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1. Cercato MC, Colella E, Ferraresi V, Diodoro MG, Tonachella R: Report of two cases of quintuple primary malignancies and review of the literature. Anticancer Res; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5B):2953-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMN) are not uncommon, however, finding more than three primary malignancies in one individual is unusual.
  • Two patients surviving five primary malignant neoplasms for 12 and 18 years are reported: a 55-year-old woman with a squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, two carcinomas of the breast, a carcinoma of the kidney and an adenocarcinoma of the colon, and a 75-year-old woman with a sarcoma of the myometrium, a carcinoma of the thyroid, an adenocarcinoma of the rectum, a leiomyosarcoma of the colon and a bronchial carcinoid.
  • Relevant features were that colon cancer was quite often present more than once and survival was longer than expected for the stage (median overall survival, 20 years; 95% confidence interval: 12-28 years).

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  • (PMID = 19031939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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2. Algeciras-Schimnich A, Milosevic D, McIver B, Flynn H, Reddi HV, Eberhardt NL, Grebe SK: Evaluation of the PAX8/PPARG translocation in follicular thyroid cancer with a 4-color reverse-transcription PCR assay and automated high-resolution fragment analysis. Clin Chem; 2010 Mar;56(3):391-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of the PAX8/PPARG translocation in follicular thyroid cancer with a 4-color reverse-transcription PCR assay and automated high-resolution fragment analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Molecular testing of thyroid malignancies, in combination with cytologic and histologic examination, is becoming increasingly attractive as a tool for refining traditional morphologic diagnosis.
  • The molecular changes associated with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) are point mutations in RAS oncogenes or the presence of PAX8/PPARG (paired box 8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) rearrangement.
  • METHODS: We developed and validated a clinical assay for the detection of PAX8/PPARG rearrangements that uses a 4-color reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay and high-resolution fragment analysis.
  • RESULTS: The RT-PCR assay is applicable for detecting the various described fusion transcripts of PAX8/PPARG in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid tissue and in fine-needle aspirate biopsy washes from thyroid nodules.
  • The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 1 abnormal cell in a background of 100-10 000 translocation-negative cells.
  • A comparison of the RT-PCR assay with dual-fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization showed an overall concordance of 95%.
  • With this assay, we obtained a prevalence for the PAX8/PPARG rearrangement in FTC of 62% (13 of 21 cases), compared with a 5% prevalence (3 of 55) for other follicular cell-derived neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of this assay into clinical practice could provide useful information for the diagnosis and possibly for the prognosis and treatment of thyroid cancer in the future.

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  • (PMID = 20056739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA080117; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA80117
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS547600; NLM/ PMC3918957
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3. Carr K, Wintner T: FTC Versus Congress: The Biosimilars Debate. Biotechnol Healthc; 2009 Oct;6(4):33-4

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  • [Title] FTC Versus Congress: The Biosimilars Debate.
  • The authors argue that the FTC's conclusion -that patent protection alone will fuel biotech R&D after passage of follow-on legislation - is shaky.

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  • (PMID = 22478787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-169X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biotechnology healthcare
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biotechnol Healthc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799095
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4. Xiao X, Ning L, Chen H: Notch1 mediates growth suppression of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors. Mol Cancer Ther; 2009 Feb;8(2):350-6
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  • [Title] Notch1 mediates growth suppression of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors.
  • Here, we showed that although there was minimal Notch1 expression in follicular thyroid cancer FTC236 and papillary thyroid cancer DRO cells, transfection of constitutive Notch1 plasmid into these cells led to growth inhibition, down-regulation of cyclin D1, and up-regulation of p21.
  • Treatment of FTC236 cells with HDAC inhibitors valproic acid (1-4 mmol/L) or suberoyl bishydroxamic acid (10-30 micromol/L) induced functional Notch1 protein expression and suppressed cell growth in a dose-dependent manner.
  • These results indicate that HDAC inhibitors activate Notch1 signaling in thyroid cancer cells and lead to the suppression of proliferation by cell cycle arrest.
  • Our findings provide the first documentation of the role of Notch1 signaling as a tumor suppressor in DRO and FTC236 cells, suggesting that Notch1 activation may be a potential therapeutic target for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19190121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117117-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117117; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS92706; NLM/ PMC2673961
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5. Xue LY, Zou SM, Zheng S, Xie YQ, Wen P, Liu XY, Lin DM, Lü N: [Expression of fascin and CK14 in different histological types of cancer and its differential diagnostic significance]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Nov;32(11):838-44
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  • [Title] [Expression of fascin and CK14 in different histological types of cancer and its differential diagnostic significance].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate and analyze the expression of fascin and CK14 in multiple histological types of cancer and to explore the potential value of the two proteins as markers in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various cancer types.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarray containing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), lung SCC, larynx SCC, uterine cervical SCC, SCC of external genital organs, lung adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, heptocellular carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma, thyroid papillary carcinoma, uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma, ovarian serous adenocarcinoma and renal clear cell carcinoma, 30 cases each, as well as corresponding normal controls was constructed.
  • The expression of fascin and CK14 among different types of carcinoma and corresponding normal controls was detected by immunohistochemistry.
  • In lung adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, breast infiltrating dutal adenocarcinoma, thyroid papillary carcinoma, uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma, ovarian serous adenocarcinoma and renal clear cell carcinoma, the positive rates were 38.0%, 23.3%, 14.3%, 10.3%, 73.3%, 13.3%, 6.7%, 60.0%, 66.7% and 10.0%, respectively.
  • It was weak and focal in lung adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, breast infiltrating dutal adenocarcinoma, thyroid papillary carcinoma, uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma, ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, and renal clear cell carcinoma, with a positive rate of 13.3%, 13.3%, 20.7%, 41.4%, 46.7%, 6.7%, 40.0%, 13.3%, 20.0% and 6.7%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Fascin and CK14 are highly expressed in SCC, compared with other histological types of carcinoma.
  • Combination of fascin and CK14 should be a valuable marker in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Keratin-14 / metabolism. Laryngeal Neoplasms / metabolism. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21223690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 146808-54-0 / fascin
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6. Eberhardt NL, Grebe SK, McIver B, Reddi HV: The role of the PAX8/PPARgamma fusion oncogene in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 May 28;321(1):50-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of the PAX8/PPARgamma fusion oncogene in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid cancer.
  • When identified at early stages, most well-differentiated thyroid cancers are readily treated and yield excellent outcomes.
  • Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) however, when diagnosed at a late stage, may be very resistant to treatment, and exhibits 10-year survival rates less than 40%.
  • Despite substantial progress in recent years, we still have limited understanding of the molecular and biological interrelationships between the various subtypes of benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • In contrast to the wealth of information available regarding papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the triggering mechanisms of FTC development and the major underlying genetic alterations leading to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis remain obscure.
  • Recent studies have focused on a chromosomal translocation, t(2;3) (q13;p25), fusing PAX8, a transcription factor that is essential for normal thyroid gland development, with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a member of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor family.
  • This chromatin rearrangement results in the expression of a PAX8/PPARgamma fusion protein, designated PPFP, whose incidence is relatively common in FTC and may represent an initiating event in the genesis of FTC.
  • Here we review progress on the studies of PPFP that assess its involvement in FTC tumorigenesis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 19883731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA080117-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA080117-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX8-PPARgamma fusion protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 85
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS161308; NLM/ PMC2849860
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7. Kebebew E, Weng J, Bauer J, Ranvier G, Clark OH, Duh QY, Shibru D, Bastian B, Griffin A: The prevalence and prognostic value of BRAF mutation in thyroid cancer. Ann Surg; 2007 Sep;246(3):466-70; discussion 470-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prevalence and prognostic value of BRAF mutation in thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of BRAF mutation among thyroid cancer histologic subtypes and determine the association of BRAF mutation with indicators of poor prognosis for papillary thyroid cancer and patient outcome.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The appropriate extent of surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and follow-up monitoring for thyroid cancer remains controversial.
  • Advances in the molecular biology of thyroid cancer have helped to identify candidate markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • A commonly found genetic alternation is a point mutation in the BRAF oncogene (BRAF V600E), which is primarily found in papillary thyroid cancer and is associated with more aggressive disease.
  • METHODS: BRAF V600E mutation status was determined in 347 tumor samples from 314 patients with thyroid cancer (245 with conventional papillary thyroid cancer, 73 with follicular thyroid cancer, and 29 with the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer).
  • RESULTS: : The prevalence of BRAF V600E mutation was higher in conventional papillary thyroid cancer (51.0%) than in follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (24.1%) and follicular thyroid cancer (1.4%) (P < 0.0001).
  • In patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF V600E mutation was associated with older age (P = 0.0381), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0323), distant metastasis (P = 0.045), higher TNM stage (I and II vs. III and IV, P = 0.0389), and recurrent and persistent disease (P = 0.009) with a median follow-up time of 6.0 years.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that BRAF V600E mutation [OR (95% CI) = 4.2 (1.2-14.6)] and lymph node metastasis [OR (95% CI) = 7.75 (2.1-28.5)] were independently associated with recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BRAF V600E mutation is primarily present in conventional papillary thyroid cancer.
  • It is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype and higher risk of recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17717450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA118688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R21 CA 118688-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1959359
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8. Parlea L, Fahim L, Munoz D, Hanna A, Anderson J, Cusimano M, Kovacs K, Gardiner G: Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with aggressive metastatic behavior in a pregnant woman: report of a case and review of the literature. Hormones (Athens); 2006 Oct-Dec;5(4):295-302
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  • [Title] Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with aggressive metastatic behavior in a pregnant woman: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Distant metastases as initial presentation of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid is rare, especially in young patients.
  • We report the clinical and pathological features of a 33-year old pregnant patient with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid who presented with widespread bone and lung metastases at the time of diagnosis. the resected tumor had a focal insular component that showed extensive vascular invasion spreading beyond the thyroid capsule, and was associated with widespread bone and lung metastases.
  • We suggest that architectural differentiation of the tumor and cell proliferation rate are not reliable markers of metastatic behavior in this particular thyroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cadherins / genetics. Cadherins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17178705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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9. Laghmari M, El-Fadl SH, Gana R, Maaqili MR, Bellakhdar F: [Late cervicodorsal metastasis of thyroid adenocarcinoma treated by anterior cervicotomy]. Neurochirurgie; 2006 Dec;52(6):537-41
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  • [Title] [Late cervicodorsal metastasis of thyroid adenocarcinoma treated by anterior cervicotomy].
  • Metastasis from a thyroid adenocarcinoma is a rare entity with high mortality.
  • The histological diagnosis was follicular adenocarcinoma.
  • The development of a vertebral metastasis from a thyroid adenocarcinoma 11 years after the treatment of the primitive cancer is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17203903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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10. Sanioglu S, Sokullu O, Ozgen A, Demirci D, Sargin M, Bilgen F: Unusual metastasis of the papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2009 Jun;87(6):1928-30
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  • [Title] Unusual metastasis of the papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma.
  • Floating thrombus in the ascending aorta is rare and its association with papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma has not been documented.
  • We report a case of a 64-year-old man who was referred to our emergency unit because of suspected type A aortic dissection.
  • Although the aortic wall was macroscopically normal, histologic examination revealed metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Aorta. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19463626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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11. Hemminki K, Eng C, Chen B: Familial risks for nonmedullary thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Oct;90(10):5747-53
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  • [Title] Familial risks for nonmedullary thyroid cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Reliable data on familial risks are important for clinical counseling and cancer genetics.
  • OBJECTIVE: We wanted to define familial risks for histopathology-specific nonmedullary thyroid cancers through parental and sibling probands.
  • SETTING: The study examines the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database on 10.5 million individuals, containing families with parents and offspring.
  • PATIENTS: Cancer data were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1958 to 2002, including 3292 patients with thyroid adenocarcinoma.
  • The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine histology was available from 1993 onward, with 1449 papillary, 288 follicular, 148 anaplastic, and 68 Hurthle cell tumors.
  • RESULTS: The familial risk for papillary carcinoma was 3.21 and 6.24 when a parent and a sibling, respectively, were diagnosed with thyroid cancers.
  • Thyroid adenocarcinoma was shown to be associated with melanoma and connective tissue tumors, and probably also with neurinomas (schwannomas).
  • Associations found in single comparisons with papillary thyroid cancer and other sites included right-sided colon, breast, ovarian, and kidney cancers.
  • Hurthle cell tumors were associated with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but the numbers of cases were small.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present findings were based on a limited number of cases, but they display a complex and heterogeneous pattern of familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer.
  • The high risk for papillary carcinoma among women requires clinical attention, although the absolute risks for this rare cancer are still low.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16030170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Lei JY, Huang J: Cytoplasmic staining of TTF-1 in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Expert Opin Med Diagn; 2008 Feb;2(2):151-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytoplasmic staining of TTF-1 in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is a widely used biomarker in surgical pathology.
  • Its nuclear staining is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of primary pulmonary and thyroid adenocarcinoma as well as small cell carcinomas arising in many organs.
  • The cytoplasmic staining of TTF-1 is also observed, particularly in the benign and malignant hepatic cells.
  • This review focuses on this issue and explores the potential application of TTF-1 cytoplasmic staining in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma from other primary and metastatic malignancies in the liver.

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  • (PMID = 23485135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0059
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on medical diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Med Diagn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. McCain SL, Allender MC, Bohling M, Ramsay EC, Morandi F, Newkirk KM: Thyroid neoplasia in captive raccoons (Procyon lotor). J Zoo Wildl Med; 2010 Mar;41(1):121-7
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  • [Title] Thyroid neoplasia in captive raccoons (Procyon lotor).
  • Two adult, spayed, female raccoons were diagnosed with thyroid neoplasia.
  • One raccoon had a palpable, left-sided, nonfunctional thyroid adenocarcinoma which was treated with a thyroidectomy twice with local recurrence both times.
  • The second raccoon had nonpalpable, bilateral, functional follicular thyroid adenomatous hyperplasia and was treated with a right thyroidectomy and a partial left thyroidectomy, leaving behind the grossly normal portion of the left thyroid.
  • Thyroid pathology has been documented in raccoons in Europe, but is not reported in the United States.
  • Thyroid neoplasia in raccoons can occur as a nonfunctional adenocarcinoma, as is commonly reported in dogs, or as a functional adenoma, as is commonly reported in cats.
  • Raccoons with adenocarcinomas should be evaluated for pulmonary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20722264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-7260
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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14. Sitić S, Mirt-Dabić M, Brcić L, Juros Z, Hutinec Z, Kruslin B: DNA ploidy in thymoma and associated multiple primary malignancies in the same patient. Acta Clin Croat; 2008 Sep;47(3):155-9
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  • Thymoma may be associated with different types of additional primary malignancies; however, colorectal adenocarcinoma and thyroid cancer appear to be most common.
  • A case is presented of a 63-year-old woman with type A thymoma and two other primary carcinomas of the breast and colon that were previously diagnosed.
  • The patient underwent surgery due to metastatic colon cancer of the lung and yet another primary tumor was found in the mediastinum, later diagnosed as thymoma.
  • A normal diploid pattern was found in the samples of thymoma and colon carcinoma, whereas those of breast carcinoma and metastatic tumor of the lung showed aneuploidy.

