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1. al Saudi N, Maartense E, Scherpenisse J, van Leeuwen AW: Watery diarrhoea: an unusual manifestation of breast cancer. Neth J Med; 2007 Dec;65(11):448-51
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  • Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy revealed a hot spot in the left thoracic wall and subsequently, breast adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Gastrins. Humans. Male. Neuroendocrine Tumors / complications. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Pancreatic Polypeptide

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  • (PMID = 18079568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrins; 59763-91-6 / Pancreatic Polypeptide
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2. Kim JB, Choi JH, Kim JH, Park HJ, Lee JS, Joh OJ, Song KY: A case of primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Ann Dermatol; 2010 Nov;22(4):472-7

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  • [Title] A case of primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that originates from the deepest portion of the eccrine sweat duct.
  • It is difficult to differentiate this tumor histologically from metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • We report a primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation on the right cheek of a 63-year-old man.

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  • (PMID = 21165225.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2991732
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cutaneous mucinous carcinoma / Eccrine sweat duct / Metastatic adenocarcinoma / Neuroendocrine differentiation
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3. Kitamoto K, Hayashi T, Tamada S, Ezaki K, Kawashima H, Sugimura K, Nakatani T: [Neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of prostate during combined androgen blockade therapy: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Jan;51(1):33-5
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of prostate during combined androgen blockade therapy: a case report].
  • Prostatic neuroendocrine (NE) carcinoma is a rare disease with a poor prognosis because of its rapid progression and the androgen-independent characteristic, for which no successful therapy is available presently.
  • We report a case of NE differentiated prostate cancer, which was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma initially and progressed with NE differentiation during the combined androgen blockade therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15732339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
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4. Volante M, Righi L, Asioli S, Bussolati G, Papotti M: Goblet cell carcinoids and other mixed neuroendocrine/nonneuroendocrine neoplasms. Virchows Arch; 2007 Aug;451 Suppl 1:S61-9
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoids and other mixed neuroendocrine/nonneuroendocrine neoplasms.
  • Within the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors arising in different organs, intermediate and controversial entities exist displaying a coexistence of neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine cell populations, and that are grouped under terms such as "goblet cell carcinoid", "mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinoma", "combined carcinomas", or "adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation".
  • These tumors may display variable amounts of the two components, potentially ranging from 1 to 99%, and variable structural patterns, ranging from single scattered neuroendocrine cells to a well-defined neuroendocrine tumor cell component organized in typical organoid, trabecular, or solid growth patterns.
  • In the present report, the main characteristics of tumors showing mixed neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine features will be described, using morphological patterns and site of origin as schematic guidelines.

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  • (PMID = 17684764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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5. Segawa N, Inamoto T, Ibuki N, Mizutani Y, Azuma H, Tsuji M, Katsuoka Y: [Neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate during hormonal treatment : a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Jan;56(1):49-54
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate during hormonal treatment : a case report].
  • A case of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiated prostate cancer is reported herein, which was progressed with NE differentiation during hormonal treatment in adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • A prostate biopsy was performed and histological examinations indicated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 5 + 4 = 9.
  • Immunohistochemical examination of a re-biopsy specimen revealed a neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • His condition worsened rapidly and he died at 8 months after definite diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Male. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 20104011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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6. Sagnak L, Topaloglu H, Gucuk O, Han U, Ersoy H: Skip metastase on the left neck lymph nodes of the prostatic adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and accompanying thyroid micropapillary carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):493-5
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  • [Title] Skip metastase on the left neck lymph nodes of the prostatic adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and accompanying thyroid micropapillary carcinoma.
  • We discuss here the thyroid micropapillary carcinoma that was detected incidentally when investigating the primary focus of the left neck multiple lymph node metastases occurring 8 months later in a patient of ours, whose pathological examination of radical prostatectomy and bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection was reported to be pT3N0 and whole body scanning for metastases, was negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Incidental Findings. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / pathology. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Orchiectomy. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy. Thyroidectomy. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18386164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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7. Wang KL, Yang Q, Cleary KR, Swisher SG, Correa AM, Komaki R, Ajani JA, Rashid A, Hamilton SR, Wu TT: The significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction after preoperative chemoradiation. Cancer; 2006 Oct 1;107(7):1467-74
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  • [Title] The significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction after preoperative chemoradiation.
  • BACKGROUND: Esophageal and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinomas frequently have neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation, but the significance of NE differentiation in patients who have undergone preoperative chemoradiation and resection remains unclear.
  • METHODS: The authors evaluated the presence of NE differentiation in esophageal and EGJ adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry for chromogranin A and synaptophysin and evaluated the clinical significance of NE differentiation in 83 patients (10 patients who had a complete tumor response and 73 patients who had residual tumor in resection specimens) who received preoperative chemoradiation.
  • RESULTS: Of 73 patients who had residual tumor after preoperative treatment, 52% showed NE differentiation.
  • The proportion of tumor cells with NE differentiation had increased from 6% +/- 18% in pretreatment biopsy specimens to 47% +/- 42% (P = .00003) in posttreatment resection specimens in 30 patients who had paired pretreatment biopsy and resection specimens available.
  • Among patients who had residual tumor after preoperative chemoradiation, disease-free survival (P = .03) and overall survival (P = .045) were significantly better in patients who had residual tumor without NE differentiation than in patients who had residual tumor with NE differentiation.
  • In multivariate analysis, the presence of NE differentiation in residual tumor was a prognostic factor for worse disease-free survival (P = .02) independent of pathologic stage and extent of residual tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study suggested that tumor cells with NE differentiation were more resistant to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with esophageal and EGJ adenocarcinomas.
  • The presence of NE differentiation in residual tumor was associated with poor survival after preoperative neoadjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagogastric Junction / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16955509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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8. Meeks JJ, Habermacher GM, Le B, Smith ND: Delayed diagnosis of prostate cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation after laser TURP. Urology; 2008 Oct;72(4):948.e11-2
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  • [Title] Delayed diagnosis of prostate cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation after laser TURP.
  • The patient subsequently underwent bipolar TURP, and the pathologic examination of the prostate chips revealed highly aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • We discuss the potential drawbacks of laser TURP in the diagnosis of clinically undetectable prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Transurethral Resection of Prostate
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18342929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Jiang SX, Mikami T, Umezawa A, Saegusa M, Kameya T, Okayasu I: Gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas: a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Aug;30(8):945-53
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  • [Title] Gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas: a distinct clinicopathologic entity.
  • The current histologic classifications of gastric cancers define only carcinoids and small cell carcinomas in the neuroendocrine (NE) category.
  • This study aimed to characterize the histologic and clinical features of high-grade gastric NE carcinomas of nonsmall cell type, tentatively named large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC).
  • Tumors with histologic features suspicious of NE differentiation were selected by a histologic review of 2835 resected gastric cancers, and those with a NE phenotype in > 50% and 1% to approximately 50% tumor cells assessed by expressing chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin were defined as LCNEC and adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation (ACNED), respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16861964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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10. Ionescu DN, Treaba D, Gilks CB, Leung S, Renouf D, Laskin J, Wood-Baker R, Gown AM: Nonsmall cell lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation--an entity of no clinical or prognostic significance. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jan;31(1):26-32
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  • [Title] Nonsmall cell lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation--an entity of no clinical or prognostic significance.
  • The existence of non-small cell lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation as a distinct entity and its relevance for prognostic and treatment purposes is controversial.
  • This study assesses the frequency and biologic and prognostic significance of neuroendocrine (NE) expression of synaptophysin (SNP), chromogranin (Ch), and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) using tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry.
  • Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were subclassified as: 243 adenocarcinoma (ACA), 272 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 35 large cell carcinoma, 32 non-small cell carcinoma NOS, and 6 other (carcinosarcoma, giant cell carcinoma).
  • The assessment of NE differentiation in NSCLC is unnecessary and expensive and is of no clinical or prognostic significance.
  • SNP is more likely to be expressed in adenocarcinoma (P=0.01) and N-CAM in squamous-cell carcinoma (P=0.008).
  • Disease specific and overall survival is not influenced by NE differentiation and therefore non-small cell lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation should not be a subclass distinct from the other NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17197916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Synaptophysin
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11. Tamas EF, Epstein JI: Prognostic significance of paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Aug;30(8):980-5
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • The prognostic significance of Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate has not yet been established.
  • We studied 36 cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate showing Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation, including needle biopsy specimens (n = 27), radical prostatectomies (n = 8), and transurethral resection specimens (n = 1).
  • Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine cells (NECs) were observed as either patchy isolated cells or diffusely involving glands or nests.
  • Of the 16 radical prostatectomy cases, 8 (50%) had a Gleason pattern 5 component either on needle biopsy or at radical prostatectomy, with nests, cords, or single cells containing Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Despite the cells' bland histologic appearance, strictly applying the Gleason grading system one would have to assign a Gleason pattern 5 to these foci with no glandular differentiation.
  • In cases with Paneth cell-like NECs, only the conventional adenocarcinoma component should be assigned a Gleason score.
  • In cases in which the entire tumor is composed of Paneth cell-like cells and areas of the tumor lack glandular differentiation, the tumors should not be assigned a Gleason score and a comment should be provided as to the generally favorable prognosis of this morphologic pattern of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Paneth Cells / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16861969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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12. Kuroda N, Oonishi K, Iwamura S, Ohara M, Hirouchi T, Mizumo K, Miyazaki E, Enzan H: Gastric carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine differentiation as the carcinoma component and leiomyosarcomatous and myofibroblastic differentiation as the sarcomatous component. APMIS; 2006 Mar;114(3):234-8
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  • [Title] Gastric carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine differentiation as the carcinoma component and leiomyosarcomatous and myofibroblastic differentiation as the sarcomatous component.
  • Gastric carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine differentiation is a very rare neoplasm.
  • The tumor was composed of carcinoma and sarcomatous cells, and the histological transition of both components was observed.
  • Immunohistochemically, carcinoma and sarcomatous cells were positive for cytokeratin CAM5.2.
  • The carcinoma contained adenocarcinoma and malignant cells with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • The sarcomatous component showed leiomyosarcomatous and myofibroblastic differentiation.
  • The present tumor is the fifth case of gastric carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and the first case of gastric carcinosarcoma with myofibroblastic differentiation.
  • Pathologists should bear in mind that gastric carcinosarcoma may show various types of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16643190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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13. Gernone A, Pagliarulo V, Trabucco S: Prognostic role of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16120

