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1. Giatromanolaki A, Lyberakidis G, Lyratzopoulos N, Koukourakis MI, Sivridis E, Manolas C: Angiogenesis and angiogenic factor expression in thyroid cancer. J BUON; 2010 Apr-Jun;15(2):357-61
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis and angiogenic factor expression in thyroid cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether it could be possible to identify a subgroup of thyroid cancer patients with high angiogenic activity.
  • METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 25 papillary and 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas were assessed immunohistochemically for angiogenic activity, i.e. vascular density (VD) and expression of VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF).
  • RESULTS: VD was significantly higher in follicular tumors (p=0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased angiogenic activity is a common feature of thyroid carcinomas, particularly in follicular tumors and larger carcinomas.
  • These results support the testing of anti-VEGF therapies in combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy in advanced thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20658735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents
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2. Sosa JA, Udelsman R: Total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec 15;94(8):701-7
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  • [Title] Total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • There has been a long debate about the optimal surgical management of differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • It has focused on the extent of thyroidectomy, with recommendations ranging from thyroid lobectomy to total thyroidectomy.
  • There is no randomized prospective trial addressing this issue; such a trial would be prohibitive, since differentiated thyroid cancer has a good prognosis and a long natural history.
  • We believe that total or near-total thyroidectomy followed by (131)I ablation and thyroid hormone suppression are most appropriate for the majority of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, as retrospective analyses have shown that they reduce the risk of cancer recurrence, address the chance of multifocal intrathyroidal cancer, and facilitate use of surveillance scans and thyroglobulin monitoring for post-operative recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17131393.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Thyroid Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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3. Leboulleux S, Schroeder PR, Busaidy NL, Auperin A, Corone C, Jacene HA, Ewertz ME, Bournaud C, Wahl RL, Sherman SI, Ladenson PW, Schlumberger M: Assessment of the incremental value of recombinant thyrotropin stimulation before 2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging to localize residual differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;94(4):1310-6
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  • [Title] Assessment of the incremental value of recombinant thyrotropin stimulation before 2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging to localize residual differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess prospectively the impact of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) administration on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging in differentiated thyroid cancer patients who, after primary treatment, had a suppressed or stimulated serum thyroglobulin greater than 10 ng/ml and no radioactive iodine uptake consistent with thyroid cancer on a whole body scan.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: PET/CT was performed before (basal PET) and 24-48 h after rhTSH administration (rhTSH-PET) in 63 patients (52 papillary and 11 follicular thyroid cancers).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neoplasm, Residual / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin

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  • (PMID = 19158200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00181168
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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4. He X, Wei Q, Zhang X, Xiao J, Jin X, Zhu Y, Cui B, Ning G: Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Oct 15;206(10):712-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of CXCR4 in thyroid carcinomas and thyroid benign lesions.
  • In our study, the CXCR4 expression of the thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) was found to be higher than in the benign lesion group (including 19 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 15 nodular goiters, and 50 follicular adenomas) (p<0.0001).
  • Within the carcinoma group, the more malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 9 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 7 medullary thyroid carcinomas) showed a higher ratio of CXCR4 positivity compared to the less malignant thyroid carcinoma group (including 16 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas) (p<0.0001).
  • Our study suggests that CXCR4 expression might be a frequent and cancer-specific event in thyroid carcinoma, and it might be involved in malignancy transformation during the progression of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Receptors, CXCR4 / analysis. Thyroid Diseases / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Cell Differentiation. Child. Female. Goiter, Nodular / immunology. Hashimoto Disease / immunology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20646838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; Thyroid cancer, medullary; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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5. Tan H, Ye K, Wang Z, Tang H: CD147 expression as a significant prognostic factor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Transl Res; 2008 Sep;152(3):143-9
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  • [Title] CD147 expression as a significant prognostic factor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • The goal of this study was to analyze the expression of CD147 in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) tissues as well as its association with the clinicopathologic features of DTC patients and its prognostic significance.
  • During our research, CD147 expression in 156 patients who underwent operation for DTC [100 with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 56 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC)] were examined by immunostaining on paraffin-embedded tumor specimens.
  • Using Cox regression analysis of the 156 patients, high expression of CD147, extrathyroidal invasion, lymph node metastasis, and the pathologic grading of tumor invasion seemed to be independent prognostic indicators (P < 0.01, P = 0.02, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Antigens, CD147 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18774544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-5244
  • [Journal-full-title] Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transl Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BSG protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147
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6. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Glazer E, Schwartz AM: Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study.
  • Thyroid carcinomas with follicular phenotype have demonstrated changing patterns over 30 years (1973-2003) according to data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute.
  • Papillary carcinomas have significantly increased.
  • They accounted for 74% of all cases of thyroid cancers in 1973 and 87% in 2003.
  • During this period, the incidence rate of papillary carcinoma (including the follicular variant) increased by 189%, the rate of follicular carcinoma remained stable, and the rate of anaplastic carcinoma decreased by 22%.
  • The rate of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma alone increased by 173%.
  • Thyroid cancer was more common in whites than in blacks and in females more than in males.
  • Papillary carcinomas rapidly increased during adolescence and reached a peak around age 52-56, then declined.
  • Follicular carcinomas increased steadily, but at a lower rate until age 80.
  • After 1988, both papillary and follicular carcinomas, less than 2 cm, increased at the same rate as carcinomas larger than 2 cm.
  • However, papillary carcinomas less than 2 cm were more common.
  • Overall, the 10-year relative survival rate was greater than 90% for blacks and whites with the exception of follicular carcinoma in blacks.
  • The 10-year relative survival rate for anaplastic carcinoma in patients over 40 years of age was 4.7%.
