cancer staging.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) are two distinct histological types of thyroid carcinoma but have often been studied and staged as a collective group, known as differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • However, this may not be an optimal approach to cancer staging.
  • METHODS: A total of 760 patients with DTC, comprising 589 (77.5%) with PTC and 171 with (22.5%) FTC, being managed at our institution from 1961 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors related to cancer-specific survival (CSS) for PTC and FTC.
  • RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between PTC and FTC in terms of age >/=50 years at diagnosis (P = .040), tumor size (P < .001), lymph node metastases (P < .001), distant metastases (P < .001), extrathyroidal extension (P < .001), multifocality (P = .002), capsular invasion (P < .001), extent of thyroid resection (P < .001), radioiodine ablation (P < .001), and external-beam irradiation (P = .003).
  • Although PTC and FTC had similar 10-year and 15-year CSS (P = .846), each possessed its own set of independent prognostic factors for CSS.
  • Age at diagnosis and completeness of resection were independent prognostic factors in both PTC and FTC.
  • Different staging systems should be evaluated and validated for PTC and FTC individually in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


79. Baranauskas Z, Valuckas KP, Tiskevicius S: [Outcomes of long-term combined treatment in follicular thyroid carcinoma]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2010;46(4):268-74
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  • [Title] [Outcomes of long-term combined treatment in follicular thyroid carcinoma].
  • The aim was to analyze the impact of combined treatment (thyroidectomy + radioactive iodine treatment + hormonotherapy with thyroxine) on the outcomes of patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 448 patients with follicular carcinoma (394 females, 54 males, mean age of 48 years (95% CI, 46-50 years) who were treated at the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University, from 1982 to 2006.
  • The patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma were given suppressive doses of thyroxine after combined treatment.
  • RESULTS: The remnants of thyroid tissue were detected in all 448 patients after thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy.
  • Radioiodine at mean total doses of 5.6+/-0.2 GBq was used to destroy the remnants of thyroid tissue.
  • For patients with disseminated forms of follicular thyroid carcinoma, mean total radioiodine doses of 19.5+/-3.1 GBq were used.
  • Majority (91.2%) of the patients were euthyroid or hyperthyroid after the treatment with thyroid hormone.
  • The overall 10-, 20-, and 30-year survival of patients with follicular thyroid cancer, who received combined treatment, was 91.2%, 81.9%, and 77.1%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Combined treatment (thyroidectomy + radioactive iodine treatment + hormonotherapy with thyroxine) administered to the patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma is highly effective, because overall 10-, 20-, 30-year survival was 91.2%, 81.9%, 77.1%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / blood. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20571295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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80. Weber F, Teresi RE, Broelsch CE, Frilling A, Eng C: A limited set of human MicroRNA is deregulated in follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Sep;91(9):3584-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A limited set of human MicroRNA is deregulated in follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Although the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and its relation to follicular adenoma (FA) remains unclear, detailed understanding of FTC carcinogenesis would facilitate addressing the scientific and clinical challenges, given that there are morphological and molecular similarities between FTC and the frequently occurring FA.
  • Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of small, noncoding RNAs implicated in development and cancer and may lend novel clues to FTC genesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to identify deregulated miRNAs in FTC.
  • DESIGN: We used two high-density expression arrays to identify miRNAs and their target genes that are differentially expressed between FTC and FA.
  • Validation was done by quantitative RT-PCR.
  • We further functionally characterized the effect of deregulated miRNAs in vitro using HEK293T, FTC133, and K5 cell lines.
  • PATIENTS: In total, 45 primary thyroid samples (23 FTC, 20 FA, four normal control thyroid) were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Two specific miRNAs, miR-197 and miR-346, were significantly overexpressed in FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our observations show that miR-197 and miR-346 contribute to FTC carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection


81. Karges B, Krause G, Homoki J, Debatin KM, de Roux N, Karges W: TSH receptor mutation V509A causes familial hyperthyroidism by release of interhelical constraints between transmembrane helices TMH3 and TMH5. J Endocrinol; 2005 Aug;186(2):377-85
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  • Mutations of the human thyrotrophin receptor (TSH-R) are a cause of thyroid adenomas and hyperthyroidism.
