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1. Wang SL, Chan HM, Yang SF, Wu MT, Chai CY: Compurerized morphometric study of thyroid follicular carcinoma in correlation with known prognostic factors. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2005 Feb;21(2):65-9
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  • [Title] Compurerized morphometric study of thyroid follicular carcinoma in correlation with known prognostic factors.
  • This study investigates the correlation between computer-assisted nuclear morphometry and known prognostic factors in thyroid follicular carcinoma.
  • Thirty-six patients with thyroid follicular carcinoma who underwent surgery between 1991 and 2001 were grouped according to sex, age, size of the primary lesion, the presence of vascular invasion, and metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15825691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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2. Yatabe Y, Takahashi T, Mitsudomi T: Epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification is acquired in association with tumor progression of EGFR-mutated lung cancer. Cancer Res; 2008 Apr 1;68(7):2106-11
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification is acquired in association with tumor progression of EGFR-mutated lung cancer.
  • We have reported evidence implicating mutation specifically in the "terminal respiratory unit" type of adenocarcinoma, which is characterized by expression of thyroid transcription factor 1, a lineage marker of peripheral airway cells.
  • However, little is known about the role of gene amplification in the molecular progression of lung adenocarcinoma.
  • We also examined 17 precursor lesions and 21 in situ lung adenocarcinomas, and found that only one in situ carcinoma harbored gene amplification.
  • Taken together, our results show that mutation occurs early in the development of lung adenocarcinoma, and that amplification may be acquired in association with tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / enzymology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / genetics. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis


3. Garcia EA, Simões K, Wakamatsu A, Ressio RA, Alves VA, Longatto-Filho A, Camargo RS: Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):101-7
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  • [Title] Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia worldwide.
  • In order to evaluate the value of LVD in benign and malignant thyroid lesions, we analyzed 110 thyroidectomy specimens using D2-40, a specific marker for lymphatic vessels and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), the most potent molecule of lymphatic proliferation.
  • LVD was significantly different between papillary and follicular carcinomas in total (p = 0.045) and peritumoral area (p = 0.042).
  • Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma showed an important difference of intra- (p = 0.019) and peritumoral (p = 0.033) LVD.
  • Indeed, the high peritumoral LVD of malignant thyroid lesions is an important finding for surgery planning and supports the practice of total thyroidectomy in malignant thyroid neoplasm's since the lymphatic peritumoral vessels definitely are an escape path for tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20336393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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4. Lin JD: Thyroglobulin and human thyroid cancer. Clin Chim Acta; 2008 Feb;388(1-2):15-21
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  • [Title] Thyroglobulin and human thyroid cancer.
  • Tg gene expression is regulated by thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and human paired box 8 (Pax-8).
  • Iodinated Tg is stored in the lumen of the thyroid follicles and is released in response to specific hormonal stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).
  • Following Tg reabsorption by thyrocytes and subsequent degradation, thyroid hormones triiodothryronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) are secreted in the bloodstream.
  • Mutations within the Tg gene cause defective thyroid hormone synthesis, resulting in congenital hypothyroidism.
  • Thyroid carcinoma may develop from dyshormonogenic goiters due to Tg mutation.
  • Post-thyroidectomy Tg levels are apparently associated with prognosis of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas and may predict tumor recurrence and metastastic potential.
  • The detection of Tg by biochemical and molecular means has important diagnostic significance due to its pleiotropic roles in identification of tissue of thyroid origin, differentiation, and post-operative follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Health. Humans. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18060877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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5. Chew MH, Chan G, Siddiqui MM, Tai BC, Sivanandan R, Soo KC, Lim DT: Risk-stratified management of well-differentiated thyroid cancers: a review of experience from a single institution, 1990-2003. World J Surg; 2008 Mar;32(3):386-94
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  • [Title] Risk-stratified management of well-differentiated thyroid cancers: a review of experience from a single institution, 1990-2003.
  • INTRODUCTION: Controversy persists regarding ideal management strategies in well-differentiated thyroid cancers (WDTC).
  • This retrospective study reviews the utilization of a modified AMES risk stratification in the management of our institution's patients.
  • RESULTS: Of the 352 patients, 264 (75%) were females and 276 (78%) had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
  • In this series, 72% of the patients underwent total thyroidectomy; 5-year disease-free survival probability was 100% in low-risk patients, 92% in intermediate-risk patients, and 64% in high-risk patients.
  • We recommend aggressive surgical resection for all gross disease in high-risk and intermediate-risk patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18188642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Dentice M, Luongo C, Huang S, Ambrosio R, Elefante A, Mirebeau-Prunier D, Zavacki AM, Fenzi G, Grachtchouk M, Hutchin M, Dlugosz AA, Bianco AC, Missero C, Larsen PR, Salvatore D: Sonic hedgehog-induced type 3 deiodinase blocks thyroid hormone action enhancing proliferation of normal and malignant keratinocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Sep 4;104(36):14466-71
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  • [Title] Sonic hedgehog-induced type 3 deiodinase blocks thyroid hormone action enhancing proliferation of normal and malignant keratinocytes.
  • The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway plays a critical role in hair follicle physiology and is constitutively active in basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), the most common human malignancy.
  • Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D3), the thyroid hormone-inactivating enzyme, is frequently expressed in proliferating and neoplastic cells, but its role in this context is unknown.
  • We demonstrate that Gli-induced D3 reduces intracellular active thyroid hormone, thus resulting in increased cyclin D1 and keratinocyte proliferation.
  • Shh-induced thyroid hormone degradation via D3 synergizes with the Shh-mediated reduction of the type 2 deiodinase, the thyroxine-activating enzyme, and both effects are reversed by cAMP.
  • This previously unrecognized functional cross-talk between Shh/Gli2 and thyroid hormone in keratinocytes is a pathway by which Shh produces its proliferative effects and offers a potential therapeutic approach to BCC.


7. Roh JL, Kim JM, Park CI: Lateral cervical lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma: pattern of nodal metastases and optimal strategy for neck dissection. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Apr;15(4):1177-82
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  • [Title] Lateral cervical lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma: pattern of nodal metastases and optimal strategy for neck dissection.
  • BACKGROUND: The pattern of lateral cervical metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been reported without a clear understanding of the distribution of central nodes at risk.
  • RESULTS: For the lateral compartment, 75.9% of cases showed metastatic disease at level IV, 72.2% at IIa and III, 16.7% at IIb, 13.0% at Vai, 3.7% at Ib and Vb, and 0% at Vas.
  • For the central compartment, 84.6% of cases showed metastatic disease at the ipsilateral paratracheal nodal site, 46.2% at the superior mediastinal, 30.8% at the pretracheal, and 8.9% at the contralateral paratracheal site.
  • Forty-six of 57 lateral neck dissection samples (80.7%) showed multilevel disease, and skip lateral metastasis was found in five patients (9.6%).
  • Level I and V involvements were always associated with multilevel disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lateral cervical metastasis from PTC is commonly associated with multilevel disease and central nodal involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neck Dissection. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18253801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Zbar AP, Dafydd L, Samtani J, Alleyne W, Chiappa A, Jones SR, Prussia PR: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules: experience at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Barbados (1998-2002). Int Surg; 2009 Jan-Feb;94(1):10-9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules: experience at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Barbados (1998-2002).
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid nodule has become part of accepted practice defining the role of surgery.
  • This study assessed a 5-year period comparing cytologic with histopathologic diagnosis in 256 samples from 234 patients (203 women and 31 men).
  • The sensitivity and positive predictive values for the detection by FNAC of thyroid neoplasms was 21.1% and 30.8%, respectively, with a specificity and negative predictive value of 79.5% and 70.0%, respectively.
  • It is anticipated that improvement in diagnosis will develop from specific cytopathological training in thyroid FNAC, consideration of the cytopathologist performing the aspiration biopsy, and the development of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques applied to the cytologic smears.
  • The principal inherent difficulty with thyroid FNAC is the inability to confidently distinguish hyperplastic follicular adenomas from microinvasive follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20099419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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9. Kolomecki K, Maciaszczyk P, Stepien H, Stepien T, Kuzdak K, Ulanska J: P53 concentration and soluble FasL (sFasL) serum level as indicators of apoptosis in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2005;106(10):297-300
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  • [Title] P53 concentration and soluble FasL (sFasL) serum level as indicators of apoptosis in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • The first is an external protein signal originating from other cell--also named as "death signal".
  • The another one is a specific cell reaction to external stress factors.
  • Plasma concentration of proteins regulating both apoptosis pathways may be useful in early diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate p53 and sFasL plasma concentration in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • The study population was composed of 33 patients with thyroid carcinoma and 10 patients with follicular carcinoma (tumor types were verified by fine-needle biopsy).
  • The results revealed high p53 and sFasL plasma concentration in patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Such results confirm a significant role of p53 and sFasL in apoptosis in thyroid tumors.
  • Expression of both proteins may be an indicator of an increased apoptosis and useful in preoperative diagnosis in thyroid tumors (Tab. 1, Ref. 31).
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Membrane Glycoproteins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology. Tumor Necrosis Factors / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood

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  • (PMID = 16541608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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10. Di Tommaso L, Arizzi C, Roncalli M: [Well differentiated thyroid carcinoma: new perspectives and old dilemmas]. Ann Ital Chir; 2006 May-Jun;77(3):199-208
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  • [Title] [Well differentiated thyroid carcinoma: new perspectives and old dilemmas].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinomi ben differenziati della tiroide: concetti emergenti e problematiche irrisolte.
  • The diagnosis of well differentiated carcinoma (i.e papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma) represents one of the most challenging issue in thyroid pathology.
  • 1) the role of fine needle aspiration versus frozen section examination in pre- or peri- operative diagnosis;.
  • 3) pathological classification of those tumours indeterminate for papillary or follicular nature.
  • There is general agreement that fine needle aspiration represent the best pre-operative diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules; foremost limits are represented by "not diagnostic" and 'follicular lesion, NOS".
  • The management of papillary micro-carcinoma (i.e. papillary carcinoma smaller than 1 cm.) in the setting of an otherwise benign thyroid disease is a matter of debate, since several clinicians suggest to consider these as incidental findings thus avoiding additional treatment.
  • Recently this attitude has been supported by the proposal to regard these lesion as "tumour" and not carcinoma: available data on follow up seems to sustain and favour this approach.
  • There exist a group of well differentiated tumours of the thyroid lacking the criteria to be diagnosed either as papillary (i.e. nuclear grooves, nuclear pseudo-inclusion and nuclear clearing) or follicular (i.e. capsular or vascular invasion) carcinoma; for these lesion, whose behaviour (nodal or blood metastasis) can not be predicted, it has been suggested the term of well differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential.
  • Finally it has to be mentioned the possible role of molecular biology in the diagnosis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma; indeed markers such as RET/PTC or PAX8/PPARgamma, which to date have been employed mainly in basic research, might represent useful diagnostic (and therapeutic) tools in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17137034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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11. Mishra A, Pal L, Mishra SK: Distribution of Na+/I- symporter in thyroid cancers in an iodine-deficient population: an immunohistochemical study. World J Surg; 2007 Sep;31(9):1737-42
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  • [Title] Distribution of Na+/I- symporter in thyroid cancers in an iodine-deficient population: an immunohistochemical study.
  • BACKGROUND: There are significant differences in the prevalence and behavior of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) in the iodine-deficient areas (IDA) and iodine-sufficient areas (ISA) of the world.
  • The sodium iodide symporter (NIS), mediates active transport of iodide across the basolateral aspect of the thyroid follicular cell.
  • However, no study had specifically addressed the issue of expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in thyroid cancer specimens from IDA.
  • The aim of the present study was to find an expression pattern of NIS in DTC in an iodine-deficient population, and to correlate it with histological subtypes, i.e., papillary carcinoma (PTC), follicular carcinoma (FTC), poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDTC), as well as with clinicopathological risk factors and iodine ((131)I) uptake by distant metastases.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was carried out in 39 cases of thyroid cancer (41 samples) including PTC (15), FTC (10), PDTC (9), anaplastic cancer (5), and resected metastases (2).
  • There was no significant difference in expression rate between PTC (73.3%) and FTC (70.0%).
  • The results of NIS expression were not concordant with (131)I uptake by metastases in 4 of 10 cases. (131)I uptake was absent in one case despite the finding that a metastatic site itself showed NIS expression in that case, whereas in the remaining 9 cases (131)I uptake was present although three cases did not show NIS expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Iodine / deficiency. Symporters / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Female. Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17653791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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12. Vasko V, Espinosa AV, Scouten W, He H, Auer H, Liyanarachchi S, Larin A, Savchenko V, Francis GL, de la Chapelle A, Saji M, Ringel MD: Gene expression and functional evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in papillary thyroid carcinoma invasion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Feb 20;104(8):2803-8
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  • [Title] Gene expression and functional evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in papillary thyroid carcinoma invasion.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) that invade into local structures are associated with a poor prognosis, but the mechanisms for PTC invasion are incompletely defined, limiting the development of new therapies.
  • To characterize biological processes involved in PTC invasion, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of microscopically dissected intratumoral samples from central and invasive regions of seven widely invasive PTCs and normal thyroid tissue by oligonucleotide microarray and performed confirmatory expression and functional studies.
  • Moreover, reduced levels of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and communication were identified, consistent with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
  • Functional, in vitro studies demonstrated that vimentin was required both for the development and maintenance of a mesenchymal morphology and invasiveness in thyroid cancer cells.
  • We conclude that EMT is common in PTC invasion and that vimentin regulates thyroid cancer EMT in vitro.

