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1. Buskens CJ, Hulscher JB, van Gulik TM, Ten Kate FJ, van Lanschot JJ: Histopathologic evaluation of an animal model for Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus. J Surg Res; 2006 Oct;135(2):337-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathologic evaluation of an animal model for Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus.
  • INTRODUCTION: Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus are related to long-standing duodeno-gastroesophageal reflux.
  • The development of an animal model in which Barrett's esophagus and/or carcinoma is induced by duodeno-(gastro-)esophageal reflux could provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and would create the possibility of investigating new treatment strategies for this aggressive disease.
  • Sequential morphological changes (i.e., esophagitis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma) were studied after 4, 6, and 12 months.
  • In four animals a large, well-differentiated, mucinous tumor without malignant characteristics was observed.
  • In these animals, extensive esophagitis with squamous cell hyperplasia was found.
  • Finally, in seven animals a mucinous tumor with cytologic characteristics of a well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma was found without infiltrative growth.
  • Although they showed cytological characteristics of malignancy, histopathologic evaluation was more suggestive of a reactive mucous producing lesion fitting the diagnosis "esophagitis cystica profunda."
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Tract / surgery


2. Bewtra C, Xie QM, Hunter WJ, Jurgensen W: Ichthyosis uteri: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 May;129(5):e124-5
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  • Squamous metaplasia of endometrium is mostly manifested by morules or nodules of benign nonkeratinizing squamous cells intimately mixed with benign or malignant endometrial glands.
  • It has been described with low-grade adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, as well as with various benign conditions, including hyperplasia, chronic endometritis, and endometrial polyps.
  • However, extensive plaquelike, keratinizing squamous change is distinctly uncommon.
  • To our knowledge, we describe the first case of extensive benign squamous keratinization with underlying endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ichthyosis / diagnosis. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15859657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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3. Fassan M, Pizzi M, Battaglia G, Giacomelli L, Parente P, Bocus P, Ancona E, Rugge M: Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) expression during multistep Barrett's carcinogenesis. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Aug;63(8):692-6
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  • METHODS: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was assessed in 88 biopsy samples obtained from histologically proven long-segment Barrett's mucosa (BM; 25 non-intestinal columnar metaplasia, 25 intestinal metaplasia (IM), 16 low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LG-IEN), 12 high-grade IEN (HG-IEN) and 10 Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAc)).
  • Normal basal squamous epithelial layers featured strong PDCD4 nuclear immunoreaction (mostly coexisting with weak-moderate cytoplasmic staining).
  • Non-intestinal columnar metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia preserved a strong nuclear immunostaining; conversely, a significant decrease in PDCD4 nuclear expression was seen in dysplastic (LG-IEN and HG-IEN) and neoplastic lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. MicroRNAs / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20702469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / MIRN21 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PDCD4 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2976066
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4. Kazakov DV, Requena L, Kutzner H, Fernandez-Figueras MT, Kacerovska D, Mentzel T, Schwabbauer P, Michal M: Morphologic diversity of syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum based on a clinicopathologic study of 6 cases and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):340-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Morphologic diversity of syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum based on a clinicopathologic study of 6 cases and review of the literature.
  • The purpose of our investigation was to study a series of syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum to document morphologic variations of the neoplasm.
  • Syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum invariably occurred in association with syringocystadenoma papilliferum and presented as an in situ adenocarcinoma and/or invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • Additionally, an invasive component was represented by squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Variable present features included pagetoid migration of the neoplastic cells, dirty necrosis, mucinous ductal metaplasia, and ductal changes analogous to those seen in the breast.
  • It is concluded that morphologic diversity of syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum is substantial.
  • Its association with the benign counterpart and ductal changes suggests a transformation that may involve usual ductal hyperplasia-atypical ductal hyperplasia-(ductal) adenocarcinoma in situ-invasive adenocarcinoma pathway.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20216201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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5. Bendic A, Bozic M, Durdov MG: Metaplastic breast carcinoma with melanocytic differentiation. Pathol Int; 2009 Sep;59(9):676-80
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  • Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is a rare heterogeneous malignancy, accounting for <1% of all invasive breast carcinomas, in which adenocarcinoma is found to coexist with an admixture of spindle, squamous, chondroid or bone-forming neoplastic cells.
  • After histological and immunohistochemical examination of the resected tumor mass, initial diagnosis was collision tumor: ductal invasive carcinoma and metastatic melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Metaplasia. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19712138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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6. Dilemmas in managing Barrett's oesophagus. Drug Ther Bull; 2006 Sep;44(9):69-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In the UK, oesophageal adenocarcinoma accounts for over 7,000 deaths per year and its incidence is rising.
  • In this condition, reflux of acid and duodenal fluid leads to replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium with a columnar epithelium.
  • This new epithelium includes areas of intestinal metaplasia that may develop into dysplasia and ultimately carcinoma.
  • Of people with Barrett's oesophagus, about 1% per year develop adenocarcinoma, around 30-125 times the rate in the general population.
  • So it has been suggested that people with reflux should be screened for Barrett's oesophagus, and those with the condition should be kept under surveillance to detect dysplasia or adenocarcinoma in the early stages.

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  • (PMID = 17009567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6543
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug and therapeutics bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Ther Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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7. Binato M, Gurski RR, Fagundes RB, Meurer L, Edelweiss MI: P53 and Ki-67 overexpression in gastroesophageal reflux disease--Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma sequence. Dis Esophagus; 2009;22(7):588-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] P53 and Ki-67 overexpression in gastroesophageal reflux disease--Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma sequence.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a major risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (ACE).
  • This study aims to determine p53 protein and Ki-67 expression in esophageal mucosa of patients with GERD and study the correlation between these markers and the progression from normal squamous epithelium to esophagitis, columnar epithelium with or without intestinal metaplasia and ACE.
  • Those biopsies were classified into five groups: (i) G1 normal squamous epithelium (58);.
  • (iii) G3 columnar epitheliums without intestinal metaplasia (30);.
  • (iv) G4, columnar epitheliums with intestinal metaplasia (32); and (v) G5 ACEs (35).
  • Linear correlation between p53/Ki67 expression and the multistep progression from squamous epithelium to ACE was observed (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05).


8. Newbold RR, Jefferson WN, Padilla-Banks E: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol a at environmentally relevant doses adversely affects the murine female reproductive tract later in life. Environ Health Perspect; 2009 Jun;117(6):879-85
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  • Further, although not statistically different from the controls, prominent mesonephric (Wolffian) remnants and squamous metaplasia of the uterus, as well as vaginal adenosis, were present in BPA-treated mice, similar to lesions reported following DES treatment.
  • More severe pathologies observed in some BPA-treated animals included atypical hyperplasia and stromal polyps of the uterus; sarcoma of the uterine cervix; and mammary adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19590677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-9924
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; MLT3645I99 / bisphenol A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2702400
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; BPA / DES / carcinogenesis / development / diethylstilbestrol / endocrine disruptors / ovary / reproduction / toxicology / uterus
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9. Binato M, Kruel Schmidt M, Silveira Volkweis B, Behrend Silva Ribeiro G, Isabel Edelweiss M, Ricachenevsky Gurski R: Mouse model of diethylnitrosamine-induced gastric cancer. J Surg Res; 2008 Aug;148(2):152-7
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  • Stomachs were analyzed for normal histology; foveolar hyperplasia; gastritis; ulcer; adenoma; metaplasia; dysplasia; squamous-cell cancer (SCC); and adenocarcinoma (ACA).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemically induced. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemically induced. Diethylnitrosamine / adverse effects. Stomach Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 18456281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Nitrosamines; 3IQ78TTX1A / Diethylnitrosamine; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; X656TZ86DX / N'-nitrosonornicotine
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10. Oh DS, Demeester SR: Pathophysiology and treatment of Barrett's esophagus. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Aug 14;16(30):3762-72
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  • About 10%-15% of patients with GERD develop Barrett's esophagus, which can progress to adenocarcinoma, currently the most prevalent type of esophageal cancer.
  • The esophagus is normally lined by squamous mucosa, therefore, it is clear that for adenocarcinoma to develop, there must be a sequence of events that result in transformation of the normal squamous mucosa into columnar epithelium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Fundoplication. Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Gastroesophageal Reflux / physiopathology. Gastroesophageal Reflux / therapy. Humans. Laparoscopy. Metaplasia. Risk Reduction Behavior. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20698038.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2921087
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11. Dias Pereira A, Suspiro A, Chaves P: Cancer risk in Barrett's oesophagus. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;19(11):915-8
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  • )Barrett's oesophagus results from the replacement of the normal squamous lining of the oesophagus by a columnar epithelium.
  • It is the sole known premalignant condition for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The prerequisite of the presence of intestinal metaplasia for the diagnosis of Barrett's oesophagus, although widely accepted, is questioned by some authors.
  • How adenocarcinoma incidence is influenced by requiring or not intestinal metaplasia for Barrett's oesophagus diagnosis is unknown.
  • Data on adenocarcinoma incidence in short segments (<3 cm) are very scarce, but it is believed to be lower than in long segments.
  • Frequently, therapeutic intervention is performed when high-grade dysplasia is diagnosed, preventing progression to adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Disease Progression. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagoscopy. Humans. Incidence. Intestines / pathology. Metaplasia. Risk

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  • (PMID = 18049157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Hao J, Liu B, Yang CS, Chen X: Gastroesophageal reflux leads to esophageal cancer in a surgical model with mice. BMC Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul 23;9:59
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  • BACKGROUND: Esophago-gastroduodenal anastomosis with rats mimics the development of human Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma by introducing mixed reflux of gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus.
  • Therefore, a mouse model of esophageal adenocarcinoma is needed.
  • RESULTS: At week 20, we observed metaplasia in wild-type mice (5%, 1/20) and p53A135V mice (5.3%, 1/19).
  • At week 40, metaplasia was found in wild-type mice (16.2%, 6/37), p53A135V mice (4.8%, 2/42), and wild-type mice also receiving gastrectomy and iron (6.7%, 1/15).
  • Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma developed in INK4a/Arf+/- mice (7.1%, 1/14), and wild-type mice receiving gastrectomy and iron (21.4%, 3/14).
  • Among 13 wild-type mice which were given iron from week 40 to 80, twelve (92.3%) developed squamous cell carcinoma at week 80.
  • None of these mice developed esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgically induced gastroesophageal reflux produced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but not esophageal adenocarcinoma, in mice.
  • Dominant negative p53 mutation, heterozygous loss of INK4a/Arf, antacid treatment, iron supplementation, or gastrectomy failed to promote esophageal adenocarcinoma in these mice.
  • Further studies are needed in order to develop a mouse model of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19627616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES005022; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA75683; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA125804; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U56 CA092077
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2723127
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13. Szentpáli K, Széll M, Paszt A, Wolfárd A, Dobozy A, Németh I, Tiszlavicz L, Iván L, Boros M: Simultaneous adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma with different phenotypic profiles in a rat model of chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Dis Esophagus; 2007;20(4):305-10
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  • [Title] Simultaneous adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma with different phenotypic profiles in a rat model of chronic gastroesophageal reflux.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence of duodeno-gastroesophageal reflux-induced malignant transformation in a series of duodeno-esophageal anastomosis operations in rats.
  • Thirty weeks of duodeno-gastroesophageal reflux disease significantly increased the risk of the development of Barrett's esophagus, and reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma formation was evident in four animals.
  • In one of these particular cases, a superficial squamous cell cancer was noted in close vicinity to the adenocarcinoma formation.
  • The immunophenotypes revealed cyclin D1 expression (nuclear positivity in 35% of all the squamous cells), p53 protein accumulation (50% nuclear positivity), with a low expression of cox-2, and negative c-erbB2 staining in the squamous carcinoma cells.
  • The specialized intestinal metaplasia and mucinous adenocarcinoma cells exhibited exclusively diffuse cox-2 positivity (90% of all glandular cells) and weak focal c-erbB2 (5%) staining, without cyclin D1 expression or p53 protein accumulation.