  • Here we study mechanisms of receptor activation in a genomic TSH-R variant V509A located in transmembrane helix (TMH) 3, which we identify in a family with congenital hyperthyroidism, multiple adenomas and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • The addition of a second site suppressor mutant A593V to TSH-R V509A resulted in the normalization of basal cAMP release, and the dose-responsiveness to TSH ligand was maintained.
  • These data thus demonstrate that TSH-R V509A activation is caused by the release of TMH3-TMH5 interhelical constraints, while the native TSH-R conformation is re-stabilized by the introduction of a spacious valine residue at position 593.
  • In conclusion, we delineate a novel mechanism of constitutive TSH-R activation, leading to thyroid hyperfunction and neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adolescent. Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Child, Preschool. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. DNA. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Goiter / genetics. Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Molecular. Molecular Conformation. Molecular Sequence Data. Pedigree. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16079263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9007-49-2 / DNA; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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82. Yeh MW, Rougier JP, Park JW, Duh QY, Wong M, Werb Z, Clark OH: Differentiated thyroid cancer cell invasion is regulated through epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/gelatinase A. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Dec;13(4):1173-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differentiated thyroid cancer cell invasion is regulated through epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/gelatinase A.
  • Mechanisms of invasion in thyroid cancer remain poorly understood.
  • We hypothesized that signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulates thyroid cancer cell invasion by altering the expression and cleavage of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
  • Papillary and follicular carcinoma cell lines were treated with EGF, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, and the MMP inhibitors GM-6001 and Col-3.
  • All cell lines were found to overexpress functional EGFR.
  • EGF stimulated invasion by thyroid cancer cells up to sevenfold (P<0.0001), a process that was antagonized completely by AG1478 and Col-3, partially by GM-6001, but not by the serine protease inhibitor aprotinin.
  • EGF upregulated expression of MMP-9 (2.64- to 8.89-fold, P<0.0001) and membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP, 1.97- to 2.67-fold, P<0.0001).
  • We demonstrate that MMPs are critical effectors of invasion in the papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines studied.
  • MMP inhibitors and growth factor antagonists may be effective tumoristatic agents for the treatment of aggressive thyroid carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 17158762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dipeptides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / N-(2(R)-2-(hydroxamidocarbonylmethyl)-4-methylpentanoyl)-L-tryptophan methylamide; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Serine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Tetracyclines; 0 / Tyrphostins; 0 / tetracycline CMT-3; 170449-18-0 / tyrphostin AG 1478; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; 9087-70-1 / Aprotinin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS74619; NLM/ PMC2574514
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83. Gudmundsson J, Sulem P, Gudbjartsson DF, Jonasson JG, Sigurdsson A, Bergthorsson JT, He H, Blondal T, Geller F, Jakobsdottir M, Magnusdottir DN, Matthiasdottir S, Stacey SN, Skarphedinsson OB, Helgadottir H, Li W, Nagy R, Aguillo E, Faure E, Prats E, Saez B, Martinez M, Eyjolfsson GI, Bjornsdottir US, Holm H, Kristjansson K, Frigge ML, Kristvinsson H, Gulcher JR, Jonsson T, Rafnar T, Hjartarsson H, Mayordomo JI, de la Chapelle A, Hrafnkelsson J, Thorsteinsdottir U, Kong A, Stefansson K: Common variants on 9q22.33 and 14q13.3 predispose to thyroid cancer in European populations. Nat Genet; 2009 Apr;41(4):460-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Common variants on 9q22.33 and 14q13.3 predispose to thyroid cancer in European populations.
  • In order to search for sequence variants conferring risk of thyroid cancer we conducted a genome-wide association study in 192 and 37,196 Icelandic cases and controls, respectively, followed by a replication study in individuals of European descent.