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  • : e16120 Background: Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in prostate carcinoma (PC) is frequently detected by immunohistochemistry as single cells in conventional adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 27963398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Hennessy BT, Gilcrease MZ, Kim E, Gonzalez-Angulo AM: Breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and myocardial metastases. Clin Breast Cancer; 2007 Dec;7(11):892-4
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  • [Title] Breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and myocardial metastases.
  • A 63-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma presenting as a perianal mass without an obvious primary site.
  • Two years later, she presented with a breast mass determined on histologic examination to be the primary neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • The tumor was weakly positive for estrogen receptor and clearly originated in multifocal ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Most studies report a relatively poor prognosis and limited treatment responsiveness for neuroendocrine breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 18269781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8209
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Molenaar JP, Baten A, Blokx WA, Hoogendam A: Development of carcinoid tumour in hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Eur Urol; 2009 Nov;56(5):874-7; quiz 876
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  • [Title] Development of carcinoid tumour in hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • We present the case of an 81-yr-old man with a prostatic adenocarcinoma and a metastatic carcinoid.
  • Simultaneous occurrence of hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate and a carcinoid has been described before.
  • The pathogenesis of this coincidence is largely unclear; however, androgen deprivation therapy might play a key role in neuroendocrine differentiation of adenocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19171417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
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16. Tang Y, Wang L, Goloubeva O, Khan MA, Lee D, Hussain A: The relationship of neuroendocrine carcinomas to anti-tumor therapies in TRAMP mice. Prostate; 2009 Dec 1;69(16):1763-73
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  • [Title] The relationship of neuroendocrine carcinomas to anti-tumor therapies in TRAMP mice.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine differentiation and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) have been linked to androgen deprivation in prostate cancers.
  • No previous study has directly connected neuroendocrine phenotypes to chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Using the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, we studied tumor progression after hormone ablation (castration) and/or chemotherapy (docetaxel), and analyzed the incidence of NEC as a function of the anti-tumor therapies.
  • The NEC-bearing mice had smaller tumors in their prostates and lived longer than mice with adenocarcinoma (ADC-only).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / chemically induced. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19691128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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17. Pozo L, Diaz-Cano SJ: Trichilemmal carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2008 Mar;33(2):128-31
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  • [Title] Trichilemmal carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of a trichilemmal carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and melanocyte colonization, which is suggested by the trabecular growth pattern and requires immunohistochemical confirmation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 18076695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Xiao WL, Zhou FT, Feng YY, Li NY: Submandibular area metastasis from prostate small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. J Craniofac Surg; 2007 Sep;18(5):1155-7
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  • [Title] Submandibular area metastasis from prostate small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic carcinomas generally confers a more aggressive clinical behavior and less favorable prognosis than usual prostatic carcinomas.
  • In this article, we report a case of a 65-year-old man with prostatic carcinoma who had a metastasis of the submandibular area.
  • Pathologic specimens demonstrated a small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation by immunohistochemical studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17912103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Newman K, Stahl-Herz J, Kabiawu O, Newman E, Wieczorek R, Wang B, Pei Z, Bannan M, Lee P, Xu R: Pancreatic carcinoma with multilineage (acinar, neuroendocrine, and ductal) differentiation. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;2(6):602-7
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  • [Title] Pancreatic carcinoma with multilineage (acinar, neuroendocrine, and ductal) differentiation.
  • The preponderance of pancreatic tumors is adenocarcinoma of the ductal type; carcinomas with multiple lineage differentiation are extremely rare.
  • We report an unusual case of pancreatic carcinoma with combined acinar and neuroendocrine differentiation and minor ductal component with concurrent acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), an early lesion implicated in ductal carcinogenesis.
  • Histologic examination revealed a pancreatic carcinoma with cellular features of eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and salt-pepper nuclei.
  • The acinar differentiation of the carcinoma was confirmed by positivity on periodic acid-Schiff stain resistant to diastase digestion (dPAS), positivity for antitrypsin on immunohistochemistry (IHC), and presence of zymogen granules on electron microscopy (EM).
  • The neuroendocrine differentiation was evident by positive synaptophysin and chromogranin stain on IHC and neuroendocrine granules on EM.
  • Thus, the histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and electron-microscopic evidence all suggested that the pancreatic carcinoma underwent trilineage differentiation.

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  • [Cites] Pathol Int. 1995 Sep;45(9):669-76 [8548040.001]
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  • (PMID = 19636408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2713457
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenocarcinoma / metaplasia / neuroendocrine differentiation / pancreas
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20. Marcu M, Radu E, Sajin M: Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma biopsies and its correlation to histological grading. Curr Health Sci J; 2010 Jan;36(1):37-42
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma biopsies and its correlation to histological grading.
  • Prostate adenocarcinoma is frequently diagnosed on needle biopsies in early, organ-confined stages.
  • This study aims to find correlations between the extent of neurocrine differentiation (NED), a feature commonly seen in prostate carcinoma, and known factors of disease evolution such as histological grade, malignant cell proliferation and serum PSA levels.
  • Also, the same extended neuroendocrine differentiation is associated with high tumour proliferative activity.
  • Multinomial regression analysis showed that high Ki indices, serum PSA values and NSE scores are predictive for moderately and poorly differentiated prostatic adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 24778825.001).
  • [ISSN] 2067-0656
  • [Journal-full-title] Current health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3945267
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Neuroendocrine differentiation / Prostate adenocarcinoma
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21. Shinji S, Naito Z, Ishiwata T, Tanaka N, Furukawa K, Suzuki H, Seya T, Kan H, Tsuruta H, Matsumoto S, Matsuda A, Teranishi N, Ohaki Y, Tajiri T: Neuroendocrine cell differentiation of poorly differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma correlates with liver metastasis. Int J Oncol; 2006 Aug;29(2):357-64
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine cell differentiation of poorly differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma correlates with liver metastasis.
  • Poorly differentiated (PD) adenocarcinoma often retains the capacity for neuroendocrine (NE) cell differ-entiation; however, it is difficult to distinguish the NE cell differentiation by routine hematoxylin and eosin staining.
  • It is important to detect the presence of NE cell differentiation in advanced colorectal carcinomas because these carcinomas have been shown to produce distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis and to have a particularly poor prognosis.
  • In this study, the characteristics of PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation and its biological metastatic mechanisms were investigated.
  • Forty-eight of 2204 colorectal cancer patients, diagnosed as having PD adenocarcinoma (2.2%) were enrolled in this study.
  • The clinicopathological factors for PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation were compared with those for PD adenocarcinoma without NE cell differentiation.
  • Microvessel density (MVD) was assessed using immunostained slides with anti-CD34 antibody and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation was confirmed by in situ hybridization.
  • By immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin A and synaptophysin, NE cell differentiation was detected in eight of 48 patients (16.7%) with PD adenocarcinoma.
  • The frequency of liver metastasis at the time of diagnosis was significantly higher in patients having PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation (p=0.03).
  • Moreover, MVD and VEGF expression level tended to be higher in patients having PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation (p=0.13 and 0.068, respectively).
  • NE cell differentiation in PD adenocarcinoma may produce liver metastasis through microvessel formation in the tumor induced by VEGF.
  • In PD colorectal adenocarcinoma, immunohistochemical analysis of NE markers is important for establishing the presence of NE cell differentiation and further study is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic drugs to PD adenocarcinoma with NE cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16820877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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22. Ninomiya F, Suzuki S, Tanaka H, Hayashi S, Ozaki K, Narama I: Nasal and paranasal adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation in dogs. Vet Pathol; 2008 Mar;45(2):181-7
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  • [Title] Nasal and paranasal adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation in dogs.
  • The tumors were classified histologically as 13 adenocarcinomas, 3 transitional carcinomas, 1 squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 adenosquamous carcinoma.
  • None of the 18 carcinomas had cytologic or histologic features indicative of neuroendocrine differentiation, yet tumor cells in 5 of the 13 adenocarcinomas were argyrophilic and immunohistochemically positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin A.
  • Results of this study indicate that neuroendocrine markers may be detected immunohistochemically and histochemically in canine nasal or paranasal adenocarcinomas despite the lack of typical histologic features of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / veterinary. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18424830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Feria-Bernal G, García-Gonzalez VM, Figueroa-Granados V, Martinez-Benítez B, Uribe-Uribe NO: [Neuroendocrine differentiation and markers of cell proliferation in a group of patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and normal or high serum prostate-specific antigen levels]. Gac Med Mex; 2006 Nov-Dec;142(6):441-6
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation and markers of cell proliferation in a group of patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and normal or high serum prostate-specific antigen levels].
  • [Transliterated title] Diferenciación neuroendocrina y marcadores de proliferación celular en adenocarcinoma de próstata en un grupo de casos con antígeno prostático específico normal vs elevado.
  • OBJECTIVE: Study the morphologic characteristics of neuroendocrine cells in prostate cancer with normal versus elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA).
  • The increase of neuroendocrine cells was associated with a smaller number of tissular antigen producing cells, a finding that could be more apparent if we were to study a larger sample size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17201105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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24. Sciarra A, Cardi A, Dattilo C, Mariotti G, Di Monaco F, Di Silverio F: New perspective in the management of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma. Int J Clin Pract; 2006 Apr;60(4):462-70
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  • [Title] New perspective in the management of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • In this review, we will present some of the information that is known about neuroendocrine (NE) cells and differentiation in the prostate.
  • We will then speculate on the potential role that NE differentiation in prostate carcinoma may play and how this differentiation may be clinically analysed and treated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16620361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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25. Parada DD, Peña KB: Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. APMIS; 2008 Sep;116(9):859-65
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  • [Title] Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was described by Thoenes et al. in 1986, and associations with carcinoma of collecting ducts, conventional renal cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma have been described.
  • We report a case of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma which showed neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • The tumor showed a mixture of classical and eosinophilic patterns of chromophobe cell carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemically, the neuroendocrine areas were reactive for C-kit, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, CD56 and S-100 protein.
  • Our case represents a typical chromophobe carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged


26. Kuo KT, Liang CW, Hsiao CH, Lin CH, Chen CA, Sheu BC, Lin MC: Downregulation of BRG-1 repressed expression of CD44s in cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2006 Dec;19(12):1570-7
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  • [Title] Downregulation of BRG-1 repressed expression of CD44s in cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
  • Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the uterine cervix are rare tumors with early metastases, highly aggressive clinical behavior, and poor clinical outcome.
  • Cluster differentiation 44 (CD44) is a widely expressed cell surface glycoprotein that serves as an adhesion molecule in cell-to-substrate and cell-to-cell interaction.
  • We have examined the expression of the standard CD44 (CD44s) by immunohistochemical stains in the paraffin-embedded cervical neoplasm tissue of 17 cases of primary cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma, 28 cases of cervical adenocarcinoma, and 50 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Loss of CD44s expression was found in 16 of 17 neuroendocrine carcinomas, 14 of 28 adenocarcinomas, and three of 50 squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Loss of BRG-1 expression was observed in 12/16, 6/14, and 1/3 CD44s-negative neuroendocrine carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas, respectively.
  • This study suggests that loss of the CD44s molecule may imply special biological behaviors of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas, and loss of expression of BRG-1 may contribute to this.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. DNA Helicases / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16998464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44S antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.6.1.- / SMARCA4 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.- / DNA Helicases
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27. Oshiro H, Matsuo K, Mawatari H, Inayama Y, Yamanaka S, Nagahama K, Endo I, Shimada H, Nakajima A, Kubota K: Mucin-producing gallbladder adenocarcinoma with focal small cell and large cell neuroendocrine differentiation associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Pathol Int; 2008 Dec;58(12):780-6
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  • [Title] Mucin-producing gallbladder adenocarcinoma with focal small cell and large cell neuroendocrine differentiation associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction.
  • Herein is reported a case of mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder in a 55-year-old Japanese woman.
  • Following surgery, the gallbladder tumor was histopathologically diagnosed as a mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinoma.
  • The carcinoma predominantly consisted of papillary, but also contained some tubular adenocarcinomatous components.
  • Additionally, small foci of small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomatous components were observed.
  • The postoperative course was uneventful, and the carcinoma had not recurred in the absence of chemoradiotherapy for a period of 20 months.
  • Mucin-producing gallbladder carcinoma is a rare clinical condition that can occur in patients with pancreaticobiliary maljunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Common Bile Duct / abnormalities. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Mucins / metabolism. Pancreatic Ducts / abnormalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cholecystectomy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19067853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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28. Yuan TC, Veeramani S, Lin MF: Neuroendocrine-like prostate cancer cells: neuroendocrine transdifferentiation of prostate adenocarcinoma cells. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):531-47
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine-like prostate cancer cells: neuroendocrine transdifferentiation of prostate adenocarcinoma cells.
  • Neuroendocrine (NE) cells represent a minor cell population in the epithelial compartment of normal prostate glands and may play a role in regulating the growth and differentiation of normal prostate epithelia.
  • We further describe the biochemical properties of newly established, stable NE-like lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cell lines, transdifferentiated from androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells under androgen-deprived conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Transdifferentiation / physiology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neurosecretory Systems / cytology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17914087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA88184; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20RR018759
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interleukin-6; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 3.1.3.48 / Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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29. Horiguchi S, Hishima T, Hayashi Y, Shiozawa Y, Horiguchi K, Kuroi K, Toi M, Funata N, Eishi Y: HER-2/neu cytoplasmic staining is correlated with neuroendocrine differentiation in breast carcinoma. J Med Dent Sci; 2010 Jun;57(2):155-63
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu cytoplasmic staining is correlated with neuroendocrine differentiation in breast carcinoma.
  • HER2 oncoprotein plays an essential role in breast cancer growth and differentiation.
  • Subsequently, we studied the association of the cytoplasmic expression of HER2 with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Interestingly, all 34 specimens had some positive signals of neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, and CD56.
  • Although the result is preliminary, it warrants further study on the role of the cytoplasmic variant form of HER2 in breast cancer growth, particularly in the aspect of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Neuroendocrine Cells / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Carcinoma, Lobular / chemistry. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A / analysis. Coloring Agents. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21073134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1342-8810
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical and dental sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Dent. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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30. Makino A, Serra S, Chetty R: Composite adenocarcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum. Virchows Arch; 2006 May;448(5):644-7
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  • [Title] Composite adenocarcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum.
  • Even more uncommon are the so-called amphicrine tumors, lesions in which dual epithelial and endocrine differentiation occurs in the same cell.
  • We describe a patient who complained of rectal pain and bleeding with a mixed or composite adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum.
  • Histological examination revealed a distinct adenocarcinoma of conventional type with glandular structures admixed intimately with a neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • The latter component was deeply infiltrative, while the adenocarcinoma occupied the more superficial aspect of the tumor.
  • What was interesting was the immunophenotype of the lesion: cytokeratin (CK) 20 expression was very focal in the adenocarcinoma component and negative in the neuroendocrine carcinoma, while CK 7 was expressed strongly in the adenocarcinoma and only focally in the neuroendocrine component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16508780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. García-Yuste M, Matilla JM, González-Aragoneses F: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Mar;20(2):148-54
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to answering different questions related to the treatment and prognosis of neuroendocrine lung tumors.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: In neuroendocrine lung tumors, regardless of the grade of tumoral malignancy, the general growth during the past years of the nodal involvement percentage detected in lung neuroendocrine tumors might be explained by accepting surgical treatment as the norm and a complete mediastinal nodal dissection.
  • Among non-small-cell carcinomas, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is the tumor with the worst prognosis.
  • The importance of neuroendocrine differentiation in non-small-cell lung carcinomas for the treatment and prognosis of these tumors is a reason to intensify research.
  • SUMMARY: In the surgical treatment of lung neuroendocrine carcinomas, nodal mediastinal dissection should always be performed.
  • In the large neuroendocrine carcinoma, experience confirms the possibility of surgical treatment in early stages; in all cases, adjuvant treatment should always be established.
  • The presence of synaptophysin in squamous carcinoma tumors and adenocarcinoma tumors in stage I seems to be associated with a worse prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18300764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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32. Oue N, Mitani Y, Aung PP, Sakakura C, Takeshima Y, Kaneko M, Noguchi T, Nakayama H, Yasui W: Expression and localization of Reg IV in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues: Reg IV expression is associated with intestinal and neuroendocrine differentiation in gastric adenocarcinoma. J Pathol; 2005 Oct;207(2):185-98
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  • [Title] Expression and localization of Reg IV in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues: Reg IV expression is associated with intestinal and neuroendocrine differentiation in gastric adenocarcinoma.
  • In the stomach, foveolar epithelium was negative for Reg IV, whereas goblet cells of intestinal metaplasia and neuroendocrine cells at the base of intestinal metaplasia expressed Reg IV.
  • Neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine and colon showed strong expression of Reg IV, whereas goblet cells of the small intestine and colon showed weak or no expression of Reg IV.
  • Among 143 gastric adenocarcinomas, Reg IV expression was detected in 42 (29.4%) and was associated with both the intestinal mucin phenotype and neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • These data suggest that Reg IV is expressed by gastrointestinal and pancreatic tumours, including adenocarcinomas and carcinoid tumours, and that Reg IV is associated with intestinal and neuroendocrine differentiation of the stomach and gastric carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Lectins, C-Type / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Stomach Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Blotting, Western / methods. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Carcinoid Tumor / chemistry. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Colon / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / chemistry. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Intestine, Small / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / chemistry. Pancreas / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / chemistry. Phenotype. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Stomach / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16086444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / REG4 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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33. Ishida E, Nakamura M, Shimada K, Tasaki M, Konishi N: Immunohistochemical analysis of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer. Pathobiology; 2009;76(1):30-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To clarify the significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically examined 96 samples of prostatic cancers obtained from radical prostatectomies using a specific neuroendocrine marker and various neuropeptides, as well as markers for cell proliferation, angiogenesis and androgen-receptor expression.
  • RESULTS: We frequently found neuroendocrine cells in atrophic glands with or without chronic inflammation in nontumorous tissues.
  • Neuroendocrine cells were detected in 36.5% of prostate cancer samples overall, but had no significant correlation to angiogenesis, cell proliferation or biochemical recurrence.
  • However, patients with a high frequency of neuroendocrine cells (9.4%) tended to undergo preoperative hormonal therapy (p = 0.060), which led to their cancers being atrophic with inflammation.
  • The neuroendocrine cells in these patients contained calcitonin-positive cells (p <or= 0.0001), and calcitonin positivity showed significant association with high Gleason score (p = 0.045) in the group without preoperative therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neuroendocrine cells may be induced under conditions of atrophy with or without chronic inflammation in both noncancerous glands and in cancers, including calcitonin-positive cells.
  • Neither positive neuroendocrine nor positive androgen-receptor status appears predictive for biochemical recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Neurosecretory Systems / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19188748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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34. Hong SM, Kim MJ, Pi DY, Jo D, Yu E, Ro JY: Neuroendocrine differentiation in extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas and its prognostic significance. Hum Pathol; 2005 Jul;36(7):732-40
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation in extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas and its prognostic significance.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation is known to be one of the prognostic factors in many carcinomas.
  • However, the characteristics of neuroendocrine differentiation are not well elucidated in extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) carcinomas.
  • Therefore, immunohistochemical studies for neuroendocrine differentiation may be helpful in routine pathological examinations for evaluating the survival and the prognosis of patients with EBD carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neurosecretory Systems / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16084941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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35. Kamiya N, Suzuki H, Kawamura K, Imamoto T, Naya Y, Tochigi N, Kakuta Y, Yamaguchi K, Ishikura H, Ichikawa T: Neuroendocrine differentiation in stage D2 prostate cancers. Int J Urol; 2008 May;15(5):423-8
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation in stage D2 prostate cancers.
  • OBJECTIVES: Chromogranin A (CgA) and neuro-specific enolase (NSE) are gaining acceptance as markers of several types of neuroendocrine tumors and the concentration of CgA and NSE have been reported to be elevated in relation to neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Neuroendocrine differentiation in stage D(2) prostate cancer has attracted considerable attention as a potentially findings prognosis.
  • Thus, CgA had a stronger relationship between serum levels and IHC positivity in contrast to NSE, suggesting clinical usefulness as a tumor marker in predicting the extent of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Chromogranin A / blood. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18452460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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36. Tokunaga M, Yasuda M, Osamura RY, Itoh J, Mukai M, Shima M, Usui Y, Masuda A, Miyakita H, Terachi T: Association of neuroendocrine differentiation with neoadjuvant hormone therapy effects in prostatic cancer. Oncol Rep; 2005 Jun;13(6):1081-7
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  • [Title] Association of neuroendocrine differentiation with neoadjuvant hormone therapy effects in prostatic cancer.
  • Histological therapeutic effects of neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT) in prostatic cancer were examined, focusing on the association with neuroendocrine differentiation (NED), using 69 radical prostatectomy cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15870925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins
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37. Sauer CG, Trojan L, Grobholz R: [Relevance of the neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic carcinoma]. Pathologe; 2005 Nov;26(6):444-52
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  • [Title] [Relevance of the neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic carcinoma].
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 233 patients with prostatic carcinoma the NE differentiation was determined in a hot spot (7.9 mm(2)) with maximum CgA positive cell density.
  • A high NE differentiation (HNE) was defined by a least 30 NE tumor cells, while less means a low NE differentiation (LNE).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Besides the quantity of NE differentiation the quality of the growth pattern of NE tumor cells is of relevance in prostatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16133158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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38. Theodoropoulos VE, Tsigka A, Mihalopoulou A, Tsoukala V, Lazaris AC, Patsouris E, Ghikonti I: Evaluation of neuroendocrine staining and androgen receptor expression in incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma: prognostic implications. Urology; 2005 Oct;66(4):897-902
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  • [Title] Evaluation of neuroendocrine staining and androgen receptor expression in incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma: prognostic implications.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify neuroendocrine cells and androgen receptors (ARs), possible predictors of cancer progression, in a series of untreated patients with incidental Stage T1a prostate cancer (PCa).
  • Neuroendocrine cells may exert a dynamic role in the microenvironment of PCa.
  • Neuroendocrine cells were detected by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to chromogranin A (CgA) and neuron-specific enolase, and the antibody against AR enabled the evaluation of the nuclear AR status.
  • On multivariate analysis, worsening tumor differentiation emerged as the only independent predictor of progression-free survival (P = 0.041); however, only CgA positivity was an independent predictor of tumor progression in well and moderately differentiated tumors (P = 0.038).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / chemistry. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16230178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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39. Cho YB, Yang SS, Lee WY, Song SY, Kim SH, Shin HJ, Yun SH, Chun HK: The clinical significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jun;18(3):201-6
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  • [Title] The clinical significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer.
  • This study was conducted to determine the clinical significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in cases of T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer.
  • Tumors expressing neuroendocrine markers were classified as either low expression (<or=2% cells staining positive for a neuroendocrine marker) or high expression (>2% cells staining positive for a neuroendocrine marker).
  • With the exception of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen, no statistically significant correlation was found between neuroendocrine differentiation and all other clinicopathologic variables.
  • Analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression model demonstrated that neuroendocrine differentiation for chromogranin A and synaptophysin was not associated with disease-free survival.
  • Therefore, neuroendocrine differentiation markers would not be useful variables for prognostic assessment of patients with T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neurosecretory Systems / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19372085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin
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40. Nemoto K, Tomita Y: Neuroendocrine differentiation of localized prostate cancer during endocrine therapy. Scand J Urol Nephrol; 2007;41(6):558-60
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation of localized prostate cancer during endocrine therapy.
  • After 25 months he complained of a swollen neck, and was diagnosed with prostate cancer with lymph node metastasis of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation without elevation of conventional tumor markers is rare during the initial recurrent course of localized prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anilides / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 17853028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5599
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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41. Linder S, Myrvold K, Falkmer UG, Qvigstad G, Waldum HL, Falkmer SE: Neuroendocrine cells in pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun;25(2):213-21
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine cells in pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study.
  • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas can display disseminated neuroendocrine (NE) cells.
  • The NE differentiation was found to be unrelated to proliferation, p53 protein expression, and to the survival of the patients.
  • Using strict structural and IHC criteria, a NE differentiation occurs in less than 20 % of cases; its clinico-pathological significance seems to be non relevant.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Neurosecretory Systems / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Proliferation. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16918133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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42. Jung SH, Kim HC, Yu CS, Chang HM, Ryu MH, Lee JL, Kim JS, Kim JC: [Clinicopathologic characteristics of colorectal neuroendocrine tumor]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2006 Aug;48(2):97-103
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic characteristics of colorectal neuroendocrine tumor].
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare neoplasm exhibiting fulminant progression and having poor prognosis.
  • The purpose of this study is to verify the clinicopathologic characteristics of colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • METHODS: From June 1997 to December 2004 at Asan Medical Center, ten patients were originally identified as colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma on the basis of H&E and immunohistochemical staining (IHC).
  • RESULTS: Ten patients (0.2%) with colorectal neuroendocrine tumors were identified from 4,512 patients with colorectal cancer; ten neuroendocrine carcinomas and three adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Nine of ten neuroendocrine carcinomas expressed synaptophysin, but chromogranin A were expressed in four.
  • All patients were advanced at the time of diagnosis, with AJCC TNM staging: stage IIIB (n=2), stage IIIC (n=3), and stage IV (n=8).
  • The median survival for ten neuroendocrine carcinomas and three adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation were 16.4 months and 30 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal neuroendocrine tumors are extremely rare showing aggressive behavior biologically, i.e fulminant early distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biopsy. Chromogranin A / analysis. Chromogranin A / immunology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Sigmoid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sigmoid Neoplasms / mortality. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Synaptophysin / analysis. Synaptophysin / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16929153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin
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43. Monsef N, Soller M, Panagopoulos I, Abrahamsson PA: HIF1alpha isoforms in benign and malignant prostate tissue and their correlation to neuroendocrine differentiation. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:385
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIF1alpha isoforms in benign and malignant prostate tissue and their correlation to neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer has been correlated with a poor prognosis and hormone refractory disease.
  • METHODS: We studied the HIF1alpha isoforms present in 8 cases of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 43 cases of prostate cancer with and without NE differentiation using RT-PCR, sequencing analysis, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Neurosecretory Systems / pathology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Cites] Regul Pept. 2007 Jun 7;141(1-3):140-53 [17289170.001]
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  • (PMID = 20663134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913964
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44. Birkenkamp-Demtröder K, Wagner L, Brandt Sørensen F, Bording Astrup L, Gartner W, Scherübl H, Heine B, Christiansen P, Ørntoft TF: Secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation. Neuroendocrinology; 2005;82(2):121-38
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  • [Title] Secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of secretagogin in normal mucosa, adenocarcinomas, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical analyses on tissue specimens showed that secretagogin is exclusively expressed in neuroendocrine cells and nerve cells in normal mucosa of the digestive tract.
  • Tissues adjacent to benign hyperplasic polyps and adenomas showed a decreased number of secretagogin-expressing neuroendocrine cells.
  • Secretagogin co-localized with neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin) in neuroendocrine cells in crypts of normal mucosa, and in tumor cells of carcinoids.
  • Secretagogin was strongly expressed in the cytosol and the nucleus of 19 well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoids and carcinoid metastases, as well as in neuroendocrine tumors from the lung, pancreas and adrenal gland.
  • We conclude that secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Western. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Peptidylprolyl Isomerase / metabolism. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Secretagogins. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tacrolimus Binding Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16449819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase; EC 5.2.1.- / Tacrolimus Binding Proteins; EC 5.2.1.8 / FKBP10 protein, human; EC 5.2.1.8 / Peptidylprolyl Isomerase
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45. Righi L, Sapino A, Marchiò C, Papotti M, Bussolati G: Neuroendocrine differentiation in breast cancer: established facts and unresolved problems. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;27(1):69-76
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation in breast cancer: established facts and unresolved problems.
  • Neuroendocrine breast carcinoma (NEBC) diagnosis relies on (i) presence of morphologic neuroendocrine features, and (ii) neuroendocrine markers expressed in more than 50% of tumor cells.
  • In addition, we have recently proposed a further categorization into 5 subgroups: the first 3 categories encompass solid lesions and include (i) solid cohesive carcinomas, (ii) alveolar carcinomas, and (iii) small cell carcinoma; the last subgroups include mucin-producing tumors which are (iv) solid papillary carcinomas and (v) cellular mucinous carcinomas.
  • Chromogranin A and synaptophysin have been considered as the most sensitive and specific neuroendocrine markers in NEBC.
  • Moreover, it has been demonstrated that mucinous and neuroendocrine carcinomas are transcriptionally distinct from conventional invasive ductal carcinomas.
  • The clinical effect of neuroendocrine breast cancer is still a matter of debate; however, when compared with unselected breast cancers, NEBCs show a less aggressive clinical behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Chromogranin A / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20306832.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Synaptophysin
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46. Travis WD: Advances in neuroendocrine lung tumors. Ann Oncol; 2010 Oct;21 Suppl 7:vii65-71
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  • [Title] Advances in neuroendocrine lung tumors.
  • Pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) tumors include a spectrum of tumors from the low-grade typical carcinoid (TC) and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid (AC) to the high-grade large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • Also both LCNEC and SCLC can demonstrate histologic heterogeneity with other major histologic types of lung carcinoma such as adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, but is not characteristic of TC or AC.
  • The diagnosis of SCLC, TC and AC can be made by light microscopy without the need for special tests in most cases, but for LCNEC it is required to demonstrate NE differentiation by immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy.