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  • (PMID = 17296934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE6004
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016058; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA102572; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 16058; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 102572-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vimentin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1815262
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13. Ma C, Xie J, Chen Q, Wang G, Zuo S: Amifostine for salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2009;(4):CD007956
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  • [Title] Amifostine for salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Radioactive iodine treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer possibly results in xerostomia.
  • To date, the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer remain uncertain.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled clinical trials and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing the effects of amifostine on salivary glands after radioactive iodine treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer with placebo and a duration of follow up of at least three months.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Results from two randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that the amifostine has no significant radioprotective effects on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / therapeutic use. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiation-Protective Agents / therapeutic use. Salivary Glands / drug effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Humans. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Xerostomia / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19821441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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14. Dralle H, Machens A: Surgical approaches in thyroid cancer and lymph-node metastases. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Dec;22(6):971-87
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  • [Title] Surgical approaches in thyroid cancer and lymph-node metastases.
  • Thyroid cancer collectively encompasses a variety of tumors of disparate morphology and biology.
  • With the exception of radio-iodine therapy for iodine-concentrating well-differentiated thyroid cancers, surgery is the foremost and generally sole effective treatment.
  • Established indications for less-than-total thyroidectomy include small (<or=1 cm), unifocal, and non-metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), and minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC; invasion of the tumor capsule only).
  • Whether occult multifocal PTC and minimally invasive FTC with histopathological evidence of vascular invasion also fall into the 'low-risk' category remains unclear.
  • For node-positive thyroid cancers, compartment-oriented microdissection is the gold standard of care, whereas the concept of prophylactic lymph-node dissection continues to arouse controversy.
  • Most experts agree that routine lymph-node dissection is unnecessary for low-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • Because occult lymph-node metastases are frequent in high-risk PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma, compartment-oriented microdissection helps prevent reoperations for 'recurrences' arising from residual nodes, sparing patients the excess morbidity from reoperations in the neck.
  • Because of the looming epidemic of early forms of thyroid cancer, an international consensus is needed regarding (1) the definition of low- versus high-risk tumors;.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19041826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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15. Sapio MR, Posca D, Raggioli A, Guerra A, Marotta V, Deandrea M, Motta M, Limone PP, Troncone G, Caleo A, Rossi G, Fenzi G, Vitale M: Detection of RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF mutations in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological findings. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 May;66(5):678-83
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  • [Title] Detection of RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF mutations in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological findings.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the primary means to distinguish benign from malignant nodules and select patients for surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether a search for the oncogenes RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF(V600E) in thyroid aspirates could refine an uncertain diagnosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 132 thyroid aspirates, including colloid nodules, inadequate samplings, indeterminate and suspicious for malignancy were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and mutant allele-specific amplification techniques for the presence of oncogenes.
  • No oncogenes were detected in one follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) with indeterminate cytology.
  • Five out of six papillary thyroid cancers (83%) with FNAB suspicious for malignancy were correctly diagnosed by the presence of oncogenes.
  • On final analysis, no false-positive results were reported in 131 samples and five out of seven carcinomas (71%) were correctly diagnosed.
  • The finding of oncogenes in FNAB specimens suspicious for malignancy guided the extent of surgical resection, changing the surgery from diagnostic to therapeutic in five cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Detection of RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF(V600E) in FNAB specimens is proposed as a diagnostic adjunctive tool in the evaluation of thyroid nodules with suspicious cytological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Oncogenes. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17381488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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16. Mazziotta RM, Borczuk AC, Powell CA, Mansukhani M: CDX2 immunostaining as a gastrointestinal marker: expression in lung carcinomas is a potential pitfall. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2005 Mar;13(1):55-60
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  • [Title] CDX2 immunostaining as a gastrointestinal marker: expression in lung carcinomas is a potential pitfall.
  • Paraffin-embedded sections of various adenocarcinomas (13 colonic, 11 mucinous ovarian, 5 serous ovarian, 8 pancreatic, 6 ampullary, 12 gastric, 5 esophageal, 10 endometrial, 29 breast, and 55 lung) and 29 additional lung carcinomas (nonadenocarcinomas) were immunostained with antibodies to CDX2 protein, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), and cytokeratin 20 (CK20).
  • The 84 lung carcinomas were also stained with antibody to thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1).
  • All colorectal and most ovarian mucinous carcinomas were strongly and diffusely immunoreactive for CDX2.
  • Esophageal, gastric, and ampullary adenocarcinomas showed variable immunoreactivity for CDX2.
  • All breast, nonmucinous ovarian, and most endometrial and pancreatic adenocarcinomas showed no immunoreactivity for CDX2.
  • Ten of 84 primary lung carcinomas (12%) were immunoreactive for CDX2 expression.
  • Of these, 5 (4 adenocarcinomas and 1 large cell carcinoma) were reactive for TTF-1.
  • The authors conclude that CDX2 is a relatively specific marker for tumors with intestinal differentiation, with the caveat that its expression can be seen in primary large cell and adenocarcinomas of the lung and mucinous carcinomas of the ovary.