14. Chang D, Wang TY, Wei JC, Song JX, Jiao GG: [Surgical treatment of primary esophageal adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May 15;45(10):681-3
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of primary esophageal adenocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the surgical treatment and clinical bio-characteristics of primary esophageal adenocarcinoma (PEAC).
  • Twelve cases (27.9%) were in the middle 1/3 of esophagus, thirty-one cases (72.1%) in the lower 1/3, which were significantly different from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
  • Fourteen cases were pure esophageal adenocarcinoma (32.6%), twenty-nine cases were adenosquamous cell carcinoma and adenoacanthoma cell carcinoma (67.4%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ESCC, PEAC, mainly located in the inferior 1/3 of esophagus, is a malignant disease with higher frequency of lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis.
  • Early diagnosis and early treatment as well as curative operation could improve prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17688820.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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15. Ling FC, Khochfar J, Baldus SE, Brabender J, Drebber U, Bollschweiler E, Hoelscher AH, Schneider PM: HIF-1alpha protein expression is associated with the environmental inflammatory reaction in Barrett's metaplasia. Dis Esophagus; 2009;22(8):694-9
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  • [Title] HIF-1alpha protein expression is associated with the environmental inflammatory reaction in Barrett's metaplasia.
  • Squamous epithelium (SE), metaplastic, low- and high-grade dysplastic lesions, and tumor tissue of 57 resection specimens from patients with Barrett's adenocarcinoma were immunohistochemically analyzed.
  • HIF-1alpha protein expression increased significantly from SE to Barrett's metaplasia (BM) (P < 0.0001).
  • From metaplasia through low- and high-grade dysplasia to cancer, no further increase could be detected.
  • All were significantly increased in metaplasia compared to SE without further change in tumor development.

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  • (PMID = 19302222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
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16. Kitahara S, Ito T, Hamatani S, Shibuya K, Shiba T: Thyroid papillary carcinoma recurring as squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(2):171-4
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  • [Title] Thyroid papillary carcinoma recurring as squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case.
  • We report a case of local squamous cell carcinoma recurrence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, 4 years after subtotal thyroidectomy, in an 82-year-old woman.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the recurrent tumor revealed atypical squamous epithelium-like cells with keratinization.
  • The tumor was judged cytologically to be class III, defined as a suspicious malignancy and, after reoperation, it was diagnosed histopathologically as papillary carcinoma recurrence with extensive squamous metaplasia.
  • The recurrent papillary carcinoma was thought to have changed to a squamous cell carcinoma because most of the tumor was occupied by atypical squamous cells, with a small amount of glandular tissue.
  • It contained numerous tall neoplastic cells with eosinophilic granules and pseudostratified nuclei, indicating that it could potentially transform into squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We report this case as an example of how squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid can develop.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16440166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Arafa M, Boniver J, Delvenne P: Detection of HPV-induced cervical (pre) neoplastic lesions: a tissue microarray (TMA) study. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 Oct;16(5):422-32
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  • For these reasons, a continuous effort is still needed to discover surrogate markers, which could support the final diagnosis.
  • Archival biopsies of normal ectocervical and endocervical tissues, squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma in situ, and adenocarcinoma were retrieved to perform a tissue microarray (TMA).
  • In situ hybridization signals suggesting integrated viral physical status predominated in CIN II/III, squamous cell carcinoma, and glandular (pre) neoplastic lesions.
  • Involucrin positivity was better appreciated in well-differentiated diagnostic entities (ectocervix, mature metaplasia, and CIN I).


18. Leeuwenburgh I, Haringsma J, Van Dekken H, Scholten P, Siersema PD, Kuipers EJ: Long-term risk of oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal cancer in achalasia patients. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl; 2006;(243):7-10
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  • Stasis and fermentation can also lead to inflammation of the oesophageal mucosa, giving rise to hyperplasia of the epithelium, multifocal dysplasia and in some patients eventually squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Although it is generally accepted that achalasia is a pre-malignant disorder, the reported increased risk of patients with achalasia developing a squamous cell carcinoma varies from 0 to 140 times that of the normal population.
  • In addition, achalasia may predispose to Barrett's metaplasia and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which have been described in case reports after myotomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Humans. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16782616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0085-5928
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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19. Pearson HB, Phesse TJ, Clarke AR: K-ras and Wnt signaling synergize to accelerate prostate tumorigenesis in the mouse. Cancer Res; 2009 Jan 01;69(1):94-101
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  • Concomitant with elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, PBCre(+)K-ras(+/V12) mice developed AH at 100 days (100% incidence) and low-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma (60% and 7% incidence) by 500 days.
  • PBCre(+)Catnb(+/lox(ex3)) mice showed reduced longevity (average 428 days) and were predisposed to PIN-like keratinized squamous metaplasia at 100 days (100% incidence) and adenocarcinoma (100% incidence) at end-point.
  • Notably, expression of the basal cell marker p63 negatively correlated with tumor grade, resembling human prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Animals. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Female. Genes, ras. Inbreeding. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Male. Metaplasia. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Urogenital System / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19117991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0301154
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, mouse; 0 / Myc protein, mouse; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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20. Gaddam S, Sharma P: Advances in endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of Barrett's esophagus. J Dig Dis; 2010 Dec;11(6):323-33
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  • [Title] Advances in endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of Barrett's esophagus.
  • Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as abnormal specialized columnar metaplasia with intestinalization in place of the normal squamous esophageal epithelium.
  • Patients with high grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer have a high rate of progression to invasive adenocarcinoma and traditionally these patients were treated with esophagectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Barrett Esophagus. Endoscopy, Digestive System / trends. Esophageal Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 21091894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of digestive diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dig Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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21. Muldoon TJ, Anandasabapathy S, Maru D, Richards-Kortum R: High-resolution imaging in Barrett's esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope. Gastrointest Endosc; 2008 Oct;68(4):737-44
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  • BACKGROUND: This report describes the clinical evaluation of a novel, low-cost, high-resolution endoscopic microscope for obtaining fluorescent images of the cellular morphology of the epithelium of regions of the esophagus with Barrett's metaplasia.
  • PATIENTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The tissue samples studied in this report were obtained by endoscopic resection from patients with previous diagnoses of either high-grade dysplasia or esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Three distinct tissue types were observed ex vivo with the endoscopic microscope: normal squamous mucosa, Barrett's metaplasia, and high-grade dysplasia.
  • Squamous tissue was identified by bright nuclei surrounded by dark cytoplasm in an ordered pattern.
  • Barrett's metaplasia could be identified by large glandular structures with intact nuclear polarity.

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  • (PMID = 18926182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB007594-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103830; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA103830-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK56338; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB007594-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK056338; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA103830; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB007594; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB002179
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS187221; NLM/ PMC2869299
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22. Li CP, Goto A, Watanabe A, Murata K, Ota S, Niki T, Aburatani H, Fukayama M: AKR1B10 in usual interstitial pneumonia: expression in squamous metaplasia in association with smoking and lung cancer. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(5):295-304
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  • [Title] AKR1B10 in usual interstitial pneumonia: expression in squamous metaplasia in association with smoking and lung cancer.
  • AKR1B10 (aldo-keto reductase 1B10) is frequently overexpressed in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in smokers.
  • AKR1B10 immunoreactivity was confined to squamous metaplasia in honeycomb lesions of UIP and neoplastic cells of LC.
  • Squamous metaplastic foci showed AKR1B10 immunoreactivity more frequently in UIP with LC (24/36 foci, 67%) than in UIP without LC (16/44 foci, 37%) (P<0.01).
  • AKR1B10 expression in UIP was also more frequent in squamous metaplastic foci in smokers (38/67 foci, 57%) than in non-smokers (2/13 foci, 15%) (P<0.01).
  • Ki-67 labeling index was significantly higher in AKR1B10-positive squamous metaplasia of UIP than in AKR1B10-negative squamous metaplasia of UIP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Aldehyde Reductase / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Respiratory Mucosa / enzymology. Smoking / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Japan. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis


23. Montgomery E, Mamelak AJ, Gibson M, Maitra A, Sheikh S, Amr SS, Yang S, Brock M, Forastiere A, Zhang S, Murphy KM, Berg KD: Overexpression of claudin proteins in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Mar;14(1):24-30
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  • [Title] Overexpression of claudin proteins in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions.
  • The authors identified upregulation of Claudins 3, 4, and 7 in gastric adenocarcinoma using Affymetrix U-133 oligonucleotide microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
  • While normal gastric mucosa lacked Claudin 3, 4, and 7 expression, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia showed these proteins.
  • The authors hypothesized that Claudins would be similarly overexpressed in Barrett's esophagus (BE)/adenocarcinoma.
  • IHC validation was performed using tissue microarrays constructed from esophageal resection specimens containing squamous (44 cases), gastric (40 cases), and non-dysplastic BE (16 cases), low-grade and high-grade dysplasia (16 and 26 cases), adenocarcinoma (58 cases), and nodal metastases (27 cases).
  • By IHC, Claudin 3 expression was 1+ in most (>95%) normal squamous or gastric tissues and 2+ to 4+ in more than 80% of high-grade dysplasia, adenocarcinoma, and metastases specimens.
  • Claudin 4 protein expression was 2+ or less in most squamous and gastric mucosa (>90%) but 3+ or 4+ in BE, low- and high-grade dysplasia, adenocarcinoma, and metastases specimens (>90%).
  • Claudin 7 expression was minimal in squamous and gastric mucosa but strong (3+ to 4+) in BE and low-grade dysplasia.
  • In high-grade dysplasia, adenocarcinoma, and metastases, Claudin 7 was less intense, with 60% to 70% staining 3+ or 4+ and 30% to 40% staining weakly (1+ or 2+).
  • The findings suggest that alterations in Claudin proteins are an early event in tumorigenesis and may provide targets for diagnosis and directed therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursors.

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  • (PMID = 16540726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / CLDN7 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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24. Castillo CM, Ha CY, Gater DR, Grob BM, Klausner AP: Prophylactic radical cystectomy for the management of keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder in a man with tetraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med; 2007;30(4):389-91
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  • [Title] Prophylactic radical cystectomy for the management of keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder in a man with tetraplegia.
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To report a case of keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder treated with radical cystectomy.
  • METHODS: Keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder is a rare entity that can result from chronic irritative stimuli involving the bladder.
  • It is considered a premalignant condition associated with invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A case report is presented describing the diagnosis and management of keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder in a tetraplegic man with a chronic indwelling urinary catheter.
  • RESULTS: Radical cystectomy with an Indiana continent reservoir was performed after cystoscopy with biopsy confirmed keratinizing squamous metaplasia.
  • Final pathology revealed focal erosion and diffuse keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder with prostatic adenocarcinoma as an incidental finding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with spinal cord injury who use indwelling catheters for bladder management are at higher risk of developing keratinizing squamous metaplasia.
  • Prophylactic cystectomy is sometimes warranted; however, observation and frequent cystoscopic surveillance to identify potential malignant transformation can be an alternative strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Cystectomy / methods. Quadriplegia / complications. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / etiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17853664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-0268
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of spinal cord medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Spinal Cord Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2031939
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25. Amălinei C, Balan R, Stolnicu S, Rădulescu D, Boeru C, Cotuţiu C: Adenosquamous cervical carcinoma morphological characteristics. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2005 Apr-Jun;109(2):343-6
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  • Adenosquamous carcinomas range between 5-25% of cervical cancers and are composed by an admixture of malignant squamous and glandular elements.
  • Differential diagnosis with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix with squamous metaplasia was made.
  • 93.33% of cases exhibited a poorly differentiated squamous component and 66.66% of cases exhibited a well differentiated glandular component.
  • Squamous intraepithelial lesions in overlying epithelium was observed in 4 cases (26.66%).
  • Our study concluded the occurrence of adenosquamous cervical carcinomas at a similar age with squamous cervical carcinomas in the investigated group of patients.
  • Although, we registered a degree of variability in grading of the two components, with a tendency of squamous component toward poorly differentiated aspect and a slightly dominant aspect of well differentiated glandular pattern.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies


26. Talvensaari-Mattila A, Soini Y, Santala M: VEGF and its receptors (flt-1 and KDR/flk-1) as prognostic indicators in endometrial carcinoma. Tumour Biol; 2005 Mar-Apr;26(2):81-7
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  • The series consisted of 115 endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma patients with FIGO stage I-IV.
  • Additionally, samples from 3 patients with adenoacanthoma and 12 patients with poor prognostic variants of endometrial carcinoma were examined.
  • The median follow-up time of patients with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma was 87 months.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 15867479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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27. Bobryshev YV, Freeman AK, Botelho NK, Tran D, Levert-Mignon AJ, Lord RV: Expression of the putative stem cell marker Musashi-1 in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Dis Esophagus; 2010 Sep;23(7):580-9
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  • [Title] Expression of the putative stem cell marker Musashi-1 in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Cancer stem cells have been identified in several solid tumors, but stem cells in normal human esophagus or in Barrett's esophagus or adenocarcinoma have not been reported.
  • The present study investigated whether Musashi-1 is expressed in the esophagus and its relation to immune inflammation of the mucosa in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Of these, 15 were esophageal adenocarcinoma, 17 were Barrett's esophagus (10 intestinal metaplasia and 7 dysplasia), and 9 were normal squamous esophagus tissue specimens from patients without esophageal pathology.
  • Musashi-1 expression was present in Barrett's intestinal metaplasia and in dysplastic Barrett's in which the majority of epithelial cells in individual glands expressed this antigen.
  • Expression of Musashi-1 was highest in esophageal adenocarcinoma, where it was most intense in glands that displayed features of early stages of adenocarcinoma formation.
  • In contrast, Musashi-1 staining level was weaker in glands that displayed features of advanced adenocarcinoma.
  • Musashi-1 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in normal esophagus or Barrett's esophagus tissues.
  • Dendritic cell-specific intercellular molecule-3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) mRNA expression levels were significantly increased in both Barrett's tissues and adenocarcinoma tissues.
  • Expression of the putative stem cell marker Musashi-1 is absent in normal squamous epithelium, weak in esophageal cardiac-type glands and Barrett's esophagus, and markedly increased in adenocarcinoma, especially in glands displaying features of early cancer development.
  • Musashi-1 expressing cells may be significant in the etiology of Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma, and perhaps even a cell of origin for this disease.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.
  • (PMID = 20459440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MSI1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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28. Chlumská A, Boudová L, Benes Z, Zámecník M: Histopathologic changes in gastroesophageal reflux disease. A study of 126 bioptic and autoptic cases. Cesk Patol; 2007 Oct;43(4):142-7
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  • The histologic diagnosis of reflux esophagitis is still complicated by the lack of a consensus opinion on what is the normal mucosa in the area of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ).
  • Most authors consider GEJ as the junction between the squamous and the cardiac epithelium.
  • In 17 cases, CM displayed intestinal metaplasia (IM) predominantly of incomplete type and no dysplasia.
  • In one specimen of esophagus resected for adenocarcinoma, CM with incomplete IM was found in the vicinity of the tumor.
  • Squamous metaplastic epithelium was often seen near the orifices of submucosal esophageal glands in these areas, indicating the metaplastic nature of the glandular mucosa in the distal esophagus.


29. da Rocha JR, Ribeiro U Jr, Sallum RA, Szachnowicz S, Cecconello I: Barrett's esophagus (BE) and carcinoma in the esophageal stump (ES) after esophagectomy with gastric pull-up in achalasia patients: a study based on 10 years follow-up. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2903-9
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  • RESULTS: The incidence of esophagitis in the esophageal stump (45.9% at 1 year; 71.9% at 5 years, and 70.0% at 10 years follow-up); gastritis in the transposed stomach (20.4% at 1 year, 31.0% at 5 years, and 40.0% at 10 or more years follow-up), and the occurrence of ectopic columnar metaplasia and Barrett's Esophagus in the ES (none until 1 year; 10.9% between 1 and 5 years; 29.5% between 5 and 10 years; and 57.5% at 10 or more years follow-up), all rose over time.
  • Esophageal stump cancer was detected in the setting of chronic esophagitis in five patients: three squamous cell carcinomas and two adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSION:.
  • (1) Esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus in the esophageal stump rose over time. (2) These mucosal alterations and the development of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are probably due to exposure to duodenogastric reflux, and progressively higher acid output in the transposed stomach.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Duodenogastric Reflux / complications. Duodenogastric Reflux / pathology. Duodenogastric Reflux / surgery. Esophagitis / etiology. Esophagitis / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastroesophageal Reflux / pathology. Gastroesophageal Reflux / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies


30. Burjonrappa SC, Reddimasu S, Nawaz Z, Gao X, Sharma P, Loggie B: Mucin expression profile in Barrett's, dysplasia, adenocarcinoma sequence in the esophagus. Indian J Cancer; 2007 Jan-Mar;44(1):1-5
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  • [Title] Mucin expression profile in Barrett's, dysplasia, adenocarcinoma sequence in the esophagus.
  • BACKGROUND: The molecular events that accompany the progression to adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the esophagus are poorly understood.
  • RESULTS: Only mild superficial staining of MUC1 was seen in normal squamous epithelium.
  • MUC1 expression was upregulated (7/7) in progression to adenocarcinoma (P=0.008).
  • Upregulation of MUC2 reflects intestinal metaplasia in BE.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Barrett Esophagus / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophagus / metabolism. Mucins / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Mucin 5AC. Mucin-1. Mucin-2. Mucin-6. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17401217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / MUC6 protein, human; 0 / Muc2 protein, mouse; 0 / Muc5ac protein, mouse; 0 / Muc6 protein, mouse; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucin-6; 0 / Mucins
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31. De Roover A, Honoré P: Early esophageal and gastric cancers: surgery in the era of minimally invasive treatment. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 2006 Jul-Sep;69(3):312-6
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  • The expansion of this technique to deeper lesions or to lesions developed on a background of metaplasia is associated with an increased morbidity and significant risk of recurrence as well as a lifelong, close endoscopic surveillance.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17168129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3227
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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32. Ogawa E, Okuyama R, Egawa T, Nagoshi H, Tagami H, Ikawa S, Aiba S: Ectopic expression of the p53 homologue p63 is linked to squamous metaplasia in extramammary Paget's disease with invasive adenocarcinoma. Histopathology; 2009 Feb;54(3):378-81
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  • [Title] Ectopic expression of the p53 homologue p63 is linked to squamous metaplasia in extramammary Paget's disease with invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Genitalia, Male / pathology. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19236517.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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33. Kimchi ET, Posner MC, Park JO, Darga TE, Kocherginsky M, Karrison T, Hart J, Smith KD, Mezhir JJ, Weichselbaum RR, Khodarev NN: Progression of Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the suppression of the transcriptional programs of epidermal differentiation. Cancer Res; 2005 Apr 15;65(8):3146-54
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  • [Title] Progression of Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the suppression of the transcriptional programs of epidermal differentiation.
  • We did expressional profiling on 24 paired samples of normal esophageal epithelium, Barrett's metaplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinomas.
  • Matching tissue samples representing the three different histologic types were obtained from each patient undergoing esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma.
  • Our analysis compared the molecular changes accompanying the transformation of normal squamous epithelium with Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma in individual patients rather than in a random cohort.
  • We tested the hypothesis that expressional profiling may reveal gene sets that can be used as molecular markers of progression from normal esophageal epithelium to Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma.
  • The final selection of 214 genes permitted the discrimination of differential gene expression of normal esophageal squamous epithelium, Barrett's esophagus, and adenocarcinoma using two-dimensional hierarchical clustering of selected genes.
  • These data indicate that transformation of Barrett's esophagus to adenocarcinoma is associated with suppression of the genes involved in epidermal differentiation, including genes in 1q21 loci and corresponding to the epidermal differentiation complex.
  • Correlation analysis of genes concordantly expressed in Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma revealed 21 genes that represent potential genetic markers of disease progression and pharmacologic targets for treatment intervention.
  • PCR analysis of genes selected based on DNA array experiments revealed that estimation of the ratios of GATA6 to SPRR3 allows discrimination among normal esophageal epithelium, Barrett's dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Barrett Esophagus / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15833844.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 71933
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / SPRR3 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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34. Kazakov DV, Zelger B, Rütten A, Vazmitel M, Spagnolo DV, Kacerovska D, Vanecek T, Grossmann P, Sima R, Grayson W, Calonje E, Koren J, Mukensnabl P, Danis D, Michal M: Morphologic diversity of malignant neoplasms arising in preexisting spiradenoma, cylindroma, and spiradenocylindroma based on the study of 24 cases, sporadic or occurring in the setting of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 May;33(5):705-19
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  • [Title] Morphologic diversity of malignant neoplasms arising in preexisting spiradenoma, cylindroma, and spiradenocylindroma based on the study of 24 cases, sporadic or occurring in the setting of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.
  • The authors present a series of 24 malignant neoplasms arising in preexisting benign spiradenoma (20), cylindroma (2), and spiradenocylindroma (2).
  • Nineteen patients (12 females, 7 males; age range, 41 to 92 y) had a solitary neoplasm (size range, 2.2 to 17.5 cm; median 4 cm), whereas the remaining 5 (4 females, 1 male; age range, 66 to 72 y) manifested clinical features of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS), an autosomal dominantly inherited disease characterized by widespread, small, benign neoplasms on which background larger malignant lesions appeared.
  • The malignant components of the lesions were variable and could be classified into 4 main patterns, occurring alone or in combination:.
  • 1) salivary gland type basal cell adenocarcinoma-like pattern, low-grade (BCAC-LG);.
  • 2) salivary gland type basal cell adenocarcinoma-like pattern, high-grade (BCAC-HG);.
  • 3) invasive adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (IAC-NOS); and 4) sarcomatoid (metaplastic) carcinoma.
  • In 1 case of IAC-NOS, an in situ adenocarcinoma was also found, presumed to have evolved from an adjacent adenomatous and atypical adenomatous component.
  • Cases harboring a sarcomatoid carcinoma featured a malignant epithelial component composed of varying combinations of BCAC-HG, BCAC-LG, IAC-NOS, or squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the sarcomatoid component appeared as either a pleomorphic or spindle-cell sarcoma.
  • The histologic pattern of the malignant neoplasm correlated to some extent with the clinical course.
  • Given the morphologic diversity and complexity of the neoplasms in question, we propose using a more specific terminology with the precise description of the neoplasm components, rather than generic and less informative terms such as "spiradenocarcinoma" or "carcinoma ex cylindroma. "
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Australia. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16. Europe. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. South Africa. Syndrome. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


