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1. Liu B, Yu HM, Huang J, Hsu W: Co-opted JNK/SAPK signaling in Wnt/beta-catenin-induced tumorigenesis. Neoplasia; 2008 Sep;10(9):1004-13
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It has been well documented that two types of tumors, adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma with squamous metaplasia, develop in these mutants.
  • However, the molecular mechanism underlying the induction of squamous transdifferentiation remains largely unknown.
  • Here, we show that JNK/SAPK signaling plays an important role in Wnt-dependent mammary development and malignant transformation.
  • Strong elevations of JNK/SAPK signaling are associated with squamous metaplasia of the Wnt-induced adenocarcinoma.
  • Reconstitution of beta-catenin and JNK/SAPK signaling activities also promotes expression of the squamous cell marker in cultured epithelial cells.
  • Furthermore, a synergistic activation of these two pathways can be identified in the malignant squamous cells of human endometrial and lung cancers.
  • This is potentially a significant discovery in modern cancer therapy because of the effectiveness of an angiogenesis inhibitor, Avastin, for the treatment of adenocarcinoma, but not squamous cell carcinoma, in human lung cancers.

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  • (PMID = 18714362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106308; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106308
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / Wnt1 Protein; 0 / Wnt1 protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.7.11.24 / JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2517646
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2. Cai JC, Liu D, Liu KH, Zhang HP, Zhong S, Xia NS: Microsatellite alterations in phenotypically normal esophageal squamous epithelium and metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jul 7;14(25):4070-6
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] Microsatellite alterations in phenotypically normal esophageal squamous epithelium and metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.
  • AIM: To investigate the microsatellite alterations in phenotypically normal esophageal squamous epithelium and metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.
  • Histopathological assessment identified 23 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 18 adenocarcinomas (ADC), including only 8 ADC with Barrett esophageal columnar epithelium (metaplasia) and dysplasia adjacent to ADC.
  • Paraffin-embedded normal squamous epithelium, Barrett esophageal columnar epithelium (metaplasia), dysplasia and esophageal tumor tissues were dissected from the surrounding tissues under microscopic guidance.
  • The levels of MSI and LOH were high in the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence of diluted DNA.
  • CONCLUSION: The sequence of metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma is associated with microsatellite alterations, including MSI and LOH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Barrett Esophagus / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Esophagus / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Microsatellite Instability. Precancerous Conditions / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Genetic Markers. Genotype. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Metaplasia. Paraffin Embedding. Phenotype. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18609693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2725348
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3. Hirschowitz L, Sen C, Murdoch J: Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix with widespread squamous metaplasia--a potential diagnostic pitfall. Diagn Pathol; 2007;2:40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix with widespread squamous metaplasia--a potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • BACKGROUND: Uterine or endocervical biopsies that contain endometrioid adenocarcinoma with widespread squamous metaplasia are usually of endometrial origin.
  • The presence of squamous metaplasia is said to be helpful in distinguishing endocervical from endometrial adenocarcinomas in small biopsy samples.
  • Biopsy of a friable lesion in the proximal endocervical canal revealed an endocervical adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type with widespread squamous metaplasia.
  • The latter feature initially raised the possible diagnosis of a primary endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • However, immunohistochemical marker studies indicated a diagnosis of primary endocervical adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type and this was confirmed at hysterectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Squamous differentiation is not well documented in endocervical adenocarcinomas of endometrioid type and, when widespread, may represent a diagnostic pitfall for pathologists.

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  • (PMID = 17961245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2116996
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4. Kimchi ET, Posner MC, Park JO, Darga TE, Kocherginsky M, Karrison T, Hart J, Smith KD, Mezhir JJ, Weichselbaum RR, Khodarev NN: Progression of Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the suppression of the transcriptional programs of epidermal differentiation. Cancer Res; 2005 Apr 15;65(8):3146-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Progression of Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the suppression of the transcriptional programs of epidermal differentiation.
  • We did expressional profiling on 24 paired samples of normal esophageal epithelium, Barrett's metaplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinomas.
  • Matching tissue samples representing the three different histologic types were obtained from each patient undergoing esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma.
  • Our analysis compared the molecular changes accompanying the transformation of normal squamous epithelium with Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma in individual patients rather than in a random cohort.
  • We tested the hypothesis that expressional profiling may reveal gene sets that can be used as molecular markers of progression from normal esophageal epithelium to Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma.
  • The final selection of 214 genes permitted the discrimination of differential gene expression of normal esophageal squamous epithelium, Barrett's esophagus, and adenocarcinoma using two-dimensional hierarchical clustering of selected genes.
  • These data indicate that transformation of Barrett's esophagus to adenocarcinoma is associated with suppression of the genes involved in epidermal differentiation, including genes in 1q21 loci and corresponding to the epidermal differentiation complex.
  • Correlation analysis of genes concordantly expressed in Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma revealed 21 genes that represent potential genetic markers of disease progression and pharmacologic targets for treatment intervention.
  • PCR analysis of genes selected based on DNA array experiments revealed that estimation of the ratios of GATA6 to SPRR3 allows discrimination among normal esophageal epithelium, Barrett's dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Barrett Esophagus / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15833844.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 71933
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / SPRR3 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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5. Hannachi Sassi S, Dhouib R, Abbes I, Braham E, Mrad K, Driss M, Ben Hamida N, Ben Romdhane K: [Endometrial atypical complex hyperplasia with extensive squamous metaplasia: two cases]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Jun;28(3):233-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Endometrial atypical complex hyperplasia with extensive squamous metaplasia: two cases].
  • We report two cases of endometrial atypical complex hyperplasia with an extensive squamous hyperplasia occurring in two women aged 48 and 31 years old.
  • The histological study showed an increase in the gland to stroma ratio with a false crowding aspect due to an extensive area of squamous metaplasia; some metaplastic areas were centered by necrosis.
  • Histologic examination is necessary to confirm the diagnosis and to definitively rule out adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Hyperplasia / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Obesity / complications. Obesity / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18706369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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6. Healy CF, Feeley L, Leen E, Walsh TN: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: value of positron emission tomography scanning in confirming the diagnosis. Clin Breast Cancer; 2006 Dec;7(5):413-5
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  • [Title] Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: value of positron emission tomography scanning in confirming the diagnosis.
  • Pure primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is rare.
  • Controversy exists as to whether a pure form exists or whether described cases represent extreme squamous metaplasia within an adenocarcinoma.
  • We present a case of pure primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast confirmed histopathologically with the absence of a distant primary tumor excluded using positron emission tomography.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 17239268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8209
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Pantanowitz L: Colonic adenoma with squamous metaplasia. Int J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;17(4):340-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Colonic adenoma with squamous metaplasia.
  • Squamous metaplasia arising within colon adenomas is a rare occurrence, with a 0.4% incidence noted predominantly in elderly males.
  • A case of squamous metaplasia arising in a tubulovillous adenoma of the cecum, associated with adenocarcinoma, is described.
  • Squamous metaplasia was immunoreactive for beta-catenin, but negative for cytokeratin 20, CDX2, p63, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p16, and human papilloma virus.
  • Squamous differentiation may serve as a precursor lesion for squamous neoplasia of the colorectum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Colectomy. Female. Humans. Metaplasia / pathology. Metaplasia / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. beta Catenin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18701516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / beta Catenin
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8. Griffiths EA, Pritchard SA, McGrath SM, Valentine HR, Price PM, Welch IM, West CM: Increasing expression of hypoxia-inducible proteins in the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. Br J Cancer; 2007 May 7;96(9):1377-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increasing expression of hypoxia-inducible proteins in the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.
  • Our aim was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, HIF-2alpha, erythropoietin (Epo), Epo receptor (Epo-R), Glut-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) along with Ki67/MIB-1 in the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.
  • Endoscopic biopsies of normal squamous epithelium (NSE) (n=20), columnar-lined oesophagus (CLO) (n=15), CLO with intestinal metaplasia (n=20), dysplasia (n=17) and Barrett's type adenocarcinoma (n=20) were obtained.
  • Significant increases in the expression of HIF-2alpha (P=0.014), VEGF (P<0.0001), Epo-R (P<0.0001) and Ki67 (P<0.0001) were found as tissue progressed from NSE to adenocarcinoma.
  • HIF-2alpha was expressed late in the sequence and was only seen in dysplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • High HIF-2alpha expression was seen in 12 out of 20 Barrett's type adenocarcinoma.
  • The late expression of HIF-2alpha in the Barrett's carcinogenesis sequence and its high expression in adenocarcinoma suggest that it is worth further investigation as a marker of disease progression and therapeutic target.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Disease Progression. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Esophageal Diseases / pathology. Esophagus / cytology. Esophagus / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Metaplasia. Receptors, Erythropoietin / metabolism. Reference Values. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17437013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Erythropoietin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360174
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9. Ueo T, Kashima K, Daa T, Kondo Y, Sasaki A, Yokoyama S: Immunohistochemical analysis of morules in colonic neoplasms: morules are morphologically and qualitatively different from squamous metaplasia. Pathobiology; 2005;72(5):269-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of morules in colonic neoplasms: morules are morphologically and qualitatively different from squamous metaplasia.
  • Morules develop in several neoplasms and have been considered as a type of squamous metaplasia despite the absence of keratinization and intercellular bridges.
  • The objective of this study was to clarify the pathological significance of morules and to distinguish morules from squamous metaplasia in colonic neoplasms.
  • Ten cases of morule-associated colonic neoplasms (4 adenocarcinomas, 1 adenoma with carcinoma in situ, and 5 adenomas), and 3 cases of squamous metaplasia in colonic adenocarcinoma were examined morphologically and immunohistochemically.
  • Thus, morules were morphologically and qualitatively different from squamous metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Intranuclear Inclusion Bodies / chemistry. Intranuclear Inclusion Bodies / ultrastructure. Male. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16374071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-2008
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / beta Catenin
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10. Segat D, Cassaro M, Dazzo E, Cavallini L, Romualdi C, Salvador R, Vitale MP, Vitiello L, Fassan M, Rugge M, Zaninotto G, Ancona E, Baroni MD: Pericentriolar material analyses in normal esophageal mucosa, Barrett's metaplasia and adenocarcinoma. Histol Histopathol; 2010 05;25(5):551-60
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  • [Title] Pericentriolar material analyses in normal esophageal mucosa, Barrett's metaplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • Barrett's esophagus metaplasia is a pre-cancerous condition caused by chronic esophagitis.
  • Chromosomal instability (CIN) is common in Barrett's cells: therefore, we investigated the possible presence of centrosomal aberrations (a main cause of CIN) by centrosomal protein immunostaining in paraffined esophageal samples of patients who developed a Barrett's adenocarcinoma.
  • In most (55%) patients, alterations of the pericentriolar material (PCM) signals were evident and consistently marked the transition between normal epithelium to metaplasia.
  • The alterations could even be found in adjacent native squamous epithelium, Barrett's mucosa and submucosal gland cells, as well as in the basal/epibasal layers of the mucosa and submucosal gland duct, which are the regions hosting esophageal stem and progenitor cells.
  • Importantly, PCM altered signals in Barrett's mucosa and their apparent evolution in successive histopathological steps were correlated to adenocarcinoma aggressiveness, suggesting PCM as a possible prognostic marker for tumor relapse.
  • Extending our observations in a prospective study might help in the development of new prevention protocols for adenocarcinoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Barrett Esophagus / metabolism. Centrosome / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophagus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens / metabolism. Chromosomal Instability. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Mucous Membrane / anatomy & histology. Mucous Membrane / metabolism. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Prognosis. Tubulin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20238294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Tubulin; 0 / pericentrin
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11. Colleypriest BJ, Farrant JM, Slack JM, Tosh D: The role of Cdx2 in Barrett's metaplasia. Biochem Soc Trans; 2010 Apr;38(2):364-9
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  • [Title] The role of Cdx2 in Barrett's metaplasia.
  • Metaplasia (or transdifferentiation) is defined as the transformation of one tissue type to another.
  • Clues to the molecular mechanisms that control the development of metaplasia are implied from knowledge of the transcription factors that specify tissue identity during normal embryonic development.
  • Barrett's metaplasia describes the development of a columnar/intestinal phenotype in the squamous oesophageal epithelium and is the major risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The homoeotic transcription factor Cdx2 (Caudal-type homeobox 2) has been implicated as a master switch gene for intestine and therefore for Barrett's metaplasia.
  • Loss of Cdx2 function, or conditional deletion in the intestine, results in replacement of intestinal cells with a stratified squamous phenotype.
  • In addition, Cdx2 is sufficient to provoke intestinal metaplasia in the stomach.
  • In the present paper, we review the evidence for the role of Cdx2 in the development of Barrett's metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Animals. CDX2 Transcription Factor. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Metaplasia / genetics. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 20298184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-8752
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical Society transactions
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Soc. Trans.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ G0300415; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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12. Castillo CM, Ha CY, Gater DR, Grob BM, Klausner AP: Prophylactic radical cystectomy for the management of keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder in a man with tetraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med; 2007;30(4):389-91
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  • [Title] Prophylactic radical cystectomy for the management of keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder in a man with tetraplegia.
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To report a case of keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder treated with radical cystectomy.
  • METHODS: Keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder is a rare entity that can result from chronic irritative stimuli involving the bladder.
  • It is considered a premalignant condition associated with invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A case report is presented describing the diagnosis and management of keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder in a tetraplegic man with a chronic indwelling urinary catheter.
  • RESULTS: Radical cystectomy with an Indiana continent reservoir was performed after cystoscopy with biopsy confirmed keratinizing squamous metaplasia.
  • Final pathology revealed focal erosion and diffuse keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder with prostatic adenocarcinoma as an incidental finding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with spinal cord injury who use indwelling catheters for bladder management are at higher risk of developing keratinizing squamous metaplasia.
  • Prophylactic cystectomy is sometimes warranted; however, observation and frequent cystoscopic surveillance to identify potential malignant transformation can be an alternative strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Cystectomy / methods. Quadriplegia / complications. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / etiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17853664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-0268
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of spinal cord medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Spinal Cord Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2031939
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13. Wang DH, Clemons NJ, Miyashita T, Dupuy AJ, Zhang W, Szczepny A, Corcoran-Schwartz IM, Wilburn DL, Montgomery EA, Wang JS, Jenkins NA, Copeland NA, Harmon JW, Phillips WA, Watkins DN: Aberrant epithelial-mesenchymal Hedgehog signaling characterizes Barrett's metaplasia. Gastroenterology; 2010 May;138(5):1810-22
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  • [Title] Aberrant epithelial-mesenchymal Hedgehog signaling characterizes Barrett's metaplasia.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: The molecular mechanism underlying epithelial metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus remains unknown.
  • Human esophageal squamous epithelial (HET-1A) and adenocarcinoma (OE33) cells were subjected to acid treatment and used in transfection experiments.
  • We further show that expression of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1, the human homologue of the columnar cell factor Hensin, occurs in Barrett's epithelium and is induced by SOX9.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20138038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123945-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA123945-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA123945-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA123945-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 1K23DK068149; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K23 DK068149; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123945-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32CA-123945; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA123945; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123945-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMP4 protein, human; 0 / Bmp4 protein, mouse; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4; 0 / DMBT1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / SOX9 Transcription Factor; 0 / SOX9 protein, human; 0 / Shh protein, mouse; 0 / Sox9 protein, mouse; 0 / patched receptors; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS176618; NLM/ PMC3422577
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14. Li CP, Goto A, Watanabe A, Murata K, Ota S, Niki T, Aburatani H, Fukayama M: AKR1B10 in usual interstitial pneumonia: expression in squamous metaplasia in association with smoking and lung cancer. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(5):295-304
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  • [Title] AKR1B10 in usual interstitial pneumonia: expression in squamous metaplasia in association with smoking and lung cancer.
  • AKR1B10 (aldo-keto reductase 1B10) is frequently overexpressed in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in smokers.
  • AKR1B10 immunoreactivity was confined to squamous metaplasia in honeycomb lesions of UIP and neoplastic cells of LC.
  • Squamous metaplastic foci showed AKR1B10 immunoreactivity more frequently in UIP with LC (24/36 foci, 67%) than in UIP without LC (16/44 foci, 37%) (P<0.01).
  • AKR1B10 expression in UIP was also more frequent in squamous metaplastic foci in smokers (38/67 foci, 57%) than in non-smokers (2/13 foci, 15%) (P<0.01).
  • Ki-67 labeling index was significantly higher in AKR1B10-positive squamous metaplasia of UIP than in AKR1B10-negative squamous metaplasia of UIP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Aldehyde Reductase / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Respiratory Mucosa / enzymology. Smoking / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Japan. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18358633.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.1.1.- / AKR1B10 protein, human; EC 1.1.1.21 / Aldehyde Reductase
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15. O'Riordan JM, Abdel-latif MM, Ravi N, McNamara D, Byrne PJ, McDonald GS, Keeling PW, Kelleher D, Reynolds JV: Proinflammatory cytokine and nuclear factor kappa-B expression along the inflammation-metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence in the esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jun;100(6):1257-64
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  • [Title] Proinflammatory cytokine and nuclear factor kappa-B expression along the inflammation-metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence in the esophagus.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased significantly in the western world over the last 20 yr.
  • Most cases arise in a background of chronic gastroesophageal reflux, and specialized intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus is frequently an antecedent phenotype or evident in association with adenocarcinoma.
  • The molecular events that characterize the pathway from inflammation to metaplasia to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma are poorly understood.
  • AIMS: To examine the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1beta along the esophagitis, metaplasia, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma pathway, and to correlate this with histological changes and expression of the transcription factor NF-kappaB.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fresh biopsy specimens were collected from patients with reflux esophagitis (n=15), Barrett's esophagus (n=35), Barrett's adjacent to adenocarcinoma (n=8), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (n=35).
  • RESULTS: Elevated expression of NF-kappaB was found in 2 (13%) out of 15 patients with reflux esophagitis, 21 (60%) out of 35 patients with Barrett's esophagus, and 28 (80%) out of 35 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • IL-8 and IL-1beta were significantly increased in esophagitis, Barrett's, and adenocarcinoma compared with squamous epithelium, and in adenocarcinoma compared with all other groups.
  • There was a stepwise increase in the expression of IL-8, IL-1beta, and NF-kappaB from normal through Barrett's epithelium to adenocarcinoma in eight cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The levels of both IL-8 and IL-1beta in adenocarcinoma patients correlated with stage of disease.
  • Patients with adenocarcinoma who were NF-kappaB positive had significantly higher levels of both IL-8 (p=0.04) and IL-1beta (p=0.03) compared to adenocarcinoma patients who were NF-kappaB negative.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1beta are elevated in esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium, and markedly elevated in adenocarcinoma.
  • NF-kappaB activation is infrequent in esophagitis, but is increased in Barrett's epithelium and adenocarcinoma.
  • The association of NF-kappaB activation with cytokine upregulation was only evident in patients with adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophagitis / metabolism. Interleukin-1 / biosynthesis. Interleukin-8 / biosynthesis. NF-kappa B / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Barrett Esophagus / metabolism. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Biomarkers / metabolism. Biopsy. Electrophoresis. Endoscopy, Digestive System. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gastroesophageal Reflux / metabolism. Gastroesophageal Reflux / pathology. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15929754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / NF-kappa B
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16. Dietz J, Chaves-E-Silva S, Meurer L, Sekine S, de Souza AR, Meine GC: Short segment Barrett's esophagus and distal gastric intestinal metaplasia. Arq Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr-Jun;43(2):117-20
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  • [Title] Short segment Barrett's esophagus and distal gastric intestinal metaplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Short segment Barrett's esophagus is defined by the presence of <3 cm of columnar-appearing mucosa in the distal esophagus with intestinal metaplasia on histophatological examination.
  • Barrett's esophagus is a risk factor to develop adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.
  • While Barrett's esophagus develops as a result of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, intestinal metaplasia in the gastric cardia is a consequence of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and is associated with distal gastric intestinal metaplasia.
  • It can be difficult to determine whether short-segment columnar epithelium with intestinal metaplasia are lining the esophagus (a condition called short segment Barrett's esophagus) or the proximal stomach (a condition called intestinal metaplasia of the gastric cardia).
  • AIMS: To study the association of short segment Barrett's esophagus (length <3 cm) with gastric intestinal metaplasia (antrum or body) and infection by H. pylori.
  • Biopsies were obtained immediately below the squamous-columnar lining, from gastric antrum and gastric corpus for investigation of intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori.
  • RESULTS: Forty-two from 89 (47.2%) patients were diagnosed with esophageal intestinal metaplasia by histopathology.
  • The mean-age was significantly higher in the group with esophageal intestinal metaplasia.
  • Gastric intestinal metaplasia (antrum or body) was diagnosed in 21 from 42 (50.0%) patients in the group with esophageal intestinal metaplasia and 7 from 47 (14.9%) patients in the group with esophageal columnar appearing mucosa but without intestinal metaplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: Intestinal metaplasia is a frequent finding in patients with <3 cm of columnar-appearing mucosa in the distal esophagus.
  • In the present study, short segment intestinal metaplasia in the esophagus is associated with distal gastric intestinal metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cardia / pathology. Esophagoscopy. Female. Gastritis / microbiology. Gastritis / pathology. Humans. Male. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17119666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2803
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de gastroenterologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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17. Ling FC, Khochfar J, Baldus SE, Brabender J, Drebber U, Bollschweiler E, Hoelscher AH, Schneider PM: HIF-1alpha protein expression is associated with the environmental inflammatory reaction in Barrett's metaplasia. Dis Esophagus; 2009;22(8):694-9