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  • [CommentIn] Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2006 Jun;14(2):249-50 [16785799.001]
  • (PMID = 15722794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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17. Nistal M, Yébenes-Gregorio L, Esteban-Rodríguez I, Bernáldez R, Regadera J: Malignant mixed tumor of the larynx. Head Neck; 2005 Feb;27(2):166-70
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed tumor of the larynx.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant mixed tumor of the larynx is a very rare neoplasm; only five cases have been reported, three in the English-language literature.
  • METHODS: We report the case of a 69-year-old man with a 2-month history of hoarseness and a left laterocervical palpable mass.
  • The tumor involved the glottic and subglottic regions and thyroid cartilage and extended to the anterior side of the larynx.
  • The epithelial cells resembled a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, the mesenchymal cells resembled a high-grade chondrosarcoma, and the spindle cells had immunohistochemical features of myoepithelial cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The lesion in this case was considered to be a malignant mixed tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15641103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Striebel JM, Dacic S, Yousem SA: Gross cystic disease fluid protein-(GCDFP-15): expression in primary lung adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Mar;32(3):426-32
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  • [Title] Gross cystic disease fluid protein-(GCDFP-15): expression in primary lung adenocarcinoma.
  • A total of 211 cases of primary lung adenocarcinoma were tested for expression of gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) and only 11 cases (5.2%) were positive.
  • The cases occurred with an equal sex distribution in older individuals whose carcinomas were frequently identified on screening radiographs.
  • The adenocarcinomas were peripheral lesions and had an average size of 2.9 cm (range, 1.1 to 7.0).
  • Histologically, they were usually mixed acinar and papillary adenocarcinomas with abundant extracellular mucin production, with the neoplastic cells having a polygonal shape, round to oval nuclei, diffuse powdery chromatin, and abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm.
  • GCDFP-15 was expressed in conjunction with thyroid transcription factor-1 in 81% of cases and synaptophysin was seen in 65%.
  • This report details the first 11 cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma to express GCDFP-15 and their distinctive morphology with frequent mucin production and coexpression of thyroid transcription factor-1 and synaptophysin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Glycoproteins / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / chemistry. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Aged. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Mucins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18300807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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19. Vanuga P, Pura M, Plesko I, Ondrusová M: [Incidence of thyroid cancer in Slovakia: extensive evidence from one centre in the context of national data]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2007;146(2):148-52; discussion 153-4
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  • [Title] [Incidence of thyroid cancer in Slovakia: extensive evidence from one centre in the context of national data].
  • BACKGROUND: In this paper the authors summarise the primary malignant thyroid tumors (p.m.t.t.) incidence data from their centre over the period 1984-2005.
  • The results are explained in the context of the p.m.t.t. incidence data from the National Cancer Register (1996 2002).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 6434 thyroid operations were indicated and carried out during the sampling period at the authors' institution, of which 365 cases were histologically confirmed p.m.t.t. (5.7% of all histological findings).
  • Whereas follicular thyroid carcinomas predominated in the 1984-1989 period (24 cases or 66.7%), the papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most frequent type in 1990-1997 and 1998-2005: 70 (61.4%) and 160 (74.4%) cases respectively.
  • In the context of the national incidence, the authors' institution increasingly contributes to the diagnosis of p.m.t.t. in Slovakia (8.9% in 1996 vs. 13.9% in 2002).
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17373111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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20. Asaad NY, Abd El-Wahed MM, Mohammed AG: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic and prognostic role. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Mar;18(1):8-16
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  • [Title] Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic and prognostic role.
  • BACKGROUND: The catalytic component of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) has been found to be reactivated in immortalized cell lines and considered as a diagnostic marker for malignancy in different body tissues.
  • AIM OF WORK: Therefore we thought to determine whether hTERT gene detection could serve as an adjunct in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions together with evaluation of its prognostic value.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 50 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma including; 28 papillary carcinoma, 14 follicular carcinoma, 5 anaplastic carcinoma and 3 medullary carcinoma in addition to 5 cases of nodular hyperplasia and 5 cases of follicular adenoma.
  • RNA was extracted from paraffin sections of those patients and hTERT gene expression was identified by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR of hTERT gene revealed expression in 43/50 (86%) malignant thyroid cases; including 25 papillary, 11 follicular, 4 anaplastic and 3 medullary carcinoma cases.
  • On the other hand, hTERT gene expression could not be detected in either hyperplastic nodule or in follicular adenoma cases.
  • The diagnostic validity of hTERT gene detection in benign and malignant thyroid lesions was in the form of 88.3% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 90% negative predictive value.
  • In thyroid carcinoma cases, hTERT gene detection was the most independent predictor of poor survival by multivariate survival analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of hTERT gene expression should be considered in confirmation of malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Moreover it could be one of the helpful tools in addition to grade, tumor type, and age to stratify patients with thyroid carcinoma into different prognostic categories.
  • Hence, inhibition of hTERT could be of use prospectively in the era of cancer therapy as an attractive weapon in thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / enzymology. Telomerase / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 17237847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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21. Renshaw AA, Wang E, Wilbur D, Hughes JH, Haja J, Henry MR, College of American Pathologists Cytopathology Committee: Interobserver agreement on microfollicles in thyroid fine-needle aspirates. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Feb;130(2):148-52
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  • [Title] Interobserver agreement on microfollicles in thyroid fine-needle aspirates.
  • CONTEXT: Although microfollicles are a well-known feature of follicular neoplasms in fine-needle aspirates of the thyroid, the level of agreement about classifying groups as microfollicles is not known.
  • DESIGN: We showed 45 small groups of follicular cells each composed of fewer than 50 cells from fine-needle aspirates of the thyroid to 12 members of the College of American Pathologists Cytopathology Committee, who then classified the groups into microfollicles, macrofollicles, and indeterminate groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Not all small groups of follicular cells are consistently classified as microfollicles, and some are more often classified as macrofollicles.
  • The criteria described here for reproducible microfollicles (<15 cells, arranged in a circle that is at least two-thirds complete, and flat) may help improve the agreement in classification of microfollicles and lead to more consistent classification of thyroid fine-needle aspirates.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Consensus. Pathology, Clinical / standards. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16454552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Kitahara S, Ito T, Hamatani S, Shibuya K, Shiba T: Thyroid papillary carcinoma recurring as squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(2):171-4
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  • [Title] Thyroid papillary carcinoma recurring as squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case.
  • We report a case of local squamous cell carcinoma recurrence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, 4 years after subtotal thyroidectomy, in an 82-year-old woman.
  • The papillary cancer of the right thyroid was histopathologically classified as T2a, N0, M0, Ex1; pT2a, pN1b, pEx1; Stage III.
  • The tumor was judged cytologically to be class III, defined as a suspicious malignancy and, after reoperation, it was diagnosed histopathologically as papillary carcinoma recurrence with extensive squamous metaplasia.
  • The recurrent papillary carcinoma was thought to have changed to a squamous cell carcinoma because most of the tumor was occupied by atypical squamous cells, with a small amount of glandular tissue.
  • The primary tumor was histologically diagnosed as a well-differentiated papillary carcinoma at the initial operation.
  • It contained numerous tall neoplastic cells with eosinophilic granules and pseudostratified nuclei, indicating that it could potentially transform into squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We report this case as an example of how squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid can develop.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16440166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Ferretti E, Tosi E, Po A, Scipioni A, Morisi R, Espinola MS, Russo D, Durante C, Schlumberger M, Screpanti I, Filetti S, Gulino A: Notch signaling is involved in expression of thyrocyte differentiation markers and is down-regulated in thyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Oct;93(10):4080-7
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  • [Title] Notch signaling is involved in expression of thyrocyte differentiation markers and is down-regulated in thyroid tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Notch genes encode receptors for a signaling pathway that regulates cell growth and differentiation in various contexts, but the role of Notch signaling in thyroid follicular cells has never been fully published.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to characterize the expression of Notch pathway components in thyroid follicular cells and Notch signaling activities in normal and transformed thyrocytes.
  • DESIGN/SETTING AND PATIENTS: Expression of Notch pathway components and key markers of thyrocyte differentiation was analyzed in murine and human thyroid tissues (normal and tumoral) by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
  • The effects of Notch overexpression in human thyroid cancer cells and FTRL-5 cells were explored with analysis of gene expression, proliferation assays, and experiments involving transfection of a luciferase reporter construct containing human NIS promoter regions.
  • RESULTS: Notch receptors are expressed during the development of murine thyrocytes, and their expression levels parallel those of thyroid differentiation markers.
  • Notch pathway components are variably expressed in human normal thyroid tissue and thyroid tumors, but expression levels are clearly reduced in undifferentiated tumors.
  • Overexpression of Notch-1 in thyroid cancer cells restores differentiation, reduces cell growth rates, and stimulates NIS expression via a direct action on the NIS promoter.
  • CONCLUSION: Notch signaling is involved in the determination of thyroid cell fate and is a direct regulator of thyroid-specific gene expression.
  • Its deregulation may contribute to the loss of differentiation associated with thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Receptors, Notch / physiology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Animals. Cell Dedifferentiation / genetics. Cells, Cultured. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Mice. Organ Specificity / genetics. Signal Transduction / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology. Symporters / genetics. Symporters / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18664540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Italy / Telethon / / GGP07118
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter
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24. Yegen G, Demir MA, Ertan Y, Nalbant OA, Tunçyürek M: Can CD10 be used as a diagnostic marker in thyroid pathology? Virchows Arch; 2009 Jan;454(1):101-5
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  • [Title] Can CD10 be used as a diagnostic marker in thyroid pathology?
  • CD10-common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen is a membrane-bound zinc metalloproteinase that is expressed by different hematopoietic cell types at unique stages of lymphoid and myeloid differentiation.
  • It was reported to be expressed in various nonlymphoid cells and tissue, as well as in various types of neoplasms.
  • Recently, it has been found to be useful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the staining pattern of CD10 in various thyroid lesions, including 14 benign and 61 malignant cases, as well as in adjacent thyroid tissue.
  • CD10 was negative in normal thyroid tissue, adenomatous nodules, minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, and well-differentiated carcinoma.
  • It was expressed in nine of 14 (64.2%) conventional papillary carcinomas, four of 24 (16.6%) follicular variant of papillary carcinomas, three of six (50%) papillary microcarcinomas, one of nine (11.1%) widely invasive follicular carcinomas, and three of ten (30%) follicular adenomas.
  • In contrast to results of previous studies, CD10 is not useful in the classification of thyroid follicular lesions as benign or malignant, but it shows strong positivity in conventional papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19031085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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25. Weber F, Aldred MA, Morrison CD, Plass C, Frilling A, Broelsch CE, Waite KA, Eng C: Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):1149-55
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  • [Title] Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • The two most common subtypes of thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma, have been extensively studied, but our fundamental understanding of the molecular events in thyroid epithelial oncogenesis is still limited.
  • Unreported data from our previous published global gene expression analysis revealed that the tumor suppressor gene aplysia ras homolog I (ARHI) is frequently underexpressed in FTCs.
  • In this study, we elucidated the frequency and mechanism of ARHI silencing in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia.
  • We demonstrated that underexpression of ARHI occurs principally in FTCs (P = 0.0018), including its oncocytic variant (11 of 13), even at minimally invasive stage but not classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (two of seven) or follicular adenoma (FA) (three of 14).
  • FTCs show strong allelic imbalance with reduction in copy number/loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 69%, compared with less than 10% for FAs.
  • In combination with our LOH data, bisulfite sequencing in a subset of samples revealed that FA displays a symmetric methylation pattern, likely representing one unmethylated allele and one presumptively imprinted allele, whereas FTC shows a virtually complete methylation pattern, representing LOH of the nonimprinted allele with only the hypermethylated allele remaining.
  • Furthermore, we showed that pharmacologic inhibition of histone deacetylation but not demethylation could reactivate ARHI expression in the FTC133 FTC cell line.
  • Therefore, our data suggest that silencing of the putative maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene ARHI, primarily by large genomic deletion in conjunction with hypermethylation of the genomically imprinted allele, serves as a key early event in follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Gene Silencing. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genomic Imprinting / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15546898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA16059
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / DIRAS3 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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26. Cansiz H, Yener M, Bozkurt AK, Demir A, Demirkaya A, Sekercioglu N: Surgical treatment of laryngeal tumors with subglottic extension and tracheal tumors with composite nasal septal cartilage graft: technique and outcome. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Sep;35(3):363-8
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  • METHODS: Between 1985 and 2005, we used CNSCG for the reconstruction of defects following resection of laryngeal tumors with subglottic extension (20 cases), subglottic mesenchymal tumors (2 cases), invasive thyroid carcinoma (4 cases), tracheal tumors (3 cases) and esophagus carcinoma with tracheal invasion (1 case) in total of 30 patients.
  • One patient with subglottic laryngeal carcinoma died due to neck and distant metastases 4 years after the operation.
  • All patients are well with a mean follow-up period 9 years.
  • The patient with esophagus carcinoma and tracheal invasion was treated by total esophagectomy, gastric pull-up, tracheal resection and CNSCG reconstruction.
  • CONCLUSION: Free composite cartilage graft is a reliable material in the reconstruction of defects after surgery of laryngeal tumors with subglottic extension, invasive thyroid and esophagus tumors and well-selected tracheal tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laryngectomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mesenchymoma / pathology. Mesenchymoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17997246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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27. Sorrentino F, Atzeni J, Romano G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):277-8
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  • [Title] [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Il microcarcinoma differenziato della tiroide.
  • BACKGROUND: The thyroid microcarcinoma is a tumor with maximum diameter of 10 mm (WHO).
  • The papillary microcarcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer, followed by follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The aim of our study is to assess the frequency of microcarcinoma, the association of benign thyroid disease himself and the controversial surgery.
  • RESULTS: 42 carcinomas were detected, of which 24 PTMC and 1 follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The PTMC was associated with cancer in only 2 cases (papillary carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma) in the remaining thyroid tissue was suffering from benign disease (20 goiters, 3 Hashimoto thyroiditis, a trabecular adenoma).
  • TALK: Controversial is still the type of surgery to be performed in case of differentiated thyroid microcarcinomas, as well as the indication is still debated to lymphadenectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid in our series, represents 57% of all thyroid cancers.
  • Microcarcinoma and benign thyroid disease association (76.92% of cases) was high.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20646369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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28. Ouyang D, Chen FJ, Wei MW, Yang AK, Chen ZQ, Li QL, Chen YF: [Expression and clinical significance of galectin-3 in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Nov;24(11):1367-71
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  • [Title] [Expression and clinical significance of galectin-3 in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The most challenging problem in diagnosing thyroid nodules is to distinguish benign disease from malignant disease.
  • Therefore, this study was designed to search for biological markers which can distinguish benign lesion from malignant lesion of thyroid.
  • METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 in 30 specimens of thyroid cancer, 10 specimens of thyroid adenoma, and 10 specimens of nodular thyroid goiter were detected by LSAB immunocytochemistry.
  • The results of routine pathologic examination of gland species were set as golden standard.
  • Galectin-3 was commonly expressed in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, but didn't express in thyroid adenoma and nodular thyroid goiter.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 is commonly expressed in thyroid malignant lesions, but not in benign lesions.
  • Immunocytochemistry assay can distinguish well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma from thyroid adnoma and nodular thyroid goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16552965.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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29. Sargent R, LiVolsi V, Murphy J, Mantha G, Hunt JL: BRAF mutation is unusual in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-associated papillary thyroid carcinomas and absent in non-neoplastic nuclear atypia of thyroiditis. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):235-41
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  • [Title] BRAF mutation is unusual in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-associated papillary thyroid carcinomas and absent in non-neoplastic nuclear atypia of thyroiditis.
  • Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) has an epidemiological relationship to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • The follicular epithelium in CLT can be markedly atypical, with cytologic changes ranging from oncocytic morphology to clearing and overlapping.
  • In order to further characterize the molecular changes in CLT, this study examined the BRAF gene in 27 patient samples with CLT and without carcinoma and 28 samples with CLT and carcinoma (12 conventional papillary carcinomas, 13 follicular variants, and 3 tall cell variants).
  • There was no evidence of BRAF mutation in any of the areas with atypical follicular epithelium in CLT.
  • These data suggest that BRAF is a less frequent mechanism of tumorigenesis in a background of CLT and that BRAF mutation is not present in the atypical follicular epithelium of CLT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Hashimoto Disease / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Humans. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17308360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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30. Yamashita H, Noguchi Y, Noguchi S, Yamashita H, Uchino S, Watanabe S, Ogawa T, Murakami T: Significance of an insular component in follicular thyroid carcinoma with distant metastasis at initial presentation. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):41-8
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  • [Title] Significance of an insular component in follicular thyroid carcinoma with distant metastasis at initial presentation.
  • Risk factors for distant metastasis were studied in 82 patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).
  • FTC with an insular component was found in eight patients.
  • Univariate analysis of 14 possible risk factors showed 7 to be statistically significant: insular component, poorly differentiated carcinoma, trabecular component, serum thyroglobulin level before surgery, patient age at the time of presentation, solid component, and vascular invasion (ranked by p values).
  • After further analysis of the interrelation of the factors and of the logistic regression curves, we concluded that presence of an insular component and patient age were the only independent risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16000845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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31. Weinberger PM, Adam BL, Gourin CG, Moretz WH 3rd, Bollag RJ, Wang BY, Liu Z, Lee JR, Terris DJ: Association of nuclear, cytoplasmic expression of galectin-3 with beta-catenin/Wnt-pathway activation in thyroid carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 May;133(5):503-10
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  • [Title] Association of nuclear, cytoplasmic expression of galectin-3 with beta-catenin/Wnt-pathway activation in thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize the localization of galectin-3 in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms and to correlate this with alterations in beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expression.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Thyroid tissue microarrays were stained by standard immunohistochemical protocols with monoclonal antibodies against galectin-3, beta-catenin, and cyclin D1.
  • RESULTS: Both cytoplasmic (56%) and nuclear (42%) galectin-3 expression was observed in most malignant neoplasms but was absent in benign thyroid specimens (P<.001).
  • Among carcinomas, cytoplasmic galectin-3 expression was observed in papillary thyroid carcinomas (82%) and follicular (33%) and medullary (9%) carcinomas but was absent in anaplastic carcinomas (P<.001).
  • Galectin-3 nuclear expression was observed in papillary thyroid carcinomas (62%) and follicular carcinomas (33%) but was undetectable in medullary, anaplastic carcinomas (P<.001).
  • Cytoplasmic but not nuclear galectin-3 was inversely correlated with American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM stage (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSION: Cytoplasmic and nuclear galectin-3 expression seem to be associated with activation of the Wnt-signaling pathway in well-differentiated thyroid neoplasms, suggesting that galectin-3 plays a role in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Proteins / genetics. Galectin 3 / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / genetics. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics. Signal Transduction / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Wnt Proteins / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17515507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 0 / cytoplasmic activator protein, human
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32. Rzeszutko M, Rzeszutko W, Dziegiel P, Balcerzak W, Kaliszewski K, Bolanowski M: Expression of FAS/APO 1/CD 95 in thyroid tumors. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2007;45(2):87-91
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  • [Title] Expression of FAS/APO 1/CD 95 in thyroid tumors.
  • Using immunohistochemistry, Fas/Apo-1 protein expression was investigated in thyroid cancers of 67 patients.
  • Thyroid biopsies from twenty eight patients with benign thyroid diseases were also examined.
  • The patients with thyroid cancer manifested a variable histology of the cancer, including 14 patients with follicular carcinoma, 48 with papillary carcinoma, 5 patients with medullary carcinoma.
  • The benign thyroid disease involved nodular goitre in 11 patients and follicular adenoma in other 17 patients.
  • The study aimed at examining immunohistochemical expression of Fas protein in order to determine whether the level of its expression correlated with histological diagnosis.
  • In individual patients Fas expression was more prevalent in thyroid carcinomas as compared to benign tumors (p=0.001).
  • A marked increase in Fas expression was found in papillary carcinoma, as compared to follicular and medullary carcinomas (p=0.02).
  • In conclusion, Fas was significantly more frequently overexpressed in thyroid cancer, indicating its role in thyroid tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17597021.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95
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33. Patel MR, Bryson PC, Shores CG, Hart CF, Thorne LB, Deal AM, Zanation AM: Trefoil factor 3 immunohistochemical characterization of follicular thyroid lesions from tissue microarray. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Jun;135(6):590-6
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  • [Title] Trefoil factor 3 immunohistochemical characterization of follicular thyroid lesions from tissue microarray.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) expression in normal thyroid tissue samples compared with that in follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays.
  • DESIGN: Immunohistochemical analysis of 83 normal thyroid tissue and of 83 follicular neoplasms (26 follicular adenomas, 25 follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 9 papillary thyroid carcinomas) was performed using an antibody to TFF3 on tissue microarray sections composed of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples.
  • PATIENTS: Thyroid tissue samples collected from patients over a 15-year period were obtained from the University of North Carolina Hospitals Division of Surgical Pathology archives.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thyroid tissue samples were graded by a pathologist based on intensity of antibody staining and on percentage of cells stained.
  • Data were analyzed for semiquantitative differences in immunohistochemical intensity of antibody staining and in percentage of cells stained among normal thyroid tissue samples, follicular adenoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Semiquantitative analysis demonstrated that immunohistochemistry detects significant levels of TFF3 expression in normal thyroid tissue samples compared with that in follicular lesions based on intensity of antibody staining (P < .05).
  • Only follicular thyroid carcinoma demonstrated a significant reduction in percentage of cells stained compared with that in normal thyroid tissue samples (P = .03).
  • No significant differences in intensity of antibody staining or in the percentage of cells stained were noted among follicular adenoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, or papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Protein expression data validate gene expression findings that follicular neoplastic lesions have decreased expression of TFF3 compared with that in normal thyroid tissue samples.
  • These findings contribute to evidence suggesting that TFF3 may have a role in normal thyroid tissue function and that thyroid carcinomas may have reduced expression of TFF3, in contradistinction to other carcinomas that overexpress TFF3.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism. Protein Array Analysis. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19528408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 0 / TFF3 protein, human
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34. Zhu XG, Cheng SY: Modeling thyroid cancer in the mouse. Horm Metab Res; 2009 Jun;41(6):488-99
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  • [Title] Modeling thyroid cancer in the mouse.
  • Thyroid carcinomas, the most common endocrine tumors in humans, have an increasing incidence in the U.S. and worldwide.
  • There are four major types of thyroid cancers: papillary, follicular, anaplastic, and medullary carcinomas.
  • In recent years, significant progress has been made in the identification of genetic alterations in thyroid carcinomas, particularly, papillary and medullary thyroid cancers.
  • Mouse models of thyroid cancer are valuable tools in elucidating molecular genetic changes underlying thyroid carcinogenesis and in identifying potential molecular targets for therapeutic intervention.
  • Representative mouse models of papillary, follicular, and medullary carcinomas are reviewed here with particular emphasis on those for follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • Challenges for further development in the modeling of thyroid cancer will also be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Mice. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19358084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA BC011191-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 111
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS405500; NLM/ PMC3464089
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35. Sehestedt T, Knudsen N, Perrild H, Johansen C: Iodine intake and incidence of thyroid cancer in Denmark. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Aug;65(2):229-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Iodine intake and incidence of thyroid cancer in Denmark.
  • OBJECTIVE: Iodine intake is suspected to be a risk factor for thyroid cancer.
  • The objective of the study was to determine whether the incidence of thyroid cancer differs between these two regions, as any difference would have important safety implications for the national iodine supplementation programme.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied all thyroid cancers notified to the Danish Cancer Registry in the period 1973-1997, focusing on the four most frequent subtypes: papillary, follicular, anaplastic and medullary thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: No regional difference was found in the overall incidence of follicular (0.3% 100 000 person-years) or papillary (0.7% 100 000 person-years) thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that modest differences in iodine intake do not affect thyroid cancer incidence or the distribution of subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine / deficiency. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Denmark / epidemiology. Dietary Supplements. Female. Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Regression Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16886965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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36. Yamamoto S, Tomita Y, Uruno T, Hoshida Y, Qiu Y, Iizuka N, Nakamichi I, Miyauchi A, Aozasa K: Increased expression of valosin-containing protein (p97) is correlated with disease recurrence in follicular thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Nov;12(11):925-34
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  • [Title] Increased expression of valosin-containing protein (p97) is correlated with disease recurrence in follicular thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is involved in the ubiquitin/proteasome-degradation pathway, which works in proliferation and antiapoptosis in human cancer cells.
  • Our previous study showed that VCP expression levels correlated with the recurrence and prognosis of several human cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and colorectal carcinoma.
  • In this study, the correlation of VCP expression with the prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined.
  • METHODS: VCP expression in 332 patients who underwent operation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma--257 with papillary thyroid carcinoma and 75 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC)--was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
  • However, it correlated with neither any clinicopathologic factor nor prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • VCP expression correlated with extrathyroidal extension (P < .05), pT classification (P < .05), and lymph node metastasis (P < .01) in FTC.
  • Patients with low VCP expressing FTC showed better disease-free and overall survival rates than those with intermediate or high expression (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed VCP expression and extracapsular extension to be independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival in cases of FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic utility of VCP expression in FTC was demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphatases. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis


37. Ozolins A, Narbuts Z, Strumfa I, Volanska G, Gardovskis J: Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemical panel in various thyroid pathologies. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):885-91
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemical panel in various thyroid pathologies.
  • BACKGROUND: For management of thyroid nodules, distinction between benign and malignant tumours is essential.
  • The study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of molecular markers in different thyroid tumours.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for CD56, HBME-1, COX-2, Ki-67, p53 and E-cadherin (E-CAD) was performed in 113 benign and 35 malignant thyroid lesions including 36 follicular adenomas (FA), 77 colloid goitres, 26 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and 9 follicular carcinomas (FC).
  • RESULTS: PTC was characterised by decreased E-CAD and CD56 expression in contrast to surrounding benign thyroid tissues.
  • HBME-1 expression was absent in benign thyroid tissues but was notably high in PTC and occasionally in FC.
  • The expression of E-CAD and CD56 in FA was significantly higher than in the surrounding thyroid tissues.
  • HBME-1 is found in malignant lesions only and is the most sensitive and specific single marker in PTC.
  • The role of adhesion factors in thyroid malignancies may be superior in comparison with cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD56 / genetics. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Cadherins / genetics. Cadherins / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20640858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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38. Widder S, Guggisberg K, Khalil M, Pasieka JL: A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery; 2008 Jul;144(1):80-5
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  • [Title] A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Histopathologic criterion for follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC) has only recently been utilized universally.
  • The purpose was to determine whether, on review, these criteria would result in a change in diagnosis of follicular neoplasm (FN).
  • METHODS: A ten-year clinical cohort included patients with a diagnosis of a follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma (FC), or FVPTC.
  • Clinical follow-up, including ultrasonography, was carried out on all patients with a change in diagnosis.
  • Overall, 46 (25%) patients had a change in diagnosis on re-review; 35 were reclassified from a benign diagnosis to a re-reviewed malignant diagnosis, with 5 reclassified as minimally invasive FC, 4 as occult PTC, and 26 (74%) as FVPTC.
  • None of these patients had evidence of recurrent or persistent disease.
  • Eleven patients were reclassified to a benign diagnosis.
  • A third independent thyroid pathologist also reviewed the histopathologic slides of these 46 patients and concurred with the change in diagnosis in 41 of the 46 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Reclassification of FN increased malignant lesions from 36% to 48%.
  • Although there have been no clinical ramifications in the patients with a changed diagnosis, the ethical issues surrounding these 46 patients are important and present a substantive quandary to the clinicians responsible for their care.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / ethics. Ethics, Clinical. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Classification. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans


39. Rodrigues F, Limbert E, Marques AP, Santos AP, Lopes C, Rodrigues E, Borges F, Carrilho F, Castro JJ, Neto J, Salgado L, Oliveira MJ, Grupo de Estudo da Tiróide: [Treatment and follow up protocol in differentiated thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin]. Acta Med Port; 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):2-16
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  • [Title] [Treatment and follow up protocol in differentiated thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin].
  • [Transliterated title] Protocolo de tratamento e seguimento dos carcinomas diferenciados da tiróide de origem folicular.
  • Differentiated thyroid carcinoma of follicular origin (DTCFO), although not very frequent, has registered a raising incidence in the last decades.
  • In the majority of the cases, DTCFO is a curable disease when treated and monitored by experienced, multidisciplinary teams.
  • The present protocol represents the consensus of the members of the Grupo de Estudo da Tiróide of the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16202330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1646-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta médica portuguesa
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Port
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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40. Faquin WC, Baloch ZW: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular patterned lesions of the thyroid: Diagnosis, management, and follow-up according to National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommendations. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Oct;38(10):731-9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular patterned lesions of the thyroid: Diagnosis, management, and follow-up according to National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommendations.
  • The National Cancer Institute (NCI) State of the Science Conference on thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) proposed that follicular patterned lesions can be divided into two diagnostic categories; follicular lesion of undetermined significance/Atypia of undetermined significance (FLUS/AUS) and suspicious for follicular neoplasm/follicular neoplasm (SFON/FON).
  • The former group can benefit from repeat FNA (RFNA) to achieve a more definitive diagnosis and the latter should undergo surgical excision for histologic characterization (adenoma vs. carcinoma).
  • In this study, we report the combined experience from our institutions with thyroid FNA cases that can be placed into NCI-designated thyroid FNA diagnostic categories for follicular patterned lesions.The case cohort comprised of 857 cases in 645 females and 212 males; 509 cases could be classified as FLUS/AUS and 348 as SFON/FON.
  • RFNA diagnoses were: benign (125 cases), FLUS (46 cases), SFON/FON (20 cases), suspicious for papillary carcinoma (7 cases), papillary carcinoma (3 cases) and non-diagnostic (2 cases).
  • The malignancy rate on surgical excision in the FLUS/AUS group was 27 and 15% with and without RFNA, respectively; and 25% in cases diagnosed as SFON/FON.RFNA is effective in managing thyroid nodules diagnosed as FLUS/AUS since the malignancy rates are different in cases with or without RFNA (27% vs. 15%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cohort Studies. Cytodiagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. National Cancer Institute (U.S.). United States


41. Seo HS, Lee DH, Park SH, Min HS, Na DG: Thyroid follicular neoplasms: can sonography distinguish between adenomas and carcinomas? J Clin Ultrasound; 2009 Nov-Dec;37(9):493-500
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular neoplasms: can sonography distinguish between adenomas and carcinomas?
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether sonography (US) can usefully differentiate thyroid follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular carcinoma (FC).
  • METHODS: This retrospective study included 60 pathologically proven FAs and 66 FCs in 123 consecutive patients (17 males and 106 females) with a mean age of 47 +/- 13 years, (17-73 years) who underwent thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19746451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0096
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Takano T, Miyauchi A, Yoshida H, Kuma K, Amino N: Decreased relative expression level of trefoil factor 3 mRNA to galectin-3 mRNA distinguishes thyroid follicular carcinoma from adenoma. Cancer Lett; 2005 Feb 28;219(1):91-6
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  • [Title] Decreased relative expression level of trefoil factor 3 mRNA to galectin-3 mRNA distinguishes thyroid follicular carcinoma from adenoma.
  • The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA is a marker for distinguishing thyroid follicular adenomas from carcinomas.
  • However, when measuring the expression level of TFF3 mRNA in fine needle aspiration biopsies, an appropriate internal control mRNA, of which expression is restricted in thyroid epithelial--derived cells, is necessary, since they are often contaminated with a considerable number of blood cells, which do not express TFF3 mRNA.
  • In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of molecular-based diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by measuring the relative expression of TFF3 mRNA by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using galectin-3 mRNA as an internal control.
  • The TFF3/galectin-3 mRNA ratio (T/G ratio) was measured in 54 follicular adenomas and 29 follicular carcinomas.
  • It was markedly decreased in 7 follicular carcinomas of widely invasive type and with evident distant metastases.
  • When the cutoff point was set at 16.0 by a receiver operator characteristic curve, the TG ratio showed good agreement with the pathological diagnosis [kappa=0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.77].
  • Quantification of the T/G ratio may be a useful tool for the distinction between follicular adenomas and carcinomas, which is the most difficult in thyroid pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Mucins / biosynthesis. Muscle Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression. Humans. Peptides. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15694668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TFF3 protein, human
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43. Dionigi G, Tanda ML, Piantanida E, Boni L, Rovera F, Dionigi R, Bartalena L: Time interval in diagnosis and treatment of papillary thyroid cancer: a descriptive, retrospective study. Am J Surg; 2009 Apr;197(4):434-8
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  • [Title] Time interval in diagnosis and treatment of papillary thyroid cancer: a descriptive, retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Studies have investigated delays in the diagnosis of neoplasms to identify delays to treatment on the part of patients and primary care practitioners.
  • The aim of the current study was to evaluate the time interval (TI) required for the diagnosis of symptomatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • The primary outcome variable was the TI between the occurrence of a sign/symptom and thyroidectomy.
  • RESULTS: The TI between the occurrence of a sign/symptom and thyroidectomy averaged 3 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy


44. Shinohara M, Chung YJ, Saji M, Ringel MD: AKT in thyroid tumorigenesis and progression. Endocrinology; 2007 Mar;148(3):942-7
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  • [Title] AKT in thyroid tumorigenesis and progression.
  • AKT (protein kinase B) is a central signaling molecule in the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase pathway that is frequently activated in human cancer.
  • AKT activation regulates energy metabolism, apoptosis, proliferation, and migration in many cell systems.
  • In thyroid cancer, AKT activation is involved in tumorigenesis, particularly in both inherited and sporadic forms of follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase and AKT signaling also appear to play an important role in progression of both papillary and follicular cancers.
  • In this review, the role of AKT in thyroid cancer development and progression are discussed with a focus on areas of current debate in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Oncogene Protein v-akt / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Disease Progression. Humans. Models, Biological. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 16946008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 102572
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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45. Richmond BK, Eads K, Flaherty S, Belcher M, Runyon D: Complications of thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy in the rural community hospital setting. Am Surg; 2007 Apr;73(4):332-6
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  • The objective of this study was to examine the complications encountered in a series of 150 consecutive thyroid and parathyroid procedures performed by a single surgeon in a rural community hospital setting.
  • A retrospective chart review was conducted on a series of 150 patients undergoing any thyroid or parathyroid operation by a single surgeon in a rural setting over a 4-year period.
  • One hundred thirty-one thyroid procedures were performed (71 lobectomies, 60 total or near total procedures) for a diverse range of patholological conditions: multinodular goiter, 76 (50.7%) patients, follicular adenoma, 9 (6.0%) patients, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 13 (8.7%) patients, papillary carcinoma, 14 (9.3%) patients, follicular carcinoma, 5 (3.3%) patients, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, 13 (8.7%) patients, and medullary carcinoma, 1 (0.7%) patient.
  • We conclude that outcomes and complications in thyroid and parathyroid surgical procedures are largely dependent on surgeon skill and experience, and can be performed safely in the community setting by an experienced general surgeon despite the absence of advanced technology in this setting.

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  • (PMID = 17439023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Serna de la Saravia C, Cuellar F, Saravio Day E, Harach HR: Accuracy of aspiration cytology in thyroid cancer: a study in 1 institution. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jul-Aug;50(4):384-7
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  • [Title] Accuracy of aspiration cytology in thyroid cancer: a study in 1 institution.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing malignancy in histologically proven thyroid cancers.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed the results of 335 smears from clinically significant and histologically proven primary thyroid cancers obtained from 9,115 aspirates, taking into account the pathologist's experience.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity for diagnosing thyroid malignancy in general was 88.0% (range, 82.6-97.2% from less to more experienced pathologist, respectively).
  • It was higher for papillary (mean, 91.9%) and medullary (mean, 95.4%) carcinomas than for follicular cancer (mean, 50.0%).
  • Biopsy showed thyroid cancer in 27.4% suspicious (range, 22.9-33.3%), 4.4% indeterminate (range, 1.9-6.6%) and 4.1% negative (range, 0-6.6%) smears.
  • CONCLUSION: The more experienced the pathologist, the higher the sensitivity rate for recognizing thyroid cancer in general and by histologic type on aspirates despite some limitations of the method in identifying follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16900999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Lee YS, Ryu YH, Chang HS, Park CS: Hiatal hernia detected by iodine-131 scan for ablation of thyroid carcinoma. ANZ J Surg; 2010 Mar;80(3):198
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  • [Title] Hiatal hernia detected by iodine-131 scan for ablation of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Hernia, Hiatal / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 20575937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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48. Martins SJ, Takagaki TY, Silva AG, Gallo CP, Silva FB, Capelozzi VL: Prognostic relevance of TTF-1 and MMP-9 expression in advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Lung Cancer; 2009 Apr;64(1):105-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic relevance of TTF-1 and MMP-9 expression in advanced lung adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a tissue-specific transcription factor that could play an important role in cell differentiation and morphogenesis of lung tumors.
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a protease commonly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer, conferring angiogenic and metastatic potential.
  • METHODS: We assessed TTF-1 and MMP-9 tumor expression by immunohistochemistry in 51 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, stage IIIB or IV, treated with platinum regimens.
  • CONCLUSION: TTF-1 and MMP-9 tumor expression as detected by immunohistochemistry may allow identification of different, clinically meaningful, prognostic groups of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with platinum regimens.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18801593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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49. Went PT, Sauter G, Oberholzer M, Bubendorf L: Abundant expression of AMACR in many distinct tumour types. Pathology; 2006 Oct;38(5):426-32
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  • AIMS: Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), a mitochondrial and peroxisomal enzyme, is a valuable tool to confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer, especially if combined with basal cell markers.
  • RESULTS: Microarray analysis revealed that tumours with prominent AMACR expression included adenocarcinomas of the prostate (72%), hepatocellular carcinomas (77%), papillary renal cell carcinomas (70%), and colorectal adenocarcinomas (71%).
  • AMACR expression was equally frequent in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas.
  • In the thyroid, AMACR expression was found in 42% of the follicular carcinomas but in only 16% of follicular adenomas.
  • However, a more detailed analysis on a thyroid tissue microarray did not confirm a significant difference of AMACR expression in follicular adenoma and carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results indicate that AMACR is expressed in a wide variety of adenocarcinomas, and its diagnostic utility is restricted to specific areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17008281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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50. Jo DJ, Jun JK, Kim SM: Total en bloc lumbar spondylectomy of follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2009 Mar;45(3):188-91
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  • [Title] Total en bloc lumbar spondylectomy of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • The presence of distant metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma decreases the 10-year survival rates of patients by 50%.
  • This is a report of a 61-year-old female with follicular thyroid carcinoma who presented initially with low back pain.
  • 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) demonstrated a hypointensity lesion in the left thyroid gland with malignant uptake in L1 vertebra and magnetic resonance images revealed paravertebral and epidural extension of mass in L1 vertebra.
  • After thyroidectomy, histopathological study showed a follicular carcinoma.
  • The technical details of total en bloc spondylectomy in follicular carcinoma are described herein.