  • The decrease in incidence rate of anaplastic carcinoma may be the result of the successful treatment of papillary and follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma, Papillary. Thyroid Neoplasms


7. Hesse E, Musholt PB, Potter E, Petrich T, Wehmeier M, von Wasielewski R, Lichtinghagen R, Musholt TJ: Oncofoetal fibronectin--a tumour-specific marker in detecting minimal residual disease in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2005 Sep 5;93(5):565-70
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  • [Title] Oncofoetal fibronectin--a tumour-specific marker in detecting minimal residual disease in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Supposedly, thyrocyte-specific transcripts such as thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) were proposed to be useful for the diagnosis of circulating tumour cells in patients suffering from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • Therefore, expression analyses for Tg, TSH-R, cytokeratin 19 (CK 19), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and oncofoetal fibronectin (onfFN) were carried out using cDNAs derived from (1) leukocyte fractions, (2) 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 48 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), and (3) leukocytes of two thyrocyte-depleted individuals treated for C-cell carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Expression of onfFN was additionally analysed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and by quantitative fluorescence-based real-time PCR.
  • All blood cell fractions proved negative for onfFN mRNA, whereas its presence in thyroid carcinoma was 78/98% (FTC/PTC).
  • We propose that real-time RT-PCR of onfFN mRNA is superior to other markers in monitoring minimal residual disease in DTC with regard to both assay sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Fibronectins. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16091757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 0 / oncofetal fibronectin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361602
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8. Eberhardt NL, Grebe SK, McIver B, Reddi HV: The role of the PAX8/PPARgamma fusion oncogene in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 May 28;321(1):50-6
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  • [Title] The role of the PAX8/PPARgamma fusion oncogene in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid cancer.
  • When identified at early stages, most well-differentiated thyroid cancers are readily treated and yield excellent outcomes.
  • Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) however, when diagnosed at a late stage, may be very resistant to treatment, and exhibits 10-year survival rates less than 40%.
  • Despite substantial progress in recent years, we still have limited understanding of the molecular and biological interrelationships between the various subtypes of benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • In contrast to the wealth of information available regarding papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the triggering mechanisms of FTC development and the major underlying genetic alterations leading to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis remain obscure.
  • Recent studies have focused on a chromosomal translocation, t(2;3) (q13;p25), fusing PAX8, a transcription factor that is essential for normal thyroid gland development, with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a member of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor family.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 19883731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA080117-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA080117-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX8-PPARgamma fusion protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 85
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS161308; NLM/ PMC2849860
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9. Lacroix L, Lazar V, Michiels S, Ripoche H, Dessen P, Talbot M, Caillou B, Levillain JP, Schlumberger M, Bidart JM: Follicular thyroid tumors with the PAX8-PPARgamma1 rearrangement display characteristic genetic alterations. Am J Pathol; 2005 Jul;167(1):223-31
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid tumors with the PAX8-PPARgamma1 rearrangement display characteristic genetic alterations.
  • Follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) arise through oncogenic pathways distinct from those involved in the papillary histotype.
  • Recently, a t(2;3)(q13;p25) rearrangement, which juxtaposes the thyroid transcription factor PAX8 to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma1, was described in FTCs.
  • Results were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of 65 thyroid tissues and by immunohistochemistry.
  • Although the expression of thyroid-specific genes was detectable, none appeared to be differentially regulated between tumors with or without the translocation.
  • These data identify several differentially expressed genes, such as FGD3, that may serve as potential targets of PPARgamma and as members of novel molecular pathways involved in the development of thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15972966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Trans-Activators
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1603430
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10. Tofé Povedano S, Argüelles Jiménez I, García Fernández H, Quevedo Juanals J, Díaz Medina S, Serra Soler G, Burguera González B, Codina Marcet M, Mena Ribas E, Urgeles Planella JR, Pereg Macazaga V: [Routine performance of thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the setting of a high-resolution endocrinology practice]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Feb;57(2):43-8
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  • [Title] [Routine performance of thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the setting of a high-resolution endocrinology practice].
  • INTRODUCTION: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is considered the reference diagnostic procedure for thyroid nodules.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Routine performance of thyroid ultrasound and ultrasound-guided FNAB by endocrinologists allows a more efficient approach in the setting of a high-resolution practice, thus reducing costs and the time elapsed until diagnosis.
  • In conclusion, we have successfully incorporated thyroid ultrasound and ultrasound-guided FNAB into routine endocrine practice.
  • CONCLUSION: Routine performance of thyroid ultrasound in endocrine practice will considerably aid the management of nodular thyroid disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adult. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Cysts / epidemiology. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / ultrasonography. Endocrinology / organization & administration. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / ultrasonography. Hematoma / etiology. Hospital Departments. Hospitals, University / organization & administration. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / ultrasonography. Male. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / pathology. Pregnancy Complications / ultrasonography. Spain / epidemiology. Syncope, Vasovagal / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20138596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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11. Lam AK, Lo CY, Leung P, Lang BH, Chan WF, Luk JM: Clinicopathological roles of alterations of tumor suppressor gene p16 in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 May;14(5):1772-9
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological roles of alterations of tumor suppressor gene p16 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Alterations of the p16 gene are common in human cancers, but their roles in thyroid cancers have not been clearly defined.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathological roles of the p16 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • In follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC), there was a frequent lack of p16 protein expression and promoter methylation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17195959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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12. Khan MU, Nawaz MK, Saadullah M, Syed AA, Hussain R, Azhar R, Shah MA: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a juvenile patient. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 May;33(5):319-20
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  • [Title] Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a juvenile patient.
  • Juvenile differentiated carcinoma thyroid is a rare entity.
  • It differs from adult differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a variety of ways, including large tumor volume at presentation with early involvement of the capsule, more frequent nodal and distant metastases, greater expression of sodium-iodide symporter and early recurrence.