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  • [Title] HIF-1alpha protein expression is associated with the environmental inflammatory reaction in Barrett's metaplasia.
  • Squamous epithelium (SE), metaplastic, low- and high-grade dysplastic lesions, and tumor tissue of 57 resection specimens from patients with Barrett's adenocarcinoma were immunohistochemically analyzed.
  • HIF-1alpha protein expression increased significantly from SE to Barrett's metaplasia (BM) (P < 0.0001).
  • From metaplasia through low- and high-grade dysplasia to cancer, no further increase could be detected.
  • All were significantly increased in metaplasia compared to SE without further change in tumor development.

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  • (PMID = 19302222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
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18. Maru DM, Singh RR, Hannah C, Albarracin CT, Li YX, Abraham R, Romans AM, Yao H, Luthra MG, Anandasabapathy S, Swisher SG, Hofstetter WL, Rashid A, Luthra R: MicroRNA-196a is a potential marker of progression during Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-invasive adenocarcinoma sequence in esophagus. Am J Pathol; 2009 May;174(5):1940-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MicroRNA-196a is a potential marker of progression during Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-invasive adenocarcinoma sequence in esophagus.
  • Barrett's esophagus (BE)/Barrett's metaplasia (BM) is a recognized precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) with an intermediary stage of dysplasia.
  • The low yield and high cost of endoscopic screening of patients with BE underscores the need for novel biomarkers, such as microRNA (miRNA), which have emerged as important players in neoplastic progression for risk assessment of developing dysplasia/adenocarcinoma.
  • Higher levels of miR-196a were observed in EA, BE, and dysplastic lesions compared with normal squamous mucosa, and in high-grade dysplasia compared with BE and low-grade dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophagus / pathology. MicroRNAs / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calgranulin B / genetics. Calgranulin B / metabolism. Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins / genetics. Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins / metabolism. DNA Primers / chemistry. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Keratin-5 / genetics. Keratin-5 / metabolism. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19342367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calgranulin B; 0 / Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / KRT5 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / MIRN196 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SPRR2C protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671281
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19. Ormeci N, Savas B, Coban S, Palabiyikoğlu M, Ensari A, Kuzu I, Kursun N: The usefulness of chromoendoscopy with methylene blue in Barrett's metaplasia and early esophageal carcinoma. Surg Endosc; 2008 Mar;22(3):693-700
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHYLENE BLUE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The usefulness of chromoendoscopy with methylene blue in Barrett's metaplasia and early esophageal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus is a condition that is premalignant for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction.
  • Early detection of Barrett's metaplasia and dysplasia is very important to decrease the mortality and morbidity from esophageal adenocarcinoma cancer.
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of methylene blue-targeted biopsies in the differential diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and superficial esophageal carcinoma.
  • However, there was no statistical difference between the two methods in the diagnosis of esophagitis or esophageal carcinoma (p > 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagoscopy / methods. Methylene Blue. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 17704887.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
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20. Smith AK, Hansel DE, Jones JS: Role of cystitis cystica et glandularis and intestinal metaplasia in development of bladder carcinoma. Urology; 2008 May;71(5):915-8
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  • [Title] Role of cystitis cystica et glandularis and intestinal metaplasia in development of bladder carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: Cystitis cystica et glandularis (CCEG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) have been suggested to represent precursors of bladder adenocarcinoma.
  • The records and imaging findings of patients with a pathologic diagnosis of florid CCEG and/or IM were reviewed for a concurrent or future diagnosis of bladder carcinoma or pelvic lipomatosis.
  • Of the 117 patients with CCEG, a subset was identified with concurrent mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 1; <1%), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 4; 3%), or urothelial carcinoma (n = 34; 29%) at diagnosis.
  • Pure IM was identified concurrently with adenocarcinoma in 2 (10%), urothelial carcinoma in 4 (21%), and urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation in 1 (5%) of 19 patients.
  • Although IM can be associated with a concurrent diagnosis of carcinoma, we found no evidence that it increases the future risk of malignancy and our findings do not support a recommendation for surveillance cystoscopy in such patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Metaplasia / complications. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18455631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Kuramochi H, Uchida K, Peters JH, Shimizu D, Vallbohmer D, Schneider S, Danenberg KD, Danenberg PV: Loss of heterozygosity at thymidylate synthase locus in Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma sequences. BMC Cancer; 2009 May 21;9:157
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  • [Title] Loss of heterozygosity at thymidylate synthase locus in Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma sequences.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and timing of LOH at the TS locus in Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma (BA) and its precursory lesions, such as intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia.
  • Normal squamous tissue from the upper esophagus was taken as a control.

