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1. Wang Y, Hou P, Yu H, Wang W, Ji M, Zhao S, Yan S, Sun X, Liu D, Shi B, Zhu G, Condouris S, Xing M: High prevalence and mutual exclusivity of genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/akt pathway in thyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jun;92(6):2387-90
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  • [Title] High prevalence and mutual exclusivity of genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/akt pathway in thyroid tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and their role in thyroid tumor pathogenesis in Chinese people remain undefined.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the major genetic alterations and their relationship in the PI3K/Akt pathway in differentiated thyroid tumors in a Chinese cohort.
  • DESIGN: We used real-time quantitative PCR for the analysis of PIK3CA copy gain and direct DNA sequencing for the detection of PIK3CA, RAS, and PTEN mutations on genomic DNA isolated from 234 thyroid tumors, including 31 follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), 141 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and 62 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA).
  • RESULTS: We found PIK3CA copy gain (defined as four or more copies) in nine of 31 FTC (29%), 20 of 141 PTC (14%), and five of 62 FTA (8%); PIK3CA gene mutations in four of 31 FTC (13%), one of 141 PTC (1%), and none of 62 FTA (0%); Ras mutations in three of 31 FTC (10%) and none of the 141 PTC and 62 FTA; and PTEN mutations in two of 31 FTC (6%) and none of 62 FTA (0%).
  • Collectively, nine of 31 FTC (29%) vs. none of 62 FTA (0%) (P < 0.01) harbored one of the mutations, and when PIK3CA copy gain was included, 16 of 31 FTC (52%) vs. five of 62 FTA (8%) (P < 0.01) harbored any genetic alteration in the PI3K/Akt pathway.
  • Mutual exclusivity was seen among all these PI3K/Akt pathway-related genetic alterations in all thyroid tumors except for two cases that harbored two genetic alterations.
  • CONCLUSION: These data from a Chinese cohort provide further genetic evidence suggesting that dysregulated PI3K/Akt pathway plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of thyroid tumors, particularly FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17426084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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2. Asaad NY, Abd El-Wahed MM, Mohammed AG: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic and prognostic role. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Mar;18(1):8-16
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  • [Title] Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic and prognostic role.
  • BACKGROUND: The catalytic component of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) has been found to be reactivated in immortalized cell lines and considered as a diagnostic marker for malignancy in different body tissues.
  • AIM OF WORK: Therefore we thought to determine whether hTERT gene detection could serve as an adjunct in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions together with evaluation of its prognostic value.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 50 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma including; 28 papillary carcinoma, 14 follicular carcinoma, 5 anaplastic carcinoma and 3 medullary carcinoma in addition to 5 cases of nodular hyperplasia and 5 cases of follicular adenoma.
  • RNA was extracted from paraffin sections of those patients and hTERT gene expression was identified by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR of hTERT gene revealed expression in 43/50 (86%) malignant thyroid cases; including 25 papillary, 11 follicular, 4 anaplastic and 3 medullary carcinoma cases.
  • On the other hand, hTERT gene expression could not be detected in either hyperplastic nodule or in follicular adenoma cases.
  • The diagnostic validity of hTERT gene detection in benign and malignant thyroid lesions was in the form of 88.3% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 90% negative predictive value.
  • In thyroid carcinoma cases, hTERT gene detection was the most independent predictor of poor survival by multivariate survival analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of hTERT gene expression should be considered in confirmation of malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Moreover it could be one of the helpful tools in addition to grade, tumor type, and age to stratify patients with thyroid carcinoma into different prognostic categories.
  • Hence, inhibition of hTERT could be of use prospectively in the era of cancer therapy as an attractive weapon in thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / enzymology. Telomerase / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 17237847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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3. Büch TR, Biebermann H, Kalwa H, Pinkenburg O, Hager D, Barth H, Aktories K, Breit A, Gudermann T: G13-dependent activation of MAPK by thyrotropin. J Biol Chem; 2008 Jul 18;283(29):20330-41
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  • Whereas G(s)/cAMP-dependent cellular responses upon TSHR stimulation are well established, other signaling pathways are less characterized.
  • We evaluated TSH-elicited cellular responses in human follicular thyroid carcinoma cells stably expressing the TSHR and in primary, nonneoplastic human thyrocytes.
  • In these cellular models, stimulation with TSH caused activation of p44/42 MAPK and subsequent induction of c-Fos.
  • Dominant negative constructs of G(12) or G(13) as well as shRNA-mediated suppression of Galpha(12) or Galpha(13) revealed that MAPK activation was dependent on G(13) but not on G(12) signaling.
  • Furthermore, G(13)-dependent transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor was necessary for MAPK activation in follicular carcinoma cells, whereas EGFR was not involved in MAPK activation in nonneoplastic primary thyrocytes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cattle. Cell Line. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Protein Subunits / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Receptors, Thyrotropin / metabolism. Transcriptional Activation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18445595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATF6B protein, human; 0 / Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11
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4. Asioli S, Bussolati G: Emerin immunohistochemistry reveals diagnostic features of nuclear membrane arrangement in thyroid lesions. Histopathology; 2009 Apr;54(5):571-9
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  • [Title] Emerin immunohistochemistry reveals diagnostic features of nuclear membrane arrangement in thyroid lesions.
  • AIMS: Objective appreciation of irregularities of the nuclear shape is a key parameter in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, since foldings of the nuclear membrane (NM) featuring indentations, grooves and pseudoinclusions characterize papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry of the NM with emerin as well as three-dimensional reconstruction of the images (through deconvolution processing) performed on a series of 54 cases (processed following the tissue array procedure) revealed a uniform arrangement of the NM in non-neoplastic lesions (thyroiditis, microfollicular goitre, follicular adenoma) and normal thyroid as well as in follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Decoration of the NM represents an original approach to identify PTC nuclear shape, highlights new structural features and might be helpful in the differential diagnosis between so-called nuclear pseudoinclusions and artefactual 'bubbles'.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Nuclear Envelope / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Membrane Proteins. Nuclear Proteins. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19302538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / emerin
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5. Dralle H, Machens A: Surgical approaches in thyroid cancer and lymph-node metastases. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Dec;22(6):971-87
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  • [Title] Surgical approaches in thyroid cancer and lymph-node metastases.
  • Thyroid cancer collectively encompasses a variety of tumors of disparate morphology and biology.
  • With the exception of radio-iodine therapy for iodine-concentrating well-differentiated thyroid cancers, surgery is the foremost and generally sole effective treatment.
  • Established indications for less-than-total thyroidectomy include small (<or=1 cm), unifocal, and non-metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), and minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC; invasion of the tumor capsule only).
  • Whether occult multifocal PTC and minimally invasive FTC with histopathological evidence of vascular invasion also fall into the 'low-risk' category remains unclear.
  • For node-positive thyroid cancers, compartment-oriented microdissection is the gold standard of care, whereas the concept of prophylactic lymph-node dissection continues to arouse controversy.
  • Most experts agree that routine lymph-node dissection is unnecessary for low-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • Because occult lymph-node metastases are frequent in high-risk PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma, compartment-oriented microdissection helps prevent reoperations for 'recurrences' arising from residual nodes, sparing patients the excess morbidity from reoperations in the neck.
  • Because of the looming epidemic of early forms of thyroid cancer, an international consensus is needed regarding (1) the definition of low- versus high-risk tumors;.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19041826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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6. Sapio MR, Posca D, Raggioli A, Guerra A, Marotta V, Deandrea M, Motta M, Limone PP, Troncone G, Caleo A, Rossi G, Fenzi G, Vitale M: Detection of RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF mutations in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological findings. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 May;66(5):678-83
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  • [Title] Detection of RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF mutations in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological findings.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the primary means to distinguish benign from malignant nodules and select patients for surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether a search for the oncogenes RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF(V600E) in thyroid aspirates could refine an uncertain diagnosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 132 thyroid aspirates, including colloid nodules, inadequate samplings, indeterminate and suspicious for malignancy were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and mutant allele-specific amplification techniques for the presence of oncogenes.
  • No oncogenes were detected in one follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) with indeterminate cytology.
  • Five out of six papillary thyroid cancers (83%) with FNAB suspicious for malignancy were correctly diagnosed by the presence of oncogenes.
  • On final analysis, no false-positive results were reported in 131 samples and five out of seven carcinomas (71%) were correctly diagnosed.
  • The finding of oncogenes in FNAB specimens suspicious for malignancy guided the extent of surgical resection, changing the surgery from diagnostic to therapeutic in five cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Detection of RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF(V600E) in FNAB specimens is proposed as a diagnostic adjunctive tool in the evaluation of thyroid nodules with suspicious cytological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Oncogenes. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17381488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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7. Quinn TR, Duncan LM, Zembowicz A, Faquin WC: Cutaneous metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma: a report of four cases and a review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Aug;27(4):306-12
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma: a report of four cases and a review of the literature.
  • Cutaneous metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid is very rare, and when it occurs, can exhibit a variety of histologic appearances.
  • The cases consisted of 4 patients, 3 men and 1 woman, aged 52 to 75 years, with cutaneous metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • The tumors include a conventional follicular carcinoma, a follicular carcinoma with anaplastic transformation following initial metastasis, the first reported cutaneous metastases of a follicular carcinoma with oncocytic features (Hürthle cell carcinoma), and a follicular carcinoma with a prominent insular carcinoma component.
  • All 4 tumors were widely invasive within the thyroid gland.
  • Three metastases retained the morphologic and immunocytochemical features of the primary thyroid tumors.
  • However, in one case there was high-grade transformation to anaplastic carcinoma following treatment of a sacral metastasis with accompanying loss of the characteristic immunophenotype of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Awareness of the varied morphologies of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma to the skin may prompt immunohistochemical analysis and the request for a complete clinical history, ultimately preventing misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16121050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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8. Gerhard R, Nonogaki S, Fregnani JH, Soares FA, Nagai MA: NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Jun;65(8):757-62
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  • [Title] NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry.
  • INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stimuli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage.
  • Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined.
  • METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant), follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody.
  • RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001).
  • A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas) compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas) (P = 0.043).
  • In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007) and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES) high-risk group (P = 0.012).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Microarray Analysis. Middle Aged. Paraffin Embedding. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20835551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2933120
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / NDRG1 / Thyroid Carcinoma / Thyroid Gland / Tissue Microarray
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9. Wada DA, Agarwal N, Florell SR, Lim MS: Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma and follicular lymphoma arising in the scalp after treatment for lymphoma. Pathology; 2008 Apr;40(3):316-20
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  • [Title] Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma and follicular lymphoma arising in the scalp after treatment for lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