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  • (PMID = 19175064.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-9466
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Croatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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15. Adotey JM: Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid in a patient with right submandibular mass--a rare case of 'lateral aberrant thyroid'. Niger J Clin Pract; 2009 Sep;12(3):333-4
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  • [Title] Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid in a patient with right submandibular mass--a rare case of 'lateral aberrant thyroid'.
  • BACKGROUND: Ectopic thyroid is a rare entity in the study of thyroid disease.
  • The occurrence of ectopic thyroid tissue as a mass in the submandibular region is even rarer.
  • AIM: To report a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid within a right submandibular mass in a 67-year-old man.
  • The neck ultrasound scan demonstrated the presence of a solid right submandibular mass.
  • The FNAB showed papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • CONCLUSION: This patient illustrates the even rarer case of a 'lateral aberrant thyroid' presenting as a malignant submandibular mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Submandibular Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19803039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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16. Zhang PJ, Gao HG, Pasha TL, Litzky L, Livolsi VA: TTF-1 expression in ovarian and uterine epithelial neoplasia and its potential significance, an immunohistochemical assessment with multiple monoclonal antibodies and different secondary detection systems. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jan;28(1):10-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a 38-kd homeodomain containing DNA-binding protein, identified in thyroid and lung as a regulator of thyroid-specific genes and surfactant and Clara cell secretory protein gene expression.
  • TTF-1 has been used as a reliable lineage marker for lung adenocarcinoma and thyroid carcinoma in surgical pathology.
  • However, TTF-1 expression has been recently reported in carcinomas of other origins including female genital tract.
  • TTF-1 was most frequently detected in uterine malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (82%), more common in uterine tumors than ovarian tumors, and more common in surgical specimen than TMA.
  • In addition to malignant tumors, TTF-1 was also detected in benign tumors and benign tubal and endometrial epithelia.

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  • (PMID = 19047914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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17. Niu HL, Pasha TL, Pawel BR, LiVolsi VA, Zhang PJ: Thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in normal gynecologic tissues and its potential significance. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):301-7
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  • [Title] Thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in normal gynecologic tissues and its potential significance.
  • SUMMARY: Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a 38-kd nuclear protein, and a member of the NKx2 family of homeodomain transcription factors.
  • It is highly expressed in normal and neoplastic thyroid and lung tissues, and is considered a reliable marker for lung adenocarcinoma and thyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19483637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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18. Fortson JK, Brown J, Patel VG, Lawrence GE, Rosenthal M: Pathologic Fracture of the Femur as a Presenting Sign of Metastatic Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid. Am Surg; 2010 Aug 01;76(8):137-138

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologic Fracture of the Femur as a Presenting Sign of Metastatic Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid.

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  • (PMID = 28958235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-9823
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Yong W, Goh B, Toh H, Soo R, Diermayr V, Goh A, Ethirajulu K, Lee S, Seah E, Zhu J: Phase I study of SB939 three times weekly for 3 weeks every 4 weeks in patients with advanced solid malignancies. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2560

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  • Of the 13 patients evaluable for response, stable disease was seen in 1 patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma and 1 with hepatocellular carcinoma for 51 and 164 days respectively.

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  • (PMID = 27961888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Simpson AC, McCown JL: Systemic hypertension in a dog with a functional thyroid gland adenocarcinoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2009 Dec 15;235(12):1474-9
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  • [Title] Systemic hypertension in a dog with a functional thyroid gland adenocarcinoma.
  • Palpation of the ventral cervical region revealed a fixed asymmetric mass in the area of the lobes of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroidectomy of both lobes of the gland was performed.
  • Histologic examination revealed a bilateral, multilobulated, and encapsulated thyroid gland adenocarcinoma.
  • TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Thyroidectomy of both lobes of the gland was performed with clinical resolution of hypertension.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This report describes concurrent hypertension in a dog with a functional thyroid gland adenocarcinoma with subsequent return of blood pressure values to within reference ranges after thyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / etiology. Hypertension / veterinary. Thyroid Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20001784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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21. Scott AW, Cummings TJ, Kirkpatrick JP, Mruthyunjaya P: Choroidal metastasis of follicular thyroid adenocarcinoma diagnosed by 25-gauge transretinal biopsy. Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie); 2008;40(2):110-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Choroidal metastasis of follicular thyroid adenocarcinoma diagnosed by 25-gauge transretinal biopsy.
  • We report a case of a patient with previously treated follicular thyroid carcinoma who presented with a symptomatic amelanotic choroidal mass with low internal reflectivity and a metastatic lytic skull lesion.
  • A 25-gauge vitrector was used to perform transretinal choroidal biopsy (TRCB), confirming the diagnosis of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19013920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4086
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of ophthalmology (Skokie, Ill.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Sakellariou VI, Mavrogenis AF, Papagelopoulos PJ: Limb salvage surgery using the intramedullary diaphyseal segmental defect fixation system. J Long Term Eff Med Implants; 2008;18(1):59-67
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  • Histological diagnosis included adamantinoma, synovial sarcoma, multiple myeloma, metastatic renal cell carcinoma, myeloid carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach.
  • At the latest examination, five patients were free of local or distant disease and one patient had deceased with distant disease, without evidence of local recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 19348612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of long-term effects of medical implants
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Long Term Eff Med Implants
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Štulík J, Kozák J, Šebesta P, Vyskočil T, Kryl J, Klezl Z: Total spondylectomy of C2: report of three cases and review of the literature. J Spinal Disord Tech; 2010 Dec;23(8):e53-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A review of 3 patients undergoing total C2 spondylectomy for tumor (thyroid adenocarcinoma, chordoma, and solitary plasmocytoma) was done.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Axis, Cervical Vertebra / surgery. Chordoma / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Plasmacytoma / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21131798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of spinal disorders & techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Spinal Disord Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Yousuf K, Archibald SD: Brain metastases from papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. J Otolaryngol; 2006 Dec;35(6):366-72
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  • [Title] Brain metastases from papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma (PTA) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy.
  • We present a series of four patients with this development and review their diagnosis and treatment.
  • All patients eventually died of their disease, and the overall survival after the diagnosis of brain metastases was 15.3 months in the four patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17380829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0381-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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25. Wang LH, Zhao YJ, Wang XY, Yuan P, Xu WQ, Xiao JC, Xu JP, Luo BR: [Significance of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Sep;27(9):547-50
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  • [Title] [Significance of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression between benign and malignant thyroid nodules, and to evaluate their clinical value in distinguishing thyroid cancer from benign thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 and CD44v6 was immunohistochemically detected by the ABC method in 143 benign and malignant thyroid nodule samples.
  • RESULTS: Expression of these two markers in benign thyroid nodules: galectin-3 was negative in 10 cases of para-cancer normal tissue and 14 cases of benign nodules found in the other benign thyroid disease.
  • Also it was weakly positive in 2 of 22 follicular adenomas (9.1%).
  • But all three eosinophilic follicular adenomas were diffusely or focally positive for galectin-3.
  • CD44v6 was negative in 10 cases of para-cancer normal tissue, but positive in 4 of 14 nodular lesions found in benign thyroid diseases (28.6%).
  • It was also positive in 16 of 52 nodular goiters (30.8%), and weakly positive in 7 of 22 follicular adenomas (31.8%).
  • The two markers in malignant lesions: galectin-3 was positive in 50 of 52 thyroid adenocarcinoma (96.2%), CD44v6 was positive in 42 of 52 thyroid adenocarcinoma (80.8%).
  • The positive rate of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in thyroid cancer was significantly higher than that in benign thyroid nodule and normal tissue (P < 0.001).
  • The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of galectin-3 combined with CD44v6 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodule were 80.8%, 93.4%, 88.8%; they were 96.2%, 90.1%, 92.3% for Galectin-3 alone.
  • CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical expression of galectin-3 and CD44v6 by the ABC method is significantly higher in thyroid cancers than in benign thyroid nodules, especially galectin-3 in thyrocyte being helpful in differentiating benign thyroid nodule from thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16438854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44v6 antigen; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Glycoproteins
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26. Stulík J, Kozák J, Sebesta P, Vyskocil T, Kryl J, Pelichovská M: Total spondylectomy of C2: a new surgical technique. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech; 2007 Apr;74(2):79-90
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  • We decided to perform a radical surgery in a man, now 27 y. o., with solitary metastasis of thyroid adenocarcinoma.
  • Subsequently, we exposed and osteotomised the mandible using the midline Z-type incision.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17493408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5415
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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27. Lee JJ, Geli J, Larsson C, Wallin G, Karimi M, Zedenius J, Höög A, Foukakis T: Gene-specific promoter hypermethylation without global hypomethylation in follicular thyroid cancer. Int J Oncol; 2008 Oct;33(4):861-9
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  • [Title] Gene-specific promoter hypermethylation without global hypomethylation in follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Genome-wide hypomethylation and hypermethylation at CpG promoters are common in cancer.
  • To date, little is known about global methylation changes in follicular thyroid cancer (FTC).
  • Two independent quantitative methods, bisulphite Pyrosequencing of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements-1 (LINE-1) and LUminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA) were used to quantify genome-wide methylation in 21 FTC and corresponding normal thyroid tissues.
  • Unexpectedly global methylation was not found significantly altered in tumors compared to normal thyroid by either LINE-1 (p=0.57) or LUMA (p=0.42), whilst the promoter of a tumor suppressor that is often epigenetically dysregulated, RASSF1A was found to be significantly hypermethylated by Pyrosequencing (p=0.0001).
  • In summary, the epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A is a frequent event in FTC, but is not coupled to changes in global methylation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. DNA Methylation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18813801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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28. Zorn J, Herber M, Schwamberger S, Panzer W, Adler H, Kolb HJ: Tolerance in DLA-haploidentical canine littermates following CD6-depleted marrow transplantation and donor lymphocyte transfusion. Exp Hematol; 2009 Aug;37(8):998-1006
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  • OBJECTIVE: Donor lymphocyte transfusions (DLT) are effective in the treatment of leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
  • Graft-vs-host-disease (GVHD) is the major risk factor of DLT.
  • In dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical littermate dogs, DLT given within 3 weeks after transplantation of marrow depleted of T cells using absorbed antithymocyte globulin produced fatal GVHD, whereas at 2 months or later after transplantation, DLT were tolerated without GVHD.
  • Natural killer cell activity of CD6-depleted cells was studied against canine thyroid adenocarcinoma cells.
  • Contrary to T-cell depletion with antithymocyte globulin, CD6 depletion spares canine natural killer cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that T-cell depletion with CD6 antibody and complement induces graft-vs-host tolerance without jeopardizing engraftment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Cell Line, Tumor. Dogs. Haplotypes. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Lymphocyte Depletion. Lymphocyte Transfusion. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Transplantation, Homologous. Whole-Body Irradiation

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  • (PMID = 19446000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2399
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; 0 / CD6 antigen; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / histocompatibility antigen DLA
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29. Mäenpää HO, Välimäki MJ: [Follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer--when and where?]. Duodecim; 2010;126(20):2424-30
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  • [Title] [Follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer--when and where?].
  • While papillary and follicular thyroid cancer usually has an excellent prognosis, recurrent and aggressive forms of the disease do occur.
  • Based on investigational results, the patients are divided into three groups: the cancer does not exist, may exist or remains.
  • In cancer-free patients, thyroxine therapy will be implemented as in ordinary hypothyreoidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Ablation Techniques. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroxine / therapeutic use


30. Lin JD, Chao TC, Chen ST, Huang YY, Liou MJ, Hsueh C: Operative strategy for follicular thyroid cancer in risk groups stratified by pTNM staging. Surg Oncol; 2007 Aug;16(2):107-13
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  • [Title] Operative strategy for follicular thyroid cancer in risk groups stratified by pTNM staging.
  • This study determined cancer survival rates and follow-up status at different pTNM stages to stratify risk groups in follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Two hundred and fourteen follicular thyroid cancer patients (167 females, 47 males) who underwent surgery and followed-up treatment at a single medical center were enrolled in this retrospective study.
  • Low risk for follicular thyroid cancer was defined as pT1N0M0. (Moderate-risk group) was defined as all other patients in pTNM stage I, and high risk as patients in stages II-IV.
  • After mean follow-up of 9.6+/-0.3 years, 1.6% (2/120), 21.9% (7/32), 5.6% (1/18) and 52.3% (23/44) of patients in pTNM stages I-IV, respectively, died of thyroid cancer.
  • Of 214 follicular thyroid cancer patients, 35 (16.4%), 85 (39.7%) and 94 (43.9%) were defined as low-, moderate- and high-risk groups at the time of surgery.
  • None of the low-risk patients died, and all achieved disease-free status.
  • In the moderate- and high-risk groups, 2.4% (2/85) and 27.7% (26/94) died of thyroid cancer.
  • The moderate- and high-risk groups underwent near-total thyroidectomy and (131)I therapies, and 15 of 107 (14.9%) died of thyroid cancer while 18 (16.8%) had persistent disease at the end of the study period.
  • In conclusion, the low-risk follicular thyroid cancer group as defined by pTNM staging had excellent prognosis.
  • Over one-fourth of the follicular thyroid cancer patients in the high-risk group died of thyroid cancer despite aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17600699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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31. Vorländer C, Lienenlüke RH, Wahl RA: [Lymph node dissection in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer]. Chirurg; 2008 Jun;79(6):564-70
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  • [Title] [Lymph node dissection in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: There is still unresolved debate about the optimal surgical management of papillary (PTC) and follicular (FTC) thyroid cancer regarding lymph node dissection.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is based on 626 patients with PTC and 191 with FTC from a group of 1062 own patients with thyroid malignancies.
  • RESULTS: Tumors < or = 20 mm in size were found significantly more often in PTC than FTC (69.6% vs 28.3%, P<0.05).
  • Positive lymph nodes were found significantly more often in PTC than FTC as well (33.2% vs 5.2%, P<0.05).
  • In FTC positive lymph nodes occurred only in tumors >25 mm.
  • CONCLUSION: Due to prevalence and importance of lymph node metastasis differing between PTC and FTC, we recommend treating both tumor entities differently.
  • In small FTC it seems adequate to limit the operation to thyroidectomy without prophylactic lymph dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18317715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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32. Passler C, Scheuba C, Asari R, Kaczirek K, Kaserer K, Niederle B: Importance of tumour size in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Br J Surg; 2005 Feb;92(2):184-9
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  • [Title] Importance of tumour size in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The most controversial change in the new pathological tumour node metastasis (pTNM) classification of thyroid tumours is the extension of the pT1 classification to include tumours up to 20 mm.
  • METHODS: Four hundred and three patients with pT1 or pT2 differentiated thyroid carcinomas were divided into three groups according to tumour diameter (group 1, 10 mm or less; group 2, 11-20 mm; group 3, 21-40 mm).
  • They were analysed retrospectively with respect to carcinoma-specific and disease-free survival.
  • RESULTS: No patient in group 1 died from papillary thyroid carcinoma, compared with three patients in group 2 and six in group 3.
  • There was a statistically significant difference in carcinoma-specific survival between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.033).
  • The difference in disease-free survival between groups 1 and 2 was significant (P = 0.025).
  • One patient in group 1, three in group 2 and four in group 3 died from follicular thyroid carcinoma, but there were no significant differences in survival between the three groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Extension of the pT1 classification to cover all tumours up to 20 mm does not appear to be justified for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome


33. Handkiewicz-Junak D, Czarniecka A, Jarzab B: Molecular prognostic markers in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer: Current status and future directions. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Jun 30;322(1-2):8-28
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  • [Title] Molecular prognostic markers in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer: Current status and future directions.
  • Gene expression profiling shows that, by gene signature, the difference between BRAF-positive and BRAF-negative PTC is so distinct that BRAF-positive cancer may be regarded as a molecular subtype of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
  • The frequency of BRAF mutation in PTC is high-45% on average, with values over 70-80% in some populations.
  • We estimate that 31% of all PTC patients and 39% of those diagnosed with stage I-II disease will face the risk of overtreatment if the decision will be based on the BRAF-positivity of their tumors.
  • Considering this, in the review we summarize the present status of knowledge on other prognosis-related gene expression changes in papillary and follicular cancer and relate them to he tumor's biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mutation. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / metabolism. ras Proteins / genetics. ras Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20138116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 259
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34. de Keizer B, Arsos G, Smit JW, Lam MG, Rinkes IH, Goldschmeding R, van Isselt JW: I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2008 Mar;18(3):369-71
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  • [Title] I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Focal I-131 accumulation is generally a reliable indicator of functioning normal thyroid tissue or a differentiated thyroid cancer metastasis.
  • We report a case of focal I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Mesothelioma, Cystic / radionuclide imaging. Peritoneal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18298317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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35. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Glazer E, Schwartz AM: Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study.
  • Thyroid carcinomas with follicular phenotype have demonstrated changing patterns over 30 years (1973-2003) according to data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute.
  • Papillary carcinomas have significantly increased.
  • They accounted for 74% of all cases of thyroid cancers in 1973 and 87% in 2003.
  • During this period, the incidence rate of papillary carcinoma (including the follicular variant) increased by 189%, the rate of follicular carcinoma remained stable, and the rate of anaplastic carcinoma decreased by 22%.
  • The rate of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma alone increased by 173%.
  • Thyroid cancer was more common in whites than in blacks and in females more than in males.
  • Papillary carcinomas rapidly increased during adolescence and reached a peak around age 52-56, then declined.
  • Follicular carcinomas increased steadily, but at a lower rate until age 80.
  • After 1988, both papillary and follicular carcinomas, less than 2 cm, increased at the same rate as carcinomas larger than 2 cm.
  • However, papillary carcinomas less than 2 cm were more common.
  • Overall, the 10-year relative survival rate was greater than 90% for blacks and whites with the exception of follicular carcinoma in blacks.
  • The 10-year relative survival rate for anaplastic carcinoma in patients over 40 years of age was 4.7%.
  • The decrease in incidence rate of anaplastic carcinoma may be the result of the successful treatment of papillary and follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma, Papillary. Thyroid Neoplasms


36. Schlumberger M, Hitzel A, Toubert ME, Corone C, Troalen F, Schlageter MH, Claustrat F, Koscielny S, Taieb D, Toubeau M, Bonichon F, Borson-Chazot F, Leenhardt L, Schvartz C, Dejax C, Brenot-Rossi I, Torlontano M, Tenenbaum F, Bardet S, Bussière F, Girard JJ, Morel O, Schneegans O, Schlienger JL, Prost A, So D, Archambeaud F, Ricard M, Benhamou E: Comparison of seven serum thyroglobulin assays in the follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jul;92(7):2487-95
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. THYROGLOBULIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of seven serum thyroglobulin assays in the follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is the marker of differentiated thyroid cancer after initial treatment and TSH stimulation increases its sensitivity for the diagnosis of recurrent disease.
  • AIM: The goal of the study is to compare the diagnostic values of seven methods for serum Tg measurement for detecting recurrent disease both during L-T4 treatment and after TSH stimulation.
  • METHODS: Thyroid cancer patients who had no evidence of persistent disease after initial treatment (total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation) were studied at 3 months on L-T4 treatment (Tg1) and then at 9-12 months after withdrawal or recombinant human TSH stimulation (Tg2).
  • Using the two methods with a lowest functional sensitivity at 0.02 and 0.11 ng/ml resulted in a higher sensitivity for Tg1 (81% and 78%), but at the expense of a loss of specificity (42% and 63%); finally, for these two methods, using an optimized functional sensitivity according to receiver operating characteristic curves at 0.22 and 0.27 ng/ml resulted in a sensitivity at 65% and specificity at 85-87% for Tg1.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Chemistry, Clinical / methods. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov;3(11):738-9 [17700550.001]
  • (PMID = 17426102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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37. Kumar A, Nadig M, Patra V, Srivastava DN, Verma K, Bal CS: Adrenal and renal metastases from follicular thyroid cancer. Br J Radiol; 2005 Nov;78(935):1038-41
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  • [Title] Adrenal and renal metastases from follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer may have asymptomatic involvement of renal and/or adrenal gland, particularly if they are elderly and have associated metastases to other organs, which may remain undetected if these patients are not subjected to radioiodine treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery


38. Penna-Martinez M, Ramos-Lopez E, Stern J, Hinsch N, Hansmann ML, Selkinski I, Grünwald F, Vorländer C, Wahl RA, Bechstein WO, Zeuzem S, Holzer K, Badenhoop K: Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Jun;19(6):623-8
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  • [Title] Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • To investigate the role of the VDR gene and its influence on 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plasma levels in thyroid carcinoma, we analyzed four VDR polymorphisms in patients and healthy controls (HC).
  • METHODS: Patients with thyroid carcinoma (n = 172) (n = 132 for papillary and n = 40 for follicular) and HC (n = 321) were genotyped for the ApaI (rs7975232), TaqI (rs731236), BsmI (rs1544410), and FokI (rs10735810) polymorphisms within the VDR gene and correlated with 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plasma levels.
  • RESULTS: The genotypes AA of the ApaI (rs7975232) and FF of the FokI (rs10735810) polymorphisms were significantly less frequent (12.5% vs. 35.2% and 25% vs. 42.1%, respectively, both corrected p [p(c)] = 0.04) in patients with follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) than in HC.
  • Additionally, the haplotypes, Ta (57.5% vs. 41.4%; p(c) = 0.0207), af (24.6% vs. 14.3%; p(c) = 0.0116), Tab (51.1% vs. 36.8%; p(c) = 0.0495), and Tabf (18.7% vs. 13.6%; p(c) = 0.0240) were more frequent, whereas the haplotypes AF (17.1% vs. 37.2%; p(c) = 0.0008), BF (11.4% vs. 31.9%; p(c) = 0.012), tF (7.9% vs. 25.5%; p(c) = 0.0016), and tABF (7.6% vs. 23%; p(c) = 0.0115) were less frequent in the FTC patients compared to HC.
  • Neither genotype nor haplotype frequencies differed between patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and HC.
  • Further, individuals with PTC and FTC had a significantly lower level of circulating 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) compared to controls.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lower circulating levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) are observed in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Further, while the alleles AA and FF of the ApaI (rs7975232) and FokI (rs10735810) VDR polymorphisms and the haplotype tABF confer to protection from follicular carcinoma, the haplotype Tabf appeared to be associated with an increased FTC risk.
  • Since this is the first report associating VDR polymorphisms with thyroid carcinoma, these findings need to be confirmed in studies with larger numbers of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics. Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoantibodies / immunology. Calcifediol / metabolism. Calcitriol / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Female. Genotype. Haplotypes. Humans. Male. Neutrophil Infiltration. Thyroid Gland / immunology. Vitamin D / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19499989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; P6YZ13C99Q / Calcifediol
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39. Matuszczyk A, Petersenn S, Bockisch A, Gorges R, Sheu SY, Veit P, Mann K: Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Mar;40(3):210-3
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .

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  • [Title] Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • Twenty-two patients (mean age 61) with metastasizing, progressive, nonradioiodine-accumulating thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium were treated with doxorubicin between 2000 and 2005.
  • Tumors were histologically classified as follicular in 15 patients (68%) and papillary in 7 patients (32%).
  • In addition, nine patients (mean age 51 years) with medullary thyroid carcinoma were treated with doxorubicin between 1997 and 2005.
  • In patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma, 5% had a partial regression over 6 months, 42% had stable disease for a median of 7 months (range: 1-22), and 53% had continuous progression established over 5 months (range: 1-11).
  • In patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, 11% had a partial regression over 6 months followed by stable disease for 3 months, 11% had stable disease over 7 months, and 79% demonstrated progressive disease established over 5 months (range: 2-12).
  • Doxorubicin can be a valid chemotherapy option, especially for advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18348081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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40. Schmid KW, Farid NR: How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma? Virchows Arch; 2006 Apr;448(4):385-93
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  • [Title] How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma?
  • The appropriate diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) still depends on its histological discrimination from follicular adenoma (including the distinction of benign from malignant oncocytic variants), papillary thyroid carcinoma (particularly from the follicular variants) and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • The use of immunohistochemical markers contributed only marginally to better defining FTC.
  • The introduction of the micro array technique, however, may offer the possibility of getting a better insight into the natural history, as well as predicting the clinical course, of a given thyroid nodule.
  • This review attempts to recapitulate common standards in the diagnosis of FTC, to summarise current molecular data available to distinguish FTC from other benign and malignant tumours and, finally, to outline future perspectives to define FTC on its specific genetic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Protein Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16506015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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41. Hassan I, Wunderlich A, Slater E, Hoffmann S, Celik I, Zielke A: Antisense p53 decreases production of VEGF in follicular thyroid cancer cells. Endocrine; 2006 Jun;29(3):409-12
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  • [Title] Antisense p53 decreases production of VEGF in follicular thyroid cancer cells.
  • Inactivating mutations of wild-type p53 (WTp53) tumor suppressor gene are common in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and are associated with poor prognosis.
  • Therefore, the potential of MTp53 knockout by oligodeoxyribonucleotide phosphorothioates (ODNs) to affect VEGF production of undifferentiated thyroid cancer cells with a recessive MTp53 mutation was evaluated.
  • Transient transfection with 20 bp ODNs complementary to portions of exon 10 of p53 and a negative control ODN (HIV-RT) were carried out in FTC-133 cells.
  • In vitro secretion of VEGF protein was quantified by EIA and correlated to cell numbers, which was evaluated by in vitro MTT assay.
  • Transfection of undifferentiated thyroid cancer cells with ODN reduced VEGF secretion of FTC-133 cells following transfection by 34% as compared to the negative control (cells transfected with ODN-HIV; p = 0.03).
  • These results suggest that transient MTp53 knockout with ODNs complementary to p53 nucleotide sequences impair secretion of VEGF in the undifferentiated thyroid cancer cell line FTC-133.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Gene Silencing / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Survival. Humans. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / metabolism. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16943578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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42. Yamamoto S, Tomita Y, Uruno T, Hoshida Y, Qiu Y, Iizuka N, Nakamichi I, Miyauchi A, Aozasa K: Increased expression of valosin-containing protein (p97) is correlated with disease recurrence in follicular thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Nov;12(11):925-34
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  • [Title] Increased expression of valosin-containing protein (p97) is correlated with disease recurrence in follicular thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is involved in the ubiquitin/proteasome-degradation pathway, which works in proliferation and antiapoptosis in human cancer cells.
  • Our previous study showed that VCP expression levels correlated with the recurrence and prognosis of several human cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and colorectal carcinoma.
  • In this study, the correlation of VCP expression with the prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined.
  • METHODS: VCP expression in 332 patients who underwent operation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma--257 with papillary thyroid carcinoma and 75 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC)--was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
  • However, it correlated with neither any clinicopathologic factor nor prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • VCP expression correlated with extrathyroidal extension (P < .05), pT classification (P < .05), and lymph node metastasis (P < .01) in FTC.
  • Patients with low VCP expressing FTC showed better disease-free and overall survival rates than those with intermediate or high expression (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed VCP expression and extracapsular extension to be independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival in cases of FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic utility of VCP expression in FTC was demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphatases. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16189643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / CDC48 protein
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43. Morrison PJ, Atkinson AB: Genetic aspects of familial thyroid cancer. Oncologist; 2009 Jun;14(6):571-7
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  • [Title] Genetic aspects of familial thyroid cancer.
  • Familial thyroid cancer is rare, accounting for <10% of thyroid cancer cases.
  • Activating germline point mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A, 2B, and familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC)-around 3% of thyroid cancer cases.
  • Familial papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) have been identified as a distinct group of familial thyroid cancers.
  • Sporadic nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) accounts for approximately 90% of all thyroid cancers-about 6% of NMTCs are familial (FNMTC).
  • Although multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B and FMTC are well characterized, very little is known about the genetic predisposition to PTC and FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19465682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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44. Lin JD, Chao TC: Follicular thyroid carcinoma: From diagnosis to treatment. Endocr J; 2006 Aug;53(4):441-8
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid carcinoma: From diagnosis to treatment.
  • Unusual presentations with bone, lung or soft tissue metastases in initial diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma have been reported occasionally.
  • This implies how difficult it is to diagnosis this type of cancer at the pre-operative or intra-operative stage of treatment.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology has been shown to be an ineffective method for diagnosing vascular or capsule invasion of follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Clinical application of various gene expressions in thyroid follicular tumors by needle aspiration using in situ hybridization requires further investigation.
  • Although radioactive iodide (131I) has been used as the standard treatment for follicular thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases, the effectiveness of 131I treatment for follicular thyroid carcinoma depends on the differentiation of cancer cells.
  • The possibility of 131I for thyroid remnant ablation replacing a secondary operation for follicular thyroid carcinoma has been debated.
  • Recent studies applied more expressions of sodium iodide symporters to attain the effect of 131I treatment and slow the proliferation of thyroid cancer cell which, in turn, slows the progression of follicular carcinoma.
  • Consensus for the surgical procedures for the specific prognostic risks for follicular thyroid carcinoma is needed.
  • Dedifferentiated, anti-angiogenic, or gene therapies for follicular thyroid cancer with distant metastases or anaplastic transformation comprise the principal directions in future research for this cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16807500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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45. Krishnamurthy A, Vaidhyanathan A, Krishna KR: Metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma to the maxillary sinus. Indian J Nucl Med; 2010 Oct;25(4):168-70
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  • [Title] Metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma to the maxillary sinus.
  • Thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the paranasal sinuses is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of follicular thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the right maxillary sinus, with extension into the right side of the hard palate in a young lady.
  • She continues to be on follow-up on Eltroxin™ suppression and has remained disease free for the past 4 ½ years.