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  • (PMID = 19460136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA84424
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2694818
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22. Wijnhoven BP, Hussey DJ, Watson DI, Tsykin A, Smith CM, Michael MZ, South Australian Oesophageal Research Group: MicroRNA profiling of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Br J Surg; 2010 Jun;97(6):853-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MicroRNA profiling of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The genetic changes that drive metaplastic progression from squamous oesophageal mucosa toward intestinal metaplasia and adenocarcinoma are unclear.
  • This study examined whether miRNAs play a role in the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: RNA was extracted from mucosa of normal oesophageal squamous epithelium, normal gastric epithelium, Barrett's oesophagus with intestinal metaplasia and oesophageal adenocarcinoma obtained from 16 individuals.
  • Tissue-specific expression profiles were observed, with miR-21, miR-143, miR-145, miR-194 and miR-215 significantly upregulated in columnar tissues compared with normal squamous epithelium.
  • Expression of miR-143, miR-145 and miR-215 was lower in oesophageal adenocarcinoma than in Barrett's oesophagus.
  • Levels of miR-203 and miR-205 were high in normal squamous epithelium and low in columnar epithelia.
  • MiR-205 levels were lower in gastric epithelium than in both Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Barrett Esophagus / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. MicroRNAs / analysis. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20301167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Investigator] Wijnhoven BP; Hussey DJ; Watson DI; Smith CM; Mayne GC; Michael MZ; Astill D; Van der Hoek MB; Tsykin A; Tilanus HW; Wijnhoven BP
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23. Barbera M, Fitzgerald RC: Cellular origin of Barrett's metaplasia and oesophageal stem cells. Biochem Soc Trans; 2010 Apr;38(2):370-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular origin of Barrett's metaplasia and oesophageal stem cells.
  • Barrett's oesophagus is a metaplastic pre-malignant disorder and the only established precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Barrett's oesophagus develops when the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the lower oesophagus is replaced by a columnar lined mucosa with intestinal differentiation, usually in the context of chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
  • Abnormal differentiation of multipotent stem cells in the squamous oesophagus, triggered by exposure to refluxate, is one potential mechanism.
  • These stem cells could be located in the basal layer of the squamous oesophageal epithelium and/or in the neck region of the oesophageal submucosal gland ducts; however, their exact location and identification are still matter of discussion.
  • Three-dimensional models combined with state-of-the-art imaging techniques are now applied to characterize the squamous epithelium in human oesophageal samples, and this could unveil essential information to identify these progenitor cells.
  • Locating stem cells in human squamous oesophagus could have important implications for our understanding of Barrett's oesophagus and remarkably improve our future strategies for its prevention.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Transdifferentiation / physiology. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / physiology. Gastric Mucosa / cytology. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Gastric Mucosa / physiology. Humans. Metaplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20298185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-8752
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical Society transactions
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Soc. Trans.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ MC/ U105365007; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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24. Avilés A, Reymunde A, Santiago N: Balloon-based electrode for the ablation of non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus: ablation of intestinal metaplasia (AIM II Trial). Bol Asoc Med P R; 2006 Oct-Dec;98(4):270-5
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  • [Title] Balloon-based electrode for the ablation of non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus: ablation of intestinal metaplasia (AIM II Trial).
  • INTRODUCTION: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a condition in which an abnormal intestinal-type epithelium called specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM) replaces the stratified squamous epithelium that normally lines the distal esophagus.
  • This intestinal metaplasia predisposes patients to esophageal adenocarcinoma, the most rapidly rising tumor incidence over the last 30 years, with an annual incidence of 0.5% in patients with BE and a survival rate less than 10% in 5 years.
  • [MeSH-minor] Electrodes. Equipment Design. Esophagus / pathology. Esophagus / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19610568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-4849
  • [Journal-full-title] Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bol Asoc Med P R
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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25. Gibson CJ, Parry NM, Jakowski RM, Cooper J: Adenomatous polyp with intestinal metaplasia of the esophagus (Barrett esophagus) in a dog. Vet Pathol; 2010 Jan;47(1):116-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenomatous polyp with intestinal metaplasia of the esophagus (Barrett esophagus) in a dog.
  • Histologically, the stratified squamous epithelium overlying the mass and lining the adjacent esophageal mucosa was replaced by papillary projections covered by columnar epithelium with goblet cells supported by a fibrous stroma.
  • This article reports a case of spontaneous esophageal adenomatous polyp with intestinal metaplasia (Barrett esophagus) and reviews the pathogenesis of esophageal metaplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Esophagus / pathology. Goblet Cells / pathology. Male. Metaplasia / pathology. Metaplasia / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20080491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Lin MC, Lomo L, Baak JP, Eng C, Ince TA, Crum CP, Mutter GL: Squamous morules are functionally inert elements of premalignant endometrial neoplasia. Mod Pathol; 2009 Feb;22(2):167-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous morules are functionally inert elements of premalignant endometrial neoplasia.
  • Squamous morules are a common component of premalignant glandular lesions that are followed by glandular, rather than squamous, carcinomas.
  • We tested the hypothesis that the appearance of glands associated with morules predicts cancer risk, and undertook molecular testing to determine the clonal and hormonal response properties of admixed squamous and glandular elements.
  • A total of 66 patients with squamous morules in an index endometrial biopsy had follow-up clinical data (average follow-up: interval 31 months, 2.5 biopsies) showing development of carcinoma in 11% (7/66) of cases.
  • The histological appearance of morule-associated glands in the index biopsy was significantly associated with this clinical outcome, with the majority (71%, 5/7) of cancer occurrences following an overtly premalignant lesion (endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia) with squamous morules.
  • Eight endometrial intraepithelial neoplasias with squamous morules were examined by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptors and mitotic activity (Ki-67 antigen percent stained).
  • In sharp contrast, all squamous morules were devoid of sex hormone receptors and had undetectable or extremely low-proliferation rates.
  • When mutated, the same specific PTEN mutation was detected in squamous and glandular elements, indicating that both are of common lineage.
  • The clinical and laboratory data are consistent with a model of morule biology in which squamous morules are a hormonally incompetent subpopulation of endometrial glandular lesions.
  • Isolated morules might result from artifactual displacement from their native glandular context, or selective hormonally induced regression of the glandular but not squamous components over time.

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  • (PMID = 19180120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092301-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092301; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100833-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100833-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA92301; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092301-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092301-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100833; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100833-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092301-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100833-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100833-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100833-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092301-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092301-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092301-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100833-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100833-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092301-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100833-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092301-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA100833; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100833-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092301-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS71886; NLM/ PMC2633489
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27. Zhang HY, Spechler SJ, Souza RF: Esophageal adenocarcinoma arising in Barrett esophagus. Cancer Lett; 2009 Mar 18;275(2):170-7
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  • [Title] Esophageal adenocarcinoma arising in Barrett esophagus.
  • The major risk factors for esophageal adenocarcinoma are gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett esophagus, a squamous-to-columnar cell metaplasia that predisposes to malignancy.
  • The cell that gives rise to Barrett metaplasia is not known.
  • It has been proposed that the metaplasia may arise from a change in the differentiation pattern of stem cells that either reside in the esophagus or are recruited to the esophagus from the bone marrow.
  • Alternatively, it is possible that Barrett metaplasia develops through the conversion of one differentiated cell type into another.
  • Regardless of the cell of origin, Barrett metaplasia ultimately must be sustained by stem cells, which might be identified by intestinal stem cell markers.
  • If Barrett cancers develop from Barrett stem cells, then a therapy targeted at those stem cells might prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • This report reviews the risk factors for Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma, the mechanisms by which genetic alterations might contribute to carcinogenesis in Barrett esophagus, and the role of stem cells in the development of Barrett metaplasia and adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18703277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK063621-06A2; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK063621; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 63621; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK063621-06A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 71
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS98405; NLM/ PMC2673195
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28. Ling FC, Baldus SE, Khochfar J, Xi H, Neiss S, Brabender J, Metzger R, Drebber U, Dienes HP, Bollschweiler E, Hoelscher AH, Schneider PM: Association of COX-2 expression with corresponding active and chronic inflammatory reactions in Barrett's metaplasia and progression to cancer. Histopathology; 2007 Jan;50(2):203-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association of COX-2 expression with corresponding active and chronic inflammatory reactions in Barrett's metaplasia and progression to cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to examine a possible association between COX-2 protein expression and the development and progression of the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and the type and degree of associated inflammatory reaction.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Squamous epithelium, metaplastic, low-grade, high-grade dysplastic lesions and tumour tissue of 49 resection specimens from patients with Barrett's adenocarcinoma were immunohistochemically analysed.
  • The most significant differences were detected between squamous epithelium and Barrett's metaplasia (P < 0.001) and from low- to high-grade dysplasia (P < 0.0001).
  • Active and chronic inflammation were significantly different between squamous epithelium and Barrett's metaplasia (P < 0.0001), but not during further progression in the sequence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increasing COX-2 expression in Barrett's metaplasia is significantly associated with a change in the local inflammatory reaction, but not during further progression through dysplasia to cancer.

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  • [ErratumIn] Histopathology. 2007 Mar;50(4):531
  • (PMID = 17222248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
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29. Allameh A, Rasmi Y, Nasseri-Moghaddam S, Tavangar SM, Sharifi R, Sadreddini M: Immunohistochemical analysis of selected molecular markers in esophagus precancerous, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Iranian subjects. Cancer Epidemiol; 2009 Jul;33(1):79-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of selected molecular markers in esophagus precancerous, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Iranian subjects.
  • SUBJECTS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded esophageal specimens (n=87) from patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's metaplasia, adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cells carcinoma (SCC) were collected based on their pathological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


30. Tantau M, Mosteanu O, Pop T, Tantau A, Mester G: Endoscopic therapy of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis; 2010 Jun;19(2):213-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic therapy of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The normal squamous esophageal epithelium reacts as a chronic inflammation to the severe gastro-esophageal reflux.
  • Esophagitis will progress to Barrett metaplasia in 10% of patients who would be of minor clinical interest if it then did not advance to low, high grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.
  • The rise of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence surpasses any other cancer, including melanoma, lymphoma and small cell lung cancer.
  • The correction of the malignant esophageal obstruction improves the symptomatology and life quality, but not survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Barrett Esophagus / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Esophagoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20593060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1841-8724
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointestin Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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31. Montgomery E, Mamelak AJ, Gibson M, Maitra A, Sheikh S, Amr SS, Yang S, Brock M, Forastiere A, Zhang S, Murphy KM, Berg KD: Overexpression of claudin proteins in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Mar;14(1):24-30
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  • [Title] Overexpression of claudin proteins in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions.
  • The authors identified upregulation of Claudins 3, 4, and 7 in gastric adenocarcinoma using Affymetrix U-133 oligonucleotide microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
  • While normal gastric mucosa lacked Claudin 3, 4, and 7 expression, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia showed these proteins.
  • The authors hypothesized that Claudins would be similarly overexpressed in Barrett's esophagus (BE)/adenocarcinoma.
  • IHC validation was performed using tissue microarrays constructed from esophageal resection specimens containing squamous (44 cases), gastric (40 cases), and non-dysplastic BE (16 cases), low-grade and high-grade dysplasia (16 and 26 cases), adenocarcinoma (58 cases), and nodal metastases (27 cases).
  • By IHC, Claudin 3 expression was 1+ in most (>95%) normal squamous or gastric tissues and 2+ to 4+ in more than 80% of high-grade dysplasia, adenocarcinoma, and metastases specimens.
  • Claudin 4 protein expression was 2+ or less in most squamous and gastric mucosa (>90%) but 3+ or 4+ in BE, low- and high-grade dysplasia, adenocarcinoma, and metastases specimens (>90%).
  • Claudin 7 expression was minimal in squamous and gastric mucosa but strong (3+ to 4+) in BE and low-grade dysplasia.
  • In high-grade dysplasia, adenocarcinoma, and metastases, Claudin 7 was less intense, with 60% to 70% staining 3+ or 4+ and 30% to 40% staining weakly (1+ or 2+).
  • The findings suggest that alterations in Claudin proteins are an early event in tumorigenesis and may provide targets for diagnosis and directed therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursors.

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  • (PMID = 16540726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / CLDN7 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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32. Burjonrappa SC, Reddimasu S, Nawaz Z, Gao X, Sharma P, Loggie B: Mucin expression profile in Barrett's, dysplasia, adenocarcinoma sequence in the esophagus. Indian J Cancer; 2007 Jan-Mar;44(1):1-5
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  • [Title] Mucin expression profile in Barrett's, dysplasia, adenocarcinoma sequence in the esophagus.
  • BACKGROUND: The molecular events that accompany the progression to adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the esophagus are poorly understood.
  • RESULTS: Only mild superficial staining of MUC1 was seen in normal squamous epithelium.
  • MUC1 expression was upregulated (7/7) in progression to adenocarcinoma (P=0.008).
  • Upregulation of MUC2 reflects intestinal metaplasia in BE.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Barrett Esophagus / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophagus / metabolism. Mucins / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Mucin 5AC. Mucin-1. Mucin-2. Mucin-6. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17401217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / MUC6 protein, human; 0 / Muc2 protein, mouse; 0 / Muc5ac protein, mouse; 0 / Muc6 protein, mouse; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucin-6; 0 / Mucins
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33. Szachnowicz S, Cecconello I, Iriya K, Marson AG, Takeda FR, Gama-Rodrigues JJ: Origin of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus: p53 and Ki67 expression and histopathologic background. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2005 Apr;60(2):103-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Origin of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus: p53 and Ki67 expression and histopathologic background.
  • Barrett's esophagus is the substitution of squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus by columnar epithelium.
  • Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus is considered to be the main risk factor for the development of adenocarcinoma.
  • Diffuse adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus without intestinal metaplasia are rare, and reports on the subject are scarce.
  • PURPOSE AND METHOD: To estimate the prevalence of adenocarcinoma in 297 patients with Barrett's esophagus, during the period of 1990 to 2002, and in 13 patients undergoing surgery, to conduct detailed macroscopic and microscopic analysis, with performance of immunohistochemical tests for p53 and Ki67, correlating the type of tumor with its adjacent epithelium.
  • RESULTS: In our patients with Barrett's esophagus, there was a prevalence of 5.7% of adenocarcinoma.
  • Tumors were located close to the squamous-columnar junction.
  • The histological study revealed 2 patients (15.4%) with Barrett's esophagus adjacent to a tumor with gastric metaplasia without the presence of intestinal metaplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: Adenocarcinoma develops from mixed columnar epithelium, either intestinal or gastric, showing both the gastric and the intestinal patterns; thus, tumors can also grow in columnar epithelium without intestinal metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 15880245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1807-5932
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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34. Takubo K, Aida J, Naomoto Y, Sawabe M, Arai T, Shiraishi H, Matsuura M, Ell C, May A, Pech O, Stolte M, Vieth M: Cardiac rather than intestinal-type background in endoscopic resection specimens of minute Barrett adenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jan;40(1):65-74
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  • [Title] Cardiac rather than intestinal-type background in endoscopic resection specimens of minute Barrett adenocarcinoma.
  • Many publications focusing on the background or original mucosa of Barrett adenocarcinoma have maintained that adenocarcinoma arises in intestinal-type mucosa with goblet cells in the columnar-lined esophagus, and this has become a central dogma.
  • The mucosae were classified into 4 types--squamous, cardiac, fundic, and intestinal--based on routine histology and immunohistochemical staining.
  • The present joint pathologic examination of the background mucosa of Barrett adenocarcinoma conducted by Japanese and German pathologists and gastroenterologists found that more than 70% of primary small adenocarcinomas (<2 cm) of the esophagus were adjacent to cardiac/fundic-type rather than intestinal-type mucosa.
  • Moreover, intestinal metaplasia was not observed in any areas of the endoscopic mucosal resection specimens in 64 (56.6%) of the 113 cases.
  • In other words, there was no evidence to support the previously held view that Barrett adenocarcinoma is nearly always accompanied and preceded by intestinal-type mucosa.
  • Our study has demonstrated a close relationship between esophageal adenocarcinoma and cardiac-type mucosa.
  • Therefore, it is not proven histogenetically that the background mucosa of esophageal adenocarcinoma is the intestinal type.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Cardia / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Intestines / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Endoscopy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metaplasia / complications. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2009 Dec;40(12):1820 [19913679.001]
  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2009 Aug;40(8):1208-9; author reply 1209-10 [19616700.001]
  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2009 Aug;40(8):1206-7; author reply 1207-8 [19616698.001]
  • (PMID = 18755496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Fitzgerald RC: Genetics and prevention of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2005;166:35-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genetics and prevention of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The histopathological subtype is also changing with a predominance of oesophageal adenocarcinoma compared with squamous carcinoma.
  • This can then progress to adenocarcinoma via a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence.
  • At the current time, the mortality from oesophageal adenocarcinoma exceeds 80% at 5 years.
  • There is mounting evidence that there is an underlying genetic susceptibility to Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Once patients are identified as having Barrett's oesophagus their chance for developing adenocarcinoma is in the order of 0.5%-1% per year.
  • Combinatorial approaches are therefore being advocated which include genomic profiling or the use of a panel of molecular markers in order to define the common molecular signatures that can then be used to predict malignant progression.
  • We have demonstrated an increase in the expression of a novel proliferation marker, Mcm2, which occurs during the malignant progression of Barrett's oesophagus.
  • Given the epidemic increase in oesophageal adenocarcinoma and the dismal 5-year mortality rate, a radical approach is necessary to prevent cancer development in individuals with pre-malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics


36. Modena SF, Meirelles LR, Araújo MR, Lopes LR, Andreollo NA: Role of nitrites in the genesis of adenocarcinoma associated with Barrett's esophagus. In Vivo; 2009 Nov-Dec;23(6):919-23
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  • [Title] Role of nitrites in the genesis of adenocarcinoma associated with Barrett's esophagus.
  • It consists of a process of replacement of the squamous epithelium of the esophagus by intestinal columnar epithelium containing goblet cells, known as specialized intestinal metaplasia with goblet cells, and several factors have been related to its pathogenesis.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate an experimental model of duodenogastroesophageal reflux and the effect of ingestion of sodium nitrite solution on the genesis of adenocarcinoma associated with Barrett's esophagus.
  • The Vienna classification for dysplasia and adenocarcinoma was used in the analysis of results.
  • Six cases of adenocarcinoma (33.3%) were also found in this latter group.
  • CONCLUSION: The ingestion of sodium nitrite associated with duodenogastroesophageal reflux plays an important role in the genesis of adenocarcinoma associated with Barrett's esophagus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemically induced. Barrett Esophagus / chemically induced. Food Preservatives / toxicity. Sodium Nitrite / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 20023233.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Preservatives; M0KG633D4F / Sodium Nitrite
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37. Mehta S, Johnson IT, Rhodes M: Systematic review: the chemoprevention of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2005 Nov 1;22(9):759-68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systematic review: the chemoprevention of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing in the UK faster than any other malignancy.
  • Despite its relatively poor prognosis and the limited success of existing treatments, there is enthusiasm that chemopreventive agents might be able to stem the transition from normal squamous epithelium to adenocarcinoma.
  • We discuss gastro-oesophageal reflux as the main risk factor for the development of Barrett's metaplasia, the only known precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Esophageal Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16225483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Fatty Acids, Omega-3; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors; 27YG812J1I / Arachidonic Acid; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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38. Guo M, House MG, Suzuki H, Ye Y, Brock MV, Lu F, Liu Z, Rustgi AK, Herman JG: Epigenetic silencing of CDX2 is a feature of squamous esophageal cancer. Int J Cancer; 2007 Sep 15;121(6):1219-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epigenetic silencing of CDX2 is a feature of squamous esophageal cancer.
  • Mice heterozygously disrupted for CDX2 develop disorganized polypoid hamartomas with glandular epithelium and stratified squamous metaplasia resembling foregut mucosa.
  • Eleven of 17 squamous esophageal cancer cell lines lacked expression of CDX2 that was restored following treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, while all colorectal cancer cell lines expressed CDX2.
  • Methylation of CDX2 was rare in primary colorectal (1 of 44 tumors, 2%) and esophageal adenocarcinoma neoplasms (2 of 43 tumors, 5%), but was common in esophageal squamous carcinoma (24 of 45 tumors, 49%).
  • Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, expression of CDX2 was found in low level in normal esophagus, at higher levels in primary adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, but not in primary squamous cancers of the esophagus.
  • Our results suggest that the inactivation of CDX2 in esophageal cancer associated with DNA methylation may be an important determinant of the squamous or non-adenomatous phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Silencing. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17534889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA84986
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / Muc2 protein, mouse; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
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39. Quaroni L, Casson AG: Characterization of Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma by Fourier-transform infrared microscopy. Analyst; 2009 Jun;134(6):1240-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma by Fourier-transform infrared microscopy.
  • Matched histologically normal esophageal squamous epithelium (NS), premalignant Barrett esophagus (BE), and primary esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) tissues, each defined according to strict clinicopathologic criteria, were obtained from patients who underwent esophageal resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cluster Analysis. Goblet Cells / cytology. Goblet Cells / pathology. Humans. Intestines / pathology. Light. Metaplasia / pathology. Microscopy. Synchrotrons

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  • (PMID = 19475154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5528
  • [Journal-full-title] The Analyst
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Analyst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Vallböhmer D, Peters JH, Oh D, Kuramochi H, Shimizu D, Demeester SR, Hagen JA, Chandrasoma PT, Danenberg KD, DeMeester TR, Danenberg P: Survivin, a potential biomarker in the development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma. Surgery; 2005 Oct;138(4):701-6; discussion 706-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survivin, a potential biomarker in the development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to measure survivin gene expression in normal squamous/columnar epithelium and in the various stages of development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma.
  • (1) squamous epithelium from 3 cm above the gastroesophageal junction in patients with a negative pH study and no histologic injury (n = 17, pH- control);.
  • (3) specialized intestinal metaplasia from patients with Barrett's esophagus (n = 16; Barrett's group);.
  • (4) low- or high-grade dysplasia (n = 12, dysplasia group), and (5) adenocarcinoma (n = 45 cancer group).
  • RESULTS: Survivin gene expression was greater in columnar (antral) compared with squamous (pH-) control tissues (P = .03).
  • Expression levels in dysplastic epithelium were greater than in squamous control (P = .01) and Barrett's tissues (P = .04), but not higher than columnar control tissues, whereas expression in adenocarcinoma was greater than all tissues except dysplasia (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survivin expression may be a biomarker in the development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma that is able to distinguish between quiescent Barrett's, dysplastic Barrett's, and Barrett's adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Barrett Esophagus / complications. Barrett Esophagus / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16269299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA84424-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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41. Williams LJ, Guernsey DL, Casson AG: Biomarkers in the molecular pathogenesis of esophageal (Barrett) adenocarcinoma. Curr Oncol; 2006 Feb;13(1):33-43
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  • [Title] Biomarkers in the molecular pathogenesis of esophageal (Barrett) adenocarcinoma.
  • Primary esophageal adenocarcinomas are thought to arise from Barrett esophagus, an acquired condition in which the normal esophageal squamous epithelium is replaced by a specialized metaplastic columnar-cell-lined epithelium.Today, gerd is recognized as an important risk factor in Barrett esophagus.
  • Progression of Barrett esophagus to invasive adenocarcinoma is reflected histologically by the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence.
  • Although several molecular alterations associated with progression of Barrett esophagus to invasive adenocarcinoma have been identified, relatively few will ultimately have clinical application.
  • Currently, the histologic finding of high-grade dysplasia remains the most reliable predictor of progression to invasive esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • It is anticipated that models incorporating combinations of objective scores of sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors (that is, age, sex, body mass index), severity of gerd, endoscopic and histologic findings, and a panel of biomarkers will be developed to better identify patients with Barrett esophagus at increased risk for malignant progression, leading to more rational endoscopic surveillance and screening programs.

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  • (PMID = 17576439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1198-0052
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1891165
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42. Vallböhmer D, Peters JH, Kuramochi H, Oh D, Yang D, Shimizu D, DeMeester SR, Hagen JA, Chandrasoma PT, Danenberg KD, Danenberg PV, DeMeester TR: Molecular determinants in targeted therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Arch Surg; 2006 May;141(5):476-81; discussion 481-2
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  • [Title] Molecular determinants in targeted therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are useful biological determinants in targeted therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • PATIENTS: Sixteen patients with squamous mucosa and normal results of a pH study without mucosal injury (control group), 15 with Barrett esophagus (metaplasia group), and 44 with adenocarcinoma (carcinoma group).
  • After laser-capture microdissection, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure gene expression across the spectrum of the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence.
  • RESULTS: Expression of both COX-2 and VEGF was significantly up-regulated in patients with metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer compared with controls (P<.01).
  • Expression levels of both were significantly higher in cancer than in the metaplasia group (P<.05) and increased sequentially from metaplasia to dysplasia to cancer.
  • No change in expression levels of EGFR was seen in the histologic progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Gene expression data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of COX-2 and VEGF may be useful adjuncts in targeted therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16702519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA84424-02
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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43. Dvorak K, Watts GS, Ramsey L, Holubec H, Payne CM, Bernstein C, Jenkins GJ, Sampliner RE, Prasad A, Garewal HS, Bernstein H: Expression of bile acid transporting proteins in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol; 2009 Feb;104(2):302-9
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  • [Title] Expression of bile acid transporting proteins in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic lesion characterized by replacement of the normal squamous epithelium by columnar intestinal epithelium containing goblet cells.
  • In contrast to the normal squamous epithelium, enterocytes of the distal ileum are adapted to transport bile acids from the intestinal lumen.
  • Our major goal was to evaluate the expression of bile acid transporters in normal squamous epithelium, BE with different grades of dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).
  • RESULTS: Our immunohistochemical studies showed that all three bile acid transporters are expressed in BE glands, but not in squamous epithelium.
  • In addition, RT-PCR studies showed increased expression of mRNA coding for ASBT (6.1x), IBABP (9.1x), and MRP3 (2.4x) in BE (N=13) compared with normal squamous epithelium (N=15).
  • Significantly increased mRNA levels of IBABP (10.1x) and MRP3 (2.5x) were also detected in EAC (N=21) compared with normal squamous epithelium.

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  • (PMID = 19174784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023074; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095060
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins; 0 / Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Symporters; 0 / bile acid binding proteins; 0 / multidrug resistance-associated protein 3; 145420-23-1 / sodium-bile acid cotransporter
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS693533; NLM/ PMC4450811
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44. Bobryshev YV, Freeman AK, Botelho NK, Tran D, Levert-Mignon AJ, Lord RV: Expression of the putative stem cell marker Musashi-1 in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Dis Esophagus; 2010 Sep;23(7):580-9
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  • [Title] Expression of the putative stem cell marker Musashi-1 in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Cancer stem cells have been identified in several solid tumors, but stem cells in normal human esophagus or in Barrett's esophagus or adenocarcinoma have not been reported.
  • The present study investigated whether Musashi-1 is expressed in the esophagus and its relation to immune inflammation of the mucosa in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Of these, 15 were esophageal adenocarcinoma, 17 were Barrett's esophagus (10 intestinal metaplasia and 7 dysplasia), and 9 were normal squamous esophagus tissue specimens from patients without esophageal pathology.
  • Musashi-1 expression was present in Barrett's intestinal metaplasia and in dysplastic Barrett's in which the majority of epithelial cells in individual glands expressed this antigen.
  • Expression of Musashi-1 was highest in esophageal adenocarcinoma, where it was most intense in glands that displayed features of early stages of adenocarcinoma formation.
  • In contrast, Musashi-1 staining level was weaker in glands that displayed features of advanced adenocarcinoma.
  • Musashi-1 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in normal esophagus or Barrett's esophagus tissues.
  • Dendritic cell-specific intercellular molecule-3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) mRNA expression levels were significantly increased in both Barrett's tissues and adenocarcinoma tissues.
  • Expression of the putative stem cell marker Musashi-1 is absent in normal squamous epithelium, weak in esophageal cardiac-type glands and Barrett's esophagus, and markedly increased in adenocarcinoma, especially in glands displaying features of early cancer development.
  • Musashi-1 expressing cells may be significant in the etiology of Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma, and perhaps even a cell of origin for this disease.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.
  • (PMID = 20459440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MSI1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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45. Kamoi S, Ohaki Y, Mori O, Kurose K, Fukunaga M, Takeshita T: Serial histologic observation of endometrial adenocarcinoma treated with high-dose progestin until complete disappearance of carcinomatous foci--review of more than 25 biopsies from five patients. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Nov-Dec;18(6):1305-14

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  • [Title] Serial histologic observation of endometrial adenocarcinoma treated with high-dose progestin until complete disappearance of carcinomatous foci--review of more than 25 biopsies from five patients.
  • This study aimed to document chronologic histologic changes of endometrial biopsies from patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma on high-dose progestin therapy.
  • Seven patients with presumptive FIGO stage IA endometrial adenocarcinoma treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate 600 mg/day were investigated retrospectively.
  • All the five good responders showed relatively uniform morphologic changes during the high-dose progestin therapy and the common histology was described as follows.
  • Next, the epithelia were disrupted by lymphoplasmocytic infiltration and replaced by low cuboidal epithelium with or without squamous or morular metaplasia.
  • Therefore, the morphologic change of the endometrial biopsy observed in earlier stage of treatment might be able to predict good response to high-dose progestin therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Progestins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18217978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Progestins
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46. Lurje G, Vallbohmer D, Collet PH, Xi H, Baldus SE, Brabender J, Metzger R, Heitmann M, Neiss S, Drebber U, Holscher AH, Schneider PM: COX-2 mRNA expression is significantly increased in acid-exposed compared to nonexposed squamous epithelium in gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Sep;11(9):1105-11
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  • [Title] COX-2 mRNA expression is significantly increased in acid-exposed compared to nonexposed squamous epithelium in gastroesophageal reflux disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the development of Barrett's metaplasia.
  • RESULTS: COX-2 mRNA is progressively upregulated within the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma (MDA) sequence (p = 0.001).
  • COX-2 levels of the squamous epithelium in the distal esophagus from patients with GERD and a pathologic mean DeMeester score (>14.72) were significantly higher than in patients with normal DeMeester scores (p = 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: In summary our findings suggest that alterations in COX-2 mRNA expression occur independently of endoscopic or histologic signs of GERD in the acid-exposed squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Barrett Esophagus / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Gastroesophageal Reflux / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17619937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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47. Nash JW, Bhardwaj A, Wen P, Frankel WL: Maspin is useful in the distinction of pancreatic adenocarcinoma from chronic pancreatitis: a tissue microarray based study. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Mar;15(1):59-63
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  • [Title] Maspin is useful in the distinction of pancreatic adenocarcinoma from chronic pancreatitis: a tissue microarray based study.
  • Maspin expression has been documented using immunohistochemical studies in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and high-grade intraductal dysplasia.
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays made from 72 cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and 24 cases of chronic pancreatitis.
  • Diffuse and intense (3 +) staining was present in ducts with squamous metaplasia (3 cases).
  • Maspin may be helpful in differentiating ductal adenocarcinoma from chronic pancreatitis, once squamous metaplasia is ruled out.