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  • (PMID = 20943645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Cindolo L, Franco R, Cantile M, Schiavo G, Liguori G, Chiodini P, Salzano L, Autorino R, Di Blasi A, Falsaperla M, Feudale E, Botti G, Gallo A, Cillo C: NeuroD1 expression in human prostate cancer: can it contribute to neuroendocrine differentiation comprehension? Eur Urol; 2007 Nov;52(5):1365-73
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  • [Title] NeuroD1 expression in human prostate cancer: can it contribute to neuroendocrine differentiation comprehension?
  • OBJECTIVES: Neuroendocrine differentiation is a common feature of prostate cancer (pCA).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Expression of NeuroD1 versus chromogranin-A is more frequent in pCA, and correlates to increased indicators of malignancy in moderately to poorly differentiated pCA, and could be involved in the pathophysiology of the neuroendocrine differentiation of pCA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / genetics. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2007 Nov;52(5):1373 [17985422.001]
  • (PMID = 17126478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / NEUROD1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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48. Grabowski P, Sturm I, Schelwies K, Maaser K, Buhr HJ, Dörken B, Zeitz M, Daniel PT, Scherübl H: Analysis of neuroendocrine differentiation and the p53/BAX pathway in UICC stage III colorectal carcinoma identifies patients with good prognosis. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2006 Apr;21(3):221-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of neuroendocrine differentiation and the p53/BAX pathway in UICC stage III colorectal carcinoma identifies patients with good prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Neuroendocrine differentiation is an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Specimens were analyzed from 59 patients with UICC stage III disease who underwent surgery for colorectal adenocarcinoma at our institution and were followed up for 5 years or until death.
  • Tumors were studied for both p53 mutation and BAX protein expression as well as for the expression of neuroendocrine markers.
  • RESULTS: p53 status/BAX expression and neuroendocrine differentiation are not correlated in stage III colorectal cancers.
  • However, the combination of both independent events identified a subgroup of patients with an excellent prognosis: Patients whose tumors were neuroendocrine marker-negative and who exhibited an intact p53/BAX pathway lived longer (mean survival, 93 months; range, 82-104 months) than patients whose tumors were either neuroendocrine marker-positive or whose tumors had a completely disrupted apoptotic pathway (41 months; range, 26-57 months; p<0.00001).
  • In multivariate regression analysis, neuroendocrine marker-positive, p53 mutated, low-BAX-expressing tumors revealed an almost fivefold higher risk for earlier death (p<0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Disruption of the p53/BAX pathway is not pathognomonic for colorectal cancers with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Therefore, the combined analysis of p53 status, BAX expression and neuroendocrine differentiation allows one to identify subgroups of patients with either very good or very poor prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 16485142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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49. Bollito ER, Pacchioni D, Lopez-Beltran A, Volante M, Terrone C, Casetta G, Mari M, DePompa R, Cappia S, Papotti M: Immunohistochemical study of neuroendocrine differentiation in primary glandular lesions and tumors of the urinary bladder. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2005 Aug;27(4):218-24
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical study of neuroendocrine differentiation in primary glandular lesions and tumors of the urinary bladder.
  • OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are uncommon in primary adenocarcinoma (AC) and other glandular lesions of the bladder, with no recent study series concerning its significance in differential diagnosis, prognosis or biologic significance.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Sixteen primary bladder AC (enteric-type [n = 71, mucinous [n = 6] and not otherwise specified [NOS] [n = 31), 4 cases of urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation, 20 cases of glandular cystitis and 3 urachal remnants with intestinal metaplasia constituted the study series.
  • In addition, 20 specimens of normal-looking urothelium, 15 conventional urothelial carcinomas and 5 small cell carcinoma (SCC) cases were included for comparison.
  • NE differentiation included detection of chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and synaptophysin by immunohistochemistry.
  • NE differentiation in bladder AC subtypes resulted in highly significant differences between enteric or mucinous vs. NOS type (p = 0.0023).
  • NE differentiation was also different in urachal vs. nonurachal AC (p = 0.020) and primary bladder AC vs. conventional invasive urothelial carcinoma (p < 0.001).
  • One of 4 urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation had chromogranin A-immunoreactive cells, but this was not significant when compared with primary AC (p = 0.1).
  • Normal-looking bladder urothelium and conventional urothelial carcinoma specimens had no chromogranin A-immunoreactive cells.
  • No correlation was found between NE differentiation and outcome of primary bladder AC or urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary bladder AC, cystitis glandularis and urachal remnants with intestinal metaplasia showed variable degrees of NE differentiation, with no apparent clinical correlation or prognostic significance.
  • However, the absence of NE differentiation in NOS-type primary bladder AC may help in better defining this uncommon subtype of primary bladder AC.