  • Here we show that two common variants, located on 9q22.33 and 14q13.3, are associated with the disease.
  • Both variants contribute to an increased risk of both papillary and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Approximately 3.7% of individuals are homozygous for both variants, and their estimated risk of thyroid cancer is 5.7-fold greater than that of noncarriers.
  • In a study on a large sample set from the general population, both risk alleles are associated with low concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and the 9q22.33 allele is associated with low concentration of thyroxin (T(4)) and high concentration of triiodothyronine (T(3)).

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  • (PMID = 19198613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-1718
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Genet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA124570; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016058; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA124570; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16058
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / FOXE1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS467322; NLM/ PMC3664837
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84. Younes MN, Yazici YD, Kim S, Jasser SA, El-Naggar AK, Myers JN: Dual epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibition with NVP-AEE788 for the treatment of aggressive follicular thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 1):3425-34
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  • [Title] Dual epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibition with NVP-AEE788 for the treatment of aggressive follicular thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with radioiodine-resistant follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) have a poor prognosis, if metastasized, with currently available treatment modalities.
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and their receptors (EGFR and VEGFR) have been reported to be overexpressed in FTC and have been implicated in FTC development.
  • We hypothesized that inhibiting the phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR by treatment with NVP-AEE788 (AEE788), a novel dual specific EGFR and VEGFR inhibitor, either alone or in combination with paclitaxel, would inhibit the growth of FTC xenografts in an orthotopic nude mouse model.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To confirm previous reports, EGF and EGFR expression and vascularity were analyzed in human samples of FTC, Hürthle cell carcinoma, and normal thyroid tissues.
  • EGFR expression in four FTC cell lines was measured using Western blotting.
  • The antitumor effect of AEE788 on FTC cells in vitro was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays and Western blotting.
  • The effect of AEE788, alone and in combination with paclitaxel, on FTC tumor growth in an orthotopic nude mouse model was also investigated.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of EGFR and VEGFR signaling status, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and microvessel density was done.
  • RESULTS: EGF, EGFR, and vascularity were increased in human thyroid tumor samples and EGFR was increased in FTC cells.
  • AEE788 inhibited FTC cell growth in vitro and reduced the phosphorylation status of EGFR, VEGFR, and two downstream targets, AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase, in FTC cells.
  • AEE788 alone and, to a greater extent, AEE788 plus paclitaxel suppressed FTC tumor growth in the thyroids of nude mice.
  • CONCLUSION: Dual inhibition of EGFR and VEGFR by AEE788 could represent a novel approach to the treatment of radioiodine-resistant FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Purines / pharmacology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Structure-Activity Relationship. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 16740767.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA097007
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AEE 788; 0 / Purines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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85. Biondi B, Filetti S, Schlumberger M: Thyroid-hormone therapy and thyroid cancer: a reassessment. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Nov;1(1):32-40
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  • [Title] Thyroid-hormone therapy and thyroid cancer: a reassessment.
  • Experimental studies and clinical data have demonstrated that thyroid-cell proliferation is dependent on thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thereby providing the rationale for TSH suppression as a treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Several reports have shown that hormone-suppressive treatment with the L-enantiomer of tetraiodothyronine (L-T(4)) benefits high-risk thyroid cancer patients by decreasing progression and recurrence rates, and cancer-related mortality.
  • Evidence suggests, however, that complex regulatory mechanisms (including both TSH-dependent and TSH-independent pathways) are involved in thyroid-cell regulation.
  • Indeed, no significant improvement has been obtained by suppressing TSH in patients with low-risk thyroid cancer.
  • In low-risk patients, the goal of L-T(4) treatment is therefore to obtain a TSH level in the normal range (0.5-2.5 mU/l).
  • Only selected patients with high-risk papillary and follicular thyroid cancer require long-term TSH-suppressive doses of L-T(4).
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16929364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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86. Hou P, Ji M, Xing M: Association of PTEN gene methylation with genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway in thyroid tumors. Cancer; 2008 Nov 1;113(9):2440-7
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  • [Title] Association of PTEN gene methylation with genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway in thyroid tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway plays an important role in thyroid tumorigenesis and progression.