10. Giuliani C, Cotellese R, Cino M, Angelucci D, Monari F, Napolitano G, Monaco F, Francomano F: Metastasis as presenting feature of thyroid follicular carcinoma; report of a patient thyroidectomized for benign multinodular nontoxic goiter. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):624-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis as presenting feature of thyroid follicular carcinoma; report of a patient thyroidectomized for benign multinodular nontoxic goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16029132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Nikiforova MN, Nikiforov YE: Molecular genetics of thyroid cancer: implications for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn; 2008 Jan;8(1):83-95
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  • [Title] Molecular genetics of thyroid cancer: implications for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and accounts for approximately 1% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases.
  • The most frequent type of thyroid malignancy is papillary carcinoma, which constitutes approximately 80% of all cases.
  • Papillary carcinomas frequently have genetic alterations leading to the activation of the MAPK signal pathway.
  • Mutations in these genes are found in over 70% of papillary carcinomas and they rarely overlap in the same tumor.
  • Frequent genetic alterations in follicular carcinomas, the second most common type of thyroid malignancy, include RAS mutations and PAX8-PPAR gamma rearrangement.
  • RET point mutations are crucial for the development of medullary thyroid carcinomas.
  • Many of these mutations, particularly those leading to the activation of the MAPK pathway, are being actively explored as therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer.
  • Detection of these genetic alterations using molecular techniques is important for preoperative fine-needle aspiration diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18088233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8352
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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12. Braunschweig T, Kaserer K, Chung JY, Bilke S, Krizman D, Knezevic V, Hewitt SM: Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms. Proteomics Clin Appl; 2007 Mar;1(3):264-71
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  • [Title] Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm with multiple histologic subtypes, each associated with different treatments and outcomes.
  • Differentiating benign neoplasms such as follicular adenomas from malignant entities such as follicular carcinomas and papillary carcinoma can be challenging.
  • To define the proteomic profile of different thyroid tumors, we screened an antibody array of 330 features against five thyroid neoplasms: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma as well as normal thyroid epithelium.
  • Eight candidate biomarkers; c-erbB-2, Stat5a, Annexin IV, IL-11, RARα, FGF7, Caspase 9, and phospho-c-myc were identified as differentially expressed on the antibody array, and validated with immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, with a total of 144 samples of the same variety of thyroid neoplasms.
  • Analysis revealed c-erbB-2, Annexin IV, and Stat5a have potential clinical utility to differentiate follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma from each other.
  • By using an antibody array as a discovery platform and a tissue microarray as a first step in validation on a large number of specimens, we have identified new markers that have potential utility in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
  • (PMID = 21136677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1862-8346
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics. Clinical applications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics Clin Appl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Vanuga P, Pura M, Plesko I, Ondrusová M: [Incidence of thyroid cancer in Slovakia: extensive evidence from one centre in the context of national data]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2007;146(2):148-52; discussion 153-4
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  • [Title] [Incidence of thyroid cancer in Slovakia: extensive evidence from one centre in the context of national data].
  • BACKGROUND: In this paper the authors summarise the primary malignant thyroid tumors (p.m.t.t.) incidence data from their centre over the period 1984-2005.
  • The results are explained in the context of the p.m.t.t. incidence data from the National Cancer Register (1996 2002).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 6434 thyroid operations were indicated and carried out during the sampling period at the authors' institution, of which 365 cases were histologically confirmed p.m.t.t. (5.7% of all histological findings).
  • Whereas follicular thyroid carcinomas predominated in the 1984-1989 period (24 cases or 66.7%), the papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most frequent type in 1990-1997 and 1998-2005: 70 (61.4%) and 160 (74.4%) cases respectively.
  • In the context of the national incidence, the authors' institution increasingly contributes to the diagnosis of p.m.t.t. in Slovakia (8.9% in 1996 vs. 13.9% in 2002).
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17373111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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14. Noguchi S, Yamashita H: [Our experience on follicular carcinoma of the thyroid]. Nihon Rinsho; 2006 May 28;Suppl 1:473-7
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  • [Title] [Our experience on follicular carcinoma of the thyroid].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16776193.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 4
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15. Ozolins A, Narbuts Z, Strumfa I, Volanska G, Gardovskis J: Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemical panel in various thyroid pathologies. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):885-91
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemical panel in various thyroid pathologies.
  • BACKGROUND: For management of thyroid nodules, distinction between benign and malignant tumours is essential.
  • The study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of molecular markers in different thyroid tumours.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for CD56, HBME-1, COX-2, Ki-67, p53 and E-cadherin (E-CAD) was performed in 113 benign and 35 malignant thyroid lesions including 36 follicular adenomas (FA), 77 colloid goitres, 26 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and 9 follicular carcinomas (FC).
  • RESULTS: PTC was characterised by decreased E-CAD and CD56 expression in contrast to surrounding benign thyroid tissues.
  • HBME-1 expression was absent in benign thyroid tissues but was notably high in PTC and occasionally in FC.
  • The expression of E-CAD and CD56 in FA was significantly higher than in the surrounding thyroid tissues.
  • HBME-1 is found in malignant lesions only and is the most sensitive and specific single marker in PTC.
  • The role of adhesion factors in thyroid malignancies may be superior in comparison with cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD56 / genetics. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Cadherins / genetics. Cadherins / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20640858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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16. Gong JP, Zhang RX, Chen HQ, Jiang Q, Wang TH, Lu BC: [Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents: clinical characteristics and treatment]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Nov 1;44(21):1483-5
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  • [Title] [Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents: clinical characteristics and treatment].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment and prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in adolescents.
  • There were 42 cases of papillary carcinoma (91.3%) and 4 cases of follicular carcinoma (8.7%).
  • In the follow-up period of 1 to 25 years (mean 10 years), no death of thyroid carcinoma occurred.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most common DTC in adolescents is papillary carcinoma with better prognosis regardless of the higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adolescent. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17349176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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17. Ensinger C, Kremser R, Prommegger R, Spizzo G, Schmid KW: EpCAM overexpression in thyroid carcinomas: a histopathological study of 121 cases. J Immunother; 2006 Sep-Oct;29(5):569-73
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  • [Title] EpCAM overexpression in thyroid carcinomas: a histopathological study of 121 cases.
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is expressed by a broad variety of carcinoma cells.
  • It is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 17-1A, which has already been applied for immunotherapy of several carcinoma types in preclinical and small clinical studies.
  • In the present study the immunohistochemical properties of 17-1A were evaluated in 121 cases of thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin, comprising of 75 differentiated (DTC; 35 papillary and 40 follicular carcinomas), 24 poorly differentiated (PDTC) and 22 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
  • In contrast, all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (0%) completely lacked EpCAM expression.
  • Normal thyroid tissue presented with weak and heterogeneous EpCAM staining.
  • This study demonstrates EpCAM overexpression as a common finding in DTCs and PDTCs, and thus these tumors as possible novel targets for EpCAM-directed immunotherapy.
  • Our findings suggest that patients with recurrent or advanced tumor disease and metastatic spread could benefit from this modern therapeutic regime, especially after insufficient radioiodine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16971812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-9557
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / EPCAM protein, human
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18. Schmid KW: [Problem areas of tumour classifications--thyroid carcinomas]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2007;91:57-65
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  • [Title] [Problem areas of tumour classifications--thyroid carcinomas].
  • Thyroid carcinoma has been traditionally subdivided into the four major groups papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic carcinoma.
  • The WHO classification of thyroid tumours, published in 2004, has added to these four tumour groups the entity of poorly differentiated carcinoma as well as a broad variety of rare thyroid malignancies.
  • Another important change concerns the histological hallmarks of papillary carcinoma, the diagnosis of which is now exclusively dependent on characteristic nuclear features.
  • The aim of the present paper is to highlight diagnostic problems particularly caused by the alteration introduced onto the WHO classification, This includes a proposal of a more systematic thyroid carcinoma classification based on the histogenetic differentiation (follicular cell differentiation.
  • C cell differentiation, rare carcinomas) and tumour grading of carcinomas with follicular cell differentiation (differentiated, poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas) as well as commentaries on the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and rare types of thyroid carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia, mucinous carcinoma, SETTLE, and CASTLE).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / classification. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18314596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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19. Trojanowicz B, Winkler A, Hammje K, Chen Z, Sekulla C, Glanz D, Schmutzler C, Mentrup B, Hombach-Klonisch S, Klonisch T, Finke R, Köhrle J, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C: Retinoic acid-mediated down-regulation of ENO1/MBP-1 gene products caused decreased invasiveness of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines. J Mol Endocrinol; 2009 Mar;42(3):249-60
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  • [Title] Retinoic acid-mediated down-regulation of ENO1/MBP-1 gene products caused decreased invasiveness of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • Retinoic acid (RA) acts as an anti-proliferative and redifferentiation agent in the therapy of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Our previous studies demonstrated that pretreatment of follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines FTC-133 and FTC-238 resulted in decreased in vitro proliferation rates and reduced tumor cell growth of xenotransplants.
  • In addition to the previous results, we found that RA led to decreased vitality and invasiveness of FTC-133 and FTC-238 cells as they reacted with reduction of intracellular ATP levels and number of migrated cells respectively.
  • However, the molecular mechanisms by which RA mediates these effects are not well understood.
  • Two-dimensional (2D) screening of the proteins related to ATP metabolism and western blot analysis revealed alpha-enolase (ENO1) to be down-regulated in FTC-133 and FTC-238 cells after RA treatment.
  • Comparative 2D difference gel electrophoresis analysis of fluorescently labeled protein samples of RA-treated and untreated FTC-133 demonstrated a selective down-regulation of ENO1-A1 which we identified as a phosphoprotein.
  • Both, RA-mediated and specific knock-down of ENO1/MBP-1 resulted in the reduction of MYC oncoprotein, and simultaneously decreased proliferation rates of FTC-133 and FTC-238 cell lines.
  • In summary, the RA-mediated down-regulation of the ENO1 gene products and MYC oncoprotein provides a novel molecular mechanism facilitating the anti-proliferative effect of RA in human thyroid carcinoma cells and suggests new pathways for supportive RA therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Cell Movement / drug effects. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tretinoin / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Humans. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 19060179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6813
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 4.2.1.11 / ENO1 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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20. Qian M, Wang J: [The significance of p63 expression in thyroid neoplasm]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Oct;22(19):888-90, 893
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  • [Title] [The significance of p63 expression in thyroid neoplasm].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the significance of p63 expression in thyroid carcinoma, thyroid papillary carcinoma, thyroid follicular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma in order to find the possible causes of such thyroid-related diseases and if there is some kind of relation among them.
  • METHOD: The expression of p63 was examined in 10 thyroid carcinomas, 20 thyroid papillary carcinomas, 4 thyroid follicular carcinomas, 2 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 medullary thyroid carcinomas using direct immunofluorescence.
  • RESULT: It was shown that p63 expressed in all the thyroid-related diseases mentioned above.
  • In squamous cell carcinoma, p63 has the highest expression and the expression of p63 in thyroid papillary carcinoma has no obvious relationship with the patients age, sex, the size and location of tumor and neoplasm metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: The p63 masculine stem cells in thyroid could be one of the causes of some thyroid papillary carcinomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas.
  • Thyroid papillary carcinoma, thyroid follicular carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma may have similar origins.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 19160863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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21. Sundaraiya S, Dizdarevic S, Miles K, Quin J, Williams A, Wheatley T, Zammitt C: Unusual initial manifestation of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with thyrotoxicosis diagnosed by technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate scan: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jul-Aug;15(5):458-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual initial manifestation of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with thyrotoxicosis diagnosed by technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate scan: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of metastatic thyroid cancer diagnosed on a technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate (TcO4-) thyroid scan.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical findings, laboratory results, imaging studies, and surgical pathology report in a man with thyrotoxicosis in whom metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer was diagnosed incidentally on a routine TcO4- thyroid scan in the setting of a presumed diagnosis of benign toxic thyroid disease.
  • In addition, we review the literature regarding coexistence of metastatic thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis.
  • A routine TcO4- thyroid scan revealed high-grade extrathyroidal uptake in the right upper hemithorax as well as in the left side of the thorax.
  • In view of this finding, radioiodine treatment was deferred; further imaging with computed tomography revealed a 6.5-cm mass in a rib on the right side.
  • A biopsy of the rib confirmed the presence of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Scintigraphy revealed sites of metastatic involvement predominantly in the bones along with a cold nodule in the left thyroid lobe, consistent with the primary tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes the impact of scintigraphic findings on determining the correct management of a patient who would have otherwise undergone inappropriate treatment.
  • Through an extensive literature review, the incidence of malignant involvement in hyperfunctioning thyroid glands and the possible role of sodium iodide symporter expression by thyroid cancer metastatic lesions in preoperative detection of metastatic sites are addressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyrotoxicosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19491082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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22. Pulcrano M, Boukheris H, Talbot M, Caillou B, Dupuy C, Virion A, De Vathaire F, Schlumberger M: Poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma: prognostic factors and relevance of histological classification. Thyroid; 2007 Jul;17(7):639-46
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma: prognostic factors and relevance of histological classification.
  • OBJECTIVE: Poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma (PDFC) is a tumor of follicular cell origin with attributes intermediate between well-differentiated carcinomas and anaplastic carcinomas, but neither a clear histological description nor an established definition of prognostic indicators are available.
  • DESIGN: This study correlates the clinical outcome and survival of 40 PDFC patients with histological architecture, cytological characteristics, and expression of various markers of cell proliferation and differentiation (cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin E, Ki67, thyroperoxidase, galectin 3, dual oxidase [Duox], vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, and p53).
  • An older age at the time of diagnosis and a larger tumor size were associated with an increased risk of distant metastases and of cancer-related death.
  • CONCLUSION: PDFC has a more aggressive behavior than well-differentiated carcinomas; prognosis is related to indicators that are also relevant in patients with well-differentiated carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


23. Akdemir I, Erol FS, Akpolat N, Ozveren MF, Akfirat M, Yahsi S: Skull metastasis from thyroid follicular carcinoma with difficult diagnosis of the primary lesion. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Apr;45(4):205-8
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  • [Title] Skull metastasis from thyroid follicular carcinoma with difficult diagnosis of the primary lesion.
  • Postoperatively, levels of thyroid hormones were normal, and thyroid ultrasonography and technetium-99m scintigraphy showed no abnormalities.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy performed at various locations of the thyroid gland revealed no atypical thyroid cells.
  • The histological evidence was suggestive of follicular carcinoma metastasis.
  • Surgical treatment was planned for the thyroid gland, but the patient did not consent.
  • The patient underwent total thyroidectomy under a diagnosis of follicular carcinoma.
  • The present case of a lytic skull lesion associated with normal thyroid tissue on admission but finally treated as follicular thyroid cancer emphasizes the difficulty in histological discrimination of follicular carcinoma from normal thyroid tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15849459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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24. Ozülker T, Ozülker F, Eker O, Ozpaçaci T, Ozcan D: Tumour thrombus from follicular thyroid cancer detected by 18F-FDG-PET/CT. Hell J Nucl Med; 2009 Jan-Apr;12(1):66-7
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  • [Title] Tumour thrombus from follicular thyroid cancer detected by 18F-FDG-PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Venous Thrombosis / diagnosis. Venous Thrombosis / etiology


25. Shamim MS, Khursheed F, Bari ME, Chisti KN, Enam SA: Follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as solitary skull metastasis: report of two cases. J Pak Med Assoc; 2008 Oct;58(10):575-7
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as solitary skull metastasis: report of two cases.
  • We report two otherwise healthy patients with no prior history of thyroid cancer, who presented to us with a solitary scalp lump.
  • Histopathological examination revealed metastases from well differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).
  • Subsequent workup confirmed occult primary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in both patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18998315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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26. Vorländer C, Wolff J, Saalabian S, Lienenlüke RH, Wahl RA: Real-time ultrasound elastography--a noninvasive diagnostic procedure for evaluating dominant thyroid nodules. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):865-71
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  • [Title] Real-time ultrasound elastography--a noninvasive diagnostic procedure for evaluating dominant thyroid nodules.
  • So far, only limited data for thyroid nodules is available.
  • METHODS: This study included 309 prospective evaluated patients with dominant, nontoxic thyroid nodules.
  • A total of 50 thyroid malignancies (35 papillara carcinoma, 9 medullary carcinoma, and 6 follicular carcinoma) were observed.
  • Patients (81) were within the hard group, 35 of them (43.2%) had thyroid cancer (TC) in final histology.
  • CONCLUSION: USE is a useful adjunctive tool in the workup of thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods. Thyroid Nodule / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chi-Square Distribution. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care / methods. Prospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • [Cites] Acad Radiol. 2010 May;17 (5):558-63 [20171905.001]
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  • (PMID = 20632029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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27. Mandal S, Jain S: Adenoid cystic pattern in follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a report of four cases. Cytopathology; 2010 Apr;21(2):93-6
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  • [Title] Adenoid cystic pattern in follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a report of four cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: An adenoid cystic pattern in thyroid tumours is a rare finding that may be seen in papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PCT), the follicular variant of PCT (FV-PCT), a rare cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid (CMV-PCT) and follicular carcinoma.
  • There were also prominent follicular areas with hyaline globules in some of the cell clusters reminiscent of adenoid cystic carcinoma and, in places, morula-like groups of neoplastic cells were also seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adenoid cystic areas with morula-like groups in PCT are a rare finding.
  • Cytopathologists and clinicians should be aware of these distinct features in thyroid tumours to avoid diagnosing metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19456847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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28. Prommegger R, Häussler B, Gabriel M, Ensinger C, Sauper T, Hager J: Insular-type component follicular thyroid carcinoma in a 10-year-old girl--case report. J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Jun;41(6):e5-7
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  • [Title] Insular-type component follicular thyroid carcinoma in a 10-year-old girl--case report.
  • Insular-type carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare form of undifferentiated thyroid cancer.
  • The manifestation of disease occurs mainly in adults and is extremely rare in children.
  • Prognosis of this type of thyroid carcinoma is unfavorable in childhood.
  • Therefore, identification and protection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve using electrical neuromonitoring as well as exact preparation of parathyroid glands may reduce these risks.
  • The history of a 10-year-old girl with insular-type thyroid carcinoma is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Rare Diseases / pathology. Rare Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16769328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Ríos A, Manuel Rodríguez J, Balsalobre MD, Febrero B, Tébar J, Parrilla P: [Distant metastases as the initial manifestation of follicular thyroid carcinoma]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Apr;56(4):213-4
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  • [Title] [Distant metastases as the initial manifestation of follicular thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Metástasis a distancia como forma de inicio de un carcinoma folicular de tiroides.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19627740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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30. Richmond BK, Eads K, Flaherty S, Belcher M, Runyon D: Complications of thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy in the rural community hospital setting. Am Surg; 2007 Apr;73(4):332-6
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  • The objective of this study was to examine the complications encountered in a series of 150 consecutive thyroid and parathyroid procedures performed by a single surgeon in a rural community hospital setting.
  • A retrospective chart review was conducted on a series of 150 patients undergoing any thyroid or parathyroid operation by a single surgeon in a rural setting over a 4-year period.
  • One hundred thirty-one thyroid procedures were performed (71 lobectomies, 60 total or near total procedures) for a diverse range of patholological conditions: multinodular goiter, 76 (50.7%) patients, follicular adenoma, 9 (6.0%) patients, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 13 (8.7%) patients, papillary carcinoma, 14 (9.3%) patients, follicular carcinoma, 5 (3.3%) patients, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, 13 (8.7%) patients, and medullary carcinoma, 1 (0.7%) patient.
  • We conclude that outcomes and complications in thyroid and parathyroid surgical procedures are largely dependent on surgeon skill and experience, and can be performed safely in the community setting by an experienced general surgeon despite the absence of advanced technology in this setting.

