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Items 1 to 94 of about 94
1. Segawa N, Inamoto T, Ibuki N, Mizutani Y, Azuma H, Tsuji M, Katsuoka Y: [Neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate during hormonal treatment : a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Jan;56(1):49-54
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate during hormonal treatment : a case report].
  • A case of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiated prostate cancer is reported herein, which was progressed with NE differentiation during hormonal treatment in adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • A prostate biopsy was performed and histological examinations indicated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 5 + 4 = 9.
  • Immunohistochemical examination of a re-biopsy specimen revealed a neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • His condition worsened rapidly and he died at 8 months after definite diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Male. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 20104011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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2. Kim JB, Choi JH, Kim JH, Park HJ, Lee JS, Joh OJ, Song KY: A case of primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Ann Dermatol; 2010 Nov;22(4):472-7

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  • [Title] A case of primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that originates from the deepest portion of the eccrine sweat duct.
  • It is difficult to differentiate this tumor histologically from metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • We report a primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation on the right cheek of a 63-year-old man.

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  • (PMID = 21165225.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2991732
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cutaneous mucinous carcinoma / Eccrine sweat duct / Metastatic adenocarcinoma / Neuroendocrine differentiation
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3. al Saudi N, Maartense E, Scherpenisse J, van Leeuwen AW: Watery diarrhoea: an unusual manifestation of breast cancer. Neth J Med; 2007 Dec;65(11):448-51
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  • Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy revealed a hot spot in the left thoracic wall and subsequently, breast adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Gastrins. Humans. Male. Neuroendocrine Tumors / complications. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Pancreatic Polypeptide

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  • (PMID = 18079568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrins; 59763-91-6 / Pancreatic Polypeptide
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4. Ionescu DN, Treaba D, Gilks CB, Leung S, Renouf D, Laskin J, Wood-Baker R, Gown AM: Nonsmall cell lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation--an entity of no clinical or prognostic significance. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jan;31(1):26-32
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  • [Title] Nonsmall cell lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation--an entity of no clinical or prognostic significance.
  • The existence of non-small cell lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation as a distinct entity and its relevance for prognostic and treatment purposes is controversial.
  • This study assesses the frequency and biologic and prognostic significance of neuroendocrine (NE) expression of synaptophysin (SNP), chromogranin (Ch), and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) using tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry.
  • Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were subclassified as: 243 adenocarcinoma (ACA), 272 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 35 large cell carcinoma, 32 non-small cell carcinoma NOS, and 6 other (carcinosarcoma, giant cell carcinoma).
  • The assessment of NE differentiation in NSCLC is unnecessary and expensive and is of no clinical or prognostic significance.
  • SNP is more likely to be expressed in adenocarcinoma (P=0.01) and N-CAM in squamous-cell carcinoma (P=0.008).
  • Disease specific and overall survival is not influenced by NE differentiation and therefore non-small cell lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation should not be a subclass distinct from the other NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17197916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Synaptophysin
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5. Kitamoto K, Hayashi T, Tamada S, Ezaki K, Kawashima H, Sugimura K, Nakatani T: [Neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of prostate during combined androgen blockade therapy: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Jan;51(1):33-5
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of prostate during combined androgen blockade therapy: a case report].
  • Prostatic neuroendocrine (NE) carcinoma is a rare disease with a poor prognosis because of its rapid progression and the androgen-independent characteristic, for which no successful therapy is available presently.
  • We report a case of NE differentiated prostate cancer, which was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma initially and progressed with NE differentiation during the combined androgen blockade therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15732339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
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6. Jung SH, Kim HC, Yu CS, Chang HM, Ryu MH, Lee JL, Kim JS, Kim JC: [Clinicopathologic characteristics of colorectal neuroendocrine tumor]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2006 Aug;48(2):97-103
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic characteristics of colorectal neuroendocrine tumor].
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare neoplasm exhibiting fulminant progression and having poor prognosis.
  • The purpose of this study is to verify the clinicopathologic characteristics of colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • METHODS: From June 1997 to December 2004 at Asan Medical Center, ten patients were originally identified as colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma on the basis of H&E and immunohistochemical staining (IHC).
  • RESULTS: Ten patients (0.2%) with colorectal neuroendocrine tumors were identified from 4,512 patients with colorectal cancer; ten neuroendocrine carcinomas and three adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Nine of ten neuroendocrine carcinomas expressed synaptophysin, but chromogranin A were expressed in four.
  • All patients were advanced at the time of diagnosis, with AJCC TNM staging: stage IIIB (n=2), stage IIIC (n=3), and stage IV (n=8).
  • The median survival for ten neuroendocrine carcinomas and three adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation were 16.4 months and 30 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal neuroendocrine tumors are extremely rare showing aggressive behavior biologically, i.e fulminant early distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biopsy. Chromogranin A / analysis. Chromogranin A / immunology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Sigmoid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sigmoid Neoplasms / mortality. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Synaptophysin / analysis. Synaptophysin / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16929153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin
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7. Wang KL, Yang Q, Cleary KR, Swisher SG, Correa AM, Komaki R, Ajani JA, Rashid A, Hamilton SR, Wu TT: The significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction after preoperative chemoradiation. Cancer; 2006 Oct 1;107(7):1467-74
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  • [Title] The significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction after preoperative chemoradiation.
  • BACKGROUND: Esophageal and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinomas frequently have neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation, but the significance of NE differentiation in patients who have undergone preoperative chemoradiation and resection remains unclear.
  • METHODS: The authors evaluated the presence of NE differentiation in esophageal and EGJ adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry for chromogranin A and synaptophysin and evaluated the clinical significance of NE differentiation in 83 patients (10 patients who had a complete tumor response and 73 patients who had residual tumor in resection specimens) who received preoperative chemoradiation.
  • RESULTS: Of 73 patients who had residual tumor after preoperative treatment, 52% showed NE differentiation.
  • The proportion of tumor cells with NE differentiation had increased from 6% +/- 18% in pretreatment biopsy specimens to 47% +/- 42% (P = .00003) in posttreatment resection specimens in 30 patients who had paired pretreatment biopsy and resection specimens available.
  • Among patients who had residual tumor after preoperative chemoradiation, disease-free survival (P = .03) and overall survival (P = .045) were significantly better in patients who had residual tumor without NE differentiation than in patients who had residual tumor with NE differentiation.
  • In multivariate analysis, the presence of NE differentiation in residual tumor was a prognostic factor for worse disease-free survival (P = .02) independent of pathologic stage and extent of residual tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study suggested that tumor cells with NE differentiation were more resistant to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with esophageal and EGJ adenocarcinomas.
  • The presence of NE differentiation in residual tumor was associated with poor survival after preoperative neoadjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagogastric Junction / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16955509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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8. Jiang SX, Mikami T, Umezawa A, Saegusa M, Kameya T, Okayasu I: Gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas: a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Aug;30(8):945-53
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  • [Title] Gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas: a distinct clinicopathologic entity.
  • The current histologic classifications of gastric cancers define only carcinoids and small cell carcinomas in the neuroendocrine (NE) category.
  • This study aimed to characterize the histologic and clinical features of high-grade gastric NE carcinomas of nonsmall cell type, tentatively named large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC).
  • Tumors with histologic features suspicious of NE differentiation were selected by a histologic review of 2835 resected gastric cancers, and those with a NE phenotype in > 50% and 1% to approximately 50% tumor cells assessed by expressing chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin were defined as LCNEC and adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation (ACNED), respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16861964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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9. Hennessy BT, Gilcrease MZ, Kim E, Gonzalez-Angulo AM: Breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and myocardial metastases. Clin Breast Cancer; 2007 Dec;7(11):892-4
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  • [Title] Breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and myocardial metastases.
  • A 63-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma presenting as a perianal mass without an obvious primary site.
  • Two years later, she presented with a breast mass determined on histologic examination to be the primary neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • The tumor was weakly positive for estrogen receptor and clearly originated in multifocal ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Most studies report a relatively poor prognosis and limited treatment responsiveness for neuroendocrine breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 18269781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8209
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Tamas EF, Epstein JI: Prognostic significance of paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Aug;30(8):980-5
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • The prognostic significance of Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate has not yet been established.
  • We studied 36 cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate showing Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation, including needle biopsy specimens (n = 27), radical prostatectomies (n = 8), and transurethral resection specimens (n = 1).
  • Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine cells (NECs) were observed as either patchy isolated cells or diffusely involving glands or nests.
  • Of the 16 radical prostatectomy cases, 8 (50%) had a Gleason pattern 5 component either on needle biopsy or at radical prostatectomy, with nests, cords, or single cells containing Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Despite the cells' bland histologic appearance, strictly applying the Gleason grading system one would have to assign a Gleason pattern 5 to these foci with no glandular differentiation.
  • In cases with Paneth cell-like NECs, only the conventional adenocarcinoma component should be assigned a Gleason score.
  • In cases in which the entire tumor is composed of Paneth cell-like cells and areas of the tumor lack glandular differentiation, the tumors should not be assigned a Gleason score and a comment should be provided as to the generally favorable prognosis of this morphologic pattern of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Paneth Cells / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16861969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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11. Meeks JJ, Habermacher GM, Le B, Smith ND: Delayed diagnosis of prostate cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation after laser TURP. Urology; 2008 Oct;72(4):948.e11-2
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  • [Title] Delayed diagnosis of prostate cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation after laser TURP.
  • The patient subsequently underwent bipolar TURP, and the pathologic examination of the prostate chips revealed highly aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • We discuss the potential drawbacks of laser TURP in the diagnosis of clinically undetectable prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Transurethral Resection of Prostate
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18342929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Sagnak L, Topaloglu H, Gucuk O, Han U, Ersoy H: Skip metastase on the left neck lymph nodes of the prostatic adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and accompanying thyroid micropapillary carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):493-5
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  • [Title] Skip metastase on the left neck lymph nodes of the prostatic adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and accompanying thyroid micropapillary carcinoma.
  • We discuss here the thyroid micropapillary carcinoma that was detected incidentally when investigating the primary focus of the left neck multiple lymph node metastases occurring 8 months later in a patient of ours, whose pathological examination of radical prostatectomy and bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection was reported to be pT3N0 and whole body scanning for metastases, was negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Incidental Findings. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / pathology. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Orchiectomy. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy. Thyroidectomy. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18386164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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13. Pozo L, Diaz-Cano SJ: Trichilemmal carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2008 Mar;33(2):128-31
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  • [Title] Trichilemmal carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of a trichilemmal carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and melanocyte colonization, which is suggested by the trabecular growth pattern and requires immunohistochemical confirmation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 18076695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Xiao WL, Zhou FT, Feng YY, Li NY: Submandibular area metastasis from prostate small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. J Craniofac Surg; 2007 Sep;18(5):1155-7
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  • [Title] Submandibular area metastasis from prostate small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic carcinomas generally confers a more aggressive clinical behavior and less favorable prognosis than usual prostatic carcinomas.
  • In this article, we report a case of a 65-year-old man with prostatic carcinoma who had a metastasis of the submandibular area.
  • Pathologic specimens demonstrated a small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation by immunohistochemical studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17912103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Shinji S, Naito Z, Ishiwata T, Tanaka N, Furukawa K, Suzuki H, Seya T, Kan H, Tsuruta H, Matsumoto S, Matsuda A, Teranishi N, Ohaki Y, Tajiri T: Neuroendocrine cell differentiation of poorly differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma correlates with liver metastasis. Int J Oncol; 2006 Aug;29(2):357-64
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine cell differentiation of poorly differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma correlates with liver metastasis.
  • Poorly differentiated (PD) adenocarcinoma often retains the capacity for neuroendocrine (NE) cell differ-entiation; however, it is difficult to distinguish the NE cell differentiation by routine hematoxylin and eosin staining.
  • It is important to detect the presence of NE cell differentiation in advanced colorectal carcinomas because these carcinomas have been shown to produce distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis and to have a particularly poor prognosis.
  • In this study, the characteristics of PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation and its biological metastatic mechanisms were investigated.
  • Forty-eight of 2204 colorectal cancer patients, diagnosed as having PD adenocarcinoma (2.2%) were enrolled in this study.
  • The clinicopathological factors for PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation were compared with those for PD adenocarcinoma without NE cell differentiation.
  • Microvessel density (MVD) was assessed using immunostained slides with anti-CD34 antibody and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation was confirmed by in situ hybridization.
  • By immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin A and synaptophysin, NE cell differentiation was detected in eight of 48 patients (16.7%) with PD adenocarcinoma.
  • The frequency of liver metastasis at the time of diagnosis was significantly higher in patients having PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation (p=0.03).
  • Moreover, MVD and VEGF expression level tended to be higher in patients having PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation (p=0.13 and 0.068, respectively).
  • NE cell differentiation in PD adenocarcinoma may produce liver metastasis through microvessel formation in the tumor induced by VEGF.
  • In PD colorectal adenocarcinoma, immunohistochemical analysis of NE markers is important for establishing the presence of NE cell differentiation and further study is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic drugs to PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16820877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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16. Parada DD, Peña KB: Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. APMIS; 2008 Sep;116(9):859-65
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  • [Title] Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was described by Thoenes et al. in 1986, and associations with carcinoma of collecting ducts, conventional renal cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma have been described.
  • We report a case of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma which showed neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • The tumor showed a mixture of classical and eosinophilic patterns of chromophobe cell carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemically, the neuroendocrine areas were reactive for C-kit, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, CD56 and S-100 protein.
  • Our case represents a typical chromophobe carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged