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  • (PMID = 17536309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / SERPIN-B5; 0 / Serpins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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48. Bitar M, Mandel E, Kirschenbaum AM, Unger PD: Urinary bladder adenocarcinoma arising in a spina bifida patient. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Dec;11(6):453-6
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  • [Title] Urinary bladder adenocarcinoma arising in a spina bifida patient.
  • Intestinal metaplasia of the urothelium indicates the presence of intestinal-type goblet cells and was generally observed to coexist with or to precede the diagnosis of bladder adenocarcinomas.
  • Controversy continues of whether intestinal metaplasia is an acquired precancerous lesion, secondary to different insults to the urothelium, or a concomitant lesion in glandular carcinogenesis.
  • Patients with neurogenic bladders are particularly at risk for developing bladder cancer, mostly squamous cell carcinoma and rarely adenocarcinoma.
  • Spina bifida is a congenital developmental abnormality that may result in neurogenic bladder.
  • There is only one previously reported case of urothelial carcinoma with associated squamous metaplasia of the bladder occurring in a spina bifida patient.
  • We report the first case of bladder adenocarcinoma associated with intestinal metaplasia occurring in a spina bifida occulta patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Spinal Dysraphism / complications. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / complications. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestines / pathology. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / complications

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  • (PMID = 18022132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Miyashita T, Ohta T, Fujimura T, Ninomiya I, Fushida S, Hattori T, Miwa K: Duodenal juice stimulates oesophageal stem cells to induce Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma in rats. Oncol Rep; 2006 Jun;15(6):1469-75
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  • [Title] Duodenal juice stimulates oesophageal stem cells to induce Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma in rats.
  • the present study was performed to examine the sequential process of the development of Barrett's oesophagus (BE) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (ADC) induced by duodeno-oesophageal reflux (DER) in rats.
  • Severe squamous oesophagitis with erosion, regenerative thickening (RT), and basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) were observed on the 10th week after surgery.
  • On the 20th week, glandular structures that stained positively with Galactose oxidase-Schiff (foveolar metaplasia) were observed in the basal layer of the oesophageal squamous epithelium.
  • On the 30th week, the glands developed and formed cysts that stained positively with concanavalin A (pyloric glandular metaplasia) and/or high-iron diamine and Alcian blue (intestinal metaplasia).
  • Persistent stimulation with DER can alter the stem cells in the squamous epithelial basal layer leading to the formation of columnar-lined cells and subsequent ADC.
  • Foveolar metaplasia was observed as part of the sequence of events leading to the development of columnar-lined epithelium (CLE), followed by the appearance of pyloric glandular metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia, completing the histogenesis of BE.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Barrett Esophagus / etiology. Duodenogastric Reflux / complications. Duodenum / secretion. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Esophagus / pathology. Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Stem Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16685381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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50. Callacondo D, Ganoza-Salas A, Anicama-Lima W, Quispe-Mauricio A, Longacre TA: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach with paraneoplastic leukocytosis: a case report and review of literature. Hum Pathol; 2009 Oct;40(10):1494-8
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  • [Title] Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach with paraneoplastic leukocytosis: a case report and review of literature.
  • Apparently pure, primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach is exceedingly rare.
  • Here, we describe a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma arising in the gastric antrum of an 83-year-old man with persistent leukocytosis, which resolved on resection of the tumor.
  • No foci of squamous metaplasia or gland-forming elements were identified in the resection specimen, although there was marked chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia.
  • This case suggests that gastric squamous cell carcinoma likely arises in the setting of long-standing, chronic inflammation, and like squamous cell carcinoma in other organ systems, may be associated with paraneoplastic leukocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Leukocytosis / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged, 80 and over. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Hum Pathol. 2010 Feb;41(2):307. Callacondo-Riva, David [corrected to Callacondo, David]
  • (PMID = 19467693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Long KB, Hornick JL: SOX2 is highly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Hum Pathol; 2009 Dec;40(12):1768-73
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  • [Title] SOX2 is highly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • SOX2 is a high-mobility group box embryonic stem cell transcription factor that is expressed in the developing foregut and normal gastric epithelium and is downregulated in intestinal metaplasia of the stomach and esophagus.
  • In addition, SOX2 colocalizes with p63 in the basal layer and plays a critical role in the maintenance of the stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus.
  • SOX2 expression in squamous cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract has not been previously evaluated.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether SOX2 is differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinomas versus adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and rectum/anal canal and to compare its expression to p63, cytokeratin 5/6, and CDX2.
  • In total, 93 tumors were evaluated: 26 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 23 esophageal adenocarcinomas, 21 squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal, and 23 rectal adenocarcinomas.
  • SOX2 was expressed in 81% of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and 91% of anal canal squamous cell carcinomas, compared to 13% and 17% of esophageal and rectal adenocarcinomas, respectively. p63 was expressed in 96% of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and 100% of anal canal squamous cell carcinomas; the single squamous cell carcinoma negative for p63 was strongly positive for SOX2.
  • Cytokeratin 5/6 was expressed in most esophageal and anal canal squamous cell carcinomas, but was also positive in 43% of esophageal adenocarcinomas and 13% of rectal adenocarcinomas.
  • In summary, SOX2 is preferentially expressed in squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus and anal canal compared to adenocarcinomas from these sites.
  • SOX2 may be useful in an immunohistochemical panel to differentiate between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-5 / biosynthesis. Keratin-6 / biosynthesis. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19716157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors
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52. Abraham SC, Krasinskas AM, Correa AM, Hofstetter WL, Ajani JA, Swisher SG, Wu TT: Duplication of the muscularis mucosae in Barrett esophagus: an underrecognized feature and its implication for staging of adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Nov;31(11):1719-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Duplication of the muscularis mucosae in Barrett esophagus: an underrecognized feature and its implication for staging of adenocarcinoma.
  • Depth of invasion is one of the most important prognostic indicators in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Unlike other regions of the gastrointestinal tract, the esophagus in Barrett metaplasia frequently develops duplication of the muscularis mucosae (MM), but this feature is underrecognized, and its effect on appropriate staging of superficially invasive adenocarcinoma is unclear.
  • We first randomly selected 50 esophageal resections for high-grade dysplasia or T1 adenocarcinoma in Barrett esophagus (BE) to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of MM duplication for BE and its histologic characteristics, including percentage of the Barrett segment involved by MM duplication, origin of the duplicated muscle layer, and appearance of the tissue between duplicated MM.
  • Twenty esophageal resections for squamous cell carcinoma served as controls.
  • Next, to study the clinical significance of MM duplication, we evaluated 30 resections for BE that had superficial adenocarcinoma confined to regions of duplicated MM.
  • We observed MM duplication in 46 of 50 (92%) BE resections, involving 5% to >90% of the Barrett segment, in contrast to none in 20 (0%) resected squamous cell carcinoma, P<0.0001.
  • The outer MM was continuous with the single MM beneath squamous epithelium, suggesting that outer MM represents the "original" muscle layer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagus / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Dec;32(12):1913; author reply 1913-4 [18824891.001]
  • (PMID = 18059229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Kitahara S, Ito T, Hamatani S, Shibuya K, Shiba T: Thyroid papillary carcinoma recurring as squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(2):171-4
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  • [Title] Thyroid papillary carcinoma recurring as squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case.
  • We report a case of local squamous cell carcinoma recurrence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, 4 years after subtotal thyroidectomy, in an 82-year-old woman.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the recurrent tumor revealed atypical squamous epithelium-like cells with keratinization.
  • The tumor was judged cytologically to be class III, defined as a suspicious malignancy and, after reoperation, it was diagnosed histopathologically as papillary carcinoma recurrence with extensive squamous metaplasia.
  • The recurrent papillary carcinoma was thought to have changed to a squamous cell carcinoma because most of the tumor was occupied by atypical squamous cells, with a small amount of glandular tissue.
  • It contained numerous tall neoplastic cells with eosinophilic granules and pseudostratified nuclei, indicating that it could potentially transform into squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We report this case as an example of how squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid can develop.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16440166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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54. Binato M, Gurski RR, Fagundes RB, Meurer L, Edelweiss MI: P53 and Ki-67 overexpression in gastroesophageal reflux disease--Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma sequence. Dis Esophagus; 2009;22(7):588-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] P53 and Ki-67 overexpression in gastroesophageal reflux disease--Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma sequence.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a major risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (ACE).
  • This study aims to determine p53 protein and Ki-67 expression in esophageal mucosa of patients with GERD and study the correlation between these markers and the progression from normal squamous epithelium to esophagitis, columnar epithelium with or without intestinal metaplasia and ACE.
  • Those biopsies were classified into five groups: (i) G1 normal squamous epithelium (58);.
  • (iii) G3 columnar epitheliums without intestinal metaplasia (30);.
  • (iv) G4, columnar epitheliums with intestinal metaplasia (32); and (v) G5 ACEs (35).
  • Linear correlation between p53/Ki67 expression and the multistep progression from squamous epithelium to ACE was observed (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05).