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  • (PMID = 17439023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Faivre-Defrance F, Carpentier P, Do Cao C, D'herbomez M, Leteurtre E, Marchandise X, Wemeau JL: Thyrotoxicosis revealing metastases of unrecognized thyroid cancer: a report on two cases. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Oct;68(5):389-94
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  • [Title] Thyrotoxicosis revealing metastases of unrecognized thyroid cancer: a report on two cases.
  • We report two cases of thyrotoxicosis-revealing functional metastases of a follicular carcinoma that extended to the bones, liver and kidneys in one case and to the lungs in the other.
  • Both patients had undergone surgical intervention for a thyroid nodule more than 15 years before the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and metastatic dissemination.
  • In both the cases, the carcinoma was not recognized by the pathologist after the first surgical intervention, but was finally diagnosed several years later due to the occurrence of thyrotoxicosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17905194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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32. Nishihara E, Amino N, Miyauchi A: Fractionated radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism caused by widespread metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2010 May;20(5):569-70
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  • [Title] Fractionated radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism caused by widespread metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / complications. Hyperthyroidism / etiology. Hyperthyroidism / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20384491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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33. Weber F, Shen L, Aldred MA, Morrison CD, Frilling A, Saji M, Schuppert F, Broelsch CE, Ringel MD, Eng C: Genetic classification of benign and malignant thyroid follicular neoplasia based on a three-gene combination. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2512-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genetic classification of benign and malignant thyroid follicular neoplasia based on a three-gene combination.
  • Thyroid carcinoma is a common endocrine cancer with a favorable prognosis if subjected to timely treatment.
  • However, the clinical identification of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) among patients with benign thyroid nodules is still a challenge.
  • Preoperative fine needle aspiration-based cytology cannot always differentiate follicular carcinomas from benign follicular neoplasias.
  • Because current methods fail to improve preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules, new molecular-based diagnoses should be explored.
  • We conducted a microarray-based study to reveal the genetic profiles unique to FTC and follicular adenomas (FAs), to identify the most parsimonious number of genes that could accurately differentiate between benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasia.
  • We confirmed our data by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in two independent validation sets with a total of 114 samples.
  • We were able to identify three genes, cyclin D2 (CCND2), protein convertase 2 (PCSK2), and prostate differentiation factor (PLAB), that allow the accurate molecular classification of FTC and FA.
  • Two independent validation sets revealed that the combination of these three genes could differentiate FTC from FA with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 94.7%, and accuracy of 96.7%.
  • In addition, our model allowed the identification of follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma with an accuracy of 85.7%.
  • Three-gene profiling of thyroid nodules can accurately predict the diagnosis of FTC and FA with high sensitivity and specificity, thus identifying promising targets for further investigation to ultimately improve preoperative diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Cyclins / genetics. Cytokines / genetics. Proprotein Convertase 2 / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15713710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA16058; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA16059
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND2 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D2; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / GDF15 protein, human; 0 / Growth Differentiation Factor 15; EC 3.4.21.94 / Proprotein Convertase 2
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34. Adotey JM: Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid in a patient with right submandibular mass--a rare case of 'lateral aberrant thyroid'. Niger J Clin Pract; 2009 Sep;12(3):333-4
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  • [Title] Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid in a patient with right submandibular mass--a rare case of 'lateral aberrant thyroid'.
  • BACKGROUND: Ectopic thyroid is a rare entity in the study of thyroid disease.
  • The occurrence of ectopic thyroid tissue as a mass in the submandibular region is even rarer.
  • AIM: To report a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid within a right submandibular mass in a 67-year-old man.
  • The neck ultrasound scan demonstrated the presence of a solid right submandibular mass.
  • The FNAB showed papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • CONCLUSION: This patient illustrates the even rarer case of a 'lateral aberrant thyroid' presenting as a malignant submandibular mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Submandibular Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19803039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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35. Laghmari M, El-Fadl SH, Gana R, Maaqili MR, Bellakhdar F: [Late cervicodorsal metastasis of thyroid adenocarcinoma treated by anterior cervicotomy]. Neurochirurgie; 2006 Dec;52(6):537-41
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  • [Title] [Late cervicodorsal metastasis of thyroid adenocarcinoma treated by anterior cervicotomy].
  • Metastasis from a thyroid adenocarcinoma is a rare entity with high mortality.
  • The histological diagnosis was follicular adenocarcinoma.
  • The development of a vertebral metastasis from a thyroid adenocarcinoma 11 years after the treatment of the primitive cancer is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17203903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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36. Nggada HA, Ojo OS, Adelusola KO: A histopathological analysis of thyroid diseases in Ile-ife, Nigeria. a review of 274 cases. Niger Postgrad Med J; 2008 Mar;15(1):47-51
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  • [Title] A histopathological analysis of thyroid diseases in Ile-ife, Nigeria. a review of 274 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of histopathological features of thyroid diseases; analyse the occurrence of each of the types and to compare the findings with those from previous studies done in Nigeria and elsewhere.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of thyroid lesions seen at the OAUTHC Histopathology Department during a 10-year period between 1988 and 1997.
  • RESULTS: The 274 surgical thyroid specimens received during the study period came from 235 (85.8%) females and 39 (14.2%) males giving a female: male ratio of 6:1.
  • The adenomas constituted about 6% while carcinomas constituted about 11% of cases respectively.
  • Adenomas occurred almost a decade earlier than carcinomas.
  • Follicular carcinoma was the commonest thyroid cancer seen in this study.
  • CONCLUSION: This study shows that the commonest thyroid disease in Ile-Ife is colloid goiter, which is a preventable disease.
  • Thus, public health measures such as iodination of salt and health education are called for to reduce the occurrence of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18408784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1117-1936
  • [Journal-full-title] The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger Postgrad Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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37. Weyemi U, Caillou B, Talbot M, Ameziane-El-Hassani R, Lacroix L, Lagent-Chevallier O, Al Ghuzlan A, Roos D, Bidart JM, Virion A, Schlumberger M, Dupuy C: Intracellular expression of reactive oxygen species-generating NADPH oxidase NOX4 in normal and cancer thyroid tissues. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):27-37
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  • [Title] Intracellular expression of reactive oxygen species-generating NADPH oxidase NOX4 in normal and cancer thyroid tissues.
  • To date, in the thyroid gland, only DUOX1/2 NOX systems have been described.
  • NOX4 mRNA expression, as shown by real-time PCR, was present in normal thyroid tissue, regulated by TSH and significantly increased in differentiated cancer tissues.
  • TSH increased the protein level of NOX4 in human thyroid primary culture and NOX4-dependent ROS generation.
  • NOX4 immunostaining was detected in normal and pathologic thyroid tissues.
  • In normal thyroid tissue, staining was heterogeneous and mostly found in activated columnar thyrocytes but absent in quiescent flat cells.
  • Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas displayed more homogeneous staining.
  • Increased NOX4-p22(phox) in cancer might be related to a higher proliferation rate and tumor progression but a role in the development of tumors has to be further studied and established in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Adenoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. NADPH Oxidase / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 19779036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; EC 1.6.3.- / NOX4 protein, human; EC 1.6.3.1 / CYBA protein, human; EC 1.6.3.1 / DUOX1 protein, human; EC 1.6.3.1 / NADPH Oxidase
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38. Chia WK, Sharifah NA, Reena RM, Zubaidah Z, Clarence-Ko CH, Rohaizak M, Naqiyah I, Srijit D, Hisham AN, Asmiati A, Rafie MK: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using PAX8- and PPARG-specific probes reveals the presence of PAX8-PPARG translocation and 3p25 aneusomy in follicular thyroid neoplasms. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Jan 1;196(1):7-13
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  • [Title] Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using PAX8- and PPARG-specific probes reveals the presence of PAX8-PPARG translocation and 3p25 aneusomy in follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • At the present time, the differentiation between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and adenoma can be made only postoperatively and is based on the presence of capsular or vascular invasion.
  • The ability to differentiate preoperatively between the malignant and benign forms of follicular thyroid tumors assumes greater importance in any clinical setting.
  • The PAX8-PPARG translocation has been reported to occur in the majority of FTC.
  • In this study, a group of 60 follicular thyroid neoplasms [18 FTC, 1 Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 24 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTA), 5 Hurthle cell adenomas (HCA), and 12 follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinomas (FV-PTC)] were analyzed to determine the prevalence of the PAX8-PPARG translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • The PAX8-PPARG translocation was detected in 2/18 FTC (11.1%).
  • In addition, 2/18 (11.1%) FTC and 1/5 (20%) HCA showed 3p25 aneusomy only.
  • The frequency of the translocation detected in the study was lower compared to the earlier studies conducted in Western countries.
  • Detection of either the PAX8-PPARG translocation or the 3p25 aneusomy in FTC indicates that these are independent genetic events.
  • It is hereby concluded that 3p25 aneusomy or PAX8-PPARG translocation may play an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19963130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Molecular Probes; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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39. Alvarez-Nuñez F, Bussaglia E, Mauricio D, Ybarra J, Vilar M, Lerma E, de Leiva A, Matias-Guiu X, Thyroid Neoplasia Study Group: PTEN promoter methylation in sporadic thyroid carcinomas. Thyroid; 2006 Jan;16(1):17-23
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  • [Title] PTEN promoter methylation in sporadic thyroid carcinomas.
  • The tumor-suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1, on chromosome 10q23.3, has been implicated in an important number of human tumors, such as thyroid carcinomas.
  • PTEN somatic mutations occur in sporadic tumors of the endometrium, brain, prostate, or melanomas, while germline mutations predispose to development of the multiple hamartoma syndromes (i.e., Cowden's disease and Bannayan-Zonana syndrome).
  • Because the frequency of PTEN suppression in thyroid tumors exceeds that of PTEN mutations or deletions, it is very likely that epigenetic mechanisms, such as promoter hypermethylation, may account for its inactivation in a subset of tumors.
  • The main aim of this study was to assess the frequency of promoter hypermethylation of PTEN in thyroid tumors.
  • We studied frozen tissue samples from 46 papillary carcinomas, 7 follicular carcinomas, 6 follicular adenomas as well as 39 normal thyroid tissue samples.
  • PTEN promoter hypermethylation was detected in 21 of 46 (45.7%) papillary carcinomas, 6 of 7 follicular carcinomas, and 5 of 6 follicular adenomas.
  • These results show a high frequency of PTEN promoter hypermethylation, especially in follicular tumors, suggesting its possible role in thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16487009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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40. Zirilli L, Benatti P, Romano S, Roncucci L, Rossi G, Diazzi C, Carani C, Ponz De Leon M, Rochira V: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in a young woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: are these two conditions associated? Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 May;117(5):234-9
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  • [Title] Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in a young woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: are these two conditions associated?
  • AIMS: Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) is a rare dominantly inherited disease characterized by hamartomatous small bowel polyposis, mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation, and increased risk of cancer.
  • Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) present mainly as sporadic, but they may have also a familial component.
  • METHODS: The patient had a palpable nodule in the right side of the thyroid region and an endocrinological evaluation, including hormonal assays, neck ultrasound (US) and fine needle aspiration (FNAB) of the nodule was performed.
  • RESULTS: US confirmed a single nodular lesion in the right thyroid lobe (14 mm).
  • Cytological analysis at FNAB revealed a pattern compatible with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The histological analysis after total thyroidectomy confirmed the diagnosis of a Hurtle cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, with follicular architecture.
  • In clinical practice it must be borne in mind that the wide spectrum of possible cancer diseases occurring in PJS could also include DTC, that the latter can occur earlier in life in PJS population and with a more aggressive histological pattern.
  • Furthermore, in patients with PJS, US of the thyroid should be performed whenever thyroid disease is suspected at physical examination or based on patient's medical history.
  • Due to lack of established data allowing for a real esteem of the association between PJS and DTC, US of the thyroid, should not be recommended as a routine screening for all subjects with PJS.
  • [MeSH-major] Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19235129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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41. Niepomniszcze H, Suárez H, Pitoia F, Pignatta A, Danilowicz K, Manavela M, Elsner B, Bruno OD: Follicular carcinoma presenting as autonomous functioning thyroid nodule and containing an activating mutation of the TSH receptor (T620I) and a mutation of the Ki-RAS (G12C) genes. Thyroid; 2006 May;16(5):497-503
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  • [Title] Follicular carcinoma presenting as autonomous functioning thyroid nodule and containing an activating mutation of the TSH receptor (T620I) and a mutation of the Ki-RAS (G12C) genes.
  • Most autonomous functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) are benign thyroid follicular neoplasms.
  • There are rare reports of malignant hot nodules, in which activating mutations of the TSH receptor (TSHR) were found.
  • We report a case of follicular carcinoma presenting as an AFTN causing subclinical hyperthyroidism in a 64-year-old woman who had a 6-cm hot nodule in the left thyroid lobe.
  • Genomic DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues from the tumor and extratumoral thyroid tissue.
  • Sequence analyses revealed point mutations in two different genes: the normal ACC sequence at codon 620 of the TSHR gene was replaced by ATC, changing the threonine by isoleucine (T620I); and the wild-type GGT at codon 12 of Ki-RAS mutated to TGT, replacing glycine by cysteine (G12C).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, ras / genetics. Mutation. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16756473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9007-49-2 / DNA; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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42. Camacho CP, Latini FR, Oler G, Hojaij FC, Maciel RM, Riggins GJ, Cerutti JM: Down-regulation of NR4A1 in follicular thyroid carcinomas is restored following lithium treatment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Mar;70(3):475-83
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  • [Title] Down-regulation of NR4A1 in follicular thyroid carcinomas is restored following lithium treatment.
  • INTRODUCTION: The identification of follicular thyroid adenoma-associated transcripts will lead to a better understanding of the events involved in pathogenesis and progression of follicular tumours.
  • Using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression, we identified five genes that are absent in a malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) library, but expressed in follicular adenoma (FTA) and normal thyroid libraries.
  • METHODS: NR4A1, one of the five genes, was validated in a set of 27 normal thyroid tissues, 10 FTAs and 14 FTCs and three thyroid carcinoma cell lines by real time PCR.
  • NR4A1 can be transiently increased by a variety of stimuli, including lithium, which is used as adjuvant therapy of thyroid carcinoma with (131)I.
  • We next tested if Lithium could affect cell growth and apoptosis.
  • RESULTS: We observed that NR4A1 expression was under-expressed in most of the FTCs investigated, compared with expression in normal thyroid tissues and FTAs.
  • Lithium induced NR4A1 and FOSB expression, reduced CCDN1 expression, inhibited cell growth and triggered apoptosis in a FTC cell line.
  • CONCLUSIONS: NR4A1 is under-expressed in most of FTCs.
  • This is consistent with the hypothesis that its loss of expression is part of the transformation process of FTCs, either as a direct or indirect consequence of Wnt pathway alterations.
  • Lithium restores NR4A1 expression, induces apoptosis and reduces cell growth.