17. Kuroda N, Oonishi K, Iwamura S, Ohara M, Hirouchi T, Mizumo K, Miyazaki E, Enzan H: Gastric carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine differentiation as the carcinoma component and leiomyosarcomatous and myofibroblastic differentiation as the sarcomatous component. APMIS; 2006 Mar;114(3):234-8
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  • [Title] Gastric carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine differentiation as the carcinoma component and leiomyosarcomatous and myofibroblastic differentiation as the sarcomatous component.
  • Gastric carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine differentiation is a very rare neoplasm.
  • The tumor was composed of carcinoma and sarcomatous cells, and the histological transition of both components was observed.
  • Immunohistochemically, carcinoma and sarcomatous cells were positive for cytokeratin CAM5.2.
  • The carcinoma contained adenocarcinoma and malignant cells with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • The sarcomatous component showed leiomyosarcomatous and myofibroblastic differentiation.
  • The present tumor is the fifth case of gastric carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and the first case of gastric carcinosarcoma with myofibroblastic differentiation.
  • Pathologists should bear in mind that gastric carcinosarcoma may show various types of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16643190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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18. Nemoto K, Tomita Y: Neuroendocrine differentiation of localized prostate cancer during endocrine therapy. Scand J Urol Nephrol; 2007;41(6):558-60
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation of localized prostate cancer during endocrine therapy.
  • After 25 months he complained of a swollen neck, and was diagnosed with prostate cancer with lymph node metastasis of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation without elevation of conventional tumor markers is rare during the initial recurrent course of localized prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anilides / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 17853028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5599
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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19. Righi L, Sapino A, Marchiò C, Papotti M, Bussolati G: Neuroendocrine differentiation in breast cancer: established facts and unresolved problems. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;27(1):69-76
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation in breast cancer: established facts and unresolved problems.
  • Neuroendocrine breast carcinoma (NEBC) diagnosis relies on (i) presence of morphologic neuroendocrine features, and (ii) neuroendocrine markers expressed in more than 50% of tumor cells.
  • In addition, we have recently proposed a further categorization into 5 subgroups: the first 3 categories encompass solid lesions and include (i) solid cohesive carcinomas, (ii) alveolar carcinomas, and (iii) small cell carcinoma; the last subgroups include mucin-producing tumors which are (iv) solid papillary carcinomas and (v) cellular mucinous carcinomas.
  • Chromogranin A and synaptophysin have been considered as the most sensitive and specific neuroendocrine markers in NEBC.
  • Moreover, it has been demonstrated that mucinous and neuroendocrine carcinomas are transcriptionally distinct from conventional invasive ductal carcinomas.
  • The clinical effect of neuroendocrine breast cancer is still a matter of debate; however, when compared with unselected breast cancers, NEBCs show a less aggressive clinical behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Chromogranin A / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20306832.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Synaptophysin
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20. Travis WD: Advances in neuroendocrine lung tumors. Ann Oncol; 2010 Oct;21 Suppl 7:vii65-71
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  • [Title] Advances in neuroendocrine lung tumors.
  • Pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) tumors include a spectrum of tumors from the low-grade typical carcinoid (TC) and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid (AC) to the high-grade large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • Also both LCNEC and SCLC can demonstrate histologic heterogeneity with other major histologic types of lung carcinoma such as adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, but is not characteristic of TC or AC.
  • The diagnosis of SCLC, TC and AC can be made by light microscopy without the need for special tests in most cases, but for LCNEC it is required to demonstrate NE differentiation by immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy.

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  • (PMID = 20943645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Angelini C, Crippa S, Uggeri F, Bonardi C, Sartori P, Uggeri F: Colorectal cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation in a child. Pediatr Surg Int; 2005 Oct;21(10):839-40
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  • [Title] Colorectal cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation in a child.
  • Colorectal cancer is extremely rare in children and presents with a poor prognosis because of the delay in diagnosis and lack of histological differentiation.
  • We report a case of a sigmoid colon carcinoma with areas of neuroendocrine cells in a 12-year-old patient without familial occurrence of colorectal cancer.
  • Twenty-six months from initial diagnosis she is alive with evidence of disease.
  • The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the previously reported cases of colorectal cancer in children are also reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16177922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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22. Bollito ER, Pacchioni D, Lopez-Beltran A, Volante M, Terrone C, Casetta G, Mari M, DePompa R, Cappia S, Papotti M: Immunohistochemical study of neuroendocrine differentiation in primary glandular lesions and tumors of the urinary bladder. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2005 Aug;27(4):218-24
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical study of neuroendocrine differentiation in primary glandular lesions and tumors of the urinary bladder.
  • OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are uncommon in primary adenocarcinoma (AC) and other glandular lesions of the bladder, with no recent study series concerning its significance in differential diagnosis, prognosis or biologic significance.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Sixteen primary bladder AC (enteric-type [n = 71, mucinous [n = 6] and not otherwise specified [NOS] [n = 31), 4 cases of urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation, 20 cases of glandular cystitis and 3 urachal remnants with intestinal metaplasia constituted the study series.
  • In addition, 20 specimens of normal-looking urothelium, 15 conventional urothelial carcinomas and 5 small cell carcinoma (SCC) cases were included for comparison.
  • NE differentiation included detection of chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and synaptophysin by immunohistochemistry.
  • NE differentiation in bladder AC subtypes resulted in highly significant differences between enteric or mucinous vs. NOS type (p = 0.0023).
  • NE differentiation was also different in urachal vs. nonurachal AC (p = 0.020) and primary bladder AC vs. conventional invasive urothelial carcinoma (p < 0.001).
  • One of 4 urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation had chromogranin A-immunoreactive cells, but this was not significant when compared with primary AC (p = 0.1).
  • Normal-looking bladder urothelium and conventional urothelial carcinoma specimens had no chromogranin A-immunoreactive cells.
  • No correlation was found between NE differentiation and outcome of primary bladder AC or urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary bladder AC, cystitis glandularis and urachal remnants with intestinal metaplasia showed variable degrees of NE differentiation, with no apparent clinical correlation or prognostic significance.
  • However, the absence of NE differentiation in NOS-type primary bladder AC may help in better defining this uncommon subtype of primary bladder AC.

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  • (PMID = 16220833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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23. Turbat-Herrera EA, Herrera GA: Electron microscopy renders the diagnostic capabilities of cytopathology more precise: an approach to everyday practice. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2005 Nov-Dec;29(6):475-82

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  • By the use of EM the authors can make specific final diagnoses, make the diagnosis more definitive, narrow the differential diagnosis, or determine the origin of a neoplasm with unknown primary site.
  • The common diagnostic dilemmas in the everyday practice of cytology are the following: mesothelioma vs. adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine differentiation or not, the distinction of melanoma from adenocarcinoma and sarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma vs. adenocarcinoma, and the origin of adenocarcinomas of unknown primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Mesothelioma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16316948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3123
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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24. Jung JY, Kim YJ, Kim HM, Kim HJ, Park SW, Song SY, Chung JB, Kang CM, Pyo JY, Yang WI, Bang S: Hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas combined with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Gut Liver; 2010 Mar;4(1):98-102
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  • [Title] Hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas combined with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Hepatoid carcinoma is a primary extrahepatic carcinoma whose morphology, immunohistochemistry, and behavior are similar to those of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The most common sites of extrahepatic carcinoma are the stomach and ovary, but nine cases of hepatocellular differentiation of the pancreas have been reported in the literature.
  • We report another case of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas that was associated with the development of a pancreatic endocrine carcinoma in a 46-year-old man.
  • He underwent a conventional Whipple operation, and light microscopy showed adenocarcinoma that was immunopositive for AFP, hepatocyte antigen, cytokeratin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin.
  • Although hepatoid differentiation was not shown unequivocally histologically, other immunohistochemistry findings supported the diagnosis of hepatoid carcinoma combined with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • This report describes why hepatoid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a pancreatic mass, especially when serum AFP is elevated.

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2007 Jan;31(1):146-52 [17197931.001]
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  • (PMID = 20479919.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-1212
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut and liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut Liver
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2871600
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hepatoid carcinoma / Neuroendocrine carcinoma / Pancreas
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25. Ather MH, Abbas F, Faruqui N, Israr M, Pervez S: Correlation of three immunohistochemically detected markers of neuroendocrine differentiation with clinical predictors of disease progression in prostate cancer. BMC Urol; 2008;8:21
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  • [Title] Correlation of three immunohistochemically detected markers of neuroendocrine differentiation with clinical predictors of disease progression in prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The importance of immuno-histological detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma with respect to disease at presentation and Gleason grade is gaining acceptance.
  • There is limited literature on the relative significance of three commonly used markers of NE differentiation i.e.
  • In the current work we have assessed the correlation of immuno-histological detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma with respect to disease at presentation and Gleason grade and to determine the relative value of various markers.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive samples of malignant prostatic specimens (Transurethral resection of prostate or radical retropubic prostatectomy) from 84 patients between January 1991 and December 1998 were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining (PAP technique) using selected neuroendocrine tumor markers i.e.
  • According to the stage at diagnosis, patients were divided into three groups.