35. Callacondo D, Ganoza-Salas A, Anicama-Lima W, Quispe-Mauricio A, Longacre TA: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach with paraneoplastic leukocytosis: a case report and review of literature. Hum Pathol; 2009 Oct;40(10):1494-8
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  • [Title] Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach with paraneoplastic leukocytosis: a case report and review of literature.
  • Apparently pure, primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach is exceedingly rare.
  • Here, we describe a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma arising in the gastric antrum of an 83-year-old man with persistent leukocytosis, which resolved on resection of the tumor.
  • No foci of squamous metaplasia or gland-forming elements were identified in the resection specimen, although there was marked chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia.
  • This case suggests that gastric squamous cell carcinoma likely arises in the setting of long-standing, chronic inflammation, and like squamous cell carcinoma in other organ systems, may be associated with paraneoplastic leukocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Leukocytosis / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged, 80 and over. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Hum Pathol. 2010 Feb;41(2):307. Callacondo-Riva, David [corrected to Callacondo, David]
  • (PMID = 19467693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Lantuejoul S, Raynaud C, Salameire D, Gazzeri S, Moro-Sibilot D, Soria JC, Brambilla C, Brambilla E: Telomere maintenance and DNA damage responses during lung carcinogenesis. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Jun 1;16(11):2979-88
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  • As their inactivation in cancer increases genetic instability, our objective was to identify the chronology of telomere machinery critical events for malignant progression.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have evaluated telomere length by fluorescence in situ hybridization and analyzed DDR proteins p-CHK2, p-ATM, and p-H2AX, and telomeric maintenance proteins TRF1 and TRF2 expression by immunohistochemistry in normal bronchial/bronchiolar epithelium, and in 109 bronchial preneoplastic lesions, in comparison with 32 squamous invasive carcinoma (SCC), and in 27 atypical alveolar hyperplasia (AAH) in comparison with 6 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS; formerly bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma) and 24 invasive adenocarcinoma (ADC).
  • RESULTS: Telomere length critically shortened at bronchial metaplasia stage to increase gradually from dysplasia to invasive SCC; in bronchiolo-alveolar lesions, telomere length decreased from normal to AIS and increased from stage I to II to stage III to IV ADC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / genetics. DNA Damage. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Telomere / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Checkpoint Kinase 2. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Disease Progression. Histones / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Lung / metabolism. Lung / pathology. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 1 / metabolism. Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20404006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / H2AFX protein, human; 0 / Histones; 0 / TERF2 protein, human; 0 / Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 1; 0 / Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.11 / Checkpoint Kinase 2; EC 2.7.11.1 / ATM protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / CHEK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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37. Gomes LI, Esteves GH, Carvalho AF, Cristo EB, Hirata R Jr, Martins WK, Marques SM, Camargo LP, Brentani H, Pelosof A, Zitron C, Sallum RA, Montagnini A, Soares FA, Neves EJ, Reis LF: Expression profile of malignant and nonmalignant lesions of esophagus and stomach: differential activity of functional modules related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. Cancer Res; 2005 Aug 15;65(16):7127-36
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  • [Title] Expression profile of malignant and nonmalignant lesions of esophagus and stomach: differential activity of functional modules related to inflammation and lipid metabolism.
  • Whereas intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa is associated with higher risk of malignization, Barrett's disease is a risk factor for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.
  • Barrett's disease is characterized by the substitution of the squamous mucosa of the esophagus by a columnar tissue classified histopathologically as intestinal metaplasia.
  • Using cDNA microarrays, we determined the expression profile of normal gastric and esophageal mucosa as well as intestinal metaplasia and adenocarcinomas from both organs.
  • Data were explored to define functional alterations related to the transformation from squamous to columnar epithelium and the malignant transformation from intestinal metaplasia to adenocarcinomas.
  • Based on their expression profile, adenocarcinomas of the esophagus showed stronger correlation with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach than with Barrett's mucosa.
  • Whereas the lipid metabolism module is active in samples representing intestinal metaplasia and inactive in adenocarcinomas, the cytokine module is inactive in samples representing normal esophagus and esophagitis.
  • Exploitation of the data presented herein will help in the precise molecular characterization of adenocarcinoma from the distal esophagus, avoiding the topographical and descriptive classification that is currently adopted, and help with the proper management of patients with Barrett's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Lipid Metabolism. Stomach Neoplasms / genetics. Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16103062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines
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38. Chandrasoma P: Controversies of the cardiac mucosa and Barrett's oesophagus. Histopathology; 2005 Apr;46(4):361-73
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  • Confusion regarding the diagnosis of Barrett's oesophagus exists because of a false dogma that cardiac mucosa is normally present in the gastro-oesophageal junctional region.
  • Recent data indicate that the only normal epithelia in the oesophagus and proximal stomach are squamous epithelium and gastric oxyntic mucosa.
  • When this fact is recognized, it becomes easy to develop precise histological definitions for the normal state (presence of only squamous and oxyntic mucosa), metaplastic oesophageal columnar epithelium (cardiac mucosa with and without intestinal metaplasia, and oxynto-cardiac mucosa), the gastro-oesophageal junction (the proximal limit of gastric oxyntic mucosa), the oesophagus (that part of the foregut lined by squamous and metaplastic columnar epithelium), reflux disease (the presence of metaplastic columnar epithelium), and Barrett's oesophagus (cardiac mucosa with intestinal metaplasia).
  • It is also possible to assess accurately the severity of reflux which is directly proportional to the amount of metaplastic columnar epithelium, and the risk of adenocarcinoma which is related to the amount of dysplasia in intestinal metaplastic epithelium present within the columnar lined segment of the oesophagus.
  • Histopathological precision cannot be matched by any other modality and can convert the confusion that exists regarding diagnosis of Barrett's oesophagus to complete lucidity in a manner that is simple, accurate, and reproducible.
  • [MeSH-minor] Esophagogastric Junction / pathology. Humans. Metaplasia

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  • [CommentIn] Histopathology. 2006 Jul;49(1):97-8; author reply 98 [16842257.001]
  • (PMID = 15810947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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39. Quaroni L, Casson AG: Characterization of Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma by Fourier-transform infrared microscopy. Analyst; 2009 Jun;134(6):1240-6
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  • [Title] Characterization of Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma by Fourier-transform infrared microscopy.
  • Matched histologically normal esophageal squamous epithelium (NS), premalignant Barrett esophagus (BE), and primary esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) tissues, each defined according to strict clinicopathologic criteria, were obtained from patients who underwent esophageal resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cluster Analysis. Goblet Cells / cytology. Goblet Cells / pathology. Humans. Intestines / pathology. Light. Metaplasia / pathology. Microscopy. Synchrotrons

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  • (PMID = 19475154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5528
  • [Journal-full-title] The Analyst
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Analyst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Dietz J, Chaves-E-Silva S, Meurer L, Sekine S, de Souza AR, Meine GC: Short segment Barrett's esophagus and distal gastric intestinal metaplasia. Arq Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr-Jun;43(2):117-20
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  • [Title] Short segment Barrett's esophagus and distal gastric intestinal metaplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Short segment Barrett's esophagus is defined by the presence of <3 cm of columnar-appearing mucosa in the distal esophagus with intestinal metaplasia on histophatological examination.
  • Barrett's esophagus is a risk factor to develop adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.
  • While Barrett's esophagus develops as a result of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, intestinal metaplasia in the gastric cardia is a consequence of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and is associated with distal gastric intestinal metaplasia.
  • It can be difficult to determine whether short-segment columnar epithelium with intestinal metaplasia are lining the esophagus (a condition called short segment Barrett's esophagus) or the proximal stomach (a condition called intestinal metaplasia of the gastric cardia).
  • AIMS: To study the association of short segment Barrett's esophagus (length <3 cm) with gastric intestinal metaplasia (antrum or body) and infection by H. pylori.
  • Biopsies were obtained immediately below the squamous-columnar lining, from gastric antrum and gastric corpus for investigation of intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori.
  • RESULTS: Forty-two from 89 (47.2%) patients were diagnosed with esophageal intestinal metaplasia by histopathology.
  • The mean-age was significantly higher in the group with esophageal intestinal metaplasia.
  • Gastric intestinal metaplasia (antrum or body) was diagnosed in 21 from 42 (50.0%) patients in the group with esophageal intestinal metaplasia and 7 from 47 (14.9%) patients in the group with esophageal columnar appearing mucosa but without intestinal metaplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: Intestinal metaplasia is a frequent finding in patients with <3 cm of columnar-appearing mucosa in the distal esophagus.
  • In the present study, short segment intestinal metaplasia in the esophagus is associated with distal gastric intestinal metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cardia / pathology. Esophagoscopy. Female. Gastritis / microbiology. Gastritis / pathology. Humans. Male. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged


41. Bitar M, Mandel E, Kirschenbaum AM, Unger PD: Urinary bladder adenocarcinoma arising in a spina bifida patient. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Dec;11(6):453-6
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  • [Title] Urinary bladder adenocarcinoma arising in a spina bifida patient.
  • Intestinal metaplasia of the urothelium indicates the presence of intestinal-type goblet cells and was generally observed to coexist with or to precede the diagnosis of bladder adenocarcinomas.
  • Controversy continues of whether intestinal metaplasia is an acquired precancerous lesion, secondary to different insults to the urothelium, or a concomitant lesion in glandular carcinogenesis.
  • Patients with neurogenic bladders are particularly at risk for developing bladder cancer, mostly squamous cell carcinoma and rarely adenocarcinoma.
  • Spina bifida is a congenital developmental abnormality that may result in neurogenic bladder.
  • There is only one previously reported case of urothelial carcinoma with associated squamous metaplasia of the bladder occurring in a spina bifida patient.
  • We report the first case of bladder adenocarcinoma associated with intestinal metaplasia occurring in a spina bifida occulta patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Spinal Dysraphism / complications. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / complications. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestines / pathology. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / complications

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  • (PMID = 18022132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Dumot JA, Vargo JJ 2nd, Falk GW, Frey L, Lopez R, Rice TW: An open-label, prospective trial of cryospray ablation for Barrett's esophagus high-grade dysplasia and early esophageal cancer in high-risk patients. Gastrointest Endosc; 2009 Oct;70(4):635-44
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  • (1) incremental = absence of HGD and IMCA in all biopsy specimens, (2) partial = residual IMCA with absence of any dysplasia, and (3) complete = absence of any intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Barrett Esophagus / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cryosurgery / methods. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy


43. Sato F, Meltzer SJ: CpG island hypermethylation in progression of esophageal and gastric cancer. Cancer; 2006 Feb 1;106(3):483-93
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  • The upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers have various carcinogenic pathways and precursor lesions, such as dysplasia for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, Barrett esophagus for esophageal adenocarcinoma, and intestinal metaplasia for the intestinal-type of gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. CpG Islands / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • [ErratumIn] Cancer. 2006 Apr 1;106(7):1641
  • (PMID = 16362978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 138
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44. Ormeci N, Savas B, Coban S, Palabiyikoğlu M, Ensari A, Kuzu I, Kursun N: The usefulness of chromoendoscopy with methylene blue in Barrett's metaplasia and early esophageal carcinoma. Surg Endosc; 2008 Mar;22(3):693-700
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  • [Title] The usefulness of chromoendoscopy with methylene blue in Barrett's metaplasia and early esophageal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus is a condition that is premalignant for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction.
  • Early detection of Barrett's metaplasia and dysplasia is very important to decrease the mortality and morbidity from esophageal adenocarcinoma cancer.
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of methylene blue-targeted biopsies in the differential diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and superficial esophageal carcinoma.
  • However, there was no statistical difference between the two methods in the diagnosis of esophagitis or esophageal carcinoma (p > 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagoscopy / methods. Methylene Blue. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 17704887.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
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45. Munro EG, Jain M, Oliva E, Kamal N, Lele SM, Lynch MP, Guo L, Fu K, Sharma P, Remmenga S, Growdon WB, Davis JS, Rueda BR, Batra SK: Upregulation of MUC4 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma: pathologic significance. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):127-33
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  • [Title] Upregulation of MUC4 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma: pathologic significance.
  • We sought to determine whether MUC4 expression differs between benign and malignant cervical tissue.
  • Fifty-eight patients with benign, dysplastic, or malignant cervical pathology were identified retrospectively, and representative sections were stained with a mouse monoclonal anti-MUC4 antibody.
  • Semiquantitative analysis was performed on benign, dysplastic, and malignant regions by scoring staining intensity (0: negative, 1: weak, 2: moderate, and 3: strong) and distribution (focal <10%, multifocal=10%-60%, diffuse > or =60%).
  • In samples with benign glycogenated squamous epithelium, only the parabasal cells had MUC4 staining, and 48.5% had an intensity of 2 or 3.
  • All samples with immature squamous metaplasia were positive through the entire epithelial thickness.
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 samples had variable staining with an intensity similar to glycogenated squamous epithelium but distribution similar to squamous metaplasia.
  • All CIN 3 (n=21) and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (n=17) had increased MUC4 staining intensity (P<0.001 and P<0.001) and increased diffuse staining (P<0.001 and P<0.001) compared with the limited staining in glycogenated squamous epithelium.
  • In contrast, no differences in staining were observed between benign endocervical glands, adenocarcinoma in situ, and invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • These expression patterns suggest that MUC4 is a lineage marker in benign cervical tissue that may have aberrant expression in squamous dysplasia and carcinoma.
  • Further studies may elucidate the role of MUC4 in the development of squamous cell cervical cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19188823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078590-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78590
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC4 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS228381; NLM/ PMC2932462
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46. Li M, Anastassiades CP, Joshi B, Komarck CM, Piraka C, Elmunzer BJ, Turgeon DK, Johnson TD, Appelman H, Beer DG, Wang TD: Affinity peptide for targeted detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Gastroenterology; 2010 Nov;139(5):1472-80
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  • METHODS: Peptide selection was performed using phage display by removing nonspecific binders using Q-hTERT (intestinal metaplasia) cells and achieving specific binding against OE33 (esophageal adenocarcinoma) cells.
  • On esophageal specimens (n = 12), the fluorescence intensity (mean ± SEM) in 1-mm intervals classified histologically as squamous (n = 145), intestinal metaplasia (n = 83), dysplasia (n = 61), and gastric mucosa (n = 69) was 46.5 ± 1.6, 62.3 ± 5.8, 100.0 ± 9.0, and 42.4 ± 3.0 arb units, respectively.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20637198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA163059; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA163059-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA13642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA136429; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA136429-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Affinity Labels; 0 / Carrier Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS365874; NLM/ PMC3319360
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47. Pantanowitz L: Colonic adenoma with squamous metaplasia. Int J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;17(4):340-2
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  • [Title] Colonic adenoma with squamous metaplasia.
  • Squamous metaplasia arising within colon adenomas is a rare occurrence, with a 0.4% incidence noted predominantly in elderly males.
  • A case of squamous metaplasia arising in a tubulovillous adenoma of the cecum, associated with adenocarcinoma, is described.
  • Squamous metaplasia was immunoreactive for beta-catenin, but negative for cytokeratin 20, CDX2, p63, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p16, and human papilloma virus.
  • Squamous differentiation may serve as a precursor lesion for squamous neoplasia of the colorectum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Colectomy. Female. Humans. Metaplasia / pathology. Metaplasia / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. beta Catenin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18701516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / beta Catenin
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48. Lu S, Lowe AW, Triadafilopoulos G, Hsiung PL, Hao Y, Crawford JM, Wang TD: Endoscopic evaluation of esophago-gastro-jejunostomy in rat model of Barrett's esophagus. Dis Esophagus; 2009;22(4):323-30
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  • We aim to characterize the endoscopic features of esophageal mucosa at various stages of the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in a rat reflux model of Barrett's for comparison with histology.
  • (ii) intestinal metaplasia, defined as elevated plaques/ridges, deep grooves, and thin linear folds;.
  • The endoscopic criteria for intestinal metaplasia yielded a sensitivity of 100% in comparison with histology.
  • Intestinal metaplasia with high-grade dysplasia was found in two rats and with low-grade dysplasia in three rats.
  • Both focally invasive squamous cell carcinoma and invasive adenocarcinoma were found in one rat.
  • Small animal endoscopy in a rat model of Barrett's esophagus can be used to perform surveillance, classify mucosal patterns, observe the onset of intestinal metaplasia, and monitor the progression of neoplastic transformation, representing a useful tool for studying the natural history of this disease.

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  • (PMID = 19473210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA109988-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK56339; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK067618; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA105296-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK063624; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK067618-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA105296; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA109988; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA136429; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK056339-10; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK056339; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA136429-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK063624-09
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS247578; NLM/ PMC3221518
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49. Nash JW, Bhardwaj A, Wen P, Frankel WL: Maspin is useful in the distinction of pancreatic adenocarcinoma from chronic pancreatitis: a tissue microarray based study. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Mar;15(1):59-63
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  • [Title] Maspin is useful in the distinction of pancreatic adenocarcinoma from chronic pancreatitis: a tissue microarray based study.
  • Maspin expression has been documented using immunohistochemical studies in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and high-grade intraductal dysplasia.
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays made from 72 cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and 24 cases of chronic pancreatitis.
  • Diffuse and intense (3 +) staining was present in ducts with squamous metaplasia (3 cases).
  • Maspin may be helpful in differentiating ductal adenocarcinoma from chronic pancreatitis, once squamous metaplasia is ruled out.

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  • (PMID = 17536309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / SERPIN-B5; 0 / Serpins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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50. Georgescu CV, Săftoiu A, Georgescu CC, Ciurea R, Ciurea T: Correlations of proliferation markers, p53 expression and histological findings in colorectal carcinoma. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis; 2007 Jun;16(2):133-9
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  • The proliferative activity in the foci of squamous metaplasia was lower than the proliferative activity of malignant areas in the analyzed adenocarcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The foci of squamous metaplasia, present in colorectal adeno-carcinomas, do not seem to influence the increase of the tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17592558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1841-8724
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointestin Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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51. Kuramochi H, Uchida K, Peters JH, Shimizu D, Vallbohmer D, Schneider S, Danenberg KD, Danenberg PV: Loss of heterozygosity at thymidylate synthase locus in Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma sequences. BMC Cancer; 2009 May 21;9:157
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Loss of heterozygosity at thymidylate synthase locus in Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma sequences.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and timing of LOH at the TS locus in Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma (BA) and its precursory lesions, such as intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia.
  • Normal squamous tissue from the upper esophagus was taken as a control.

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  • (PMID = 19460136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA84424
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2694818
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52. Maezato K, Nishimaki T, Oshiro M, Yamashiro T, Sasaki H, Sashida Y: Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the esophagus associated with Barrett's epithelium: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(12):1096-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Histologically, the tumor was signet-ring cell carcinoma covered with normal squamous epithelium.
  • However, the most superficial part of the tumor center contained a region of Barrett's mucosa with incomplete-type intestinal metaplasia and a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma component with goblet cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Esophagectomy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male


53. Kim Y, Liu XS, Liu C, Smith DE, Russell RM, Wang XD: Induction of pulmonary neoplasia in the smoke-exposed ferret by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK): a model for human lung cancer. Cancer Lett; 2006 Mar 28;234(2):209-19
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  • The histopathological types of these tumors (squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) in ferret lungs are very similar to those in humans.
  • In addition, 10 out of 12 ferrets exposed to both NNK and cigarette smoke developed preneoplastic lesions (squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia) with complex growth patterns whereas the sham group did not show any of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Animals. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Precancerous Conditions / etiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15894421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK062032
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Nitrosamines; 64091-91-4 / 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone
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54. Colleypriest BJ, Farrant JM, Slack JM, Tosh D: The role of Cdx2 in Barrett's metaplasia. Biochem Soc Trans; 2010 Apr;38(2):364-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of Cdx2 in Barrett's metaplasia.
  • Metaplasia (or transdifferentiation) is defined as the transformation of one tissue type to another.
  • Clues to the molecular mechanisms that control the development of metaplasia are implied from knowledge of the transcription factors that specify tissue identity during normal embryonic development.
  • Barrett's metaplasia describes the development of a columnar/intestinal phenotype in the squamous oesophageal epithelium and is the major risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The homoeotic transcription factor Cdx2 (Caudal-type homeobox 2) has been implicated as a master switch gene for intestine and therefore for Barrett's metaplasia.
  • Loss of Cdx2 function, or conditional deletion in the intestine, results in replacement of intestinal cells with a stratified squamous phenotype.
  • In addition, Cdx2 is sufficient to provoke intestinal metaplasia in the stomach.
  • In the present paper, we review the evidence for the role of Cdx2 in the development of Barrett's metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Animals. CDX2 Transcription Factor. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Metaplasia / genetics. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 20298184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-8752
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical Society transactions
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Soc. Trans.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0300415; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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55. Wang DH, Clemons NJ, Miyashita T, Dupuy AJ, Zhang W, Szczepny A, Corcoran-Schwartz IM, Wilburn DL, Montgomery EA, Wang JS, Jenkins NA, Copeland NA, Harmon JW, Phillips WA, Watkins DN: Aberrant epithelial-mesenchymal Hedgehog signaling characterizes Barrett's metaplasia. Gastroenterology; 2010 May;138(5):1810-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aberrant epithelial-mesenchymal Hedgehog signaling characterizes Barrett's metaplasia.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: The molecular mechanism underlying epithelial metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus remains unknown.
  • Human esophageal squamous epithelial (HET-1A) and adenocarcinoma (OE33) cells were subjected to acid treatment and used in transfection experiments.
  • We further show that expression of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1, the human homologue of the columnar cell factor Hensin, occurs in Barrett's epithelium and is induced by SOX9.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20138038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123945-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA123945-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA123945-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA123945-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 1K23DK068149; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K23 DK068149; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123945-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32CA-123945; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA123945; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123945-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMP4 protein, human; 0 / Bmp4 protein, mouse; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4; 0 / DMBT1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / SOX9 Transcription Factor; 0 / SOX9 protein, human; 0 / Shh protein, mouse; 0 / Sox9 protein, mouse; 0 / patched receptors; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS176618; NLM/ PMC3422577
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56. Kamaté B, Traoré CB, Diallo D, Sacko R, Toure M, Keita B, Teguete B, Traore Y, Diarra MH, Ouattara AT, Traoré AC, Mariko H, Dembele Y, Togola B, Tall K, Sanogo A, Diané M, Kaloga I, Traoré M, Dolo AI, Bayo S: [Extension of cervix cancer screening by visual methods to the community health centres in the district of Bamako]. Mali Med; 2008;23(4):29-33
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  • At all 177 biopsies were done, and histological diagnosis were: 67 dysplasias, 3 early invasive carcinomas, 69 invasive carcinomas and 38 inflammatory metaplasic lesions or nonconclusives aspects.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Community Health Centers / organization & administration. Mass Screening / organization & administration. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetic Acid. Adult. Biopsy. Coloring Agents. Female. Health Services Accessibility. Hospitals, University / organization & administration. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Iodides. Mali / epidemiology. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Physical Examination. Prospective Studies. Staining and Labeling. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology. Uterine Cervicitis / diagnosis. Uterine Cervicitis / epidemiology


57. Abraham SC, Krasinskas AM, Correa AM, Hofstetter WL, Ajani JA, Swisher SG, Wu TT: Duplication of the muscularis mucosae in Barrett esophagus: an underrecognized feature and its implication for staging of adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Nov;31(11):1719-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Duplication of the muscularis mucosae in Barrett esophagus: an underrecognized feature and its implication for staging of adenocarcinoma.
  • Depth of invasion is one of the most important prognostic indicators in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Unlike other regions of the gastrointestinal tract, the esophagus in Barrett metaplasia frequently develops duplication of the muscularis mucosae (MM), but this feature is underrecognized, and its effect on appropriate staging of superficially invasive adenocarcinoma is unclear.
  • We first randomly selected 50 esophageal resections for high-grade dysplasia or T1 adenocarcinoma in Barrett esophagus (BE) to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of MM duplication for BE and its histologic characteristics, including percentage of the Barrett segment involved by MM duplication, origin of the duplicated muscle layer, and appearance of the tissue between duplicated MM.
  • Twenty esophageal resections for squamous cell carcinoma served as controls.
  • Next, to study the clinical significance of MM duplication, we evaluated 30 resections for BE that had superficial adenocarcinoma confined to regions of duplicated MM.
  • We observed MM duplication in 46 of 50 (92%) BE resections, involving 5% to >90% of the Barrett segment, in contrast to none in 20 (0%) resected squamous cell carcinoma, P<0.0001.
  • The outer MM was continuous with the single MM beneath squamous epithelium, suggesting that outer MM represents the "original" muscle layer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagus / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Dec;32(12):1913; author reply 1913-4 [18824891.001]
  • (PMID = 18059229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Cohen MC, Vergani P, Vigovich F, Thomson M, Taylor CJ, Hammond D: Investigation of genomic instability in paediatric Barrett's oesophagus using laser microdissection on paraffin-embedded endoscopic biopsies. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2007 Jul;45(1):44-9
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  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the occurrence of microsatellite instability (MSI) in paediatric Barrett's oesophagus (BE) with the aim of identifying a potential marker for patients at risk for developing dysplasia or adenocarcinoma at a later stage.
  • DNA extracted from a formalin-fixed colonic adenocarcinoma known to have MSI was used as a positive control.
  • Histologically, all of the cases showed the presence of specialized intestinal metaplasia containing goblet cells replacing the squamous oesophageal epithelium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A single molecular marker that would allow recognition of those patients at risk for Barrett's adenocarcinoma has not yet been identified.