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  • (PMID = 18727708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113461-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113461; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA113461
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / FOSB protein, human; 0 / Lithium Compounds; 0 / NR4A1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS93432; NLM/ PMC2742303
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43. Krause K, Karger S, Gimm O, Sheu SY, Dralle H, Tannapfel A, Schmid KW, Dupuy C, Fuhrer D: Characterisation of DEHAL1 expression in thyroid pathologies. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Mar;156(3):295-301
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  • [Title] Characterisation of DEHAL1 expression in thyroid pathologies.
  • Iodotyrosine dehalogenase 1 (DEHAL1) is a transmembrane protein involved in the recycling of iodide in the human thyroid.
  • The aim of the present study was (I) to investigate whether DEHAL1 expression is different in differentially functioning thyroid pathologies and (II) to evaluate DEHAL1 as a possible marker of thyroid cell differentiation.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Real-time PCR for DEHAL1 and its isoform DEHAL1B was performed in a series of 105 thyroid specimens, including toxic thyroid nodules (TTN), Graves' disease (GD) thyroids, benign cold thyroid nodules (CTN), normal thyroid tissues and thyroid cancers (follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), partially differentiated thyroid cancers (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC)).
  • In addition, DEHAL1 protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in 163 benign and malignant thyroid pathologies and normal thyroids.
  • (IV) in differentiated thyroid cancers (FTC and PTC), a diffuse cytoplasmic DEHAL1 expression was found; and (V) in PDTC and ATC, DEHAL1 expression was faint or absent.
  • CONCLUSION: Upregulation of DEHAL1 protein expression and sublocalisation of DEHAL1 at the apical cell pole in TTNs and GD thyroids is consistent with increased thyroid hormone turnover during thyrotoxicosis.
  • Diffuse cytoplasmatic localisation or downregulation of DEHAL1 expression in thyroid cancers suggests alteration or loss of DEHAL1 function during thyroid cell dedifferentiation.

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  • (PMID = 17322488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.- / Hydrolases; EC 3.8.1.2 / iodotyrosine dehalogenase 1, human
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44. Yamashita H, Noguchi Y, Noguchi S, Yamashita H, Uchino S, Watanabe S, Ogawa T, Murakami T: Significance of an insular component in follicular thyroid carcinoma with distant metastasis at initial presentation. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):41-8
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  • [Title] Significance of an insular component in follicular thyroid carcinoma with distant metastasis at initial presentation.
  • Risk factors for distant metastasis were studied in 82 patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).
  • FTC with an insular component was found in eight patients.
  • Univariate analysis of 14 possible risk factors showed 7 to be statistically significant: insular component, poorly differentiated carcinoma, trabecular component, serum thyroglobulin level before surgery, patient age at the time of presentation, solid component, and vascular invasion (ranked by p values).
  • After further analysis of the interrelation of the factors and of the logistic regression curves, we concluded that presence of an insular component and patient age were the only independent risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16000845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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45. Hemerly JP, Bastos AU, Cerutti JM: Identification of several novel non-p.R132 IDH1 variants in thyroid carcinomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;163(5):747-55
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  • [Title] Identification of several novel non-p.R132 IDH1 variants in thyroid carcinomas.
  • CONTEXT: Somatic mutations at residue R132 of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) were recently discovered in gliomas and leukaemia at a high frequency.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether IDH1 had somatically acquired mutations in thyroid carcinomas.
  • DESIGN: Exons 4 and 6 of IDH1 were sequenced in a large panel of thyroid tumours (n=138) and compared with the patients normal DNA (n=26).
  • RESULTS: We identified four novel and two previously described non-synonymous variants in thyroid carcinomas, which were absent in benign tumours and paired normal thyroid.
  • Although IDH1 variants occurred at higher frequency in follicular thyroid carcinomas, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas than the observed variants in classical PTC (15/72 vs 3/37), it was not significant (P=0.1).
  • CONCLUSION: IDH1-acquired genetic alterations are highly prevalent in thyroid carcinomas (16%).
  • Our findings not only extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying pathogenesis of thyroid tumours, but also emphasize the biological differences between tumour types.

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  • (PMID = 20702649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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46. Williams MD: Integration of biomarkers including molecular targeted therapies in head and neck cancer. Head Neck Pathol; 2010 Mar;4(1):62-9
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  • [Title] Integration of biomarkers including molecular targeted therapies in head and neck cancer.
  • Head and neck tumors comprise a wide spectrum of heterogeneous neoplasms for which biomarkers are needed to aid in earlier diagnosis, risk assessment and therapy response.
  • Over-expression and mutations of genes in these pathways including EGFR, VEGF, HER2, BRAF and RET, contribute to tumorigenesis in head and neck cancers from squamous carcinomas, to salivary adenocarcinomas and thyroid carcinomas, both follicular and c-cell derived.


47. Haghpanah V, Abbas SI, Mahmoodzadeh H, Shojaei A, Soleimani A, Larijani B, Tavangar SM: Paraplegia as initial presentation of follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2006 Mar;16(3):233-4
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  • [Title] Paraplegia as initial presentation of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Follicular thyroid carcinoma with metastasis rarely presents with clinical picture of spinal cord compression.
  • This report describes a 53 years old patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma who presented with paraplegia and urinary incontinence.
  • Histopathology study demonstrated metastatic carcinoma of thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Cervical Vertebrae. Paraplegia / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laminectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Urinary Incontinence / etiology


48. Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Pardal F, Eloy C, Ruiz-Ponte C, Celestino R, Castro P, Soares P, Sobrinho-Simões M: Follicular thyroid carcinoma with an unusual glomeruloid pattern of growth. Hum Pathol; 2008 Oct;39(10):1540-7
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid carcinoma with an unusual glomeruloid pattern of growth.
  • We describe an uncommon thyroid tumor in a 56-year-old woman.
  • Tumor cells were positive for thyroid transcription factor-1, thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin, cytokeratin 18, Hector Battifora mesothelial cell, and vimentin.
  • Because of the distinctive histologic features, we propose naming this tumor follicular thyroid carcinoma with an unusual glomeruloid pattern of growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Gene Rearrangement. Genes, ras / genetics. Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Keratin-18 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. PPAR gamma / genetics. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Thyroidectomy. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18602667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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49. Xu L, Zhong F, Guo FF, Zhao WJ, Sun XR, Wei XF: [Expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal parenchyma, benign and malignant tumors of human thyroid]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;37(4):243-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal parenchyma, benign and malignant tumors of human thyroid].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal human thyroid.
  • To compare the expression differences of motilin and it precursor mRNA between normal thyroid and intestines.
  • To study the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in human thyroid tumors and their clinical implications.
  • METHODS: RT-PCR, Southern blot and molecular cloning were used to detect motilin transcript expression in human thyroid and mucous membrane of small intestine.
  • Real-time PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify motilin precursor mRNA and motilin peptide in thyroid tissue samples including adenoma, medullary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and nodular goiter. RESULTS:.
  • (1) The expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal human thyroid was primarily in the thyroid C cells. (2) RT-PCR and Southern blot showed that motilin mRNA expressed in human thyroid was identical to that expressed in duodenum with identical sequence deposited in NCBI Genbank of America. (3) Immunohistochemistry, Western blot research and real-time PCR studies showed that motilin and its precursor mRNA were expressed in normal and tumor tissues of human thyroid.
  • Thyroid tumors (acidophilic adenoma, medullary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and nodular goiter) showed intense and diffuse immunostaining for motilin peptide.
  • Moreover, the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in thyroid medullar carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid tissue (P < 0.05).
  • The expression in thyroid follicular and papillary carcinomas were significantly lower than those of normal thyroid tissue (P < 0.05).
  • There was no difference of the expression between nodular goiter and normal thyroid tissue (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Motilin peptide and its precursor mRNA are expressed in C cells of human thyroid.
  • The expressions of both motilin and its precursor mRNA in thyroid medullary carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma are significantly increased.
  • In contrast, their expressions in thyroid follicular and papillary carcinomas are significantly decreased.
  • Motilin may regulate physiological functions of the thyroid through parafollicular cells.
  • Motilin may be involved in the pathogenesis of medullary carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Motilin / metabolism. RNA Precursors / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Female. Humans. Intestines / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18844033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA Precursors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 52906-92-0 / Motilin
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50. Machens A, Dralle H: Decreasing tumor size of thyroid cancer in Germany: institutional experience 1995-2009. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jul;163(1):111-9
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  • [Title] Decreasing tumor size of thyroid cancer in Germany: institutional experience 1995-2009.
  • OBJECTIVE: Decreasing tumor size in a population over time is widely interpreted as a measure of effectiveness of cancer screening programs.
  • Nonetheless, thyroid cancer size is rarely analyzed as a function of time.
  • This study aimed to explore secular trends of thyroid cancer diameter in Germany.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 1644 thyroid cancer patients from a large referral center for thyroid cancer (1995-2009).
  • METHODS: Calculation of largest tumor diameters for each type of cancer as a function of time periods and birth cohorts.
  • RESULTS: Over the past 25 years, subdivided into 5-year periods by year of thyroidectomy (1985-1989; 1990-1994; 1995-1999; 2000-2004; 2005-2009), tumor diameters diminished from 25 to 16 mm (P=0.025) for medullary thyroid cancer and from 28 to 18 mm (P=0.017) for papillary thyroid cancer.
  • This reduction was greater for hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (from 27 to 11 mm; P=0.088) than sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (from 23 to 19 mm; P=0.11).
  • No decline was observed for follicular thyroid cancer (means of 45 to 42 mm; P=0.52).
  • From the first (1921-1940) to the most recent birth cohort (1981-2000), tumor size fell from 22 to 10 mm (P<0.001) for medullary thyroid cancer, from 24 to 22 mm (P<0.001) for papillary thyroid cancer, and from 49 to 38 mm (P=0.011) for follicular thyroid cancer.
  • The reduction of medullary thyroid cancers affected exclusively patients with hereditary disease (from 20 to 7 mm; P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: The consistency and robustness of these data signify powerful secular trends toward smaller papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 20447999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Mills SC, Haq M, Smellie WJ, Harmer C: Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: Retrospective review of 62 patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1946 and 2003. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;35(3):230-4
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  • [Title] Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: Retrospective review of 62 patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1946 and 2003.
  • INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have included Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) as a variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma in analysis of clinical outcome and others have failed to adequately distinguish between benign and malignant Hürthle cell neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to report our experience of histologically confirmed malignant HCC, identifying patient, tumour and treatment factors that predict outcome.
  • Study end-points were disease-free survival (DFS) and cause-specific survival (CSS).
  • Lymph node status (p=0.008), presence of metastases at diagnosis (p=0.005) and tumour stage (p=0.009) were independent predictors of DFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HCC appears to be a separate entity from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), with a more aggressive disease profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18722077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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52. Carta C, Moretti S, Passeri L, Barbi F, Avenia N, Cavaliere A, Monacelli M, Macchiarulo A, Santeusanio F, Tartaglia M, Puxeddu E: Genotyping of an Italian papillary thyroid carcinoma cohort revealed high prevalence of BRAF mutations, absence of RAS mutations and allowed the detection of a new mutation of BRAF oncoprotein (BRAF(V599lns)). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jan;64(1):105-9
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  • [Title] Genotyping of an Italian papillary thyroid carcinoma cohort revealed high prevalence of BRAF mutations, absence of RAS mutations and allowed the detection of a new mutation of BRAF oncoprotein (BRAF(V599lns)).
  • OBJECTIVES: The genes RET and RAS, and more recently BRAF, have been shown to be frequently mutated in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • The aim of this study was to genotype for these mutations a cohort of thyroid tumours collected at our institutions.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thyroid tumours removed from 51 subjects were analysed, including 43 PTC and 8 non-PTC tumours [3 follicular adenomas (FA), 4 follicular carcinomas (FTC) and 1 anaplastic carcinoma (AC)].
  • Screening of the RAS gene allowed identification of oncogenic mutations in 1/3 (33.3%) FA and 3/4 (75%) FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that BRAF mutations are the most frequent genetic event in PTC and that RAS mutations, besides being a genetic hallmark of follicular tumours, are rare or completely absent in PTC from our area.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. Gene Frequency. Gene Rearrangement. Genetic Markers. Genotype. Humans. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16402937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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53. Matsuno A, Katakami H, Okazaki R, Yamada S, Sasaki M, Nakaguchi H, Yamada SM, Hoya K, Murakami M, Yamazaki K, Ishida Y, Iwasaki H, Kuyama J, Kakudo K: Skull base metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma -two case reports-. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(5):421-5
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  • [Title] Skull base metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma -two case reports-.
  • A 58-year-old woman and a 71-year-old woman presented with extremely rare skull base metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).
  • Surgical removal and external radiotherapy were performed followed by iodine-131 ((131)I) brachytherapy and thyroid hormone administration.
  • The metastatic tumors in the skull base were well controlled.
  • Treatment for skull base metastasis from FTC includes surgical debulking of the metastatic lesion, as well as complete resection of the thyroid gland, followed by internal irradiation with (131)I, external irradiation, and administration of thyroid hormone to prevent tumor growth by suppression of endogenous thyroid-stimulating hormone.
  • Skull base metastases may be the initial clinical presentation of FTC, with silent primary sites.
  • The possibility of skull base metastasis from FTC should be considered in patients with clinical symptoms of cranial nerve dysfunction and radiological findings of bone destruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Brachytherapy. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Rare Diseases. Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20505304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Thyroid Hormones
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54. Takano T: [Fetal cell carcinogenesis hypothesis and the prospect of future laboratory tests]. Rinsho Byori; 2009 Aug;57(8):761-8
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  • [Title] [Fetal cell carcinogenesis hypothesis and the prospect of future laboratory tests].
  • A novel hypothesis of carcinogenesis, the "fetal cell carcinogenesis" hypothesis, was established based on molecular evidence of thyroid carcinoma.
  • In this hypothesis, cancer cells are derived directly from the remnants of fetal cells, instead of well-differentiated somatic cells by de-differentiation.
  • For example, thyroid cancer cells are generated from three types of fetal thyroid cell, namely, thyroid stem cells (TSCs), thyroblasts, and prothyrocytes by proliferation without differentiation, which results in producing anaplastic, papillary, and follicular carcinoma, respectively.
  • Genomic alternations, such as RET/PTC and PAX8-PPARgamma1 rearrangements and a mutation in the BRAF gene, play an oncogenic role by preventing thyroid fetal cells from differentiating.
  • Fetal cell carcinogenesis effectively explains recent molecular evidence regarding cancer, including cancer stem cells, and it underscores the importance of identifying a stem cells and clarifying the molecular mechanism of organ development in cancer research.
  • Further, it introduces two important concepts, the reverse approach and stem cell crisis.
  • Analysis of the molecular behavior of a single cell will be a key technique in establishing future laboratory tests.
  • In light of these aspects, we started a project to establish FACS-mQ (mRNA quantification after Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting).
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Laboratory Techniques. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Mutation. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Gland / embryology. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19764411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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55. Taccaliti A, Boscaro M: Genetic mutations in thyroid carcinoma. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Mar;34(1):11-28
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  • [Title] Genetic mutations in thyroid carcinoma.
  • Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine neoplasm and the seventh most frequent human malignancy.
  • It can be distinguished into differentiated and undifferentiated.
  • Differentiated tumors include those arising from thyrocytes, i.e. papillary and follicular carcinoma, while medullary carcinoma originates from parafollicular or C cells.
  • Anaplastic carcinoma comprises undifferentiated tumors.
  • The factors inducing thyroid carcinoma development are not fully understood despite some well-established associations, such as the one between ionizing radiation and papillary carcinoma and that between iodine deficiency and follicular carcinoma.
  • Genetic investigations of differentiated thyroid tumors have documented mutation of genes involved in the regulation of MAP kinase pathway activation in papillary carcinoma, and of genes involved in the regulation of the PI3 kinase pathway in follicular carcinoma.
  • Analysis of their clinical course and of positivity for mutations has demonstrated that prognosis is greatly affected by the type of mutated gene.
  • Genetic investigations therefore have the potential to direct diagnosis, but especially to tailor therapy and follow-up to the individual patient and even the individual gene.
  • Anaplastic carcinoma, a highly aggressive, undifferentiated form, can arise as such or else be the de-differentiated progression of a papillary or a follicular carcinoma.
  • It displays a mutated tumor suppressor gene (p53), which is crucial in the regulation of cell apoptosis, in addition to the mutations found in papillary and follicular forms.
  • Medullary carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm with an intermediate clinical course between differentiated and undifferentiated forms.
  • The latter is a high-penetrance, autosomal dominant hereditary disorder.
  • Identification of the gene responsible for medullary carcinoma has radically changed the diagnostic approach to the familial forms, enabling early neonatal diagnosis of mutation carriers and of the disease, and early surgical approach by prophylactic thyroidectomy.
  • Genetic studies have significantly affected the endocrinologist's diagnostic approach, as in the case of medullary carcinoma; over the next few years they are expected to provide further information to tackle papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • This review addresses the main genetic mutations responsible for neoplastic transformation in thyroid disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Mutation. Oncogenes. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Disease Progression. Female. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Male. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / physiology. Point Mutation