  • We present the case of a 5-year-old girl, the youngest ever treated in our country with surgery and RAI therapy successfully after being diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular variant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18431142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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13. Yildirim E: A model for predicting outcomes in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and model performance in comparison with other classification systems. J Am Coll Surg; 2005 Mar;200(3):378-92
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  • [Title] A model for predicting outcomes in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and model performance in comparison with other classification systems.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid cancer, and to establish a mathematical prognostic model.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted in 347 differentiated thyroid cancer patients.
  • Total and near total thyroidectomy along with radioactive iodine treatment might provide a survival advantage for differentiated thyroid cancer, except for those with very low risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Models, Theoretical. Neoplasm Staging / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment / classification. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15737848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Tsilchorozidou T, Vafiadou E, Yovos JG, Romeo G, McKay J, Lesueur F, Bonora E: A Greek family with a follicular variant of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma: TCO, MNG1, fPTC/PRN, and NMTC1 excluded as susceptibility loci. Thyroid; 2005 Dec;15(12):1349-54
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  • [Title] A Greek family with a follicular variant of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma: TCO, MNG1, fPTC/PRN, and NMTC1 excluded as susceptibility loci.
  • The familial form of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) has been recognized as a distinct clinical entity and is characterized by multifocality and a more severe phenotype than its sporadic counterpart.
  • The majority of FNMTC pedigrees are small in size, show variable modes of inheritance, and may present with a variety of additional benign thyroid disorders.
  • This locus appears particular relevant to families with at least one case of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (fvPTC).
  • We describe the clinical and pathologic characteristics of a large three-generation fPTC kindred, with two of the four PTC patients presented with the follicular variant of PTC.
  • From the PTC patients, one had MNG and fvPTC, one MNG, lymphocytic thyroiditis and papillary pattern of PTC, one lymphocytic thyroiditis and fvPTC, and one MNG and papillary pattern of PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16405407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Sugitani I, Toda K, Yamamoto N, Sakamoto A, Fujimoto Y: Re-evaluation of histopathological factors affecting prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in an iodine-sufficient country. World J Surg; 2010 Jun;34(6):1265-73
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  • [Title] Re-evaluation of histopathological factors affecting prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in an iodine-sufficient country.
  • BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) was recognized as an independent clinicohistological entity of thyroid cancer in the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classifications, separated from papillary (PTC) and follicular carcinoma (FTC).
  • However, in an iodine-sufficient country such as Japan, PDTC comprises <1% of all thyroid cancers.
  • Only 1 case (0.3%) met the Turin criteria.
  • Disease-free survival was identical between these groups and was significantly worse than in the >0% but <10% and 0% groups.
  • Original histological pattern, as papillary or follicular, affects the site of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Iodine. Japan / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Factors. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19953247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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16. Nagano J, Mabuchi K, Yoshimoto Y, Hayashi Y, Tsuda N, Land C, Kodama K: A case-control study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki examining non-radiation risk factors for thyroid cancer. J Epidemiol; 2007 May;17(3):76-85
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  • [Title] A case-control study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki examining non-radiation risk factors for thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Because little is known about the etiology of thyroid cancer in Japan, we conducted a case-control study of thyroid cancer and lifestyle and other risk factors.
  • METHODS: Thyroid cancer cases reported to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries during 1970-1986 were histologically reviewed by pathologists.
  • For each of 362 cases with papillary or follicular adenocarcinoma diagnosed at <75 years of age, one control without cancer matched on city, sex, year of birth, and atomic-bomb radiation exposure was selected from the Life Span Study cohort or the offspring cohort.
  • RESULTS: Analysis using conditional logistic regression showed history of goiter or thyroid nodule and family history of cancer to be significantly associated with an increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer.
  • Radiation exposure did not significantly modify the associations between these factors and thyroid cancer risk.
  • CONCLUSION: History of goiter/nodule and family history of cancer were risk factors for thyroid cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17545694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5040
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radioactive Fallout
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17. Balcerzak W, Bednarz W, Domosławski P, Olewiński R, Kolesińska J, Kaminski Z, Dziarkowska K, Wieczorek P: [Preliminary approach towards construction of peptide libraries as potential tools for diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):307-13
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  • [Title] [Preliminary approach towards construction of peptide libraries as potential tools for diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors].
  • INTRODUCTION: Cancer of thyroid gland is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The material from 6 patients with thyroid cancer (4 with papillary cancer, 1 with follicular cancer and 1 with oxyphilic tumor) were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Preliminary results confirm practical value of peptide libraries in early diagnostics of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Peptide Library. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17006829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Peptide Library; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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18. Haq M, Harmer C: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases at presentation: prognostic factors and outcome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jul;63(1):87-93
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  • [Title] Differentiated thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases at presentation: prognostic factors and outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) presenting with distant metastases is uncommon.
  • Histology identified 46 papillary, 60 follicular and five Hürthle cell cancers.
  • Multivariate analysis identified age over 70, poorly differentiated tumours and Hürthle cell variant to be the only independent factors associated with worse outcome (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DTC presenting with distant metastases have a worse outcome if aged over 70, have poorly differentiated tumours or have Hürthle cell variant.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15963067.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Taïeb D, Sebag F, Farman-Ara B, Portal T, Baumstarck-Barrau K, Fortanier C, Bourrelly M, Mancini J, De Micco C, Auquier P, Conte-Devolx B, Henry JF, Mundler O: Iodine biokinetics and radioiodine exposure after recombinant human thyrotropin-assisted remnant ablation in comparison with thyroid hormone withdrawal. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jul;95(7):3283-90
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  • [Title] Iodine biokinetics and radioiodine exposure after recombinant human thyrotropin-assisted remnant ablation in comparison with thyroid hormone withdrawal.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare the effects of the both TSH regimens on iodine biokinetics in the thyroid remnant, dosimetry, and radiation protection.