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  • (PMID = 17592363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4801
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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59. Avilés A, Reymunde A, Santiago N: Balloon-based electrode for the ablation of non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus: ablation of intestinal metaplasia (AIM II Trial). Bol Asoc Med P R; 2006 Oct-Dec;98(4):270-5
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  • [Title] Balloon-based electrode for the ablation of non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus: ablation of intestinal metaplasia (AIM II Trial).
  • INTRODUCTION: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a condition in which an abnormal intestinal-type epithelium called specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM) replaces the stratified squamous epithelium that normally lines the distal esophagus.
  • This intestinal metaplasia predisposes patients to esophageal adenocarcinoma, the most rapidly rising tumor incidence over the last 30 years, with an annual incidence of 0.5% in patients with BE and a survival rate less than 10% in 5 years.
  • [MeSH-minor] Electrodes. Equipment Design. Esophagus / pathology. Esophagus / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19610568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-4849
  • [Journal-full-title] Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bol Asoc Med P R
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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60. Botelho NK, Schneiders FI, Lord SJ, Freeman AK, Tyagi S, Nancarrow DJ, Hayward NK, Whiteman DC, Lord RV: Gene expression alterations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Jul 15;10(2):172-9
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  • [Title] Gene expression alterations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues.
  • METHODS: mRNA was isolated from 54 FFPE small endoscopic biopsies from patients with Barrett intestinal metaplasia (BE), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), or control patients with a normal squamous-lined esophagus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Barrett Esophagus / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 20543560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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61. Schaffzin DM, Smith LE: Squamous-cell carcinoma developing after an ileoanal pouch procedure: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 May;48(5):1086-9
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma developing after an ileoanal pouch procedure: report of a case.
  • A suspicious mass was biopsied and pathology indicated squamous metaplasia.
  • Biopsy of the mass was read as invasive squamous carcinoma in the background of normal intestinal mucosa.
  • This represents the twelfth reported case of carcinoma arising in a pouch, but the first report of a squamous carcinoma, as all previous reports had been of adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Colonic Pouches / adverse effects. Ileal Neoplasms / etiology. Proctocolectomy, Restorative / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15933895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Agnese V, Cabibi D, Calcara D, Terrasi M, Pantuso G, Fiorentino E, Intrivici C, Colucci G, Aragona F, Gebbia N, Bazan V, Russo A: Aurora-A overexpression as an early marker of reflux-related columnar mucosa and Barrett's oesophagus. Ann Oncol; 2007 Jun;18 Suppl 6:vi110-5
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  • BACKGROUND: The development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is generally closely associated with the presence of a specialised intestinal-type epithelium such as that found in Barrett's oesophagus (BO).
  • A particular histological condition is when the distal oesophagus showing cardiac and/or fundic mucosa without intestinal metaplasia cannot be defined as 'Barrett's mucosa' [condition that we call 'columnar-lined oesophagus' (CLO)] and up till now, there has been no agreement in literature about the management of this condition.
  • As controls, two more biopsies were obtained, one on the normal-appearing squamous oesophagus above the GOJ, as far as possible from the columnar mucosa (controls A), and one taken 1 cm below the GOJ (controls B).

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  • (PMID = 17591802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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63. O'Neill CJ, McCluggage WG: p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Jan;13(1):8-15
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  • [Title] p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis.
  • In cervical squamous lesions, p16 is positive in most high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in some cases of low-grade CIN, usually those associated with high-risk HPV. p16 may be useful to identify small focal high-grade CIN lesions, to distinguish some cases of CIN involving immature metaplastic squamous epithelium from immature metaplastic squamous epithelium not involved by CIN and to distinguish high-grade CIN from benign mimics.
  • Most cervical carcinomas of squamous, glandular, and small cell type are p16-positive.
  • In cervical glandular lesions, p16 is useful, as part of a panel, in the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (diffusely positive) and benign mimics, including tuboendometrial metaplasia and endometriosis, which are usually p16-negative or focally positive. p16 may be used, in combination with other markers, to distinguish between a cervical adenocarcinoma (diffuse positivity) and an endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma (negative or focally positive).
  • Similarly, HPV-associated invasive squamous carcinomas are p16-positive, whereas the more common non-HPV-associated neoplasms are largely negative or focally positive.
  • In the uterus, p16 positivity is more common and widespread in leiomyosarcomas than leiomyomas, and this may be a useful aid to diagnosis, although problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms have not been extensively studied.
  • Metastatic cervical adenocarcinomas in the ovary are usually diffusely p16-positive, and because these may closely mimic a primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma, this may be a valuable diagnostic aid, although p16 expression in primary ovarian adenocarcinomas of these morphologic subtypes has not been widely investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Genes, p16. Genitalia, Female / chemistry. Genitalia, Female / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / chemistry. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16462152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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64. Räsänen JV, Sihvo EI, Ahotupa MO, Färkkilä MA, Salo JA: The expression of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in oesophageal tissues and tumours. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Dec;33(10):1164-8
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  • In the present study we investigated whether DNA damage linked to oxidative stress (as 8-OHdG) is present in Barrett's mucosa with or without associated adenocarcinoma or high-grade dysplasia and in normal controls' squamous mucosa.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We measured 8-OHdG in 51 patients (13 Barrett's metaplasia, six Barrett's oesophagus with high-grade dysplasia, 18 adenocarcinoma of the distal oesophagus/oesophagogastric junction and 14 normal controls).
  • RESULTS: Analysis revealed that 8-OHdG was present in both Barrett's metaplasia with and without dysplasia as well as in adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus/oesophagogastric junction.
  • Although the study group was small the amount of 8-OHdG was significantly increased in the distal oesophagus both in Barrett's epithelium 1.26 (0.08-29.47) and in high-grade dysplasia 1.35 (1.04-1.65) as well as in adenocarcinoma of oesophagus/oesophagogastric junction 1.08 (0.59-1.94) compared to controls 0.06 (0-4.08) (p=0.002, p=0.012, p=0.001, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the presence of oxidative DNA damage in the distal oesophagus of patients with Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus/oesophagogastric junction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Barrett Esophagus / metabolism. DNA Damage / physiology. Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophagus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17467227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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65. Cai JC, Liu D, Liu KH, Zhang HP, Zhong S, Xia NS: Microsatellite alterations in phenotypically normal esophageal squamous epithelium and metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jul 7;14(25):4070-6
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  • [Title] Microsatellite alterations in phenotypically normal esophageal squamous epithelium and metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.
  • AIM: To investigate the microsatellite alterations in phenotypically normal esophageal squamous epithelium and metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.
  • Histopathological assessment identified 23 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 18 adenocarcinomas (ADC), including only 8 ADC with Barrett esophageal columnar epithelium (metaplasia) and dysplasia adjacent to ADC.
  • Paraffin-embedded normal squamous epithelium, Barrett esophageal columnar epithelium (metaplasia), dysplasia and esophageal tumor tissues were dissected from the surrounding tissues under microscopic guidance.
  • The levels of MSI and LOH were high in the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence of diluted DNA.
  • CONCLUSION: The sequence of metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma is associated with microsatellite alterations, including MSI and LOH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Barrett Esophagus / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Esophagus / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Microsatellite Instability. Precancerous Conditions / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Genetic Markers. Genotype. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Metaplasia. Paraffin Embedding. Phenotype. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18609693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2725348
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66. Zeng Q, Zhang HP, Liu XS, Zhong N: [The role of biomarkers CK7, Vim and P53 in the development of subtypes of endometrial carcinoma]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao; 2005 Feb 18;37(1):81-4
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  • METHODS: Biomarkers CK7, Vim, and P53 were immunohistochemistry-stained among 131 endometrial carcinoma specimens including 93 endometroid, 8 adenoacanthoma, and 32 rare subtypes of adenosquamas carcinoma, clean cell carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma, which had been confirmed clinically and pathologically, and studied statistically with Fisher test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) Test.

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  • (PMID = 15719049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-167X
  • [Journal-full-title] Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vimentin
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67. Smith AK, Hansel DE, Jones JS: Role of cystitis cystica et glandularis and intestinal metaplasia in development of bladder carcinoma. Urology; 2008 May;71(5):915-8
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  • [Title] Role of cystitis cystica et glandularis and intestinal metaplasia in development of bladder carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: Cystitis cystica et glandularis (CCEG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) have been suggested to represent precursors of bladder adenocarcinoma.
  • The records and imaging findings of patients with a pathologic diagnosis of florid CCEG and/or IM were reviewed for a concurrent or future diagnosis of bladder carcinoma or pelvic lipomatosis.
  • Of the 117 patients with CCEG, a subset was identified with concurrent mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 1; <1%), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 4; 3%), or urothelial carcinoma (n = 34; 29%) at diagnosis.
  • Pure IM was identified concurrently with adenocarcinoma in 2 (10%), urothelial carcinoma in 4 (21%), and urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation in 1 (5%) of 19 patients.
  • Although IM can be associated with a concurrent diagnosis of carcinoma, we found no evidence that it increases the future risk of malignancy and our findings do not support a recommendation for surveillance cystoscopy in such patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Metaplasia / complications. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18455631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Gabrecht T, Glanzmann T, Freitag L, Weber BC, van den Bergh H, Wagnières G: Optimized autofluorescence bronchoscopy using additional backscattered red light. J Biomed Opt; 2007 Nov-Dec;12(6):064016
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Bronchi / pathology. Bronchoscopes. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Fluorescence. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Light. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Metaplasia / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Scattering, Radiation. Spectrometry, Fluorescence

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  • (PMID = 18163832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-3668
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Jin Z, Hamilton JP, Yang J, Mori Y, Olaru A, Sato F, Ito T, Kan T, Cheng Y, Paun B, David S, Beer DG, Agarwal R, Abraham JM, Meltzer SJ: Hypermethylation of the AKAP12 promoter is a biomarker of Barrett's-associated esophageal neoplastic progression. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Jan;17(1):111-7
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  • AKAP12 hypermethylation showed highly discriminative receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve profiles, clearly distinguishing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and normal esophagus (P < 0.0001).
  • AKAP12-normalized methylation values were significantly higher in Barrett's metaplasia (BE), dysplastic Barrett's, and EAC than in normal esophagus (P < 0.0000001).
  • AKAP12 hypermethylation frequency was zero in normal esophagus but increased early during neoplastic progression, to 38.9% in BE from patients with Barrett's alone, 52.5% in dysplastic Barrett's metaplasia, and 52.2% in EAC.
  • In contrast, only 2 (7.7%) of 26 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas exhibited AKAP12 hypermethylation.

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  • (PMID = 18199717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK067872; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 001808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 106763; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 85069
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / A Kinase Anchor Proteins; 0 / AKAP12 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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70. Chen X, Qin R, Liu B, Ma Y, Su Y, Yang CS, Glickman JN, Odze RD, Shaheen NJ: Multilayered epithelium in a rat model and human Barrett's esophagus: similar expression patterns of transcription factors and differentiation markers. BMC Gastroenterol; 2008 Jan 11;8:1
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  • BACKGROUND: In rats, esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis (EGDA) without concomitant chemical carcinogen treatment leads to gastroesophageal reflux disease, multilayered epithelium (MLE, a presumed precursor in intestinal metaplasia), columnar-lined esophagus, dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained for a variety of transcription factors and differentiation markers of esophageal squamous epithelium and intestinal columnar epithelium.
  • As expected, both rat and human squamous epithelium, but not intestinal metaplasia, expressed squamous transcription factors and differentiation markers (p63, Sox2, CK14 and CK4) in all cases.
  • Both rat and human intestinal metaplasia, but not squamous epithelium, expressed intestinal transcription factors and differentiation markers (Cdx2, GATA4, HNF1alpha, villin and Muc2) in all cases.
  • CONCLUSION: These data indicate that rat MLE shares similar properties to human MLE in its expression pattern of these markers, not withstanding small differences, and support the concept that MLE may be a transitional stage in the metaplastic conversion of squamous to columnar epithelium in BE.