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  • (PMID = 19209125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
  • [Number-of-references] 180
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56. Kebebew E, Weng J, Bauer J, Ranvier G, Clark OH, Duh QY, Shibru D, Bastian B, Griffin A: The prevalence and prognostic value of BRAF mutation in thyroid cancer. Ann Surg; 2007 Sep;246(3):466-70; discussion 470-1
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  • [Title] The prevalence and prognostic value of BRAF mutation in thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of BRAF mutation among thyroid cancer histologic subtypes and determine the association of BRAF mutation with indicators of poor prognosis for papillary thyroid cancer and patient outcome.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The appropriate extent of surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and follow-up monitoring for thyroid cancer remains controversial.
  • Advances in the molecular biology of thyroid cancer have helped to identify candidate markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • A commonly found genetic alternation is a point mutation in the BRAF oncogene (BRAF V600E), which is primarily found in papillary thyroid cancer and is associated with more aggressive disease.
  • METHODS: BRAF V600E mutation status was determined in 347 tumor samples from 314 patients with thyroid cancer (245 with conventional papillary thyroid cancer, 73 with follicular thyroid cancer, and 29 with the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer).
  • RESULTS: : The prevalence of BRAF V600E mutation was higher in conventional papillary thyroid cancer (51.0%) than in follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (24.1%) and follicular thyroid cancer (1.4%) (P < 0.0001).
  • In patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF V600E mutation was associated with older age (P = 0.0381), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0323), distant metastasis (P = 0.045), higher TNM stage (I and II vs. III and IV, P = 0.0389), and recurrent and persistent disease (P = 0.009) with a median follow-up time of 6.0 years.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that BRAF V600E mutation [OR (95% CI) = 4.2 (1.2-14.6)] and lymph node metastasis [OR (95% CI) = 7.75 (2.1-28.5)] were independently associated with recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BRAF V600E mutation is primarily present in conventional papillary thyroid cancer.
  • It is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype and higher risk of recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17717450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA118688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R21 CA 118688-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1959359
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57. McCall KD, Harii N, Lewis CJ, Malgor R, Kim WB, Saji M, Kohn AD, Moon RT, Kohn LD: High basal levels of functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and noncanonical Wnt5a are expressed in papillary thyroid cancer and are coordinately decreased by phenylmethimazole together with cell proliferation and migration. Endocrinology; 2007 Sep;148(9):4226-37
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  • [Title] High basal levels of functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and noncanonical Wnt5a are expressed in papillary thyroid cancer and are coordinately decreased by phenylmethimazole together with cell proliferation and migration.
  • High basal levels of TLR3 and Wnt5a RNA are present in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cell lines consistent with their overexpression and colocalization in PTC cells in vivo.
  • This is not the case in thyrocytes from normal tissue and in follicular carcinoma (FC) or anaplastic carcinoma (AC) cells or tissues.
  • C10 simultaneously decreased PTC proliferation and cell migration but had no effect on the growth and migration of FC, AC, or FRTL-5 cells.
  • IL-6-induced Stat3 phosphorylation is important both in up-regulating Wnt5a levels and in cell growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Methimazole / analogs & derivatives. Methimazole / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Toll-Like Receptor 3 / physiology. Wnt Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Humans


58. Ito Y, Arai K, Nozawa R, Yoshida H, Hirokawa M, Fukushima M, Inoue H, Tomoda C, Kihara M, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Miyauchi A: S100A8 and S100A9 expression is a crucial factor for dedifferentiation in thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Oct;29(10):4157-61
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  • [Title] S100A8 and S100A9 expression is a crucial factor for dedifferentiation in thyroid carcinoma.
  • S100A8 and S100A9 are also known to be overexpressed in certain species of carcinomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the protein expression of S100A8 as well as that of S100A9 was investigated in thyroid tumors.
  • RESULTS: All of the undifferentiated carcinomas were immunopositive for S100A8 and S100A9 and overlap between staining patterns of both proteins was observed.
  • In poorly differentiated carcinomas, all the cases were negative for S100A8, while slight immunopositivity of S100A9 was seen in 2 cases.
  • Papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, follicular adenoma and medullary carcinoma and normal follicules were negative for both proteins.
  • CONCLUSION: S100A8 plays an important role in dedifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma possibly by forming a complex with S100A9.
  • [MeSH-major] Calgranulin A / biosynthesis. Calgranulin B / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 19846966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calgranulin A; 0 / Calgranulin B
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59. Mullin EJ, Metcalfe MS, Maddern GJ: Differentiation of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer from hepatocellular carcinoma using Hep Par 1. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;22(11):2047-8
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  • [Title] Differentiation of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer from hepatocellular carcinoma using Hep Par 1.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma usually arises in a cirrhotic liver.
  • The case is reported of a middle-aged woman presenting with multiple nodules on computed tomography with no clinically apparent primary for whom results of initial diagnostic investigations were potentially misleading.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans


60. Bazrafshan H, Azarhoush R, Gholamrezanezhad A: Fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules in a general teaching hospital setting performing moderate number of biopsies: outcome of indeterminate cytologic results. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Sep-Oct;59(5):385-9
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules in a general teaching hospital setting performing moderate number of biopsies: outcome of indeterminate cytologic results.
  • INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to assess the usefulness of fine-needle aspiration cytologic biopsy (FNA) of the thyroid in our general teaching hospital with average health care facility performing moderate number of such procedures and to evaluate the outcome of Indeterminate Cytologic Results.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied on all consecutive patients referred for FNA of the thyroid nodule.
  • Cytological findings were classified as malignant, histologic control recommended (suspicious or indeterminate), benign, and unsatisfactory.
  • A neoplastic nodule was confirmed in 91/476 of cases (19.1%), of which 14 were cytologically malignant (3.0%).
  • Follicular lesions were identified in the remaining 77/476 cases (16.1%).
  • Upon excision, benign lesions were diagnosed in 47/56 (83.8%), of which 32 lesions (57.1%) were follicular adenoma and 15 cases (26.7%) of colloid nodules.
  • Malignancy was confirmed histopathologically in 9 cases (16.2%), including 4 follicular variant papillary carcinomas and 5 follicular carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA is an inexpensive, safe, practical, well tolerated, and easily applied method, even in not fully-experienced hands and provides useful information.
  • Based on our study findings, suspicious cytologic results (cytologically follicular neoplasms) are inconclusive and are associated with a remarkable chance of malignant involvement; hence surgical treatment is necessary for clarification.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / statistics & numerical data. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18979447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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61. Pomérance M, Quillard J, Chantoux F, Young J, Blondeau JP: High-level expression, activation, and subcellular localization of p38-MAP kinase in thyroid neoplasms. J Pathol; 2006 Jul;209(3):298-306
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  • [Title] High-level expression, activation, and subcellular localization of p38-MAP kinase in thyroid neoplasms.
  • The p38 family of MAP kinases (p38-MAPKs) is involved in regulating the proliferation, survival, and migration of various cancer cells.
  • The present study has investigated the expression, subcellular localization, phosphorylation, and activity of p38-MAPKs in normal and tumoural human thyroid tissues and in thyroid cell lines.
  • The expression and nucleo-cytosolic compartmentalization of the alpha-isoform of p38-MAPKs (p38alpha-MAPK) were studied by western blotting in the WRO and B-CPAP cell lines, which are derived from human follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas, respectively, and in the non-transformed rat thyroid cell lines FRTL-5 and PCCL3.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression and subcellular localization of p38alpha-MAPK, and of the phosphorylated forms of p38-MAPKs (P-p38-MAPKs) in human toxic adenomas (TAs), follicular adenomas (FAs), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs).
  • The activity of p38-MAPKs in PTCs and FTCs was revealed by immunohistochemical detection of their typical phosphorylated substrate, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2/3 (MK2/3).
  • p38alpha-MAPK was expressed in all cell lines and this expression was restricted to the cytosolic compartment. p38 MAPK activity was involved in regulating DNA synthesis in B-CPAP cells. p38alpha-MAPK and P-p38-MAPKs were strongly expressed in PTC and FTC cells, although only in the cytoplasm, whereas they were only very weakly expressed in FA cells, and absent in adjacent normal tissues.
  • Finally, phospho-MK2/3 immunostaining followed very similar patterns to those of p38alpha-MAPK and P-p38-MAPKs in PTCs and FTCs.
  • Taken together, these results show for the first time that the p38-MAPK signalling cascade is functional in two types of differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The observation that p38-MAPK hyper-expression occurs in FTC, but not in FA, may provide an additional diagnostic tool for malignancy in some thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Adenoma / enzymology. Animals. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Cell Nucleus / enzymology. Cytosol / enzymology. DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Humans. Imidazoles / pharmacology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Phosphorylation. Pyridines / pharmacology. Rats. Thyroid Gland / enzymology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • [CommentIn] J Pathol. 2006 Sep;210(1):133-4 [16826548.001]
  • (PMID = 16583356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / SB 203580; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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62. Ito Y, Takano T, Miyauchi A: Apolipoprotein e expression in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Oncology; 2006;71(5-6):388-93
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  • [Title] Apolipoprotein e expression in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, recently the relationship between Apo E and carcinoma progression has been investigated.
  • In this study, we investigated Apo E expression in thyroid carcinoma at both the protein and molecular levels.
  • METHODS: We investigated Apo E expression at the protein and molecular level in 124 thyroid neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: In RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, the Apo E mRNA expression level was very low in papillary and follicular carcinomas as well as normal thyroid, but was dramatically elevated in anaplastic carcinoma.
  • In an immunohistochemical study, 32 of 33 anaplastic carcinomas (97.0%) showed high levels of Apo E expression, but this phenomenon was seen only in 1 of 51 papillary carcinomas (2.0%).
  • None of the follicular carcinomas or adenomas showed high levels of Apo E expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that Apo E is one of the typical biological characteristics of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Apolipoproteins E / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17690558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoproteins E; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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63. Zagrodzki P, Nicol F, Arthur JR, Słowiaczek M, Walas S, Mrowiec H, Wietecha-Posłuszny R: Selenoenzymes, laboratory parameters, and trace elements in different types of thyroid tumor. Biol Trace Elem Res; 2010 Apr;134(1):25-40
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  • [Title] Selenoenzymes, laboratory parameters, and trace elements in different types of thyroid tumor.
  • This study was performed to investigate selenoenzyme activities and trace element concentrations in thyroid tissues, with reference to other parameters routinely used to characterize thyroid function.
  • This was to reveal relevant parameters as possible additional markers of tumor grade, clinical course, and prognosis of thyroid disorders.
  • The tissue samples were obtained during surgical treatment (total or near total thyroidectomy) of 122 patients with different types of thyroid tumor.
  • In the majority of cases, thyroid benign or malignant tumors were not accompanied by significant derangement of the gland selenoenzymes and of either intrathyroidal or plasma concentration of selenium.
  • Nevertheless, types I and II iodothyronine deiodinases were the most promising (among selenoenzymes) targets for diagnoses and possibly therapy of thyroid tumors.
  • Higher activities of both enzymes in cases with Graves' disease, as compared with other thyroid lesions, suggest their involvement in the pathogenesis of this condition.
  • Patients with struna nodosa had higher levels of thyroid Zn, Cu, and Pb as compared with papillary carcinoma subjects and also a higher level of Cu than follicular carcinoma cases.
  • The above diagnostics may play a similar role to some of the general thyroid function indices, TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO, and calcitonin, which can partially distinguish between various thyroid tumors.
  • In conclusion, some of selenium status markers, when accompanied with general parameters, and trace elements can serve as factors with pathophysiologic relevance and be helpful in the identification of malignant disease.
  • Multivariate statistical methods should be employed to tackle a broad array of thyroid tumor diagnostic data in a short time.
  • [MeSH-major] Selenium / metabolism. Selenoproteins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Trace Elements / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19597722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0720
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological trace element research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol Trace Elem Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Selenoproteins; 0 / Trace Elements; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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64. Ruggiero FP, Frauenhoffer EE, Stack BC Jr: Papillary thyroid cancer with an initial presentation of abdominal and flank pain. Am J Otolaryngol; 2005 Mar-Apr;26(2):142-5
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid cancer with an initial presentation of abdominal and flank pain.
  • PURPOSE: Well-differentiated thyroid cancer typically presents as a thyroid mass.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid cancer with clinically apparent kidney metastases is rare, with fewer than 20 cases reported in the literature.
  • In the vast majority of these cases, the patients had known thyroid neoplasms at the time the renal metastases were identified.
  • We report a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma that presented with abdominal pain in a 25-year-old woman with no previous history of thyroid disease.
  • RESULTS: The patient underwent radical nephrectomy for a right renal mass, which was diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant.
  • During subsequent evaluation, metastatic disease was also identified in the patient's lungs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary cancer, which ordinarily behaves in an indolent manner, can have unusual presentation, including disseminated metastasis on presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Pain / diagnosis. Abdominal Pain / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Flank Pain / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Nephrectomy. Radiosurgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


