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1. Sagnak L, Topaloglu H, Gucuk O, Han U, Ersoy H: Skip metastase on the left neck lymph nodes of the prostatic adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and accompanying thyroid micropapillary carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):493-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skip metastase on the left neck lymph nodes of the prostatic adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and accompanying thyroid micropapillary carcinoma.
  • We discuss here the thyroid micropapillary carcinoma that was detected incidentally when investigating the primary focus of the left neck multiple lymph node metastases occurring 8 months later in a patient of ours, whose pathological examination of radical prostatectomy and bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection was reported to be pT3N0 and whole body scanning for metastases, was negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Incidental Findings. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / pathology. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Orchiectomy. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy. Thyroidectomy. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18386164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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2. Reis LO, Vieira LF, Zani EL, Denardi F, de Oliveira LC, Ferreira U: Assessment of serum chromogranin-A as prognostic factor in high-risk prostate cancer. J Investig Med; 2010 Dec;58(8):957-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation may play a key role in androgen-independent tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Chromogranin A / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood


3. Stukavec J, Jirasek T, Mandys V, Denemark L, Havluj L, Sosna B, Kosmahl M, Zadorova Z: Poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma and intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: Description of an unusual case. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(12):879-84
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma and intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: Description of an unusual case.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors and intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms constitute histologically distinctive but relatively rare entities among pancreatic tumors.
  • Collision of these tumors is extremely rare and causes several diagnostic problems regarding the histopathologic differential diagnosis of other pancreatic epithelial tumors.
  • Here, we describe a new case of poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma combined with an intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm.
  • To disclose the relationship between the two histologic components, neuroendocrine differentiation was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy using double immunofluorescence labeling with chromogranin-A and CD57 antibodies.
  • Our results revealed a co-localization of both antigens in neuroendocrine cells of the intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm.
  • The finding has previously been described in non-neoplastic neuroendocrine cells.
  • Cells forming poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma showed a wide heterogeneity in immunoreactions.
  • Our results do not indicate a potential histogenetic similarity between these two neoplasms, which are dissimilar histologically, and underline the previous thesis that cells in intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm revealing neuroendocrine differentiation represent only a non-neoplastic cell admixture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17936521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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4. Balta Z, Sauerbruch T, Hirner A, Büttner R, Fischer HP: [Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the liver. From carcinoid tumor to small-cell hepatic carcinoma: case reports and review of the literature]. Pathologe; 2008 Feb;29(1):53-60
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  • [Title] [Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the liver. From carcinoid tumor to small-cell hepatic carcinoma: case reports and review of the literature].
  • Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors are rare neoplasms.
  • While primary hepatic carcinoid tumors (PHCT) are well-differentiated tumors, primary hepatic small-cell carcinomas (PHSCC) represent the poorly differentiated end of the spectrum of neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • The second patient suffered from small-cell carcinoma of the liver.
  • There were no risk factors for a hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • A neuroendocrine PHSCC was diagnosed.
  • After neoadjuvant cytostatic treatment the carcinoma was completely extirpated and 18 months after treatment the patient is healthy.PHCT and PHSCC have to be clearly separated from hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cell Differentiation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18210116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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5. Culine S, El Demery M, Lamy PJ, Iborra F, Avancès C, Pinguet F: Docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with metastatic androgen independent prostate cancer and circulating neuroendocrine markers. J Urol; 2007 Sep;178(3 Pt 1):844-8; discussion 848
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with metastatic androgen independent prostate cancer and circulating neuroendocrine markers.
  • PURPOSE: A link between neuroendocrine cell differentiation and resistance to androgen deprivation has been observed in prostate cancer, suggesting the possible efficacy of specific treatments.
  • We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of a chemotherapy regimen combining docetaxel and cisplatin in men with androgen independent prostatic adenocarcinoma and circulating neuroendocrine markers.
  • The primary study end point was the neuroendocrine response rate, defined as a decrease in neuron specific enolase and/or chromogranin A to 50% or greater of the supranormal baseline serum value.
  • A neuroendocrine response was observed in 13 patients (33%).
  • Further studies are necessary to determine whether patients with circulating neuroendocrine markers require specific therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranin A / blood. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


6. Cabrespine A, Guy L, Gachon F, Curé H, Chollet P, Bay JO: Circulating chromogranin a and hormone refractory prostate cancer chemotherapy. J Urol; 2006 Apr;175(4):1347-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine differentiation is a frequent pattern in prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • CgA seems to be a useful indicator of neuroendocrine differentiation in patients with HRPC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Chromogranins / blood. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16515996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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7. Inoue S, Oka K, Araki T, Yano A, Tacho T, Fujii M, Kimoto K, Murakami M, Ohshiro Y: [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate effectively treated by cisplatin and irinotecan--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Aug;34(8):1323-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate effectively treated by cisplatin and irinotecan--a case report].
  • Pathological examination of the prostate revealed conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • The NSE level was high at 88.5 ng/mL, so a percutaneous liver biopsy was performed,and pathological examination of the liver revealed metastatic prostate cancer which showed neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 17687224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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8. Sciarra A, Cardi A, Dattilo C, Mariotti G, Di Monaco F, Di Silverio F: New perspective in the management of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma. Int J Clin Pract; 2006 Apr;60(4):462-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New perspective in the management of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • In this review, we will present some of the information that is known about neuroendocrine (NE) cells and differentiation in the prostate.
  • We will then speculate on the potential role that NE differentiation in prostate carcinoma may play and how this differentiation may be clinically analysed and treated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16620361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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9. Langenfeld EM, Bojnowski J, Perone J, Langenfeld J: Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in human lung carcinomas. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Sep;80(3):1028-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Samples included metastatic NSCLC, benign lung tumors, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, bronchioloalveolar, and neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • The BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP-7, and growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5) expressions were examined by Western blot analysis.
  • The BMP-2 was over-expressed in all subtypes of NSCLC, including neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Growth Differentiation Factor 5. Humans. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 Sep;80(3):1032 [16122480.001]
  • (PMID = 16122479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA91919-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMP2 protein, human; 0 / BMP4 protein, human; 0 / BMP6 protein, human; 0 / BMP7 protein, human; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / GDF5 protein, human; 0 / Growth Differentiation Factor 5; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
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10. Asensio N, Luis A, Costa I, Oliveira J, Vaz F: Meningeal carcinomatosis and uterine carcinoma: three different clinical settings and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jan;19(1):168-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Meningeal carcinomatosis and uterine carcinoma: three different clinical settings and review of the literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report a case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to endometrial carcinoma and 2 complex cervix cancer cases.
  • A MEDLINE search was done to review all published cases of this complication in gynecological cancer to identify predictive factors for this diagnosis.
  • Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may be necessary for this diagnosis, because cerebrospinal fluid analysis results may be negative.
  • Most cervix cases had squamous cell (8/14) or neuroendocrine histologic subtype (3/14), and when reported, differentiation was usually poor.
  • The case we report of endometrial carcinoma, unique in the literature, is a serous adenocarcinoma.


11. Sharifzadeh S, Modjtahedi H, Jedi Tehrani M, Bayat A, Ghaderi A: Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against an antigen on the surface of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. Iran J Immunol; 2007 Dec;4(4):206-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against an antigen on the surface of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • BACKGROUND: Lung carcinoma is a multiple type cancer comprising of small cell and non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: A murine monoclonal antibody (ME3D11) reactive with human NSCLC was selected after immunization of BALB/c mice with a human large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, and was tested by immunofloursence staining and Western blot analysis.
  • This antigen is expressed on the cell surface of all NSCLC and a few carcinoma cell lines.
  • CONCLUSIONS: High degree of binding of this monoclonal antibody to NSCLC and some other carcinoma cells warrants further studies on its potential use in diagnosis and therapy of cancer by conjugation to drugs, toxins or radionuclides.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / immunology. Membrane Proteins / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18057578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-1383
  • [Journal-full-title] Iranian journal of immunology : IJI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Iran J Immunol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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12. Wang KL, Yang Q, Cleary KR, Swisher SG, Correa AM, Komaki R, Ajani JA, Rashid A, Hamilton SR, Wu TT: The significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction after preoperative chemoradiation. Cancer; 2006 Oct 1;107(7):1467-74
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  • [Title] The significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction after preoperative chemoradiation.
  • BACKGROUND: Esophageal and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinomas frequently have neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation, but the significance of NE differentiation in patients who have undergone preoperative chemoradiation and resection remains unclear.
  • METHODS: The authors evaluated the presence of NE differentiation in esophageal and EGJ adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry for chromogranin A and synaptophysin and evaluated the clinical significance of NE differentiation in 83 patients (10 patients who had a complete tumor response and 73 patients who had residual tumor in resection specimens) who received preoperative chemoradiation.
  • RESULTS: Of 73 patients who had residual tumor after preoperative treatment, 52% showed NE differentiation.
  • The proportion of tumor cells with NE differentiation had increased from 6% +/- 18% in pretreatment biopsy specimens to 47% +/- 42% (P = .00003) in posttreatment resection specimens in 30 patients who had paired pretreatment biopsy and resection specimens available.
  • Among patients who had residual tumor after preoperative chemoradiation, disease-free survival (P = .03) and overall survival (P = .045) were significantly better in patients who had residual tumor without NE differentiation than in patients who had residual tumor with NE differentiation.
  • In multivariate analysis, the presence of NE differentiation in residual tumor was a prognostic factor for worse disease-free survival (P = .02) independent of pathologic stage and extent of residual tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study suggested that tumor cells with NE differentiation were more resistant to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with esophageal and EGJ adenocarcinomas.
  • The presence of NE differentiation in residual tumor was associated with poor survival after preoperative neoadjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagogastric Junction / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16955509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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13. Kato H, Kobayashi S, Islam AM, Nishizawa O: Female para-urethral adenocarcinoma: histological and immunohistochemical study. Int J Urol; 2005 Jan;12(1):117-9
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  • [Title] Female para-urethral adenocarcinoma: histological and immunohistochemical study.
  • RESULTS: On histologic examination, the female para-urethral cancers were divided into five cases of mucin-producing-type adenocarcinoma and one case of clear cell-type adenocarcinoma.
  • All five mucin-producing-type adenocarcinomas were positive with anti-CEA, and two of them showed neuroendicrine differentiation.
  • The clear cell-type adenocarcinoma had no positive reactions to these antibodies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of histologic structure, positive CEA staining, and the presence of focal neuroendocrine differentiation, mucin-producing-type adenocarcinomas may arise from the proximal part of the para-urethral duct.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Urethral Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15661069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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14. Jiang SX, Mikami T, Umezawa A, Saegusa M, Kameya T, Okayasu I: Gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas: a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Aug;30(8):945-53
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  • [Title] Gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas: a distinct clinicopathologic entity.
  • The current histologic classifications of gastric cancers define only carcinoids and small cell carcinomas in the neuroendocrine (NE) category.
  • This study aimed to characterize the histologic and clinical features of high-grade gastric NE carcinomas of nonsmall cell type, tentatively named large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC).
  • Tumors with histologic features suspicious of NE differentiation were selected by a histologic review of 2835 resected gastric cancers, and those with a NE phenotype in > 50% and 1% to approximately 50% tumor cells assessed by expressing chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin were defined as LCNEC and adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation (ACNED), respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16861964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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15. Balachandra B, Marcus V, Jass JR: Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist. Histopathology; 2007 Jan;50(1):163-74
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  • The range of lesions that may present as poorly differentiated tumours includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing epithelial cytokeratins and other patterns of mixed differentiation, undifferentiated carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma and secondary tumours.
  • This review discusses the differential diagnosis of these neoplasms with the aid of short illustrative case studies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Pathology, Surgical / methods