  • RESULTS: The effective half-life in the remnant thyroid tissue was significantly longer after rhTSH than during hypothyroidism (P = 0.01), whereas 48-h (131)I uptakes and residence times were similar.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with thyroid hormone withdrawal, rhTSH is associated with longer remnant half-life of radioactive iodine while also reducing radiation exposure to the rest of the body and also to the general public who come in contact with such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Ablation Techniques / methods. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Iodine / metabolism. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Half-Life. Humans. Prospective Studies. Radiometry. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Triiodothyronine / therapeutic use

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LEVOTHYROXINE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LIOTHYRONINE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IODINE, ELEMENTAL .
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  • (PMID = 20392868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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20. Carvalho GA, Graf H: [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):719-24
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma indiferenciado de tireóide.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC), as papillary and follicular carcinoma, usually follows a relatively benign course after total thyroidectomy and thyroid remnant ablation with 131I.
  • In contrast, anaplastic TC or undifferentiated TC, also derived from the thyroid follicular epithelium, refers to one of the more aggressive human malignancies, which have lost most or all characteristics of the tissue from which it originated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Progression. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16444354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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21. Phuttharak W, Somboonporn C, Hongdomnern G: Diagnostic performance of gray-scale versus combined gray-scale with colour doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2009;10(5):759-64
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  • [Title] Diagnostic performance of gray-scale versus combined gray-scale with colour doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of gray-scale ultrasound and combined gray-scale ultrasound with color Doppler ultrasound in predicting malignancy of thyroid nodules by using tissue diagnosis as the reference standard.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between November 2007 and October 2008, 31 patients (16 with solitary thyroid nodules and 15 with multiple thyroid nodules) were preoperatively evaluated with gray-scale ultrasound and color Doppler ultrasound.
  • CONCLUSION: Combination of gray-scale US with color Doppler US findings improves specificity and PPV in the diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Nodule / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 20104965.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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22. Shaco-Levy R, Bean SM, Bentley RC, Robboy SJ: Natural history of biologically malignant struma ovarii: analysis of 27 cases with extraovarian spread. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 May;29(3):212-27
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  • The tumors measured 5 to 24.5 cm and were more than 50% thyroid tissue in all but 2 cases.
  • The microscopic diagnosis of the thyroid tissue was follicular adenoma in 17 cases (63%), papillary carcinoma in 7 (26%), unremarkable in 2 (7%), and follicular carcinoma in 1 case (4%).
  • In addition, pathologic factors predictive of a poorer prognosis were large size (> or = 10 cm), strumal component more than 80%, and extensive papillary carcinoma, especially with solid areas, necrosis, and > or = 5 mitoses per 10 high-power fields.
  • On last follow-up 3 patients (11%) had no evidence of disease, 9 (33%) were alive with disease, 5 (19%) died of other causes, and 10 patients (37%) died of the disease.
  • Death from disease occurred 1.5 to 32 years after diagnosis (mean=14 yr).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20407319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Than TH, Swethadri GK, Wong J, Ahmad T, Jamil D, Maganlal RK, Hamdi MM, Abdullah MS: Expression of Galectin-3 and Galectin-7 in thyroid malignancy as potential diagnostic indicators. Singapore Med J; 2008 Apr;49(4):333-8
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  • [Title] Expression of Galectin-3 and Galectin-7 in thyroid malignancy as potential diagnostic indicators.
  • INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and Galectin-7 (Gal-7) are potential tumour markers for differentiating thyroid carcinoma from its benign counter part.
  • Although the value of Gal-3 has been studied extensively, there is little knowledge regarding the expression of Gal-7 in thyroid malignancy.
  • METHODS: We initiated an immunohistochemical (IHC) study on the expression of Gal-3 and Gal-7 on various thyroid lesions.
  • Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded thyroid tissues were stained for IHC expression of Gal-3 and Gal-7 using monoclonal anti-human Gal-3 antibody and anti-human Gal-7 antibody (R&D Systems Inc, MN, USA).
  • RESULTS: A total of 95 cases were collected, including 32 benign and 63 malignant thyroid lesions.
  • These contained 37 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma, nine cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant, 16 cases of follicular carcinoma, one case of anaplastic carcinoma, 14 cases of follicular adenomas and 18 cases of nodular goitre.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that the IHC localisation of Gal-3 is a useful marker in conjunction with routine haematoylin and eosin staining in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions, while there is no significant adjunct diagnostic value in Gal-7 for thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Galectins / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18418527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Galectins; 0 / LGALS7 protein, human
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24. Lang BH, Lo CY, Chan WF, Lam KY, Wan KY: Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: their implications for cancer staging. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):730-8
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: their implications for cancer staging.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) are two distinct histological types of thyroid carcinoma but have often been studied and staged as a collective group, known as differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between PTC and FTC in terms of age >/=50 years at diagnosis (P = .040), tumor size (P < .001), lymph node metastases (P < .001), distant metastases (P < .001), extrathyroidal extension (P < .001), multifocality (P = .002), capsular invasion (P < .001), extent of thyroid resection (P < .001), radioiodine ablation (P < .001), and external-beam irradiation (P = .003).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


25. Giorgadze TA, Baloch ZW, Pasha T, Zhang PJ, Livolsi VA: Lymphatic and blood vessel density in the follicular patterned lesions of thyroid. Mod Pathol; 2005 Nov;18(11):1424-31
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  • [Title] Lymphatic and blood vessel density in the follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.
  • The histologic distinction of follicular patterned lesions of thyroid, that is follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma can be extremely difficult.
  • The differential diagnostic criteria regarding nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma are subjective, resulting in high interobserver variability.
  • Although papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasizes mainly via lymphatic vessels, whereas follicular carcinoma spreads mostly hematogenously, there are no data regarding utility of objective quantitative criteria such as lymphatic and general blood vessel density for the differential diagnosis of these lesions.