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  • (PMID = 19302208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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55. Shih CM, Huang CT, Chi CH, Lin JW, Pan CC: CA125-producing clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from the upper ureter and renal pelvis. J Chin Med Assoc; 2010 Jan;73(1):40-3
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  • [Title] CA125-producing clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from the upper ureter and renal pelvis.
  • Here, we present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from the upper ureter and renal pelvis of a postmenopausal woman with a ureteral stone.
  • Given the presence of intestinal and squamous metaplasia of the adjacent urothelium, we propose that this clear cell adenocarcinoma developed through a metaplastic process.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Pelvis / pathology. Ureteral Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20103490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-7731
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen
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56. Osunkoya AO, Epstein JI: Primary mucin-producing urothelial-type adenocarcinoma of prostate: report of 15 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Sep;31(9):1323-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary mucin-producing urothelial-type adenocarcinoma of prostate: report of 15 cases.
  • Prostatic urothelial-type adenocarcinoma arises through a process of glandular metaplasia of the prostatic urethral urothelium and subsequent in situ adenocarcinoma sometimes associated with villous adenoma.
  • Only 2 cases of urothelial-type adenocarcinoma from an institution other than our own have been previously described.
  • The distinction between adenocarcinoma from another organ secondarily involving the prostate, usual adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and prostatic urothelial-type adenocarcinoma can present a significant diagnostic challenge and has significant therapeutic implications.
  • Fifteen cases of prostatic urothelial-type adenocarcinoma were retrieved from the consult files of one of the authors.
  • Mean patient age at diagnosis was 72 years (range 58 to 93 y).
  • In 8/15 (53%) cases, glandular metaplasia of the prostatic urethra and contiguous transition to adenocarcinoma were identified.
  • Multiple histologic patterns were observed including dissection of the stroma by mucin pools 15/15 (100%), villous features 7/15 (47%), necrosis 2/15 (13.3%), signet ring cells 3/15 (20%), perineural invasion 1/15 (6.7%), focal squamous differentiation 1/15 (6.7%), and a granulomatous inflammatory response 1/15 (6.7%).
  • Prostatic urothelial-type adenocarcinoma is a rare aggressive cancer arising in the prostate.
  • The differential diagnosis includes conventional prostatic mucinous adenocarcinoma and secondary infiltration from a colonic or bladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry for prostate specific antigen, prostate specific acid phosphatase, and high molecular weight cytokeratin along with morphology can help rule out conventional prostate carcinoma. beta-catenin, CDX2, and clinical studies are needed to rule out colonic adenocarcinoma.
  • As prostatic urothelial-type adenocarcinoma is entirely analogous to bladder adenocarcinoma in both, its morphology and immunophenotype, only clinical studies or in some cases pathologic examination of the cystoprostatectomy specimen can exclude infiltration from a primary bladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Mucins / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urothelium / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Homeodomain Proteins / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20 / analysis. Keratin-7 / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / analysis. Time Factors. beta Catenin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17721186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Mucins; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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57. Lord RV, Brabender J, Wickramasinghe K, DeMeester SR, Holscher A, Schneider PM, Danenberg PV, DeMeester TR: Increased CDX2 and decreased PITX1 homeobox gene expression in Barrett's esophagus and Barrett's-associated adenocarcinoma. Surgery; 2005 Nov;138(5):924-31
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  • [Title] Increased CDX2 and decreased PITX1 homeobox gene expression in Barrett's esophagus and Barrett's-associated adenocarcinoma.
  • Forced expression of Cdx2 alone in the murine stomach results in gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM).
  • METHODS: CDX2 and PITX1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels, relative to the control gene beta-actin, were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in specimens of Barrett's IM (n = 21), dysplasia (n = 18), adenocarcinoma (n = 20), and matching normal squamous esophagus tissues (n = 39) collected from 19 patients with Barrett's esophagus and 20 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • CDX2 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in specimens of normal squamous esophagus (n = 13), IM (n = 10), dysplasia (n = 8,) and adenocarcinoma (n = 5).
  • RESULTS: The median relative CDX2 mRNA expression was approximately 200 times higher in Barrett's esophagus tissues (0.83) than in matching normal squamous esophagus (0.004) in the patients with Barrett's esophagus (P < .001).
  • The mRNA expression in cancer tissues (0.49) was also higher than in matching normal squamous esophagus specimens (0.009, P < .001).
  • There was no significant difference between the mRNA expression levels in Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma.
  • There was no CDX2 protein expression in normal squamous esophagus, but moderate to strong protein expression was seen in all Barrett's tissues and in a majority of the dysplasia and adenocarcinoma cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CDX2 mRNA and CDX2 protein expression are upregulated in Barrett's IM tissues, compared with normal squamous esophagus, and remain elevated in dysplasia and adenocarcinoma tissues.
  • In contrast, PITX1 mRNA expression is decreased in Barrett's esophagus, compared with matching normal squamous esophagus specimens, and is further decreased in Barrett's-associated cancer.
  • These descriptive findings suggest a possible role for these genes in the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Barrett Esophagus / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16291394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / homeobox protein PITX1
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58. Munro EG, Jain M, Oliva E, Kamal N, Lele SM, Lynch MP, Guo L, Fu K, Sharma P, Remmenga S, Growdon WB, Davis JS, Rueda BR, Batra SK: Upregulation of MUC4 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma: pathologic significance. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):127-33
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  • [Title] Upregulation of MUC4 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma: pathologic significance.
  • We sought to determine whether MUC4 expression differs between benign and malignant cervical tissue.
  • Fifty-eight patients with benign, dysplastic, or malignant cervical pathology were identified retrospectively, and representative sections were stained with a mouse monoclonal anti-MUC4 antibody.
  • Semiquantitative analysis was performed on benign, dysplastic, and malignant regions by scoring staining intensity (0: negative, 1: weak, 2: moderate, and 3: strong) and distribution (focal <10%, multifocal=10%-60%, diffuse > or =60%).
  • In samples with benign glycogenated squamous epithelium, only the parabasal cells had MUC4 staining, and 48.5% had an intensity of 2 or 3.
  • All samples with immature squamous metaplasia were positive through the entire epithelial thickness.
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 samples had variable staining with an intensity similar to glycogenated squamous epithelium but distribution similar to squamous metaplasia.
  • All CIN 3 (n=21) and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (n=17) had increased MUC4 staining intensity (P<0.001 and P<0.001) and increased diffuse staining (P<0.001 and P<0.001) compared with the limited staining in glycogenated squamous epithelium.
  • In contrast, no differences in staining were observed between benign endocervical glands, adenocarcinoma in situ, and invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • These expression patterns suggest that MUC4 is a lineage marker in benign cervical tissue that may have aberrant expression in squamous dysplasia and carcinoma.
  • Further studies may elucidate the role of MUC4 in the development of squamous cell cervical cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19188823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078590-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78590
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC4 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS228381; NLM/ PMC2932462
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59. Alvarez H, Rojas PL, Yong KT, Ding H, Xu G, Prasad PN, Wang J, Canto M, Eshleman JR, Montgomery EA, Maitra A: Mesothelin is a specific biomarker of invasive cancer in the Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma progression model: translational implications for diagnosis and therapy. Nanomedicine; 2008 Dec;4(4):295-301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mesothelin is a specific biomarker of invasive cancer in the Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma progression model: translational implications for diagnosis and therapy.
  • Esophageal adenocarcinoma arises in the backdrop of Barrett metaplasia-dysplasia sequence, with the vast majority of patients presenting with late-stage malignancy.
  • Mesothelin expression was assessed in esophageal tissue microarrays encompassing the entire histological spectrum of Barrett-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • In contrast, normal squamous and cardiac mucosa, as well as noninvasive Barrett lesions, failed to label with mesothelin.
  • Mesothelin was expressed in the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line JH-EsoAd1 but not in primary human esophageal epithelial cells.
  • Anti-mesothelin antibody-conjugated nanoparticles can be useful for the diagnosis and therapy of mesothelin-overexpressing esophageal adenocarcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 18691948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-9642
  • [Journal-full-title] Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nanomedicine
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119397-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119397; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119397-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA119397
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / mesothelin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS79893; NLM/ PMC2606904
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60. Cantu de Leon D, Perez Montiel D, Tabarez A, Martinez RM, Cetina L: Serous adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube, associated with verrucous carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case report of synchronic rare gynecological tumors. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:20
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Serous adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube, associated with verrucous carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case report of synchronic rare gynecological tumors.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a synchronic fallopian tube adenocarcinoma and a verrucous cervical cancer.
  • A 85-year-old woman with postmenopausal genital hemorrhage, endometrial biopsy was reported as squamous metaplasia, an exploratory laparotomy was performed finding a tubal tumor diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, a staging procedure was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19222847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2649116
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61. Ong CA, Lao-Sirieix P, Fitzgerald RC: Biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma: predictors of progression and prognosis. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Dec 07;16(45):5669-81
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma: predictors of progression and prognosis.
  • Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant lesion of the lower esophagus that is characterized by intestinal metaplasia of the squamous epithelium.
  • It is clinically important due to the increased risk (0.5% per annum) of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA), which has a poor outcome unless diagnosed early.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] BMC Clin Pathol. 2005 Aug 12;5:7 [16095543.001]
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  • (PMID = 21128316.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ MC/ U105365007
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2997982
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62. Staats PN, Clement PB, Young RH: Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the vagina: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Oct;31(10):1490-501
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the vagina: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases.
  • Vaginal adenocarcinoma is the second most common primary cancer of the vagina, yet there has been very little study of most subtypes other than clear cell carcinoma.
  • We reviewed 18 cases of primary vaginal endometrioid adenocarcinoma, in our experience the second most common subtype.
  • On microscopic examination, each of the tumors had a pure or predominant component of typical endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • There was squamous metaplasia in 4 cases, mucinous metaplasia in 4, and prominent nonvillous papillae in 2.
  • Other subtypes of adenocarcinoma (such as serous when the tumor has a papillary pattern) and atypical forms of endometriosis, including polypoid endometriosis, are the most common other differential diagnostic considerations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometriosis / complications. Endometriosis / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17895749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Schaffzin DM, Smith LE: Squamous-cell carcinoma developing after an ileoanal pouch procedure: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 May;48(5):1086-9
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma developing after an ileoanal pouch procedure: report of a case.
  • A suspicious mass was biopsied and pathology indicated squamous metaplasia.
  • Biopsy of the mass was read as invasive squamous carcinoma in the background of normal intestinal mucosa.
  • This represents the twelfth reported case of carcinoma arising in a pouch, but the first report of a squamous carcinoma, as all previous reports had been of adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Colonic Pouches / adverse effects. Ileal Neoplasms / etiology. Proctocolectomy, Restorative / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15933895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Taneous M, Ramalingam P, Mode DG, Heiner JG, Terris MK, Lee JR: Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma in a defunctionalized urinary bladder: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:9306

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  • [Title] Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma in a defunctionalized urinary bladder: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignancies are rare in defunctionalized bladders and are thought to arise from metaplasia secondary to chronic inflammation.
  • Transitional cell and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common but there are three reported cases of mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 57-year-old Caucasian man presenting with penile discharge for 30 years following ileal conduit surgery for neurogenic bladder, and who was found to have primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of his defunctionalized bladder.

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  • (PMID = 20062735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803829
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65. Sanati S, Huettner P, Ylagan LR: Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):79-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens.
  • Minichromosome maintenance and topoisomerase II alpha proteins play an important role in the regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication, and are overexpressed in a number of dysplastic and malignant tissues.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of ProExC in dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions of the cervix.
  • Nine low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 35 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 23 squamous metaplasia, and 14 adenocarcinoma in situ specimens were retrieved from our hospital files.
  • ProExC had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 89%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively, for distinguishing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion from squamous metaplasia, and 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively, for distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ from reactive benign endocervix.
  • ProExC is a valuable marker for distinguishing dysplastic squamous and endocervical lesions of the cervix from squamous metaplasia in histologic sections.
  • ProExC may eventually be used in conjunction with morphologic and human papillomavirus evaluation for better classification of indeterminate cervical lesions in Papanicolaou smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19952938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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66. Botelho NK, Schneiders FI, Lord SJ, Freeman AK, Tyagi S, Nancarrow DJ, Hayward NK, Whiteman DC, Lord RV: Gene expression alterations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Jul 15;10(2):172-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gene expression alterations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues.
  • METHODS: mRNA was isolated from 54 FFPE small endoscopic biopsies from patients with Barrett intestinal metaplasia (BE), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), or control patients with a normal squamous-lined esophagus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Barrett Esophagus / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 20543560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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67. Suzuki T, Suzuki T, Shinoda M, Takashi H, Yamaguchi H, Murayama M, Kamiya T, Morise K, Tashiro K, Kimura M, Yamagishi S, Ando T, Goto H: [An autopsy case of colon cancer associated ulcerative colitis complicated focal squamous cell carcinoma]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 May;104(5):684-9
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  • [Title] [An autopsy case of colon cancer associated ulcerative colitis complicated focal squamous cell carcinoma].
  • At autopsy, the histological examination showed many mucinous adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma with dysplasia.
  • There were also some areas of squamous cell carcinoma with squamous metaplasia and dysplasia far from rectum.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma and adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the colon are rare complications of ulcerative colitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Colitis, Ulcerative / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17485949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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68. Buskens CJ, Hulscher JB, van Gulik TM, Ten Kate FJ, van Lanschot JJ: Histopathologic evaluation of an animal model for Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus. J Surg Res; 2006 Oct;135(2):337-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathologic evaluation of an animal model for Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus.
  • INTRODUCTION: Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus are related to long-standing duodeno-gastroesophageal reflux.
  • The development of an animal model in which Barrett's esophagus and/or carcinoma is induced by duodeno-(gastro-)esophageal reflux could provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and would create the possibility of investigating new treatment strategies for this aggressive disease.
  • Sequential morphological changes (i.e., esophagitis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma) were studied after 4, 6, and 12 months.
  • In four animals a large, well-differentiated, mucinous tumor without malignant characteristics was observed.
  • In these animals, extensive esophagitis with squamous cell hyperplasia was found.
  • Finally, in seven animals a mucinous tumor with cytologic characteristics of a well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma was found without infiltrative growth.
  • Although they showed cytological characteristics of malignancy, histopathologic evaluation was more suggestive of a reactive mucous producing lesion fitting the diagnosis "esophagitis cystica profunda."
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Tract / surgery


69. Szentpáli K, Széll M, Paszt A, Wolfárd A, Dobozy A, Németh I, Tiszlavicz L, Iván L, Boros M: Simultaneous adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma with different phenotypic profiles in a rat model of chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Dis Esophagus; 2007;20(4):305-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma with different phenotypic profiles in a rat model of chronic gastroesophageal reflux.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence of duodeno-gastroesophageal reflux-induced malignant transformation in a series of duodeno-esophageal anastomosis operations in rats.
  • Thirty weeks of duodeno-gastroesophageal reflux disease significantly increased the risk of the development of Barrett's esophagus, and reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma formation was evident in four animals.
  • In one of these particular cases, a superficial squamous cell cancer was noted in close vicinity to the adenocarcinoma formation.
  • The immunophenotypes revealed cyclin D1 expression (nuclear positivity in 35% of all the squamous cells), p53 protein accumulation (50% nuclear positivity), with a low expression of cox-2, and negative c-erbB2 staining in the squamous carcinoma cells.
  • The specialized intestinal metaplasia and mucinous adenocarcinoma cells exhibited exclusively diffuse cox-2 positivity (90% of all glandular cells) and weak focal c-erbB2 (5%) staining, without cyclin D1 expression or p53 protein accumulation.


70. Jin Z, Mori Y, Yang J, Sato F, Ito T, Cheng Y, Paun B, Hamilton JP, Kan T, Olaru A, David S, Agarwal R, Abraham JM, Beer D, Montgomery E, Meltzer SJ: Hypermethylation of the nel-like 1 gene is a common and early event and is associated with poor prognosis in early-stage esophageal adenocarcinoma. Oncogene; 2007 Sep 20;26(43):6332-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hypermethylation of the nel-like 1 gene is a common and early event and is associated with poor prognosis in early-stage esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The nel-like1 (NELL1) gene maps to chromosome 11p15, which frequently undergoes loss of heterozygosity in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).
  • Hypermethylation of this promoter showed highly discriminative receiver-operator characteristic curve profiles, clearly distinguishing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and EAC from normal esophagus (NE) (P<0.001).
  • NELL1 normalized methylation values were significantly higher in Barrett's metaplasia (BE), dysplastic Barrett's (D) and EAC than in NE (P<0.0000001).