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  • (PMID = 17204029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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16. Pacchioni D, Bosco M, Allia E, Mussa B, Mikuz G, Bussolati G: Microcystic urothelial cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation arising in renal pelvis. Report of a case. Virchows Arch; 2009 Feb;454(2):223-7
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  • [Title] Microcystic urothelial cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation arising in renal pelvis. Report of a case.
  • Microcystic urothelial cell carcinoma is a rare variant of urothelial cell carcinoma which occurs in the bladder and, rarely, in the renal pelvis.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation is uncommon in pure urothelial carcinoma and is more frequently found in neoplasms with glandular differentiation.
  • We report a case of microcystic urothelial cell carcinoma arising in renal pelvis and showing focal neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Microscopic examination disclosed invasive carcinoma with prominent microcystic features, with microcysts lined by low columnar and flat cells.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the urothelial histotype (positive for thrombomodulin, p63 and high-molecular-weight cytokeratins) and disclosed focal neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Pelvis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2003 Jan;27(1):1-10 [12502922.001]
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  • (PMID = 19002493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Li N, Wolgamot G, Argenyi Z: Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma (Merkel cell carcinoma) with prominent microcystic features, mimicking eccrine carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 May;34(5):410-4
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma (Merkel cell carcinoma) with prominent microcystic features, mimicking eccrine carcinoma.
  • Although primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma [Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC)] may show divergent features, including microcystic ('tubuloglandular'), squamous, eccrine and rhabdomyoblastic, a diffuse microcystic pattern is exceedingly rare.
  • In this study, we present two cases of MCC with prominent microcystic features, which precluded a definitive diagnosis in the initial punch biopsy.
  • Although the lack of CK20 staining is unusual, the histologic characteristics along with the remaining immunohistochemical studies favor the diagnosis of a primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma over the variants of eccrine carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Our cases illustrate that prominent microcystic features, mimicking glandular differentiation, may occur in MCC and pose a diagnostic challenge in small biopsy specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neck / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17448197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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18. Segawa N, Inamoto T, Ibuki N, Mizutani Y, Azuma H, Tsuji M, Katsuoka Y: [Neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate during hormonal treatment : a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Jan;56(1):49-54
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate during hormonal treatment : a case report].
  • A case of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiated prostate cancer is reported herein, which was progressed with NE differentiation during hormonal treatment in adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • A prostate biopsy was performed and histological examinations indicated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 5 + 4 = 9.
  • Immunohistochemical examination of a re-biopsy specimen revealed a neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • His condition worsened rapidly and he died at 8 months after definite diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Male. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 20104011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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19. Yuan TC, Veeramani S, Lin FF, Kondrikou D, Zelivianski S, Igawa T, Karan D, Batra SK, Lin MF: Androgen deprivation induces human prostate epithelial neuroendocrine differentiation of androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Mar;13(1):151-67
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  • [Title] Androgen deprivation induces human prostate epithelial neuroendocrine differentiation of androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells.
  • Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are the minor cell populations in normal prostate epithelial compartments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Androgens / physiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neurotensin / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism. Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16601285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 88184; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR 017675; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR 018759
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 39379-15-2 / Neurotensin; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTPRA protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.1.3.48 / Ptpra protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.48 / Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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20. Righi L, Sapino A, Marchiò C, Papotti M, Bussolati G: Neuroendocrine differentiation in breast cancer: established facts and unresolved problems. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;27(1):69-76
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation in breast cancer: established facts and unresolved problems.
  • Neuroendocrine breast carcinoma (NEBC) diagnosis relies on (i) presence of morphologic neuroendocrine features, and (ii) neuroendocrine markers expressed in more than 50% of tumor cells.
  • In addition, we have recently proposed a further categorization into 5 subgroups: the first 3 categories encompass solid lesions and include (i) solid cohesive carcinomas, (ii) alveolar carcinomas, and (iii) small cell carcinoma; the last subgroups include mucin-producing tumors which are (iv) solid papillary carcinomas and (v) cellular mucinous carcinomas.
  • Chromogranin A and synaptophysin have been considered as the most sensitive and specific neuroendocrine markers in NEBC.
  • Moreover, it has been demonstrated that mucinous and neuroendocrine carcinomas are transcriptionally distinct from conventional invasive ductal carcinomas.
  • The clinical effect of neuroendocrine breast cancer is still a matter of debate; however, when compared with unselected breast cancers, NEBCs show a less aggressive clinical behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Chromogranin A / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Synaptophysin / metabolism


21. Ronellenfitsch U, Ströbel P, Schwarzbach MH, Staiger WI, Gragert D, Kähler G: A composite adenoendocrine carcinoma of the stomach arising from a neuroendocrine tumor. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Nov;11(11):1573-5
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  • [Title] A composite adenoendocrine carcinoma of the stomach arising from a neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Gastric neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) are relatively uncommon neoplasms.
  • We report a case of a patient with autoimmune body gastritis and a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the stomach, which was removed with endoscopic full-thickness resection in sano upon signs of invasive growth several years after its first diagnosis.
  • Histological examination surprisingly showed a composite glandular-endocrine gastric carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17436049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Wang J, Kim J, Roh M, Franco OE, Hayward SW, Wills ML, Abdulkadir SA: Pim1 kinase synergizes with c-MYC to induce advanced prostate carcinoma. Oncogene; 2010 Apr 29;29(17):2477-87
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  • [Title] Pim1 kinase synergizes with c-MYC to induce advanced prostate carcinoma.
  • Grafts expressing a phosphomimetic c-MYCS62D mutant had higher rates of proliferation than grafts expressing wild type c-MYC but did not form tumors like c-MYC/Pim1 grafts, indicating that Pim1 cooperativity with c-MYC in vivo involves additional mechanisms other than enhancement of c-MYC activity by S62 phosphorylation. c-MYC/Pim1-induced prostate carcinomas show evidence of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation.
  • Additional studies, including the identification of tumor cells coexpressing androgen receptor and NE cell markers synaptophysin and Ascl1 suggested that NE tumors arose from adenocarcinoma cells through transdifferentiation.

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  • (PMID = 20140016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123484-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA123484; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123484; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA123484-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS169530; NLM/ PMC2861731
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23. Jung JY, Kim YJ, Kim HM, Kim HJ, Park SW, Song SY, Chung JB, Kang CM, Pyo JY, Yang WI, Bang S: Hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas combined with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Gut Liver; 2010 Mar;4(1):98-102
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  • [Title] Hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas combined with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Hepatoid carcinoma is a primary extrahepatic carcinoma whose morphology, immunohistochemistry, and behavior are similar to those of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The most common sites of extrahepatic carcinoma are the stomach and ovary, but nine cases of hepatocellular differentiation of the pancreas have been reported in the literature.
  • We report another case of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas that was associated with the development of a pancreatic endocrine carcinoma in a 46-year-old man.
  • He underwent a conventional Whipple operation, and light microscopy showed adenocarcinoma that was immunopositive for AFP, hepatocyte antigen, cytokeratin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin.
  • Although hepatoid differentiation was not shown unequivocally histologically, other immunohistochemistry findings supported the diagnosis of hepatoid carcinoma combined with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • This report describes why hepatoid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a pancreatic mass, especially when serum AFP is elevated.

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  • (PMID = 20479919.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-1212
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut and liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut Liver
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2871600
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hepatoid carcinoma / Neuroendocrine carcinoma / Pancreas
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24. Leiblich A, Cross SS, Catto JW, Pesce G, Hamdy FC, Rehman I: Human prostate cancer cells express neuroendocrine cell markers PGP 9.5 and chromogranin A. Prostate; 2007 Dec 01;67(16):1761-9
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  • [Title] Human prostate cancer cells express neuroendocrine cell markers PGP 9.5 and chromogranin A.
  • RT-PCR analysis for Chromogranin A (ChA) mRNA (a marker of neuroendocrine cells), showed expression in PC-3 and DU145 cells but was undetectable in LNCaP cells.
  • Immunohistochemistry localised PGP 9.5 expression exclusively within neuroendocrine cells and nerve fibres.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our unexpected finding that the neuroendocrine cell markers PGP 9.5 and ChA are expressed by PC-3 and DU145 cells, suggests that these cells may have been derived from metastatic adenocarcinomas which had undergone neuroendocrine differentiation or alternatively the expression occurred ectopically as a result of cell culture.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Chromogranin A / biosynthesis. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Ubiquitin Thiolesterase / biosynthesis


25. Tafe LJ, Garg K, Chew I, Tornos C, Soslow RA: Endometrial and ovarian carcinomas with undifferentiated components: clinically aggressive and frequently underrecognized neoplasms. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jun;23(6):781-9
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  • Twenty tumors, entirely undifferentiated, consisted of sheets of dyshesive, ovoid cells with uniform, large vesicular nuclei, whereas 12 tumors contained combinations of differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma with undifferentiated components.
  • The tumors were frequently misdiagnosed; they received a wide range of diagnoses, including FIGO grade 2 or 3 endometrioid carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, high-grade sarcoma including endometrial stromal sarcoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, lymphoma, granulosa cell tumor and epithelioid sarcoma.
  • They were predominantly negative for neuroendocrine markers, smooth muscle markers and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor.
  • Endometrial and ovarian carcinomas with undifferentiated components have a broad histologic differential diagnosis, but they show specific histologic features that should enable accurate diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. DNA Mismatch Repair. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Microsatellite Instability. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20305618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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26. Smirnova EA, Gurevich LE, Polikarpova SB, Kokosadze NV: [Gastric tumor of complex structure]. Arkh Patol; 2007 May-Jun;69(3):46-8
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  • The paper describes a case of gastric tumor comprising moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and atypical carcinoid with metastases of both types of tumor cells in the lymph nodes.
  • Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies of primary gastric tumor and lymph nodal metastases confirmed the presence of both differentiation types within one space-occupying lesion: such as goblet (mucin-producing) and neuroendocrine cells.
  • The differentiation varied in different fields of vision with a preponderance of low-grade ultrastructural differentiation cells.
  • Thus, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies of tumors not only verify their diagnosis and make a histogenetic differential diagnosis of various neoplasms, but also define the degree of their maturation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17722597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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27. Linder S, Myrvold K, Falkmer UG, Qvigstad G, Waldum HL, Falkmer SE: Neuroendocrine cells in pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun;25(2):213-21
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine cells in pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study.
  • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas can display disseminated neuroendocrine (NE) cells.
  • The NE differentiation was found to be unrelated to proliferation, p53 protein expression, and to the survival of the patients.
  • Using strict structural and IHC criteria, a NE differentiation occurs in less than 20 % of cases; its clinico-pathological significance seems to be non relevant.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Neurosecretory Systems / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Proliferation. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16918133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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28. Quek ML, Daneshmand S, Rodrigo S, Cai J, Dorff TB, Groshen S, Skinner DG, Lieskovsky G, Pinski J: Prognostic significance of neuroendocrine expression in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. Urology; 2006 Jun;67(6):1247-52
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of neuroendocrine expression in lymph node-positive prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the expression of chromogranin A, a marker for neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation, in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer to determine its prognostic significance.
  • NE cells are involved in cellular growth and differentiation in both normal and pathologic conditions of the prostate.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the data of 140 patients with lymph node-positive prostate adenocarcinoma treated with radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Chromogranins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