  • In this study, 35 follicular patterned lesions of thyroid (14 follicular adenomas, 10 follicular carcinomas, and 11 of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas) were evaluated immunohistochemically.
  • There were no significant differences in the intra- and/or peritumoral general vessel densities, and peritumoral lymphatic vessel densities among follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In contrast, the intratumoral lymphatic vessel density was significantly higher in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma than in either follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma (34.63, 15.04, and 0.11 respectively; P<0.0001).
  • The results of the study show that intratumoral lymphatic vessel density may serve as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphangiogenesis / physiology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD31. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [Copyright] Modern Pathology (2005) 18, 1424-1431. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800452; published online 27 May 2005.
  • (PMID = 15920537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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26. Kakudo K, Bai Y, Katayama S, Hirokawa M, Ito Y, Miyauchi A, Kuma K: Classification of follicular cell tumors of the thyroid gland: analysis involving Japanese patients from one institute. Pathol Int; 2009 Jun;59(6):359-67
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  • [Title] Classification of follicular cell tumors of the thyroid gland: analysis involving Japanese patients from one institute.
  • Prognostic analyses of thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin were carried out on patients treated at Kuma Hospital, Kobe, Japan.
  • Major histological types of papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma were combined into one single entity of follicular cell adenocarcinoma because (i) they have the same cell origin (follicular cell);.
  • (ii) clear-cut separation of papillary and follicular carcinoma is not always possible, and 10 year cause-specific survival was essentially similar when the patients were treated curatively; and (iii) poorly differentiated carcinoma usually has a background of either papillary or follicular carcinoma.
  • This adenocarcinoma together with undifferentiated carcinoma was stratified into four prognostic groups using pure morphological criteria of the degree of cellular differentiation and histological grade.
  • They are termed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The 10 year disease-free survival rates were 86.3-93.1%, 65.4-78.7%, and 43.0-53.8%, and 0%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 19490465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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27. Landa I, Montero-Conde C, Malanga D, De Gisi S, Pita G, Leandro-García LJ, Inglada-Pérez L, Letón R, De Marco C, Rodríguez-Antona C, Viglietto G, Robledo M: Allelic variant at -79 (C&gt;T) in CDKN1B (p27Kip1) confers an increased risk of thyroid cancer and alters mRNA levels. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Jun;17(2):317-28
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  • [Title] Allelic variant at -79 (C>T) in CDKN1B (p27Kip1) confers an increased risk of thyroid cancer and alters mRNA levels.
  • The aim of this study is to assess if common genetic variants located in the CDKN1B locus, coding for the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1), are involved in thyroid cancer susceptibility.
  • Based on the literature and functional predictions, we selected three polymorphisms within the CDKN1B gene (rs2066827 (T326G, V109G), rs34330 (-79C>T) and rs36228499 (-838C>A)) to perform the first case-control study in thyroid cancer involving this locus.
  • We had 649 Spanish patients with sporadic thyroid cancer and 385 healthy representative controls available.
  • Luciferase reporter gene assays, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblot experiments were carried out to demonstrate the putative effect of the associated variant.
  • The polymorphism rs34330 (-79C>T) was identified as a risk factor for developing the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC), fitting a recessive model (odds ratio=2.12; 95% confidence interval=1.09-4.15; P value=0.023).
  • This is the first study that identifies CDKN1B as a low-penetrance gene in thyroid cancer, and specifically in FVPTC subtype.
  • We propose a reduced CDKN1B gene transcription depending on the genotype of the -79C>T (rs34330) variant as a novel mechanism underlying p27(Kip1) downregulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


28. Graf H, Paz-Filho G: [Recombinant human TSH use in differentiated thyroid cancer]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):806-12
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  • [Title] [Recombinant human TSH use in differentiated thyroid cancer].
  • Traditionally, the immediate treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after total thyroidectomy (TT) is thyroid remnant ablation (TRA) with 131I, during hypothyroidism.
  • In the last years, TRA with the aid of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) has shown not only to avoid symptoms of hypothyroidism and a lower quality of life, but also to have the same efficacy as TRA during endogenous TSH elevation.
  • Stimulated Tg with endogenous or exogenous TSH, 9 to 12 months after the initial treatment of DTC, associated with cervical US, is able to identify low-risk patients virtually cured of their disease, in whom TSH suppression does not need to be so strict, avoiding the heart and bone complications of prolonged exogenous thyrotoxicosis.
  • Finally, in spite of the absence of randomized studies designed to evaluate the role of rhTSH in metastatic DTC disease, results of the combined treatment of rhTSH and 131I show a clinical benefit in the majority of treated patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17891244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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29. Lee S, Hong SW, Moon WC, Oh MR, Lee JK, Ahn CW, Cha BS, Kim KR, Lee HC, Lim SK: High prevalence of c-RET expression in papillary thyroid carcinomas from the Korean population. Thyroid; 2005 Mar;15(3):259-66
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  • [Title] High prevalence of c-RET expression in papillary thyroid carcinomas from the Korean population.
  • BACKGROUND: Activation of the RET proto-oncogene, located on the long arms of chromosome 10, contributes to the development of thyroid cancers in two different ways.
  • First, somatic rearrangements of RET with variable activation genes are frequently found in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • Second, germ-line point mutations are responsible for the development of medullary thyroid carcinomas and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2).
  • There are several conflicting reports on the influences of RET expression and RET/PTC rearrangements on the clinical outcome of thyroid cancers.
  • Therefore, the wild-type RET gene expression and RET/PTC-1, RET/PTC-2, RET/PTC-3 rearrangements were examined in thyroid carcinomas and other thyroid diseases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 8 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), 4 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC), 7 follicular adenomas (FAs), 23 hyperplasias, 6 normal thyroid tissues, and 39 normal portions from each tumor were included in this study.
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses were used to identify the RET gene and RET/PTC rearrangements.