  • Genetic alterations, particularly PIK3CA amplification and mutations and ras mutations, are the major cause of aberrant activation of this pathway in thyroid tumors.
  • Epigenetic silencing of the PTEN gene, a negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT pathway, also occurs in thyroid tumors, but its relationship with genetic alterations in this pathway is unclear.
  • METHODS: By using quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, the authors examined PTEN methylation and its relationship with genetic alterations in the PI3K/AKT pathway in various types of thyroid tumors.
  • RESULTS: The authors found PTEN methylation to become progressively higher from benign thyroid adenoma to follicular thyroid cancer and to aggressive anaplastic thyroid cancer, which harbored activating genetic alterations in the PI3K/AKT pathway correspondingly with a progressively higher prevalence.
  • The association of PTEN methylation was seen with both overall genetic alterations and individual genetic alterations, particularly PIK3CA alterations and ras mutations, in the PI3K/AKT pathway within each of the 3 types of thyroid tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors found an interesting association of PTEN methylation with the activating genetic alterations in the PI3K/AKT pathway in thyroid tumors.
  • This finding is consistent with a model in which aberrant methylation and hence silencing of the PTEN gene, which coexists with activating genetic alterations of the PI3K/AKT pathway, may enhance the signaling of this pathway aberrantly activated by genetic alterations and hence contribute to the progression of thyroid tumors. Cancer 2008.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. Mutation / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18831514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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87. Pietz L, Michałek K, Waśko R, Ruchała M, Sowiński J: [Influence of the endogene TSH stimulation of thyroid volume increase in the patients after total thyroidectomy due to differentiated thyroid cancer]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Mar-Apr;59(2):119-22
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  • [Title] [Influence of the endogene TSH stimulation of thyroid volume increase in the patients after total thyroidectomy due to differentiated thyroid cancer].
  • INTRODUCTION: The treatment-of-choice for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a total thyroidectomy with subsequent radioiodine therapy.
  • In order to increase an iodine uptake in thyroid tissue remnants, the L-thyroxine withdrawal is required.
  • As TSH is a known key factor in thyroid cell proliferation regulation, prolonged stimulation of the cells during L-thyroxine withdrawal can be a causative factor for a re-growth.
  • Our aim was to assess the degree of thyroid re-growth in the patients after total thyroidectomy due to DTC and its possible clinical implications.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 23 patients operated due to papillary and follicular thyroid cancer were included into the study.
  • Biochemical determinations and ultrasound thyroid imaging were performed (TSH, Tg) during suppressive L-thyroxine therapy as well as 4-5 weeks after the withdrawal.
  • RESULTS: The mean volume of thyroid tissue remnants increased after withdrawal for substantial 30.1%.
  • The phenomenon may be of a clinical significance in the selected cases influencing therapeutic decisions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin

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  • (PMID = 18465686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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88. Prokurat AI, Chrupek M, Pacholska M, Gałazka P, Harasymczuk J, Jankowski A, Niedziela M, Korman E, Kozłowicz-Gudzińska I, Czetwertyńska M, Kaliciński P, Polnik D, Starzyk J, Kalicka-Kasperczyk A, Czernik J, Sawicz-Birkowska K, Bagłaj M, Balcerska A, Stefanowicz J, Birkholz D, Pomorski L, Kaczka K, Peregud-Pogorzelski J, Petriczko E, Godziński J, Ptaszyńska J, Ziemniak B, Woźniak W, Bilska K, Górska M, Zonenberg A: [Diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer in children in the multicenter analysis in Poland for PPGGL]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:75-81
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer in children in the multicenter analysis in Poland for PPGGL].
  • INTRODUCTION: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in children presents different biological behavior in comparison to adults.
  • RESULTS: Papillary thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 83 children, follicular thyroid cancer in 10 children and medullary thyroid cancer in 14 children.