29. Morris-Stiff G, Teli M, Jardine N, Puntis MC: CA19-9 antigen levels can distinguish between benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary disease. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2009 Dec;8(6):620-6
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  • METHODS: All patients referred to a single surgeon for investigation of pancreaticobiliary disease in 2003 in whom a firm diagnosis had been established were included.
  • For malignant disease, a histological diagnosis was required but for benign disease a firm radiological diagnosis was deemed adequate.
  • The patients were divided into 4 categories: pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PCa); cholangiocarcinoma (CCa); chronic pancreatitis (CP) and biliary calculous disease (Calc).
  • RESULTS: Final diagnoses were made of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PCa, n=73), cholangiocarcinoma (CCa, n=19), ampullary carcinoma (Amp, n=7), neuroendocrine carcinoma (Neu, n=4), duodenal carcinoma (Duo, n=3), chronic pancreatitis (CP, n=115), and biliary calculous disease (Calc, n=27).
  • CONCLUSIONS: CA19-9 is useful in the differentiation of pancreatobiliary disease and when using an optimized cut-off and combining with routine radiology, the diagnostic yield is improved significantly, thus stressing the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach to pancreatobiliary disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Cholelithiasis / diagnosis. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatitis, Chronic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Bilirubin / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity


30. Furlan D, Sahnane N, Carnevali I, Cerutti R, Bertoni F, Kwee I, Uccella S, Bertolini V, Chiaravalli AM, Capella C: Up-regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcriptional pathway in colorectal carcinomas. Hum Pathol; 2008 Oct;39(10):1483-94
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  • The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and 13 hypoxia-inducible factor-1 target genes (AMF, CAIX, VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, HGF, MET, TGFalpha, EGFR, IGF2, MMP2, PLAUR, NIX) was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 18 colorectal, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas and in 60 invasive colorectal carcinomas.
  • High levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha were positively associated with poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma histology (P < .005), poor differentiation (P < .025), presence of necrosis, and presence of microsatellite instability (P < .05).
  • AMF, TGFalpha, IGF2, NIX, VEGF, and VEGFR2 transcripts were significantly higher in the very aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas than in exocrine colorectal carcinomas and TGFalpha expression was significantly associated with presence of lymph nodal metastases (P < .05).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / genetics


31. Geisinger KR, Travis WD, Perkins LA, Zakowski MF: Aspiration cytomorphology of fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Dec;134(6):894-902
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  • [Title] Aspiration cytomorphology of fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • Fetal adenocarcinoma (FA) of the lung is an exceedingly rare malignancy.
  • Immunochemically, all tumors manifested epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • (3) morules; and (4) neuroendocrine differentiation in glandular epithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21088152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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32. Palmgren JS, Karavadia SS, Wakefield MR: Unusual and underappreciated: small cell carcinoma of the prostate. Semin Oncol; 2007 Feb;34(1):22-9
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  • [Title] Unusual and underappreciated: small cell carcinoma of the prostate.
  • In recent years, attention has focused on the prognostic importance of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer.
  • Focal neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma is a frequent finding.
  • Though controversial, the prevalence of neuroendocrine cells has been correlated with higher-grade malignancy and poor prognosis.
  • Therapeutic regimens have mainly been modeled after those for small cell lung carcinoma.
  • Evident from this review is the necessity for further research in the biology of small cell carcinoma progression, in order to improve therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell. Prostatic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17270662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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33. Miyamoto H, Kurita N, Nishioka M, Ando T, Tashiro T, Hirokawa M, Shimada M: Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cell carcinoma of the rectum: report of a case and literal review. J Med Invest; 2006 Aug;53(3-4):317-20
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cell carcinoma of the rectum: report of a case and literal review.
  • Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • The resected tumor was diagnosed pathologically as neuroendocrine cell carcinoma.
  • Treatment for neuroendocrine cell carcinoma of the rectum was controversial.
  • Surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy might be one of the methods for gastrointestinal neruroendocrine cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16953071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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34. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Schmitt A, Perren A, Chetty R: Cytokeratins 7 and 20 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell and classical carcinoids of appendix. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(1):16-22
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  • Whether GCC represents a morphological variant of classical appendiceal carcinoid or a mucin-producing adenocarcinoma is still conjectural.
  • Little is known about the immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratins 7 (CK7) and 20 (CK20) in appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors.
  • In addition, GCC shows the same CK7/CK20 immunoexpression as colorectal adenocarcinoma.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid should be regarded as a crypt cell or an amphicrine carcinoma rather than a variant of carcinoid tumor, a lesion that has benign connotations.

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  • (PMID = 17652796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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35. Krokowski M, Hoch J, Feller AC, Bernd HW, Thorns C, Krueger S: Basal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation arising in a scar: A case report. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(10):4
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation arising in a scar: A case report.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cutaneous malignant tumor, may display neuroendocrine differentiation in very rare instances.
  • We here describe a case of a BCC with neuroendocrine differentiation that arose in a scar resulting from a trauma 75 years earlier.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation was proven by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.
  • The simultaneous occurrence of BCC development in a scar and neuroendocrine differentiation is quite rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Cicatrix / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19951622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Cai G, Ramdall RB, Levine P, Yang GC: Fine-needle aspiration of metastatic prostatic neuroendocrine carcinomas: cytomorphologic and immunophenotypic features. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Aug;36(8):545-9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of metastatic prostatic neuroendocrine carcinomas: cytomorphologic and immunophenotypic features.
  • Metastatic prostatic carcinoma may, in rare occasions, present as a neuroendocrine tumor.
  • We report five cases of metastatic prostatic neuroendocrine carcinoma diagnosed by image-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Review of prior prostate biopsies/resections revealed adenocarcinoma with focal neuroendocrine differentiation in all cases, with two cases being newly recognized on retrospective review.
  • Confirming neuroendocrine differentiation in the prior biopsy/resection may help to establish a link between metastasis and prostate primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Immunophenotyping. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18618716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Yamamoto Y, Watanabe Y, Horiuchi A, Yoshida M, Yukumi S, Sato K, Nakagawa H, Sugishita H, Ishida N, Ishikawa M, Ishikawa K, Kawachi K: Adenoendocrine carcinoma of the accessory papilla of the duodenum: report of a case. Surg Today; 2009;39(5):425-9
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  • [Title] Adenoendocrine carcinoma of the accessory papilla of the duodenum: report of a case.
  • This report describes a very rare case of an adenoendocrine carcinoma of the accessory papilla of the duodenum.
  • A biopsy revealed a small-cell carcinoma.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was a small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with adenomatous differentiation.
  • The final diagnosis was an adenoendocrine carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19408082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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38. Pratz KW, Ma C, Aubry MC, Vrtiska TJ, Erlichman C: Large cell carcinoma with calcitonin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-associated Verner-Morrison syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc; 2005 Jan;80(1):116-20
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  • [Title] Large cell carcinoma with calcitonin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-associated Verner-Morrison syndrome.
  • We describe a 38-year-old man with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer of large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation who presented with bone metastasis and intractable secretory diarrhea that was unresponsive to pharmacological treatment, including octreotide.
  • Chemotherapy resulted in a transient response in the patient's diarrhea and neuroendocrine markers.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first published case of large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation associated with treatment-responsive paraneoplastic Verner-Morrison syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / secretion. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / etiology. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism. Vipoma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15667039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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39. Sauer CG, Trojan L, Grobholz R: [Relevance of the neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic carcinoma]. Pathologe; 2005 Nov;26(6):444-52
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  • [Title] [Relevance of the neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic carcinoma].
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 233 patients with prostatic carcinoma the NE differentiation was determined in a hot spot (7.9 mm(2)) with maximum CgA positive cell density.
  • A high NE differentiation (HNE) was defined by a least 30 NE tumor cells, while less means a low NE differentiation (LNE).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Besides the quantity of NE differentiation the quality of the growth pattern of NE tumor cells is of relevance in prostatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16133158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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40. McCluggage WG, Young RH: Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in the evaluation of ovarian tumors. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;22(1):3-32
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  • Aspects of immunohistochemistry (IHC), which are useful in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors (mostly neoplasms but also a few tumor-like lesions), are discussed.
  • The distinction between a sex cord tumor and an endometrioid carcinoma with sex-cord-like patterns may be greatly aided by the triad of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), inhibin, and calretinin, the latter two being typically positive and EMA negative in sex cord tumors, the converse being typical of endometrioid carcinoma.
  • IHC for neuroendocrine markers may assist in the diagnosis of primary and metastatic carcinoid tumor.
  • The broad differential diagnosis of glandular neoplasms with an endometrioid-pseudoendometrioid morphology, or mucinous cell type, has been the subject of much exploration in recent years, particularly the distinction between primary and metastatic neoplasms.
  • The well-known CK7 positive, CK20 negative phenotype of primary endometrioid carcinoma, and the converse profile in most metastatic large intestinal adenocarcinomas with a pseudoendometrioid morphology, has been much publicized but albeit an appropriate supportive adjunct in many cases, exceptions from the typical staining pattern may be encountered.
  • The rare differential of metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma versus primary ovarian mucinous or endometrioid carcinoma may be aided by strong p16 staining of the former.
  • Staining for alpha-fetoprotein may aid in confirming the diagnosis of endometrioid-like (and hepatoid) variants of yolk sac tumor.
  • Immunostains may highlight both the presence and extent of epithelial cells in a variety of circumstances, including microinvasive foci in cases of serous borderline tumors and mucinous carcinomas, and in determining the extent of carcinoma cells and reactive cells within mural nodules of mucinous neoplasms.
  • As in tumor pathology in general, various markers may be crucial in the diagnosis of small round cell tumors of the ovary, and familiar markers of epithelial, lymphoid, leukemic, and melanocytic neoplasms may assist in the analysis of high grade tumors with a poorly differentiated carcinoma, lymphoma-granulocytic sarcoma, malignant melanoma differential.
  • Stains for trophoblast markers may occasionally aid in the evaluation of germ cell tumors, although routine stains should usually suffice; they may be of academic interest in confirming trophoblastic differentiation in some high grade surface epithelial carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Ovarian Cysts / diagnosis. Ovarian Follicle / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16512597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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41. Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Menasce LP, Yap BK, Colaco RJ, Castro P, Celestino R, Ruíz-Ponte C, Soares P, Sobrinho-Simões M: Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: molecular characterization of a case with neuroendocrine differentiation and aggressive behavior. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Jan;131(1):134-42
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  • [Title] Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: molecular characterization of a case with neuroendocrine differentiation and aggressive behavior.
  • We describe an especially aggressive case of cribriform-morular variant (C-MV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in a 42-year-old man with familial adenomatous polyposis who died with lung and brain metastases 17 months after thyroidectomy.
  • This tumor represents the first case of C-MV of PTC showing neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