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  • (PMID = 19115997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2490
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628675
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26. Petrović M, Tomić I, Ilić S: [Neuroendocrine differentiation as a survival prognostic factor in advanced non-small cell lung cancer]. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2007 Aug;64(8):525-9
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation as a survival prognostic factor in advanced non-small cell lung cancer].
  • In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) neuroendocrine differentiation exists in 10-30% of patients.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and influence of neuroendocrine differentiation on survival of treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: A clinical trial included 158 patients (74% males and 26% females), with the diagnosis of NSCLC, determined by histological verification.
  • RESULTS: A total of 53 patients (34%) had NSCLC with neuroendocrine differentiation, confirmed rather in large cell lung cancer and lung adenocarcinoma (66.7% and 40%, respectively).
  • The median survival time in the patients with the neuroendocrine expression as compared to those without the expression was 15.6 vs 10.8 months; one year survival time with the expression compared to those without the expression achieved in 62% vs 27% of the patients, (< 0.001); a two-year survival time noted in 30% of the patients (p = 0.000).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that almost the third of the advanced NSCLC has neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Chromogranin A / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17874719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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27. Volante M, Marci V, Andrejevic-Blant S, Tavaglione V, Sculli MC, Tampellini M, Papotti M: Increased neuroendocrine cells in resected metastases compared to primary colorectal adenocarcinomas. Virchows Arch; 2010 Nov;457(5):521-7
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  • [Title] Increased neuroendocrine cells in resected metastases compared to primary colorectal adenocarcinomas.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation has been described in rectal adenocarcinomas receiving neoadjuvant therapy prior to radical surgery, but its clinical relevance is controversial and no data are currently available in colorectal carcinoma metastases as compared to primary tumors.
  • The presence of chromogranin A positive tumor cells was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry on surgical specimens from 54 primary colorectal carcinomas and their corresponding metastases, resected at diagnosis or during tumor progression.
  • In primary tumors, neuroendocrine differentiation was found in 12/54 cases (22.2%) as compared to 25/54 metastatic lesions (46.3%; p = 0.01).
  • The presence of neuroendocrine phenotype was not correlated with any clinical pathological parameter nor with a different proliferation index.
  • However, patients having neuroendocrine cells in the primary tumor had a significantly shorter survival from the time of metastatic spread than those having not (33.3 vs. 55.5 months; p = 0.04).
  • In summary, our data show that colorectal carcinoma metastases contain a higher percentage of neuroendocrine differentiated cells as compared to their corresponding primaries, a finding possibly related to the influence of chemotherapy in neuroendocrine differentiation during colorectal carcinoma progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neuroendocrine Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20812018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A
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28. Fiorito C, Lucca I, Oderda M, Mondino P, Berta G, Cattaneo EA, Valentino F, Zitella A, Pacchioni D: [Neuroendocrine bladder cancer: oncological emergency?]. Urologia; 2008 Jan-Mar;75(1):57-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine bladder cancer: oncological emergency?].
  • Neuroendocrine bladder cancer is extremely rare, with an estimated incidence of 0.5%- 0.7%.
  • In bladder cancers there is no evident connection between the neuroendocrine phenotypic expression and the clinical history.
  • METHODS. We are here describing three case reports of bladder carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, which is extremely aggressive and leads rapidly to death.
  • CONCLUSIONS. Considering the quick evolution and progression of any variant of the neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder, urologists and anesthetists should see them as real oncological emergencies.

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  • (PMID = 21086378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-5603
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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29. Mosca A, Berruti A, Russo L, Torta M, Dogliotti L: The neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cancer: basic and clinical aspects. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005;28(11 Suppl International):141-5
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  • [Title] The neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cancer: basic and clinical aspects.
  • Most of the conventional adenocarcinomas of the prostate display focal neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation at diagnosis, usually revealed by immunohistochemistry as solitary or clusters of cells, in the context of predominantly exocrine tumors.
  • Even though the biological and clinical significance of NE differentiation in prostate cancer is still to be elucidated, NE phenotype is emerging as an important factor in the prognosis, evolution and progression of prostate cancer.
  • NE differentiation appears to be a dynamic phenomenon.
  • Pre-clinical and clinical studies demonstrated a direct stimulation of NE differentiation by androgen-suppression therapy, resulting in a dramatic increase in the number of cells expressing NE markers.
  • Even in hormone refractory disease, NE differentiation is a time-dependent phenomenon and is not influenced by conventional antineoplastic treatments.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Apoptosis. Cell Division. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / analysis. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Phenotype. Receptors, Androgen / analysis. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16625864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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30. Roy S, Dhingra KK, Gupta P, Khurana N, Gupta B, Meher R: Acinic cell carcinoma with extensive neuroendocrine differentiation: a diagnostic challenge. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Jun;3(2):163-8
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  • [Title] Acinic cell carcinoma with extensive neuroendocrine differentiation: a diagnostic challenge.
  • Primary salivary gland carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation is of rare occurrence, especially so in the parotid gland.
  • Amongst the various reported primary tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation, acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) one such tumor.
  • Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) suggested diagnosis of Pleomorphic Adenoma.
  • Initial histopathological examination of the tumor was suggestive of neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Immunoexpression of S-100, Neuron specific Enolase (NSE), Chromogranin A and Synaptophysin confirmed the diagnosis.
  • The possibility of neuroendocrine differentiation in a primary salivary gland tumor should be kept in mind whenever a salivary gland tumor shows only neuroendocrine histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenolymphoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] Pathobiology. 1990;58(4):212-20 [1701303.001]
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  • (PMID = 19644544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acinic cell / Carcinoma / Chromogranin / Neuroendocrine / Parotid / Warthin’s
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31. Kato T, Terashima T, Tomida S, Yamaguchi T, Kawamura H, Kimura N, Ohtani H: Cytokeratin 20-positive large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon. Pathol Int; 2005 Aug;55(8):524-9
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 20-positive large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon.
  • Herein is presented a case of cytokeratin (CK) 20-positive large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon, in which the tumor was clinically at stage IV and located in the ascending colon.
  • No areas showed differentiation toward adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • With these features, the tumor was diagnosed as a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon.
  • The autopsy confirmed this diagnosis without detectable tumors in the lungs.
  • Most neuroendocrine carcinomas do not express CK 20, with the exception of Merkel cell carcinomas, and most colorectal adenocarcinomas express CK 20.
  • To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present case is the first CK 20-positive, CK 7-negative colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma to be described, suggesting a link between colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma and conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15998383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20
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32. Volante M, Righi L, Asioli S, Bussolati G, Papotti M: Goblet cell carcinoids and other mixed neuroendocrine/nonneuroendocrine neoplasms. Virchows Arch; 2007 Aug;451 Suppl 1:S61-9
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoids and other mixed neuroendocrine/nonneuroendocrine neoplasms.
  • Within the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors arising in different organs, intermediate and controversial entities exist displaying a coexistence of neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine cell populations, and that are grouped under terms such as "goblet cell carcinoid", "mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinoma", "combined carcinomas", or "adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation".
  • These tumors may display variable amounts of the two components, potentially ranging from 1 to 99%, and variable structural patterns, ranging from single scattered neuroendocrine cells to a well-defined neuroendocrine tumor cell component organized in typical organoid, trabecular, or solid growth patterns.
  • In the present report, the main characteristics of tumors showing mixed neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine features will be described, using morphological patterns and site of origin as schematic guidelines.

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  • (PMID = 17684764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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33. McCluggage WG, Kennedy K, Busam KJ: An immunohistochemical study of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas: Neoplasms that are commonly TTF1 positive and which may express CK20 and P63. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):525-32
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  • [Title] An immunohistochemical study of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas: Neoplasms that are commonly TTF1 positive and which may express CK20 and P63.
  • Cervical small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) are uncommon but highly aggressive neoplasms.
  • This is important as management is critically dependent on the correct histologic diagnosis.
  • In 2 cases, adjacent foci of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) contained scattered individual chromogranin positive cells, raising the possibility that some cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas arise from neuroendocrine cells in AIS.
  • Our results illustrate that a proportion of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas are negative with broad spectrum cytokeratins and some of the commonly used neuroendocrine markers.
  • TTF1 positivity is extremely common and may be a useful marker of a neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • It is of no value in exclusion of a pulmonary primary. p16 is almost always positive in cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas, possibly owing to an association with oncogenic human papillomavirus, although other mechanisms of expression are also possible.
  • Cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas may be p63 positive, illustrating that this marker is not specific for squamous differentiation.
  • CK20 and neurofilament positivity in some cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas is in keeping with a Merkel cell immunophenotype, similar to that described in SCNECs in other organs.
  • CD99 staining in a cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma should not result in misdiagnosis as a neoplasm in the Ewing family of tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Young Adult


34. Chang F, Vu C, Chandra A, Meenan J, Herbert A: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: cytomorphological and immunocytochemical evaluation. Cytopathology; 2006 Feb;17(1):10-7
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: cytomorphological and immunocytochemical evaluation.
  • OBJECTIVES: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) is increasingly used in preoperative localization and diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).
  • RESULTS: All cases except one showed characteristic cytomorphological features sufficient for their recognition and separation from pancreatic adenocarcinoma and other lesions.
  • The most helpful cytological features that facilitated the cytological diagnosis of NET were a richly cellular aspirate with a monotonous, poorly cohesive population of small cells with a speckled or dusty chromatin pattern and plasmacytoid morphology.
  • The neuroendocrine differentiation of these tumours was further confirmed by immunocytochemistry.
  • By adherence to the characteristic cytomorphological criteria of pancreatic NET together with collection of suitable material for ancillary immunocytochemical stains, cytopathologists could reach a correct diagnosis in most instances.
  • [MeSH-major] Endosonography / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16417560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Stelow EB, Moskaluk CA, Mills SE: The mismatch repair protein status of colorectal small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Nov;30(11):1401-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The mismatch repair protein status of colorectal small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC) of the colorectum is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy.
  • It can be associated with conventional-type adenocarcinoma, and an overlying adenoma can often be identified.
  • Although some phenotypes (eg, mucinous adenocarcinoma) have been shown to be associated with deficient mismatch repair (MMR) and thus microsatellite instability (MSI), the MMR protein status of colorectal SCNCs has not been investigated.
  • Fifteen SCNCs were identified on the basis of previous descriptions and the World Health Organization histologic criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary small cell carcinoma and immunohistochemical evidence of epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • All tumors showed immunoreactivity with antibodies to pancytokeratin and with antibodies to at least 1 neuroendocrine antigen.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17063080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / G-T mismatch-binding protein; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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36. Ronellenfitsch U, Ströbel P, Schwarzbach MH, Staiger WI, Gragert D, Kähler G: A composite adenoendocrine carcinoma of the stomach arising from a neuroendocrine tumor. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Nov;11(11):1573-5
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  • [Title] A composite adenoendocrine carcinoma of the stomach arising from a neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Gastric neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) are relatively uncommon neoplasms.
  • We report a case of a patient with autoimmune body gastritis and a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the stomach, which was removed with endoscopic full-thickness resection in sano upon signs of invasive growth several years after its first diagnosis.
  • Histological examination surprisingly showed a composite glandular-endocrine gastric carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17436049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A
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37. Sharifzadeh S, Modjtahedi H, Jedi Tehrani M, Bayat A, Ghaderi A: Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against an antigen on the surface of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. Iran J Immunol; 2007 Dec;4(4):206-14
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  • [Title] Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against an antigen on the surface of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • BACKGROUND: Lung carcinoma is a multiple type cancer comprising of small cell and non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: A murine monoclonal antibody (ME3D11) reactive with human NSCLC was selected after immunization of BALB/c mice with a human large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, and was tested by immunofloursence staining and Western blot analysis.
  • This antigen is expressed on the cell surface of all NSCLC and a few carcinoma cell lines.
  • CONCLUSIONS: High degree of binding of this monoclonal antibody to NSCLC and some other carcinoma cells warrants further studies on its potential use in diagnosis and therapy of cancer by conjugation to drugs, toxins or radionuclides.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / immunology. Membrane Proteins / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18057578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-1383
  • [Journal-full-title] Iranian journal of immunology : IJI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Iran J Immunol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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38. Liao CP, Zhong C, Saribekyan G, Bading J, Park R, Conti PS, Moats R, Berns A, Shi W, Zhou Z, Nikitin AY, Roy-Burman P: Mouse models of prostate adenocarcinoma with the capacity to monitor spontaneous carcinogenesis by bioluminescence or fluorescence. Cancer Res; 2007 Aug 1;67(15):7525-33
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  • [Title] Mouse models of prostate adenocarcinoma with the capacity to monitor spontaneous carcinogenesis by bioluminescence or fluorescence.
  • Here, we describe the improvement of the conditional Pten deletion model of prostate adenocarcinoma by combining it with either a conditional luciferase or enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter line.
  • By comparing the distribution of phenotypically distinct populations of epithelial cells in cancer tissues, we noted that the degree of hyperplasia of cells with neuroendocrine differentiation significantly increases in the recurrent cancer relative to the primary cancer, a characteristic which may parallel the appearance of a neuroendocrine phenotype in human androgen depletion-independent cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Luminescent Measurements. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Green Fluorescent Proteins. Humans. Luciferases. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / physiology