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  • (PMID = 17452981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK067872; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA001808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085069; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106763
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NELL1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 65-47-4 / Cytidine Triphosphate; 72052-96-1 / 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-5'-triphosphate; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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71. Cooper BT, Chapman W, Neumann CS, Gearty JC: Continuous treatment of Barrett's oesophagus patients with proton pump inhibitors up to 13 years: observations on regression and cancer incidence. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2006 Mar 15;23(6):727-33
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  • AIM: To determine if longer periods of treatment with proton pump inhibitors lead to significant regression of Barrett's oesophagus, and to determine the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in the proton pump inhibitor-treated patients.
  • RESULTS: 188 patients with Barrett's oesophagus and intestinal metaplasia, were treated for 1-13 years with a proton pump inhibitor (966 years of treatment; mean 5.1 years).
  • No change in length was seen during treatment but 48% of patients developed squamous islands (25% after 1-3 years; 100% at 12-13 years).
  • Squamous islands correlated with treatment duration and male sex but not with proton pump inhibitor dose or patient age.
  • Six patients developed dysplasia and three males developed adenocarcinoma during treatment (cancer incidence 0.31%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Proton-pump inhibitor treatment over 1-13 years does not shorten the Barrett's oesophagus segment but squamous islands appear in many patients.
  • The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma was low in these proton pump inhibitor-treated patients compared with published series.
  • [MeSH-minor] 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles. Adenocarcinoma / chemically induced. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Esophageal Diseases / chemically induced. Esophageal Diseases / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / chemically induced. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Lansoprazole. Long-Term Care. Male. Middle Aged. Omeprazole / administration & dosage. Omeprazole / analogs & derivatives. Prospective Studies. Sex Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Dec;3(12):658-9 [17130871.001]
  • (PMID = 16556174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors; 0K5C5T2QPG / Lansoprazole; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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72. Estensen RD, Anderson WR, Galbraith AR, Hartle DE, Jordan MM, Ondrey FG, Wattenberg LW: A method of producing carcinoma in upper aerodigestive tree and esophagus of the Syrian golden hamster using wounding and instillation of N-methylnitrosourea. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Aug;16(8):1644-50
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  • The method produces a majority of squamous carcinomas of the trachea and glottis that follow squamous metaplasia of respiratory epithelium.
  • Squamous carcinomas of the digestive epithelium arise in primary squamous epithelium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Animals. Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Chemoprevention. Cricetinae. Epithelium / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Glottis / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / etiology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Mesocricetus. Metaplasia. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / etiology. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Respiratory Mucosa / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17684140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Carcinogens; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea
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73. Gomes LI, Esteves GH, Carvalho AF, Cristo EB, Hirata R Jr, Martins WK, Marques SM, Camargo LP, Brentani H, Pelosof A, Zitron C, Sallum RA, Montagnini A, Soares FA, Neves EJ, Reis LF: Expression profile of malignant and nonmalignant lesions of esophagus and stomach: differential activity of functional modules related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. Cancer Res; 2005 Aug 15;65(16):7127-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression profile of malignant and nonmalignant lesions of esophagus and stomach: differential activity of functional modules related to inflammation and lipid metabolism.
  • Whereas intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa is associated with higher risk of malignization, Barrett's disease is a risk factor for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.
  • Barrett's disease is characterized by the substitution of the squamous mucosa of the esophagus by a columnar tissue classified histopathologically as intestinal metaplasia.
  • Using cDNA microarrays, we determined the expression profile of normal gastric and esophageal mucosa as well as intestinal metaplasia and adenocarcinomas from both organs.
  • Data were explored to define functional alterations related to the transformation from squamous to columnar epithelium and the malignant transformation from intestinal metaplasia to adenocarcinomas.
  • Based on their expression profile, adenocarcinomas of the esophagus showed stronger correlation with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach than with Barrett's mucosa.
  • Whereas the lipid metabolism module is active in samples representing intestinal metaplasia and inactive in adenocarcinomas, the cytokine module is inactive in samples representing normal esophagus and esophagitis.
  • Exploitation of the data presented herein will help in the precise molecular characterization of adenocarcinoma from the distal esophagus, avoiding the topographical and descriptive classification that is currently adopted, and help with the proper management of patients with Barrett's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Lipid Metabolism. Stomach Neoplasms / genetics. Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16103062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines
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74. Kim Y, Liu XS, Liu C, Smith DE, Russell RM, Wang XD: Induction of pulmonary neoplasia in the smoke-exposed ferret by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK): a model for human lung cancer. Cancer Lett; 2006 Mar 28;234(2):209-19
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  • The histopathological types of these tumors (squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) in ferret lungs are very similar to those in humans.
  • In addition, 10 out of 12 ferrets exposed to both NNK and cigarette smoke developed preneoplastic lesions (squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia) with complex growth patterns whereas the sham group did not show any of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Animals. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Precancerous Conditions / etiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15894421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK062032
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Nitrosamines; 64091-91-4 / 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone
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75. Pearson HB, Phesse TJ, Clarke AR: K-ras and Wnt signaling synergize to accelerate prostate tumorigenesis in the mouse. Cancer Res; 2009 Jan 01;69(1):94-101
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  • Concomitant with elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, PBCre(+)K-ras(+/V12) mice developed AH at 100 days (100% incidence) and low-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma (60% and 7% incidence) by 500 days.
  • PBCre(+)Catnb(+/lox(ex3)) mice showed reduced longevity (average 428 days) and were predisposed to PIN-like keratinized squamous metaplasia at 100 days (100% incidence) and adenocarcinoma (100% incidence) at end-point.
  • Notably, expression of the basal cell marker p63 negatively correlated with tumor grade, resembling human prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Animals. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Female. Genes, ras. Inbreeding. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Male. Metaplasia. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Urogenital System / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19117991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ G0301154
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, mouse; 0 / Myc protein, mouse; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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76. Dias Pereira A, Suspiro A, Chaves P: Cancer risk in Barrett's oesophagus. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;19(11):915-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • )Barrett's oesophagus results from the replacement of the normal squamous lining of the oesophagus by a columnar epithelium.
  • It is the sole known premalignant condition for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The prerequisite of the presence of intestinal metaplasia for the diagnosis of Barrett's oesophagus, although widely accepted, is questioned by some authors.
  • How adenocarcinoma incidence is influenced by requiring or not intestinal metaplasia for Barrett's oesophagus diagnosis is unknown.
  • Data on adenocarcinoma incidence in short segments (<3 cm) are very scarce, but it is believed to be lower than in long segments.
  • Frequently, therapeutic intervention is performed when high-grade dysplasia is diagnosed, preventing progression to adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Disease Progression. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagoscopy. Humans. Incidence. Intestines / pathology. Metaplasia. Risk

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  • (PMID = 18049157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Hao J, Liu B, Yang CS, Chen X: Gastroesophageal reflux leads to esophageal cancer in a surgical model with mice. BMC Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul 23;9:59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Esophago-gastroduodenal anastomosis with rats mimics the development of human Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma by introducing mixed reflux of gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus.
  • Therefore, a mouse model of esophageal adenocarcinoma is needed.
  • RESULTS: At week 20, we observed metaplasia in wild-type mice (5%, 1/20) and p53A135V mice (5.3%, 1/19).
  • At week 40, metaplasia was found in wild-type mice (16.2%, 6/37), p53A135V mice (4.8%, 2/42), and wild-type mice also receiving gastrectomy and iron (6.7%, 1/15).
  • Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma developed in INK4a/Arf+/- mice (7.1%, 1/14), and wild-type mice receiving gastrectomy and iron (21.4%, 3/14).
  • Among 13 wild-type mice which were given iron from week 40 to 80, twelve (92.3%) developed squamous cell carcinoma at week 80.
  • None of these mice developed esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgically induced gastroesophageal reflux produced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but not esophageal adenocarcinoma, in mice.
  • Dominant negative p53 mutation, heterozygous loss of INK4a/Arf, antacid treatment, iron supplementation, or gastrectomy failed to promote esophageal adenocarcinoma in these mice.
  • Further studies are needed in order to develop a mouse model of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19627616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES005022; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA75683; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA125804; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U56 CA092077
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2723127
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78. Gaddam S, Sharma P: Advances in endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of Barrett's esophagus. J Dig Dis; 2010 Dec;11(6):323-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advances in endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of Barrett's esophagus.
  • Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as abnormal specialized columnar metaplasia with intestinalization in place of the normal squamous esophageal epithelium.
  • Patients with high grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer have a high rate of progression to invasive adenocarcinoma and traditionally these patients were treated with esophagectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Barrett Esophagus. Endoscopy, Digestive System / trends. Esophageal Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 21091894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of digestive diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dig Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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79. Drusco A, Zanesi N, Roldo C, Trapasso F, Farber JL, Fong LY, Croce CM: Knockout mice reveal a tumor suppressor function for Testin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2005 Aug 2;102(31):10947-51
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  • Animals were killed 8 weeks after NMBA administration: 25% of +/+ mice developed benign lesions; 88% of +/- showed multiple papillomas, atypical glandular metaplasia, and squamous cell carcinomasl; and 81% of -/- mice displayed very large papillomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 16033868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA077738; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 08398; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 77738
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tes protein, mouse; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 937-40-6 / nitrosobenzylmethylamine; J41CSQ7QDS / Zinc; M43H21IO8R / Dimethylnitrosamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1182460
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80. Binato M, Kruel Schmidt M, Silveira Volkweis B, Behrend Silva Ribeiro G, Isabel Edelweiss M, Ricachenevsky Gurski R: Mouse model of diethylnitrosamine-induced gastric cancer. J Surg Res; 2008 Aug;148(2):152-7
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  • Stomachs were analyzed for normal histology; foveolar hyperplasia; gastritis; ulcer; adenoma; metaplasia; dysplasia; squamous-cell cancer (SCC); and adenocarcinoma (ACA).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemically induced. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemically induced. Diethylnitrosamine / adverse effects. Stomach Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. N-NITROSONORNICOTINE .
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  • (PMID = 18456281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Nitrosamines; 3IQ78TTX1A / Diethylnitrosamine; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; X656TZ86DX / N'-nitrosonornicotine
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81. Cappello F, Di Stefano A, David S, Rappa F, Anzalone R, La Rocca G, D'Anna SE, Magno F, Donner CF, Balbi B, Zummo G: Hsp60 and Hsp10 down-regulation predicts bronchial epithelial carcinogenesis in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cancer; 2006 Nov 15;107(10):2417-24
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  • A higher frequency of adenocarcinoma has been reported in patients with COPD.
  • METHOD: An immunohistochemical study was performed for Hsp60 and Hsp10 in bronchial biopsies from 35 COPD (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)]: 53 +/- 19% [mean +/- SD]) patients with a history of smoking (53 +/- 34 pack/years) and in 10 patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC).
  • RESULTS.: In smokers with COPD, 10 out of 35 patients had a normal bronchial epithelium (NBE), 12 showed basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), 5 squamous metaplasia (SM), and 8 dysplasia (Dy).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / diagnosis. Chaperonin 10 / metabolism. Chaperonin 60 / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / complications. Smoking / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / complications. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Respiratory Mucosa / pathology


82. Barbera M, Fitzgerald RC: Cellular mechanisms of Barrett's esophagus development. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2009 Jul;18(3):393-410
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  • Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic premalignant disorder in which the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the lower esophagus is replaced by a columnar lined epithelium with intestinal differentiation.
  • BE generally occurs in the context of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and it is the primary risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, with a conversion rate of 0.5% to 1% per annum.
  • The dramatic increase of esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence in the western world over the last two decades justifies the strong interest in BE and its development with the aim to improve preventative and therapeutic clinical strategies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Aneuploidy. Animals. Cell Transdifferentiation / physiology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Cocarcinogenesis. Disease Models, Animal. Epigenesis, Genetic. Esophageal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Humans. Inflammation. Metaplasia / etiology. Metaplasia / pathology. Multipotent Stem Cells / physiology. Mutation. Risk Factors. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19500732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-5042
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ MC/ U105365007
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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83. Maezato K, Nishimaki T, Oshiro M, Yamashiro T, Sasaki H, Sashida Y: Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the esophagus associated with Barrett's epithelium: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(12):1096-101
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  • Histologically, the tumor was signet-ring cell carcinoma covered with normal squamous epithelium.
  • However, the most superficial part of the tumor center contained a region of Barrett's mucosa with incomplete-type intestinal metaplasia and a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma component with goblet cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Esophagectomy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18030574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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84. Iwase H, Kurebayashi J, Tsuda H, Ohta T, Kurosumi M, Miyamoto K, Yamamoto Y, Iwase T: Clinicopathological analyses of triple negative breast cancer using surveillance data from the Registration Committee of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society. Breast Cancer; 2010 Apr;17(2):118-24
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  • Mucinous, tubular, or secretary carcinomas were frequently found in the hormone receptor positive/HER2 negative subtype, while squamous cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and metaplastic carcinoma with bone/cartilage metaplasia were very frequently found in the TN group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although TN types are similar to basal-like breast tumor, as determined by gene profiling, their diagnosis needs verification by determination of the level of epidermal growth factor receptor or cytokeratin 5/6 expression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Scirrhous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Scirrhous / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Female. Humans. Japan. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Registries. Societies, Medical / statistics & numerical data. Young Adult


85. Jeong JW, Lee HS, Franco HL, Broaddus RR, Taketo MM, Tsai SY, Lydon JP, DeMayo FJ: beta-catenin mediates glandular formation and dysregulation of beta-catenin induces hyperplasia formation in the murine uterus. Oncogene; 2009 Jan 08;28(1):31-40
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  • Endometrioid adenocarcinoma is the most frequent form of endometrial cancer, usually developing in pre- and peri-menopausal women. beta-catenin abnormalities are common in endometrioid type endometrial carcinomas with squamous differentiation.
  • Expression of the dominant stabilized beta-catenin, PR(cre/+)Ctnnb1(f(ex3)/+), resulted in endometrial glandular hyperplasia, whereas ablation of beta-catenin, PR(cre/+)Ctnnb1(f/f), induced squamous cell metaplasia in the murine uterus.