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  • [Cites] Laryngoscope. 1963 Jul;73:942-53 [14043146.001]
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  • (PMID = 21712913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of nuclear medicine : IJNM : the official journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3109825
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Distant metastasis / paranasal sinuses / thyroid neoplasms
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46. Chen PV, Osborne R, Ahn E, Avitia S, Juillard G: Adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy in patients with high-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Jul;88(7):E01
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  • [Title] Adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy in patients with high-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • The role of adjuvant external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in well-differentiated thyroid cancer is not well delineated.
  • Many clinicians rely solely on iodine 131 (131I) to destroy thyroid remnants following thyroidectomy.
  • However, the lesser uptake of isotope in tumor cells suggests that 131I alone may not be sufficient to eradicate microscopic residual disease when no gross thyroid tissue remains.
  • We conducted a retrospective study to examine the potential benefit of adjuvant EBRT in patients at high risk for microscopic residual disease following thyroidectomy.
  • Between 1973 and 2001, 44 patients with well-differentiated papillary or follicular thyroid cancer were found to have extracapsular extension following thyroidectomy.
  • These patients were divided into 2 groups based on the type of treatment; 11 patients had received adjuvant EBRT (with or without 131I) and 33 patients had not received EBRT (i.e., they received adjuvant 131I only).
  • We hypothesize that a reciprocal irradiation effect between cancer cells and normal cells may be necessary in order for 131I to be tumoricidal.
  • If so, a patient with microscopic residual disease would not have enough cancer cells to sufficiently concentrate 131I.
  • Because EBRT does not depend on such a mechanism, it may be more effective than 131I in controlling disease in the setting of microscopic disease.
  • In the meantime, we believe that adjuvant EBRT should play an important role in the treatment of patients with high-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19623515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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47. Sawka AM, Brierley JD, Tsang RW, Thabane L, Rotstein L, Gafni A, Straus S, Goldstein DP: An updated systematic review and commentary examining the effectiveness of radioactive iodine remnant ablation in well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;37(2):457-80, x
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  • [Title] An updated systematic review and commentary examining the effectiveness of radioactive iodine remnant ablation in well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Radioactive iodine remnant ablation (RRA) is used to destroy residual normal thyroid tissue after complete gross surgical resection of papillary or follicular thyroid cancer.
  • The article updates a prior systematic review of the literature to determine whether RRA decreases the risk of thyroid cancer-related death or recurrence at 10 years after initial surgery, including data from 28 studies.
  • The incremental benefit of RRA in low risk patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer after total or near-total thyroidectomy who are receiving thyroid hormone suppressive therapy remains unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18502337.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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48. Zhu X, Sun T, Lu H, Zhou X, Lu Y, Cai X, Zhu X: Diagnostic significance of CK19, RET, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression for papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Sep;63(9):786-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic significance of CK19, RET, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • AIMS: To evaluate CK19, RET, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and to evaluate their diagnostic significance.
  • METHODS: 155 PTC specimens and 83 other diseased-thyroid specimens were collected.
  • The expression of these markers, particularly CK19 and RET, was diffuse and strong in the papillary structure of PTC, but weak and focal in the papilla of tissue with benign disease.
  • The expression of CK19 in follicular PTC was significantly higher than in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: CK19, RET, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in PTC was higher than that in benign disease cases, but these were not specific markers for PTC.
  • In summary, combining markers can increase the reliability and differential diagnosis of PTC.
  • It is also worth noting that CK19 was very useful not only for the differentiation of benign and malignant papillary structure but also for the differential diagnosis of follicular PTC and FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Humans. Keratin-19 / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20644217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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49. Yalcin M, Bharali DJ, Dyskin E, Dier E, Lansing L, Mousa SS, Davis FB, Davis PJ, Mousa SA: Tetraiodothyroacetic acid and tetraiodothyroacetic acid nanoparticle effectively inhibit the growth of human follicular thyroid cell carcinoma. Thyroid; 2010 Mar;20(3):281-6
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  • [Title] Tetraiodothyroacetic acid and tetraiodothyroacetic acid nanoparticle effectively inhibit the growth of human follicular thyroid cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) is a deaminated analogue of L-thyroxine that blocks the actions of L-thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine at the cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone on integrin alpha v beta 3.
  • Tetrac blocks the proliferative effects of thyroid hormone on tumor cells and the proangiogenesis actions of the hormone.
  • In the absence of thyroid hormone, tetrac also blocks angiogenesis induced by various growth factors.
  • Covalently linked to poly(lactide-co-glycolide), tetrac nanoparticles (tetrac NP) do not gain access to the cell interior and act exclusively at the integrin receptor.
  • Here, the activity of tetrac and tetrac NP against follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC)-236 cells was studied in two models:.
  • (1) tumor cell implants in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) system and (2) xenografts in the nude mouse.
  • METHODS: FTC-236 cells (10(6)) were implanted in the CAM (n = 8 each for control, and for tetrac and tetrac NP, both at 1 microg/CAM) and the actions of tetrac and tetrac NP were determined after 8 days on tumor-related angiogenesis and tumor growth.
  • Xenografts of 10(7) FTC-236 cells were implanted in nude mice (n = 8 per group).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tetrac and tetrac NP effectively arrest FTC-236 cell tumor growth in the CAM and xenograft models, suggesting its potential utility against FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Nanoparticles. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroxine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Chick Embryo. Chorioallantoic Membrane / drug effects. Chorioallantoic Membrane / pathology. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20187783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] PA7UX1FFYQ / tetraiodothyroacetic acid; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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50. Wang W, Ozolek JA, Rohde GK: Detection and classification of thyroid follicular lesions based on nuclear structure from histopathology images. Cytometry A; 2010 May;77(5):485-94
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  • [Title] Detection and classification of thyroid follicular lesions based on nuclear structure from histopathology images.
  • Follicular lesions of the thyroid are traditionally difficult and tedious challenges in diagnostic surgical pathology in part due to lack of obvious discriminatory cytological and microarchitectural features.
  • We describe a computerized method to detect and classify follicular adenoma of the thyroid, follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, and normal thyroid based on the nuclear chromatin distribution from digital images of tissue obtained by routine histological methods.
  • Unlike previous attempts in detecting and classifying these thyroid lesions using computational imaging, our results show that our method can automatically classify the data pertaining to 10 different human cases with 100% accuracy after blind cross validation using at most 43 nuclei randomly selected from each patient.
  • We conclude that nuclear structure alone contains enough information to automatically classify the normal thyroid, follicular carcinoma, and follicular adenoma, as long as groups of nuclei (instead of individual ones) are used.
  • We also conclude that the distribution of nuclear size and chromatin concentration (how tightly packed it is) seem to be discriminating features between nuclei of follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and normal thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / classification. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20099247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4930
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R21 GM088816; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R21 GM088816-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS203309; NLM/ PMC3010854
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51. Sillery JC, Reading CC, Charboneau JW, Henrichsen TL, Hay ID, Mandrekar JN: Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jan;194(1):44-54
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate sonography of thyroid follicular neoplasms for features that would aid in distinguishing follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma and for any imaging features that distinguish the Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma from classic follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of patients with the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma and patients with the diagnosis of follicular adenoma.
  • Fifty patients (25 men and 25 women; median age, 59.5 years) with a diagnosis of follicular carcinoma (27 with classic follicular carcinoma, 22 with Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma, and one insular variant) in a 6-year period were included.
  • Fifty-two control patients (10 men and 42 women; median age, 46.5 years) were selected from a random sampling of all cases of follicular adenoma during the same time period.
  • All study patients and control patients underwent surgical resection and pathologic analysis of their thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Hypoechoic appearance (82% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 50% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; odds ratio [OR]), 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7), absence of halo (64% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 42% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9), absence of cystic change (90% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 69% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), greater patient age (median age of 59.5 years for follicular carcinoma patients vs 46.5 years for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), size of the tumor (median size of 11.75 mL for follicular carcinoma patients vs 5.95 mL for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), and male sex (50% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 19.2% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.9) were more frequently associated with follicular thyroid cancer than with benign adenoma.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, homogeneous or predominantly homogeneous echotexture (67% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 36% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1-11.4) and the presence of calcifications (22% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 4% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients [multivariate analysis including age]; p < 0.05; OR, 22.9; 95% CI, 2.0-261.9) were associated with classic follicular carcinoma.
  • Greater patient age (median age of 53 years for classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 64.5 years for Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05) was associated with Hürthle-cell variant follicular carcinoma.
  • There was no association between tumor volume, sex, sonographic halo, refractive shadowing, echogenicity, visible invasion, lymph node enlargement, adjacent nonfollicular suspicious lesions, vascularity subtype, and cystic change between the subgroups of follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The sonographic features of follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are very similar, but larger lesion size, lack of a sonographic halo, hypoechoic appearance, and absence of cystic change favored a follicular carcinoma diagnosis.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma is more often seen in older patients with nodules having a heterogeneous appearance and lacking internal calcifications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20028904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Verburg FA, Mäder U, Luster M, Reiners C: Primary tumour diameter as a risk factor for advanced disease features of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Aug;71(2):291-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary tumour diameter as a risk factor for advanced disease features of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between primary tumour size and the risk of advanced disease features (multifocal or locally invasive disease, lymph-node or distant metastases) in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • PATIENTS: The study sample comprised 935 papillary (PTC) and 291 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) patients treated in our hospital from 1978 to 2007.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Kaplan-Meier analyses and log-rank tests were performed to calculate tumour size-adjusted cumulative risk of advanced disease features.
  • RESULTS: Accounting for primary tumour diameter, there were no significant differences in cumulative risks of multifocal carcinoma (P = 0.12) or distant metastases (P = 0.49) between PTC and FTC.
  • The cumulative risk of local invasion or lymph-node metastases in PTC and of distant metastases in DTC increased exponentially at a threshold tumour diameter of 10 mm.
  • In FTC, lymph-node metastases are associated almost exclusively with primary tumours showing extrathyroidal growth.
  • The current classification of carcinomas < 2 cm as T1 is therefore questionable.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplastic Processes. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19067727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Alfalah H, Cranshaw I, Jany T, Arnalsteen L, Leteurtre E, Cardot C, Pattou F, Carnaille B: Risk factors for lateral cervical lymph node involvement in follicular thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2008 Dec;32(12):2623-6
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  • [Title] Risk factors for lateral cervical lymph node involvement in follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) are usually blood borne and far less to lymph nodes (LN).
  • The present study was designed to evaluate the factors that are associated with LN metastases in patients operated on for FTC.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 70 patients (25 men; mean age, 47 (range, 14-92) years) operated on between January 1995 and December 2005 for FTC was undertaken.
  • Comparing data from the patients with and without LN metastases, respectively, age was 60 and 47 years (p = 0.12), male/female ratio was 1/4 and 24/41 (p = 0.44), tumor size was 68 and 37 mm (p < 0.01), tumor differentiation (well/moderate) was 3/2 and 25/19 (p = 0.89), distant metastases were detected in 1 and 8 cases (p = 0.72) .The tumor size was >40 mm in 35 (50%) patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Follicular thyroid carcinoma results in metastases to regional lymph nodes in 7% of cases but only to the ipsilateral neck side.
  • We do not recommend lymph node dissection in follicular thyroid carcinomas <4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18813971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Alzaraa A, Stone J, Williams G, Ahmed I, Quraishi M: Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:297

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings.
  • Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein.