39. Uphoff J, Woziwodzki J, Schattka SO, Kollias A: [Loss of differentiation of a prostate adenocarcinoma after hormone therapy: the example of a metastasis in the spongy body of the penis]. Aktuelle Urol; 2008 Sep;39(5):373-7
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  • [Title] [Loss of differentiation of a prostate adenocarcinoma after hormone therapy: the example of a metastasis in the spongy body of the penis].
  • Metastases in the penis only occur at an advanced state of the tumour and with a high dedifferentiation, e. g., ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Changes in the morphology of the prostate carcinoma are specially known for the occurrence of small-cell neuroendocrine and undifferentiated carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Penile Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Penis / pathology. Penis / surgery. Prostate / pathology. Prostate / surgery. Prostatectomy

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  • (PMID = 18798127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7868
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Diphosphonates; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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40. Evans AJ, Humphrey PA, Belani J, van der Kwast TH, Srigley JR: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostate: a clinicopathologic summary of 7 cases of a rare manifestation of advanced prostate cancer. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jun;30(6):684-93
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostate: a clinicopathologic summary of 7 cases of a rare manifestation of advanced prostate cancer.
  • Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer is typically detected by immunohistochemistry as single cells in conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • Prostatic NE tumors, such as carcinoid or small cell carcinoma, are rare and large cell NE carcinoma (LCNEC) is described only in case reports.
  • In 6 cases, there was a history of adenocarcinoma treated with hormone therapy for a mean of 2.4 years (range: 2 to 3 y).
  • The mean patient age at diagnosis with LCNEC was 67 years (range: 43 to 81 y).
  • In 6 cases, there were foci of admixed adenocarcinoma, 4 of which showed hormone therapy effects.
  • LCNEC of prostate is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that typically manifests after long-term hormonal therapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma and likely arises through clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16723845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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41. Kontic M, Stojsic J, Kacar-Kukric V, Jekic B, Bunjevacki V: Multidisciplinary approach in diagnosis of lung carcinoma. Exp Oncol; 2010 Jul;32(2):111-3
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  • [Title] Multidisciplinary approach in diagnosis of lung carcinoma.
  • AIM: To employ multidisciplinary approach in order to make the correct diagnosis of lung carcinoma clinically and morphologically mimicking lymphoma.
  • Further, tumor cells expressed neuroendocrine mar kers: synaptophysin, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), CD56/NCAM, CD57/Leu-7 and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5).
  • Final diagnosis of large cell lung neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) was established.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Morphological pattern of tumor complied with large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but large cell lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation was proved immunohistochemically and confirmed by genetic analysis of p53 mutations in tumor tissue sample.
  • Multidisciplinary approach in diagnosis of lung carcinoma is useful for its final diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20693974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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42. Stoll LM, Johnson MW, Gabrielson E, Askin F, Clark DP, Li QK: The utility of napsin-A in the identification of primary and metastatic lung adenocarcinoma among cytologically poorly differentiated carcinomas. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Dec 25;118(6):441-9
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  • [Title] The utility of napsin-A in the identification of primary and metastatic lung adenocarcinoma among cytologically poorly differentiated carcinomas.
  • However, it is also expressed in a variety of other tumors, particularly neuroendocrine neoplasms and, to a much lesser degree, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • Napsin-A, which is expressed in lung tissue, is a relatively new marker for lung adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: The archives of the Department of Pathology at The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for cytologic cases of poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma that were histologically confirmed.
  • Tissue microarrays of lung adenocarcinoma also were examined.
  • Napsin-A was not detected in small cell carcinomas or in other carcinomas of nonlung origin except for renal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although TTF-1 had a higher sensitivity, napsin-A was useful as a surrogate marker when encountering a poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma or an unknown primary tumor, particularly in cytologic specimens and difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20830690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.23.- / NAPSA protein, human
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43. Mai KT, Roustan Delatour NL, Assiri A, Al-Maghrabi H: Secondary prostatic adenocarcinoma: a cytopathological study of 50 cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Feb;35(2):91-5
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  • [Title] Secondary prostatic adenocarcinoma: a cytopathological study of 50 cases.
  • Positive diagnosis of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) can be made by microscopic examination of the cytologic specimens and immunostaining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate acid phosphatase (PAP).
  • In addition to the frequency of high-grade PAC, awareness of the negative immunoreactivity to PSA and PAP, the discrepancy in the histopathological patterns between the primary and secondary tumors, especially the frequent neuroendocrine differentiation, are helpful features for the diagnosis of metastases of prostatic origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17230567.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Molenaar JP, Baten A, Blokx WA, Hoogendam A: Development of carcinoid tumour in hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Eur Urol; 2009 Nov;56(5):874-7; quiz 876
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  • [Title] Development of carcinoid tumour in hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • We present the case of an 81-yr-old man with a prostatic adenocarcinoma and a metastatic carcinoid.
  • Simultaneous occurrence of hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate and a carcinoid has been described before.
  • The pathogenesis of this coincidence is largely unclear; however, androgen deprivation therapy might play a key role in neuroendocrine differentiation of adenocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19171417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
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45. Shanks JH, Iczkowski KA: Divergent differentiation in urothelial carcinoma and other bladder cancer subtypes with selected mimics. Histopathology; 2009 Jun;54(7):885-900
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  • [Title] Divergent differentiation in urothelial carcinoma and other bladder cancer subtypes with selected mimics.
  • Conventional urothelial carcinoma accounts for most carcinomas of the urinary tract lining.
  • A variety of unusual architectural patterns of urothelial carcinoma, such as the nested, microcystic and inverted variants, can be mistaken for reactive processes or benign tumours.
  • In addition, urothelial carcinoma has a propensity to demonstrate divergent differentiation with glandular, squamous, small cell neuroendocrine, lymphoepithelioma-like, sarcomatoid or other elements.
  • Pure squamous carcinoma or adenocarcinoma (the latter in particular) can be difficult to distinguish from contiguous or metastatic spread.
  • Molecular genetic evidence has emerged recently supporting a close relationship between urothelial carcinoma and various divergent elements.
  • Sarcomatoid carcinoma and its differential diagnosis with other spindle cell lesions of urinary tract will be covered in a separate review.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Cystitis / diagnosis. Cystitis / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Radiation Injuries / diagnosis. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Urothelium / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19178589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 152
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46. Dietrich CF, Ignee A, Braden B, Barreiros AP, Ott M, Hocke M: Improved differentiation of pancreatic tumors using contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 May;6(5):590-597.e1
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  • [Title] Improved differentiation of pancreatic tumors using contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopic ultrasound is a widely accepted imaging method for staging of ductal adenocarcinoma and the localization of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.
  • We prospectively evaluated conventional color Doppler imaging and contrast-enhanced endoscopic Doppler ultrasound (CE-EDUS) as a new imaging technique for further characterization and differentiation of solid pancreatic tumors.
  • METHODS: From 300 patients with pancreatic lesions investigated using contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound we could finally include 93 patients with an undetermined, solitary, predominantly solid, lesion 40 mm or less, and a definite histologically proven diagnosis.
  • Fifty-seven of 62 patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas showed a hypovascularity of the tumor using CE-EDUS.
  • All other pancreatic lesions revealed an isovascular or hypervascular pattern using contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (20 neuroendocrine tumors, 10 serous microcystic adenomas, and 1 teratoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Endosonography / methods. Image Enhancement. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatitis / pathology. Pancreatitis / ultrasonography. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Dec;5(12):662-3 [18852727.001]
  • (PMID = 18455699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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47. Antoine M: [Contribution of immunohistochemistry to the management of lung cancer: from morphology to diagnosis and treatment]. Rev Pneumol Clin; 2007 Jun;63(3):183-92
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  • [Title] [Contribution of immunohistochemistry to the management of lung cancer: from morphology to diagnosis and treatment].
  • We detail here the contribution of IHC to the classification of lung cancer: small-cell lung cancer and other neuroendocrine tumors, basaloid carcinoma, large-cell carcinoma.
  • Using IHC techniques, pathologists can now determine with certainty that an intrathoracic adenocarcinoma is primary or secondary.
  • The distinction is less clear for large-cell carcinoma or squamous-cell carcinoma, or for tumors with a pleural or mediastinal presentation.
  • Finally, IHC contributes to prognosis (proliferation markers, differentiation markers) or prediction of therapeutic response (chemotherapy or targeted therapies).
  • Other morphological techniques such as hybridization in situ or molecular biology techniques will further complete the histological diagnosis in the future.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Forecasting. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / pathology. Prognosis. Sarcoma / pathology. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17675942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0761-8417
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de pneumologie clinique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Pneumol Clin
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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48. Kumaki N, Umemura S, Kajiwara H, Itoh J, Itoh Y, Osamura RY: Immunohistochemical analysis of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs): use of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to demonstrate direct NE differentiation from GCTs. Acta Histochem Cytochem; 2007 Dec 21;40(6):143-51
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs): use of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to demonstrate direct NE differentiation from GCTs.
  • Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation is infrequent in testicular tumors and its histogenesis is not well understood.
  • The present study is aimed at elucidating the pathway of neuroendocrine differentiation in germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis.
  • In the analysis of 46 germ cell tumor components from 23 testicular tumors, we focused on GCTs with neuroendocrine differentiation, 7 teratoma, 1 embryonal carcinoma and 1 neuroendocrine carcinoma by immunohistochemical study and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis.
  • NE marker positive cells were noted in the tumor with collision of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma (E&T tumor), in the immature columnar cells of transitional form of embryonal carcinoma to teratoma (E-T cells) and neuroendocrine carcinoma cells, in addition to the well known mature intestinal mucosa in teratoma.
  • Another finding, indicating the intimate relation between embryonal carcinoma and neuroendocrine differentiation, is that neuroendocrine carcinoma expressed a marker of embryonal carcinoma, CD30.
  • The present results indicated that the NE cells might be differentiated from embryonal carcinoma, a view that has not been proposed before, but that is made in the present study using CLSM.