65. Pinchot SN, Sippel RS, Chen H: Multi-targeted approach in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2008 Oct;4(5):935-47
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  • [Title] Multi-targeted approach in the treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • While accounting for only 1% of solid organ malignancies (9% in women), thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system.
  • Although most patients have a favorable prognosis, over 1,500 people will die from thyroid carcinoma each year.
  • The spectrum of disease types range from papillary thyroid cancer, which is a well-differentiated indolent tumor, to anaplastic carcinoma, a poorly differentiated fulminant cancer.
  • With advances in diagnostic methods, surgical techniques, and clinical care of patients with thyroid carcinoma, the current management of thyroid cancer demands a multidisciplinary approach.
  • The majority of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma of follicular cell origin are cured with adequate surgical management; however, some thyroid malignancies such as medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas frequently metastasize, precluding patients from a curative resection.
  • Here, we explore the current management of thyroid carcinoma, including surgical management of the primary tumor, lymph node disease, and locoregional recurrence.
  • Likewise, we explore the application of current molecular techniques, reviewing nearly two decades of data that have begun to elucidate critical genetic pathways and therapeutic drug targets which may be important in specific thyroid tumor types.

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  • (PMID = 19209276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutics and clinical risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Clin Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2621417
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; RET tyrosine kinase (RTK) / epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) / glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) / thyroid carcinoma / vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)
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66. Fonseca E, Soares P, Cardoso-Oliveira M, Sobrinho-Simões M: Diagnostic criteria in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(2):109-17
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  • [Title] Diagnostic criteria in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • The criteria used for the differential diagnosis of well-differentiated thyroid tumors derived from follicular cells are reviewed taking into account the architectural characteristics together with the immunohistochemical and molecular features.
  • The review is focused on follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, and oncocytic (Hürthle cell) tumors, as well as on the recently described borderline lesions: follicular and well-differentiated tumors of uncertain malignant potential, and well-differentiated carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17159243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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67. Bogdańska M, Górnicka B, Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska B, Koperski L, Morton M, Wasiutyński A: [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):314-9
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  • [Title] [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms].
  • INTRODUCTION: Estimation of malignancy in thyroid follicular neoplasms is a common diagnostic problem, thus revealing of differences in expression of some antigens in both benign and malignant lesions seems to be essential.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 in follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples of 38 follicular adenomas (23 "classical", 5 with intracapsular invasion, 10 oncocytic) and 15 follicular carcinomas (9 "classic", 6 oncocytic) were stained immunohistochemically with anti-CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1.
  • RESULTS: In the whole group we found statistically significant differences in CD15 expression between follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • "Classic" follicular carcinomas (without oncocytic tumors) showed stronger CD15 and HBME- 1 expression than "classic" adenomas.
  • In the group of nonoxyphilic tumors positive reaction with HBME-1 was more common in adenomas with intracapsular invasion and carcinomas, but positive reaction with anti-CD15--only in carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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68. Noordzij MJ, de Heide LJ, Links TP, Jager PL, Wolfenbuttel BH: [Four patients with incidentalomas of the thyroid discovered on 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET)]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2007 Oct 20;151(42):2337-41
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  • [Title] [Four patients with incidentalomas of the thyroid discovered on 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET)].
  • [Transliterated title] Vier patiënten met een incidentaloom van de schildklier bij fluor-18-deoxyglucose-positronemissietomografie (FDG-PET).
  • In 4 patients, an incidentaloma of the thyroid was found on 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET).
  • In the first patient, a 73-year-old man, a medullary thyroid carcinoma was discovered during the staging procedure ofa laryngeal carcinoma.
  • In the second patient, an 81-year-old woman, a follicular thyroid carcinoma was found as a result of a FDG-PET evaluation of an adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • In the third patient, a 64-year-old woman, a papillary thyroid carcinoma was found during dissemination investigation after curative removal of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The last patient, a 78-year-old man, was found to have a thyroid incidentaloma on FDG-PET scan during staging ofa recurrence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour.
  • Thyroid incidentalomas are present on 1.2-2.3% of FDG-PET scans.
  • Further diagnostic work-up of these lesions by fine needle aspiration is warranted since up to 50% are malignant.
  • However, whether these malignant thyroid lesions are relevant is not always clear.
  • Treatment depends on the primary disease for which the FDG-PET scan was initially made.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18064937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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69. Ciampi R, Zhu Z, Nikiforov YE: BRAF copy number gains in thyroid tumors detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(2):99-105
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  • [Title] BRAF copy number gains in thyroid tumors detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • Point mutation of the BRAF gene is a common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • Using fluorescence in situ hybridization with BRAF specific and chromosome 7 centromeric probes, we studied 62 follicular thyroid tumors and 32 papillary carcinomas.
  • We found that numerical changes in BRAF copy number were rare in papillary thyroid carcinomas, while they occurred in 16-45% of follicular tumors of conventional and oncocytic (Hürthle cell) types.
  • Tetrasomy for chromosome 7 was overall the most common finding.
  • The changes in BRAF copy number did not overlap with RAS mutations in follicular tumors.
  • In a group of follicular carcinomas, tumors with BRAF copy number gain were significantly more often widely invasive (67%) compared to tumors with no copy number change (18%).
  • By Western blotting, the tumors carrying four copies of the gene revealed higher expression of BRAF protein, suggesting that copy number gain may represent another mechanism of BRAF activation in thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Gene Dosage. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16199894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA88041
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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70. Rosário F, Marques AR, Roque L, Rodrigues R, Ferreira TC, Limbert E, Sobrinho L, Leite V: Metastatic follicular carcinoma associated with hyperthyroidism. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Feb;30(2):79-82
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  • [Title] Metastatic follicular carcinoma associated with hyperthyroidism.
  • PURPOSE: A 68-year-old man with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma had T3 hyperthyroidism.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A bone scan showed intense uptake in the thyroid and multiple areas of increased uptake in the skeleton.
  • Hyperthyroidism was unlikely the result of thyroid-stimulating receptor antibodies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is an unusual case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with initial high I-131 uptake by the thyroid and bone metastases and concurrent hyperthyroidism.
  • T3 predominance was unlikely the result of type 2 deiodinase overexpression because loss of genetic material was demonstrated at chromosome 14 long arm, where type 2 deiodinase is mapped.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperthyroidism / therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15647670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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71. Tripathi M, Sharma R, Jaimini A, Singh N, Saw SK, Mishra AK, Mondal A: Metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with tumor thrombus in the superior vena cava and right brachiocephalic and internal jugular veins: FDG-PET/CT findings. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jun;33(6):426-8
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  • [Title] Metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with tumor thrombus in the superior vena cava and right brachiocephalic and internal jugular veins: FDG-PET/CT findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Brachiocephalic Veins. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Jugular Veins. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vena Cava, Superior. Venous Thrombosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18496455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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72. Wada N, Masudo K, Hirakawa S, Woo T, Arai H, Suganuma N, Iwaki H, Yukawa N, Uchida K, Imoto K, Rino Y, Masuda M: Superior vena cava (SVC) reconstruction using autologous tissue in two cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma presenting with SVC syndrome. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:75
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  • [Title] Superior vena cava (SVC) reconstruction using autologous tissue in two cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma presenting with SVC syndrome.
  • Herein, we report two extremely rare cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with extended tumor thrombus or mediastinum lymph node metastasis (LNM) involving the superior vena cava (SVC), causing SVC syndrome.
  • The left brachiocephalic vein was used to reconstruct the SVC in a papillary thyroid carcinoma patient with mediastinum LNM and a pericardial patch was used in a follicular thyroid carcinoma patient with tumor thrombus.
  • However, SVC reconstruction using autologous tissue in thyroid carcinoma has not been reported to date.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Vessel Prosthesis. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome / etiology. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Vena Cava, Superior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19825162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2765443
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73. Chen YT, Kitabayashi N, Zhou XK, Fahey TJ 3rd, Scognamiglio T: MicroRNA analysis as a potential diagnostic tool for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2008 Sep;21(9):1139-46
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  • [Title] MicroRNA analysis as a potential diagnostic tool for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • MicroRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis has consistently found altered expression of miRNAs in thyroid tumors, suggesting their roles in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • To explore whether this differential expression can be used as a diagnostic tool in surgical pathology and fine-needle aspirate (FNA) specimens, the expression of selected miRNA was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, using total RNA from 84 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and 40 ex vivo aspirate specimens. miRNA from all paraffin-embedded tissues and all but one FNA sample were found to be analyzable, with paraffin sections yielding better miRNA quality.
  • Preliminary analysis of 6 miRNAs in 10 papillary thyroid carcinoma and 10 follicular adenoma identified significant overexpression of miR-146b, -221, and -222 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (P<0.02), but not miR-146a, -155, or -187 (P>0.08).
  • The expression of these first three miRNAs was examined in a series of 5 normal thyroid, 11 hyperplastic nodules, 24 follicular adenoma, 27 classical papillary thyroid carcinoma, 5 follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma, 2 follicular carcinoma, and 10 encapsulated follicular lesions with partial nuclear features of papillary carcinoma.
  • Results showed miR-146b to be most consistently overexpressed in both classical papillary carcinoma and follicular variants, whereas all other groups showed lower expression at a similar level (P<0.001 for pair-wise comparisons between papillary carcinoma and all other groups).
  • Follicular lesions with partial features of papillary carcinoma all showed low miR-146b levels similar to other non-papillary carcinoma groups, suggesting that they are biologically distinctive from papillary carcinoma. miR-221 and miR-222 also showed higher expression in papillary carcinoma, but with substantial overlaps with the other groups.
  • When applied to 40 FNA samples of various lesions, only miR-146b and miR-222 persisted as distinguishing markers for papillary carcinoma.
  • We concluded that miRNAs, particularly miR-146b, might potentially be adjunct markers for diagnosing papillary thyroid carcinoma in both FNA and surgical pathology specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Paraffin Embedding. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy


74. Wu PY, Huang CC, Chen HK, Chien CY: Adult thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma with thyroid transcription factor-1 expression. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Nov;137(5):837-8
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  • [Title] Adult thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma with thyroid transcription factor-1 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17967658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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75. Rezzónico JN, Rezzónico M, Pusiol E, Pitoia F, Niepomniszcze H: Increased prevalence of insulin resistance in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Metab Syndr Relat Disord; 2009 Aug;7(4):375-80
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  • [Title] Increased prevalence of insulin resistance in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with insulin resistance (IR) have a higher prevalence of thyroid nodules.
  • In the present study, we present original data showing that patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) also have a higher frequency of IR.
  • The diagnosis of IR was made when the homeostasis model assesment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was higher than 2.5.
  • IR was present in 56.3% of patient with papillary anol 25% of follicular thyroid carcinomas, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that such a high prevalence of IR would be an important risk factor for developing DTC, as it is well known with some other nonthyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Insulin Resistance. Obesity / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19320560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8518
  • [Journal-full-title] Metabolic syndrome and related disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Metab Syndr Relat Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin
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76. Sipos JA, Mazzaferri EL: The therapeutic management of differentiated thyroid cancer. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2008 Oct;9(15):2627-37
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  • [Title] The therapeutic management of differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of thyroid cancer is difficult because the tumors comprise a wide range of biologic behaviors, from small papillary thyroid microcarcinomas that pose little or no threat to survival for the patient, to anaplastic thyroid cancers that are arguably the most lethal tumor.
  • Although it may be difficult initially to determine at which end of the prognostic spectrum a patient resides, one can ordinarily estimate a patient's risk for tumor recurrence and mortality based on a triad of features as simple as the patient's age at the time of diagnosis, the tumor stage at presentation, and its initial response to therapy.
  • This is largely because randomized controlled trials are lacking as a result of the low incidence and generally favorable prognosis of the disease.
  • The treatment of these tumors rests on a fine balance of providing care that reflects the anticipated course of the disease without overtreating the patient or providing reassurance that is unfounded.
  • OBJECTIVE: To outline the treatment strategy for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer based on the available literature and to guide clinicians through a management algorithm utilizing patient and tumor characteristics.
  • METHODS: This review is limited to the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - papillary and follicular thyroid cancer - and the standard therapy required for the majority of patients.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving an experienced surgeon, radiologists and an endocrinologist.
  • There are many unanswered questions in the management algorithm and ongoing research is needed to further define the best treatment strategy for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Postoperative Complications. Radiotherapy Dosage. Thyroid Hormones / administration & dosage. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18803450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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77. Bukhari MH, Niazi S, Hanif G, Qureshi SS, Munir M, Hasan M, Naeem S: An updated audit of fine needle aspiration cytology procedure of solitary thyroid nodule. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Feb;36(2):104-12
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  • [Title] An updated audit of fine needle aspiration cytology procedure of solitary thyroid nodule.
  • This study was conducted to see the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for solitary thyroid nodules and to compare our experience with that of other regions of the world.
  • It was a prospective cross sectional study conducted on 76 thyroid samples submitted and reported at the Department of Pathology, King Edward Medical University, Lahore.
  • There were 30 cases (39.47%) of benign lesions, comprising of colloid goiter, follicular adenoma, and diffuse hyperplasia.
  • On FNAC, 13 cases were declared as malignant (6 cases) or suggestive of malignancy (3 cases) or suspicious for malignancy [4 cases (5.26%)].
  • Only 9 cases (11.84%) were clearly committed as malignant lesions, comprising of papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma and suggestive of follicular carcinoma.
  • Comparison of malignant cases on histopathology (14 cases) was close to that of FNAC (13 cases).
  • In conclusion, we recommend this procedure in the light of views of other experts as a primary investigation of thyroid lesions.
  • We strongly recommend the suggestion that in a patient with one or more thyroid nodule, FNAC should be advised for every patient for exclusion of cancer.
  • As FNAC is inexpensive, sensitive, specific, and an accurate procedure it should be adapted as an initial investigation of thyroid diseases in all tertiary hospitals in developing countries like Pakistan.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Clinical Audit. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pakistan. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18181183.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Fortson JK, Brown J, Patel VG, Lawrence GE, Rosenthal M: Pathologic fracture of the femur as a presenting sign of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Am Surg; 2010 Aug;76(8):E137-8
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  • [Title] Pathologic fracture of the femur as a presenting sign of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Femoral Fractures / diagnosis. Femur. Fractures, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