  • Clinically DTC in children presented most often as solitary thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17091461.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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89. Kopczyńska E, Junik R, Tyrakowski T: [BRAF gene mutation in thyroid cancer]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2006 Feb;20(116):210-3
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  • [Title] [BRAF gene mutation in thyroid cancer].
  • Mutations of genes coding effectors of signaling pathway RET/PTC-RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, involved in cell growth and proliferation, are important in papillary thyroid cancer development.
  • Mutation of BRAF gene appears in various types of carcinomas, but most frequently in malignant melanomas (66%) and papillary thyroid cancer (average 44%).
  • The relation between mutations of BRAF, RAS and RET/PTC genes has not been found, although they together exist in two thirds of papillary thyroid cancers.
  • BRAF(TI796A) oncogene appears in papillary thyroid cancer, whereas it has not been found in follicular thyroid cancer and benign thyroid adenomas.
  • For this reason mutated BRAF gene could be specific molecular marker, with relatively high sensitivity in diagnostics of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Point Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16708643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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90. Hoffmann S, Maschuw K, Hassan I, Wunderlich A, Lingelbach S, Ramaswamy A, Hofbauer LC, Zielke A: Functional thyrotropin receptor attenuates malignant phenotype of follicular thyroid cancer cells. Endocrine; 2006 Aug;30(1):129-38
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  • [Title] Functional thyrotropin receptor attenuates malignant phenotype of follicular thyroid cancer cells.
  • Thyrotropin (TSH) is a thyroid-specific growth factor inducing differentiated function and growth of thyrocytes in vitro.
  • In thyroid cancer, loss of TSH-receptor (TSHR) expression is a sign of de-differentiation and is believed to contribute to the malignant phenotype.
  • The present studies aimed to determine the in vitro and in vivo effects of functioning TSHR in the follicular thyroid cancer cell line HTC, a subclone of FTC133 cells, lacking endogenous expression of TSHR, and HTCtshr+ cells transfected with human TSHR-cDNA.
  • In conclusion, regained expression of functional TSHR in the follicular thyroid cancer cell line HTC alters in vitro features commonly associated with the malignant phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Receptors, Thyrotropin / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD34 / genetics. Blotting, Northern. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Extracellular Matrix / physiology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Transfection. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17185801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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91. Furlan JC, Bedard YC, Rosen IB: Significance of tumor capsular invasion in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Am Surg; 2007 May;73(5):484-91
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  • [Title] Significance of tumor capsular invasion in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • This study examines the influence of tumor capsular invasion on the biological behavior of papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and the prognosis of surgically treated patients.
  • This retrospective cohort study included 350 cases of PTC or FTC from a university teaching hospital.
  • The study population was divided into PTC and FTC groups.
  • The long-term prognosis was assessed using the American Joint Committee on Cancer pTNM staging and the prognostic index was elaborated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer.
  • Although patients with CI+ FTC showed lower incidence of lymph node metastasis than patients with CI- FTC, the FTC subgroups were comparable regarding the short-term clinical outcome and the long-term prognosis.
  • Our results suggest that presence of tumor capsular invasion does not adversely influence biological behavior or survival of PTC or FTC.
  • Moreover, the presence of tumor capsular invasion appears to not have significance for the long-term prognosis of patients with PTC or FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17521005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Chia WK, Sharifah NA, Reena RM, Zubaidah Z, Clarence-Ko CH, Rohaizak M, Naqiyah I, Srijit D, Hisham AN, Asmiati A, Rafie MK: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using PAX8- and PPARG-specific probes reveals the presence of PAX8-PPARG translocation and 3p25 aneusomy in follicular thyroid neoplasms. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Jan 1;196(1):7-13
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  • [Title] Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using PAX8- and PPARG-specific probes reveals the presence of PAX8-PPARG translocation and 3p25 aneusomy in follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • At the present time, the differentiation between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and adenoma can be made only postoperatively and is based on the presence of capsular or vascular invasion.
  • The ability to differentiate preoperatively between the malignant and benign forms of follicular thyroid tumors assumes greater importance in any clinical setting.