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  • (PMID = 18224246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-5991
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta histochemica et cytochemica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Histochem Cytochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2156079
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) / embryonal carcinoma / germ cell tumor / neuroendocrine cell / testis
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49. Iglesias-Garcia J, Larino-Noia J, Abdulkader I, Forteza J, Dominguez-Munoz JE: Quantitative endoscopic ultrasound elastography: an accurate method for the differentiation of solid pancreatic masses. Gastroenterology; 2010 Oct;139(4):1172-80
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  • [Title] Quantitative endoscopic ultrasound elastography: an accurate method for the differentiation of solid pancreatic masses.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Qualitative endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) elastography is an accurate but subjective tool for the differential diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses.
  • We evaluated the accuracy of quantitative, second-generation EUS elastography in the differential diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses.
  • Final diagnosis was based on histology of surgical specimens and cytology of EUS-fine-needle aspiration samples.
  • The final diagnoses were pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 49), inflammatory mass (n = 27), malignant neuroendocrine tumor (n = 6), metastatic oat-cell lung cancer (n = 2), pancreatic lymphoma (n = 1), and pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumor (n = 1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative, second-generation EUS elastography is useful for differential diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20600020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Vrettou E, Hytiroglou P, Sikas N, Soultoyannis I, Goodman ZD: Hepatic adenocarcinoma expressing inhibin in a young patient on oral contraceptives. Virchows Arch; 2005 May;446(5):560-5
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  • [Title] Hepatic adenocarcinoma expressing inhibin in a young patient on oral contraceptives.
  • A case of primary hepatic carcinoma is reported, which occurred in a 24-year-old woman with a 10-year history of oral contraceptive use, and demonstrated unique morphologic and immunohistochemical features.
  • The neoplastic cells were mostly arranged in trabecular and pseudoglandular growth patterns simulating hepatocellular carcinoma; however, in focal areas, small cystic, organoid and tubular patterns predominated.
  • Immunohistochemical stains showed a phenotype consistent with biliary differentiation (positive staining for cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9 antigen).
  • The tumor cells were negative for markers that would be suggestive of hepatocytic or neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • However, no definite evidence of gonadal stromal, trophoblastic, or adrenocortical differentiation was identified on extensive immunohistochemical work-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined / administration & dosage. Inhibins / analysis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15815932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Contraceptives, Oral, Combined; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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51. Tang Y, Wang L, Goloubeva O, Khan MA, Lee D, Hussain A: The relationship of neuroendocrine carcinomas to anti-tumor therapies in TRAMP mice. Prostate; 2009 Dec 1;69(16):1763-73
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  • [Title] The relationship of neuroendocrine carcinomas to anti-tumor therapies in TRAMP mice.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine differentiation and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) have been linked to androgen deprivation in prostate cancers.
  • No previous study has directly connected neuroendocrine phenotypes to chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Using the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, we studied tumor progression after hormone ablation (castration) and/or chemotherapy (docetaxel), and analyzed the incidence of NEC as a function of the anti-tumor therapies.
  • The NEC-bearing mice had smaller tumors in their prostates and lived longer than mice with adenocarcinoma (ADC-only).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / chemically induced. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19691128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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52. Aydiner F, Erinanç H, Savaş B, Erden E, Karayalçin K: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: emphasis on differential diagnosis from aggressive tumors of the pancreas. Turk J Gastroenterol; 2006 Sep;17(3):219-22
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  • [Title] Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: emphasis on differential diagnosis from aggressive tumors of the pancreas.
  • Although it is discussed among pancreatic epithelial tumors, many cases do not express cytokeratin but show neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Morphologic features of solid pseudopapillary tumor may be confused with pancreatic endocrine neoplasm and ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • All cases showed features of histiocytic and neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Epithelial differentiation was identified in two cases.
  • We conclude that immunohistochemistry is incapable of giving additional information for the diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumor due to different lines of differentiation of tumor cells.
  • We believe that macroscopic and microscopic features (using hematoxylin and eosin stain) are more important for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16941259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-4948
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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53. Leja J, Essaghir A, Essand M, Wester K, Oberg K, Tötterman TH, Lloyd R, Vasmatzis G, Demoulin JB, Giandomenico V: Novel markers for enterochromaffin cells and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine carcinomas. Mod Pathol; 2009 Feb;22(2):261-72
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  • [Title] Novel markers for enterochromaffin cells and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • The gene expression profile of metastasizing serotonin-producing neuroendocrine carcinomas, which arise from enterochromaffin cells in the jejunum and ileum, is still largely unknown.
  • The aim of this study was to identify genes and proteins, which are preferentially expressed by neuroendocrine carcinoma and enterochromaffin cells and therefore potential novel biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets.
  • Six carcinoma specimens and six normal ileal mucosas were profiled by Affymetrix microarrays.
  • We identified six novel marker genes for neuroendocrine carcinoma cells: paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2), testican-1 precursor (SPOCK1), serpin A10 (SERPINA10), glutamate receptor ionotropic AMPA 2 (GRIA2), G protein-coupled receptor 112 (GPR112) and olfactory receptor family 51 subfamily E member 1 (OR51E1).
  • GRIA2 is specifically expressed by neuroendocrine carcinoma cells whereas the others are also expressed by normal enterochromaffin cells.
  • GPR112 and OR51E1 encode proteins associated with the plasma membrane and may therefore become targets for antibody-based diagnosis and therapy.
  • However, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 14 (CXCL14) and NK2 transcription factor related locus 3 Drosophila (NKX2-3) are expressed to a lower level in liver metastases than in primary tumors and normal enterochromaffin cells, which implies a role in neuroendocrine carcinoma differentiation.
  • In conclusion, this study provides a list of genes, which possess relatively specific expression to enterochromaffin and neuroendocrine carcinoma cells and genes with differential expression between primary tumors and metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Enterochromaffin Cells / chemistry. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Ileal Neoplasms / genetics. Ileum / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18953328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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54. Ward SC, Huang J, Tickoo SK, Thung SN, Ladanyi M, Klimstra DS: Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver exhibits immunohistochemical evidence of both hepatocyte and bile duct differentiation. Mod Pathol; 2010 Sep;23(9):1180-90
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  • [Title] Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver exhibits immunohistochemical evidence of both hepatocyte and bile duct differentiation.
  • Fibrolamellar carcinoma is a rare malignant primary liver neoplasm with characteristic histological features that typically arises in young patients without viral hepatitis or cirrhosis.
  • In contrast to classical hepatocellular carcinoma, individual cases of fibrolamellar carcinoma have been reported to express cytokeratin 7.
  • In addition, ultrastructural and serological studies have suggested that fibrolamellar carcinoma may show neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • The cellular differentiation of fibrolamellar carcinoma has not been studied and little is reported about its immunohistochemical profile.
  • We studied 26 cases of fibrolamellar carcinoma and 62 cases of classical hepatocellular carcinoma by immunohistochemistry for HepPar1, glypican-3, pCEA, CD10, alpha-fetoprotein, cytokeratin 20, neuroendocrine markers, and surrogate markers for biliary differentiation (cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, EpCAM, mCEA, B72.3, and CA19.9).
  • Tumor cells of fibrolamellar carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma showed positive signals for albumin mRNA by in situ hybridization in all cases.
  • Both tumor types stained uniformly positively with HepPar1 and most showed a canalicular staining pattern for pCEA, confirming their hepatocellular differentiation.
  • In addition, 39% of hepatocellular carcinoma cases and 59% of fibrolamellar carcinoma cases were positive for glypican-3.
  • All 22 fibrolamellar carcinoma cases tested showed positive staining for cytokeratin 7 and epithelial membrane antigen, whereas less than one-third of hepatocellular carcinoma cases were positive for these markers (P<0.0001).
  • Further, 36% of fibrolamellar carcinoma cases showed staining for B72.3, cytokeratin 19, EpCAM, or mCEA.
  • Minimal evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation in either tumor was found with any of the usual immunohistochemical markers used for this purpose.
  • Therefore, cytokeratin 7 and epithelial membrane antigen may be useful to differentiate between fibrolamellar carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • On the basis of immunohistochemistry, fibrolamellar carcinoma seems to show both hepatocellular and bile duct differentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20495535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma
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55. Săftoiu A, Vilmann P, Gorunescu F, Gheonea DI, Gorunescu M, Ciurea T, Popescu GL, Iordache A, Hassan H, Iordache S: Neural network analysis of dynamic sequences of EUS elastography used for the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Gastrointest Endosc; 2008 Dec;68(6):1086-94
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  • [Title] Neural network analysis of dynamic sequences of EUS elastography used for the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.
  • PATIENTS: The study group included, in total, 68 patients with normal pancreas (N = 22), chronic pancreatitis (N = 11), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (N = 32), and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (N = 3).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: To differentiate normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • RESULTS: Based on a cutoff of 175 for the mean hue histogram values recorded on the region of interest, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of differentiation of benign and malignant masses were 91.4%, 87.9%, and 89.7%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS elastography is a promising method that allows characterization and differentiation of normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer.
  • Future multicentric, randomized studies with adequate power will have to establish the clinical impact of this procedure for the differential diagnosis of focal pancreatic masses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cross-Sectional Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies


56. Kulshrestha R, Vijayan VK: Immunohistochemical staining on fine needle aspiration biopsy-cell block specimens in the differential diagnosis of lung cancers. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci; 2009 Jan-Mar;51(1):21-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining on fine needle aspiration biopsy-cell block specimens in the differential diagnosis of lung cancers.
  • AIM: To examine further the utility of immunohistochemical panel of antibodies to thyroid transcription factor [TTF-1], synaptophysin, chromogranin A [CgA], cytokeratin-pan, cytokeratin-7 [CK-7], cytokeratin-20 [CK-20], leucocyte common antigen [LCA], and carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] in cytologic cell block samples in the differential diagnosis of lung cancer.
  • RESULTS: Morphological diagnosis of non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) was made in 22/29 [76%] and small cell carcinoma in 7/29 (24%) cases.
  • Five of the seven (71.4%) cases of small cell carcinoma were CgA+/TTF-1+, 14.3% [1/7] were CgA+/ synaptophysin+/TTF-1-negative.
  • In one case, LCA positivity lead to the diagnosis of non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
  • Cytokeratin-pan positivity in squamous cell carcinomas [n=15] was seen to be related to cellular differentiation.
  • All the three cases of adenocarcinoma were CK-7+/CK-20 negative.
  • In one case with large cell carcinoma, CgA-positivity lead to recategorisation as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung / pathology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19317359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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57. Simon RA, di Sant'Agnese PA, Huang LS, Xu H, Yao JL, Yang Q, Liang S, Liu J, Yu R, Cheng L, Oh WK, Palapattu GS, Wei J, Huang J: CD44 expression is a feature of prostatic small cell carcinoma and distinguishes it from its mimickers. Hum Pathol; 2009 Feb;40(2):252-8
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  • [Title] CD44 expression is a feature of prostatic small cell carcinoma and distinguishes it from its mimickers.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate is a rare variant of prostatic cancer that shares morphologic similarity with prostatic adenocarcinoma of Gleason 5 pattern.
  • It has also been considered morphologically and immunohistochemically indistinguishable from small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of other origins.
  • We performed immunohistochemical study for CD44 expression in 11 cases of prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and compared its patterns of expression with 73 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma and 47 cases of small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of other organs.
  • Strong and diffuse membrane staining for CD44 was observed in 100% of the prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • In conventional adenocarcinomas of the prostate, positive staining was only seen in rare, scattered tumor cells; and CD44 staining was negative in most of the small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of nonprostate origin.
  • The difference in CD44 expression between small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the prostate and those of other organs are statistically significant (P < .001).
  • Our study demonstrates the utility of immunohistochemical staining for CD44 in distinguishing prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma from its mimickers including prostatic adenocarcinoma of Gleason 5 pattern and small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of other organs.
  • CD44 is the first marker that shows a high degree of tissue/organ specificity for small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Because CD44 is a putative marker of prostate cancer stem cells, the strong and diffuse expression of CD44 and the lack of expression of prostate luminal differentiation markers androgen receptor and prostatic specific antigen in prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas suggest that the tumor cells may retain cancer stem cell features.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18835619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA131183
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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58. Leibovitch I, Pinthus Y, Sella BA, Ramon J: [Plasma chromogranin-A (CgA)--a potential marker for diagnosis, monitoring and management of prostate cancer patients]. Harefuah; 2006 Jan;145(1):25-9, 78
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  • [Title] [Plasma chromogranin-A (CgA)--a potential marker for diagnosis, monitoring and management of prostate cancer patients].
  • INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine differentiation of prostatic adenocarcinoma is a recognized phenomenon, which is believed to parallel tumor progression to hormone refractory state.
  • Circulating CgA levels were shown to reflect neuroendocrine differentiation and were found to correlate with the stage and the state of hormone refractoriness.
  • Hence, CgA may become a marker for diagnosis, monitoring and management of prostate cancer patients.
  • CgA levels which reflect neuroendocrine differentiation of prostatic carcinoma may have a diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic role in the management of prostate cancer patients.


59. Stukavec J, Jirasek T, Mandys V, Denemark L, Havluj L, Sosna B, Kosmahl M, Zadorova Z: Poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma and intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: Description of an unusual case. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(12):879-84
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma and intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: Description of an unusual case.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors and intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms constitute histologically distinctive but relatively rare entities among pancreatic tumors.
  • Collision of these tumors is extremely rare and causes several diagnostic problems regarding the histopathologic differential diagnosis of other pancreatic epithelial tumors.
  • Here, we describe a new case of poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma combined with an intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm.
  • To disclose the relationship between the two histologic components, neuroendocrine differentiation was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy using double immunofluorescence labeling with chromogranin-A and CD57 antibodies.
  • Our results revealed a co-localization of both antigens in neuroendocrine cells of the intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm.
  • The finding has previously been described in non-neoplastic neuroendocrine cells.
  • Cells forming poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma showed a wide heterogeneity in immunoreactions.
  • Our results do not indicate a potential histogenetic similarity between these two neoplasms, which are dissimilar histologically, and underline the previous thesis that cells in intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm revealing neuroendocrine differentiation represent only a non-neoplastic cell admixture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17936521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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60. Grenacher L, Klauss M: [Computed tomography of pancreatic tumors]. Radiologe; 2009 Feb;49(2):107-23
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  • After the correct diagnosis of an adenocarcinoma has been made only 20% of all patients are shown to have a surgically resectable disease, but the overall survival rate is significantly higher after resection in combination with a multimodal tumor therapy strategy.
  • The reason is that the correct diagnosis of the resectability of the tumor is one of the main criteria for overall survival of these patients.
  • In some rare cases the differentiation between focal necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma can be difficult even with sophisticated protocols.
  • MDCT is an ideal tool for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors, metastases and for the differentiation of cystic pancreatic lesions such as pseudocysts, microcystic adenomas or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN).
  • Particularly, the differentiation of the latter into benign, borderline or malignant transformation is not always possible, but indirect signs, such as small nodules adjacent to the ductal wall, the diameter of the pancreatic duct, or a direct communication between cystic lesions and duct can be detected because of the high spatial resolution and is comparable to the findings in MRI.
  • Moreover MD-CT is an ideal procedure for the differentiation of local tumor stages in patients under neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / mortality. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnostic imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery. Pancreas / diagnostic imaging. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreatectomy. Pancreatic Pseudocyst / diagnostic imaging. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19137277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2102
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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61. Martin SK, Agarwal G, Lynch GR: Subcutaneous fat necrosis as the presenting feature of a pancreatic carcinoma: the challenge of differentiating endocrine and acinar pancreatic neoplasms. Pancreas; 2009 Mar;38(2):219-22
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  • [Title] Subcutaneous fat necrosis as the presenting feature of a pancreatic carcinoma: the challenge of differentiating endocrine and acinar pancreatic neoplasms.
  • The association between pancreatic panniculitis and pancreatic disease is well described, but differentiation among the neoplastic causes of the syndrome remains difficult due to substantial overlap in histological and immunohistochemical features.
  • We report a case of subcutaneous fat necrosis as the presenting feature in a 61-year-old man with metastatic carcinoma of pancreatic origin.
  • Previous pathological evaluation of the patient's liver biopsy led to an initial diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site.
  • Immunohistochemistry was consistent with neuroendocrine differentiation, but the patient rapidly decompensated and died before the evaluation was complete, leaving the definitive diagnosis in question.
  • In our review of the published reports of tumor types associated with pancreatic panniculitis, we found that immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy can and should be used in conjunction with clinical correlation to accurately differentiate neuroendocrine tumors from carcinomas with acinar cell features.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these tumors is necessary to determine prognosis and define appropriate therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Fat Necrosis / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Panniculitis / pathology. Skin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19238022.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Yamamoto Y, Watanabe Y, Horiuchi A, Yoshida M, Yukumi S, Sato K, Nakagawa H, Sugishita H, Ishida N, Ishikawa M, Ishikawa K, Kawachi K: Adenoendocrine carcinoma of the accessory papilla of the duodenum: report of a case. Surg Today; 2009;39(5):425-9
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  • [Title] Adenoendocrine carcinoma of the accessory papilla of the duodenum: report of a case.
  • This report describes a very rare case of an adenoendocrine carcinoma of the accessory papilla of the duodenum.
  • A biopsy revealed a small-cell carcinoma.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was a small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with adenomatous differentiation.
  • The final diagnosis was an adenoendocrine carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19408082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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63. Perez N, Castillo M, Santos Y, Truan D, Gutierrez R, Franco A, Palacin A, Bombi JA, Campo E, Fernandez PL: Carcinosarcoma of the prostate: two cases with distinctive morphologic and immunohistochemical findings. Virchows Arch; 2005 May;446(5):511-6
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  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the prostate: two cases with distinctive morphologic and immunohistochemical findings.
  • We describe here two new examples of CS in two patients aged 66 and 77 years, the first without previous history of prostate adenocarcinoma and the second with a 5-year history of acinar type prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • The diagnosis of CS was made on the cystoprostatectomy specimen in the first case and transurethral resection in the second case.
  • Both biphasic tumours exhibited papillary areas of ductal differentiation and conventional adenocarcinoma in the epithelial component, as well as malignant fibrous histiocytoma and angiosarcomatous areas in the first case and solid, poorly differentiated epithelial areas with neuroendocrine features in the second case.
  • The clinical course of the cases was divergent; the first patient is free of disease after radical surgery and adjuvant therapy and the other died 5 months after the diagnosis of CS, having already developed liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15821929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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64. Tafe LJ, Garg K, Chew I, Tornos C, Soslow RA: Endometrial and ovarian carcinomas with undifferentiated components: clinically aggressive and frequently underrecognized neoplasms. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jun;23(6):781-9
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  • Twenty tumors, entirely undifferentiated, consisted of sheets of dyshesive, ovoid cells with uniform, large vesicular nuclei, whereas 12 tumors contained combinations of differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma with undifferentiated components.
  • The tumors were frequently misdiagnosed; they received a wide range of diagnoses, including FIGO grade 2 or 3 endometrioid carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, high-grade sarcoma including endometrial stromal sarcoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, lymphoma, granulosa cell tumor and epithelioid sarcoma.
  • They were predominantly negative for neuroendocrine markers, smooth muscle markers and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor.
  • Endometrial and ovarian carcinomas with undifferentiated components have a broad histologic differential diagnosis, but they show specific histologic features that should enable accurate diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. DNA Mismatch Repair. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Microsatellite Instability. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20305618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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65. Pouessel D, Gallet B, Bibeau F, Avancès C, Iborra F, Sénesse P, Culine S: Liver metastases in prostate carcinoma: clinical characteristics and outcome. BJU Int; 2007 Apr;99(4):807-11
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  • [Title] Liver metastases in prostate carcinoma: clinical characteristics and outcome.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with liver metastases in prostate carcinoma.
  • Serum measurement of neuroendocrine markers showed increased levels of chromogranin A and neurone-specific enolase in 84% and 44% of patients, respectively.
  • Six patients had a pathological analysis; there were two different histological patterns in liver biopsies, i.e. four were adenocarcinomas with a moderate (one patient) or poor (three) differentiation and two were neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • One patient had hormone therapy for synchronous liver metastases at diagnosis as the first-line treatment; other patients were treated with chemotherapy.
  • They are frequently associated with neuroendocrine characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17155968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A
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66. Smirnova EA, Gurevich LE, Polikarpova SB, Kokosadze NV: [Gastric tumor of complex structure]. Arkh Patol; 2007 May-Jun;69(3):46-8
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  • The paper describes a case of gastric tumor comprising moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and atypical carcinoid with metastases of both types of tumor cells in the lymph nodes.
  • Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies of primary gastric tumor and lymph nodal metastases confirmed the presence of both differentiation types within one space-occupying lesion: such as goblet (mucin-producing) and neuroendocrine cells.
  • The differentiation varied in different fields of vision with a preponderance of low-grade ultrastructural differentiation cells.
  • Thus, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies of tumors not only verify their diagnosis and make a histogenetic differential diagnosis of various neoplasms, but also define the degree of their maturation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17722597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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67. Hemmings C, Broomfield A, Bean E, Whitehead M, Yip D: Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in colorectal carcinoma correlates with high but not low level gene amplification, as demonstrated by CISH. Pathology; 2009;41(4):356-60
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in colorectal carcinoma correlates with high but not low level gene amplification, as demonstrated by CISH.
  • AIM: To assess and compare immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with gene amplification as demonstrated by chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH), in colorectal adenocarcinoma.
  • There was no correlation between gene amplification status and a variety of other variables, including stage at diagnosis, mucinous differentiation, neuroendocrine differentiation, or loss of expression of mismatch repair proteins.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Amplification. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19404848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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68. Chen CH, Rowlands C, Sengupta SK, George RL, Parulekar W, Thain K, O'Malley F, Isotalo PA: Primary basaloid carcinoma of the nipple with associated squamous cell carcinoma in situ. Breast J; 2009 Jul-Aug;15(4):409-13
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  • [Title] Primary basaloid carcinoma of the nipple with associated squamous cell carcinoma in situ.
  • We describe a primary invasive adenocarcinoma of the nipple with extensive basaloid features that was also associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ and an aggressive behavior.
  • An excisional specimen showed a 1.7 cm nodule composed of invasive sheets and ribbons of basaloid cells with numerous mitoses, extensive tumor necrosis and evidence of glandular differentiation.
  • The differential diagnosis included a primary basaloid adenocarcinoma of the nipple, basal cell carcinoma of the nipple, neuroendocrine carcinoma, melanoma, basaloid variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma and metastatic disease.
  • Immunohistochemical profile of this tumor supported a primary basaloid adenocarcinoma of the nipple.
  • Although the initial sentinel lymph node biopsy was negative, within a year of diagnosis, the patient developed ipsilateral axillary node and pulmonary metastases.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of basaloid carcinoma to be documented in this anatomic site.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Nipples / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19601946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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69. Balachandra B, Marcus V, Jass JR: Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist. Histopathology; 2007 Jan;50(1):163-74
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  • The range of lesions that may present as poorly differentiated tumours includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing epithelial cytokeratins and other patterns of mixed differentiation, undifferentiated carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma and secondary tumours.
  • This review discusses the differential diagnosis of these neoplasms with the aid of short illustrative case studies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Pathology, Surgical / methods