42. Simon RA, di Sant'Agnese PA, Huang LS, Xu H, Yao JL, Yang Q, Liang S, Liu J, Yu R, Cheng L, Oh WK, Palapattu GS, Wei J, Huang J: CD44 expression is a feature of prostatic small cell carcinoma and distinguishes it from its mimickers. Hum Pathol; 2009 Feb;40(2):252-8
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  • [Title] CD44 expression is a feature of prostatic small cell carcinoma and distinguishes it from its mimickers.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate is a rare variant of prostatic cancer that shares morphologic similarity with prostatic adenocarcinoma of Gleason 5 pattern.
  • It has also been considered morphologically and immunohistochemically indistinguishable from small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of other origins.
  • We performed immunohistochemical study for CD44 expression in 11 cases of prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and compared its patterns of expression with 73 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma and 47 cases of small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of other organs.
  • Strong and diffuse membrane staining for CD44 was observed in 100% of the prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • In conventional adenocarcinomas of the prostate, positive staining was only seen in rare, scattered tumor cells; and CD44 staining was negative in most of the small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of nonprostate origin.
  • The difference in CD44 expression between small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the prostate and those of other organs are statistically significant (P < .001).
  • Our study demonstrates the utility of immunohistochemical staining for CD44 in distinguishing prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma from its mimickers including prostatic adenocarcinoma of Gleason 5 pattern and small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of other organs.
  • CD44 is the first marker that shows a high degree of tissue/organ specificity for small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Because CD44 is a putative marker of prostate cancer stem cells, the strong and diffuse expression of CD44 and the lack of expression of prostate luminal differentiation markers androgen receptor and prostatic specific antigen in prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas suggest that the tumor cells may retain cancer stem cell features.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18835619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA131183
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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43. Taplin ME, George DJ, Halabi S, Sanford B, Febbo PG, Hennessy KT, Mihos CG, Vogelzang NJ, Small EJ, Kantoff PW: Prognostic significance of plasma chromogranin a levels in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated in Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9480 study. Urology; 2005 Aug;66(2):386-91
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  • The extent of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer correlates with aggressive disease and with progression to HRPC.
  • Plasma CgA levels in patients with prostate cancer may reflect the extent of the tumor neuroendocrine phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Chromogranins / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality


44. Ghosh L, Dahut W, Kakar S, Posadas EM, Torres CG, Cancel-Santiago R, Ghosh BC: Management of patients with metastatic cancer of unknown primary. Curr Probl Surg; 2005 Jan;42(1):12-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cell Differentiation. Cytogenetic Analysis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mesothelioma / diagnosis. Mesothelioma / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15711508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-3840
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 147
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45. Lara PN Jr, Longmate J, Evans CP, Quinn DI, Twardowski P, Chatta G, Posadas E, Stadler W, Gandara DR: A phase II trial of the Src-kinase inhibitor AZD0530 in patients with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer: a California Cancer Consortium study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Mar;20(3):179-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Prostate cancer cells undergo neuroendocrine differentiation during androgen deprivation and secrete neuropeptides, hence activating androgen receptor-regulated genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzodioxoles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. src-Family Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19396016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01 CM062209; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CM62209; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01-CM62209; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N0I-CM17102
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Benzodioxoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 9KD24QGH76 / saracatinib; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS330482; NLM/ PMC3225398
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46. Stoll LM, Johnson MW, Gabrielson E, Askin F, Clark DP, Li QK: The utility of napsin-A in the identification of primary and metastatic lung adenocarcinoma among cytologically poorly differentiated carcinomas. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Dec 25;118(6):441-9
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  • [Title] The utility of napsin-A in the identification of primary and metastatic lung adenocarcinoma among cytologically poorly differentiated carcinomas.
  • However, it is also expressed in a variety of other tumors, particularly neuroendocrine neoplasms and, to a much lesser degree, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • Napsin-A, which is expressed in lung tissue, is a relatively new marker for lung adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: The archives of the Department of Pathology at The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for cytologic cases of poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma that were histologically confirmed.
  • Tissue microarrays of lung adenocarcinoma also were examined.
  • Napsin-A was not detected in small cell carcinomas or in other carcinomas of nonlung origin except for renal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although TTF-1 had a higher sensitivity, napsin-A was useful as a surrogate marker when encountering a poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma or an unknown primary tumor, particularly in cytologic specimens and difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20830690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.23.- / NAPSA protein, human
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47. Tamas EF, Epstein JI: Prognostic significance of paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Aug;30(8):980-5
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • The prognostic significance of Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the prostate has not yet been established.
  • We studied 36 cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate showing Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation, including needle biopsy specimens (n = 27), radical prostatectomies (n = 8), and transurethral resection specimens (n = 1).
  • Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine cells (NECs) were observed as either patchy isolated cells or diffusely involving glands or nests.
  • Of the 16 radical prostatectomy cases, 8 (50%) had a Gleason pattern 5 component either on needle biopsy or at radical prostatectomy, with nests, cords, or single cells containing Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Despite the cells' bland histologic appearance, strictly applying the Gleason grading system one would have to assign a Gleason pattern 5 to these foci with no glandular differentiation.
  • In cases with Paneth cell-like NECs, only the conventional adenocarcinoma component should be assigned a Gleason score.
  • In cases in which the entire tumor is composed of Paneth cell-like cells and areas of the tumor lack glandular differentiation, the tumors should not be assigned a Gleason score and a comment should be provided as to the generally favorable prognosis of this morphologic pattern of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Paneth Cells / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16861969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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48. Roy P, Chetty R: Goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix: An overview. World J Gastrointest Oncol; 2010 Jun 15;2(6):251-8
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  • Various other names have been used for this entity such as adenocarcinoid, mucinous carcinoid, crypt cell carcinoma, and mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumor, although none have been found to be completely satisfactory or universally accepted.
  • The tumor is thought to arise from pluripotent intestinal epithelial crypt-base stem cells by dual neuroendocrine and mucinous differentiation.
  • The histologic hallmark of this entity is the presence of clusters of goblet cells in the lamina propria or submucosa stain for various neuroendocrine markers, though the intensity is often patchy.
  • These may be of signet ring cell type or poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Recently molecular studies have shown these tumors to lack the signatures of adenocarcinoma but they have some changes similar to that of ileal carcinoids (allelic loss of chromosome 11q, 16q and 18q).

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  • (PMID = 21160637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5204
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2998842
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Appendiceal neoplasm / Goblet cell carcinoid / Mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumor of appendix
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49. Zissis D, Zizi-Serbetzoglou A, Grammatoglou X, Glava C, Katsamagkou E, Nikolaidou ME, Vasilakaki T: Combined carcinoid and mixed (composite) glandular - endocrine cell carcinoma of the stomach in atrophic gastritis. J BUON; 2009 Jan-Mar;14(1):127-30
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  • [Title] Combined carcinoid and mixed (composite) glandular - endocrine cell carcinoma of the stomach in atrophic gastritis.
  • We describe a case of gastric carcinoid and inflammatory fibroid polyp concomitant with a composite tumor of the gastric antrum composed of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma - endocrine carcinoma with immunohistochemical documentation of endocrine and non endocrine differentiation in a 67-year-old man with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia.
  • The same occurrence is reported in several cases in the literature, which suggests that the association of gastric carcinoid to adenocarcinoma could point to the malignant nature of carcinoid.
  • Furthermore, the findings in this patient reinforce the concept that the epithelial and neuroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract both result from multidirectional differentiation of a primitive cell.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Gastritis, Atrophic / pathology. Polyps / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Differentiation. Gastrectomy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Metaplasia. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19365883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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50. Grenacher L, Klauss M: [Computed tomography of pancreatic tumors]. Radiologe; 2009 Feb;49(2):107-23
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  • After the correct diagnosis of an adenocarcinoma has been made only 20% of all patients are shown to have a surgically resectable disease, but the overall survival rate is significantly higher after resection in combination with a multimodal tumor therapy strategy.
  • The reason is that the correct diagnosis of the resectability of the tumor is one of the main criteria for overall survival of these patients.
  • In some rare cases the differentiation between focal necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma can be difficult even with sophisticated protocols.
  • MDCT is an ideal tool for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors, metastases and for the differentiation of cystic pancreatic lesions such as pseudocysts, microcystic adenomas or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN).
  • Particularly, the differentiation of the latter into benign, borderline or malignant transformation is not always possible, but indirect signs, such as small nodules adjacent to the ductal wall, the diameter of the pancreatic duct, or a direct communication between cystic lesions and duct can be detected because of the high spatial resolution and is comparable to the findings in MRI.
  • Moreover MD-CT is an ideal procedure for the differentiation of local tumor stages in patients under neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / mortality. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnostic imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery. Pancreas / diagnostic imaging. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreatectomy. Pancreatic Pseudocyst / diagnostic imaging. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19137277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2102
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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51. Tarján M: Prognostic significance of focal neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer: cases with autopsy-verified cause of death. Indian J Urol; 2010 Jan-Mar;26(1):41-5
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of focal neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer: cases with autopsy-verified cause of death.
  • After exclusion of a single case of carcinoid tumor, 14 of the 18 (78%) metastatic and none of the 21 (0%) nonmetastatic tumors showed focal neuroendocrine differentiation (NED).