79. Karger S, Weidinger C, Krause K, Sheu SY, Aigner T, Gimm O, Schmid KW, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: FOXO3a: a novel player in thyroid carcinogenesis? Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Mar;16(1):189-99
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  • [Title] FOXO3a: a novel player in thyroid carcinogenesis?
  • The forkhead box transcription factor FOXO3a has recently been identified as central mediator of the cellular response to oxidative stress inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the regulation of FOXO3a in the thyroid and to determine whether alterations in FOXO3a activity occur in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • By contrast, we show that H(2)O(2) exposure activates FOXO3a in thyrocytes with JNK (MAPK8)-mediated nuclear accumulation of FOXO3a and increased expression of the cell cycle arrest genes p27kip and GADD45A.
  • In vivo, we observed a marked cytoplasmatic accumulation of FOXO3a in differentiated thyroid cancers versus an exclusive nuclear accumulation in follicular adenoma and normal thyroid tissue.
  • Moreover, this cytosolic accumulation of FOXO3a correlated with an increased phospho-Akt expression in thyroid malignancies and was accompanied by decreased expression of the FOXO targets p27kip and Bim and an increase in GADD45A mRNA expression in the thyroid cancers.
  • Our data suggest FOXO3a as a novel player of cellular stress response in the thyroid, mediating the thyrocyte's fate either to survive or to undergo apoptosis.
  • Furthermore, PI3K-dependent FOXO3a inactivation may be a novel pathomechanism for the escape from apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells, in particular in follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / physiology. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Hypoglycemic Agents / metabolism. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Insulin / metabolism. Insulin / pharmacology. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / pharmacology. JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Oxidative Stress / physiology. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Phosphorylation / physiology. Protein Kinase C / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Rats. Signal Transduction / physiology. Thyrotropin / metabolism. Thyrotropin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18845647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Bcl-2-like protein 11; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Foxo3a protein, rat; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.24 / JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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80. Zivaljevic V, Paunovic I, Diklic A, Krgovic K, Kalezic N, Kazic M, Tatic S, Savic D, Stojanovic D, Perunovic R: The incidence of familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer in a large case series. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 May-Jun;108(3):328-32
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  • [Title] The incidence of familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer in a large case series.
  • PURPOSES OF THE STUDY: In contrast to familial medullary carcinoma, familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) is less frequent and has been less investigated.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of FNMTC and analyse the main demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 1411 patients surgically treated for nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma, in the Center for Endocrine Surgery in Belgrade, from 1995 to 2006 were analysed.
  • The possible presence of malignant tumours of the thyroid gland was investigated in their closest relatives in order to identify cases of FNMTC.
  • RESULTS: Thirteen patients (11 females and 2 males) (0.92% of those with nonmedullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland) had a familial form of the disease.
  • In five out of six families it was a papillary carcinoma and in one family a follicular carcinoma.
  • In two of the thirteen cases the tumour penetrated the capsule of the thyroid gland.
  • CONCLUSION: Familial nonmedullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurs very rarely.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18710108.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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81. Gutiérrez Cardo AL, Rodríguez Rodríguez JR, Borrego Dorado I, Navarro González E, Tirado Hospital JL, Vázquez Albertino R: [Patients treated for differentiated thyroid cancer with negative 131I whole-body scans and elevated thyroglobulin levels: a possible course]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2007 May-Jun;26(3):138-45
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  • [Title] [Patients treated for differentiated thyroid cancer with negative 131I whole-body scans and elevated thyroglobulin levels: a possible course].
  • [Transliterated title] Pacientes tratados por carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides con rastreos de 131I negativos y niveles de tiroglobulina elevada. Una evolución posible.
  • OBJECTIVE: To verify the existence of patients with treated differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with negative 131I whole-body scanning (WBS) and high serum thyroglobulin (Tg) in the follow-up who evolve towards normalization without other therapy interventions.
  • Group I: 31 patients (4.28 %), 11 men and 20 women; average age at the moment of the diagnosis of 33.4 years (rank: 5-60); average surveillance: 12.4 years (+/- 7.4).
  • HISTOLOGY: 27 papillary and 4 follicular carcinoma.
  • HISTOLOGY: 86 papillary and 13 follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Disease Management. Iodine Radioisotopes. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Whole Body Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cell Differentiation. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Postoperative Period. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17524307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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82. Yamanaka K, Ito Y, Okuyama N, Noda K, Matsumoto H, Yoshida H, Miyauchi A, Capurro M, Filmus J, Miyoshi E: Immunohistochemical study of glypican 3 in thyroid cancer. Oncology; 2007;73(5-6):389-94
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical study of glypican 3 in thyroid cancer.
  • In 123 patients with thyroid cancer, expression of glypican 3 (GPC3) was immunohistochemically investigated in tissue samples and the biological significance of GPC3 in thyroid cancer was examined.
  • GPC3 was scarcely expressed in the normal thyroid gland, but was dramatically enhanced in certain types of cancers: 100% in follicular carcinoma (20/20 cases) and 70% in papillary carcinoma (48/69 cases).
  • Expression of GPC3 in follicular carcinoma was significantly higher than that of follicular adenoma (p < 0.0019).
  • In contrast, GPC 3 was not expressed in 17 cases of anaplastic carcinoma.
  • A high expression of GPC3 mRNA was confirmed in cancer lesions, which were strongly positive for immunohistochemical staining.
  • In 69 cases of papillary carcinoma, GPC3 was expressed at an early stage, suggesting that GPC3 expression in thyroid cancer is an early event in developing papillary carcinoma.
  • Further studies are required to determine biological functions and molecular mechanisms underlying the upregulation of GPC3 in thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Glypicans / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Reference Values. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18511877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans
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83. Wu YS, Wang XD, Zhang WC: [Operation strategy for follicular thyroid carcinoma]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Feb;27(2):170-3
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  • [Title] [Operation strategy for follicular thyroid carcinoma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The operation strategies for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), a kind of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, are controversial.
  • This study was to summarize the prognosis of FTC patients after operation, and explore the optimal operation pattern.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 176 FTC patients who underwent operation at Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from Jan.
  • Lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and pathologic type (widely invasive follicular carcinoma, WIFTC/minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, MIFTC) had significant influences on the prognosis (P<0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18279615.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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84. Hassan I, Osei-Agymang T, Fernández ED, Behr T, Barth P, Ramaswamy A, Mueller HH, Zielke A, Rothmund M: Does fine-needle aspiration cytology optimize the surgical management of thyroid disorders in endemic goiter region? Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(1):34-9
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  • [Title] Does fine-needle aspiration cytology optimize the surgical management of thyroid disorders in endemic goiter region?
  • METHODS: One hundred patients with preoperative FNAC of thyroid nodules who underwent thyroidectomy were recruited.
  • 0, no thyroid cells; 1, normal thyroid cells; 2, degenerative thyroid cells without evidence of malignacy; 3, follicular or oncocytary neoplasia; and 4, malignant thyroid cells.
  • In 15 patients (15%), carcinomas were found in the postoperative histopathological diagnosis (including four follicular carcinomas).
  • In the 48 patients of FNAC groups 3 and 4, nine carcinomas (18.7%) were found (including four follicular carcinomas).
  • In the 28 patients of groups 1 and 2, there was only one papillary carcinoma (3.5%).
  • In the 24 patients of group 0, there were two papillary, two follicular, and one anaplastic carcinomas (total of 20.8%).
  • The LR for malignant nodules was 13.2, and that for follicular neoplasia was 0.55.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high prevalence of carcinoma in an endemic goiter region, FNAC disappointed its diagnostic expectation.
  • The lower specificity of FNAC may be caused by a higher prevalence of thyroid nodules in an endemic goiter region or by the absence of a specialized cytopathologist.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Goiter / pathology. Goiter / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18202924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Glazer E, Schwartz AM: Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study.
  • Thyroid carcinomas with follicular phenotype have demonstrated changing patterns over 30 years (1973-2003) according to data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute.
  • Papillary carcinomas have significantly increased.
  • They accounted for 74% of all cases of thyroid cancers in 1973 and 87% in 2003.
  • During this period, the incidence rate of papillary carcinoma (including the follicular variant) increased by 189%, the rate of follicular carcinoma remained stable, and the rate of anaplastic carcinoma decreased by 22%.
  • The rate of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma alone increased by 173%.
  • Thyroid cancer was more common in whites than in blacks and in females more than in males.
  • Papillary carcinomas rapidly increased during adolescence and reached a peak around age 52-56, then declined.
  • Follicular carcinomas increased steadily, but at a lower rate until age 80.
  • After 1988, both papillary and follicular carcinomas, less than 2 cm, increased at the same rate as carcinomas larger than 2 cm.
  • However, papillary carcinomas less than 2 cm were more common.
  • Overall, the 10-year relative survival rate was greater than 90% for blacks and whites with the exception of follicular carcinoma in blacks.
  • The 10-year relative survival rate for anaplastic carcinoma in patients over 40 years of age was 4.7%.
  • The decrease in incidence rate of anaplastic carcinoma may be the result of the successful treatment of papillary and follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma, Papillary. Thyroid Neoplasms


86. Monchik JM, DeLellis RA: Re-operative neck surgery for well-differentiated thyroid cancer of follicular origin. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec 15;94(8):714-8
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  • [Title] Re-operative neck surgery for well-differentiated thyroid cancer of follicular origin.
  • This review focuses on the pathologic criteria for completion thyroidectomy in well differentiated thyroid cancer as well the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent disease.
  • The roles of ultrasound in the diagnosis of a cervical recurrence, its value in determining the extent of lymph node dissection in the lateral compartment, and the importance of intra-operative ultrasound in re-operative thyroid surgery are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Reoperation