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  • (PMID = 17204029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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70. Tang LH: Epithelial neoplasms of the appendix. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1612-20
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  • CONTEXT: The appendix gives rise to an array of epithelial neoplasms showing glandular or neuroendocrine differentiation, and some tumors with elements of both cell types.
  • Although some appendiceal neoplasms resemble their counterparts in the small and large intestines (conventional adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor), the appendix also gives rise to relatively unique entities including mucinous neoplasms and goblet cell carcinoid tumors, which present a challenge in pathologic classification and clinical management.
  • (1) adenocarcinoma, with specific focus on mucinous neoplasm;.
  • (2) goblet cell carcinoid tumor and associated adenocarcinoma; and (3) typical carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most important issue in pathologic assessment of epithelial tumors of the appendix is to understand the clinical implications inherent in the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21043814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Pacchioni D, Bosco M, Allia E, Mussa B, Mikuz G, Bussolati G: Microcystic urothelial cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation arising in renal pelvis. Report of a case. Virchows Arch; 2009 Feb;454(2):223-7
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  • [Title] Microcystic urothelial cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation arising in renal pelvis. Report of a case.
  • Microcystic urothelial cell carcinoma is a rare variant of urothelial cell carcinoma which occurs in the bladder and, rarely, in the renal pelvis.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation is uncommon in pure urothelial carcinoma and is more frequently found in neoplasms with glandular differentiation.
  • We report a case of microcystic urothelial cell carcinoma arising in renal pelvis and showing focal neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Microscopic examination disclosed invasive carcinoma with prominent microcystic features, with microcysts lined by low columnar and flat cells.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the urothelial histotype (positive for thrombomodulin, p63 and high-molecular-weight cytokeratins) and disclosed focal neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Pelvis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19002493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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72. Krokowski M, Hoch J, Feller AC, Bernd HW, Thorns C, Krueger S: Basal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation arising in a scar: A case report. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(10):4
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation arising in a scar: A case report.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cutaneous malignant tumor, may display neuroendocrine differentiation in very rare instances.
  • We here describe a case of a BCC with neuroendocrine differentiation that arose in a scar resulting from a trauma 75 years earlier.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation was proven by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.
  • The simultaneous occurrence of BCC development in a scar and neuroendocrine differentiation is quite rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Cicatrix / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19951622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Costantini M, Montalti R, Rossi G, Luisa L, Masetti M, Di Benedetto F, Giorgio G: Adenocarcinoid tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tract. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;16(4):455-7
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  • The term adenocarcinoid was first coined by Warkel et al in 1978 to describe a group of uncommon low-grade malignant appendiceal tumors with morphologic and histochemical evidence of both glandular (adenocarcinoma) and neuroendocrine (carcinoid) differentiation for which several terms have been used in the past.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Klatskin Tumor / pathology. Middle Aged. Ovarian Cysts / complications. Sjogren's Syndrome / complications. Tonsillectomy

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  • (PMID = 18480386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Schima W: MRI of the pancreas: tumours and tumour-simulating processes. Cancer Imaging; 2006;6:199-203
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  • The most important issues in pancreatic imaging are the detection and staging of pancreatic cancer, differentiation between cancer and focal pancreatitis, the characterization of cystic lesions and the search for neuroendocrine tumours.
  • Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1w fatsat 3D GRE images are helpful to delineate vessel infiltration by adenocarcinoma and to assess the aetiology of cystic masses.
  • Due to its superior soft tissue contrast, MR imaging is also the method of choice in the differential diagnosis between tumours and tumour-simulating conditions in patients with equivocal CT and to assess cystic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatitis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreatic Cyst / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) International Cancer Imaging Society.
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  • (PMID = 17208676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 22
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1766565
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75. Yamaguchi T, Imamura Y, Nakayama K, Kawada T, Yamamoto T, Fukuda M: Paranuclear blue inclusions of small cell carcinoma of the stomach: report of a case with cytologic presentation in peritoneal washings. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):207-12
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  • [Title] Paranuclear blue inclusions of small cell carcinoma of the stomach: report of a case with cytologic presentation in peritoneal washings.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary gastric small cell carcinoma is a rare but important entity.
  • Pathologic diagnosis after the operation was moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma containing AFP-positive cells.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of primary gastric small cell carcinoma is usually poor.
  • When a gastric small cell carcinoma is suspected in peritoneal washings, immunocytochemical demonstration of neuroendocrine differentiation is required to arrive at the final diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Cytoplasm / pathology. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15839631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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76. Borczuk AC, Powell CA: Expression profiling and lung cancer development. Proc Am Thorac Soc; 2007 Jan;4(1):127-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recent lung cancer research has been directed to using molecular approaches to facilitate early diagnosis, to identify clinically relevant biological factors associated with histologic heterogeneity, and to identify novel therapeutic agents.
  • In this review of gene expression profiling in lung carcinogenesis, we will focus upon recent advances in the understanding of malignant transformation of lung epithelial cells and of lung cancer differentiation and progression.
  • These studies have provided important information about the genomic alterations of tobacco smoke-associated airway field carcinogenesis and about the developmental pathways that mediate lung tumor invasion and histologic differentiation in response to injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Smoking / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / etiology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Humans. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17202302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3222
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc Am Thorac Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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77. Seicean A, Badea R, Stan-Iuga R, Mocan T, Gulei I, Pascu O: Quantitative contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography for the discrimination of solid pancreatic masses. Ultraschall Med; 2010 Dec;31(6):571-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative digital image analysis of pancreatic adenocarcinomas using conventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and CEH-EUS and the evaluation of whether contrast medium injection modified adenocarcinoma staging and patient management.
  • The histology, based on EUS-FNA or surgery and 9 months of follow-up, was: pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 15), pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis (n = 12), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 1), common bile duct tumor (n = 1), lymph node metastases of gastric cancer (n = 1).
  • RESULTS: CEH-EUS showed a hypoenhanced pattern in 14 cases of adenocarcinoma and in 10 cases of chronic pancreatitis.
  • The index of the contrast uptake ratio was significantly lower in adenocarcinoma than in mass-forming chronic pancreatitis.
  • A cut-off uptake ratio index value of 0.17 for diagnosing adenocarcinoma corresponded to an AUC (CI 95%) of 0.86 (0.67 - 1.00) with a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 91.7%, a positive predictive value of 92.8%, and a negative predictive value of 78%.
  • The size of the pancreatic mass was assessed significantly more effectively by CEH-EUS but adenocarcinoma staging was not modified.
  • CONCLUSION: The majority of cases of both pancreatic adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis were hypoenhanced and visual discrimination was not possible.
  • This is the first study about CEH-EUS for the quantitative assessment of uptake after contrast injection which has shown that it can aid differentiation between benign and malignant masses but cannot replace EUS-FNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Tumor Burden / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Microvessels / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Pancreatitis, Chronic / pathology. Pancreatitis, Chronic / ultrasonography. Phospholipids. Prospective Studies. Sulfur Hexafluoride

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 21080306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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78. Reddy S, Wolfgang CL: Benign pancreatic tumors. Surg Clin North Am; 2007 Dec;87(6):1359-78, viii
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  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is associated with specific neoplastic lesions that are similar in radiographic appearance to some benign lesions.
  • The correct differentiation of these malignant and premalignant lesions from their benign counterpart is paramount to their proper management.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Cystadenoma, Serous / diagnosis. Humans. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / surgery. Pancreatic Pseudocyst / diagnosis. Pancreatitis, Chronic / pathology. Sclerosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18053836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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79. Siami K, McCluggage WG, Ordonez NG, Euscher ED, Malpica A, Sneige N, Silva EG, Deavers MT: Thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Nov;31(11):1759-63
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  • Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is widely used in the diagnosis of lung and thyroid carcinomas.
  • None of the tumors had a neuroendocrine component.
  • The positive endocervical carcinoma was poorly differentiated.
  • There was no apparent correlation between the degree of differentiation and TTF-1 positivity in the adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Northern Ireland. Texas