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  • (PMID = 18782440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2542402
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55. Takano T, Miyauchi A, Ito Y, Amino N: Thyroxine to triiodothyronine hyperconversion thyrotoxicosis in patients with large metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2006 Jun;16(6):615-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LIOTHYRONINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroxine to triiodothyronine hyperconversion thyrotoxicosis in patients with large metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We experienced two cases of follicular thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases, which showed high levels of free triiodothyronine (T(3)) while free thyroxine (T(4)) levels remained in the low or normal range.
  • In this report, we described the detail of these cases and examined the cause of T(3) thyrotoxicosis.
  • MAIN OUTCOME: In the both tissues, types I and II iodothyronine deiodinase mRNAs were expressed in the same level as in the normal thyroid tissues.
  • In the follow-up of patients with distant metastases of follicular carcinoma, not only free T(4), but also free T(3) should be tested to avoid the excessive administration of levothyroxine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyrotoxicosis / complications. Thyroxine / metabolism. Triiodothyronine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16839265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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56. Hesse E, Musholt PB, Potter E, Petrich T, Wehmeier M, von Wasielewski R, Lichtinghagen R, Musholt TJ: Oncofoetal fibronectin--a tumour-specific marker in detecting minimal residual disease in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2005 Sep 5;93(5):565-70
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oncofoetal fibronectin--a tumour-specific marker in detecting minimal residual disease in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Supposedly, thyrocyte-specific transcripts such as thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) were proposed to be useful for the diagnosis of circulating tumour cells in patients suffering from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • Therefore, expression analyses for Tg, TSH-R, cytokeratin 19 (CK 19), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and oncofoetal fibronectin (onfFN) were carried out using cDNAs derived from (1) leukocyte fractions, (2) 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 48 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), and (3) leukocytes of two thyrocyte-depleted individuals treated for C-cell carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Expression of onfFN was additionally analysed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and by quantitative fluorescence-based real-time PCR.
  • CK 19 was notable in each leukocyte population except for resting CD14(+), as well as for activated and resting CD19+ cells.
  • All blood cell fractions proved negative for onfFN mRNA, whereas its presence in thyroid carcinoma was 78/98% (FTC/PTC).
  • Threshold cycle values were calculated at: porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) = 25.95+/-0.73 (FTC)/24.55+/-5.43 (PTC) (P = 0.2878); onfFN = 25.48+/-3.15 (FTC)/21.44+/-3.44 (PTC) (*P = 0.0001).
  • We propose that real-time RT-PCR of onfFN mRNA is superior to other markers in monitoring minimal residual disease in DTC with regard to both assay sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Fibronectins. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Keratins / genetics. Keratins / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / blood. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Receptors, Thyrotropin / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Telomerase / genetics. Telomerase / metabolism. Thyroglobulin / genetics. Thyroglobulin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16091757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 0 / oncofetal fibronectin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361602
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57. Hassan I, Wunderlich A, Burchert A, Hoffmann S, Zielke A: Antisense p53 oligonucleotides inhibit proliferation and induce chemosensitivity in follicular thyroid cancer cells. Anticancer Res; 2006 Mar-Apr;26(2A):1171-6
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antisense p53 oligonucleotides inhibit proliferation and induce chemosensitivity in follicular thyroid cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: The potential of MTp53 knockout by oligodesoxyribonucleotide phosphothioates (ODNs) to affect proliferation, apoptosis and chemosensitivity in undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) cells with a recessive MTp53 mutation was evaluated.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transient transfections with ODNs complementary to p53 and control ODN (HIV-RT) were carried out in FTC 133 cells.
  • In vitro proliferation was evaluated by cell counting of 10 random fields and by the MTT assay.
  • A single pulse of 100 microg/ml Cytarabine was added to each well and the cells were incubated for an additional day.
  • RESULTS: Transfection of UTC cells with ODN decreased the cell number by up to 70% (p < 0.002).
  • ODNs rendered FTC cells sensitive to treatment with Cytarabine, inducing apoptosis in 35% of cells, as compared to 17% of cells transfected with the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV (ODN-HIV) and less than 10% of non-transfected cells (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Transient MTp53 knockout with ODNs complementary to p53 nucleotide sequences inhibited proliferation and increased chemosensitivity in the UTC cell line FTC133.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Genes, p53. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / genetics. Cell Growth Processes / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / pharmacology. Humans. Point Mutation. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 16619520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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58. Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu AY, Vargas L, Goicochea P, Casapía M, Guanira-Carranza JV, Ramirez-Cardich ME, Montoya-Herrera O, Fernández T, Veloso VG, Buchbinder SP, Chariyalertsak S, Schechter M, Bekker LG, Mayer KH, Kallás EG, Amico KR, Mulligan K, Bushman LR, Hance RJ, Ganoza C, Defechereux P, Postle B, Wang F, McConnell JJ, Zheng JH, Lee J, Rooney JF, Jaffe HS, Martinez AI, Burns DN, Glidden DV, iPrEx Study Team: Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med; 2010 Dec 30;363(27):2587-99
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We randomly assigned 2499 HIV-seronegative men or transgender women who have sex with men to receive a combination of two oral antiretroviral drugs, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC-TDF), or placebo once daily.
  • Of these subjects, 10 were found to have been infected with HIV at enrollment, and 100 became infected during follow-up (36 in the FTC-TDF group and 64 in the placebo group), indicating a 44% reduction in the incidence of HIV (95% confidence interval, 15 to 63; P=0.005).
  • In the FTC-TDF group, the study drug was detected in 22 of 43 of seronegative subjects (51%) and in 3 of 34 HIV-infected subjects (9%) (P<0.001).
  • Nausea was reported more frequently during the first 4 weeks in the FTC-TDF group than in the placebo group (P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oral FTC-TDF provided protection against the acquisition of HIV infection among the subjects.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Drug Resistance, Viral. Drug Therapy, Combination. Emtricitabine. Follow-Up Studies. HIV / genetics. HIV / isolation & purification. HIV Antibodies / blood. HIV Seropositivity / diagnosis. Humans. Incidence. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Patient Compliance. RNA, Viral / blood. Tenofovir. Transsexualism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21091279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00458393
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI064002-07; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI84735; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI64002; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI084735; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-04S3; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI062333-08; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI084735-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI062333; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI064002
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / HIV Antibodies; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 99YXE507IL / Tenofovir; G70B4ETF4S / Emtricitabine; JAC85A2161 / Adenine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS264954; NLM/ PMC3079639
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Vergara J; Zegarra P; Guanira JV; Ramirez ME; Aoki N; Brandes P; Calderon J; Callirgos C; Caro H; Castillo L; Castillo R; Castro L; Centenaro J; Cevallos O; Chang C; Del Castillo M; Dextre J; Diaz A; Espinoza J; Estacio J; Farfan M; Flores D; Galvez V; Ganoza C; Garcia N; Garrido M; Guerra O; Guevara ME; Huisa M; Ibañez G; Izquierdo I; Jimenez A; Juarez J; Jurupe J; Kochiu S; Lacherre M; Mantilla P; Mejia G; Meneses M; Minaya S; Mispireta S; Negron R; Noda N; Ojeda J; Padilla I; Palomino E; Peceros A; Piña P; Popuche D; Quijano E; Quino A; Quispe I; Quispe L; Ramirez B; Ramos E; Rojas G; Rojas P; Rosas G; Rosas R; Salinas C; Salinas M; Salvatierra J; Sanchez C; Sanchez L; Sanchez P; Sosa K; Soto J; Suarez Mdel C; Talaverano A; Tataje A; Tirado R; Troncos G; Urday R; Velarde E; Verastegui M; Villanueva K; Ygnacio E; Ynguil M; Casapia Morales WM; Baldeon Rios JL; Alva Montoya A; Alva Salas E; Alvarado Alvarado D; Antinori Jaen KI; Ayapi Vasquez NF; Barboza Pizango N; Bernuy Heigghen I; Calixtro Callan MA; 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de Aguiar DF; Alves FB; Branco KV; Brazil JC; Camara DD; da Costa MD; Faulhaber JC; Ferreira SB; Franco R; Gama PS; Garrido RQ; Hammes PC; Hernani F; Januário RJ; de Jesus Junior SC; Leal Nda S; Melo Mde F; da Silva Neto DG; Pedrosa JM; Pimentel LB; Pires Gda C; Ramos FL; Reis Ada M; Sampaio A; dos Santos AO; da Silva AJ; da Silva JR; Tebet NN; Teixeira Bde O; Telles SR; Villard M; Weinstein AL; Kallás EG; Palacios R; Araújo JA; Avelino-Silva VH; Batista AP; Bertevello D; Comello F; Correa LM; Costa PR; Dantas MC; Franco Dde L; Gambôa R; Giret MT; Menezes e Gonçalves DC; Kalil J; Kondo KT; Leal FE; Litvoc M; Maciel Ada S; Magalhães LC; Marques MH; Mathias A; de Medeiros EA; Miraglia JL; Nakagawa ZM; Paro AH; Pennachin F; Pinheiro AM; Rebelo R; Russo RT; Saraiva A; Sauer MM; Silva IM; Tarosso LF; Tomiyama H; Buchbinder S; Liu A; Gilmore HJ; Murphy K; Adams C; Arista P; Asencios JC; Blue R; Carroll S; Colvano S; Cook A; Day E; Diaz A; Faber E; Farley J; Fields S; Fuchs J; Funk S; Futeral A; Goldman M; Grant S; Holland S; Huffaker S; Irby R; Jones T; Joseph C; Koester A; Lam J; Langdon R; Levi M; Liu-Bell C; Lubensky D; Lucas L; Malloy D; Martin B; Martin Q; Matheson T; Moore C; Morrow-Hall G; Nalos AD; Nehira J; O'Campo J; Perez B; Perkins C; Quinones R; Sera R; Silberman S; Soto M; Teague A; Temelso T; Van B; White J; Wong DN; Ycasas JC; Mayer K; Chianese C; Trufant J; Alinsug C; Box M; Cole SL; Dargon J; Dunham E; Fallon M; Gelman M; Lao S; Marquez V; Maynard J; Miele R; O'Brien W; Panther L; Pechukas A; Ripton J; Rogers S; Tu D; Vanderwalker R; Chariyalertsak S; Saokhieo P; Nimsakul S; Boursuk K; Bunsoy P; Chariyalertsak C; Charuwat C; Chotirosniramit N; Chunpen K; Dokuta S; Guarnacci T; Jaithapeang K; Jongpaijitsakul P; Kaewkosaba C; Kaewpoowat Q; Kaibuddhiwat M; Keawvichit R; Ketdechar P; Khamdam P; Koottathep S; Kosashunhanan N; Kosashunhanan N; Larplertsakul A; Linpisarn S; Maneerat S; Manoyos V; Namwongprom S; Nonraban T; Panyawong P; Pasawad W; Phutthitada R; Rungruengthanakit K; Somnoi P; Songsupa R; Sroysuwan P; Sugandhaveha P; Supindham T; Techajal T; Thetket S; Tunjalern S; Tuntivate P; Visrutaratna S; Waropassagone G; Wongsrithep S; Wongthanee A; Wongworapat K; Wonkulab P; Yangnoi A; Yiamwanichaphong M; Bekker LG; Chodacki P; Scheibe A; Batist E; Frieslich H; Hosken C; Brown B; Burrell E; Farrow M; Forune N; Gcwabe L; Heiberg C; Hoffman C; Kanyemba B; Killa N; Kocsis K; Macclachla M; Machlachlan; Mannie S; Margeman A; Mark D; Mkangel M; Ndevu S; Ndobongwana C; Ndzuzo D; Nelson B; Panda B; Peters A; Qumaba M; Snyder K; Stuurman B; Fields S; Glidden D; Manzo J; McCulloch C; Mulligan K; Page K; Shiboski S; Wang F; Ahn T; Annis J; Browne L; Callies B; Carlson E; Chen D; Coblentz D; Houx P; Huff B; Larson B; Marshall T; McDonnell P; Olsen C; Ondrejcek L; Pahl D; Plusquellec S; Post J; Postle B; Prencipe J; Radkey G; Shea T; Shelhorn P; Sims A; Tran A; Van Dalfsen D; Zhang B; Bischofberger N; Clark R; Habr A; Jaffe H; Martin JC; Pfister S; Poblenz M; Rooney JF; Said F; Wulfsohn M; Young W; Burns D; Castillo B; Chow G; Csedrik J; Dieffenbach C; Dixon DO; Fanning M; Kouda A; Martinez A; Mathias C; O'Callahan M; Payton M; Proschan M; Ruiz M; Sharma U; Smith B; Zwerski S; Ferinde J; Putta N; Becker S; Eakle R; Ridzon R; Sakrison K
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59. Avihingsanon A, Lewin SR, Kerr S, Chang JJ, Piyawat K, Napissanant N, Matthews GV, Dore GJ, Bowden S, Lange J, Ruxrungtham K: Efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine compared with emtricitabine alone in antiretroviral-naive HIV-HBV coinfection in Thailand. Antivir Ther; 2010;15(6):917-22
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Coinfection with Hepatitis Viruses and HIV .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Therapy for chronic hepatitis B with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC) or emtricitabine (FTC) is currently recommended for HIV-HBV coinfection.
  • However, there is limited randomized data on the efficacy of combined therapy with TDF and FTC, especially in antiretroviral (ARV)-naive patients.
  • METHODS: This was a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of HBV monotherapy with FTC versus TDF/FTC combination therapy in ARV-naive HIV-HBV coinfection.
  • HIV-HBV-coinfected patients initiating ARV were randomized to either FTC/zidovudine/efavirenz (EFV; n=6) or TDF/FTC/EFV (n=10).
  • The primary end point was the time-weighted area under the curve (TWAUC) of HBV DNA at 48 weeks.
  • RESULTS: The median baseline CD4(+) T-cell count was 64 cells/μl (interquartile range [IQR] 36-172), plasma HIV type-1 RNA was 4.90 log(10) copies/ml (IQR 4.58-5.44) and plasma HBV DNA was 8.76 log(10) copies/ml (IQR -8.45-8.82).
  • The median TWAUC decrease in HBV DNA was -5.32 log(10) copies/ml in the TDF/FTC group compared with -3.25 log(10) copies/ml in the FTC group (P=0.03).
  • At week 48, 90% of the TDF/FTC group and 33% of the FTC group had plasma HBV DNA<170 copies/ml (P=0.036, intention-to-treat analysis).
  • CONCLUSIONS: TDF/FTC combination therapy resulted in a significantly greater decrease in HBV DNA than FTC monotherapy, with a greater proportion of patients with undetectable HBV DNA at week 48.
  • Our study supports the current recommendation of ARV containing TDF/FTC as the treatment of choice for patients with HIV-HBV coinfection.

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  • (PMID = 20834105.001).
  • [ISSN] 2040-2058
  • [Journal-full-title] Antiviral therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 99YXE507IL / Tenofovir; G70B4ETF4S / Emtricitabine; JAC85A2161 / Adenine
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60. German P, Warren D, West S, Hui J, Kearney BP: Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of an integrase and novel pharmacoenhancer-containing single-tablet fixed-dose combination regimen for the treatment of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2010 Nov;55(3):323-9
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of elvitegravir (EVG), emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and a investigational pharmacoenhancer, cobicistat (GS-9350, COBI) coformulated as a fixed-dose combination tablet (FDC) compared with ritonavir-boosted EVG and FTC + TDF in healthy subjects.
  • All study treatments were generally well tolerated.
  • Relative to ritonavir-boosted EVG, the geometric least-squares means ratios (GMR) [90% confidence interval (CI)] for EVG area under plasma concentration-time curve from time zero until the end of the dosing interval (AUC)tau, maximum concentration (Cmax), and trough concentration (Ctau) were 118 (110 to 126), 108 (100 to 116), and 110 (95.3 to 127), respectively, with EVG/COBI 150 mg/FTC/TDF.
  • Relative to FTC + TDF, FTC GMR, and 90% CI were 127 (115 to 140) for AUCtau, 121 (107 to 137) for Cmax, and 126 (118 to 136) for Ctau; tenofovir (TFV) GMR and 90% CI were 118 (114 to 122), 130 (122 to 138), and 124 (119 to 129) for AUCtau, Cmax, and Ctau, respectively, with EVG/COBI 150 mg/FTC/TDF.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fixed-dose combination tablet containing COBI 150 mg resulted in desired high EVG Ctau concentrations and clinically equivalent tenofovir and FTC exposures relative to currently approved individual agents and was thus selected for subsequent evaluation.

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  • (PMID = 20683270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7884
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / HIV Integrase Inhibitors; 0 / JTK 303; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / Quinolones; 0 / Tablets; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 99YXE507IL / Tenofovir; EC 2.7.7.- / HIV Integrase; G70B4ETF4S / Emtricitabine; JAC85A2161 / Adenine
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61. Trojanowicz B, Sekulla C, Lorenz K, Köhrle J, Finke R, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C: Proteomic approach reveals novel targets for retinoic acid-mediated therapy of thyroid carcinoma. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Aug 30;325(1-2):110-7
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proteomic approach reveals novel targets for retinoic acid-mediated therapy of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Our previous studies demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA)-induced reduction of both, the key glycolytic enzyme ENO1 and proliferation-promoting c-Myc, resulted in decreased vitality and invasiveness of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines FTC-133 and FTC-238.
  • The same proteins investigated on thyroid tissues were found to be significantly up-regulated in follicular, papillary and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas when compared with goiter and adenoma tissues.
  • These findings identify new target proteins for RA-mediated anti-tumor and re-differentiation therapies and provide novel insights into treatments for thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Pharmacological / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Male. Metabolome. Middle Aged. Proteomics. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20538039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Pharmacological; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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62. Sugitani I, Toda K, Yamamoto N, Sakamoto A, Fujimoto Y: Re-evaluation of histopathological factors affecting prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in an iodine-sufficient country. World J Surg; 2010 Jun;34(6):1265-73
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Re-evaluation of histopathological factors affecting prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in an iodine-sufficient country.
  • BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) was recognized as an independent clinicohistological entity of thyroid cancer in the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classifications, separated from papillary (PTC) and follicular carcinoma (FTC).
  • The Turin proposal provides more specific criteria for the diagnosis of PDTC.
  • However, in an iodine-sufficient country such as Japan, PDTC comprises <1% of all thyroid cancers.
  • In 1983, Sakamoto analyzed pathological characteristics of PTC and FTC that recurred within 5 years after initial surgery and identified solid, trabecular, insular (STI) and scirrhous growth patterns as important predictors of poor prognosis.
  • We re-evaluated the impact of histopathological findings on the clinical course of PTC and FTC.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens from 376 consecutive cases diagnosed as PTC (n = 351) or FTC (n = 25) between 1994 and 2001 were reviewed.
  • Disease-free survival was identical between these groups and was significantly worse than in the >0% but <10% and 0% groups.
  • Ten of 25 PTC patients (40%) with STI >or=10% developed cervical recurrence, whereas 9 of 15 FTC patients (60%) with STI >or=10% showed distant metastasis.
  • Original histological pattern, as papillary or follicular, affects the site of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Iodine. Japan / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Factors. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19953247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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63. Greco A, Borrello MG, Miranda C, Degl'Innocenti D, Pierotti MA: Molecular pathology of differentiated thyroid cancer. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2009 Oct;53(5):440-53
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular pathology of differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy; it accounts for approximately 1% of all new case of cancer each year, and its incidence has increased significantly over the last few decades.
  • The majority of thyroid tumors originate from follicular epithelial cells.
  • Among them, papillary (PTC) and follicular carcinomas (FTC) represent the most common forms of differentiated thyroid cancer and account for approximately 80% and 15% of all cases, respectively.
  • Specific genetic lesions are associated to each thyroid tumor histotype: BRAF mutations and RET/PTC and TRK oncogenes have been detected in PTC, whereas FTC is characterized by PAX8/PPARgamma rearrangements and RAS mutations.
  • In this review we summarize studies on the molecular biology of the differentiated thyroid tumors, with particular interest in the associated genetic lesions and their role in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • We also report recent findings on gene expression and miRNA profiles of PTC and FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19910897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Number-of-references] 108
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64. Coca Pelaz A, Llorente JL, Suárez C: Infratemporal metastasis from occult follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 Jan;20(1):165-7
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  • [Title] Infratemporal metastasis from occult follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • An extremely rare case that has not been reported before is described in which metastasis of a follicular carcinoma of the thyroid is resected from the infratemporal fossa.
  • The patient had not been diagnosed of this thyroid pathology.
  • She underwent a left subtemporal preauricular approach, but after this, she had another subtemporal preauricular approach with total thyroidectomy, a facial translocation by degloving, and an endoscopic surgery, because of a local recurrence, and a sella turcica and sphenoidal sinus metastasis.
  • Surgical excision of metastatic thyroid lesions may be the only effective treatment but always followed by suppression therapy and whole-body iodine I 131 internal radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Cranial Fossa, Middle / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19165017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Qian M, Wang J: [The significance of p63 expression in thyroid neoplasm]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Oct;22(19):888-90, 893
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  • [Title] [The significance of p63 expression in thyroid neoplasm].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the significance of p63 expression in thyroid carcinoma, thyroid papillary carcinoma, thyroid follicular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma in order to find the possible causes of such thyroid-related diseases and if there is some kind of relation among them.
  • METHOD: The expression of p63 was examined in 10 thyroid carcinomas, 20 thyroid papillary carcinomas, 4 thyroid follicular carcinomas, 2 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 medullary thyroid carcinomas using direct immunofluorescence.
  • RESULT: It was shown that p63 expressed in all the thyroid-related diseases mentioned above.
  • In squamous cell carcinoma, p63 has the highest expression and the expression of p63 in thyroid papillary carcinoma has no obvious relationship with the patients age, sex, the size and location of tumor and neoplasm metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: The p63 masculine stem cells in thyroid could be one of the causes of some thyroid papillary carcinomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas.
  • Thyroid papillary carcinoma, thyroid follicular carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma may have similar origins.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 19160863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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66. Scharenberg C, Mannowetz N, Robey RW, Brendel C, Repges P, Sahrhage T, Jähn T, Wennemuth G: ABCG2 is expressed in late spermatogenesis and is associated with the acrosome. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2009 Jan 9;378(2):302-7
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  • Western blot analysis using an anti-ABCG2 antibody revealed expression of a 72kDa band in mature sperm obtained from mice, rats, bulls or humans.
  • Experiments using the Hoechst 33342 ABCG2 substrate and the ABCG2-specific inhibitor FTC demonstrated efflux activity of ABCG2 in mature sperm.
  • Incubation of sperm in capacitating medium in the presence of the ABCG2-inhibitor FTC resulted in decreased cholesterol depletion compared to sperm incubated in the absence of FTC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cattle. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cholesterol / metabolism. Humans. Indoles / pharmacology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Rats