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  • (PMID = 18190713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA75683; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R21 DK063650; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES005022; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U56 CA092077; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK63650; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092077; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075683
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2267197
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71. Drusco A, Zanesi N, Roldo C, Trapasso F, Farber JL, Fong LY, Croce CM: Knockout mice reveal a tumor suppressor function for Testin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2005 Aug 2;102(31):10947-51
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  • Animals were killed 8 weeks after NMBA administration: 25% of +/+ mice developed benign lesions; 88% of +/- showed multiple papillomas, atypical glandular metaplasia, and squamous cell carcinomasl; and 81% of -/- mice displayed very large papillomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 16033868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA077738; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 08398; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 77738
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tes protein, mouse; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 937-40-6 / nitrosobenzylmethylamine; J41CSQ7QDS / Zinc; M43H21IO8R / Dimethylnitrosamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1182460
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72. Liu B, Yu HM, Huang J, Hsu W: Co-opted JNK/SAPK signaling in Wnt/beta-catenin-induced tumorigenesis. Neoplasia; 2008 Sep;10(9):1004-13
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  • It has been well documented that two types of tumors, adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma with squamous metaplasia, develop in these mutants.
  • However, the molecular mechanism underlying the induction of squamous transdifferentiation remains largely unknown.
  • Here, we show that JNK/SAPK signaling plays an important role in Wnt-dependent mammary development and malignant transformation.
  • Strong elevations of JNK/SAPK signaling are associated with squamous metaplasia of the Wnt-induced adenocarcinoma.
  • Reconstitution of beta-catenin and JNK/SAPK signaling activities also promotes expression of the squamous cell marker in cultured epithelial cells.
  • Furthermore, a synergistic activation of these two pathways can be identified in the malignant squamous cells of human endometrial and lung cancers.
  • This is potentially a significant discovery in modern cancer therapy because of the effectiveness of an angiogenesis inhibitor, Avastin, for the treatment of adenocarcinoma, but not squamous cell carcinoma, in human lung cancers.

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  • (PMID = 18714362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106308; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106308
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / Wnt1 Protein; 0 / Wnt1 protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.7.11.24 / JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2517646
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73. Taneous M, Ramalingam P, Mode DG, Heiner JG, Terris MK, Lee JR: Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma in a defunctionalized urinary bladder: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:9306
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  • [Title] Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma in a defunctionalized urinary bladder: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignancies are rare in defunctionalized bladders and are thought to arise from metaplasia secondary to chronic inflammation.
  • Transitional cell and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common but there are three reported cases of mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 57-year-old Caucasian man presenting with penile discharge for 30 years following ileal conduit surgery for neurogenic bladder, and who was found to have primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of his defunctionalized bladder.

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803829
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74. Ling FC, Baldus SE, Khochfar J, Xi H, Neiss S, Brabender J, Metzger R, Drebber U, Dienes HP, Bollschweiler E, Hoelscher AH, Schneider PM: Association of COX-2 expression with corresponding active and chronic inflammatory reactions in Barrett's metaplasia and progression to cancer. Histopathology; 2007 Jan;50(2):203-9
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  • [Title] Association of COX-2 expression with corresponding active and chronic inflammatory reactions in Barrett's metaplasia and progression to cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to examine a possible association between COX-2 protein expression and the development and progression of the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and the type and degree of associated inflammatory reaction.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Squamous epithelium, metaplastic, low-grade, high-grade dysplastic lesions and tumour tissue of 49 resection specimens from patients with Barrett's adenocarcinoma were immunohistochemically analysed.
  • The most significant differences were detected between squamous epithelium and Barrett's metaplasia (P < 0.001) and from low- to high-grade dysplasia (P < 0.0001).
  • Active and chronic inflammation were significantly different between squamous epithelium and Barrett's metaplasia (P < 0.0001), but not during further progression in the sequence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increasing COX-2 expression in Barrett's metaplasia is significantly associated with a change in the local inflammatory reaction, but not during further progression through dysplasia to cancer.

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  • [ErratumIn] Histopathology. 2007 Mar;50(4):531
  • (PMID = 17222248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
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75. Szachnowicz S, Cecconello I, Iriya K, Marson AG, Takeda FR, Gama-Rodrigues JJ: Origin of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus: p53 and Ki67 expression and histopathologic background. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2005 Apr;60(2):103-12
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  • [Title] Origin of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus: p53 and Ki67 expression and histopathologic background.
  • Barrett's esophagus is the substitution of squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus by columnar epithelium.
  • Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus is considered to be the main risk factor for the development of adenocarcinoma.
  • Diffuse adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus without intestinal metaplasia are rare, and reports on the subject are scarce.
  • PURPOSE AND METHOD: To estimate the prevalence of adenocarcinoma in 297 patients with Barrett's esophagus, during the period of 1990 to 2002, and in 13 patients undergoing surgery, to conduct detailed macroscopic and microscopic analysis, with performance of immunohistochemical tests for p53 and Ki67, correlating the type of tumor with its adjacent epithelium.
  • RESULTS: In our patients with Barrett's esophagus, there was a prevalence of 5.7% of adenocarcinoma.
  • Tumors were located close to the squamous-columnar junction.
  • The histological study revealed 2 patients (15.4%) with Barrett's esophagus adjacent to a tumor with gastric metaplasia without the presence of intestinal metaplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: Adenocarcinoma develops from mixed columnar epithelium, either intestinal or gastric, showing both the gastric and the intestinal patterns; thus, tumors can also grow in columnar epithelium without intestinal metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 15880245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1807-5932
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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76. Pavlov K, Maley CC: New models of neoplastic progression in Barrett's oesophagus. Biochem Soc Trans; 2010 Apr;38(2):331-6
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  • Research in Barrett's oesophagus, and neoplastic progression to OAC (oesophageal adenocarcinoma), is hobbled by the lack of good pre-clinical models that capture the evolutionary dynamics of Barrett's cell populations.
  • Tissue culture models include squamous cell lines, Barrett's oesophagus cell lines and OAC cell lines, although it was recognized recently that BIC-1, SEG-1 and TE-7 are not true OAC cell lines.
  • The most realistic, but least tractable, model is a canine surgical model that generates reflux and leads to an intestinal metaplasia.

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  • (PMID = 20298178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-8752
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical Society transactions
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Soc. Trans.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA010815; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA137811-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA091955-089005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA091955; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA091955-089005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA140657-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA140657-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA137811-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA137811; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA137811-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA91955; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA140657; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119224
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS199218; NLM/ PMC2866622
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77. O'Riordan JM, Abdel-latif MM, Ravi N, McNamara D, Byrne PJ, McDonald GS, Keeling PW, Kelleher D, Reynolds JV: Proinflammatory cytokine and nuclear factor kappa-B expression along the inflammation-metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence in the esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jun;100(6):1257-64
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  • [Title] Proinflammatory cytokine and nuclear factor kappa-B expression along the inflammation-metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence in the esophagus.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased significantly in the western world over the last 20 yr.
  • Most cases arise in a background of chronic gastroesophageal reflux, and specialized intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus is frequently an antecedent phenotype or evident in association with adenocarcinoma.
  • The molecular events that characterize the pathway from inflammation to metaplasia to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma are poorly understood.
  • AIMS: To examine the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1beta along the esophagitis, metaplasia, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma pathway, and to correlate this with histological changes and expression of the transcription factor NF-kappaB.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fresh biopsy specimens were collected from patients with reflux esophagitis (n=15), Barrett's esophagus (n=35), Barrett's adjacent to adenocarcinoma (n=8), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (n=35).
  • RESULTS: Elevated expression of NF-kappaB was found in 2 (13%) out of 15 patients with reflux esophagitis, 21 (60%) out of 35 patients with Barrett's esophagus, and 28 (80%) out of 35 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • IL-8 and IL-1beta were significantly increased in esophagitis, Barrett's, and adenocarcinoma compared with squamous epithelium, and in adenocarcinoma compared with all other groups.
  • There was a stepwise increase in the expression of IL-8, IL-1beta, and NF-kappaB from normal through Barrett's epithelium to adenocarcinoma in eight cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The levels of both IL-8 and IL-1beta in adenocarcinoma patients correlated with stage of disease.
  • Patients with adenocarcinoma who were NF-kappaB positive had significantly higher levels of both IL-8 (p=0.04) and IL-1beta (p=0.03) compared to adenocarcinoma patients who were NF-kappaB negative.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1beta are elevated in esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium, and markedly elevated in adenocarcinoma.
  • NF-kappaB activation is infrequent in esophagitis, but is increased in Barrett's epithelium and adenocarcinoma.
  • The association of NF-kappaB activation with cytokine upregulation was only evident in patients with adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophagitis / metabolism. Interleukin-1 / biosynthesis. Interleukin-8 / biosynthesis. NF-kappa B / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Barrett Esophagus / metabolism. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Biomarkers / metabolism. Biopsy. Electrophoresis. Endoscopy, Digestive System. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gastroesophageal Reflux / metabolism. Gastroesophageal Reflux / pathology. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15929754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / NF-kappa B
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78. Kimura W: Pancreatic lithiasis and intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm with special reference to the pathogenesis of lithiasis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci; 2010 Nov;17(6):776-81
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  • Pancreatic lithiasis may be related to squamous cell metaplasia.
  • The relation between mucinous metaplasia and stone formation is slight and, therefore, there may be only a weak correlation between IPMN and pancreatic stones.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Lithiasis / diagnosis. Pancreas. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pancreatitis, Chronic / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19779665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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79. Vallböhmer D, Peters JH, Kuramochi H, Oh D, Yang D, Shimizu D, DeMeester SR, Hagen JA, Chandrasoma PT, Danenberg KD, Danenberg PV, DeMeester TR: Molecular determinants in targeted therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Arch Surg; 2006 May;141(5):476-81; discussion 481-2
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  • [Title] Molecular determinants in targeted therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are useful biological determinants in targeted therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • PATIENTS: Sixteen patients with squamous mucosa and normal results of a pH study without mucosal injury (control group), 15 with Barrett esophagus (metaplasia group), and 44 with adenocarcinoma (carcinoma group).
  • After laser-capture microdissection, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure gene expression across the spectrum of the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence.
  • RESULTS: Expression of both COX-2 and VEGF was significantly up-regulated in patients with metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer compared with controls (P<.01).
  • Expression levels of both were significantly higher in cancer than in the metaplasia group (P<.05) and increased sequentially from metaplasia to dysplasia to cancer.
  • No change in expression levels of EGFR was seen in the histologic progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Gene expression data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of COX-2 and VEGF may be useful adjuncts in targeted therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16702519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA84424-02
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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80. Ingravallo G, Dall'Olmo L, Segat D, Fassan M, Mescoli C, Dazzo E, Castoro C, Polimeno L, Rizzetto C, Baroni MD, Zaninotto G, Ancona E, Rugge M: CDX2 hox gene product in a rat model of esophageal cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2009;28:108
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  • BACKGROUND: Barrett's mucosa is the precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: No Cdx2 expression was detected in either squamous epithelia of the proximal esophagus or squamous cell carcinomas.
  • De novo Cdx2 expression was consistently documented in the proliferative zone of the squamous epithelium close to reflux ulcers (Group A: 68%; Group B: 64%; Group C: 80%), multilayered epithelium and intestinal metaplasia (Group A: 9%; Group B: 41%; Group C: 60%), and esophageal adenocarcinomas (Group B: 36%; Group C: 35%).
  • CONCLUSION: De novo expression of Cdx2 is an early event in the spectrum of the lesions induced by experimental gastro-esophageal reflux and should be considered as a key step in the morphogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19664209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3225830
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81. Hu Y, Williams VA, Gellersen O, Jones C, Watson TJ, Peters JH: The pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus: secondary bile acids upregulate intestinal differentiation factor CDX2 expression in esophageal cells. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Jul;11(7):827-34
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  • Caudal-related homeobox 2 (CDX2) is a transcription factor recently implicated in early differentiation and maintenance of normal intestinal epithelium and is suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus.
  • (1) squamous, immortalized by SV40 (Het-1A);.
  • (2) adenocarcinoma (SEG-1); and (3) squamous cell carcinoma (HKESC-1 & HKESC-2), were exposed in cell culture for 1-24 h to 100-1,000 microM deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and glycocholic acids.
  • The maximal induction of CDX2 expression was seen in SEG-1 adenocarcinoma cells.
  • Expression in Het-1A cells also increased significantly as did expression in HKESC-1,2 cells, although to a lesser extent than in adenocarcinoma.
  • They further support the role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus and link the clinical evidence of a high prevalence of luminal bile acids in Barrett's to expression of the gene thought to be responsible for the phenotypic expression of intestinal metaplasia.