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  • (PMID = 20535283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2878436
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenocarcinoma / neuroendocrine differentiation / prognosis / prostate
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52. Cho YB, Yang SS, Lee WY, Song SY, Kim SH, Shin HJ, Yun SH, Chun HK: The clinical significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jun;18(3):201-6
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  • [Title] The clinical significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer.
  • This study was conducted to determine the clinical significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in cases of T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer.
  • Tumors expressing neuroendocrine markers were classified as either low expression (<or=2% cells staining positive for a neuroendocrine marker) or high expression (>2% cells staining positive for a neuroendocrine marker).
  • With the exception of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen, no statistically significant correlation was found between neuroendocrine differentiation and all other clinicopathologic variables.
  • Analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression model demonstrated that neuroendocrine differentiation for chromogranin A and synaptophysin was not associated with disease-free survival.
  • Therefore, neuroendocrine differentiation markers would not be useful variables for prognostic assessment of patients with T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neurosecretory Systems / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19372085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin
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53. Bollito ER, Pacchioni D, Lopez-Beltran A, Volante M, Terrone C, Casetta G, Mari M, DePompa R, Cappia S, Papotti M: Immunohistochemical study of neuroendocrine differentiation in primary glandular lesions and tumors of the urinary bladder. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2005 Aug;27(4):218-24
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical study of neuroendocrine differentiation in primary glandular lesions and tumors of the urinary bladder.
  • OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are uncommon in primary adenocarcinoma (AC) and other glandular lesions of the bladder, with no recent study series concerning its significance in differential diagnosis, prognosis or biologic significance.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Sixteen primary bladder AC (enteric-type [n = 71, mucinous [n = 6] and not otherwise specified [NOS] [n = 31), 4 cases of urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation, 20 cases of glandular cystitis and 3 urachal remnants with intestinal metaplasia constituted the study series.
  • In addition, 20 specimens of normal-looking urothelium, 15 conventional urothelial carcinomas and 5 small cell carcinoma (SCC) cases were included for comparison.
  • NE differentiation included detection of chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and synaptophysin by immunohistochemistry.
  • NE differentiation in bladder AC subtypes resulted in highly significant differences between enteric or mucinous vs. NOS type (p = 0.0023).
  • NE differentiation was also different in urachal vs. nonurachal AC (p = 0.020) and primary bladder AC vs. conventional invasive urothelial carcinoma (p < 0.001).
  • One of 4 urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation had chromogranin A-immunoreactive cells, but this was not significant when compared with primary AC (p = 0.1).
  • Normal-looking bladder urothelium and conventional urothelial carcinoma specimens had no chromogranin A-immunoreactive cells.
  • No correlation was found between NE differentiation and outcome of primary bladder AC or urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary bladder AC, cystitis glandularis and urachal remnants with intestinal metaplasia showed variable degrees of NE differentiation, with no apparent clinical correlation or prognostic significance.
  • However, the absence of NE differentiation in NOS-type primary bladder AC may help in better defining this uncommon subtype of primary bladder AC.

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  • (PMID = 16220833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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54. Kitakata H, Yasumoto K, Sudo Y, Minato H, Takahashi Y: A case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(4):414-9
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  • [Title] A case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • We report a rare case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • Fine-needle biopsy revealed small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation resembling small cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • The tumor cells were positive for neuroendocrine differentiation markers such as synaptophysin, CD56, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), but negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), leukocyte common antigen (LCA), estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17986808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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55. Osada H, Tomida S, Yatabe Y, Tatematsu Y, Takeuchi T, Murakami H, Kondo Y, Sekido Y, Takahashi T: Roles of achaete-scute homologue 1 in DKK1 and E-cadherin repression and neuroendocrine differentiation in lung cancer. Cancer Res; 2008 Mar 15;68(6):1647-55
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  • [Title] Roles of achaete-scute homologue 1 in DKK1 and E-cadherin repression and neuroendocrine differentiation in lung cancer.
  • The proneural basic-helix-loop-helix protein achaete-scute homologue 1 (ASH1) is expressed in a very limited spectrum of normal and cancerous cells in a lineage-specific manner, including normal pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and lung cancer cells with neuroendocrine features.
  • Our previous results indicated that ASH1 may play a crucial role in the growth and survival of lung cancers with neuroendocrine features, which prompted us to investigate the molecular function of ASH1 in relation to its involvement in carcinogenic processes.
  • Herein, we report for the first time that ASH1 functions as a dual transcription factor by activating neuroendocrine differentiation markers and also repressing putative tumor suppressors.
  • In addition, ASH1-transduced A549 adenocarcinoma cells exhibited markedly altered morphology characteristics compared with lung cancer cells with neuroendocrine features both in vitro and in vivo and also grew faster in vivo.
  • Our results provide important clues for a better understanding of the molecular and cellular biological roles of ASH1 in the process of carcinogenesis of lung cancers with neuroendocrine features and warrant future investigations to shed light on the lineage-specific dependency of this transcription factor with dual functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antigens, CD29 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD29 / genetics. Antigens, CD29 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Methylation. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Silencing. Humans. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18339843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ASH1L protein, human; 0 / Antigens, CD29; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / DKK1 protein, human; 0 / DKK3 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
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56. He X, Wei Q, Zhang X, Xiao J, Jin X, Zhu Y, Cui B, Ning G: Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Oct 15;206(10):712-5
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  • In our study, the CXCR4 expression of the thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) was found to be higher than in the benign lesion group (including 19 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 15 nodular goiters, and 50 follicular adenomas) (p<0.0001).
  • Within the carcinoma group, the more malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) showed a higher ratio of CXCR4 positivity compared to the less malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas) (p<0.0001).
  • Our study suggests that CXCR4 expression might be a frequent and cancer-specific event in thyroid carcinoma, and it might be involved in malignancy transformation during the progression of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Cell Differentiation. Child. Female. Goiter, Nodular / immunology. Hashimoto Disease / immunology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20646838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; Thyroid cancer, medullary; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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57. Horiguchi S, Hishima T, Hayashi Y, Shiozawa Y, Horiguchi K, Kuroi K, Toi M, Funata N, Eishi Y: HER-2/neu cytoplasmic staining is correlated with neuroendocrine differentiation in breast carcinoma. J Med Dent Sci; 2010 Jun;57(2):155-63
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu cytoplasmic staining is correlated with neuroendocrine differentiation in breast carcinoma.
  • HER2 oncoprotein plays an essential role in breast cancer growth and differentiation.
  • Subsequently, we studied the association of the cytoplasmic expression of HER2 with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Interestingly, all 34 specimens had some positive signals of neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, and CD56.
  • Although the result is preliminary, it warrants further study on the role of the cytoplasmic variant form of HER2 in breast cancer growth, particularly in the aspect of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Neuroendocrine Cells / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Carcinoma, Lobular / chemistry. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A / analysis. Coloring Agents. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21073134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1342-8810
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical and dental sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Dent. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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58. Sciarra A, Di Silverio F, Autran AM, Salciccia S, Gentilucci A, Alfarone A, Gentile V: Distribution of high chromogranin A serum levels in patients with nonmetastatic and metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. Urol Int; 2009;82(2):147-51
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  • [Title] Distribution of high chromogranin A serum levels in patients with nonmetastatic and metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the incidence of elevated serum levels of chromogranin A (CgA) (as marker of neuroendocrine activity) in nonmetastatic and metastatic prostate cancer populations.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 264 consecutive men with nonmetastatic prostate adenocarcinoma considered for radical prostatectomy (group 1) and 89 consecutive men with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma (group 2) represented our population.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We describe a significant incidence of elevated serum levels of CgA either in nonmetastatic (using 60 ng/ml as cut-off) or in metastatic (using 90 ng/ml as cut-off) prostate adenocarcinoma cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranin A / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Odds Ratio. Prospective Studies. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Risk Assessment. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19321999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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59. Sloan EK, Priceman SJ, Cox BF, Yu S, Pimentel MA, Tangkanangnukul V, Arevalo JM, Morizono K, Karanikolas BD, Wu L, Sood AK, Cole SW: The sympathetic nervous system induces a metastatic switch in primary breast cancer. Cancer Res; 2010 Sep 15;70(18):7042-52
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  • To investigate the role of neuroendocrine activation in cancer progression, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to track the development of metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer.
  • Stress-induced neuroendocrine activation had a negligible effect on growth of the primary tumor but induced a 30-fold increase in metastasis to distant tissues including the lymph nodes and lung.
  • These effects were mediated by β-adrenergic signaling, which increased the infiltration of CD11b(+)F4/80(+) macrophages into primary tumor parenchyma and thereby induced a prometastatic gene expression signature accompanied by indications of M2 macrophage differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Stress, Physiological / physiology. Sympathetic Nervous System / pathology

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20823155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA138687; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116778; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109298; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116778; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA160890; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109298; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA110793; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA110793; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA138687; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA138687-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS227759; NLM/ PMC2940980
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60. Shimizu S, Kumagai J, Eishi Y, Uehara T, Kawakami S, Takizawa T, Koike M: Frequency and number of neuroendocrine tumor cells in prostate cancer: no difference between radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with and without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. Prostate; 2007 May 1;67(6):645-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequency and number of neuroendocrine tumor cells in prostate cancer: no difference between radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with and without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumor cells in prostate cancer are thought to increase after hormonal therapy due to neuroendocrine differentiation of tumor cells.
  • METHODS: Radical prostatectomy specimens were obtained from 122 consecutive patients with prostate adenocarcinoma, 70 of whom underwent prostatectomy alone (Group A) and 52 with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (Group B).
  • Sections from all the 5-mm-thick slices from formalin-fixed specimens were immunostained for chromogranin-A, and the total number of choromogranin-A-positive neuroendocrine tumor cells were counted.
  • RESULTS: No difference was found between Groups A and B in the frequency of cancer with neuroendocrine cells.
  • The total number of neuroendocrine cells in cancer varied widely with no difference of median values in the two groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support the assumption that hormonal therapy induces neuroendocrine differentiation, but suggest androgen-independent neuroendocrine cells existed before therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