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  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2666124
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Metastasis / Thyroid carcinoma / Total en bloc spondylectomy
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51. Zhang X, Axiotis C: Thyroid-type carcinoma of struma ovarii. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 May;134(5):786-91
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  • [Title] Thyroid-type carcinoma of struma ovarii.
  • Thyroid-type carcinoma arising in struma ovarii is rare.
  • The most common type is papillary carcinoma, followed by typical follicular carcinoma, and the new entity of follicular carcinoma-highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin; other forms occur rarely.
  • Consensus on the surgical and postoperative treatment of patients with thyroid-type carcinoma arising in struma ovarii has not been reached.
  • Thyroid-type carcinomas arising in struma ovarii, especially the newly recognized entity-highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin-have a favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20441513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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52. Joseph B, Ji M, Liu D, Hou P, Xing M: Lack of mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha and beta genes but frequent hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene in differentiated thyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Dec;92(12):4766-70
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  • [Title] Lack of mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha and beta genes but frequent hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene in differentiated thyroid tumors.
  • CONTEXT: It remains inconclusive whether mutations in thyroid hormone receptor (TR) genes naturally occur in thyroid cancer and whether these genes could be suppressors of this cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to examine further mutations of TRalpha and TRbeta genes in thyroid cancer and also to examine their methylation as an epigenetic silencing mechanism in thyroid cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Instead of using a cDNA sequencing approach used in previous studies, we used genomic DNA to sequence directly the coding regions of the TRalpha and TRbeta genes to search mutations in various differentiated thyroid tumors and used methylation-specific PCR to analyze promoter methylation of these genes.
  • RESULTS: We found no TRalpha gene mutation in 17 papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) and 11 follicular thyroid cancers (FTCs), and no TRbeta gene mutation in 16 PTCs and 12 FTCs.
  • We also found no methylation of the TRalpha gene in 33 PTCs, 31 FTCs, 20 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs), and 10 thyroid tumor cell lines.
  • In contrast, we found hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene in 10 of 29 (34%) PTCs, 22 of 27 (81%) FTCs, five of 20 (25%) follicular thyroid adenomas, and three of 10 (30%) thyroid tumor cell lines, with the highest prevalence in FTC.
  • We additionally examined loss of heterozygosity at TRbeta and found it in three of nine (33%) PTCs and three of nine (33%) FTCs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mutation is not common in TR genes, whereas hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene as an alternative gene silencing mechanism is highly prevalent in thyroid cancer, particularly FTC, consistent with a possible tumor suppressor role of this gene for FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha / genetics. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17911173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta
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53. Placzkowski KA, Reddi HV, Grebe SK, Eberhardt NL, McIver B: The Role of the PAX8/PPARgamma Fusion Oncogene in Thyroid Cancer. PPAR Res; 2008;2008:672829
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Role of the PAX8/PPARgamma Fusion Oncogene in Thyroid Cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer is uncommon and exhibits relatively low mortality rates.
  • While substantial advances have been made in recent years about the molecular genetic events underlying papillary thyroid cancer, the more aggressive follicular thyroid cancer remains poorly understood.
  • The recent discovery of the PAX8/PPARgamma translocation in follicular thyroid carcinoma has promoted progress in the role of PPARgamma as a tumor suppressor and potential therapeutic target.
  • It is most often expressed in follicular carcinomas and exerts a dominant-negative effect on wild-type PPARgamma, and stimulates transcription of PAX8-responsive promoters.

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  • [Cites] Br J Cancer. 2004 Aug 16;91(4):732-8 [15238980.001]
  • (PMID = 18989374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-4757
  • [Journal-full-title] PPAR research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PPAR Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2579323
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54. Cameselle-Teijeiro J: Uncommon tumors of the thyroid gland. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jun;18(3 Suppl):205S-208S
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  • [Title] Uncommon tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20484292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin
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55. Fridman MV, Solobkaia OI: [Mucous transformation of the cells and stroma in follicular carcinoma of the thyroid]. Vopr Onkol; 2010;56(6):729-32
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  • [Title] [Mucous transformation of the cells and stroma in follicular carcinoma of the thyroid].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21395135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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56. Siami K, McCluggage WG, Ordonez NG, Euscher ED, Malpica A, Sneige N, Silva EG, Deavers MT: Thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Nov;31(11):1759-63
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  • [Title] Thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is widely used in the diagnosis of lung and thyroid carcinomas.
  • Although there have been reports of TTF-1 immunoreactivity in tumors other than those originating in the lung or thyroid, endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas have not been studied in large numbers.
  • Twenty-eight endocervical (9 well, 12 moderately, and 7 poorly differentiated), 32 endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas (11 grade I, 8 grade II, and 13 grade III), and 13 uterine serous carcinomas were retrieved and stained with TTF-1.
  • TTF-1 expression was seen in 1 of 28 (4%) of the endocervical adenocarcinomas and this was 4+ in distribution.
  • The positive endocervical carcinoma was poorly differentiated.
  • TTF-1 expression was present in 6 of 32 (19%) of the endometrioid adenocarcinomas (1 grade I, 2 grade II, and 3 grade III) and varied from 1+ to 4+ in distribution.
  • Only 2 of 32 (6%) of the endometrioid adenocarcinomas stained diffusely (4+).
  • There was no apparent correlation between the degree of differentiation and TTF-1 positivity in the adenocarcinomas.
  • Three of 13 (23%) serous carcinomas were also positive (1 case 5+ and 2 cases 1+).
  • Although TTF-1 is generally considered to be a relatively specific marker for lung and thyroid neoplasms, the occasional expression of endometrial and endocervical carcinomas should be kept in mind when evaluating neoplasms of uncertain origin.
  • It should also be taken into consideration in the evaluation of adenocarcinomas involving the lung in patients with a history of a gynecologic malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Northern Ireland. Texas


57. Lau SK, Chu PG, Weiss LM: Immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Mar;14(1):83-7
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor in pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
  • Estrogen receptor (ER) is a useful immunohistochemical marker of breast carcinomas and is commonly used as a means of distinguishing breast carcinomas from adenocarcinomas of other primary sites, including the lung.
  • Previous reports have yielded conflicting data regarding ER immunoreactivity in primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas.
  • In this study the immunohistochemical expression of ER was evaluated in 55 primary lung adenocarcinomas using the 1D5 antibody clone.
  • Immunohistochemistry for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), a sensitive and specific marker of pulmonary adenocarcinomas, was also performed.
  • ER expression was observed in 10 (18%) of 55 lung adenocarcinomas.
  • Most of these pulmonary adenocarcinomas showed ER immunoreactivity of weak or moderate intensity (<25% of tumor cell nuclei).
  • Forty-six (84%) of the 55 lung adenocarcinomas were TTF-1 positive, including all those that expressed ER.
  • These results indicate that a subset of pulmonary adenocarcinomas can exhibit ER immunoreactivity.
  • As such, caution should be exercised in the use of ER immunohistochemistry alone as a means of distinguishing breast carcinomas from lung adenocarcinomas.
  • In the context of an ER-positive lung neoplasm, strong and extensive TTF-1 immunoreactivity can be regarded as strong supportive evidence for a primary bronchogenic adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16540736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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58. Gilfillan CP: Review of the genetics of thyroid tumours: diagnostic and prognostic implications. ANZ J Surg; 2010 Jan;80(1-2):33-40
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  • [Title] Review of the genetics of thyroid tumours: diagnostic and prognostic implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are common, but only a small proportion harbour malignancy.
  • Despite this, the frequency of thyroid cancer is on the increase and thyroid malignancy is the most common endocrine malignancy.
  • Preoperative diagnosis is based on ultrasound and radionucleotide imaging as well as the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).
  • These biopsies yield a large proportion of indeterminate results due to inadequate material for cytological diagnosis, or due to the cytological similarity of FAs and follicular carcinomas.
  • Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid malignancy have led to the detection of characteristic genetic alterations in FNABs.
  • This technology has the potential to increase the specificity of this test, combining cytological with genetic testing to reduce the number of indeterminate results, thereby reducing the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign disease.
  • METHODS: This review examines the evidence for the presence of the common genetic alterations in thyroid cancer and outlines the pathological and clinical correlations of these mutations.
  • The practicality and utility of measuring these genetic alterations in FNAB specimens is also outlined as well as the potential for these tests to alter primary management and follow-up of patients with nodular thyroid disease.
  • CONCLUSION: It is likely that a combination of molecular testing and cytological examination of FNAB specimens will prove to be the most efficient and specific method of diagnosing thyroid cancer preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Mutation. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Proto-Oncogenes / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20575878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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59. Huo Z, Liu HR: [Clinicopathology and immunohistochemistry of adult type pulmonary blastoma]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2005 Aug;27(4):475-8
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathology and immunohistochemistry of adult type pulmonary blastoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of adult type pulmonary blastoma (PB).
  • METHOD: Four cases of adult type PB were studied with light microscopy and immunohistochemical staining.
  • RESULTS: Three cases of PB were biphasic type and were composed of primitive epithelial component and primitive stromal component; one case of PB was epithelial type and was shown as branching glands with clustered and well-differentiated structure.
  • Immunohistochemical studies showed that AE1/AE3 was positive in the epithelial component in four cases, Vimentin was positive in the stromal component in three cases, thyroid transricption factor-1 was positive in two cases, CD117 was positive in one case, Ki-67 was 2% positive in one case, while P53 was negative in all cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The adult type PB is a rarely seen biphasic tumor.
  • It contains a primitive epithelial component and a primitive mesenchymal stroma, which looks like well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16178443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Vimentin
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60. Schmid KW: [Problem areas of tumour classifications--thyroid carcinomas]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2007;91:57-65
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  • [Title] [Problem areas of tumour classifications--thyroid carcinomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Problemzonen der Tumorklassifikationen--Schilddrüsenkarzinome.
  • Thyroid carcinoma has been traditionally subdivided into the four major groups papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic carcinoma.
  • The WHO classification of thyroid tumours, published in 2004, has added to these four tumour groups the entity of poorly differentiated carcinoma as well as a broad variety of rare thyroid malignancies.
  • Another important change concerns the histological hallmarks of papillary carcinoma, the diagnosis of which is now exclusively dependent on characteristic nuclear features.
  • The aim of the present paper is to highlight diagnostic problems particularly caused by the alteration introduced onto the WHO classification, This includes a proposal of a more systematic thyroid carcinoma classification based on the histogenetic differentiation (follicular cell differentiation.
  • C cell differentiation, rare carcinomas) and tumour grading of carcinomas with follicular cell differentiation (differentiated, poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas) as well as commentaries on the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and rare types of thyroid carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia, mucinous carcinoma, SETTLE, and CASTLE).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / classification. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18314596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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61. Zitzmann S, Krämer S, Mier W, Hebling U, Altmann A, Rother A, Berndorff D, Eisenhut M, Haberkorn U: Identification and evaluation of a new tumor cell-binding peptide, FROP-1. J Nucl Med; 2007 Jun;48(6):965-72
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  • [Title] Identification and evaluation of a new tumor cell-binding peptide, FROP-1.
  • METHODS: A 12-amino-acid peptide phage display system was applied to identify a new peptide binding to follicular thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • The properties of the radiolabeled peptide were assessed in binding, competition, and internalization experiments in a variety of tumor cell lines including FRO82-2 and MCF-7 cells, and the pharmacokinetic behavior of the radiolabeled peptide was evaluated in tumor-bearing mice.
  • It showed binding to follicular thyroid carcinoma as well as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, mammary carcinoma, cervix carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and cell lines derived from head and neck tumors, and low affinity could be observed to control cells such as human umbilical vein endothelial cells or immortalized keratinocytes.
  • Stability experiments in human serum showed the appearance of a degradation product after 15 min.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Oligopeptides / pharmacokinetics. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / radionuclide imaging. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Peptide Library. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 17504878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FROP-1 peptide; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Peptide Library; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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62. Jung TS, Oh YL, Min YK, Lee MS, Lee MK, Kim KW, Chung JH: A patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid intermingled with follicular thyroid carcinoma that remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis. Korean J Intern Med; 2006 Mar;21(1):73-8
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  • [Title] A patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid intermingled with follicular thyroid carcinoma that remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis.
  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare tumor with a highly aggressive clinical course.
  • We report here on a patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid who remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis.
  • A 56-year-old man presented with a hoarse voice and a rapidly progressing mass on the right side of the thyroid gland.
  • Histopathologic findings revealed primary squamous cell carcinoma combined with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The patient underwent colectomy for the diagnosis of a colon cancer.
  • Recent evaluation has revealed a new lesion in the lung; this was diagnosed as metastatic follicular carcinoma originating from the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16646570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3891069
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63. Takano T, Yamada H: Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3): a promising indicator for diagnosing thyroid follicular carcinoma. Endocr J; 2009;56(1):9-16
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  • [Title] Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3): a promising indicator for diagnosing thyroid follicular carcinoma.
  • Since the introduction of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the 1970's, a preoperative diagnostic technique for thyroid follicular carcinoma has long been awaited.
  • Many markers that distinguish follicular carcinomas from adenomas have been reported; however, most of them have not been confirmed to be beneficial for clinical use.
  • Several groups have reported that the suppression of TFF3 mRNA expression is related to malignant characteristics of thyroid follicular cell-derived tumors and the expression level of TFF3 mRNA is the most promising indicator for diagnosing follicular carcinoma.
  • Development of TFF3-based diagnostic methods is now ongoing and it may not be long before thyroid follicular carcinoma can be diagnosed preoperatively using an aspirated sample from the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Peptides / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Models, Biological. Preoperative Care / methods. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18506086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptides; 0 / TFF3 protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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64. Sundaraiya S, Dizdarevic S, Miles K, Quin J, Williams A, Wheatley T, Zammitt C: Unusual initial manifestation of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with thyrotoxicosis diagnosed by technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate scan: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jul-Aug;15(5):458-62
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  • [Title] Unusual initial manifestation of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with thyrotoxicosis diagnosed by technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate scan: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of metastatic thyroid cancer diagnosed on a technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate (TcO4-) thyroid scan.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical findings, laboratory results, imaging studies, and surgical pathology report in a man with thyrotoxicosis in whom metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer was diagnosed incidentally on a routine TcO4- thyroid scan in the setting of a presumed diagnosis of benign toxic thyroid disease.
  • In addition, we review the literature regarding coexistence of metastatic thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis.
  • A routine TcO4- thyroid scan revealed high-grade extrathyroidal uptake in the right upper hemithorax as well as in the left side of the thorax.
  • In view of this finding, radioiodine treatment was deferred; further imaging with computed tomography revealed a 6.5-cm mass in a rib on the right side.
  • A biopsy of the rib confirmed the presence of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Scintigraphy revealed sites of metastatic involvement predominantly in the bones along with a cold nodule in the left thyroid lobe, consistent with the primary tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes the impact of scintigraphic findings on determining the correct management of a patient who would have otherwise undergone inappropriate treatment.
  • Through an extensive literature review, the incidence of malignant involvement in hyperfunctioning thyroid glands and the possible role of sodium iodide symporter expression by thyroid cancer metastatic lesions in preoperative detection of metastatic sites are addressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyrotoxicosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19491082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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65. Al-Salam S, Al-Ashari M: Expression of Galectin-3, CD138, p16INK4a, and TTF-1 in mucinous bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma after Hodgkin lymphoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 Jul;17(4):351-6
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  • [Title] Expression of Galectin-3, CD138, p16INK4a, and TTF-1 in mucinous bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma after Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a subset of lung adenocarcinoma that has a distinct clinical presentation, tumor biology, response to therapy, and prognosis compared with other subtypes of non-small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • We describe a case of young female who received radiation therapy to the mediastinum and chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma and now develops mucinous bronchioalveolar adenocarcinoma of the left lung which to the best of our knowledge has not been previously described after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The tumor cells express Galectin-3, CD138, p16INK4a, thyroid transcription factor-1, cytokeratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, E-cadherin, neuron-specific enolase, and S100 whereas no expression of cytokeratin 20, calretinin, and CDX2 is seen.