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  • (PMID = 19032939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Abcg2 protein, mouse; 0 / Indoles; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; CW5S8OP3VO / tryptoquivaline
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67. Brownlie B, Mercer P, Turner J, Allison R: Thyroid malignancies: a New Zealand South Island thyroid clinic experience 1995-2006. N Z Med J; 2008 Aug 8;121(1279):36-45
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  • [Title] Thyroid malignancies: a New Zealand South Island thyroid clinic experience 1995-2006.
  • AIM: To assess the number and histological type of thyroid malignancies occurring in the northern half of New Zealand's South Island (referral population of 553,000).
  • METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed thyroid malignancies seen at thyroid clinic, Christchurch Hospital between 1995 and 2006 were identified from the thyroid clinic database, and the histological diagnoses and clinical features were reviewed from hospital records.
  • RESULTS: During the 12-year study period, 213 patients with thyroid malignancy were identified.
  • The majority had thyroid cancer of follicular cell origin--184 differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) and 9 anaplastic thyroid cancers.
  • The DTC patients included 130 with papillary thyroid cancers (PTC)--71%; 33 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC)-18%; and 21 Hurthle cell thyroid cancers (HTC)-11%.
  • One of the papillary cancer patients had a mixed papillary-medullary tumour.
  • The 184 DTC patients included five patients with an immediate family member with thyroid cancer--including a mother-son pair with papillary cancer.
  • Tumours of nonfollicular cell origin included 12 medullary thyroid cancers (6% of primary thyroid malignancies), and all were apparently sporadic, 7 primary thyroid lymphomas, and 2 thyroid metastases.
  • The female-male ratio was >/=2 in all patient groups with primary thyroid malignancies.
  • The median age for both PTC and FTC groups was 48 y, with Hurthle cell, anaplastic, and lymphomas occurring in older patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the 12-year study period the majority (90%) of thyroid malignancies were of follicular cell origin--184 DTC (papillary 130, follicular 33, and Hurthle 21), and 9 anaplastic cancers.
  • Tumours of non-follicular cell origin were uncommon and included medullary cancers, lymphomas, and metastases.
  • Short-term follow up (median 6 y) confirms that anaplastic thyroid cancer is highly malignant, and the only patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with early cancer deaths had presented with advanced disease and were > 55 years at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18709046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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68. Yergeau E, Kowalchuk GA: Responses of Antarctic soil microbial communities and associated functions to temperature and freeze-thaw cycle frequency. Environ Microbiol; 2008 Sep;10(9):2223-35
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  • [Title] Responses of Antarctic soil microbial communities and associated functions to temperature and freeze-thaw cycle frequency.
  • Antarctic soils are subjected to extremely variable conditions in the form of frequent freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs), but the importance of alteration in FTC frequency, compared with increases in average temperature and indirect vegetation-mediated effects on soil microorganisms, is still unknown.
  • The experiments consisted of soil core incubations with or without the overlying vegetation at four different temperatures and six different FTC regimes.
  • We assessed bacterial and fungal density and community structure, as well as the density of several key genes in microbial nutrient cycles using a combination of RNA- and DNA-based molecular fingerprinting and quantitative PCR approaches in addition to enzymatic activity assays.
  • Results showed that bacteria were more affected by warming than by changes in FTC frequency.
  • In contrast, fungal community structure and abundance were mostly influenced by FTC frequency, as well as the presence of vegetation cover.
  • The relative densities of several bacterial gene families involved in key steps of the N-cycle were affected by FTCs, while warming had little or no effect.
  • The FTCs and incubation temperature also strongly influenced laccase enzymatic activity in soil.

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  • (PMID = 18479442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-2920
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Bacterial; 0 / RNA, Fungal; 0 / Soil
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69. Puppin C, Fabbro D, Dima M, Di Loreto C, Puxeddu E, Filetti S, Russo D, Damante G: High periostin expression correlates with aggressiveness in papillary thyroid carcinomas. J Endocrinol; 2008 May;197(2):401-8
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  • [Title] High periostin expression correlates with aggressiveness in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • Periostin is a mesenchyme-specific gene product, which acts as an adhesion molecule during bone formation and supports osteoblastic cell line attachment and spreading.
  • Knowledge of expression of periostin in thyroid tumors is still scanty.
  • The aim of the present work was to investigate periostin expression in differentiated neoplasms of the thyroid and to correlate it with several clinical and molecular features of these tumors.
  • Periostin expression was evaluated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry in normal thyroid tissues, papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), and follicular adenomas (FAs).
  • Periostin mRNA levels were also evaluated in several thyroid tumor cell lines.
  • Conversely, mean periostin mRNA levels of FTCs and FAs were similar to those of normal tissues.
  • Consistent with mRNA studies, periostin was detectable by immunohistochemistry in cancerous epithelial cells only in several cases of PTCs but not in normal tissue, FTCs, and FAs.
  • A negative correlation between periostin and expression of some markers of the thyroid-differentiated phenotype (thyroglobulin, thyrotropin receptor) was also present in the PTCs.
  • Experiments in thyroid tumor cell lines indicate that high levels of periostin mRNA are due, at least in part, to the increase in periostin promoter activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Cell Adhesion Molecules / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18434370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / POSTN protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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70. Rubio CA, Dick E Jr, Hubbard GB: Morphological events found at the invading edge of colorectal carcinomas in baboons. Anticancer Res; 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1A):193-6
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  • [Title] Morphological events found at the invading edge of colorectal carcinomas in baboons.
  • BACKGROUND: Earlier studies at the growing edge of colorectal cancer (CRC) in humans and rats have shown dilated neoplastic glands, some with a thin layer of flattened tumor cells (FTCs), some lacking one or more groups of consecutive lining tumor cells (called glandular pores, GPs).
  • A total of 190 neoplastic glands were studied in the 38 cases of glandular-forming adenocarcinomas.
  • RESULTS: In the studied neoplastic glands FTCs or GPs were recorded in 44.7% (85 glands).
  • FTCs were found in 9.5% (18 glands) and GPs in 35.3% (67 glands).
  • CONCLUSION: In similarity to colorectal adenocarcinomas in humans, flattened tumor cells and glandular pores were found at the invading tumor edge of colorectal adenocarcinomas in baboons.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Papio
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Extracellular Matrix / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Rats

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  • (PMID = 18383845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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71. Nakatani-Freshwater T, Taft DR: Renal excretion of emtricitabine II. effect of trimethoprim on emtricitabine excretion: In vitro and in vivo studies. J Pharm Sci; 2008 Dec;97(12):5411-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The potential interaction between the nucleoside analog emtricitabine (FTC) and trimethoprim (TMP) was assessed in the isolated perfused rat kidney (IPK) model and in vivo in rats.
  • IPK experiments were performed with FTC alone (2 microg/mL) and in the presence of increasing concentrations of TMP (1-10 microg/mL).
  • TMP inhibited FTC excretion in a concentration dependent manner.
  • The IC(50) (TMP concentration associated with a 50% reduction in FTC excretion) was 1.86 +/- 0.37 microg/mL.
  • Animals received an IV dose of FTC (1 mg/kg) with or without pretreatment with TMP (25 mg/kg).
  • TMP coadministration significantly decreased FTC clearance (7.4 +/- 1.2 mL/min/kg to 2.7 +/- 0.53 mL/min/kg), and elimination half-life was significantly increased (58 +/- 12 min to 215 +/- 44 min).
  • A good correlation was obtained between IPK findings and in vivo data, as FTC renal clearance was reduced approximately 60% in the presence of TMP in both studies.
  • Based on this investigation, TMP would be expected to inhibit the renal excretion of FTC when the two compounds are coadministered, resulting in increased plasma exposure of FTC.
  • However, the clinical significance of this finding remains to be elucidated.

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  • (PMID = 18351642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6017
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; G70B4ETF4S / Emtricitabine
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72. López Mondéjar P, Picó A, Seguí J, López Maciá A: [Usefulness of galectin-3 expression in the clinical behavior of differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Med Clin (Barc); 2008 Feb 16;130(5):161-4
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of galectin-3 expression in the clinical behavior of differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Utilidad de la expresión de galectina-3 en el comportamiento clínico del cáncer diferenciado de tiroides.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to quantify the galectin-3 (gal-3) expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and study its relation with the clinical behavior of these tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: We investigated the immunohistochemical reaction of gal-3 in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and performed a retrospective study in order to find correlations with clinical features.
  • Gal-3 expression was studied in 53 differentiated tyroid carcinomas (42 PTC and 11 FTC), and was related with clinical features: metastases, extrathyroid invasion and initial stage in the diagnosis and persistence disease and relapses in the follow up.
  • RESULTS: Gal-3 expression positivity in PTC had a median of 60% (percentil 25 [p25], 17.5%; percentil 75 [p75], 100%), and was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in FTC (median, 0%; p25, 0%; p75, 15%).
  • In PTC, gal-3 expression was significantly higher in advanced stages at the time of initial diagnosis (p = 0.014), persistent disease (p = 0.012) and relapses (p = 0.012) during the follow up.
  • We did not find any significant association between gal-3 expression and clinical features of FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gal-3 is a negative prognosis marker in PTC but not in FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18341829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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73. Sid B, Langlois B, Sartelet H, Bellon G, Dedieu S, Martiny L: Thrombospondin-1 enhances human thyroid carcinoma cell invasion through urokinase activity. Int J Biochem Cell Biol; 2008;40(9):1890-900
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  • [Title] Thrombospondin-1 enhances human thyroid carcinoma cell invasion through urokinase activity.
  • Since it appeared that TSP-1 could be of prognostic value for certain specific types of cancers, we examined in this study the prospective function of TSP-1 in the control of human follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) cell invasiveness.
  • First, we established that the aggressive behavior of human thyroid malignant cells is closely correlated to the TSP-1 amount.
  • We demonstrated that exogenously added TSP-1 stimulates by two-fold the capacity of FTC cells to invade Matrigel-coated wells.
  • The use of specific anti-TSP-1 blocking antibodies led to a drastic inhibition of the basal FTC cell invasion.
  • Finally, we established that the TSP-1-stimulated FTC cell invasion is wholly abolished under anti-uPA blocking antibodies or aprotinin treatments whereas MMP inhibitors have no effect.
  • All together, we evidenced in the present study that TSP-1 promotes human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell invasion mainly through up-regulation of the urokinase-dependent activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Thrombospondin 1 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation. Extracellular Matrix / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Mice. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18321763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-2725
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thrombospondin 1; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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74. Musholt PB, Musholt TJ, Morgenstern SC, Worm K, Sheu SY, Schmid KW: Follicular histotypes of oncocytic thyroid carcinomas do not carry mutations of the BRAF hot-spot. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):722-8
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  • [Title] Follicular histotypes of oncocytic thyroid carcinomas do not carry mutations of the BRAF hot-spot.
  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF V600E mutation is the most prevalent genetic aberration in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), and it is found exclusively in RET/PTC-negative tumors.
  • In oncocytic (Hürthle cell, oxyphilic) thyroid tumors, the presence of RET/PTC rearrangements is associated with either the conventional papillary histotype or the "solid" Hürthle cell tumors, whereas all predominantly follicular oncocytic carcinomas do not harbor RET/PTC chimeras.
  • Although 12% of tumors of the follicular variant of PTC carry BRAF mutations, none of the few oncocytic follicular thyroid adenomas (oncoAd) or carcinomas (oncoFTC) published worldwide tested positive.
  • An aspired molecular-based classification of oncocytic thyroid tumors is in need of additional evidence on BRAF mutations in the follicular histotype.
  • METHODS: A series of 44 oncocytic thyroid tumors with well-documented clinicopathological data was subjected to BRAF mutation analysis (complete exon 15) by automated sequencing.
  • RESULTS: The series of oncocytic thyroid tumors consisted of 21 adenomas (oncoAds: 17 females, 4 males; mean age, 54.5 years; range, 27-80 years), 20 follicular carcinomas (oncoFTCs: 14 females, 6 males; mean age, 61.4 years; range, 39-80 years), and 3 "classic" papillary carcinomas (oncoPTCs: 3 females; mean age, 58.1 years; range, 46-70 years; 3x T2 tumors).
  • The follicular variants of oncocytic cancers are divided into 11x T2, 5x T3, and 4x T4 tumor stages (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] TNM 5th edition).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results add to the evidence that, in contrast to follicular variants of oncoPTCs, predominantly follicular oncocytic thyroid tumors harbor neither RET/PTC rearrangements nor BRAF mutations.
  • Furthermore, the findings support the concept that oncocytic neoplasms of the thyroid gland are oncocytic counterparts of the respective histotype (adenoma, FTC, PTC, or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma) rather than a separate tumor entity.
  • Molecular characterization of oncocytic thyroid malignancies for RET/PTC or BRAF genetic alterations may help with (preoperative) classification and prognostic evaluation of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18235983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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75. Hui CK, Zhang HY, Bowden S, Locarnini S, Luk JM, Leung KW, Yueng YH, Wong A, Rousseau F, Yuen KY, Naoumov NN, Lau GK: 96 weeks combination of adefovir dipivoxil plus emtricitabine vs. adefovir dipivoxil monotherapy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol; 2008 May;48(5):714-20
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  • To determine the efficacy of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) plus emtricitabine (FTC) combination therapy in chronic HBV infection.
  • METHODS: Thirty treatment-nai ve, HBeAg-positive patients were randomized to combination ADV plus FTC (n=14) or ADV plus placebo monotherapy (n=16) for 96 weeks.
  • No ADV or FTC resistance was detected at week 96.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combination ADV plus FTC resulted in more potent suppression of HBV DNA over 96 weeks of therapy.