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  • (PMID = 17458588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Duplicate Publication; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Fitzgerald RC: Genetics and prevention of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2005;166:35-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genetics and prevention of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The histopathological subtype is also changing with a predominance of oesophageal adenocarcinoma compared with squamous carcinoma.
  • This can then progress to adenocarcinoma via a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence.
  • At the current time, the mortality from oesophageal adenocarcinoma exceeds 80% at 5 years.
  • There is mounting evidence that there is an underlying genetic susceptibility to Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Once patients are identified as having Barrett's oesophagus their chance for developing adenocarcinoma is in the order of 0.5%-1% per year.
  • Combinatorial approaches are therefore being advocated which include genomic profiling or the use of a panel of molecular markers in order to define the common molecular signatures that can then be used to predict malignant progression.
  • We have demonstrated an increase in the expression of a novel proliferation marker, Mcm2, which occurs during the malignant progression of Barrett's oesophagus.
  • Given the epidemic increase in oesophageal adenocarcinoma and the dismal 5-year mortality rate, a radical approach is necessary to prevent cancer development in individuals with pre-malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics


83. Roman S, Pétré A, Thépot A, Hautefeuille A, Scoazec JY, Mion F, Hainaut P: Downregulation of p63 upon exposure to bile salts and acid in normal and cancer esophageal cells in culture. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; 2007 Jul;293(1):G45-53
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  • p63 is a member of the p53 protein family that regulates differentiation and morphogenesis in epithelial tissues and is required for the formation of squamous epithelia.
  • Barrett's mucosa is a glandular metaplasia of the squamous epithelium that develops in the lower esophagus in the context of chronic, gastroesophageal reflux and is considered as a precursor for adenocarcinoma.
  • Normal or squamous cancer esophageal cells were exposed to deoxycholic acid (DCA, 50, 100, or 200 microM) and chenodeoxycholic and taurochenodeoxycholic acid at pH 5. p63 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions were studied by Western blot and RT-PCR.
  • These results show that combined exposure to bile salt and acid downregulates a critical regulator of squamous differentiation, providing a mechanism to explain the replacement of squamous epithelium by a glandular metaplasia upon exposure of the lower esophagus to gastric reflux.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcysteine / analogs & derivatives. Acetylcysteine / pharmacology. Apoptosis. Barrett Esophagus / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Chenodeoxycholic Acid / pharmacology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Down-Regulation. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Leupeptins / pharmacology. Proteasome Inhibitors. Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid / pharmacology. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 17615180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1857
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Leupeptins; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 005990WHZZ / Deoxycholic Acid; 0GEI24LG0J / Chenodeoxycholic Acid; 133343-34-7 / lactacystin; 133407-82-6 / benzyloxycarbonylleucyl-leucyl-leucine aldehyde; 516-35-8 / Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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84. Grimm M, Lazariotou M, Kircher S, Stuermer L, Reiber C, Höfelmayr A, Gattenlöhner S, Otto C, Germer CT, von Rahden BH: MMP-1 is a (pre-)invasive factor in Barrett-associated esophageal adenocarcinomas and is associated with positive lymph node status. J Transl Med; 2010;8:99
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  • METHODS: Expression of MMP-1 and -13 was analyzed in esophageal cancer (n = 41 EAC with BE, n = 19 EAC without BE, and n = 10 esophageal squamous-cell carcinomas, ESCC), furthermore in BE without intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) (n = 18), and the cell line OE-33.
  • MMP-1 was co-labelled with Ki-67 (proliferation), Cdx-2 (marker for intestinal metaplasia, BE) and analyzed on mRNA level.
  • Expression of MMP-1 in proliferating BE and EAC cells suggest malignant proliferation following the clonal expansion model.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / enzymology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism

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  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
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  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967517
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85. Sugitani I, Toda K, Yamamoto N, Sakamoto A, Fujimoto Y: Re-evaluation of histopathological factors affecting prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in an iodine-sufficient country. World J Surg; 2010 Jun;34(6):1265-73
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  • According to multivariate analysis, histological features of STI >or=10% and squamous metaplasia were significantly related to cause-specific survival, but scirrhous infiltration, necrosis, nuclear atypia, and vascular invasion were not.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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86. Maru DM, Singh RR, Hannah C, Albarracin CT, Li YX, Abraham R, Romans AM, Yao H, Luthra MG, Anandasabapathy S, Swisher SG, Hofstetter WL, Rashid A, Luthra R: MicroRNA-196a is a potential marker of progression during Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-invasive adenocarcinoma sequence in esophagus. Am J Pathol; 2009 May;174(5):1940-8
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  • [Title] MicroRNA-196a is a potential marker of progression during Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-invasive adenocarcinoma sequence in esophagus.
  • Barrett's esophagus (BE)/Barrett's metaplasia (BM) is a recognized precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) with an intermediary stage of dysplasia.
  • The low yield and high cost of endoscopic screening of patients with BE underscores the need for novel biomarkers, such as microRNA (miRNA), which have emerged as important players in neoplastic progression for risk assessment of developing dysplasia/adenocarcinoma.
  • Higher levels of miR-196a were observed in EA, BE, and dysplastic lesions compared with normal squamous mucosa, and in high-grade dysplasia compared with BE and low-grade dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophagus / pathology. MicroRNAs / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calgranulin B / genetics. Calgranulin B / metabolism. Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins / genetics. Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins / metabolism. DNA Primers / chemistry. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Keratin-5 / genetics. Keratin-5 / metabolism. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19342367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calgranulin B; 0 / Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / KRT5 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / MIRN196 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SPRR2C protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671281
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87. Wu Q, Li Z, Lin H, Han L, Liu S, Lin Z: DEK overexpression in uterine cervical cancers. Pathol Int; 2008 Jun;58(6):378-82
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  • DEK protein expression was studied in 253 cervical lesions, including 30 non-neoplastic cervix with or without squamous metaplasia, 64 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (CIN; CIN-1, n = 28; CIN-2, n = 17; CIN-3, n = 19), 102 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 51 adenocarcinomas, and six adenosquamous cell carcinomas (adenoSCC) on immunohistochemistry.
  • In summary, DEK plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancers, and can be helpful for early diagnosis, and is a potential therapeutic target.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism


88. Segat D, Cassaro M, Dazzo E, Cavallini L, Romualdi C, Salvador R, Vitale MP, Vitiello L, Fassan M, Rugge M, Zaninotto G, Ancona E, Baroni MD: Pericentriolar material analyses in normal esophageal mucosa, Barrett's metaplasia and adenocarcinoma. Histol Histopathol; 2010 05;25(5):551-60
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  • [Title] Pericentriolar material analyses in normal esophageal mucosa, Barrett's metaplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • Barrett's esophagus metaplasia is a pre-cancerous condition caused by chronic esophagitis.
  • Chromosomal instability (CIN) is common in Barrett's cells: therefore, we investigated the possible presence of centrosomal aberrations (a main cause of CIN) by centrosomal protein immunostaining in paraffined esophageal samples of patients who developed a Barrett's adenocarcinoma.
  • In most (55%) patients, alterations of the pericentriolar material (PCM) signals were evident and consistently marked the transition between normal epithelium to metaplasia.
  • The alterations could even be found in adjacent native squamous epithelium, Barrett's mucosa and submucosal gland cells, as well as in the basal/epibasal layers of the mucosa and submucosal gland duct, which are the regions hosting esophageal stem and progenitor cells.
  • Importantly, PCM altered signals in Barrett's mucosa and their apparent evolution in successive histopathological steps were correlated to adenocarcinoma aggressiveness, suggesting PCM as a possible prognostic marker for tumor relapse.
  • Extending our observations in a prospective study might help in the development of new prevention protocols for adenocarcinoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Barrett Esophagus / metabolism. Centrosome / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophagus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens / metabolism. Chromosomal Instability. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Mucous Membrane / anatomy & histology. Mucous Membrane / metabolism. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Prognosis. Tubulin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20238294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Tubulin; 0 / pericentrin
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89. Griffiths EA, Pritchard SA, McGrath SM, Valentine HR, Price PM, Welch IM, West CM: Increasing expression of hypoxia-inducible proteins in the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. Br J Cancer; 2007 May 7;96(9):1377-83
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  • [Title] Increasing expression of hypoxia-inducible proteins in the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.
  • Our aim was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, HIF-2alpha, erythropoietin (Epo), Epo receptor (Epo-R), Glut-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) along with Ki67/MIB-1 in the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.
  • Endoscopic biopsies of normal squamous epithelium (NSE) (n=20), columnar-lined oesophagus (CLO) (n=15), CLO with intestinal metaplasia (n=20), dysplasia (n=17) and Barrett's type adenocarcinoma (n=20) were obtained.
  • Significant increases in the expression of HIF-2alpha (P=0.014), VEGF (P<0.0001), Epo-R (P<0.0001) and Ki67 (P<0.0001) were found as tissue progressed from NSE to adenocarcinoma.
  • HIF-2alpha was expressed late in the sequence and was only seen in dysplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • High HIF-2alpha expression was seen in 12 out of 20 Barrett's type adenocarcinoma.
  • The late expression of HIF-2alpha in the Barrett's carcinogenesis sequence and its high expression in adenocarcinoma suggest that it is worth further investigation as a marker of disease progression and therapeutic target.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Disease Progression. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Esophageal Diseases / pathology. Esophagus / cytology. Esophagus / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Metaplasia. Receptors, Erythropoietin / metabolism. Reference Values. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17437013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Erythropoietin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360174
  •  go-up   go-down


90. Rauf F, Kiyani N, Bhurgri Y: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast, an intriguing rarity. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2006 Oct-Dec;7(4):667-71
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  • Metaplastic carcinoma breast is categorized as a rare heterogenous neoplasm generally characterized by a mixture of adenocarcinoma with dominant areas of spindle cell, squamous and/or other mesenchymal differentiation.
  • Twenty-four patients were identified with a mean age at diagnosis of 46.4 (+/-SD 3.8) years, and an age range of 28-68 years.
  • Component sub-categorization showed 13 (54.2%) cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma with squamous metaplasia, followed by 2 (8.3 %) cases with heterologous elements, 4 (16.7%) cases with spindle cell component, 2 cases of matrix producing carcinoma and one case of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pakistan / epidemiology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17250450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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91. di Pietro M, Peters CJ, Fitzgerald RC: Clinical puzzle: Barrett's oesophagus. Dis Model Mech; 2008 Jul-Aug;1(1):26-31
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  • The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased dramatically in the Western world over the past two decades.
  • Owing to its dismal 5-year prognosis in advanced stages, early diagnosis is required in order to improve survival rates.
  • Barrett's is defined as the substitution of the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the oesophagus with a columnar cell lining with intestinal-type differentiation; a phenomenon commonly referred to as intestinal metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers / analysis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Disease Progression. Early Diagnosis. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Models, Biological

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