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  • (PMID = 18997617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SDC1 protein, human; 0 / Syndecan-1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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66. Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA: Unusual tumors of the thyroid gland. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;37(2):297-310, vii
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid neoplasms are classified into three major categories: epithelial, nonepithelial, and secondary.
  • Most primary epithelial tumors of thyroid are derived from follicular cells.
  • These include follicular adenoma and carcinoma (Hürthle and non-Hürthle), and papillary carcinoma and its variants.
  • Other primary epithelial tumors include medullary carcinoma, mixed medullary and follicular carcinomas, insular and poorly differentiated carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and the least common squamous carcinoma and related tumors.
  • The nonepithelial tumors are rare; the most common include malignant lymphoma and tumors arising from the mesenchymal elements.
  • The secondary tumors represent metastatic tumors to the thyroid usually originating in lung, kidney, and breast.
  • In this article, the authors review the unusual tumors of the thyroid, their morphologic features, and clinical and prognostic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Rare Diseases / diagnosis. Rare Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18502328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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67. Bal C, Kumar A, Tripathi M, Chandrashekar N, Phom H, Murali NR, Chandra P, Pant GS: High-dose radioiodine treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is not associated with change in female fertility or any genetic risk to the offspring. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Oct 1;63(2):449-55
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  • [Title] High-dose radioiodine treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is not associated with change in female fertility or any genetic risk to the offspring.
  • BACKGROUND: We tried to evaluate the female fertility and genetic risk to the offspring from the exposure to high-dose (131)I by assessing the pregnancy outcomes and health status of the children of female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who had received therapeutic doses of (131)I.
  • Histopathology was papillary thyroid cancer in 32 cases and follicular thyroid cancer in 8 cases.
  • In 37 patients (92%), disease was successfully ablated before pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertility / radiation effects. Health Status. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Pregnancy Outcome. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Spontaneous / etiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ovary / radiation effects. Pregnancy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16095849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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68. Capezzone M, Morabito E, Bellitti P, Giannasio P, de Santis D, Bruno R: Ectopic intrathyroidal nonfunctioning parathyroid cyst. Endocr Pract; 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):56-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare case of ectopic intrathyroidal parathyroid cyst (PC) in a 29-year-old woman who had been referred to us because of a multinodular goiter.
  • METHODS: We review the clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings as well as the treatment in our patient and provide a brief discussion of the associated literature.
  • RESULTS: Ultrasonography of the neck showed the presence of 2 thyroid nodules in the left lobe, the larger of which was solid and the smaller of which had a cystic appearance.
  • A small nodular area was also found in the right thyroid lobe (diameter, less than 8 mm).
  • A thyroid scan performed with technetium showed the absence of uptake by both left lobe nodules.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the 2 major nodular lesions revealed that the larger thyroid nodule was benign and the smaller was a cyst with clear fluid.
  • Measurement of parathyroid hormone in the FNAB fluid showed a high concentration, suggestive of the diagnosis of PC.
  • Histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of intrathyroidal PC, and a papillary microcarcinoma (6 mm in diameter) was found in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • CONCLUSION: Although an ectopic intrathyroidal PC is rare, the frequency of occult papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid is high.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association of an intrathyroidal PC with papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Cysts / pathology. Parathyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / complications. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17360302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Wang TS, Roman SA, Sosa JA: Management of follicular tumors of the thyroid. Minerva Chir; 2007 Oct;62(5):373-82
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  • [Title] Management of follicular tumors of the thyroid.
  • The incidence of well-differentiated thyroid cancers is rising.
  • Follicular cancer represents 10-20% of these lesions.
  • While the vast majority of thyroid nodules of follicular origin are benign, fine needle aspiration cannot provide cytologic evidence of capsular and/or vascular invasion; therefore, patients should undergo surgical excision.
  • Frozen section is not recommended for intraoperative evaluation of follicular neoplasia.
  • Patients deemed to have follicular cancer require near-total or total thyroidectomy and postoperative (131)I ablation.
  • The optimal management of minimally invasive follicular cancer remains an area of controversy, but long-term prognosis for these patients is excellent.
  • Areas of research should focus on identification of molecular markers of malignancy and aggressiveness of follicular neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17947948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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70. Malouf G, Baudin E, Soria JC, Schlumberger M: [Advances in the treatment of thyroid cancer in the era of molecularly targeted therapies]. Bull Cancer; 2009 Jan;96(1):95-101
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  • [Title] [Advances in the treatment of thyroid cancer in the era of molecularly targeted therapies].
  • [Transliterated title] Les progrès dans le traitement des cancers de la thyroïde à l'ère des thérapies ciblées moléculaires.
  • During last decade, many progresses have been made in the understanding of thyroid cancer molecular biology.
  • However, the management of patients remains complex because of the broad spectrum of clinical presentation of thyroid cancers, differences in their natural histories and the lack of data about randomized trials.
  • Angiogenesis inhibitors (sorafenib, motesanib, axitinib and vandetanib) have shown promising activity in differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Vandetanib, an inhibitor of RET and VEGFR tyrosine-kinases, is promising in medullary thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19211364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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71. Al-Zahrani AS, Ravichandran K: Epidemiology of thyroid cancer: a review with special reference to Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. Gulf J Oncolog; 2007 Jul;(2):17-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidemiology of thyroid cancer: a review with special reference to Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states.
  • A wide variation in incidence of thyroid cancer according to age, sex, ethnicity and geographic region was observed.
  • Papillary carcinoma is the most prevalent histological type, irrespective of gender and conditions like iodine level.
  • Over the years the incidence of thyroid cancer, especially papillary type, increases around the world.
  • Ionizing radiation, in particular radiotherapy to head and neck region was the most established risk factor for thyroid cancer.
  • Goiter, miscarriage or abortion (particularly in the first pregnancy) may also predispose to thyroid cancer risk.
  • Cigarette smoking and use of contraceptives may be modifier of thyroid cancer risk.
  • In all the GCC states thyroid cancer is the second most common cancer except in Babrain and Kuwait (where it stands third).
  • During the five year peribd (1998-2002) 549 male and 1898 female thyroid caneers were diagnosed in all the GCC states.
  • Papillary carcinoma is the predominant histological type followed by follicular carcinoma in both genders.
  • There were at least 2.6 female thyroid cancer cases (in Kuwait) for each male thyroid cancer case and this goes up to 6.6 in Babrain.
  • Incidence of thyroid cancer in the GCC states is closer or higher than that of some of the developed countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20084720.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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72. Cengic N, Baker CH, Schütz M, Göke B, Morris JC, Spitzweg C: A novel therapeutic strategy for medullary thyroid cancer based on radioiodine therapy following tissue-specific sodium iodide symporter gene expression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4457-64
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  • [Title] A novel therapeutic strategy for medullary thyroid cancer based on radioiodine therapy following tissue-specific sodium iodide symporter gene expression.
  • CONTEXT: In contrast to papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) remains difficult to treat due to its unresponsiveness to radioiodine therapy and its limited responsiveness to chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • NIS protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis using a monoclonal hNIS-specific antibody, which revealed a major band of a molecular mass of 80-90 kDa.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Symporters / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Western. Breast Neoplasms. Calcitonin / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Complementary. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Iodides / pharmacokinetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 15941870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA91956
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Iodides; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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73. Xu L, Zhong F, Guo FF, Zhao WJ, Sun XR, Wei XF: [Expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal parenchyma, benign and malignant tumors of human thyroid]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;37(4):243-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal parenchyma, benign and malignant tumors of human thyroid].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal human thyroid.
  • To compare the expression differences of motilin and it precursor mRNA between normal thyroid and intestines.
  • To study the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in human thyroid tumors and their clinical implications.
  • METHODS: RT-PCR, Southern blot and molecular cloning were used to detect motilin transcript expression in human thyroid and mucous membrane of small intestine.
  • Real-time PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify motilin precursor mRNA and motilin peptide in thyroid tissue samples including adenoma, medullary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and nodular goiter. RESULTS:.
  • (1) The expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal human thyroid was primarily in the thyroid C cells. (2) RT-PCR and Southern blot showed that motilin mRNA expressed in human thyroid was identical to that expressed in duodenum with identical sequence deposited in NCBI Genbank of America. (3) Immunohistochemistry, Western blot research and real-time PCR studies showed that motilin and its precursor mRNA were expressed in normal and tumor tissues of human thyroid.
  • Thyroid tumors (acidophilic adenoma, medullary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and nodular goiter) showed intense and diffuse immunostaining for motilin peptide.
  • Moreover, the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in thyroid medullar carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid tissue (P < 0.05).
  • The expression in thyroid follicular and papillary carcinomas were significantly lower than those of normal thyroid tissue (P < 0.05).
  • There was no difference of the expression between nodular goiter and normal thyroid tissue (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Motilin peptide and its precursor mRNA are expressed in C cells of human thyroid.
  • The expressions of both motilin and its precursor mRNA in thyroid medullary carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma are significantly increased.
  • In contrast, their expressions in thyroid follicular and papillary carcinomas are significantly decreased.
  • Motilin may regulate physiological functions of the thyroid through parafollicular cells.
  • Motilin may be involved in the pathogenesis of medullary carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Motilin / metabolism. RNA Precursors / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Female. Humans. Intestines / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18844033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA Precursors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 52906-92-0 / Motilin
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74. Yang GC, Stern CM, Messina AV: Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine needle aspiration may represent a subset of the encapsulated variant in WHO classification. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Oct;38(10):721-6
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  • [Title] Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine needle aspiration may represent a subset of the encapsulated variant in WHO classification.
  • This study audits the reliability of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) in excluding papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in thyroid cysts containing mural nodules, and investigates the histological counterpart of cystic PTC diagnosed on FNA.
  • Using a 10-5 MHz ultrasound probe and a 27-gauge needle, solid portions of thyroid nodules were sampled and assessed immediately using both Diff-Quik and Ultrafast Papanicolaou stains.
  • This represented 4.4% of 383 cases of PTC reported and 0.25% of all thyroid FNAs performed.
  • Sonography correlated well with histopathology, where findings ranged from cysts with small mural nodules to solid nodules with pockets of thin colloid.
  • In 87 patients with thyroid cysts containing mural nodules, FNA findings were benign, as was clinical follow-up that ranged from 1 to 12 years.
  • Cystic PTC on FNA in this series correlates to a subset of the encapsulated variant of PTC, an entity described in the 1988 WHO Histological Typing of Thyroid Tumours in the good prognostic category.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Cysts / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20024942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Lang BH, Lo CY, Chan WF, Lam KY, Wan KY: Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: their implications for cancer staging. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):730-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: their implications for cancer staging.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) are two distinct histological types of thyroid carcinoma but have often been studied and staged as a collective group, known as differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • However, this may not be an optimal approach to cancer staging.
  • METHODS: A total of 760 patients with DTC, comprising 589 (77.5%) with PTC and 171 with (22.5%) FTC, being managed at our institution from 1961 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors related to cancer-specific survival (CSS) for PTC and FTC.
  • RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between PTC and FTC in terms of age >/=50 years at diagnosis (P = .040), tumor size (P < .001), lymph node metastases (P < .001), distant metastases (P < .001), extrathyroidal extension (P < .001), multifocality (P = .002), capsular invasion (P < .001), extent of thyroid resection (P < .001), radioiodine ablation (P < .001), and external-beam irradiation (P = .003).
  • Although PTC and FTC had similar 10-year and 15-year CSS (P = .846), each possessed its own set of independent prognostic factors for CSS.
  • Age at diagnosis and completeness of resection were independent prognostic factors in both PTC and FTC.
  • Different staging systems should be evaluated and validated for PTC and FTC individually in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