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  • (PMID = 16220833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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50. Angelini C, Crippa S, Uggeri F, Bonardi C, Sartori P, Uggeri F: Colorectal cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation in a child. Pediatr Surg Int; 2005 Oct;21(10):839-40
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  • [Title] Colorectal cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation in a child.
  • Colorectal cancer is extremely rare in children and presents with a poor prognosis because of the delay in diagnosis and lack of histological differentiation.
  • We report a case of a sigmoid colon carcinoma with areas of neuroendocrine cells in a 12-year-old patient without familial occurrence of colorectal cancer.
  • Twenty-six months from initial diagnosis she is alive with evidence of disease.
  • The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the previously reported cases of colorectal cancer in children are also reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16177922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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51. Jung SJ, Yoon HK, Chung JI, Ayala AG, Ro JY: Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney with neuroendocrine differentiation: report of two cases. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jan;125(1):99-104
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  • [Title] Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney with neuroendocrine differentiation: report of two cases.
  • We encountered 2 cases of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) during a short time.
  • We present 2 additional cases of MTSCC showing typical morphologic features with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16482997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Menasce LP, Yap BK, Colaco RJ, Castro P, Celestino R, Ruíz-Ponte C, Soares P, Sobrinho-Simões M: Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: molecular characterization of a case with neuroendocrine differentiation and aggressive behavior. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Jan;131(1):134-42
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  • [Title] Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: molecular characterization of a case with neuroendocrine differentiation and aggressive behavior.
  • We describe an especially aggressive case of cribriform-morular variant (C-MV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in a 42-year-old man with familial adenomatous polyposis who died with lung and brain metastases 17 months after thyroidectomy.
  • This tumor represents the first case of C-MV of PTC showing neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19095577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Yuan TC, Veeramani S, Lin FF, Kondrikou D, Zelivianski S, Igawa T, Karan D, Batra SK, Lin MF: Androgen deprivation induces human prostate epithelial neuroendocrine differentiation of androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Mar;13(1):151-67
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  • [Title] Androgen deprivation induces human prostate epithelial neuroendocrine differentiation of androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells.
  • Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are the minor cell populations in normal prostate epithelial compartments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Androgens / physiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neurotensin / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism. Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16601285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 88184; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR 017675; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR 018759
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 39379-15-2 / Neurotensin; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTPRA protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.1.3.48 / Ptpra protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.48 / Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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54. Turbat-Herrera EA, Herrera GA: Electron microscopy renders the diagnostic capabilities of cytopathology more precise: an approach to everyday practice. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2005 Nov-Dec;29(6):475-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • By the use of EM the authors can make specific final diagnoses, make the diagnosis more definitive, narrow the differential diagnosis, or determine the origin of a neoplasm with unknown primary site.
  • The common diagnostic dilemmas in the everyday practice of cytology are the following: mesothelioma vs. adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine differentiation or not, the distinction of melanoma from adenocarcinoma and sarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma vs. adenocarcinoma, and the origin of adenocarcinomas of unknown primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Mesothelioma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16316948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3123
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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55. Tarján M: Prognostic significance of focal neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer: cases with autopsy-verified cause of death. Indian J Urol; 2010 Jan-Mar;26(1):41-5
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of focal neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer: cases with autopsy-verified cause of death.
  • After exclusion of a single case of carcinoid tumor, 14 of the 18 (78%) metastatic and none of the 21 (0%) nonmetastatic tumors showed focal neuroendocrine differentiation (NED).

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  • (PMID = 20535283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2878436
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenocarcinoma / neuroendocrine differentiation / prognosis / prostate
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56. Howe MC, Chapman A, Kerr K, Dougal M, Anderson H, Hasleton PS: Neuroendocrine differentiation in non-small cell lung cancer and its relation to prognosis and therapy. Histopathology; 2005 Feb;46(2):195-201
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation in non-small cell lung cancer and its relation to prognosis and therapy.
  • AIMS: Histopathologists report the presence of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in up to a third of cases and are often questioned about its clinical relevance.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of immunohistochemically detected NE differentiation in NSCLC is not of prognostic significance.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Large Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15693892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Synaptophysin
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57. Wick MR, Vitsky JL, Ritter JH, Swanson PE, Mills SE: Sporadic medullary carcinoma of the colon: a clinicopathologic comparison with nonhereditary poorly differentiated enteric-type adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine colorectal carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jan;123(1):56-65
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  • [Title] Sporadic medullary carcinoma of the colon: a clinicopathologic comparison with nonhereditary poorly differentiated enteric-type adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine colorectal carcinoma.
  • We studied 68 sporadic colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) with medullary features (MCRCs) and compared them with 35 poorly differentiated purely "enteric" CRCs (ECRCs) and 15 purely neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of grades II and III, all in patients lacking a family history of CRC.
  • Although the histologic images of MCRCs were evocative of neuroendocrine differentiation, chromogranin positivity and synaptophysin reactivity in that group did not differ meaningfully from that of ECRCs but was dissimilar to the 100% labeling of NECs. p53 immunolabeling was similar in the 3 tumor groups.
  • Medullary CRC seems to be a distinct clinicopathologic variant of CRC, which does not have a neuroendocrine lineage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15762280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Jung JY, Kim YJ, Kim HM, Kim HJ, Park SW, Song SY, Chung JB, Kang CM, Pyo JY, Yang WI, Bang S: Hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas combined with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Gut Liver; 2010 Mar;4(1):98-102
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  • [Title] Hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas combined with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Hepatoid carcinoma is a primary extrahepatic carcinoma whose morphology, immunohistochemistry, and behavior are similar to those of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The most common sites of extrahepatic carcinoma are the stomach and ovary, but nine cases of hepatocellular differentiation of the pancreas have been reported in the literature.
  • We report another case of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas that was associated with the development of a pancreatic endocrine carcinoma in a 46-year-old man.
  • He underwent a conventional Whipple operation, and light microscopy showed adenocarcinoma that was immunopositive for AFP, hepatocyte antigen, cytokeratin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin.
  • Although hepatoid differentiation was not shown unequivocally histologically, other immunohistochemistry findings supported the diagnosis of hepatoid carcinoma combined with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • This report describes why hepatoid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a pancreatic mass, especially when serum AFP is elevated.

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  • (PMID = 20479919.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-1212
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut and liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut Liver
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2871600
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hepatoid carcinoma / Neuroendocrine carcinoma / Pancreas
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59. Ather MH, Abbas F, Faruqui N, Israr M, Pervez S: Correlation of three immunohistochemically detected markers of neuroendocrine differentiation with clinical predictors of disease progression in prostate cancer. BMC Urol; 2008;8:21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation of three immunohistochemically detected markers of neuroendocrine differentiation with clinical predictors of disease progression in prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The importance of immuno-histological detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma with respect to disease at presentation and Gleason grade is gaining acceptance.
  • There is limited literature on the relative significance of three commonly used markers of NE differentiation i.e.
  • In the current work we have assessed the correlation of immuno-histological detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma with respect to disease at presentation and Gleason grade and to determine the relative value of various markers.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive samples of malignant prostatic specimens (Transurethral resection of prostate or radical retropubic prostatectomy) from 84 patients between January 1991 and December 1998 were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining (PAP technique) using selected neuroendocrine tumor markers i.e.
  • According to the stage at diagnosis, patients were divided into three groups.

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  • [Cites] Virchows Arch. 2002 Mar;440(3):241-8 [11889593.001]
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  • (PMID = 19115997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2490
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628675
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60. Tawadros T, Martin D, Abderrahmani A, Leisinger HJ, Waeber G, Haefliger JA: IB1/JIP-1 controls JNK activation and increased during prostatic LNCaP cells neuroendocrine differentiation. Cell Signal; 2005 Aug;17(8):929-39
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  • [Title] IB1/JIP-1 controls JNK activation and increased during prostatic LNCaP cells neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • The scaffold protein Islet-Brain1/c-Jun amino-terminal kinase Interacting Protein-1 (IB1/JIP-1) is a modulator of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity, which has been implicated in pleiotrophic cellular functions including cell differentiation, division, and death.
  • In prostatic adenocarcinoma cells, the neuroendocrine (NE) phenotype acquisition is associated with tumor progression and androgen independence.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Apoptosis. Benzimidazoles / pharmacology. Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Western. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Densitometry. Disease Progression. Enzyme Activation. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Fenretinide / pharmacology. HeLa Cells. Humans. Luciferases / metabolism. MAP Kinase Kinase 4. Male. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Neoplasms / pathology. Neurons / metabolism. Phenotype. Plasmids / metabolism. Prostate / metabolism. RNA / metabolism. Rats. Repressor Proteins / physiology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tetrazolium Salts / pharmacology. Thiazoles / pharmacology. Tissue Distribution. Transcription Factors / physiology. Transcription, Genetic. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15894166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0898-6568
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular signalling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Signal.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Benzimidazoles; 0 / MAPK8IP1 protein, human; 0 / RE1-silencing transcription factor; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 0 / Thiazoles; 0 / Transcription Factors; 187EJ7QEXL / Fenretinide; 23491-52-3 / HOE 33342; 298-93-1 / thiazolyl blue; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 2.7.11.24 / JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 4; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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61. Mecca P, Busam K: Primary male neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma involving the nipple simulating Merkel cell carcinoma - a diagnostic pitfall. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Feb;35(2):207-11
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  • [Title] Primary male neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma involving the nipple simulating Merkel cell carcinoma - a diagnostic pitfall.
  • Likewise, true neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast, defined as > 50% of tumor cells staining for either chromogranin or synaptophysin, is not a common entity, usually occurring in older women.
  • The case was originally misdiagnosed as a Merkel cell carcinoma, based largely on histologic morphology.
  • Additionally, a substantial portion of cells stained for Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein-15 (GCDFP-15), confirming some overlap with sweat duct differentiation.
  • To the best of our knowledge, although reported in the male breast, no case of primary nipple neuroendocrine carcinoma in a male patient has been reported in the literature.
  • The gender of the patient and association with the skin of the chest wall probably contributed to the original misdiagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma in this patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Nipples / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18190447.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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62. Osada H, Tomida S, Yatabe Y, Tatematsu Y, Takeuchi T, Murakami H, Kondo Y, Sekido Y, Takahashi T: Roles of achaete-scute homologue 1 in DKK1 and E-cadherin repression and neuroendocrine differentiation in lung cancer. Cancer Res; 2008 Mar 15;68(6):1647-55
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  • [Title] Roles of achaete-scute homologue 1 in DKK1 and E-cadherin repression and neuroendocrine differentiation in lung cancer.
  • The proneural basic-helix-loop-helix protein achaete-scute homologue 1 (ASH1) is expressed in a very limited spectrum of normal and cancerous cells in a lineage-specific manner, including normal pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and lung cancer cells with neuroendocrine features.
  • Our previous results indicated that ASH1 may play a crucial role in the growth and survival of lung cancers with neuroendocrine features, which prompted us to investigate the molecular function of ASH1 in relation to its involvement in carcinogenic processes.
  • Herein, we report for the first time that ASH1 functions as a dual transcription factor by activating neuroendocrine differentiation markers and also repressing putative tumor suppressors.
  • In addition, ASH1-transduced A549 adenocarcinoma cells exhibited markedly altered morphology characteristics compared with lung cancer cells with neuroendocrine features both in vitro and in vivo and also grew faster in vivo.
  • Our results provide important clues for a better understanding of the molecular and cellular biological roles of ASH1 in the process of carcinogenesis of lung cancers with neuroendocrine features and warrant future investigations to shed light on the lineage-specific dependency of this transcription factor with dual functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antigens, CD29 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD29 / genetics. Antigens, CD29 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Methylation. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Silencing. Humans. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18339843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ASH1L protein, human; 0 / Antigens, CD29; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / DKK1 protein, human; 0 / DKK3 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
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63. Petrović M, Tomić I, Ilić S: [Neuroendocrine differentiation as a survival prognostic factor in advanced non-small cell lung cancer]. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2007 Aug;64(8):525-9
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation as a survival prognostic factor in advanced non-small cell lung cancer].
  • In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) neuroendocrine differentiation exists in 10-30% of patients.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and influence of neuroendocrine differentiation on survival of treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: A clinical trial included 158 patients (74% males and 26% females), with the diagnosis of NSCLC, determined by histological verification.
  • RESULTS: A total of 53 patients (34%) had NSCLC with neuroendocrine differentiation, confirmed rather in large cell lung cancer and lung adenocarcinoma (66.7% and 40%, respectively).
  • The median survival time in the patients with the neuroendocrine expression as compared to those without the expression was 15.6 vs 10.8 months; one year survival time with the expression compared to those without the expression achieved in 62% vs 27% of the patients, (< 0.001); a two-year survival time noted in 30% of the patients (p = 0.000).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that almost the third of the advanced NSCLC has neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Chromogranin A / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17874719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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64. Volante M, Marci V, Andrejevic-Blant S, Tavaglione V, Sculli MC, Tampellini M, Papotti M: Increased neuroendocrine cells in resected metastases compared to primary colorectal adenocarcinomas. Virchows Arch; 2010 Nov;457(5):521-7
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  • [Title] Increased neuroendocrine cells in resected metastases compared to primary colorectal adenocarcinomas.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation has been described in rectal adenocarcinomas receiving neoadjuvant therapy prior to radical surgery, but its clinical relevance is controversial and no data are currently available in colorectal carcinoma metastases as compared to primary tumors.
  • The presence of chromogranin A positive tumor cells was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry on surgical specimens from 54 primary colorectal carcinomas and their corresponding metastases, resected at diagnosis or during tumor progression.
  • In primary tumors, neuroendocrine differentiation was found in 12/54 cases (22.2%) as compared to 25/54 metastatic lesions (46.3%; p = 0.01).
  • The presence of neuroendocrine phenotype was not correlated with any clinical pathological parameter nor with a different proliferation index.
  • However, patients having neuroendocrine cells in the primary tumor had a significantly shorter survival from the time of metastatic spread than those having not (33.3 vs. 55.5 months; p = 0.04).
  • In summary, our data show that colorectal carcinoma metastases contain a higher percentage of neuroendocrine differentiated cells as compared to their corresponding primaries, a finding possibly related to the influence of chemotherapy in neuroendocrine differentiation during colorectal carcinoma progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neuroendocrine Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Cites] Hum Pathol. 1992 Jul;23(7):736-41 [1351863.001]
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  • (PMID = 20812018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A
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65. Tamura T, Jobo T, Watanabe J, Kanai T, Kuramoto H: Neuroendocrine features in poorly differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the endometrium. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):821-6
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine features in poorly differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the endometrium.
  • This study aimed to clarify neuroendocrine features (NEF) in poorly differentiated (G3) endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and to evaluate its prognostic significance.
  • Forty cases with G3 carcinoma were investigated for NEF immunohistochemically.
  • The overall positive rate of the three neuroendocrine markers was 62.5%.
  • A patient with diffusely positive staining for both chromogranin A and synaptophysin was diagnosed with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • One or more neuroendocrine markers were positive in 25 cases (62.5%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neurosecretory Systems / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD57 / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16681768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD57; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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66. Fiorito C, Lucca I, Oderda M, Mondino P, Berta G, Cattaneo EA, Valentino F, Zitella A, Pacchioni D: [Neuroendocrine bladder cancer: oncological emergency?]. Urologia; 2008 Jan-Mar;75(1):57-61