  • The PAX8-PPARG translocation has been reported to occur in the majority of FTC.
  • In this study, a group of 60 follicular thyroid neoplasms [18 FTC, 1 Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 24 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTA), 5 Hurthle cell adenomas (HCA), and 12 follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinomas (FV-PTC)] were analyzed to determine the prevalence of the PAX8-PPARG translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • The PAX8-PPARG translocation was detected in 2/18 FTC (11.1%).
  • In addition, 2/18 (11.1%) FTC and 1/5 (20%) HCA showed 3p25 aneusomy only.
  • The frequency of the translocation detected in the study was lower compared to the earlier studies conducted in Western countries.
  • Detection of either the PAX8-PPARG translocation or the 3p25 aneusomy in FTC indicates that these are independent genetic events.
  • It is hereby concluded that 3p25 aneusomy or PAX8-PPARG translocation may play an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19963130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Molecular Probes; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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93. Stoll SJ, Pitt SC, Chen H: Follicular thyroid cancer cell growth inhibition by proteosome inhibitor MG132. J Surg Res; 2009 Sep;156(1):39-44
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid cancer cell growth inhibition by proteosome inhibitor MG132.
  • BACKGROUND: Effective therapies for the subset of follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) patients with aggressive, metastatic disease are lacking.
  • Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of proteosome inhibition, an emerging class of chemotherapeutic agents, on metastatic FTC cells.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human metastatic FTC cells (FTC236) were treated in vitro with the proteosome inhibitor MG132 (0 to 800 nM).
  • Western blot analysis was performed on whole cell lysates isolated after 2 d.
  • To measure cell growth, we performed an MTT cellular proliferation assay over 6 d.
  • RESULTS: Treatment of FTC236 cells with MG132 led to dose-dependent cell growth inhibition.
  • MG132 treatment also caused increased p21(Waf1/Cip1) and decreased cyclin D1 expression, suggesting that growth suppression may occur through cell cycle arrest.
  • CONCLUSION: Growth of metastatic human FTC cells appears to be suppressed by proteosome inhibition.
  • Whether this effect is directly due to cell cycle arrest and inactivation of GSK-3beta signaling is unclear.
  • Nonetheless, these compounds may become novel treatments for aggressive, metastatic FTC.

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  • (PMID = 19552924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117117-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009614; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T35 DK062709-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Leupeptins; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / beta Catenin; 133407-82-6 / benzyloxycarbonylleucyl-leucyl-leucine aldehyde; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 2.7.11.1 / glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS107537; NLM/ PMC2730430
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94. Rahbar K, Hutzenlaub V, Fischer RJ, Schober O, Riemann B: Risk-profile and outcome of small papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas (&lt;or=1 cm). Nuklearmedizin; 2008;47(5):188-93
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  • [Title] Risk-profile and outcome of small papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas (<or=1 cm).
  • Few data are available with respect to the optimal management of patients with small follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • It was the aim to compare risk-profile and outcome of patients with small papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) <or=1 cm.
  • PATIENTS, METHODS: 1594 patients with thyroid cancer were attended at our department between 1995 and 2006.
  • For the subgroup of 383 patients with small PTC and FTC <or=1 cm a comparative correlation of multifocality, extrathyroidal growth, lymph node spread, distant metastasis, local recurrence and survival was performed.
  • RESULTS: A total of 361 patients had PTC and 22 FTC <or=1 cm.
  • An ablative radioiodine therapy was performed in 77% and 100% of patients with small PTC and FTC, respectively.
  • Multifocality (14% vs. 9%), extrathyroidal growth (10% vs. 5%), lymph node spread (14% vs. 5%), local recurrence (0.5% vs. 0%) and progressive disease (1% vs. 0%) were more common in patients with small PTC than FTC, whereas the corresponding values for distant metastasis were 2% vs. 5%, respectively; however, these figures did not reach statistical significance.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data show no statistically significant differences in the risk-profile and outcome of patients with small PTC and FTC <or=1 cm.