  • RESULTS: From the RT-PCR analysis, 68.9% of the PTCs, a single case of FTC, and 22.2% of the hyperplasias expressed the RET gene.
  • No RET gene expression was observed in ATCs, FAs, or normal thyroid tissues.
  • The immunohistochemical results revealed that 66.7% of PTCs, 28.6% of FAs, and 18.2% of hyperplastic thyroid tissue specimens showed high levels of RET protein expression.
  • Neither the normal thyroid tissues nor the FTCs and ATC, showed high levels of RET protein expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Asian Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. DNA Primers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Korea. Prevalence. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15785245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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30. Gerard SK, Dam HQ: Stunning with 131I diagnostic whole-body imaging of patients with thyroid cancer. Radiology; 2005 Mar;234(3):972-3; author reply 973-4
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  • [Title] Stunning with 131I diagnostic whole-body imaging of patients with thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Postoperative Complications / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Whole-Body Counting
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radiotherapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm, Residual / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentOn] Radiology. 2004 Aug;232(2):527-33 [15286323.001]
  • (PMID = 15734947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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31. Woodruff SL, Arowolo OA, Akute OO, Afolabi AO, Nwariaku F: Global variation in the pattern of differentiated thyroid cancer. Am J Surg; 2010 Oct;200(4):462-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Global variation in the pattern of differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is increasing worldwide.
  • Iodine deficiency is a risk factor for follicular thyroid cancer (FTC).
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of thyroid cancer at tertiary centers in West Africa and the United States.
  • All patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer from 1980 to 2004 were retrieved from the West African Center's Cancer Registry Database.
  • In the American center, a review of patients undergoing surgery for thyroid cancer from 1997 to 2008 was performed.
  • Overall, 31.5% had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and 30.3% had FTC.
  • At the American institution, 105 patients underwent surgery for thyroid cancer from 1997 to 2008; 79% had PTC and 7.6% had FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. SEER Program. United States / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20887838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Garcia EA, Simões K, Wakamatsu A, Ressio RA, Alves VA, Longatto-Filho A, Camargo RS: Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):101-7
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  • [Title] Lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression are significantly different among benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia worldwide.
  • In order to evaluate the value of LVD in benign and malignant thyroid lesions, we analyzed 110 thyroidectomy specimens using D2-40, a specific marker for lymphatic vessels and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), the most potent molecule of lymphatic proliferation.
  • LVD was significantly different between papillary and follicular carcinomas in total (p = 0.045) and peritumoral area (p = 0.042).
  • Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma showed an important difference of intra- (p = 0.019) and peritumoral (p = 0.033) LVD.
  • Indeed, the high peritumoral LVD of malignant thyroid lesions is an important finding for surgery planning and supports the practice of total thyroidectomy in malignant thyroid neoplasm's since the lymphatic peritumoral vessels definitely are an escape path for tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20336393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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33. Falvo L, Giacomelli L, Vanni B, Marzollo A, Guerriero G, De Antoni E: Papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst: case reports and literature review. Int Surg; 2006 May-Jun;91(3):141-6
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst: case reports and literature review.
  • Although thyroglossal duct cysts represent a common developmental abnormality of the thyroid gland, malignant transformation is rare and occurs in only 1% of cases.
  • Histologic examination indicated two pure papillary carcinomas, a sclerosing papillary carcinoma, and a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Carcinoma multifocality was found in one patient.
  • We recommend associating total thyroidectomy with removal of the tumor of the thyroglossal duct and of the body of the hyoid bone, because the carcinoma may be multifocal and there may be lymphatic invasion of the thyroid and to ensure a correct follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroglossal Cyst / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / embryology. Thyroid Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16845854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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34. Miseikyte-Kaubriene E, Ulys A, Trakymas M: [The frequency of malignant disease in cytological group of suspected cancer (ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable thyroid nodules)]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(3):189-94
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  • [Title] [The frequency of malignant disease in cytological group of suspected cancer (ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable thyroid nodules)].
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the most important procedure for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones.
  • Group suspicious for cancer largely involves follicular neoplasms as well as lesions with cytological features of malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish the value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of nonpalpable thyroid cancer and to assess the frequency of malignant disease in the group of suspected cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 184 patients with nonpalpable thyroid nodules (less than 1.5 cm in diameter) were examined by means of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • RESULTS. During 1997-2002, 204 ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies of thyroid nodules were performed; findings were nondiagnostic in 5.9% of cases.
  • In 45 cases, cytological diagnosis of malignant or suspected thyroid cancer was confirmed by histological examination after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy has a high accuracy in the diagnostic evaluation of nonpalpable thyroid nodule with cytological features of malignancy.
  • However, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is not effective diagnostic method for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones in follicular neoplasm group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18413985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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35. Mitsiades CS, Negri J, McMullan C, McMillin DW, Sozopoulos E, Fanourakis G, Voutsinas G, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Poulaki V, Batt D, Mitsiades N: Targeting BRAFV600E in thyroid carcinoma: therapeutic implications. Mol Cancer Ther; 2007 Mar;6(3):1070-8
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  • [Title] Targeting BRAFV600E in thyroid carcinoma: therapeutic implications.
  • BRAF mutations have been detected in several tumors, including papillary thyroid carcinoma, but the precise role of B-Raf as a therapeutic target for thyroid carcinoma is still under investigation.
  • We analyzed a panel of 93 specimens and 14 thyroid carcinoma cell lines for the presence of BRAF mutations and activation of the mitogen-activated protein/ERK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.
  • We also compared the effect of a B-Raf small inhibitory RNA construct and the B-Raf kinase inhibitor AAL881 on both B-Raf wild-type and mutant thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • We found a high prevalence of the T1799A (V600E) mutation in papillary and anaplastic carcinoma specimens and cell lines.