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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine bladder cancer: oncological emergency?].
  • Neuroendocrine bladder cancer is extremely rare, with an estimated incidence of 0.5%- 0.7%.
  • In bladder cancers there is no evident connection between the neuroendocrine phenotypic expression and the clinical history.
  • METHODS. We are here describing three case reports of bladder carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, which is extremely aggressive and leads rapidly to death.
  • CONCLUSIONS. Considering the quick evolution and progression of any variant of the neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder, urologists and anesthetists should see them as real oncological emergencies.

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  • (PMID = 21086378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-5603
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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67. Cai G, Ramdall RB, Levine P, Yang GC: Fine-needle aspiration of metastatic prostatic neuroendocrine carcinomas: cytomorphologic and immunophenotypic features. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Aug;36(8):545-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of metastatic prostatic neuroendocrine carcinomas: cytomorphologic and immunophenotypic features.
  • Metastatic prostatic carcinoma may, in rare occasions, present as a neuroendocrine tumor.
  • We report five cases of metastatic prostatic neuroendocrine carcinoma diagnosed by image-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Review of prior prostate biopsies/resections revealed adenocarcinoma with focal neuroendocrine differentiation in all cases, with two cases being newly recognized on retrospective review.
  • Confirming neuroendocrine differentiation in the prior biopsy/resection may help to establish a link between metastasis and prostate primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Immunophenotyping. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18618716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Quek ML, Daneshmand S, Rodrigo S, Cai J, Dorff TB, Groshen S, Skinner DG, Lieskovsky G, Pinski J: Prognostic significance of neuroendocrine expression in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. Urology; 2006 Jun;67(6):1247-52
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of neuroendocrine expression in lymph node-positive prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the expression of chromogranin A, a marker for neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation, in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer to determine its prognostic significance.
  • NE cells are involved in cellular growth and differentiation in both normal and pathologic conditions of the prostate.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the data of 140 patients with lymph node-positive prostate adenocarcinoma treated with radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Chromogranins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16697447.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins
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69. Posligua L, Malpica A, Liu J, Brown J, Deavers MT: Combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium with pagetoid spread. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Nov;132(11):1821-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium with pagetoid spread.
  • Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the endometrium are rare tumors that can be pure, combined with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, or a component of malignant mixed müllerian tumor.
  • Recently, a case of combined small cell carcinoma and papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium was described for the first time.
  • We report the first case, to our knowledge, of combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium, with an unusual pagetoid spread of the neuroendocrine component into normal endometrial and endocervical glands.
  • The endometrial carcinoma had a small serous component, but most of the tumor was characterized by solid sheets of medium to large cells with abundant mitotic figures, numerous apoptotic bodies, and foci of necrosis.
  • This component was diffusely positive for neuroendocrine markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18976022.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA131183
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Mosca A, Berruti A, Russo L, Torta M, Dogliotti L: The neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cancer: basic and clinical aspects. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005;28(11 Suppl International):141-5
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  • [Title] The neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cancer: basic and clinical aspects.
  • Most of the conventional adenocarcinomas of the prostate display focal neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation at diagnosis, usually revealed by immunohistochemistry as solitary or clusters of cells, in the context of predominantly exocrine tumors.
  • Even though the biological and clinical significance of NE differentiation in prostate cancer is still to be elucidated, NE phenotype is emerging as an important factor in the prognosis, evolution and progression of prostate cancer.
  • NE differentiation appears to be a dynamic phenomenon.
  • Pre-clinical and clinical studies demonstrated a direct stimulation of NE differentiation by androgen-suppression therapy, resulting in a dramatic increase in the number of cells expressing NE markers.
  • Even in hormone refractory disease, NE differentiation is a time-dependent phenomenon and is not influenced by conventional antineoplastic treatments.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Apoptosis. Cell Division. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / analysis. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Phenotype. Receptors, Androgen / analysis. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16625864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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71. Roy S, Dhingra KK, Gupta P, Khurana N, Gupta B, Meher R: Acinic cell carcinoma with extensive neuroendocrine differentiation: a diagnostic challenge. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Jun;3(2):163-8
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  • [Title] Acinic cell carcinoma with extensive neuroendocrine differentiation: a diagnostic challenge.
  • Primary salivary gland carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation is of rare occurrence, especially so in the parotid gland.
  • Amongst the various reported primary tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation, acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) one such tumor.
  • Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) suggested diagnosis of Pleomorphic Adenoma.
  • Initial histopathological examination of the tumor was suggestive of neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Immunoexpression of S-100, Neuron specific Enolase (NSE), Chromogranin A and Synaptophysin confirmed the diagnosis.
  • The possibility of neuroendocrine differentiation in a primary salivary gland tumor should be kept in mind whenever a salivary gland tumor shows only neuroendocrine histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenolymphoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19644544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acinic cell / Carcinoma / Chromogranin / Neuroendocrine / Parotid / Warthin’s
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72. Culine S, El Demery M, Lamy PJ, Iborra F, Avancès C, Pinguet F: Docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with metastatic androgen independent prostate cancer and circulating neuroendocrine markers. J Urol; 2007 Sep;178(3 Pt 1):844-8; discussion 848
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  • [Title] Docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with metastatic androgen independent prostate cancer and circulating neuroendocrine markers.
  • PURPOSE: A link between neuroendocrine cell differentiation and resistance to androgen deprivation has been observed in prostate cancer, suggesting the possible efficacy of specific treatments.
  • We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of a chemotherapy regimen combining docetaxel and cisplatin in men with androgen independent prostatic adenocarcinoma and circulating neuroendocrine markers.
  • The primary study end point was the neuroendocrine response rate, defined as a decrease in neuron specific enolase and/or chromogranin A to 50% or greater of the supranormal baseline serum value.
  • A neuroendocrine response was observed in 13 patients (33%).
  • Further studies are necessary to determine whether patients with circulating neuroendocrine markers require specific therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranin A / blood. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