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  • [CommentIn] J Hepatol. 2008 May;48(5):687-91 [18331764.001]
  • (PMID = 18207280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; G70B4ETF4S / Emtricitabine; JAC85A2161 / Adenine; U6Q8Z01514 / adefovir dipivoxil
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76. Chandler D, Garstecki J, Morales A: Obtaining quartz crystal frequencies from deterministic temperatures and random angle variations. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control; 2007 Jul;54(7):1475-81
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  • The impact of the probability density function (PDF) of a quartz crystal angle on the frequency versus temperature curve (FTC) for a fundamental mode AT cut crystal is discussed.
  • Frequency is treated as a function of a normally distributed, random crystal angle and a deterministic temperature.
  • Four different means of specifying the FTC and the resulting PDFs are presented.

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  • (PMID = 17718338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-3010
  • [Journal-full-title] IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
  • [ISO-abbreviation] IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Lang BH, Lo CY, Chan WF, Lam KY, Wan KY: Staging systems for follicular thyroid carcinoma: application to 171 consecutive patients treated in a tertiary referral centre. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):29-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Staging systems for follicular thyroid carcinoma: application to 171 consecutive patients treated in a tertiary referral centre.
  • A number of risk-group stratification or staging systems have been found useful at stratifying patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma into risk groups.
  • However, the best stratification system in patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) remains unclear.
  • Through a comprehensive MEDLINE search from 1965 to 2005, a total of 18 different staging systems were identified in the literature and 14 of them were applicable to 171 patients, with FTC managed at our institution from 1961 to 2001.
  • Cancer-specific survivals (CSS) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by log-rank test.
  • The three highest ranked staging systems by PVE were the new American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Centre le Cancer 6th edition, tumour, node, metastases (TNM; 22.4), followed by the Clinical Class (21.2) and the metastases, age, completeness of resection, invasion, size (MACIS; 20.4).
  • In conclusion, 13 out of the 14 presently available staging systems predicted CSS significantly in FTC.
  • When predictability was measured by PVE, the TNM system was found to have the best predictability and thus, should be the stratification system of choice for FTC in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17395973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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78. Gallant JE: The M184V mutation: what it does, how to prevent it, and what to do with it when it's there. AIDS Read; 2006 Oct;16(10):556-9
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  • The M184V mutation is selected by lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC) and is a common mutation in HIV-infected patients.
  • Virus with the M184V mutation has a high level of resistance to 3TC and FTC but has been shown to have favorable effects on the susceptibility of some other NRTIs and can delay clinical and immunologic progression by decreasing viral fitness.
  • While it is always better not to have any drug resistance so that 3TC and FTC are available as active antiretroviral agents, it is important to take advantage of the beneficial effects of the M184V mutation when it is present.

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  • (PMID = 17096474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-0894
  • [Journal-full-title] The AIDS reader
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Read
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase; G70B4ETF4S / Emtricitabine
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79. Muñoz de Benito RM, Arribas López JR: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine coformulation for once-daily dual NRTI backbone. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther; 2006 Aug;4(4):523-35
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  • Truvada is the coformulation of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF; 300 mg) and emtricitabine (FTC; 200 mg) in a single tablet, providing the nucleotide backbone for once-daily dosing, as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • FTC, the fluorinated derivative of lamivudine, is an analog of deoxycitidine, active against HIV-1, -2 and hepatitis B virus.
  • The incidence of K65R is low (3%) and has not been observed in clinical trials with the concomitant use of tenofovir and FTC.
  • FTC selects for M184V mutation less frequently than lamivudine.
  • FTC has no significant drug interactions.
  • As tenofovir and FTC are renally eliminated, drugs eliminated by tubular secretion must be avoided.
  • Pivotal study 934 evidenced superior efficacy of the combination TDF/FTC/efavirenz (EFV) versus zidovudine/FTC/EFV.
  • The toxicity profile of tenofovir and FTC has been extensively studied.
  • Clinical trials have assessed the performance of the coformulation of TDF and FTC.

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  • (PMID = 17009933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8336
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anti-infective therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 99YXE507IL / Tenofovir; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase; G70B4ETF4S / Emtricitabine; JAC85A2161 / Adenine
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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80. Porto T, Coelho I, Boavida J, Pereira C, Nunes JM, Mendonça D, Martins B, Sobrinho LG, Leite V: Association of HLA DQ4-DR8 haplotype with papillary thyroid carcinomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Feb;64(2):179-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association of HLA DQ4-DR8 haplotype with papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The association of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) system with thyroid carcinomas is not clear.
  • We sought to relate HLA alleles to susceptibility to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and also to clinical and pathological characteristics of PTC patients.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: The distribution of HLA in 181 unrelated Caucasian patients with PTC was compared to the HLA distribution in 315 normal controls, 31 patients with follicular carcinoma (FTC), 29 patients with lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) and 50 patients with multinodular goitre (MNG), using a microlymphocytotoxicity assay.
  • RESULTS: Compared to normal controls, patients with PTC showed a significantly increased frequency of HLA-DQ4 [12.8%vs. 3.5%, P=0.0005, P(corrected) (P(c))=0.0032, odds ratio (OR)=4.058, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.820-9.045] and HLA-DR8 (10.9%vs. 4.3%, P=0.013, P(c) > 0.05, OR=2.752, 95% CI=1.275-5.940).
  • In the subgroup of PTC subjects with concomitant 0thyroidal neoplasias (n=27), there was a significant (P< 0.05) increase in the frequency of B57 (18.5%), DR11 (56.5%) and DQ3 (81.8%) compared to PTC patients without coexistent neoplasias (2.0%, 21% and 47%, respectively).
  • No significant differences of HLA allele distribution was found in relation to PTC histology, age at diagnosis (> 45 or <or45 years), gender or tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) staging.
  • In patients with FTC, the frequency of DR17 (FTC=51.6%; controls =; P=0.0009; P(c)=0.0138) was significantly increased compared to controls.
  • Patients with LT showed a higher frequency of the DR11 allele (48.3%) than controls (DR11=21.3%; P=0.0028, P(c)=0.039, OR=3.445, 95% CI=1.568-7.567).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have typed the largest series of patients with thyroid carcinomas reported to date, and found that DR8 and DQ4 are independent susceptibility markers for PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. HLA Antigens / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Alleles. Genetic Markers. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. HLA-DQ Antigens / genetics. HLA-DR Antigens / genetics. HLA-DR Serological Subtypes. Haplotypes / genetics. Humans. Linkage Disequilibrium / genetics. Odds Ratio. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Jun;64(6):715 [16712678.001]
  • (PMID = 16430717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / HLA-DQ Antigens; 0 / HLA-DQ4 antigen; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DR Serological Subtypes; 0 / HLA-DR8 antigen
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81. Taniguchi K, Takano T, Miyauchi A, Koizumi K, Ito Y, Takamura Y, Ishitobi M, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Kato K, Noguchi S: Differentiation of follicular thyroid adenoma from carcinoma by means of gene expression profiling with adapter-tagged competitive polymerase chain reaction. Oncology; 2005;69(5):428-35
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  • [Title] Differentiation of follicular thyroid adenoma from carcinoma by means of gene expression profiling with adapter-tagged competitive polymerase chain reaction.
  • OBJECTIVE: Since preoperative differentiation between follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and carcinoma (FTC) remains very difficult, the purpose of this study was to identify the genes differentially expressed in FTA and FTC in order to construct a diagnostic system based on such genes for differentiation of FTA and FTC.
  • METHODS: Gene expression profiles of 45 FTAs and 22 FTCs were analyzed by means of adapter-tagged competitive polymerase chain reaction (ATAC-PCR) with 2,516 genes (learning set).
  • The genes differentially expressed in FTAs and FTCs were then used to construct a diagnostic system based on the weighted-voting algorithm.
  • In addition, a validation study of this diagnostic system was conducted using 12 FTAs and 6 FTCs (validation set).
  • RESULTS: The diagnostic system for differentiation of FTA and FTC, constructed with the aid of the learning set samples, was based on 60 genes differentially expressed in FTA and FTC, which included several genes previously identified as overexpressed in FTC (DPP4, KRT19 and IGFBP3) or FTA (trefoil factor 3 and thyroid peroxidase).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This diagnostic system using the ATAC-PCR assay is expected to be clinically useful for preoperative differentiation between FTA and FTC since ATAC-PCR can be used for the small amount of RNA obtained from fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16319515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 63231-63-0 / RNA
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82. Cengic N, Baker CH, Schütz M, Göke B, Morris JC, Spitzweg C: A novel therapeutic strategy for medullary thyroid cancer based on radioiodine therapy following tissue-specific sodium iodide symporter gene expression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4457-64
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  • [Title] A novel therapeutic strategy for medullary thyroid cancer based on radioiodine therapy following tissue-specific sodium iodide symporter gene expression.
  • CONTEXT: In contrast to papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) remains difficult to treat due to its unresponsiveness to radioiodine therapy and its limited responsiveness to chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • NIS protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis using a monoclonal hNIS-specific antibody, which revealed a major band of a molecular mass of 80-90 kDa.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Symporters / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Western. Breast Neoplasms. Calcitonin / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Complementary. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Iodides / pharmacokinetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 15941870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA91956
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Iodides; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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83. Gish RG, Trinh H, Leung N, Chan FK, Fried MW, Wright TL, Wang C, Anderson J, Mondou E, Snow A, Sorbel J, Rousseau F, Corey L: Safety and antiviral activity of emtricitabine (FTC) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection: a two-year study. J Hepatol; 2005 Jul;43(1):60-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety and antiviral activity of emtricitabine (FTC) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection: a two-year study.
  • RESULTS: Emtricitabine was well tolerated and produced a dose proportional antiviral response.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Emtricitabine was well tolerated and demonstrated a potent antiviral response for up to 2 years in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection.

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  • (PMID = 15922478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00046
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; G70B4ETF4S / Emtricitabine
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84. Park JW, Zarnegar R, Kanauchi H, Wong MG, Hyun WC, Ginzinger DG, Lobo M, Cotter P, Duh QY, Clark OH: Troglitazone, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, induces antiproliferation and redifferentiation in human thyroid cancer cell lines. Thyroid; 2005 Mar;15(3):222-31
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  • [Title] Troglitazone, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, induces antiproliferation and redifferentiation in human thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • Troglitazone is a potent agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) that is a ligand-activated transcription factor regulating cell differentiation and growth.
  • PPARgamma may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis since PAX8-PPARgamma1 chromosomal translocations are commonly found in follicular thyroid cancers.
  • We investigated the antiproliferative and redifferentiation effects of troglitazone in 6 human thyroid cancer cell lines: TPC-1 (papillary), FTC-133, FTC-236, FTC-238 (follicular), XTC-1 (Hürthle cell), and ARO82-1 (anaplastic) cell lines.
  • PPARgamma was expressed variably in these cell lines.
  • FTC-236 and FTC-238 had a rearranged chromosome at 3p25, possibly implicating the involvement of the PPARgamma encoding gene whereas the other cell lines did not.
  • Troglitazone significantly inhibited cell growth by cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death.
  • Troglitazone also downregulated surface expression of CD97, a novel dedifferentiation marker, in FTC-133 cells and upregulated sodium iodide symporter (NIS) mRNA in TPC-1 and FTC-133 cells.
  • Our investigations document that human thyroid cancer cell lines commonly express PPARgamma, but chromosomal translocations involving PPARgamma are uncommon.
  • Troglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist, induced antiproliferation and redifferentiation in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • PPARgamma agonists may therefore be effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with thyroid cancer that fails to respond to traditional treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromans / pharmacology. PPAR gamma / agonists. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Cell Cycle / genetics. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Karyotyping. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / pharmacology. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 15785241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromans; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; I66ZZ0ZN0E / troglitazone
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85. Takano T, Miyauchi A, Yoshida H, Kuma K, Amino N: Decreased relative expression level of trefoil factor 3 mRNA to galectin-3 mRNA distinguishes thyroid follicular carcinoma from adenoma. Cancer Lett; 2005 Feb 28;219(1):91-6
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  • [Title] Decreased relative expression level of trefoil factor 3 mRNA to galectin-3 mRNA distinguishes thyroid follicular carcinoma from adenoma.
  • The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA is a marker for distinguishing thyroid follicular adenomas from carcinomas.
  • However, when measuring the expression level of TFF3 mRNA in fine needle aspiration biopsies, an appropriate internal control mRNA, of which expression is restricted in thyroid epithelial--derived cells, is necessary, since they are often contaminated with a considerable number of blood cells, which do not express TFF3 mRNA.
  • In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of molecular-based diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by measuring the relative expression of TFF3 mRNA by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using galectin-3 mRNA as an internal control.
  • The TFF3/galectin-3 mRNA ratio (T/G ratio) was measured in 54 follicular adenomas and 29 follicular carcinomas.
  • It was markedly decreased in 7 follicular carcinomas of widely invasive type and with evident distant metastases.
  • When the cutoff point was set at 16.0 by a receiver operator characteristic curve, the TG ratio showed good agreement with the pathological diagnosis [kappa=0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.77].
  • Quantification of the T/G ratio may be a useful tool for the distinction between follicular adenomas and carcinomas, which is the most difficult in thyroid pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Mucins / biosynthesis. Muscle Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression. Humans. Peptides. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15694668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TFF3 protein, human
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86. Hua SC, Chen SY, Lu CH, Kao YT, Yu HI, Chen PT, Lee YR, Chang TC: The effects of growth inhibitory peptide on follicular thyroid cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion. Tumori; 2010 May-Jun;96(3):448-51
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effects of growth inhibitory peptide on follicular thyroid cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm worldwide.
  • Although differentiated thyroid cancers are associated with a favorable survival, the prognosis worsens dramatically for patients with distant metastasis.
  • Metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) occur earlier and are more aggressive than those from papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • For FTC that is resistant to radioactive iodine, new treatments are urgently needed.
  • However, the effects of GIP in FTC have not yet been studied.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor ability of GIP in FTC.
  • METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Using both PBS and GIP control peptide as a negative control, the antiproliferative activity of GIP in the WRO human FTC cell line was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay.
  • In addition, cell migration and invasion assays were used to measure tumor metastasis inhibition effects in vitro.
  • RESULTS: GIP did not inhibit WRO cell proliferation in a time- or dose-dependent manner.
  • Cell invasion was also significantly inhibited at 50 and 100 microM (67.1% and 39.0%, respectively; both P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although GIP failed to suppress FTC cell growth, it effectively interrupted both FTC cell migration and invasion abilities in vitro.
  • GIP may potentially serve as an anti-FTC metastasis agent aiding current chemotherapy regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Membrane Proteins / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20845807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / growth inhibitory proteins
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87. Weber F, Aldred MA, Morrison CD, Plass C, Frilling A, Broelsch CE, Waite KA, Eng C: Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):1149-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • The two most common subtypes of thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma, have been extensively studied, but our fundamental understanding of the molecular events in thyroid epithelial oncogenesis is still limited.
  • Unreported data from our previous published global gene expression analysis revealed that the tumor suppressor gene aplysia ras homolog I (ARHI) is frequently underexpressed in FTCs.
  • In this study, we elucidated the frequency and mechanism of ARHI silencing in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia.
  • We demonstrated that underexpression of ARHI occurs principally in FTCs (P = 0.0018), including its oncocytic variant (11 of 13), even at minimally invasive stage but not classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (two of seven) or follicular adenoma (FA) (three of 14).
  • FTCs show strong allelic imbalance with reduction in copy number/loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 69%, compared with less than 10% for FAs.
  • In combination with our LOH data, bisulfite sequencing in a subset of samples revealed that FA displays a symmetric methylation pattern, likely representing one unmethylated allele and one presumptively imprinted allele, whereas FTC shows a virtually complete methylation pattern, representing LOH of the nonimprinted allele with only the hypermethylated allele remaining.
  • Furthermore, we showed that pharmacologic inhibition of histone deacetylation but not demethylation could reactivate ARHI expression in the FTC133 FTC cell line.
  • Therefore, our data suggest that silencing of the putative maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene ARHI, primarily by large genomic deletion in conjunction with hypermethylation of the genomically imprinted allele, serves as a key early event in follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Gene Silencing. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genomic Imprinting / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15546898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA16059
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / DIRAS3 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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88. Pomerleau D, Roe RH, McDonald HR, Johnson RN, Ai E, Jumper JM, Fu AD, Cunningham ET Jr, Wong RW: Angioid streaks and optic nerve head drusen in hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2009;3(1):54-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To describe a patient with angioid streaks and optic nerve head drusen associated with familial tumoral calcinosis (FTC).
  • Subsequent physical, laboratory, and radiologic examinations revealed periarticular calcification, elevated serum phosphate levels, and normal calcium levels, consistent with FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FTC should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with angioid streaks and optic nerve head drusen.