  • We conclude that B-Raf is important for the pathophysiology of thyroid carcinomas irrespective of mutational status.
  • Small molecule inhibitors that selectively target B-Raf(V600E) may provide clinical benefit for patients with thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Isoquinolines / pharmacology. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apoptosis / drug effects. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Phosphorylation / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17363500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AAL 881; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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36. Edino ST, Mohammed AZ, Ochicha O, Malami SA, Yakubu AA: Thyroid cancers in nodular goiters in Kano, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract; 2010 Sep;13(3):298-300
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  • [Title] Thyroid cancers in nodular goiters in Kano, Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer is an occasional incidental finding in nodular goiter, but there has been no formal study on this disease in our locality.
  • RESULTS: There were 160 multinodular goiters during the study period, out of which 24 (15.0%) had histologically diagnosed cancer, and 1 out of the thirteen patients with solitary thyroid nodule (7.6%) had carcinoma.
  • The ages of the patients with carcinoma ranged from 16 to 65 years, with a mean age of 38.8 years.
  • Six out of the 25 cases of carcinoma were detected preoperatively by fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • Well differentiated follicular carcinoma was the predominant histological type in 13 (52%) cases, followed by papillary in 10 (40%), medullary carcinoma in 1 (4%) and anaplastic carcinoma in 1 (4%) patient.
  • CONCLUSION: One-seventh of nodular goiters in our center harboured malignancy, and follicular carcinoma was the prevalent histological type.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Hospitals, Teaching. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20857789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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37. Baloch ZW: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up. Cytojournal; 2006 Apr 07;3:9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up.
  • The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN), follicular neoplasm (FON) and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN).
  • In the FON category almost half of the malignant cases were papillary carcinoma.
  • According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%).

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  • (PMID = 16603062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1458352
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38. Vera P, Kuhn-Lansoy C, Edet-Sanson A, Hapdey S, Modzelewski R, Hitzel A, d'Anjou J, Basuyau JP: Does recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated positron emission tomography with [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose improve detection of recurrence of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients with low serum thyroglobulin? Thyroid; 2010 Jan;20(1):15-23
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  • [Title] Does recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated positron emission tomography with [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose improve detection of recurrence of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients with low serum thyroglobulin?
  • Thirty-eight patients had papillary carcinoma and six had follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • All patients had previously undergone total thyroidectomy and postoperative iodine ablation of thyroid bed remnant tissue.
  • There was no difference of PET/CT-FDG results (positive vs. negative) as related to the serum Tg concentrations (p = 0.99 for Tg(ini), p = 0.95 for Tg(T4), p = 0.07 for Tg(1), and p = 0.42 for Tg(2)).
  • CONCLUSION: In the diagnosis of recurrent disease in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and low Tg level, the sensitivity of rhTSH-stimulated PET/CT-FDG seems to be low and no correlation was observed between PET/CT-FDG findings and Tg level.
  • Therefore, this series shows that a cutoff value of 10 microg/L for the Tg under T(4) is probably not the best criteria to select patient candidates for PET/CT-FDG examination to detect the recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20017617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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39. Rocha AS, Risberg B, Magalhães J, Trovisco V, de Castro IV, Lazarovici P, Soares P, Davidson B, Sobrinho-Simões M: The p75 neurotrophin receptor is widely expressed in conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2006 May;37(5):562-8
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  • [Title] The p75 neurotrophin receptor is widely expressed in conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) are associated with alterations in several proto-oncogenes related with nervous system development and function, such as TrkA and RET, which are commonly rearranged in these carcinomas.
  • Because the role of TrkA was not completely elucidated in thyroid cancer ethiopathogenesis, we decided to study the expression of active, phosphorylated TrkA and of its coreceptor p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75 NTR) in a series of 92 PTC (37 lesions of conventional PTC, 28 of follicular variant of PTC [FVPTC], and 27 of other variants of PTC) as well as in 21 samples of normal thyroid and nonneoplastic thyroid lesions used as a controls.
  • We observed neoexpression of p75 NTR in PTC, particularly in conventional PTC and in other variants of PTC displaying a papillary growth pattern, rather than in FVPTC.
  • No immunoexpression of p75 NTR was observed in normal thyroid nor in nonneoplastic thyroid lesions.
  • The cellular localization of p75 NTR immunoexpression was also significantly associated with the growth pattern of PTC, being much more frequently detected in an apical localization in PTC with papillary architecture than in PTC with a follicular or solid growth pattern.
  • No significant differences were detected between normal thyroid, nonneoplastic lesions, and PTC (or any PTC variant) regarding expression/activation of TrkA, thus suggesting that by itself and in contrast to p75 NTR, TrkA is not altered during PTC development.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Genetic Markers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / metabolism. Receptor, trkA / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16647954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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40. Nelson KK, Gattuso P, Xu X, Prinz RA: Expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway molecules in synchronous follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in predicting malignancy. Surgery; 2010 Oct;148(4):654-60; discussion 660
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  • [Title] Expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway molecules in synchronous follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in predicting malignancy.
  • The Sonic Hedgehog pathway is required for normal thyroid gland development, but when activated as a result of gene mutation or overexpression, it may stimulate thyroid tumor cell proliferation.
  • This study determines whether 3 molecules, Patched, Smoothened, and Sonic Hedgehog, involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway are overexpressed equally in synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients with synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent thyroidectomy.
  • Patched expression was detected in 5 of 13 (38%) follicular adenomas and 5 of 12 (42%) papillary carcinomas.
  • Smoothened was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 3 of 13 (23%) papillary carcinomas.
  • Sonic Hedgehog was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 11 of 13 (85%) papillary carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of the 3 molecules involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway was similar in follicular thyroid adenoma, but Sonic Hedgehog expression was a more sensitive indicator of malignancy in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The Sonic Hedgehog molecule may become a diagnostic marker when the cytologic or histologic features are not characteristic of a papillary carcinoma.