  • Therefore, the decision for or against radioiodine ablation in patients with small differentiated thyroid carcinomas should be discussed individually.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Nuklearmedizin. 2008;47(5):179-80 [18852922.001]
  • (PMID = 18852924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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95. Reynolds RM, Weir J, Stockton DL, Brewster DH, Sandeep TC, Strachan MW: Changing trends in incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in Scotland. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Feb;62(2):156-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changing trends in incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in Scotland.
  • OBJECTIVE: The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in several countries.
  • The aim was to investigate trends in the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in Scotland, where thyroid cancer is relatively uncommon, between 1960 and 2002.
  • METHODS: Thyroid cancer registrations between 1960 and 2000 were obtained from the Scottish Cancer Registry.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid cancer was three times more common in females than in males and was more common in older than younger age groups.
  • Between 1960 and 2000, the annual EASR of thyroid cancer increased from 1.76 to 3.54 per 100,000 for females (P < 0.001) and from 0.83 to 1.25 per 100,000 in males (P < 0.001).
  • The overall thyroid cancer increase between 1975 and 2000 was primarily caused by an increase in papillary thyroid cancer, particularly over the most recent decade.
  • The incidence of follicular thyroid cancer also increased while the incidence of anaplastic and medullary thyroid cancer did not change significantly.
  • Mortality from thyroid cancer fell progressively between 1960 and 2002.
  • For both sexes, in general, survival at 1-, 5- and 10-year follow-up intervals from diagnosis improved steadily over the study period.
  • In both females and males, survival from thyroid cancer was better if the diagnosis was made under the age of 50 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid cancer incidence has increased in Scotland over the past 40 years.
  • This is accompanied by a change in the distribution of histological type with a particular increase in papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / mortality. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Registries. Scotland / epidemiology. Sex Distribution. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15670190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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96. Machens A, Holzhausen HJ, Dralle H: The prognostic value of primary tumor size in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Cancer; 2005 Jun 1;103(11):2269-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prognostic value of primary tumor size in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: A delay in the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma often leads to larger tumors, higher prevalence rates of distant metastasis, and earlier cause-specific deaths.
  • Threshold tumor diameters for extrathyroidal growth, lymph node spread, and distant metastasis in papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) remain to be defined.
  • METHODS: A comparative correlation of primary tumor size and extrathyroidal growth, lymph node spread, and distant metastasis was performed for 500 institutional patients who received surgery for PTC or FTC.
  • RESULTS: There were 366 patients with PTC (73.2%) and 134 patients with FTC (26.8%).
  • Multifocality (23.5% vs. 9.0%; P < 0.001) and lymph node metastasis (40.2% vs. 19.4%; P < 0.001) were more common in the patients with PTC than in those with FTC.
  • Patients with FTC were older at first diagnosis (51.6 vs. 47.0 years; P = 0.01) compared with the patients with PTC.
  • The FTC tumors were almost twice as large (39.9 vs. 20.6 mm; P < 0.001), and patients had a higher prevalence of distant metastasis (17.9% vs. 6.3%; P < 0.001).
  • When primary tumor diameter was accounted for, cumulative risks of extrathyroidal growth and lymph node metastasis were higher in patients with PTC than in patients with FTC (P < 0.001; log-rank test).
  • In striking contrast, the cumulative risk of distant metastasis was the same for PTC and FTC tumors of equal size (P = 0.89; log-rank test) and increased once the primary tumor size was > 20 mm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data suggested that earlier intervention is warranted to keep suspicious thyroid nodules from growing > 20 mm (or greater than T1) and spreading to distant organs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15856429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Trojanowicz B, Sekulla C, Lorenz K, Köhrle J, Finke R, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C: Proteomic approach reveals novel targets for retinoic acid-mediated therapy of thyroid carcinoma. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Aug 30;325(1-2):110-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proteomic approach reveals novel targets for retinoic acid-mediated therapy of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Our previous studies demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA)-induced reduction of both, the key glycolytic enzyme ENO1 and proliferation-promoting c-Myc, resulted in decreased vitality and invasiveness of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines FTC-133 and FTC-238.