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  • (PMID = 25390839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Okazaki R, Ohtani H, Takeda K, Sumikawa T, Yamasaki A, Matsumoto S, Shimizu E: Gastric metastasis by primary lung adenocarcinoma. World J Gastrointest Oncol; 2010 Oct 15;2(10):395-8

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  • [Title] Gastric metastasis by primary lung adenocarcinoma.
  • The diagnosis of gastric metastasis from lung cancer is relatively rare in living patients.
  • We describe a case of Type 4 tumor-like metastasis due to primary lung cancer diagnosed with immunohistochemical staining while the patient was alive.
  • Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a Type 4 tumor and the histological examination showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • The resected specimens showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma., The diagnosis of gastric metastasis from lung cancer was made by immunohistochemical staining of the lung and gastric tumors which showed positive staining for Thyroid transcriptional factor-1.
  • Diagnosis of gastric metastasis, especially Type 4 metastasis by lung cancer is difficult.
  • However, immunohistochemical staining is very helpful for diagnosis of primary lung cancer metastasis at sites such as the gastrointestinal tract which are not normally prone to metastatis.

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  • (PMID = 21160891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5204
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999676
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Gastric metastasis / Primary lung cancer / Thyroid transcriptional factor-1 / Type 4 gastric cancer
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90. Pezzolla A, Lattarulo S, Milella M, Barile G, Pascazio B, Ciampolillo A, Fabiano G, Palasciano N: [Incidental carcinoma in thyroid pathology: our experience and review of the literature]. Ann Ital Chir; 2010 May-Jun;81(3):165-9
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  • [Title] [Incidental carcinoma in thyroid pathology: our experience and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Il carcinoma incidentale nella patologia tiroidea. La nostra esperienza e revisione della letteratura.
  • The diagnosis of incidental thyroid carcinoma in patients submitted to thyroidectomy for a benign disease is quite frequent.
  • A retrospective analysis was performed on 240 patients submitted to surgical intervention in order to establish the incidence of the carcinoma.
  • One hundred sixty five patients (68.75%) were affected by benign disease (132 multinodular goiter, 30 uninodular goiter, 2 Plummer and 1 Basedow) and 75 (31.25%) by carcinoma.
  • In 30 of 165 patients (18.2 %), affected by benign disease, occurred a histological diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma, (18 papillary carcinoma, 6 follicular carcinoma, 5 papillary carcinoma follicular variant and 1 oncocytic carcinoma).
  • In this study it's considered incidental thyroid carcinoma the one occurred in patients who never underwent FNA and there were no suspicious features in all exams that may suggest the presence of carcinoma.
  • Fifteen of the 30 incidental carcinoma (50%) were microcarcinomas; in the other 13, dimensions were more than 1 cm, but less than 2 cm in 9 cases.
  • Two patients had a synchronous carcinoma.
  • Actually these patients are still in a follow up program and no recurrency of disease is occasionally observed.
  • This study shows that the only way to put doubts on the real benignity of the disease is the fine needle aspiration; there are no other instruments that could let think about the occurrence of the carcinoma.
  • Moreover in the majority of cases the incidental carcinoma is a microcarcinoma, it doesn't reach significant volume, may be not centered by a FNAB, but in must cases it's not really biologically aggressive.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Incidental Findings. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Graves Disease / pathology. Humans. Incidence. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Plummer-Vinson Syndrome / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 21105480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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91. Nelson KK, Gattuso P, Xu X, Prinz RA: Expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway molecules in synchronous follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in predicting malignancy. Surgery; 2010 Oct;148(4):654-60; discussion 660
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  • [Title] Expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway molecules in synchronous follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in predicting malignancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the Sonic Hedgehog pathway plays an important role in tumorigenesis and cancer proliferation.
  • The Sonic Hedgehog pathway is required for normal thyroid gland development, but when activated as a result of gene mutation or overexpression, it may stimulate thyroid tumor cell proliferation.
  • This study determines whether 3 molecules, Patched, Smoothened, and Sonic Hedgehog, involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway are overexpressed equally in synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients with synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent thyroidectomy.
  • Patched expression was detected in 5 of 13 (38%) follicular adenomas and 5 of 12 (42%) papillary carcinomas.
  • Smoothened was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 3 of 13 (23%) papillary carcinomas.
  • Sonic Hedgehog was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 11 of 13 (85%) papillary carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of the 3 molecules involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway was similar in follicular thyroid adenoma, but Sonic Hedgehog expression was a more sensitive indicator of malignancy in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The Sonic Hedgehog molecule may become a diagnostic marker when the cytologic or histologic features are not characteristic of a papillary carcinoma.
  • Greater understanding of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway may provide molecular methods for preventing or treating papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Hedgehog Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20797751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / SHH protein, human
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92. Sillings CN, Weathers DR, Delgaudio JM: Thyroid-like papillary adenocarcinoma of the nasopharynx: a case report in a 19-year-old male. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2010 Sep;110(3):e25-8
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  • [Title] Thyroid-like papillary adenocarcinoma of the nasopharynx: a case report in a 19-year-old male.
  • Primary thyroid-like papillary adenocarcinomas of the nasopharynx are rare, with only a limited number of cases reported in the literature.
  • In this article, we describe the case of a thyroid-like papillary adenocarcinoma of the nasopharynx in a 19-year-old male, with emphasis on clinical findings, histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics, and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20727493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, papillary
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93. Lauterbach JH, Bao M, Joza PJ, Rickert WS: Free-base nicotine in tobacco products. Part I. Determination of free-base nicotine in the particulate phase of mainstream cigarette smoke and the relevance of these findings to product design parameters. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 2010 Oct;58(1):45-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It has been alleged that manufacturers adjust product design features to increase the percentage of total nicotine (TN) in the MSS gas-vapor phase that is unprotonated [P(g)(,nic)(%)] and/or the fraction of nicotine in the MSS total particulate matter (TPM) that is unprotonated (FBN/TN).
  • Our research showed the Health Canada Intensive smoking conditions negated the effects of blend and cigarette design features reported to raise the pH of TPM collected under ISO or US FTC conditions.
  • Our research also showed that when additive-free Canadian cigarettes were smoked under ISO conditions, the FBN/TN ratio increased as the tar/nicotine ratio decreased.
  • Our findings are in line with other studies that have questioned allegations of a relationship between use of ammonia and its compounds as tobacco additives and amounts of unprotonated nicotine in MSS.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20621585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Particulate Matter; 0 / Tobacco Smoke Pollution; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine
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94. Clerici T, Kolb W, Beutner U, Bareck E, Dotzenrath C, Kull C, Niederle B, German Association of Endocrine Surgeons: Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas. Br J Surg; 2010 Jun;97(6):839-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid microcarcinomas (mFTCs) of 10 mm or less in size rarely manifest clinically and their clinical significance is controversial.
  • Most initial diagnoses had to be revised because of incorrect size assessment or incorrect diagnosis (benign adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant of PTC).
  • The diagnosis of mFTC was confirmed in only four patients.
  • As a result of the incorrect histopathological diagnosis, unnecessary completion thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation were performed in 17 and 20 patients respectively.
  • Histopathological re-evaluation by an experienced pathologist is recommended before embarking on further treatments when a diagnosis of mFTC is made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20473996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Investigator] Kaserer K; Perren A; Schmid KW; Köberle-Wührer R; Wenzl E; Asari R; Klinge U; Müller G; Kroell KP; Blankenburg C; Voss H; Cupisti K; Witte J; Knoefel WT; Simon D; Lienenlüke RH; Vorländer C; Wacha H; Schabram J; Lorenz K; Dralle H; Wojciechowski B; Kussmann J; Weber Y; Schürmann G; Goretzki PE; Ulitzer H; Eberle A; Mayer M; Stabenow R; Stegmaier C; Bühlmann R; Schlumpf R; Triponez F; Ess SM
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95. Piana S, Frasoldati A, Di Felice E, Gardini G, Tallini G, Rosai J: Encapsulated well-differentiated follicular-patterned thyroid carcinomas do not play a significant role in the fatality rates from thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jun;34(6):868-72
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  • [Title] Encapsulated well-differentiated follicular-patterned thyroid carcinomas do not play a significant role in the fatality rates from thyroid carcinoma.
  • A cohort of 1039 consecutive cases of thyroid carcinoma treated at a single institution and followed for an average of 11.9 years or until death included 102 encapsulated well-differentiated follicular-patterned tumors that had been diagnosed as carcinoma because of complete capsular invasion and/or papillary carcinoma-type nuclei.
  • None of these cases were among the 67 patients from the cohort who died as a result of their thyroid carcinoma.
  • The results of this study and a critical review of the pertinent literature indicate that tumors with these features are associated with an extremely favorable outcome and that they do not play a significant role in the fatality rate of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Oct;34(10):1560; author reply 1560 [20852408.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Nov;34(11):1728 [20962619.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Feb;35(2):313; author reply 314 [21263257.001]
  • (PMID = 20463572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Prazeres H, Torres J, Soares P, Sobrinho-Simões M: The familial counterparts of follicular cell--derived thyroid tumors. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;18(4):233-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The familial counterparts of follicular cell--derived thyroid tumors.
  • The follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers (termed nonmedullary thyroid cancers-NMTCs) occur mostly sporadically, but intriguingly, NMTC has the highest familial risk among all cancer sites.
  • This epidemiological observation is strengthened by the clinical occurrence of NMTC in familial aggregation (FNMTC) and by the detection of chromosomal loci in linkage with the disease phenotype.
  • Some morphological patterns may alert for a familial disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20444727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Pauzar B, Staklenac B, Loncar B: Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):87-91
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology is currently the best diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules.
  • The aim of this research was to make a detailed and objective determination of the morphological characteristics of cells in cytological smears in an attempt to distinguish benign from malignant follicular tumors.
  • The research included 62 patients with cytologically diagnosed follicular or oncocytic tumors, and 15 patients with nodular hyperplasia.
  • We analyzed the cellularity of the smear, cohesion between follicular cells, acinar formations, bare nuclei, characteristics of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and the presence of colloid.
  • The statistical analysis of cytological parameters has indicated that none of the cytological parameters alone is discriminating enough between non-tumor and tumor changes, or benign and malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • The analysis of age, sex, nodule size and ultrasound findings has not shown the correlation between any of these parameters with the malignant or benign follicular tumors.
  • The cytological analysis of the smears for patients with follicular tumors, in combination with clinical data and other diagnostic methods, contributes to more precise diagnostics, but is not sufficient for the differentiation between benign and malignant follicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20432738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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98. Garcia EA, Simões K, Wakamatsu A, Ressio RA, Alves VA, Longatto-Filho A, Camargo RS: Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):101-7
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  • [Title] Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia worldwide.
  • In order to evaluate the value of LVD in benign and malignant thyroid lesions, we analyzed 110 thyroidectomy specimens using D2-40, a specific marker for lymphatic vessels and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), the most potent molecule of lymphatic proliferation.
  • LVD was significantly different between papillary and follicular carcinomas in total (p = 0.045) and peritumoral area (p = 0.042).
  • Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma showed an important difference of intra- (p = 0.019) and peritumoral (p = 0.033) LVD.
  • Indeed, the high peritumoral LVD of malignant thyroid lesions is an important finding for surgery planning and supports the practice of total thyroidectomy in malignant thyroid neoplasm's since the lymphatic peritumoral vessels definitely are an escape path for tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20336393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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99. Landriscina M, Maddalena F, Fabiano A, Piscazzi A, La Macchia O, Cignarelli M: Erlotinib enhances the proapoptotic activity of cytotoxic agents and synergizes with paclitaxel in poorly-differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells. Anticancer Res; 2010 Feb;30(2):473-80
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  • [Title] Erlotinib enhances the proapoptotic activity of cytotoxic agents and synergizes with paclitaxel in poorly-differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • BACKGROUND: The therapeutic role of EGFR inhibitors in thyroid malignancies is still controversial even though the full activation of EGF signaling has recently been proposed as involved in the dedifferentiation of human thyroid cancers.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Agents which target EGFR signaling (erlotinib, cetuximab and panitumumab) were evaluated at preclinical level in a panel of thyroid tumor cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Erlotinib induced a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation together with inhibition of EGF-induced AKT and ERK1/2 signaling only in poorly-differentiated thyroid carcinoma FRO cells.
  • Of note, erlotinib enhanced the proapoptotic activity of doxorubicin and paclitaxel and exhibited synergy with paclitaxel in poorly-differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • CONCLUSION: EGFR signaling may represent a molecular target only in poorly-differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells, and agents that inhibit EGFR tyrosine kinase may be more effective than monoclonal antibodies which target the extracellular domain of the receptor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20332457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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100. Zhu XG, Zhao L, Willingham MC, Cheng SY: Thyroid hormone receptors are tumor suppressors in a mouse model of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. Oncogene; 2010 Apr 1;29(13):1909-19
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid hormone receptors are tumor suppressors in a mouse model of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Aberrant expression and mutations of thyroid hormone receptor genes (TRs) are closely associated with several types of human cancers.
  • As these mice aged, they spontaneously developed follicular thyroid carcinoma with pathological progression from hyperplasia to capsular invasion, vascular invasion, anaplasia and metastasis to the lung, similar to human thyroid cancer.
  • In addition, consistent with the human cancer, AKT-mTOR-p70(S6K) signaling and vascular growth factor and its receptor were activated to facilitate tumor progression.
  • Thus, TRs could function as tumor suppressors in a mouse model of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Mice, Transgenic. Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Mice. Mutation. Signal Transduction / genetics






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