76. Menon MP, Khan A: Micro-RNAs in thyroid neoplasms: molecular, diagnostic and therapeutic implications. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Nov;62(11):978-85
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  • [Title] Micro-RNAs in thyroid neoplasms: molecular, diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
  • Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) belong to a class of small non-coding messenger RNA species that have emerged as potent regulators of a variety of biological processes including oncogenesis.
  • Thyroid carcinomas encompass a wide spectrum ranging from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas to poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma.
  • Currently, a considerable degree of interobserver variability exists in the morphological diagnosis of certain types of thyroid carcinomas especially the follicular pattern neoplasm.
  • The prediction of progression of these differentiated carcinoma to more aggressive forms like poorly differentiated and anaplastic types is of considerable interest to physicians and pathologists for determining prognosis and making therapeutic decisions.
  • Several investigators have proposed a more cohesive approach to thyroid cancer diagnosis incorporating molecular and proteomics based tools in addition to the conventional morphological diagnosis.
  • In this context, miRNAs serve as an important diagnostic tool, and several studies have demonstrated their utility as class identifiers especially in the context of follicular thyroid carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Larger studies and/or meta-analyses could further delineate their role in predicting cancer progression and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] MicroRNAs / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / genetics. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19625289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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77. Erkiliç S, Koçer NE: Insular carcinoma of the thyroid with uncommon cytologic features: anisokaryotic cells and microfollicles containing dense colloid. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(5):389-93
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  • [Title] Insular carcinoma of the thyroid with uncommon cytologic features: anisokaryotic cells and microfollicles containing dense colloid.
  • Insular carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare neoplasm, constituting less than 5% of all thyroid tumors.
  • It was Carcangiu et al. who first described this tumor, which exhibits an intermediate biologic behavior between well-differentiated and undifferentiated follicular carcinomas, as a distinct clinicopathologic entity.
  • A 63-year-old female patient with thyroid enlargement was admitted to our institution.
  • Thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 5x4x3cm solid nodule within the right thyroid lobe.
  • The fine needle aspiration was highly cellular; there were individual cells with naked nuclei, loose aggregates, cohesive clusters of follicular cells and infrequent microfollicles with round-oval nuclei containing finely granular chromatin, and scant cytoplasm.
  • The aspiration biopsy was reported as malignant.
  • Histopathologically, the lesion was diagnosed as insular carcinoma.
  • We believe that in addition to the previously described cytopathologic findings, microfollicles with dense colloid core and anisokaryosis may be indicators of insular carcinoma in thyroid FNACs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16510251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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78. Preston DL, Ron E, Tokuoka S, Funamoto S, Nishi N, Soda M, Mabuchi K, Kodama K: Solid cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors: 1958-1998. Radiat Res; 2007 Jul;168(1):1-64
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  • [Title] Solid cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors: 1958-1998.
  • The analyses were based on 17,448 first primary cancers (including non-melanoma skin cancer) diagnosed from 1958 through 1998 among 105,427 cohort members with individual dose estimates who were alive and not known to have had cancer prior to 1958.
  • Radiation-associated relative risks and excess rates were considered for all solid cancers as a group, for 19 specific cancer sites or groups of sites, and for five histology groups.
  • It was estimated that, at age 70 after exposure at age 30, solid cancer rates increase by about 35% per Gy (90% CI 28%; 43%) for men and 58% per Gy (43%; 69%) for women.
  • Despite the decline in the ERR with attained age, excess absolute rates appeared to increase throughout the study period, providing further evidence that radiation-associated increases in cancer rates persist throughout life regardless of age at exposure.
  • Significant radiation-associated increases in risk were seen for most sites, including oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, lung, non-melanoma skin, breast, ovary, bladder, nervous system and thyroid.
  • Although there was no indication of a statistically significant dose response for cancers of the pancreas, prostate and kidney, the excess relative risks for these sites were also consistent with that for all solid cancers as a group.
  • However, there was emerging evidence from the present data that exposure as a child may increase risks of cancer of the body of the uterus.
  • Elevated risks were seen for all of the five broadly classified histological groups considered, including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, other epithelial cancers, sarcomas and other non-epithelial cancers.
  • Although the data were limited, there was a significant radiation-associated increase in the risk of cancer occurring in adolescence and young adulthood.
  • In view of the persisting increase in solid cancer risks, the LSS should continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for at least another 15 to 20 years.

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  • (PMID = 17722996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CP / N01-CP-31021; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Tan H, Ye K, Wang Z, Tang H: Clinicopathologic evaluation of immunohistochemical CD147 and MMP-2 expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2008 Aug;38(8):528-33
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic evaluation of immunohistochemical CD147 and MMP-2 expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • The goal of this study was to analyze the expression levels of CD147 and MMP-2 in differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) tissues, as well as their associations with the clinicopathologic features of DTC patients.
  • METHODS: CD147 and MMP-2 expression in 156 patients who underwent operation for DTC (100 with papillary thyroid carcinomas and 56 with follicular thyroid carcinomas) were examined by immunostaining on paraffin-embedded tumor specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Antigens, CD147 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18664479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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80. Ito Y, Miyauchi A, Kakudo K, Hirokawa M, Kobayashi K, Miya A: Prognostic significance of ki-67 labeling index in papillary thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2010 Dec;34(12):3015-21
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of ki-67 labeling index in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Ki-67 is a useful tool for evaluating cell proliferative activity in various tumors.
  • Although the utility of Ki-67 labeling index (LI) to diagnose thyroid neoplasms has been investigated, little is known regarding the relationship between Ki-67 LI and the biological behavior of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In this study, we examined Ki-67 in 371 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma to elucidate this issue.
  • METHODS: A total of 371 patients with papillary carcinoma who underwent initial and locally curative surgery between 1996 and 1997 were enrolled in this study.
  • We immunohistochemically investigated Ki-67 LI in their primary lesions and compared this finding with various clinicopathological features, including patient prognosis.
  • Of 363 patients without distant metastasis at surgery, 54 (15%) showed carcinoma recurrence during follow-up (average 124 months) and the disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with Ki-67 LI >1% was significantly worse than that of those with Ki-67 LI <1% (p < 0.0001).
  • Although only eight patients died of carcinoma in our series, patients with Ki-67 LI >3% showed a significantly worse cause-specific survival (CSS) than those with Ki-67 LI <3% (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Careful evaluation of Ki-67 LI in primary lesions can predict DFS and CSS of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20703465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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81. Machens A, Dralle H: Follicular thyroid carcinoma: metastasis to the sternum or adjacent tumour invasion by continuity? Int J Clin Pract; 2007 Mar;61(3):521; author reply 521-2
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid carcinoma: metastasis to the sternum or adjacent tumour invasion by continuity?
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Sternum. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Nov;60(11):1506-8 [17073845.001]
  • (PMID = 17313627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Giovanella L, Suriano S, Maffioli M, Ceriani L, Spriano G: (99m)Tc-sestamibi scanning in thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic cytology. Head Neck; 2010 May;32(5):607-11
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  • [Title] (99m)Tc-sestamibi scanning in thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic cytology.
  • BACKGROUND: Our aim in this study was to assess the relevance of (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (MIBI) scan in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic cytology.
  • In all cases thyroid nodules were cold in (99m)Tc-pertechnetate (Tc) scans.
  • Thyroid scans were also acquired 30 and 120 minutes after intravenous administration of MIBI.
  • None of 63 patients with a negative MIBI scan had a final histologic diagnosis of malignancy (ie, no false-negative results).
  • Two patients with a final histologic diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 1 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) had a positive MIBI scan.
  • Eight patients with a final histologic diagnosis of benign lesions (3 with follicular adenomas) also had MIBI-positive scans.
  • Histology is still necessary to distinguish benign from malignant disease in a MIBI-positive nodule but unnecessary surgery could have been reduced from 71 to 8 cases in our series.
  • [MeSH-major] Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 19693945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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83. Griniatsos J, Tsigris C, Kanakis M, Kaltsas G, Michail O, Dimitriou N, Argyrakopoulou G, Delladetsima I, Kyriakou V, Syriou V, Alexandraki K, Pikoulis E, Giannopoulos A, Kouraklis G, Diamanti-Kandaraki E, Felekouras E: Increased incidence of papillary thyroid cancer detection among thyroidectomies in Greece between 1991 and 2006. Anticancer Res; 2009 Dec;29(12):5163-9
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  • [Title] Increased incidence of papillary thyroid cancer detection among thyroidectomies in Greece between 1991 and 2006.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine existing evidence, trends and possible factors that may have affected the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) among patients undergoing thyroidectomies in an iodine-sufficient population of Greece.
  • STUDY DESIGN: All histology records from the patients who had undergone thyroid surgery at the Department of Surgery Laiko Hospital, Athens, Greece from January 1991 to December 2006 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Thyroid tumors were classified according to the WHO classification system and were staged according to the TNM staging system.
  • From 1999 onwards, thyroid surgery shifted towards total thyroidectomy, while statistically significantly increased incidence of PTC and papillary microcarcinoma detection and decreased incidence of PTC greater than 10 mm detection in the whole population were noticed.
  • CONCLUSION: The increased incidence of PTC clearly correlated to the increased incidence of papillary microcarcinoma detection, reflecting the proportion for total thyroidectomy as well as changes in the diagnostic approach boosted by more careful pathological examination, rather than the effect of environmental factors such as the Chernobyl accident.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / epidemiology. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy


84. Hachicha M, Kammoun T, Chabchoub I, Bahloul S, Turki H, Drira M, Zahaf A, Triki A: [Cowden's disease: a new paediatric observation]. Arch Pediatr; 2006 May;13(5):459-62
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  • [Title] [Cowden's disease: a new paediatric observation].
  • [Transliterated title] La maladie de Cowden: une nouvelle observation pédiatrique.
  • We report on a paediatric observation of Cowden's disease in a 6-year-old child.
  • Familial steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome was associated to papulous and papillomatous lesions of gingiva and oral mucosa, multiple hamartoma of the back and of upper limbs, facial dysmorphism and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer evolved favorably after surgical treatment, radioactive iodine and L-thyroxin supplementation.
  • The early diagnosis of Cowden's disease, or multiple hamartoma syndrome, allows a careful monitoring of the patients who are facing the risk of cancer transformation, which is the principal complication of the condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16564682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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85. Lundgren CI, Zedenius J, Skoog L: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of benign thyroid nodules: an evidence-based review. World J Surg; 2008 Jul;32(7):1247-52
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of benign thyroid nodules: an evidence-based review.
  • BACKGROUND: Since the development of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) techniques, preoperative diagnosis and subsequent strategies for patient treatment have changed and evolved greatly.
  • This is true also for thyroid FNAB: the vast majority of thyroid nodules are benign, and hence do not necessarily require surgical treatment.
  • METHODS: A comprehensive Medline and Cochrane Library search was performed evaluating FNAB in the thyroid.
  • During the period 1992-1996 the accuracy of the clinical routine was evaluated by studying the outcomes of almost 4,000 FNAs of the thyroid.
  • The results were good, with only a few false-negative and false-positive results, but the problem of differentiating follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma remained a significant problem.
  • CONCLUSION: A successful FNAB service rests on several factors, and the importance of clinical conferences between all specialists involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with thyroid disorders cannot be overemphasized.
  • These conferences lead to optimal interaction between the different specialists and, most important, substantial improvement in the clinical management of patients with thyroid disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Sweden. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18408965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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86. Cerutti JM, Latini FR, Nakabashi C, Delcelo R, Andrade VP, Amadei MJ, Maciel RM, Hojaij FC, Hollis D, Shoemaker J, Riggins GJ: Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 1):3311-8
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers.
  • PURPOSE: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, a standard method for thyroid nodule diagnosis, cannot distinguish between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).
  • Previously, using expression profiling, we found that a combination of transcript expression levels from DDIT3, ARG2, C1orf24, and ITM1 distinguished between FTA and FTC.
  • The goal of this study was to determine if antibody markers used alone or in combination could accurately distinguish between a wider variety of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in fixed sections and FNA samples.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was done on 27 FTA, 25 FTC, and 75 other benign and malignant thyroid tissue sections using custom antibodies for chromosome 1 open reading frame 24 (C1orf24) and integral membrane protein 1 (ITM1) and commercial antibodies for DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and arginase II (ARG2).
  • RNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR in 33 thyroid lesions.
  • RESULTS: C1orf24 and ITM1 antibodies had an estimated sensitivity of 1.00 for distinguishing FTA from FTC.
  • Because all four cancer biomarkers did well, producing overlapping confidence intervals, not one best marker was distinguished.
  • Malignant cells were easily detected in FNA samples using these markers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We improved this diagnostic test by adding C1orf24 and ITM1 custom antibodies and showing use on a wider variety of thyroid pathology.
  • We recommend that testing of all four cancer biomarkers now be advanced to larger trials.
  • Use of one or more of these antibodies should improve diagnostic accuracy of suspicious thyroid nodules from both tissue sections and FNA samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16740752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461; United States / PHS HHS / / S98-146
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DDIT3 protein, human; 0 / FAM129A protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147336-12-7 / Transcription Factor CHOP; EC 2.4.1.- / Hexosyltransferases; EC 2.4.99.18 / STT3A protein, human; EC 3.5.3.1 / Arginase; EC 3.5.3.1 / arginase II, human
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87. Pauzar B, Staklenac B, Loncar B: Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):87-91
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology is currently the best diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules.
  • The aim of this research was to make a detailed and objective determination of the morphological characteristics of cells in cytological smears in an attempt to distinguish benign from malignant follicular tumors.
  • The research included 62 patients with cytologically diagnosed follicular or oncocytic tumors, and 15 patients with nodular hyperplasia.
  • We analyzed the cellularity of the smear, cohesion between follicular cells, acinar formations, bare nuclei, characteristics of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and the presence of colloid.
  • The statistical analysis of cytological parameters has indicated that none of the cytological parameters alone is discriminating enough between non-tumor and tumor changes, or benign and malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • The analysis of age, sex, nodule size and ultrasound findings has not shown the correlation between any of these parameters with the malignant or benign follicular tumors.
  • The cytological analysis of the smears for patients with follicular tumors, in combination with clinical data and other diagnostic methods, contributes to more precise diagnostics, but is not sufficient for the differentiation between benign and malignant follicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20432738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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88. Malterling RR, Andersson RE, Falkmer S, Falkmer U, Niléhn E, Järhult J: Differentiated thyroid cancer in a Swedish county--long-term results and quality of life. Acta Oncol; 2010 May;49(4):454-9
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  • [Title] Differentiated thyroid cancer in a Swedish county--long-term results and quality of life.
  • BACKGROUND: There is still no complete agreement about the proper treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • No patient below 50 years of age at diagnosis died from DTC.
  • Only three of 29 patients with isolated loco-regional spreading of their disease at the time of diagnosis have died from thyroid cancer.
  • There was no statistically significant difference in the 10 year cancer-specific survival rate between those operated with subtotal or total thyroidectomy--irrespective of stage.
  • Survival rate was significantly better for papillary than for follicular cancer.
  • Treatment as well as follow-up should not be exaggerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Quality of Life. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Registries. Sample Size. Sweden / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20092427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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89. Nikiforova MN, Nikiforov YE: Molecular genetics of thyroid cancer: implications for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn; 2008 Jan;8(1):83-95
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  • [Title] Molecular genetics of thyroid cancer: implications for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and accounts for approximately 1% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases.
  • The most frequent type of thyroid malignancy is papillary carcinoma, which constitutes approximately 80% of all cases.
  • Papillary carcinomas frequently have genetic alterations leading to the activation of the MAPK signal pathway.
  • Mutations in these genes are found in over 70% of papillary carcinomas and they rarely overlap in the same tumor.
  • Frequent genetic alterations in follicular carcinomas, the second most common type of thyroid malignancy, include RAS mutations and PAX8-PPAR gamma rearrangement.
  • RET point mutations are crucial for the development of medullary thyroid carcinomas.
  • Many of these mutations, particularly those leading to the activation of the MAPK pathway, are being actively explored as therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer.
  • Detection of these genetic alterations using molecular techniques is important for preoperative fine-needle aspiration diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18088233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8352
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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90. Yalcin M, Bharali DJ, Dyskin E, Dier E, Lansing L, Mousa SS, Davis FB, Davis PJ, Mousa SA: Tetraiodothyroacetic acid and tetraiodothyroacetic acid nanoparticle effectively inhibit the growth of human follicular thyroid cell carcinoma. Thyroid; 2010 Mar;20(3):281-6
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  • [Title] Tetraiodothyroacetic acid and tetraiodothyroacetic acid nanoparticle effectively inhibit the growth of human follicular thyroid cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) is a deaminated analogue of L-thyroxine that blocks the actions of L-thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine at the cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone on integrin alpha v beta 3.
  • Tetrac blocks the proliferative effects of thyroid hormone on tumor cells and the proangiogenesis actions of the hormone.
  • In the absence of thyroid hormone, tetrac also blocks angiogenesis induced by various growth factors.
  • Covalently linked to poly(lactide-co-glycolide), tetrac nanoparticles (tetrac NP) do not gain access to the cell interior and act exclusively at the integrin receptor.
  • Here, the activity of tetrac and tetrac NP against follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC)-236 cells was studied in two models:.
  • (1) tumor cell implants in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) system and (2) xenografts in the nude mouse.
  • METHODS: FTC-236 cells (10(6)) were implanted in the CAM (n = 8 each for control, and for tetrac and tetrac NP, both at 1 microg/CAM) and the actions of tetrac and tetrac NP were determined after 8 days on tumor-related angiogenesis and tumor growth.
  • Xenografts of 10(7) FTC-236 cells were implanted in nude mice (n = 8 per group).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tetrac and tetrac NP effectively arrest FTC-236 cell tumor growth in the CAM and xenograft models, suggesting its potential utility against FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Nanoparticles. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroxine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Chick Embryo. Chorioallantoic Membrane / drug effects. Chorioallantoic Membrane / pathology. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20187783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] PA7UX1FFYQ / tetraiodothyroacetic acid; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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91. Mebed AH: Aggressive surgical therapy for locally invasive differentiated thyroid carcinoma : an experience of nineteen ( 19 ) cases. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2007 Dec;19(4):282-91
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  • [Title] Aggressive surgical therapy for locally invasive differentiated thyroid carcinoma : an experience of nineteen ( 19 ) cases.
  • BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that the optimum resection of locally advanced differentiated thyroid cancer invading adjacent vital neck structures is still controversial.
  • PURPOSE: To re-evaluate the role of extended surgical therapy regarding its impact on local disease control and disease-free survival in patients with locally invasive differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study, carried in the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, between January 2002 and January 2008 on 19 patients with primary differentiated thyroid carcinoma extending extrathyroid and invading surrounding neck structures.
  • RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 54 years.
  • Disease-free survival was 85.6 % at the end of the first year and 66.5 % at the end of the second.
  • CONCLUSION: Microscopic positive safety margins did not compromise disease-free survival in the nineteen patients when surgery was followed by adjuvant therapy.
  • Key Words : Differentiated thyroid cancer - Deltopectoral flap - Shave procedures - Extended surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Esophagus / pathology. Esophagus / surgery. Female. Humans. Larynx / pathology. Larynx / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pharynx / pathology. Pharynx / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19652671.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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92. Furuya F, Guigon CJ, Zhao L, Lu C, Hanover JA, Cheng SY: Nuclear receptor corepressor is a novel regulator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. Mol Cell Biol; 2007 Sep;27(17):6116-26
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  • We previously showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is aberrantly activated by a mutant thyroid hormone beta receptor (TRbetaPV, hereafter referred to as PV) via physical interaction with p85alpha, thus contributing to thyroid carcinogenesis in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (TRbetaPV/PV mouse).
  • Remarkably, we found that NCoR physically interacted with and competed with PV for binding to the C-terminal SH2 (Src homology 2) domain of p85alpha, the regulatory subunit of PI3K.
  • Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that both NCoR and p85alpha were localized in the nuclear as well as in the cytoplasmic compartments.
  • Overexpression of NCoR in thyroid tumor cells of TRbetaPV/PV mouse reduced PI3K signaling, as indicated by the decrease in the phosphorylation of its immediate downstream effector, p-AKT.
  • Conversely, lowering cellular NCoR by siRNA knockdown in tumor cells led to overactivated p-AKT and increased cell proliferation and motility.
  • Furthermore, NCoR protein levels were significantly lower in thyroid tumor cells than in wild-type thyrocytes, allowing more effective binding of PV to p85alpha to activate PI3K signaling and thus contributing to tumor progression.
  • Taken together, these results indicate that NCoR, via protein-protein interaction, is a novel regulator of PI3K signaling and could serve to modulate thyroid tumor progression.