73. Kato T, Terashima T, Tomida S, Yamaguchi T, Kawamura H, Kimura N, Ohtani H: Cytokeratin 20-positive large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon. Pathol Int; 2005 Aug;55(8):524-9
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 20-positive large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon.
  • Herein is presented a case of cytokeratin (CK) 20-positive large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon, in which the tumor was clinically at stage IV and located in the ascending colon.
  • No areas showed differentiation toward adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • With these features, the tumor was diagnosed as a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon.
  • The autopsy confirmed this diagnosis without detectable tumors in the lungs.
  • Most neuroendocrine carcinomas do not express CK 20, with the exception of Merkel cell carcinomas, and most colorectal adenocarcinomas express CK 20.
  • To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present case is the first CK 20-positive, CK 7-negative colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma to be described, suggesting a link between colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma and conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15998383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20
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74. Adolf K, Wagner L, Bergh A, Stattin P, Ottosen P, Borre M, Birkenkamp-Demtröder K, Orntoft TF, Tørring N: Secretagogin is a new neuroendocrine marker in the human prostate. Prostate; 2007 Apr 1;67(5):472-84
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  • [Title] Secretagogin is a new neuroendocrine marker in the human prostate.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer (PCa), promoted by NE cell secreted products, appears to be associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis, and hormone-refractory disease.
  • METHODS: We analyzed immunoreactivity for secretagogin, chromogranin A (CgA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and synaptophysin (SYN) in consecutive sections from 87 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) benign hyperplastic (n = 10) and prostate adenocarcinoma (n = 77) specimens.
  • RESULTS: Secretagogin is cytoplasmic and nuclear expressed in NE and NE differentiated cells, and to a lesser extent in epithelial cells, in the benign prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma cells.
  • The expression of secretagogin is significantly correlated to CgA (P < 0.001) and NSE (P < 0.048) in prostate adenocarcinoma and to CgA in normal epithelium (P < 0.028).
  • Secretagogin is widely expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma as opposed to adenocarcinomas in other organs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Calcium-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17285592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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75. Kuroda N, Hes O, Miyazaki E, Shuin T, Enzan H: Frequent expression of neuroendocrine markers in mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney. Histol Histopathol; 2006 01;21(1):7-10
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  • [Title] Frequent expression of neuroendocrine markers in mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney.
  • Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) is a new tumorous entity which has been recently established.
  • In this article, we examined the expression of neuroendocrine markers including neuron specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin A and synaptophysin in 16 cases of MTSCC using immunohistochemistry.
  • Finally, it is possible that MTSCC may be one of renal neoplasms which frequently exhibit the neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / chemistry. Carcinoma / chemistry. Chromogranins / analysis. Kidney Neoplasms / chemistry. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16267782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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76. Maru DM, Khurana H, Rashid A, Correa AM, Anandasabapathy S, Krishnan S, Komaki R, Ajani JA, Swisher SG, Hofstetter WL: Retrospective study of clinicopathologic features and prognosis of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the esophagus. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Sep;32(9):1404-11
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  • [Title] Retrospective study of clinicopathologic features and prognosis of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the esophagus.
  • Clinicopathologic features of esophageal neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), apart from those of small-cell carcinoma, have not been characterized.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining.
  • The NEC component was classified into small-cell and large-cell subtypes, and non-neuroendocrine components were evaluated.
  • Twenty-seven patients had large-cell NEC, and 13 had small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • An adenocarcinoma component was present in 15 patients and squamous carcinoma component in 1 patient.
  • Overall survival was better in patients with non-neuroendocrine component than in patients with pure NEC (P=0.031).
  • There was no difference in prognosis between patients with large-cell NEC and those with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18670347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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77. Palmer J, Venkateswaran V, Fleshner NE, Klotz LH, Cox ME: The impact of diet and micronutrient supplements on the expression of neuroendocrine markers in murine Lady transgenic prostate. Prostate; 2008 Mar 1;68(4):345-53
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  • [Title] The impact of diet and micronutrient supplements on the expression of neuroendocrine markers in murine Lady transgenic prostate.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation (NED) in prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with morbidity and death; however, the underlying cause(s) promoting NED in PCa have yet to be determined.
  • Lady (12T-10) transgenic animals develop advanced adenocarcinoma with NE characteristics that exhibits metastases in approximately 80% of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diet therapy. Animal Feed. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diet therapy. Micronutrients / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / diet therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18188867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Micronutrients; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 39379-15-2 / Neurotensin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase; PX9AZU7QPK / Bombesin
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78. Seshimo K, Tanaka N, Yamashita Y, Oishi M, Kodera M, Yamamura M, Katoh H, Ikeda H, Yokomichi N, Toshima T, Kawai Y, Shibagaki K, Maejima R, Fujita H, Ichimura K, Takita K: [A case of early poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of stomach]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Feb;37(2):319-21
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  • [Title] [A case of early poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of stomach].
  • Based on the pathology of the biopsy specimen, poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma was diagnosed.
  • The tumor was diagnosed as poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the stomach.
  • Neuroendocrine cell carcinoma of the stomach is rare and usually has a very poor prognosis.
  • Thus, we are reporting this case of early poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the stomach that was curatively resected and had 12-month survival without recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Tegafur / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20154494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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79. Shimizu S, Kumagai J, Eishi Y, Uehara T, Kawakami S, Takizawa T, Koike M: Frequency and number of neuroendocrine tumor cells in prostate cancer: no difference between radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with and without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. Prostate; 2007 May 1;67(6):645-52
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  • [Title] Frequency and number of neuroendocrine tumor cells in prostate cancer: no difference between radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with and without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumor cells in prostate cancer are thought to increase after hormonal therapy due to neuroendocrine differentiation of tumor cells.
  • METHODS: Radical prostatectomy specimens were obtained from 122 consecutive patients with prostate adenocarcinoma, 70 of whom underwent prostatectomy alone (Group A) and 52 with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (Group B).
  • Sections from all the 5-mm-thick slices from formalin-fixed specimens were immunostained for chromogranin-A, and the total number of choromogranin-A-positive neuroendocrine tumor cells were counted.
  • RESULTS: No difference was found between Groups A and B in the frequency of cancer with neuroendocrine cells.
  • The total number of neuroendocrine cells in cancer varied widely with no difference of median values in the two groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support the assumption that hormonal therapy induces neuroendocrine differentiation, but suggest androgen-independent neuroendocrine cells existed before therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17342745.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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80. McCluggage WG, Kennedy K, Busam KJ: An immunohistochemical study of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas: Neoplasms that are commonly TTF1 positive and which may express CK20 and P63. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):525-32
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  • [Title] An immunohistochemical study of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas: Neoplasms that are commonly TTF1 positive and which may express CK20 and P63.
  • Cervical small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) are uncommon but highly aggressive neoplasms.
  • This is important as management is critically dependent on the correct histologic diagnosis.
  • In 2 cases, adjacent foci of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) contained scattered individual chromogranin positive cells, raising the possibility that some cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas arise from neuroendocrine cells in AIS.
  • Our results illustrate that a proportion of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas are negative with broad spectrum cytokeratins and some of the commonly used neuroendocrine markers.
  • TTF1 positivity is extremely common and may be a useful marker of a neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • It is of no value in exclusion of a pulmonary primary. p16 is almost always positive in cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas, possibly owing to an association with oncogenic human papillomavirus, although other mechanisms of expression are also possible.
  • Cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas may be p63 positive, illustrating that this marker is not specific for squamous differentiation.
  • CK20 and neurofilament positivity in some cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas is in keeping with a Merkel cell immunophenotype, similar to that described in SCNECs in other organs.
  • CD99 staining in a cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma should not result in misdiagnosis as a neoplasm in the Ewing family of tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Young Adult


81. Stelow EB, Moskaluk CA, Mills SE: The mismatch repair protein status of colorectal small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Nov;30(11):1401-4
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  • [Title] The mismatch repair protein status of colorectal small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC) of the colorectum is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy.
  • It can be associated with conventional-type adenocarcinoma, and an overlying adenoma can often be identified.
  • Although some phenotypes (eg, mucinous adenocarcinoma) have been shown to be associated with deficient mismatch repair (MMR) and thus microsatellite instability (MSI), the MMR protein status of colorectal SCNCs has not been investigated.
  • Fifteen SCNCs were identified on the basis of previous descriptions and the World Health Organization histologic criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary small cell carcinoma and immunohistochemical evidence of epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • All tumors showed immunoreactivity with antibodies to pancytokeratin and with antibodies to at least 1 neuroendocrine antigen.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17063080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / G-T mismatch-binding protein; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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82. Sørhaug S, Steinshamn S, Haaverstad R, Nordrum IS, Martinsen TC, Waldum HL: Expression of neuroendocrine markers in non-small cell lung cancer. APMIS; 2007 Feb;115(2):152-63
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  • [Title] Expression of neuroendocrine markers in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation is reported in some cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • In conclusion, using sensitive IHC methods NE differentiation was seen in a greater proportion of NSCLC than previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / ultrastructure. Aged. Biomarkers / analysis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ultrastructure. Child. Chromogranin A / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Immunoelectron. Middle Aged. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Smoking. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17295682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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83. Bilimoria KY, Tomlinson JS, Merkow RP, Stewart AK, Ko CY, Talamonti MS, Bentrem DJ: Clinicopathologic features and treatment trends of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: analysis of 9,821 patients. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Nov;11(11):1460-7; discussion 1467-9
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and treatment trends of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: analysis of 9,821 patients.
  • The natural history of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) remains poorly defined.
  • As PNETs have a better prognosis than adenocarcinoma, concerns regarding the morbidity and mortality of pancreatic surgery and neoplasms should not preclude resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery. Pancreatectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Islet Cell / pathology. Adenoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Adult. Aged. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17846854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Chang F, Vu C, Chandra A, Meenan J, Herbert A: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: cytomorphological and immunocytochemical evaluation. Cytopathology; 2006 Feb;17(1):10-7
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: cytomorphological and immunocytochemical evaluation.
  • OBJECTIVES: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) is increasingly used in preoperative localization and diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).
  • RESULTS: All cases except one showed characteristic cytomorphological features sufficient for their recognition and separation from pancreatic adenocarcinoma and other lesions.
  • The most helpful cytological features that facilitated the cytological diagnosis of NET were a richly cellular aspirate with a monotonous, poorly cohesive population of small cells with a speckled or dusty chromatin pattern and plasmacytoid morphology.
  • The neuroendocrine differentiation of these tumours was further confirmed by immunocytochemistry.
  • By adherence to the characteristic cytomorphological criteria of pancreatic NET together with collection of suitable material for ancillary immunocytochemical stains, cytopathologists could reach a correct diagnosis in most instances.
  • [MeSH-major] Endosonography / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16417560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Balta Z, Sauerbruch T, Hirner A, Büttner R, Fischer HP: [Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the liver. From carcinoid tumor to small-cell hepatic carcinoma: case reports and review of the literature]. Pathologe; 2008 Feb;29(1):53-60
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  • [Title] [Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the liver. From carcinoid tumor to small-cell hepatic carcinoma: case reports and review of the literature].
  • Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors are rare neoplasms.
  • While primary hepatic carcinoid tumors (PHCT) are well-differentiated tumors, primary hepatic small-cell carcinomas (PHSCC) represent the poorly differentiated end of the spectrum of neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • The second patient suffered from small-cell carcinoma of the liver.
  • There were no risk factors for a hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • A neuroendocrine PHSCC was diagnosed.
  • After neoadjuvant cytostatic treatment the carcinoma was completely extirpated and 18 months after treatment the patient is healthy.PHCT and PHSCC have to be clearly separated from hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cell Differentiation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18210116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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86. Ronellenfitsch U, Ströbel P, Schwarzbach MH, Staiger WI, Gragert D, Kähler G: A composite adenoendocrine carcinoma of the stomach arising from a neuroendocrine tumor. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Nov;11(11):1573-5
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  • [Title] A composite adenoendocrine carcinoma of the stomach arising from a neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Gastric neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) are relatively uncommon neoplasms.
  • We report a case of a patient with autoimmune body gastritis and a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the stomach, which was removed with endoscopic full-thickness resection in sano upon signs of invasive growth several years after its first diagnosis.
  • Histological examination surprisingly showed a composite glandular-endocrine gastric carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17436049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A
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87. Miyamoto H, Kurita N, Nishioka M, Ando T, Tashiro T, Hirokawa M, Shimada M: Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cell carcinoma of the rectum: report of a case and literal review. J Med Invest; 2006 Aug;53(3-4):317-20
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cell carcinoma of the rectum: report of a case and literal review.
  • Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • The resected tumor was diagnosed pathologically as neuroendocrine cell carcinoma.
  • Treatment for neuroendocrine cell carcinoma of the rectum was controversial.
  • Surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy might be one of the methods for gastrointestinal neruroendocrine cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16953071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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88. Sharifzadeh S, Modjtahedi H, Jedi Tehrani M, Bayat A, Ghaderi A: Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against an antigen on the surface of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. Iran J Immunol; 2007 Dec;4(4):206-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against an antigen on the surface of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • BACKGROUND: Lung carcinoma is a multiple type cancer comprising of small cell and non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: A murine monoclonal antibody (ME3D11) reactive with human NSCLC was selected after immunization of BALB/c mice with a human large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, and was tested by immunofloursence staining and Western blot analysis.
  • This antigen is expressed on the cell surface of all NSCLC and a few carcinoma cell lines.
  • CONCLUSIONS: High degree of binding of this monoclonal antibody to NSCLC and some other carcinoma cells warrants further studies on its potential use in diagnosis and therapy of cancer by conjugation to drugs, toxins or radionuclides.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / immunology. Membrane Proteins / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18057578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-1383
  • [Journal-full-title] Iranian journal of immunology : IJI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Iran J Immunol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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89. Wafa LA, Palmer J, Fazli L, Hurtado-Coll A, Bell RH, Nelson CC, Gleave ME, Cox ME, Rennie PS: Comprehensive expression analysis of L-dopa decarboxylase and established neuroendocrine markers in neoadjuvant hormone-treated versus varying Gleason grade prostate tumors. Hum Pathol; 2007 Jan;38(1):161-70
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  • [Title] Comprehensive expression analysis of L-dopa decarboxylase and established neuroendocrine markers in neoadjuvant hormone-treated versus varying Gleason grade prostate tumors.
  • Increased prostatic neuroendocrine (NE) cell density has been implicated in promoting progression of prostate cancer, but the process by which this occurs remains unclear.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association of increased NE differentiation with neoadjuvant hormone therapy and Gleason grade.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of DDC with the established NE markers, chromogranin A and bombesin, revealed a significant increase in NE differentiation after 6 months of hormone therapy and after progression to androgen independence but no apparent correlation with Gleason grade.
  • Taken together, these results suggest that the increase of NE differentiation in prostate cancers depends specifically on duration of hormone therapy.
  • This increase may be due to the transdifferentiation of AR-expressing epithelial-derived adenocarcinoma cells into an NE cell phenotype.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bombesin / analysis. Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Receptors, Androgen / analysis. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16997353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; EC 4.1.1.- / Dopa Decarboxylase; PX9AZU7QPK / Bombesin
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90. Inoue S, Oka K, Araki T, Yano A, Tacho T, Fujii M, Kimoto K, Murakami M, Ohshiro Y: [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate effectively treated by cisplatin and irinotecan--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Aug;34(8):1323-5
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate effectively treated by cisplatin and irinotecan--a case report].
  • Pathological examination of the prostate revealed conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • The NSE level was high at 88.5 ng/mL, so a percutaneous liver biopsy was performed,and pathological examination of the liver revealed metastatic prostate cancer which showed neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 17687224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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91. Marchetti A, Felicioni L, Pelosi G, Del Grammastro M, Fumagalli C, Sciarrotta M, Malatesta S, Chella A, Barassi F, Mucilli F, Camplese P, D'Antuono T, Sacco R, Buttitta F: Frequent mutations in the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase gene family in large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung. Hum Mutat; 2008 May;29(5):609-16
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  • [Title] Frequent mutations in the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase gene family in large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung.
  • We investigated a large number of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) without morphological evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation for mutations in the NTRK gene family.
  • A total of 538 primary lung carcinomas, including 17 typical carcinoids (TCs), 10 atypical carcinoids (ACs), 39 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs), 29 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs), and 443 NSCLCs were evaluated by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing of the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) of NTRK1, NTRK2, and NTRK3.
  • A mutational analysis, performed after microdissection of LCNECs combined with adenocarcinoma (ADC), showed that only neuroendocrine areas were positive, suggesting that NTRK mutations are involved in the genesis of the neuroendocrine component of combined LCNECs.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18293376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-1004
  • [Journal-full-title] Human mutation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mutat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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92. Liu M, Imam H, Oberg K, Zhou Y: Gene transfer of vasostatin, a calreticulin fragment, into neuroendocrine tumor cells results in enhanced malignant behavior. Neuroendocrinology; 2005;82(1):1-10
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  • [Title] Gene transfer of vasostatin, a calreticulin fragment, into neuroendocrine tumor cells results in enhanced malignant behavior.
  • Vasostatin, a fragment of calreticulin, was transfected in the BON cell line to evaluate the feasibility of using it for gene therapy in neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Burkitt lymphoma cell line, CA46, colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, SW480, as well as endothelial cells PAE and SVEC4 were used for evaluating the function of vasostatin.
  • The results demonstrated that vasostatin transfer caused enhanced malignant behavior of neuroendocrine tumor cell line, BON.
  • Moreover, cell cycle regulatory protein, p27kip1, and cell differentiation-related protein kinase, PKR, were also significantly down-regulated.
  • Therefore, one should be very careful when using vasostatin as an anti-tumoral agent in clinical trials, at least for neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / metabolism. Calreticulin / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Peptide Fragments / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16293970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Calreticulin; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / vasostatin
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93. Kato H, Kobayashi S, Islam AM, Nishizawa O: Female para-urethral adenocarcinoma: histological and immunohistochemical study. Int J Urol; 2005 Jan;12(1):117-9
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  • [Title] Female para-urethral adenocarcinoma: histological and immunohistochemical study.
  • RESULTS: On histologic examination, the female para-urethral cancers were divided into five cases of mucin-producing-type adenocarcinoma and one case of clear cell-type adenocarcinoma.
  • All five mucin-producing-type adenocarcinomas were positive with anti-CEA, and two of them showed neuroendicrine differentiation.
  • The clear cell-type adenocarcinoma had no positive reactions to these antibodies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of histologic structure, positive CEA staining, and the presence of focal neuroendocrine differentiation, mucin-producing-type adenocarcinomas may arise from the proximal part of the para-urethral duct.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Urethral Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15661069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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94. Liao CP, Zhong C, Saribekyan G, Bading J, Park R, Conti PS, Moats R, Berns A, Shi W, Zhou Z, Nikitin AY, Roy-Burman P: Mouse models of prostate adenocarcinoma with the capacity to monitor spontaneous carcinogenesis by bioluminescence or fluorescence. Cancer Res; 2007 Aug 1;67(15):7525-33
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  • [Title] Mouse models of prostate adenocarcinoma with the capacity to monitor spontaneous carcinogenesis by bioluminescence or fluorescence.
  • Here, we describe the improvement of the conditional Pten deletion model of prostate adenocarcinoma by combining it with either a conditional luciferase or enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter line.
  • By comparing the distribution of phenotypically distinct populations of epithelial cells in cancer tissues, we noted that the degree of hyperplasia of cells with neuroendocrine differentiation significantly increases in the recurrent cancer relative to the primary cancer, a characteristic which may parallel the appearance of a neuroendocrine phenotype in human androgen depletion-independent cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Luminescent Measurements. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Green Fluorescent Proteins. Humans. Luciferases. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / physiology