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  • (PMID = 18806829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01HD057873; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD007495-359009; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD007495-359022; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077530-09; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD007495-350006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA098258-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258-019001; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54HD28934; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R03 HD077495; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD028934; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54HD0077495; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD057873-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD042311-06A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077530; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD007495; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD042311; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01HD042311; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639-099005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA77530; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258-010003; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD057873
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS88308; NLM/ PMC2646831
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86. Basseri B, Conklin JL, Mertens RB, Lo SK, Bellack GS, Shaye OA: Heterotopic gastric mucosa (inlet patch) in a patient with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and laryngeal carcinoma: a case report and review of literature. Dis Esophagus; 2009;22(4):E1-5
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  • Esophageal and supraesophageal symptoms are commonly associated with inlet patch, while esophageal adenocarcinoma rarely complicates it.
  • Laryngeal adenocarcinoma associated with inlet patch is not described in the literature.
  • Biopsies showed columnar mucosa (predominantly gastric cardiac/fundic type) consistent with inlet patch, with focal intestinal metaplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19473208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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87. Wu Q, Li Z, Lin H, Han L, Liu S, Lin Z: DEK overexpression in uterine cervical cancers. Pathol Int; 2008 Jun;58(6):378-82
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  • DEK protein expression was studied in 253 cervical lesions, including 30 non-neoplastic cervix with or without squamous metaplasia, 64 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (CIN; CIN-1, n = 28; CIN-2, n = 17; CIN-3, n = 19), 102 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 51 adenocarcinomas, and six adenosquamous cell carcinomas (adenoSCC) on immunohistochemistry.
  • In summary, DEK plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancers, and can be helpful for early diagnosis, and is a potential therapeutic target.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18477217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Dek protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins
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88. Basturk O, Khanani F, Sarkar F, Levi E, Cheng JD, Adsay NV: DeltaNp63 expression in pancreas and pancreatic neoplasia. Mod Pathol; 2005 Sep;18(9):1193-8
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  • A total of 25 cases were non-neoplastic pancreata, 25 were pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) of various grades, and 50 were examples of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Sections of non-neoplastic pancreata included various types of non-neoplastic processes such as squamous/transitional metaplasia (five cases), which can be mistaken for high-grade PanINs, as well as various degrees of reactive ductal atypia and incidental microcysts with attenuated lining (five cases).
  • On the other hand, all five foci of squamous/transitional metaplasia were strongly and uniformly positive for this marker.
  • Among invasive carcinomas, DNp63 expression was detected only in areas of squamous differentiation and was completely absent in ordinary ductal areas.
  • Based on this observation, five additional cases of adenosquamous/squamous carcinoma was retrieved and stained, and the squamous components of all of these were also positive.
  • In conclusion, (I) DNp63 is a reliable marker of squamous differentiation in the pancreas.
  • It is valuable in distinguishing squamous/transitional metaplasia from PanINs, a distinction of importance for both researchers and diagnosticians.
  • Among invasive carcinomas, it seems to be entirely specific for areas of squamous differentiation. (II) Those incidental microcysts seen in acinar lobules and lined by attenuated cells are also positive for DNp63, which suggests that they may be metaplastic in nature, and that they do not represent neoplastic cells. (III) Unlike the ducts of other exocrine organs, breast and prostate, there are no DNp63-expressing cells in the normal pancreatic ducts, and therefore, this marker cannot be used in distinguishing invasive carcinomas from the non-invasive ducts. (IV) No p63-expressing 'stem' cells are present in the pancreas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 15976814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / PAR-02-068
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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89. Li M, Anastassiades CP, Joshi B, Komarck CM, Piraka C, Elmunzer BJ, Turgeon DK, Johnson TD, Appelman H, Beer DG, Wang TD: Affinity peptide for targeted detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Gastroenterology; 2010 Nov;139(5):1472-80
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  • METHODS: Peptide selection was performed using phage display by removing nonspecific binders using Q-hTERT (intestinal metaplasia) cells and achieving specific binding against OE33 (esophageal adenocarcinoma) cells.
  • On esophageal specimens (n = 12), the fluorescence intensity (mean ± SEM) in 1-mm intervals classified histologically as squamous (n = 145), intestinal metaplasia (n = 83), dysplasia (n = 61), and gastric mucosa (n = 69) was 46.5 ± 1.6, 62.3 ± 5.8, 100.0 ± 9.0, and 42.4 ± 3.0 arb units, respectively.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20637198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA163059; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA163059-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA13642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA136429; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA136429-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Affinity Labels; 0 / Carrier Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS365874; NLM/ PMC3319360
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90. Pavlov K, Maley CC: New models of neoplastic progression in Barrett's oesophagus. Biochem Soc Trans; 2010 Apr;38(2):331-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Research in Barrett's oesophagus, and neoplastic progression to OAC (oesophageal adenocarcinoma), is hobbled by the lack of good pre-clinical models that capture the evolutionary dynamics of Barrett's cell populations.
  • Tissue culture models include squamous cell lines, Barrett's oesophagus cell lines and OAC cell lines, although it was recognized recently that BIC-1, SEG-1 and TE-7 are not true OAC cell lines.
  • The most realistic, but least tractable, model is a canine surgical model that generates reflux and leads to an intestinal metaplasia.

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  • (PMID = 20298178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-8752
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical Society transactions
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Soc. Trans.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA010815; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA137811-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA091955-089005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA091955; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA091955-089005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA140657-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA140657-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA137811-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA137811; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA137811-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA91955; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA140657; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119224
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS199218; NLM/ PMC2866622
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91. Saad RS, Takei H, Liu YL, Silverman JE, Lipscomb JT, Ruiz B: Clinical significance of a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells, favor endometrial origin, in Pap smears. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):48-54
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells, favor endometrial origin, in Pap smears.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the significance of a diagnosis of atypical glandular cells, favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM), using cytohistologic correlation.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective search identified 90 cervicovaginal smears (vaginal pool) with a diagnosis of AGC-EM, in 2 tertiary care medical centers between January 1998 and December 2002.
  • Among the patients who underwent biopsy, 22 (40%) had a clinically significant lesion, including 10 (18%) endometrial adenocarcinomas, 8 (15%) endometrial hyperplasias and 4 (7%) high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/squamous cell carcinoma, nonkeratinizing type.
  • The remaining 33 patients had benign histology, including benign endometrium, endometrial polyp, tubal metaplasia, cystic endometrial atrophy and cervical microglandular hyperplasia.
  • Of the patients with cytologic follow-up, 2 had Pap smears showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, while the remainder had negative results.
  • CONCLUSION: In our study population, 40% (22 of 55) of women who underwent biopsy following a diagnosis of AGC-EM had significant uterine lesions, with the majority of the lesions endometrial in origin.
  • Patients with a diagnosis of AGC-EM, especially those > 50, should be followed closely, and endometrial sampling should be included in their initial workup.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrium / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Metaplasia / diagnosis. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged. Polyps / diagnosis. Polyps / pathology. Retrospective Studies


92. Bendic A, Bozic M, Durdov MG: Metaplastic breast carcinoma with melanocytic differentiation. Pathol Int; 2009 Sep;59(9):676-80
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  • Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is a rare heterogeneous malignancy, accounting for <1% of all invasive breast carcinomas, in which adenocarcinoma is found to coexist with an admixture of spindle, squamous, chondroid or bone-forming neoplastic cells.
  • After histological and immunohistochemical examination of the resected tumor mass, initial diagnosis was collision tumor: ductal invasive carcinoma and metastatic melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Metaplasia. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19712138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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93. Behrens C, Lin HY, Lee JJ, Raso MG, Hong WK, Wistuba II, Lotan R: Immunohistochemical expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 and 2 in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Oct 1;14(19):6014-22
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  • PURPOSE: To identify the patterns of protein expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and FGF receptors 1 and 2 in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and their role in the early pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Archived tissue from NSCLC (adenocarcinoma and SCC; n = 321) and adjacent bronchial epithelial specimens (n = 426) were analyzed for the immunohistochemical expression of bFGF, FGFR1, and FGFR2, and the findings were correlated with clinicopathologic features of the patients.
  • Dysplastic changes showed significantly higher expression of all markers compared with squamous metaplasia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: bFGF, FGFR1, and FGFR2 are frequently overexpressed in SCC and adenocarcinoma of the lung. bFGF signaling pathway activation may be an early phenomenon in the pathogenesis of SCC and thus an attractive novel target for lung cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1 / biosynthesis. Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18829480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR1 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2
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94. Punia RS, Arya S, Mohan H, Duseja A, Bal A: Spectrum of clinico-pathological changes in Barrett oesophagus. J Assoc Physicians India; 2006 Mar;54:187-9
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  • OBJECTIVES: Barrett oesophagus is replacement of squamous epithelium to specialised intestinal metaplasia.
  • It is associated with an increased risk for adenocarcinoma which develops through dysplasia.
  • On histology examination, in 6 cases, squamous epithelium was replaced by intestinal epithelium containing goblet cells and in 7 cases it was replaced by gastric epithelium.
  • Associated dysplasia was not seen in any of the case, while one case showed associated adenocarcinoma.
  • There is a paucity of patients with pure dysplasia in Barrett metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Biopsy. Esophagoscopy. Female. Humans. India. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 16800342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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95. Shaheen NJ, Peery AF, Overholt BF, Lightdale CJ, Chak A, Wang KK, Hawes RH, Fleischer DE, Goldblum JR, AIM Dysplasia Investigators: Biopsy depth after radiofrequency ablation of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Gastrointest Endosc; 2010 Sep;72(3):490-496.e1
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  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The proportion of biopsy samples demonstrating subepithelial structures, stratified by tissue type (columnar vs squamous) in sham- and RFA-treated subjects.
  • Squamous biopsy samples from RFA and sham subjects demonstrated subepithelium at similar rates (78.4% vs 79.1%, respectively, P = not significant [NS]).
  • Regardless of treatment assignment, more columnar than squamous biopsy samples demonstrated subepithelium (98.8% vs 78.5%, P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In both squamous and columnar tissue, endoscopic biopsy samples after RFA were as likely to demonstrate subepithelium as untreated controls.
  • Almost 80% of all biopsy samples were adequate to evaluate for subsquamous intestinal metaplasia.
  • The primary determinant of biopsy depth is the type of epithelium that underwent biopsy, with squamous less likely to yield subepithelium than columnar.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagoscopy. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Esophagus / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20598302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00282672
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007634-15; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK 07634; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK034987; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / IH P30 DK034987; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007634
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS289916; NLM/ PMC3093936
  • [Investigator] Shaheen NJ; Madanick RD; Galanko JA; Sharma P; Overholt BF; Wolfsen HC; Sampliner RE; Wang KK; Falk GW; Bronner MP; Goldblum JR; Bennett AE; Jobe BA; Eisen GM; Fennerty MB; Hunter JG; Fleischer DE; Sharma VK; Hawes RH; Hoffman BJ; Rothstein RI; Gordon SR; Mashimo H; Chang KJ; Muthusamy VR; Edmundowicz SA; Spechler SJ; Siddiqui AA; Souza RF; Infantolino A; Kimmey MB; Chak A; Lightdale CJ
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96. Little L, Stewart CJ: Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in normal endocervix and diagnostic value in reactive and neoplastic endocervical lesions. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):611-8
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  • It may be difficult to distinguish reactive glandular lesions from adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix, and although several immunohistochemical markers have established value in this diagnostic setting, none is completely reliable.
  • Therefore, we investigated cyclin D1 staining in a series of 64 cervical biopsy specimens including examples of normal and reactive endocervical epithelium, adenocarcinoma in situ, stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesions, and invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • Thirteen specimens also included a component of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Normal endocervical epithelium usually expressed cyclin D1, although staining was typically focal, and there was increased immunoreactivity in reactive and metaplastic glandular cells including tubo-endometrioid metaplasia.
  • In contrast, most cases of adenocarcinoma in situ were completely negative and, therefore, cyclin D1 staining distinguished benign from neoplastic epithelial cells.
  • Although focal cyclin D1 expression was observed in 5/19 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, the staining was associated with more marked cytological atypia precluding confusion with a reactive process.
  • In conclusion, cyclin D1 can be included within an immunohistochemical panel to aid in the distinction between reactive cervical glandular lesions and adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20062011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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97. Finley JC, Reid BJ, Odze RD, Sanchez CA, Galipeau P, Li X, Self SG, Gollahon KA, Blount PL, Rabinovitch PS: Chromosomal instability in Barrett's esophagus is related to telomere shortening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Aug;15(8):1451-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Barrett's esophagus is a useful model for the study of carcinogenesis, as the metaplastic columnar epithelium that replaces squamous esophageal epithelium is at elevated risk for development of adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Aged. Anaphase / genetics. Chromosomes, Human / genetics. Esophagus / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Gastroesophageal Reflux / genetics. Gastroesophageal Reflux / pathology. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Metaplasia / genetics. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16896031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA91955; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P30AG13280; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32CA09437
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. O'Neill CJ, McCluggage WG: p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Jan;13(1):8-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis.
  • In cervical squamous lesions, p16 is positive in most high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in some cases of low-grade CIN, usually those associated with high-risk HPV. p16 may be useful to identify small focal high-grade CIN lesions, to distinguish some cases of CIN involving immature metaplastic squamous epithelium from immature metaplastic squamous epithelium not involved by CIN and to distinguish high-grade CIN from benign mimics.
  • Most cervical carcinomas of squamous, glandular, and small cell type are p16-positive.
  • In cervical glandular lesions, p16 is useful, as part of a panel, in the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (diffusely positive) and benign mimics, including tuboendometrial metaplasia and endometriosis, which are usually p16-negative or focally positive. p16 may be used, in combination with other markers, to distinguish between a cervical adenocarcinoma (diffuse positivity) and an endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma (negative or focally positive).
  • Similarly, HPV-associated invasive squamous carcinomas are p16-positive, whereas the more common non-HPV-associated neoplasms are largely negative or focally positive.
  • In the uterus, p16 positivity is more common and widespread in leiomyosarcomas than leiomyomas, and this may be a useful aid to diagnosis, although problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms have not been extensively studied.
  • Metastatic cervical adenocarcinomas in the ovary are usually diffusely p16-positive, and because these may closely mimic a primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma, this may be a valuable diagnostic aid, although p16 expression in primary ovarian adenocarcinomas of these morphologic subtypes has not been widely investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Genes, p16. Genitalia, Female / chemistry. Genitalia, Female / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / chemistry. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16462152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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99. Ponsot P: [Barrett's oesophagus: endoscopic diagnosis and follow-up]. Ann Chir; 2006 Jan;131(1):3-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Esophageal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Barrett's oesophagus: endoscopic diagnosis and follow-up].
  • Barrett's oesophagus (BO), or replacement of the squamous mucosa by a specialized intestinal metaplasia due to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), predisposes to adenocarcinoma.
  • Macroscopic diagnosis of BO is sometimes difficult and, in case of doubt, endoscopy should be redone after a period of efficient anti-secretory treatment.
  • Diagnosis of BO is histological and should be confirmed by biopsies.
  • The incidence of adenocarcinoma is globally estimated at 0.5% patient by year of follow-up, and exists for both short and long BO.
  • Due to this low incidence, screening for BO is only justified in patients at high risk for adenocarcinoma (male gender, age > 50 ans, old GORD in a young patient).
  • Low-grade dysplasia (LGD) then high-grade dysplasia (HGD) precedes adenocarcinoma.
  • Histological diagnosis of LGD is difficult: the main cause of confusion is inflammation so diagnosis of LGD must be confirmed after a 3-month high-dose anti-secretory treatment.
  • Diagnosis of HGD is easier but multiple biopsies are needed to determine the focal or multifocal disposition of HGD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Humans. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16376849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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100. Micev M, Cosić-Micev M: [Pathology and pathobiology of the oesophageal carcinoma]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2010;57(2):15-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Identification of dysplasia in mucosal biopsies is the most reliable pathologic indicator of an increased risk of development of squamous cell carcinoma and passes through the sequence of chronic esophagitis, low-grade and high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.
  • Although Barrett's esophagus is a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma and have a well described sequence of carcinogenesis: the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence, not all patients with this disorder require intensive surveillance.
  • More studies are needed to define other early nonmorphologic biomarkers for risk of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / complications. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Humans

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Esophageal Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 20954310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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