93. Takahashi C, Contreras B, Iwanaga T, Takegami Y, Bakker A, Bronson RT, Noda M, Loda M, Hunt JL, Ewen ME: Nras loss induces metastatic conversion of Rb1-deficient neuroendocrine thyroid tumor. Nat Genet; 2006 Jan;38(1):118-23
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  • [Title] Nras loss induces metastatic conversion of Rb1-deficient neuroendocrine thyroid tumor.
  • By contrast, C-cell thyroid adenomas occurring in Rb1(+/-) mice progress to metastatic medullary carcinomas after loss of Nras.
  • In Rb1(+/-)Nras(+/-) animals, distant medullary thyroid carcinoma metastases are associated with loss of the remaining wild-type Nras allele.
  • These findings suggest that the loss of the proto-oncogene Nras in certain cellular contexts can promote malignant tumor progression.


94. Saito N, Hatori T, Murata N, Shibuya K, Mitsuda A, Hasegawa C, Akima M, Ikawa M, Nonaka H: A case of concomitant occurrence of struma ovarii and malignant transformation of cystic teratoma. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;15(3):318-20
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  • [Title] A case of concomitant occurrence of struma ovarii and malignant transformation of cystic teratoma.
  • A 77-year-old woman received a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy because of a tumor in the left ovary.
  • The tumorous lesion of the cyst wall revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin7, and were negative for cytokeratin20 and thyroid transcription factor-1.
  • The authors diagnosed that struma ovarii and other parats coexisted as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma that had arisen from a mature ovarian cystic teratoma.
  • As for the identification of the origin of adenocarcinomas arising from mature ovarian cystic teratomas, more cases need to be identified and investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Keratin-7 / genetics. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Maximum Tolerated Dose

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  • (PMID = 17652549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-7
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95. Cerutti JM: [Nodule diagnosed as follicular patterned lesion: are biomarkers the promise?]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):832-42
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  • [Title] [Nodule diagnosed as follicular patterned lesion: are biomarkers the promise?].
  • [Transliterated title] Nódulos com diagnóstico de padrão folicular: marcadores biológicos são o futuro?
  • There are an increasing number of thyroid nodules found by ultrasound and sampled by fine needle aspiration (FNA).
  • A clinical problem is the accurate distinction between benign and malignant forms of follicular lesion.
  • In this review we discuss the thyroid lesions that are common sources of diagnostic error, and grouped together as follicular patterned lesion, and the molecular markers identified by us and others, and that are able to distinguish the benign from the malignant ones.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Arginine / genetics. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Transcription Factor CHOP

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  • (PMID = 17891248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DDIT3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 147336-12-7 / Transcription Factor CHOP; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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96. Pagedar NA, Chen DH, Wasman JK, Savvides P, Schluchter MD, Wilhelm SM, Lavertu P: Molecular classification of thyroid nodules by cytology. Laryngoscope; 2008 Apr;118(4):692-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular classification of thyroid nodules by cytology.
  • OBJECTIVES: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of thyroid nodules provides cytologic specimens whose interpretation can direct patients toward either thyroidectomy or observation.
  • Recent studies have characterized differences in gene expression between benign and malignant conditions, most often using whole tissue.
  • For five genes shown to be over-expressed in thyroid carcinomas (fibronectin, galectin-3, Met/HGFR, MUC1, and GA733-precursor), we compared expression among pathologic states.
  • Preliminary analysis using fluorometry and reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR was performed.
  • RT-PCR revealed satisfactory RNA recovery in all other specimens. qPCR showed significant over-expression of fibronectin in the papillary carcinomas compared with the goiters (P = .0013), follicular adenomas (P = .0014), and follicular carcinomas (P = .0001).
  • Differences in both fibronectin and MUC1 expression between the follicular carcinomas and the follicular adenomas were also significant (P = .025 and .045, respectively).
  • Both fibronectin and MUC1 were differentially expressed in follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas, and fibronectin expression differed in papillary carcinomas compared with the other lesions.
  • These results may form the basis of a clinical predictor for lesions with indeterminate or suspicious cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Antigens, CD3 / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Feasibility Studies. Fibronectins / analysis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Goiter / pathology. Humans. Molecular Biology. Mucin-1 / analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prospective Studies. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met. Receptors, Growth Factor / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18094649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; 0 / tumor-associated antigen GA733; EC 2.7.10.1 / MET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met
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97. Hoffmann S, Wunderlich A, Lingelbach S, Musholt PB, Musholt TJ, von Wasielewski R, Zielke A: Expression and secretion of endostatin in thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Dec;15(12):3601-8
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  • [Title] Expression and secretion of endostatin in thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: In thyroid cancer (TC) endostatin was identified as a powerful negative regulator of tumor angiogenesis in vitro.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate endostatin expression in archival TC specimens and its secretion following stimulation with thyrotropin (TSH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in TC cell lines.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays of 44 differentiated and 7 anaplastic TC and their metastasis were immunostained for endostatin protein expression and compared with corresponding non-neoplastic thyroid tissue (NT).
  • In vitro, six differentiated (FTC133, FTC236, HTC, HTC-TSHr, XTC, and TPC1) and three anaplastic (C643, Hth74, Kat4.0) TC cell lines were evaluated for basal as well as TSH (1-100 mU/ml) and EGF stimulated (1-100 ng/ml) endostatin.
  • Endostatin expression was more frequent and intense in differentiated as compared to anaplastic TC.
  • In vitro, basal endostatin secretion varied between 33 +/- 5 pg/ml (FTC236) and 549 +/- 65 pg/ml (TPC1) and was doubled in FTC, when the "primary" (FTC133) was compared with the metastasis (FTC236).
  • Some cell lines showed TSH-induced (e.g., 60% in XTC) or EGF-induced (e.g., 120% in TPC1) upregulation of endostatin secretion, while others did not, despite documented receptor expression.
  • In vitro, endostatin secretion of some cell lines is regulated by TSH and EGF, however the individual differences deserve further functional studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Endostatins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis. Paraffin Embedding. Thyrotropin / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18818971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Endostatins; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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98. Rufini V, Salvatori M, Fadda G, Pinnarelli L, Castaldi P, Maussier ML, Galli G: Thyroid carcinomas with a variable insular component: prognostic significance of histopathologic patterns. Cancer; 2007 Sep 15;110(6):1209-17
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  • [Title] Thyroid carcinomas with a variable insular component: prognostic significance of histopathologic patterns.
  • BACKGROUND: An insular growth pattern may be observed focally both in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • The aim of the current study was to determine whether a greater extension of the insular component (IC) influences different clinical and histologic features at diagnosis, and a different tumor aggressiveness in terms of frequency in the occurrence of metastases as well as survival.
  • These 2 groups were compared with a control group of 66 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, carcinomas with predominant IC differed from those with focal IC with regard to greater tumor size and a higher frequency of extrathyroidal extension and distant metastases.
  • At the time of last follow-up, carcinomas with predominant IC demonstrated a lesser frequency of disease-free outcome (P = .002) and a higher number of tumor-related deaths (P = .002), either when distant metastases were present (P = .03) or absent (P = .05) at the time of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of predominant IC is associated with a poor prognosis in terms of ongoing disease or death.
  • Predominant IC should be considered a separate entity from not only the classical papillary or follicular carcinomas but also the focal IC tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17665497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Ito Y, Miyauchi A: Lateral lymph node dissection guided by preoperative and intraoperative findings in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):729-39
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  • [Title] Lateral lymph node dissection guided by preoperative and intraoperative findings in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The lateral compartment frequently demonstrates metastasis from thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: In this review we evaluate the indication of lateral lymph node dissection in papillary and follicular carcinomas based on the findings of previous reports, including those from our institute.
  • RESULTS: Lymph node metastasis and recurrence at the lymph node are common events in papillary carcinoma.
  • For N0 or N1a papillary carcinomas, male gender, being 55 or more years of age, a tumor larger than 3 cm, and massive extrathyroid extension are independent risk factors of lymph node recurrence, and patients with tumors having two or more of these clinicopathologic features showed high lymph node recurrence rates even if they underwent prophylactic lateral node dissection.
  • In follicular carcinoma, node metastasis and recurrence at the node are rare events but they occasionally can be observed, especially in tumors with massive extrathyroid extension and poor differentiation.
  • Prophylactic lateral node dissection is also recommended in N0 or N1a papillary carcinoma, if the lesion shows two or more of the aggressive characteristics indicated above.
  • For follicular carcinoma, prophylactic node dissection is not mandatory but can be an option for tumors demonstrating aggressive characteristics or histologic types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18064515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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100. Paksoy N: Ectopic lesions as potential pitfalls in fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases derived from the thyroid, endometrium and breast. Acta Cytol; 2007 Mar-Apr;51(2):222-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic lesions as potential pitfalls in fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases derived from the thyroid, endometrium and breast.
  • Those that are derived from thyroid, breast, endometrium and salivary glands present with palpable masses that can mimic malignancy.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a practical procedure for the differential diagnosis of such lesions but can reveal surprising images for a cytopathologist.
  • Upon diagnosis of a submandibular mass with a diameter of 1 cm, FNAC was performed.
  • The smears showed crowded thyroid follicular cells comprising papillary clusters.
  • A cytologic diagnosis of papillary thyroid lesion was rendered, Histopathology revealed that this lesion was ectopic thyroid tissue with focal chronic thyroiditis.
  • The case was diagnosed on FNAC as low grade malignancy in which an adenocarcinoma/mesenchymal tumor distinction could not be made.
  • An FNAC diagnosis of lactation ectopic breast tissue was made.
  • Unless there are clear findings, the cytopathologist must refrain from a diagnosis of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Endometrium / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Wall / pathology. Abdominal Wall / physiopathology. Adult. Axilla / pathology. Axilla / physiopathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometriosis / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Submandibular Gland / pathology. Thyroiditis / complications. Thyroiditis / pathology. Thyroiditis / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17425209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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