95. Geisinger KR, Travis WD, Perkins LA, Zakowski MF: Aspiration cytomorphology of fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Dec;134(6):894-902
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  • [Title] Aspiration cytomorphology of fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • Fetal adenocarcinoma (FA) of the lung is an exceedingly rare malignancy.
  • Immunochemically, all tumors manifested epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • (3) morules; and (4) neuroendocrine differentiation in glandular epithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21088152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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96. Uphoff J, Woziwodzki J, Schattka SO, Kollias A: [Loss of differentiation of a prostate adenocarcinoma after hormone therapy: the example of a metastasis in the spongy body of the penis]. Aktuelle Urol; 2008 Sep;39(5):373-7
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  • [Title] [Loss of differentiation of a prostate adenocarcinoma after hormone therapy: the example of a metastasis in the spongy body of the penis].
  • Metastases in the penis only occur at an advanced state of the tumour and with a high dedifferentiation, e. g., ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Changes in the morphology of the prostate carcinoma are specially known for the occurrence of small-cell neuroendocrine and undifferentiated carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Penile Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Penis / pathology. Penis / surgery. Prostate / pathology. Prostate / surgery. Prostatectomy

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  • (PMID = 18798127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7868
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Diphosphonates; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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97. Machado MC, Machado MA, Perini MV, Herman P, Jukemura J, Leite KR, Bacchella T: Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: is the absence of neuroendocrine component related to a more malignant behavior? Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 Mar-Apr;55(82-83):708-10
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  • [Title] Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: is the absence of neuroendocrine component related to a more malignant behavior?
  • Some authors have estimated acinar cell tumors to be as aggressive as ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas whereas other series showed acinar cell tumors to have a favorable clinical outcome.
  • METHODOLOGY: With the aim to evaluate the possible relationship between the presence of neuroendocrine differentiation and behavior of these tumors, the authors reviewed all patients presenting acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas in the last 5 years with emphasis in the immunohistochemical evaluation.
  • RESULTS: Four patients presented neuroendocrine differentiation on immunohistochemical evaluation and had a more benign outcome.
  • Two patients without neuroendocrine component had a disseminated disease at presentation.
  • This data suggests that this tumor is less aggressive than ductal adenocarcinoma and even with nodal involvement, long-term survival after complete resection can be achieved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is possible that the absence of neuroendocrine component may be related to a less favorable outcome and adjuvant therapy may be necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18613439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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98. Evans AJ, Humphrey PA, Belani J, van der Kwast TH, Srigley JR: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostate: a clinicopathologic summary of 7 cases of a rare manifestation of advanced prostate cancer. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jun;30(6):684-93
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostate: a clinicopathologic summary of 7 cases of a rare manifestation of advanced prostate cancer.
  • Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer is typically detected by immunohistochemistry as single cells in conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • Prostatic NE tumors, such as carcinoid or small cell carcinoma, are rare and large cell NE carcinoma (LCNEC) is described only in case reports.
  • In 6 cases, there was a history of adenocarcinoma treated with hormone therapy for a mean of 2.4 years (range: 2 to 3 y).
  • The mean patient age at diagnosis with LCNEC was 67 years (range: 43 to 81 y).
  • In 6 cases, there were foci of admixed adenocarcinoma, 4 of which showed hormone therapy effects.
  • LCNEC of prostate is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that typically manifests after long-term hormonal therapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma and likely arises through clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16723845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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99. Kontic M, Stojsic J, Kacar-Kukric V, Jekic B, Bunjevacki V: Multidisciplinary approach in diagnosis of lung carcinoma. Exp Oncol; 2010 Jul;32(2):111-3
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  • [Title] Multidisciplinary approach in diagnosis of lung carcinoma.
  • AIM: To employ multidisciplinary approach in order to make the correct diagnosis of lung carcinoma clinically and morphologically mimicking lymphoma.
  • Further, tumor cells expressed neuroendocrine mar kers: synaptophysin, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), CD56/NCAM, CD57/Leu-7 and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5).
  • Final diagnosis of large cell lung neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) was established.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Morphological pattern of tumor complied with large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but large cell lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation was proved immunohistochemically and confirmed by genetic analysis of p53 mutations in tumor tissue sample.
  • Multidisciplinary approach in diagnosis of lung carcinoma is useful for its final diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20693974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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100. Jain R, Gramigna V, Sanchez-Marull R, Perez-Ordoñez B: Composite intestinal-type adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma of sinonasal tract. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Jul;62(7):634-7

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  • [Title] Composite intestinal-type adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma of sinonasal tract.
  • Although several studies have documented neuroendocrine differentiation in ITACs, the combination of ITAC and small cell carcinoma has not been previously described in detail.
  • The aim of this report is to detail the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of two cases of composite ITAC with small cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Two cases of composite ITAC with small cell carcinoma were routinely processed, and representative sections were stained with CAM5.2, AE1:AE3, keratin 7, keratin 20, keratin 19, CDX-2, p63, villin, chromogranin, synaptophysin and CD56.
  • RESULTS: One tumour consisted of a mixed-type ITAC showing colonic-type and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with foci of "signet-ring" cells combined with small cell carcinoma.
  • Both components stained positively with CAM5.2, AE1:AE3, CK7, CK20 and CK19, whereas only the small cell carcinoma expressed synaptophysin and CD56.
  • The second tumour showed a papillary-type ITAC combined with a small cell carcinoma.
  • The adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma stained positively with CAM5.2, AE1:AE3, CK7, CK19 and CK20.
  • Only the adenocarcinoma was CDX-2 positive, whereas the small cell carcinoma expressed CD56 and synaptophysin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The two components of the combined ITACs and neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma show significant immunohistochemical overlap, supporting a common origin.
  • The occurrence of a distinct neuroendocrine carcinoma combined with ITACs expands the histopathological spectrum of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19321468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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