  • The same proteins investigated on thyroid tissues were found to be significantly up-regulated in follicular, papillary and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas when compared with goiter and adenoma tissues.
  • These findings identify new target proteins for RA-mediated anti-tumor and re-differentiation therapies and provide novel insights into treatments for thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Pharmacological / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Male. Metabolome. Middle Aged. Proteomics. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20538039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Pharmacological; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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98. Younes MN, Yigitbasi OG, Park YW, Kim SJ, Jasser SA, Hawthorne VS, Yazici YD, Mandal M, Bekele BN, Bucana CD, Fidler IJ, Myers JN: Antivascular therapy of human follicular thyroid cancer experimental bone metastasis by blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular growth factor receptor phosphorylation. Cancer Res; 2005 Jun 1;65(11):4716-27
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  • [Title] Antivascular therapy of human follicular thyroid cancer experimental bone metastasis by blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular growth factor receptor phosphorylation.
  • Patients suffering from bone metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) have a poor prognosis because of the lack of effective treatment strategies.
  • The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) associated with increased vascularity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of FTC and subsequent bone metastases.
  • We hypothesized that inhibiting the phosphorylation of the EGFR and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) by AEE788, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR and VEGFR, in combination with paclitaxel would inhibit experimental FTC bone lesions and preserve bone structure.
  • We tested this hypothesis using the human WRO FTC cell line.
  • AEE788, alone and in combination with paclitaxel, inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis.
  • Collectively, these data show that blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR with AEE788 combined with paclitaxel can significantly inhibit experimental human FTC in the bone of nude mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Purines / pharmacology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / prevention & control. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Synergism. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / biosynthesis. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / biosynthesis. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / biosynthesis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15930290.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097007-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA97007
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AEE 788; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Purines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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99. Netea-Maier RT, Hunsucker SW, Hoevenaars BM, Helmke SM, Slootweg PJ, Hermus AR, Haugen BR, Duncan MW: Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms. Cancer Res; 2008 Mar 1;68(5):1572-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • Distinguishing between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by cytologic features alone is not possible.
  • Molecular markers may aid distinguishing FTA from FTC in patients with indeterminate cytology.
  • The aim of this study is to define protein abundance differences between FTC from FTA through a discovery (proteomics) and validation (immunohistochemistry) approach.
  • Difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and peptide mass fingerprinting were performed on protein extracts from five patients with FTC and compared with six patients with FTA.
  • Individual gel comparisons (i.e., each FTC extract versus FTA pool) were also performed for the five FTC patients.
  • Of these, 102 spots showed statistically significant differences in abundance between FTC and FTA in the individual gel analyses and were therefore studied further.
  • With DIGE, we identified 54 proteins differentially abundant between FTC and FTA.
  • These findings provide further insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and pathophysiology of follicular-derived thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18316623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calreticulin; 0 / Peptides
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100. Akdemir I, Erol FS, Akpolat N, Ozveren MF, Akfirat M, Yahsi S: Skull metastasis from thyroid follicular carcinoma with difficult diagnosis of the primary lesion. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Apr;45(4):205-8
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  • [Title] Skull metastasis from thyroid follicular carcinoma with difficult diagnosis of the primary lesion.
  • Postoperatively, levels of thyroid hormones were normal, and thyroid ultrasonography and technetium-99m scintigraphy showed no abnormalities.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy performed at various locations of the thyroid gland revealed no atypical thyroid cells.
  • The histological evidence was suggestive of follicular carcinoma metastasis.
  • Surgical treatment was planned for the thyroid gland, but the patient did not consent.
  • The patient underwent total thyroidectomy under a diagnosis of follicular carcinoma.
  • The present case of a lytic skull lesion associated with normal thyroid tissue on admission but finally treated as follicular thyroid cancer emphasizes the difficulty in histological discrimination of follicular carcinoma from normal thyroid tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15849459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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