87. Brunese L, Romeo A, Iorio S, Napolitano G, Fucili S, Biondi B, Vallone G, Sodano A: A new marker for diagnosis of thyroid papillary cancer: B-flow twinkling sign. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 Aug;27(8):1187-94
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  • [Title] A new marker for diagnosis of thyroid papillary cancer: B-flow twinkling sign.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to correlate the presence and patterns of distribution of B-flow imaging (BFI) twinkling signs within thyroid nodules with the histologic evidence of microcalcifications and the results of the sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration to establish their role in predicting the risk of malignancy.
  • Patients with suspicious or malignant cytologic features underwent surgery.
  • RESULTS: On histologic examination, 66 of 479 nodules were malignant (59 papillary thyroid carcinoma, 1 Hürthle cell carcinoma, and 6 follicular carcinoma).
  • All sonographic characteristics, which were potential predictors of thyroid malignancy (microcalcifications, hypoechogenicity, absence of a halo, and a predominantly solid composition), were found in different percentages in both histologically verified malignant and benign nodules.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that BFI can overcome the limits of the traditional B-mode and color Doppler sonographic features in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
  • This technique provides maximum specificity levels both in the case of benign nodules with pattern 2 and in the case of malignant nodules with pattern 3.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 18645077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Roth LM, Miller AW 3rd, Talerman A: Typical thyroid-type carcinoma arising in struma ovarii: a report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):496-506
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  • [Title] Typical thyroid-type carcinoma arising in struma ovarii: a report of 4 cases and review of the literature.
  • In this article, we report 3 cases of papillary and 1 of follicular thyroid carcinoma; 2 of these cases were associated with mature cystic teratoma.
  • In regard to the occurrence of thyroid-type carcinoma in struma ovarii, precise terminology should be used, and the expression malignant struma ovarii was avoided as a diagnostic term.
  • Upon review of the literature, papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma are the most frequent types of malignancy to occur in ovarian struma; other forms of thyroid carcinoma occur only rarely.
  • The diagnostic criteria for cases of papillary carcinoma are similar to those described in the cervical thyroid gland and are based primarily on nuclear and architectural features.
  • In reference to follicular carcinoma, invasion into the surrounding ovarian tissue, vascular invasion, or metastasis is evidence of malignancy.
  • Histological malignancy in a struma does not necessarily equate with biological malignancy, and the majority of thyroid-type carcinomas do not spread beyond the ovary.
  • Occasionally, metastases of ovarian struma have an innocuous histological appearance, and such cases are referred to as highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin (HDFCO).
  • Because its histological appearance resembles that of nonneoplastic thyroid, HDFCO characteristically cannot be diagnosed until the neoplasm spreads beyond the ovary.
  • In this article, we apply the term typical thyroid carcinoma to those forms of thyroid malignancy arising in ovarian struma that closely resemble the types described in the cervical thyroid gland to distinguish them from HDFCO.
  • Typical follicular carcinoma is more aggressive than the somewhat more common papillary carcinoma, and HDFCO is the least aggressive of these tumor types.
  • Cases of thyroid-type carcinoma arising in the ovary sometimes lack evidence of preexisting struma.
  • The more aggressive thyroid-type neoplasms can arise in thyroid tissue within a mature cystic teratoma, or they may overgrow and replace the struma.
  • Primary thyroid-type carcinoma must be distinguished from rare instances of ovarian metastases that originate in the cervical thyroid gland and the less differentiated forms from other ovarian neoplasms such as clear cell adenocarcinoma and tumors with an oxyphilic appearance.
  • In the differential diagnosis with other ovarian neoplasms, cases of thyroid-type carcinoma associated with strumal carcinoid should not be diagnosed as malignant strumal carcinoid because the latter diagnosis might lead to suboptimal therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18753973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Penna-Martinez M, Ramos-Lopez E, Stern J, Hinsch N, Hansmann ML, Selkinski I, Grünwald F, Vorländer C, Wahl RA, Bechstein WO, Zeuzem S, Holzer K, Badenhoop K: Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Jun;19(6):623-8
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  • [Title] Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • To investigate the role of the VDR gene and its influence on 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plasma levels in thyroid carcinoma, we analyzed four VDR polymorphisms in patients and healthy controls (HC).
  • METHODS: Patients with thyroid carcinoma (n = 172) (n = 132 for papillary and n = 40 for follicular) and HC (n = 321) were genotyped for the ApaI (rs7975232), TaqI (rs731236), BsmI (rs1544410), and FokI (rs10735810) polymorphisms within the VDR gene and correlated with 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plasma levels.
  • RESULTS: The genotypes AA of the ApaI (rs7975232) and FF of the FokI (rs10735810) polymorphisms were significantly less frequent (12.5% vs. 35.2% and 25% vs. 42.1%, respectively, both corrected p [p(c)] = 0.04) in patients with follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) than in HC.
  • Additionally, the haplotypes, Ta (57.5% vs. 41.4%; p(c) = 0.0207), af (24.6% vs. 14.3%; p(c) = 0.0116), Tab (51.1% vs. 36.8%; p(c) = 0.0495), and Tabf (18.7% vs. 13.6%; p(c) = 0.0240) were more frequent, whereas the haplotypes AF (17.1% vs. 37.2%; p(c) = 0.0008), BF (11.4% vs. 31.9%; p(c) = 0.012), tF (7.9% vs. 25.5%; p(c) = 0.0016), and tABF (7.6% vs. 23%; p(c) = 0.0115) were less frequent in the FTC patients compared to HC.
  • Neither genotype nor haplotype frequencies differed between patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and HC.
  • Further, individuals with PTC and FTC had a significantly lower level of circulating 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) compared to controls.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lower circulating levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) are observed in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Further, while the alleles AA and FF of the ApaI (rs7975232) and FokI (rs10735810) VDR polymorphisms and the haplotype tABF confer to protection from follicular carcinoma, the haplotype Tabf appeared to be associated with an increased FTC risk.
  • Since this is the first report associating VDR polymorphisms with thyroid carcinoma, these findings need to be confirmed in studies with larger numbers of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics. Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoantibodies / immunology. Calcifediol / metabolism. Calcitriol / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Female. Genotype. Haplotypes. Humans. Male. Neutrophil Infiltration. Thyroid Gland / immunology. Vitamin D / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19499989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; P6YZ13C99Q / Calcifediol
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90. Gessl A, Vierhapper H, Feichtinger H: Non-suppressible TSH in a patient thyroidectomized due to follicular thyroid carcinoma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Jul;114(7):389-92
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  • [Title] Non-suppressible TSH in a patient thyroidectomized due to follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Poor compliance or drug malabsorption are the most common reasons why an adequate TSH suppression is not achieved with oral levothyroxin in patients with hypothyroidism or thyroid carcinoma.
  • We report a female patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma in whom, under intended levothyroxin suppression therapy, a TSH-PRL-producing pituitary adenoma manifested by failure to achieve adequate TSH suppression, subtle signs of hyperthyroidism,and finally symptoms of elevated PRL.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adult. Female. Humans. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16915543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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91. Bogsrud TV, Karantanis D, Nathan MA, Mullan BP, Wiseman GA, Collins DA, Kasperbauer JL, Strome SE, Reading CC, Hay ID, Lowe VJ: The value of quantifying 18F-FDG uptake in thyroid nodules found incidentally on whole-body PET-CT. Nucl Med Commun; 2007 May;28(5):373-81
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  • [Title] The value of quantifying 18F-FDG uptake in thyroid nodules found incidentally on whole-body PET-CT.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if quantification of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in a thyroid nodule found incidentally on whole-body 18F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) can be used to discriminate between malignant and benign aetiology.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients with focally high uptake in the thyroid as an incidental finding on 18F-FDG PET-CT from May 2003 through May 2006.
  • The malignancies were papillary thyroid carcinoma in 12, metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma in one, and lymphoma in two.
  • Median SUVmax for the malignant lesions was 6.4, range 3.5-16.
  • Cytology suspicious for follicular carcinoma was found in 2/48 patients.
  • No statistical difference (P=0.12) was found among the SUVmax between the benign and malignant groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Focally high uptake of 18F-FDG in the thyroid as an incidental finding occurred in 1.1% of the patients.
  • There was no significant difference in the SUVmax between benign and malignant nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Whole Body Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 17414887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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92. Di Tommaso L, Tresoldi D, Navligu CI, Destro A, Comi P, Morbiducci U, Roncalli M, Rizzo G: A 3-D study of capsular invasion in follicular thyroid tumors. A novel approach to an old dilemma. Pathologica; 2010 Jun;102(3):93-5
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  • [Title] A 3-D study of capsular invasion in follicular thyroid tumors. A novel approach to an old dilemma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of follicular tumors of the thyroid mainly rests on the examination of peri-lesional capsule.
  • Lesions with an intact shell are labeled as adenoma, those with capsular invasion are considered carcinoma and those with doubtful aspects are regarded as tumors of uncertain malignant potential.
  • METHOD: Two follicular carcinoma (FC) and one follicular tumour of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMP) were considered.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our approach allows a better spatial reconstruction of the exact point of capsular interruption; the results obtained suggest that capsular invasion can be due either by abruptly interruption of the shell or by a protrusion along the path of a small feeding vessel.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 21171511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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93. Guigon CJ, Fozzatti L, Lu C, Willingham MC, Cheng SY: Inhibition of mTORC1 signaling reduces tumor growth but does not prevent cancer progression in a mouse model of thyroid cancer. Carcinogenesis; 2010 Jul;31(7):1284-91
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  • [Title] Inhibition of mTORC1 signaling reduces tumor growth but does not prevent cancer progression in a mouse model of thyroid cancer.
  • Selective drugs targeting dysregulated oncogenic pathways are promising cancer therapies.
  • Because the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is hyperactivated in human follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), we hypothesized that its inhibition could block cancer development and progression.
  • We, therefore, analyzed the effect of a treatment with a specific mTORC1 inhibitor (RAD001) in a faithful mouse model of FTC with constitutive mTORC1 activation (TRbeta(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice).
  • The treatment did not prevent capsular and vascular invasion of the thyroid and the occurrence of lung metastasis.
  • However, it substantially decelerated thyroid tumor growth, thereby prolonging TRbeta(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mouse life span.
  • Whereas mTORC1 signaling inhibition did not alter cell apoptosis, it induced a significant decrease in cell proliferation that was associated with the reduced abundance and altered activity of key regulators of cell cycle progression.
  • Altogether, our data indicate that mTORC1 signaling plays a major role in the integration of the mitogenic signal in FTC.
  • Therefore, our preclinical study with a relevant mouse model of FTC demonstrates for the first time that RAD001 efficaciously stabilizes cancer growth although it does not prevent its fatal outcome.
  • In conclusion, our work underscores that in the treatment of FTC patients, RAD001 can only be used in combination with drugs and therapies inducing tumor shrinkage and blocking metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 20299527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2180
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / Pten protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2893796
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94. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Uruno T, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kakudo K, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Expression of S100A2 and S100A6 in thyroid carcinomas. Histopathology; 2005 May;46(5):569-75
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  • [Title] Expression of S100A2 and S100A6 in thyroid carcinomas.
  • AIMS: S100 calcium-binding proteins are known to play multiple roles in carcinoma development.
  • In this study, we focused on two kinds of these proteins, S100A2 and S100A6, and investigated their expression in thyroid neoplasms.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated S100A2 and S100A6 expression in 141 thyroid neoplasms by immunohistochemistry.
  • S100A2 was not expressed in normal follicles or follicular tumours, with one exception.
  • Although 89.5% of papillary carcinoma were positive for S100A2, the expression was heterogeneous except in two cases.
  • In anaplastic carcinoma, 78.5% of cases expressed S100A2 diffusely, while the remaining cases were negative.
  • In normal follicles, S100A6 expression was always low, while 8.3% of follicular adenomas and 39.5% of follicular carcinomas showed increased expression.
  • In papillary carcinomas, S100A6 expression was increased in 75% of cases, but in anaplastic carcinomas it was decreased, with only 14.3% showing high expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The expression patterns of S100A2 and S100A6 in thyroid neoplasms are unique compared with those of other carcinomas, suggesting that: (i) S100A2 and S100A6 contribute to certain events in papillary carcinoma progression, and (ii) S100A2 expression is one of the biological characteristics of anaplastic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Chemotactic Factors / biosynthesis. S100 Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 15842639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chemotactic Factors; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100A2 protein, human; 105504-00-5 / S100A6 protein, human
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95. Durand S, Ferraro-Peyret C, Selmi-Ruby S, Paulin C, El Atifi M, Berger F, Berger-Dutrieux N, Decaussin M, Peix JL, Bournaud C, Orgiazzi J, Borson-Chazot F, Rousset B: Evaluation of gene expression profiles in thyroid nodule biopsy material to diagnose thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Apr;93(4):1195-202
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  • [Title] Evaluation of gene expression profiles in thyroid nodule biopsy material to diagnose thyroid cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Detection of thyroid cancer among benign nodules on fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB), which presently relies on cytological examination, is expected to be improved by new diagnostic tests set up from genomic data.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to use a set of genes discriminating benign from malignant tumors, on the basis of their expression levels, to build tumor classifiers and evaluate their capacity to predict malignancy on FNAB.
  • DESIGN: We analyzed the level of expression of 200 potentially informative genes in 56 thyroid tissue samples (benign or malignant tumors and paired normal tissue) using nylon macroarrays.
  • FNAB carried out on thyroid nodules after surgical resection.
  • RESULTS: A series of 19 genes with a similar expression in follicular adenomas and normal tissue and discriminating follicular adenomas+normal tissue from the following:.
  • 1) follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), 2) papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), or 3) both FTCs and PTCs.
  • These were used to generate four classifiers, the FTCs, PTCs, common (FTC+PTCs), and global classifiers.
  • In 23 of the 26 sham FNAB, the four classifiers yielded a diagnosis in agreement with the diagnosis of the pathologist used as reference; in the three other cases, the correct diagnosis was given by three of four classifiers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We developed a procedure of molecular diagnosis of benign vs. malignant tumors applicable to the material collected by FNAB.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18211972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Algeciras-Schimnich A, Milosevic D, McIver B, Flynn H, Reddi HV, Eberhardt NL, Grebe SK: Evaluation of the PAX8/PPARG translocation in follicular thyroid cancer with a 4-color reverse-transcription PCR assay and automated high-resolution fragment analysis. Clin Chem; 2010 Mar;56(3):391-8
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the PAX8/PPARG translocation in follicular thyroid cancer with a 4-color reverse-transcription PCR assay and automated high-resolution fragment analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Molecular testing of thyroid malignancies, in combination with cytologic and histologic examination, is becoming increasingly attractive as a tool for refining traditional morphologic diagnosis.
  • The molecular changes associated with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) are point mutations in RAS oncogenes or the presence of PAX8/PPARG (paired box 8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) rearrangement.
  • METHODS: We developed and validated a clinical assay for the detection of PAX8/PPARG rearrangements that uses a 4-color reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay and high-resolution fragment analysis.
  • RESULTS: The RT-PCR assay is applicable for detecting the various described fusion transcripts of PAX8/PPARG in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid tissue and in fine-needle aspirate biopsy washes from thyroid nodules.
  • The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 1 abnormal cell in a background of 100-10 000 translocation-negative cells.
  • A comparison of the RT-PCR assay with dual-fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization showed an overall concordance of 95%.
  • With this assay, we obtained a prevalence for the PAX8/PPARG rearrangement in FTC of 62% (13 of 21 cases), compared with a 5% prevalence (3 of 55) for other follicular cell-derived neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of this assay into clinical practice could provide useful information for the diagnosis and possibly for the prognosis and treatment of thyroid cancer in the future.

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  • (PMID = 20056739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA080117; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA80117
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS547600; NLM/ PMC3918957
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97. Lei JY, Huang J: Cytoplasmic staining of TTF-1 in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Expert Opin Med Diagn; 2008 Feb;2(2):151-9
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  • [Title] Cytoplasmic staining of TTF-1 in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is a widely used biomarker in surgical pathology.
  • Its nuclear staining is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of primary pulmonary and thyroid adenocarcinoma as well as small cell carcinomas arising in many organs.
  • The cytoplasmic staining of TTF-1 is also observed, particularly in the benign and malignant hepatic cells.
  • This review focuses on this issue and explores the potential application of TTF-1 cytoplasmic staining in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma from other primary and metastatic malignancies in the liver.

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  • (PMID = 23485135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0059
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on medical diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Med Diagn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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98. Sreedharan S, Pang CE, Chan GS, Soo KC, Lim DT: Follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as axial skeletal metastases. Singapore Med J; 2007 Jul;48(7):640-4
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as axial skeletal metastases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Common modes of presentation of follicular thyroid carcinoma include a solitary thyroid nodule and cervical lymphadenopathy.
  • METHODS: A review of a database of 389 cases of thyroid cancer, managed by our department from 1990 to 2003, was perfomed.
  • The histology of all four cases was that of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients presenting with lesions suspicious of secondary malignancy in the axial skeleton should be clinically evaluated for thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17609826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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99. Slough CM, Randolph GW: Workup of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Control; 2006 Apr;13(2):99-105
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Workup of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) includes three main entities: papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC).
  • A thorough knowledge of the natural history and presentation of these carcinomas is vital to the thyroid surgeon.
  • We review the history, physical examination, laboratory, and radiographic evaluations that optimally prepare the surgeon to determine the ideal surgical thyroid and neck treatment for patients with WDTC.
  • RESULTS: A fiberoptic evaluation of the larynx is integral to the physical examination, and a laryngeal assessment is performed for all patients who will undergo thyroid surgery.
  • Given that patients with preoperative FNA positive for papillary cancer are expected to have clinically significant nodal disease in one third of cases, radiographic evaluation must be appropriately aggressive.
  • The combination of US and CT allows assessment of the central and lateral neck nodes and the thyroid's relationship to central neck viscera.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The overriding principle in the surgical treatment of WDTC is that the surgeon recognizes and encompasses all gross disease in the thyroid and neck nodes at first surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Differentiation. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Preoperative Care. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16735983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1073-2748
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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100. Giusiano-Courcambeck S, Denizot A, Secq V, De Micco C, Garcia S: Pure spindle cell follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid; 2008 Sep;18(9):1023-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pure spindle cell follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Goiter / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Medical Oncology / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18788926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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