61. Tang LH: Epithelial neoplasms of the appendix. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1612-20
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  • CONTEXT: The appendix gives rise to an array of epithelial neoplasms showing glandular or neuroendocrine differentiation, and some tumors with elements of both cell types.
  • Although some appendiceal neoplasms resemble their counterparts in the small and large intestines (conventional adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor), the appendix also gives rise to relatively unique entities including mucinous neoplasms and goblet cell carcinoid tumors, which present a challenge in pathologic classification and clinical management.
  • (1) adenocarcinoma, with specific focus on mucinous neoplasm;.
  • (2) goblet cell carcinoid tumor and associated adenocarcinoma; and (3) typical carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most important issue in pathologic assessment of epithelial tumors of the appendix is to understand the clinical implications inherent in the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21043814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Mosca A, Berruti A, Russo L, Torta M, Dogliotti L: The neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cancer: basic and clinical aspects. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005;28(11 Suppl International):141-5
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  • [Title] The neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cancer: basic and clinical aspects.
  • Most of the conventional adenocarcinomas of the prostate display focal neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation at diagnosis, usually revealed by immunohistochemistry as solitary or clusters of cells, in the context of predominantly exocrine tumors.
  • Even though the biological and clinical significance of NE differentiation in prostate cancer is still to be elucidated, NE phenotype is emerging as an important factor in the prognosis, evolution and progression of prostate cancer.
  • NE differentiation appears to be a dynamic phenomenon.
  • Pre-clinical and clinical studies demonstrated a direct stimulation of NE differentiation by androgen-suppression therapy, resulting in a dramatic increase in the number of cells expressing NE markers.
  • Even in hormone refractory disease, NE differentiation is a time-dependent phenomenon and is not influenced by conventional antineoplastic treatments.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Apoptosis. Cell Division. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / analysis. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Phenotype. Receptors, Androgen / analysis. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16625864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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63. Yuan TC, Veeramani S, Lin MF: Neuroendocrine-like prostate cancer cells: neuroendocrine transdifferentiation of prostate adenocarcinoma cells. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):531-47
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine-like prostate cancer cells: neuroendocrine transdifferentiation of prostate adenocarcinoma cells.
  • Neuroendocrine (NE) cells represent a minor cell population in the epithelial compartment of normal prostate glands and may play a role in regulating the growth and differentiation of normal prostate epithelia.
  • We further describe the biochemical properties of newly established, stable NE-like lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cell lines, transdifferentiated from androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells under androgen-deprived conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Transdifferentiation / physiology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neurosecretory Systems / cytology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17914087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA88184; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20RR018759
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interleukin-6; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 3.1.3.48 / Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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64. Mecca P, Busam K: Primary male neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma involving the nipple simulating Merkel cell carcinoma - a diagnostic pitfall. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Feb;35(2):207-11
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  • [Title] Primary male neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma involving the nipple simulating Merkel cell carcinoma - a diagnostic pitfall.
  • Likewise, true neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast, defined as > 50% of tumor cells staining for either chromogranin or synaptophysin, is not a common entity, usually occurring in older women.
  • The case was originally misdiagnosed as a Merkel cell carcinoma, based largely on histologic morphology.
  • Additionally, a substantial portion of cells stained for Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein-15 (GCDFP-15), confirming some overlap with sweat duct differentiation.
  • To the best of our knowledge, although reported in the male breast, no case of primary nipple neuroendocrine carcinoma in a male patient has been reported in the literature.
  • The gender of the patient and association with the skin of the chest wall probably contributed to the original misdiagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma in this patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Nipples / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18190447.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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65. Molenaar JP, Baten A, Blokx WA, Hoogendam A: Development of carcinoid tumour in hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Eur Urol; 2009 Nov;56(5):874-7; quiz 876
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  • [Title] Development of carcinoid tumour in hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • We present the case of an 81-yr-old man with a prostatic adenocarcinoma and a metastatic carcinoid.
  • Simultaneous occurrence of hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate and a carcinoid has been described before.
  • The pathogenesis of this coincidence is largely unclear; however, androgen deprivation therapy might play a key role in neuroendocrine differentiation of adenocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19171417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
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66. Jain R, Gramigna V, Sanchez-Marull R, Perez-Ordoñez B: Composite intestinal-type adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma of sinonasal tract. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Jul;62(7):634-7
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  • [Title] Composite intestinal-type adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma of sinonasal tract.
  • Although several studies have documented neuroendocrine differentiation in ITACs, the combination of ITAC and small cell carcinoma has not been previously described in detail.
  • The aim of this report is to detail the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of two cases of composite ITAC with small cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Two cases of composite ITAC with small cell carcinoma were routinely processed, and representative sections were stained with CAM5.2, AE1:AE3, keratin 7, keratin 20, keratin 19, CDX-2, p63, villin, chromogranin, synaptophysin and CD56.
  • RESULTS: One tumour consisted of a mixed-type ITAC showing colonic-type and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with foci of "signet-ring" cells combined with small cell carcinoma.
  • Both components stained positively with CAM5.2, AE1:AE3, CK7, CK20 and CK19, whereas only the small cell carcinoma expressed synaptophysin and CD56.
  • The second tumour showed a papillary-type ITAC combined with a small cell carcinoma.
  • The adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma stained positively with CAM5.2, AE1:AE3, CK7, CK19 and CK20.
  • Only the adenocarcinoma was CDX-2 positive, whereas the small cell carcinoma expressed CD56 and synaptophysin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The two components of the combined ITACs and neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma show significant immunohistochemical overlap, supporting a common origin.
  • The occurrence of a distinct neuroendocrine carcinoma combined with ITACs expands the histopathological spectrum of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19321468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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67. Hisaoka M, Takamatsu Y, Hirano Y, Maeda H, Hamada T: Sebaceous carcinoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature. Virchows Arch; 2006 Oct;449(4):484-8
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  • [Title] Sebaceous carcinoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature.
  • Sebaceous differentiation has been described in only limited examples of benign and malignant epithelial lesions of the breast.
  • We report a rare case of mammary sebaceous carcinoma to further delineate its morphologic features.
  • Besides, a subset of the tumor cells co-expressed synaptophysin, neurofilament, and PGP9.5, suggesting neuroendocrine differentiation that is a hitherto undescribed phenomenon in the mammary tumors with sebaceous features.
  • This case would expand the morphologic diversity of carcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16944238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Azo Compounds; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; G7S71FND9B / oil red O
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68. Liu M, Imam H, Oberg K, Zhou Y: Gene transfer of vasostatin, a calreticulin fragment, into neuroendocrine tumor cells results in enhanced malignant behavior. Neuroendocrinology; 2005;82(1):1-10
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  • [Title] Gene transfer of vasostatin, a calreticulin fragment, into neuroendocrine tumor cells results in enhanced malignant behavior.
  • Vasostatin, a fragment of calreticulin, was transfected in the BON cell line to evaluate the feasibility of using it for gene therapy in neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Burkitt lymphoma cell line, CA46, colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, SW480, as well as endothelial cells PAE and SVEC4 were used for evaluating the function of vasostatin.
  • The results demonstrated that vasostatin transfer caused enhanced malignant behavior of neuroendocrine tumor cell line, BON.
  • Moreover, cell cycle regulatory protein, p27kip1, and cell differentiation-related protein kinase, PKR, were also significantly down-regulated.
  • Therefore, one should be very careful when using vasostatin as an anti-tumoral agent in clinical trials, at least for neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / metabolism. Calreticulin / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Peptide Fragments / metabolism


69. Seicean A, Badea R, Stan-Iuga R, Mocan T, Gulei I, Pascu O: Quantitative contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography for the discrimination of solid pancreatic masses. Ultraschall Med; 2010 Dec;31(6):571-6
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  • The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative digital image analysis of pancreatic adenocarcinomas using conventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and CEH-EUS and the evaluation of whether contrast medium injection modified adenocarcinoma staging and patient management.
  • The histology, based on EUS-FNA or surgery and 9 months of follow-up, was: pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 15), pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis (n = 12), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 1), common bile duct tumor (n = 1), lymph node metastases of gastric cancer (n = 1).
  • RESULTS: CEH-EUS showed a hypoenhanced pattern in 14 cases of adenocarcinoma and in 10 cases of chronic pancreatitis.
  • The index of the contrast uptake ratio was significantly lower in adenocarcinoma than in mass-forming chronic pancreatitis.
  • A cut-off uptake ratio index value of 0.17 for diagnosing adenocarcinoma corresponded to an AUC (CI 95%) of 0.86 (0.67 - 1.00) with a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 91.7%, a positive predictive value of 92.8%, and a negative predictive value of 78%.
  • The size of the pancreatic mass was assessed significantly more effectively by CEH-EUS but adenocarcinoma staging was not modified.
  • CONCLUSION: The majority of cases of both pancreatic adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis were hypoenhanced and visual discrimination was not possible.
  • This is the first study about CEH-EUS for the quantitative assessment of uptake after contrast injection which has shown that it can aid differentiation between benign and malignant masses but cannot replace EUS-FNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Tumor Burden / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Microvessels / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Pancreatitis, Chronic / pathology. Pancreatitis, Chronic / ultrasonography. Phospholipids. Prospective Studies. Sulfur Hexafluoride

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 21080306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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70. Tokunaga M, Yasuda M, Osamura RY, Itoh J, Mukai M, Shima M, Usui Y, Masuda A, Miyakita H, Terachi T: Association of neuroendocrine differentiation with neoadjuvant hormone therapy effects in prostatic cancer. Oncol Rep; 2005 Jun;13(6):1081-7
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  • [Title] Association of neuroendocrine differentiation with neoadjuvant hormone therapy effects in prostatic cancer.
  • Histological therapeutic effects of neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT) in prostatic cancer were examined, focusing on the association with neuroendocrine differentiation (NED), using 69 radical prostatectomy cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15870925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins
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71. Theodoropoulos VE, Tsigka A, Mihalopoulou A, Tsoukala V, Lazaris AC, Patsouris E, Ghikonti I: Evaluation of neuroendocrine staining and androgen receptor expression in incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma: prognostic implications. Urology; 2005 Oct;66(4):897-902
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  • [Title] Evaluation of neuroendocrine staining and androgen receptor expression in incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma: prognostic implications.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify neuroendocrine cells and androgen receptors (ARs), possible predictors of cancer progression, in a series of untreated patients with incidental Stage T1a prostate cancer (PCa).
  • Neuroendocrine cells may exert a dynamic role in the microenvironment of PCa.
  • Neuroendocrine cells were detected by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to chromogranin A (CgA) and neuron-specific enolase, and the antibody against AR enabled the evaluation of the nuclear AR status.
  • On multivariate analysis, worsening tumor differentiation emerged as the only independent predictor of progression-free survival (P = 0.041); however, only CgA positivity was an independent predictor of tumor progression in well and moderately differentiated tumors (P = 0.038).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / chemistry. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16230178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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72. McCluggage WG, Kennedy K, Busam KJ: An immunohistochemical study of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas: Neoplasms that are commonly TTF1 positive and which may express CK20 and P63. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):525-32
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  • [Title] An immunohistochemical study of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas: Neoplasms that are commonly TTF1 positive and which may express CK20 and P63.
  • Cervical small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) are uncommon but highly aggressive neoplasms.
  • This is important as management is critically dependent on the correct histologic diagnosis.
  • In 2 cases, adjacent foci of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) contained scattered individual chromogranin positive cells, raising the possibility that some cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas arise from neuroendocrine cells in AIS.
  • Our results illustrate that a proportion of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas are negative with broad spectrum cytokeratins and some of the commonly used neuroendocrine markers.
  • TTF1 positivity is extremely common and may be a useful marker of a neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • It is of no value in exclusion of a pulmonary primary. p16 is almost always positive in cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas, possibly owing to an association with oncogenic human papillomavirus, although other mechanisms of expression are also possible.
  • Cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas may be p63 positive, illustrating that this marker is not specific for squamous differentiation.
  • CK20 and neurofilament positivity in some cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas is in keeping with a Merkel cell immunophenotype, similar to that described in SCNECs in other organs.
  • CD99 staining in a cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma should not result in misdiagnosis as a neoplasm in the Ewing family of tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Young Adult


73. Petrović M, Tomić I, Ilić S: [Neuroendocrine differentiation as a survival prognostic factor in advanced non-small cell lung cancer]. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2007 Aug;64(8):525-9
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation as a survival prognostic factor in advanced non-small cell lung cancer].
  • In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) neuroendocrine differentiation exists in 10-30% of patients.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and influence of neuroendocrine differentiation on survival of treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: A clinical trial included 158 patients (74% males and 26% females), with the diagnosis of NSCLC, determined by histological verification.
  • RESULTS: A total of 53 patients (34%) had NSCLC with neuroendocrine differentiation, confirmed rather in large cell lung cancer and lung adenocarcinoma (66.7% and 40%, respectively).
  • The median survival time in the patients with the neuroendocrine expression as compared to those without the expression was 15.6 vs 10.8 months; one year survival time with the expression compared to those without the expression achieved in 62% vs 27% of the patients, (< 0.001); a two-year survival time noted in 30% of the patients (p = 0.000).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that almost the third of the advanced NSCLC has neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Chromogranin A / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis


74. Malaguarnera M, Cristaldi E, Cammalleri L, Colonna V, Lipari H, Capici A, Cavallaro A, Beretta M, Alessandria I, Luca S, Motta M: Elevated chromogranin A (CgA) serum levels in the patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Arch Gerontol Geriatr; 2009 Mar-Apr;48(2):213-7
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  • The neuroendocrine differentiation in PC could potentially represent a new finding with diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  • This study aimed at evaluating the clinical usefulness of CgA as a neuroendocrine (NE) serum-marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranin A / blood. Pancreatic Neoplasms / blood

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  • (PMID = 18329114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6976
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gerontology and geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Gerontol Geriatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Chromogranin A
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75. Kim JB, Choi JH, Kim JH, Park HJ, Lee JS, Joh OJ, Song KY: A case of primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Ann Dermatol; 2010 Nov;22(4):472-7
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  • [Title] A case of primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that originates from the deepest portion of the eccrine sweat duct.
  • It is difficult to differentiate this tumor histologically from metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • We report a primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation on the right cheek of a 63-year-old man.