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  • (PMID = 18059234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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80. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Rütten A, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):195-203
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  • [Title] Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma.
  • The cases included 6 men and 1 woman, with their ages at the diagnosis ranging from 43 to 87 years (median age, 59).
  • Sebaceous differentiation in the form of mature sebocytes varied from almost none to approximately 10%.
  • Four lesions represented sebaceomas, and in 1 case microscopic delineation between a carcinoma and sebaceoma was difficult.
  • No neuroendocrine differentiation was demonstrated immunohistochemically, histochemically, and ultrastructurally.
  • Electron microscopic examination performed in 1 case of carcinoma revealed lipid vacuoles in a minority of cells.
  • There were no membrane-bound neuroendocrine granules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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81. Shaikh AJ, Raza S, Shaikh AA, Idress R, Kumar S, Rasheed YA, Lal A, Masood N: Demographics, pathologic patterns and long-term survival in operable colon cancers: local experience in Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2009 Jul-Sep;10(3):361-4
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  • Mean age of diagnosis was 54 years.
  • Stage I disease on diagnosis was found in 16%, stage II in 42.7 (mortality 40 %) and stage III in 41.3% (mortality 70 %).
  • Most patients had pure adenocarcinoma while a mucinous type differentiation was seen in 19.7%, 3% had signet ring morphology, 1.5% adeno-squamous carcinoma and similar number with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / mortality. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 19640173.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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82. McCluggage WG, Young RH: Paraganglioma of the ovary: report of three cases of a rare ovarian neoplasm, including two exhibiting inhibin positivity. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 May;30(5):600-5
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  • Immunohistochemically, all neoplasms were cytokeratin negative and diffusely positive with neuroendocrine markers.
  • Electron microscopy performed in 2 cases revealed dense core neuroendocrine granules.
  • Because various neoplasms in the sex cord-stromal and steroid categories are likely to enter into the differential diagnosis, inhibin and calretinin positivity represents a significant potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • Possible theories of histogenesis of primary ovarian paraganglioma include an origin from extra-adrenal paraganglia in the region of the ovary or unidirectional differentiation within a teratoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16699314.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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83. Pratz KW, Ma C, Aubry MC, Vrtiska TJ, Erlichman C: Large cell carcinoma with calcitonin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-associated Verner-Morrison syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc; 2005 Jan;80(1):116-20
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  • [Title] Large cell carcinoma with calcitonin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-associated Verner-Morrison syndrome.
  • We describe a 38-year-old man with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer of large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation who presented with bone metastasis and intractable secretory diarrhea that was unresponsive to pharmacological treatment, including octreotide.
  • Chemotherapy resulted in a transient response in the patient's diarrhea and neuroendocrine markers.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first published case of large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation associated with treatment-responsive paraneoplastic Verner-Morrison syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / secretion. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / etiology. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism. Vipoma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15667039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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84. Emanuel PO, de Vinck D, Waldorf HA, Phelps RG: Recurrent endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Dec;11(6):448-52
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  • [Title] Recurrent endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma.
  • Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor that most commonly involves the eyelid of elderly women.
  • Morphologically and immunohistochemically, it is analogous to endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast and mammary solid papillary carcinoma; also, like the analogous breast lesion, there is an often associated invasive mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • We describe the case of a 65-year-old woman with endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid that recurred 3 years after an apparently complete excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Mucins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18022131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
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85. Chtourou I, Makni SK, Bahri I, Abbes K, Sellami A, Fakhfakh I, Gouiaa N, Ayadi L, Frikha M, Daoud J, Boudawara TS: [Pure colloid carcinoma of the breast: anatomoclinical study of seven cases]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Jan;13(1):37-41
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  • [Title] [Pure colloid carcinoma of the breast: anatomoclinical study of seven cases].
  • PURPOSE: Breast mucinous carcinoma is a particular histological form characterized by the extracellular production of mucus.
  • The aim of the present study was to discuss the various anatomoclinical, therapeutic aspects and the prognostic factors of the pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast.
  • RESULTS: pure colloid carcinoma of the breast accounted for 0,5% of the whole of the breast cancers.
  • At the time of the diagnosis, four tumours were classified T4, one T3, two T2, two N1 and one N3; no patient had presented metastasis (M0) according to pTNM classification.
  • The anatomopathological study showed that the neuroendocrine differentiation was found in two cases, all the tumours had presented positivity for the hormonal receptors (oestrogen and progesterone) and negativity for the other antibodies, two cases exhibited the Bcl2 positivity and negativity for the other antibodies.
  • CONCLUSION: The pure colloid carcinoma of the breast constitutes a particular morphological entity which deserves to be individualized; neuroendocrine differentiation of these tumours must be required.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18703371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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86. Berruti A, Bollito E, Cracco CM, Volante M, Ciccone G, Porpiglia F, Papotti M, Scarpa RM, Dogliotti L: The prognostic role of immunohistochemical chromogranin a expression in prostate cancer patients is significantly modified by androgen-deprivation therapy. Prostate; 2010 May 15;70(7):718-26
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  • BACKGROUND: Several data suggest that neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer is implicated in the development of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).
  • Two hundred fourteen patients received ADT early after diagnosis, 200 did not.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tissue CgA expression, evaluated in prostate cancer needle biopsies at diagnosis, is an independent prognostic factor of survival in prostate cancer patients.
  • The negative influence of NE differentiation on time to progression confined in ADT-treated patients suggests a role of NE differentiation in predicting endocrine resistance that deserves validation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Prostate / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20087896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Chromogranin A; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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87. Ding HY, Gao LX: [Spindle cell carcinoma of breast with neuroendocrine differentiation]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Jan;35(1):13-7
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  • [Title] [Spindle cell carcinoma of breast with neuroendocrine differentiation].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the morphologic features and immunohistochemistry of spindle cell carcinoma of breast with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of 2500 cases of breast carcinoma showed 5 cases (0.2%) with a predominance (> 80%) of spindle cell component.
  • Amongst the 5 cases studied, 2 represented intraductal spindle cell carcinoma and 3 represented invasive spindle cell carcinoma.
  • Two cases of intraductal spindle cell carcinoma and 1 of the 3 cases of invasive spindle cell carcinoma were classified as neuroendocrine carcinoma of spindle cell type, while the remaining 2 cases of invasive spindle cell carcinoma were considered as metaplastic carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Amongst the 4 patients with follow-up information available, 3 were still alive 24 to 58 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • One patient died within 27 months of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of spindle tumor cells and sometimes intracytoplasmic mucin are useful morphologic clues in diagnosing spindle cell carcinoma of the breast with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Intraductal neuroendocrine spindle cell carcinoma needs to be distinguished from usual ductal hyperplasia and intraductal papilloma.
  • On the other hand, invasive spindle cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation needs to be distinguished from spindle cell myoepithelioma, malignant melanoma and sometimes soft tissue neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Synaptophysin / analysis


88. Yamamoto N, Kinoshita H, Inoue T, Kawakita S, Oguchi N, Muguruma K, Kawa G, Sakaguchi Y, Adachi Y, Sakaida N, Uemura Y, Matsuda T: [Small cell carcinoma of the prostate: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Sep;53(9):665-9
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  • [Title] [Small cell carcinoma of the prostate: a case report].
  • A 76-year-old man had been treated with maximum androgen blockade therapy for a poorly-differentiated prostate adenocarcinoma (T3cN1M0, prostate specific antigen (PSA) 65 ng/ml, Gleason Score 4+5=9) since September 2002.
  • Immunohistochemical examination of a biopsy specimen from the bone lesion revealed a small cell carcinoma/neuroendocrine cell carcinoma.
  • The immunohistochemical examination revealed pure small cell carcinoma in all metastatic lesions.
  • We concluded from the clinical history and autopsy findings that his initial poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the prostate dedifferentiated into a pure small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17933147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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89. Morris-Stiff G, Teli M, Jardine N, Puntis MC: CA19-9 antigen levels can distinguish between benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary disease. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2009 Dec;8(6):620-6
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  • METHODS: All patients referred to a single surgeon for investigation of pancreaticobiliary disease in 2003 in whom a firm diagnosis had been established were included.
  • For malignant disease, a histological diagnosis was required but for benign disease a firm radiological diagnosis was deemed adequate.
  • The patients were divided into 4 categories: pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PCa); cholangiocarcinoma (CCa); chronic pancreatitis (CP) and biliary calculous disease (Calc).
  • RESULTS: Final diagnoses were made of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PCa, n=73), cholangiocarcinoma (CCa, n=19), ampullary carcinoma (Amp, n=7), neuroendocrine carcinoma (Neu, n=4), duodenal carcinoma (Duo, n=3), chronic pancreatitis (CP, n=115), and biliary calculous disease (Calc, n=27).
  • CONCLUSIONS: CA19-9 is useful in the differentiation of pancreatobiliary disease and when using an optimized cut-off and combining with routine radiology, the diagnostic yield is improved significantly, thus stressing the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach to pancreatobiliary disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Cholelithiasis / diagnosis. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatitis, Chronic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Bilirubin / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20007080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
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90. Li N, Wolgamot G, Argenyi Z: Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma (Merkel cell carcinoma) with prominent microcystic features, mimicking eccrine carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 May;34(5):410-4
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma (Merkel cell carcinoma) with prominent microcystic features, mimicking eccrine carcinoma.
  • Although primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma [Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC)] may show divergent features, including microcystic ('tubuloglandular'), squamous, eccrine and rhabdomyoblastic, a diffuse microcystic pattern is exceedingly rare.
  • In this study, we present two cases of MCC with prominent microcystic features, which precluded a definitive diagnosis in the initial punch biopsy.
  • Although the lack of CK20 staining is unusual, the histologic characteristics along with the remaining immunohistochemical studies favor the diagnosis of a primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma over the variants of eccrine carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Our cases illustrate that prominent microcystic features, mimicking glandular differentiation, may occur in MCC and pose a diagnostic challenge in small biopsy specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neck / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17448197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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91. McCluggage WG, Young RH: Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in the evaluation of ovarian tumors. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;22(1):3-32
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  • Aspects of immunohistochemistry (IHC), which are useful in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors (mostly neoplasms but also a few tumor-like lesions), are discussed.
  • The distinction between a sex cord tumor and an endometrioid carcinoma with sex-cord-like patterns may be greatly aided by the triad of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), inhibin, and calretinin, the latter two being typically positive and EMA negative in sex cord tumors, the converse being typical of endometrioid carcinoma.
  • IHC for neuroendocrine markers may assist in the diagnosis of primary and metastatic carcinoid tumor.
  • The broad differential diagnosis of glandular neoplasms with an endometrioid-pseudoendometrioid morphology, or mucinous cell type, has been the subject of much exploration in recent years, particularly the distinction between primary and metastatic neoplasms.
  • The well-known CK7 positive, CK20 negative phenotype of primary endometrioid carcinoma, and the converse profile in most metastatic large intestinal adenocarcinomas with a pseudoendometrioid morphology, has been much publicized but albeit an appropriate supportive adjunct in many cases, exceptions from the typical staining pattern may be encountered.
  • The rare differential of metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma versus primary ovarian mucinous or endometrioid carcinoma may be aided by strong p16 staining of the former.
  • Staining for alpha-fetoprotein may aid in confirming the diagnosis of endometrioid-like (and hepatoid) variants of yolk sac tumor.
  • Immunostains may highlight both the presence and extent of epithelial cells in a variety of circumstances, including microinvasive foci in cases of serous borderline tumors and mucinous carcinomas, and in determining the extent of carcinoma cells and reactive cells within mural nodules of mucinous neoplasms.
  • As in tumor pathology in general, various markers may be crucial in the diagnosis of small round cell tumors of the ovary, and familiar markers of epithelial, lymphoid, leukemic, and melanocytic neoplasms may assist in the analysis of high grade tumors with a poorly differentiated carcinoma, lymphoma-granulocytic sarcoma, malignant melanoma differential.
  • Stains for trophoblast markers may occasionally aid in the evaluation of germ cell tumors, although routine stains should usually suffice; they may be of academic interest in confirming trophoblastic differentiation in some high grade surface epithelial carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Ovarian Cysts / diagnosis. Ovarian Follicle / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16512597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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92. Kitakata H, Yasumoto K, Sudo Y, Minato H, Takahashi Y: A case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(4):414-9
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • We report a rare case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • Fine-needle biopsy revealed small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation resembling small cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • The tumor cells were positive for neuroendocrine differentiation markers such as synaptophysin, CD56, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), but negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), leukocyte common antigen (LCA), estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17986808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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93. Asensio N, Luis A, Costa I, Oliveira J, Vaz F: Meningeal carcinomatosis and uterine carcinoma: three different clinical settings and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jan;19(1):168-72
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Meningeal carcinomatosis and uterine carcinoma: three different clinical settings and review of the literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report a case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to endometrial carcinoma and 2 complex cervix cancer cases.
  • A MEDLINE search was done to review all published cases of this complication in gynecological cancer to identify predictive factors for this diagnosis.
  • Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may be necessary for this diagnosis, because cerebrospinal fluid analysis results may be negative.
  • Most cervix cases had squamous cell (8/14) or neuroendocrine histologic subtype (3/14), and when reported, differentiation was usually poor.
  • The case we report of endometrial carcinoma, unique in the literature, is a serous adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19258961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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94. Ghosh L, Dahut W, Kakar S, Posadas EM, Torres CG, Cancel-Santiago R, Ghosh BC: Management of patients with metastatic cancer of unknown primary. Curr Probl Surg; 2005 Jan;42(1):12-66
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cell Differentiation. Cytogenetic Analysis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mesothelioma / diagnosis. Mesothelioma / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15711508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-3840
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 147
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