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  • (PMID = 21165225.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2991732
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cutaneous mucinous carcinoma / Eccrine sweat duct / Metastatic adenocarcinoma / Neuroendocrine differentiation
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76. Yamaguchi T, Imamura Y, Nakayama K, Kawada T, Yamamoto T, Fukuda M: Paranuclear blue inclusions of small cell carcinoma of the stomach: report of a case with cytologic presentation in peritoneal washings. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):207-12
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  • [Title] Paranuclear blue inclusions of small cell carcinoma of the stomach: report of a case with cytologic presentation in peritoneal washings.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary gastric small cell carcinoma is a rare but important entity.
  • Pathologic diagnosis after the operation was moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma containing AFP-positive cells.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of primary gastric small cell carcinoma is usually poor.
  • When a gastric small cell carcinoma is suspected in peritoneal washings, immunocytochemical demonstration of neuroendocrine differentiation is required to arrive at the final diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Cytoplasm / pathology. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15839631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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77. Makino A, Serra S, Chetty R: Composite adenocarcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum. Virchows Arch; 2006 May;448(5):644-7
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  • [Title] Composite adenocarcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum.
  • Even more uncommon are the so-called amphicrine tumors, lesions in which dual epithelial and endocrine differentiation occurs in the same cell.
  • We describe a patient who complained of rectal pain and bleeding with a mixed or composite adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum.
  • Histological examination revealed a distinct adenocarcinoma of conventional type with glandular structures admixed intimately with a neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • The latter component was deeply infiltrative, while the adenocarcinoma occupied the more superficial aspect of the tumor.
  • What was interesting was the immunophenotype of the lesion: cytokeratin (CK) 20 expression was very focal in the adenocarcinoma component and negative in the neuroendocrine carcinoma, while CK 7 was expressed strongly in the adenocarcinoma and only focally in the neuroendocrine component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16508780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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78. Machado MC, Machado MA, Perini MV, Herman P, Jukemura J, Leite KR, Bacchella T: Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: is the absence of neuroendocrine component related to a more malignant behavior? Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 Mar-Apr;55(82-83):708-10
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  • [Title] Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: is the absence of neuroendocrine component related to a more malignant behavior?
  • Some authors have estimated acinar cell tumors to be as aggressive as ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas whereas other series showed acinar cell tumors to have a favorable clinical outcome.
  • METHODOLOGY: With the aim to evaluate the possible relationship between the presence of neuroendocrine differentiation and behavior of these tumors, the authors reviewed all patients presenting acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas in the last 5 years with emphasis in the immunohistochemical evaluation.
  • RESULTS: Four patients presented neuroendocrine differentiation on immunohistochemical evaluation and had a more benign outcome.
  • Two patients without neuroendocrine component had a disseminated disease at presentation.
  • This data suggests that this tumor is less aggressive than ductal adenocarcinoma and even with nodal involvement, long-term survival after complete resection can be achieved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is possible that the absence of neuroendocrine component may be related to a less favorable outcome and adjuvant therapy may be necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18613439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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79. Yamamoto N, Kinoshita H, Inoue T, Kawakita S, Oguchi N, Muguruma K, Kawa G, Sakaguchi Y, Adachi Y, Sakaida N, Uemura Y, Matsuda T: [Small cell carcinoma of the prostate: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Sep;53(9):665-9
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  • [Title] [Small cell carcinoma of the prostate: a case report].
  • A 76-year-old man had been treated with maximum androgen blockade therapy for a poorly-differentiated prostate adenocarcinoma (T3cN1M0, prostate specific antigen (PSA) 65 ng/ml, Gleason Score 4+5=9) since September 2002.
  • Immunohistochemical examination of a biopsy specimen from the bone lesion revealed a small cell carcinoma/neuroendocrine cell carcinoma.
  • The immunohistochemical examination revealed pure small cell carcinoma in all metastatic lesions.
  • We concluded from the clinical history and autopsy findings that his initial poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the prostate dedifferentiated into a pure small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17933147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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80. Meeks JJ, Habermacher GM, Le B, Smith ND: Delayed diagnosis of prostate cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation after laser TURP. Urology; 2008 Oct;72(4):948.e11-2
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  • [Title] Delayed diagnosis of prostate cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation after laser TURP.
  • The patient subsequently underwent bipolar TURP, and the pathologic examination of the prostate chips revealed highly aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • We discuss the potential drawbacks of laser TURP in the diagnosis of clinically undetectable prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Transurethral Resection of Prostate
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18342929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Takahashi C, Contreras B, Iwanaga T, Takegami Y, Bakker A, Bronson RT, Noda M, Loda M, Hunt JL, Ewen ME: Nras loss induces metastatic conversion of Rb1-deficient neuroendocrine thyroid tumor. Nat Genet; 2006 Jan;38(1):118-23
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  • [Title] Nras loss induces metastatic conversion of Rb1-deficient neuroendocrine thyroid tumor.
  • Loss of one or two Nras alleles is shown to significantly reduce the severity of pituitary tumors arising in Rb1(+/-) animals by enhancing their differentiation.
  • In Rb1(+/-)Nras(+/-) animals, distant medullary thyroid carcinoma metastases are associated with loss of the remaining wild-type Nras allele.


82. Bilimoria KY, Tomlinson JS, Merkow RP, Stewart AK, Ko CY, Talamonti MS, Bentrem DJ: Clinicopathologic features and treatment trends of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: analysis of 9,821 patients. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Nov;11(11):1460-7; discussion 1467-9
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and treatment trends of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: analysis of 9,821 patients.
  • The natural history of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) remains poorly defined.
  • As PNETs have a better prognosis than adenocarcinoma, concerns regarding the morbidity and mortality of pancreatic surgery and neoplasms should not preclude resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery. Pancreatectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Islet Cell / pathology. Adenoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Adult. Aged. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17846854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Fricker J: Survival prediction with neuroendocrine differentiation? Lancet Oncol; 2006 Nov;7(11):891
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  • [Title] Survival prediction with neuroendocrine differentiation?
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / mortality. Esophagogastric Junction / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17099980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin
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84. Kuo KT, Liang CW, Hsiao CH, Lin CH, Chen CA, Sheu BC, Lin MC: Downregulation of BRG-1 repressed expression of CD44s in cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2006 Dec;19(12):1570-7
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  • [Title] Downregulation of BRG-1 repressed expression of CD44s in cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
  • Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the uterine cervix are rare tumors with early metastases, highly aggressive clinical behavior, and poor clinical outcome.
  • Cluster differentiation 44 (CD44) is a widely expressed cell surface glycoprotein that serves as an adhesion molecule in cell-to-substrate and cell-to-cell interaction.
  • We have examined the expression of the standard CD44 (CD44s) by immunohistochemical stains in the paraffin-embedded cervical neoplasm tissue of 17 cases of primary cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma, 28 cases of cervical adenocarcinoma, and 50 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Loss of CD44s expression was found in 16 of 17 neuroendocrine carcinomas, 14 of 28 adenocarcinomas, and three of 50 squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Loss of BRG-1 expression was observed in 12/16, 6/14, and 1/3 CD44s-negative neuroendocrine carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas, respectively.
  • This study suggests that loss of the CD44s molecule may imply special biological behaviors of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas, and loss of expression of BRG-1 may contribute to this.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. DNA Helicases / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism


85. Grabowski P, Sturm I, Schelwies K, Maaser K, Buhr HJ, Dörken B, Zeitz M, Daniel PT, Scherübl H: Analysis of neuroendocrine differentiation and the p53/BAX pathway in UICC stage III colorectal carcinoma identifies patients with good prognosis. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2006 Apr;21(3):221-30
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  • [Title] Analysis of neuroendocrine differentiation and the p53/BAX pathway in UICC stage III colorectal carcinoma identifies patients with good prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Neuroendocrine differentiation is an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Specimens were analyzed from 59 patients with UICC stage III disease who underwent surgery for colorectal adenocarcinoma at our institution and were followed up for 5 years or until death.
  • Tumors were studied for both p53 mutation and BAX protein expression as well as for the expression of neuroendocrine markers.
  • RESULTS: p53 status/BAX expression and neuroendocrine differentiation are not correlated in stage III colorectal cancers.
  • However, the combination of both independent events identified a subgroup of patients with an excellent prognosis: Patients whose tumors were neuroendocrine marker-negative and who exhibited an intact p53/BAX pathway lived longer (mean survival, 93 months; range, 82-104 months) than patients whose tumors were either neuroendocrine marker-positive or whose tumors had a completely disrupted apoptotic pathway (41 months; range, 26-57 months; p<0.00001).
  • In multivariate regression analysis, neuroendocrine marker-positive, p53 mutated, low-BAX-expressing tumors revealed an almost fivefold higher risk for earlier death (p<0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Disruption of the p53/BAX pathway is not pathognomonic for colorectal cancers with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Therefore, the combined analysis of p53 status, BAX expression and neuroendocrine differentiation allows one to identify subgroups of patients with either very good or very poor prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 16485142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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86. Turbat-Herrera EA, Herrera GA: Electron microscopy renders the diagnostic capabilities of cytopathology more precise: an approach to everyday practice. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2005 Nov-Dec;29(6):475-82
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  • By the use of EM the authors can make specific final diagnoses, make the diagnosis more definitive, narrow the differential diagnosis, or determine the origin of a neoplasm with unknown primary site.
  • The common diagnostic dilemmas in the everyday practice of cytology are the following: mesothelioma vs. adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine differentiation or not, the distinction of melanoma from adenocarcinoma and sarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma vs. adenocarcinoma, and the origin of adenocarcinomas of unknown primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Mesothelioma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16316948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3123
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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87. Ranno S, Motta M, Rampello E, Risino C, Bennati E, Malaguarnera M: The chromogranin-A (CgA) in prostate cancer. Arch Gerontol Geriatr; 2006 Jul-Aug;43(1):117-26
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  • The neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer has become more widely recognized and has attracted considerable attention as a potentially new finding with major diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  • Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is the most frequently employed marker to detect neuroendocrine features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Immunoradiometric Assay. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / blood. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood


88. Dietrich CF, Ignee A, Braden B, Barreiros AP, Ott M, Hocke M: Improved differentiation of pancreatic tumors using contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 May;6(5):590-597.e1
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  • [Title] Improved differentiation of pancreatic tumors using contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopic ultrasound is a widely accepted imaging method for staging of ductal adenocarcinoma and the localization of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.
  • We prospectively evaluated conventional color Doppler imaging and contrast-enhanced endoscopic Doppler ultrasound (CE-EDUS) as a new imaging technique for further characterization and differentiation of solid pancreatic tumors.
  • METHODS: From 300 patients with pancreatic lesions investigated using contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound we could finally include 93 patients with an undetermined, solitary, predominantly solid, lesion 40 mm or less, and a definite histologically proven diagnosis.
  • Fifty-seven of 62 patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas showed a hypovascularity of the tumor using CE-EDUS.
  • All other pancreatic lesions revealed an isovascular or hypervascular pattern using contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (20 neuroendocrine tumors, 10 serous microcystic adenomas, and 1 teratoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Endosonography / methods. Image Enhancement. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatitis / pathology. Pancreatitis / ultrasonography. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Dec;5(12):662-3 [18852727.001]
  • (PMID = 18455699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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89. Feria-Bernal G, García-Gonzalez VM, Figueroa-Granados V, Martinez-Benítez B, Uribe-Uribe NO: [Neuroendocrine differentiation and markers of cell proliferation in a group of patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and normal or high serum prostate-specific antigen levels]. Gac Med Mex; 2006 Nov-Dec;142(6):441-6
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation and markers of cell proliferation in a group of patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and normal or high serum prostate-specific antigen levels].
  • [Transliterated title] Diferenciación neuroendocrina y marcadores de proliferación celular en adenocarcinoma de próstata en un grupo de casos con antígeno prostático específico normal vs elevado.
  • OBJECTIVE: Study the morphologic characteristics of neuroendocrine cells in prostate cancer with normal versus elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA).
  • The increase of neuroendocrine cells was associated with a smaller number of tissular antigen producing cells, a finding that could be more apparent if we were to study a larger sample size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


90. Kulshrestha R, Vijayan VK: Immunohistochemical staining on fine needle aspiration biopsy-cell block specimens in the differential diagnosis of lung cancers. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci; 2009 Jan-Mar;51(1):21-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining on fine needle aspiration biopsy-cell block specimens in the differential diagnosis of lung cancers.
  • AIM: To examine further the utility of immunohistochemical panel of antibodies to thyroid transcription factor [TTF-1], synaptophysin, chromogranin A [CgA], cytokeratin-pan, cytokeratin-7 [CK-7], cytokeratin-20 [CK-20], leucocyte common antigen [LCA], and carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] in cytologic cell block samples in the differential diagnosis of lung cancer.
  • RESULTS: Morphological diagnosis of non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) was made in 22/29 [76%] and small cell carcinoma in 7/29 (24%) cases.
  • Five of the seven (71.4%) cases of small cell carcinoma were CgA+/TTF-1+, 14.3% [1/7] were CgA+/ synaptophysin+/TTF-1-negative.
  • In one case, LCA positivity lead to the diagnosis of non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
  • Cytokeratin-pan positivity in squamous cell carcinomas [n=15] was seen to be related to cellular differentiation.
  • All the three cases of adenocarcinoma were CK-7+/CK-20 negative.
  • In one case with large cell carcinoma, CgA-positivity lead to recategorisation as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung / pathology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19317359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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91. Volante M, Rindi G, Papotti M: The grey zone between pure (neuro)endocrine and non-(neuro)endocrine tumours: a comment on concepts and classification of mixed exocrine-endocrine neoplasms. Virchows Arch; 2006 Nov;449(5):499-506
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  • Terms such as "mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinoma" (MEEC) and "adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation" (ADC-NE) identify tumours belonging to the spectrum of neoplasms with divergent exocrine and (neuro)endocrine differentiation.
  • From a practical point of view, MEECs differ from carcinomas with focal NE differentiation by (1) the extension of each component (more than 30%) and (2) the structural pattern of the NE component, either organoid for well-differentiated or solid/diffuse for poorly differentiated cases.
  • Conversely, ADC-NE generally do not show a different clinical outcome, compared to the corresponding conventional forms, except for prostatic adenocarcinoma, in which NE cells are a negative prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neurosecretory Systems / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chromogranin A / analysis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17033797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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92. Fine SW: Variants and Unusual Patterns of Prostate Cancer. Surg Pathol Clin; 2008 Dec;1(1):77-104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Beyond the typical acinar morphology observed in most prostatic adenocarcinoma, a spectrum of morphologic variants and prostate cancer subtypes exists.
  • These unusual entities may be further classified into (1) cancer morphologies arising by divergent differentiation of prostatic ductal, acinar, or basal cells and associated with unique clinical features or therapeutic approaches, and (2) histologies occurring in the context of usual prostatic adenocarcinoma that may result in diagnostic misinterpretation or difficulties in Gleason grade assignment, especially in limited samples.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 26837903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9181
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical pathology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Pathol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ductal / Mucinous / Neuroendocrine / Prostate cancer / Pseudohyperplastic / Variant
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93. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Rütten A, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):195-203
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma.
  • The cases included 6 men and 1 woman, with their ages at the diagnosis ranging from 43 to 87 years (median age, 59).
  • Sebaceous differentiation in the form of mature sebocytes varied from almost none to approximately 10%.
  • Four lesions represented sebaceomas, and in 1 case microscopic delineation between a carcinoma and sebaceoma was difficult.
  • No neuroendocrine differentiation was demonstrated immunohistochemically, histochemically, and ultrastructurally.
  • Electron microscopic examination performed in 1 case of carcinoma revealed lipid vacuoles in a minority of cells.
  • There were no membrane-bound neuroendocrine granules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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94. Alexandrescu DT, O'Boyle K, Feliz A, Fueg A, Wiernik PH: Metastatic solid-pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas: clinico-biological correlates and management. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2005 Aug;17(5):358-63
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  • Pathological, genetic and molecular features distinguish solid-pseudopapillary tumours from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Furthermore, neuroendocrine differentiation can be found focally in occasional cases of solid-pseudopapillary tumour.
  • However, the indolent clinical progression of solid-pseudopapillary tumours is similar to that of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16097567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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95. García-Galvis OF, Cabrera-Ozoria C, Fernández JA, Stolnicu S, Nogales FF: Malignant Müllerian mixed tumor of the ovary associated with yolk sac tumor, neuroepithelial and trophoblastic differentiation (teratoid carcinosarcoma). Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):515-20
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  • [Title] Malignant Müllerian mixed tumor of the ovary associated with yolk sac tumor, neuroepithelial and trophoblastic differentiation (teratoid carcinosarcoma).
  • This paper reports a unique stage IV complex ovarian carcinosarcoma in a 69-year patient that had malignant mixed müllerian epithelial and mesenchymal components and also other malignant differentiation such as neuroectodermal (small cell, neuroendocrine, neuroglial, neuronal, and melanocytic) and endodermal (yolk sac tumor) tissues and trophoblastic cells.
  • As its phenotype comprised elements derived embryologically from the 3 germ layers, it posed the problem of differentiating it from a teratoma originated from germ cells, with which it shared a trilaminar type differentiation.
  • It was different from a teratoma as it coexisted with, and possibly originated from, a somatic tumor, namely a characteristic endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18753971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Reddy S, Wolfgang CL: Benign pancreatic tumors. Surg Clin North Am; 2007 Dec;87(6):1359-78, viii
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  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is associated with specific neoplastic lesions that are similar in radiographic appearance to some benign lesions.
  • The correct differentiation of these malignant and premalignant lesions from their benign counterpart is paramount to their proper management.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Cystadenoma, Serous / diagnosis. Humans. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / surgery. Pancreatic Pseudocyst / diagnosis. Pancreatitis, Chronic / pathology. Sclerosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18053836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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97. Pozo L, Diaz-Cano SJ: Trichilemmal carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2008 Mar;33(2):128-31
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  • [Title] Trichilemmal carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of a trichilemmal carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and melanocyte colonization, which is suggested by the trabecular growth pattern and requires immunohistochemical confirmation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 18076695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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98. Ather MH, Abbas F, Faruqui N, Israr M, Pervez S: Correlation of three immunohistochemically detected markers of neuroendocrine differentiation with clinical predictors of disease progression in prostate cancer. BMC Urol; 2008;8:21
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  • [Title] Correlation of three immunohistochemically detected markers of neuroendocrine differentiation with clinical predictors of disease progression in prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The importance of immuno-histological detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma with respect to disease at presentation and Gleason grade is gaining acceptance.
  • There is limited literature on the relative significance of three commonly used markers of NE differentiation i.e.
  • In the current work we have assessed the correlation of immuno-histological detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma with respect to disease at presentation and Gleason grade and to determine the relative value of various markers.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive samples of malignant prostatic specimens (Transurethral resection of prostate or radical retropubic prostatectomy) from 84 patients between January 1991 and December 1998 were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining (PAP technique) using selected neuroendocrine tumor markers i.e.
  • According to the stage at diagnosis, patients were divided into three groups.

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  • (PMID = 19115997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2490
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628675
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99. Xiao WL, Zhou FT, Feng YY, Li NY: Submandibular area metastasis from prostate small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. J Craniofac Surg; 2007 Sep;18(5):1155-7
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  • [Title] Submandibular area metastasis from prostate small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic carcinomas generally confers a more aggressive clinical behavior and less favorable prognosis than usual prostatic carcinomas.
  • In this article, we report a case of a 65-year-old man with prostatic carcinoma who had a metastasis of the submandibular area.
  • Pathologic specimens demonstrated a small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation by immunohistochemical studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17912103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Marcu M, Radu E, Sajin M: Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma biopsies and its correlation to histological grading. Curr Health Sci J; 2010 Jan;36(1):37-42
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma biopsies and its correlation to histological grading.
  • Prostate adenocarcinoma is frequently diagnosed on needle biopsies in early, organ-confined stages.
  • This study aims to find correlations between the extent of neurocrine differentiation (NED), a feature commonly seen in prostate carcinoma, and known factors of disease evolution such as histological grade, malignant cell proliferation and serum PSA levels.
  • Also, the same extended neuroendocrine differentiation is associated with high tumour proliferative activity.
  • Multinomial regression analysis showed that high Ki indices, serum PSA values and NSE scores are predictive for moderately and poorly differentiated prostatic adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 24778825.001).
  • [ISSN] 2067-0656
  • [Journal-full-title] Current health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3945267
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Neuroendocrine differentiation / Prostate adenocarcinoma
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