  • Greater understanding of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway may provide molecular methods for preventing or treating papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Hedgehog Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20797751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / SHH protein, human
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41. Ghossein R: Problems and controversies in the histopathology of thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):683-91
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  • [Title] Problems and controversies in the histopathology of thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin.
  • CONTEXT: Despite past and recent efforts, many problems and controversies remain in the classification of thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin.
  • These controversies have an impact on the prognosis and therapy of patients with thyroid carcinoma as well as on the development of robust cutting-edge research aimed at better outcome and quality of life.
  • OBJECTIVE: To focus on 3 contentious areas with significant clinical value: the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, the extent of invasion in follicular carcinoma, and the poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Recent data show that prognosis and therapy for many disease entities can be better delineated if a meticulous microscopic examination is performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19415942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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42. Otto KJ, Lam JS, MacMillan C, Freeman JL: Diminishing diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck; 2010 Dec;32(12):1629-34
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  • [Title] Diminishing diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular carcinomas have been reported as 10% to 15% of thyroid malignancies.
  • Refinements in the histologic criteria applied in the classification of follicular lesions have occurred.
  • We aim to document the true incidence of follicular cancers in a cohort from a high-volume endocrine practice.
  • METHODS: Patient charts were reviewed and cancers were classified into major subtypes; papillary cancers were further classified by common variants.
  • RESULTS: Only 2.7% of patients had follicular carcinoma.
  • The proportion of patients with follicular cancer was less than the reported rates of 10% to 15%, and less than the 6.7% extrapolated from SEER.
  • CONCLUSION: The proportion of follicular cancers is less than traditionally reported.
  • This change is due to an increased incidence of papillary cancers, and modifications of the histologic criteria used for classification of encapsulated follicular lesions.
  • There are potential prognostic consequences, as follicular cancers have been perceived as more aggressive.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20848402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Graf H: [Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas: new therapeutic considerations]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):711-8
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  • [Title] [Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas: new therapeutic considerations].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma de tireóide pouco diferenciado: novas considerações terapêuticas.
  • For most differentiated thyroid carcinomas, as papillary and follicular carcinomas, following total thyroidectomy and 131I therapy for thyroid remnant ablation, treatment with thyroid hormones to suppress TSH levels will reduce the growth of any remaining thyroid cancer cells, and thyroid cell-specific radiation therapy will either cure or control the disease.
  • Thyroid carcinomas are considered poorly differentiated when they start to lose such functions as iodine uptake and thyrotropin-dependence for growth and production of thyroid proteins like NIS, thyroglobulin and desiodases.
  • One of the greatest challenges in the management of patients with follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer is the treatment of tumors that progressed despite surgery, (131)I and T4 suppression of TSH.
  • With the better knowledge of the abnormal molecular signaling in thyroid cancer cells, actually known targeted cancer therapies, directed against molecules involved in neoplastic transformation, are being used.
  • As the critical molecular requirements for tumor initiation, maintenance and progression are identified, combination therapies with targeted agents acting on each of them will improve the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / drug effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16444353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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44. Pace-Asciak PZ, Payne RJ, Eski SJ, Walfish P, Damani M, Freeman JL: Cost savings of patients with a MACIS score lower than 6 when radioactive iodine is not given. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Sep;133(9):870-3
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  • CONCLUSIONS: By following the recommendations of recent evidence-based studies and by ceasing to treat patients with a MACIS score lower than 6 after total thyroidectomy using RAI, cost savings can be accrued for health care systems involved in the treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / economics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / economics. Iodine Radioisotopes / economics. National Health Programs / economics. Thyroid Neoplasms / economics. Thyroidectomy / economics

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  • (PMID = 17875852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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45. Hiltzik D, Carlson DL, Tuttle RM, Chuai S, Ishill N, Shaha A, Shah JP, Singh B, Ghossein RA: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas defined on the basis of mitosis and necrosis: a clinicopathologic study of 58 patients. Cancer; 2006 Mar 15;106(6):1286-95
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas defined on the basis of mitosis and necrosis: a clinicopathologic study of 58 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas (PDTC) occupy an intermediate position at the prognostic level on the spectrum of thyroid carcinoma progression.
  • METHODS: PDTC was defined as thyroid carcinoma with follicular cell differentiation at the histologic and/or immunohistochemical levels and displaying tumor necrosis and/or > or = 5 mitoses per 10 high-power fields (x400).
  • RESULTS: Of the 58 patients studied, 22 (38%) patients died of disease with a 5-year OS rate of 60%.
  • Forty-three of the 58 patients (74%) developed disease recurrence or disease progression, with a 5-year PFS rate of 25%.
  • On multivariate analysis, extrathyroid extension and tumor size emerged as the only significant variables in predicting PFS (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively) whereas extrathyroid extension was found to be the sole independent prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Mitosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16470605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Paşcanu I, Borda A, Bănescu C: Thyroid nodule with Hashimoto thyroiditis in childhood - a challenging experience. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2008;49(4):541-5
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  • [Title] Thyroid nodule with Hashimoto thyroiditis in childhood - a challenging experience.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid, although not perfect, is considered currently the best preoperative method in establishing malignancy in a thyroid nodule.
  • We report the case of an 8-year-old girl with a thyroid mass in the right thyroid lobe.
  • Endocrine investigations revealed subclinical hypothyroidism and high titer of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies.
  • Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) of the right side of the thyroid gland, where on thyroid ultrasonography (US) a poorly defined iso-/hypoechoic nodule with irregular margins was detected, revealed a background of lymphocytes and plasma cells mixed with follicular cells with reactive changes.
  • Right lobectomy was performed and the pathology report shows papillary carcinoma, follicular variant predominantly with components of insular growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Hashimoto Disease / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19050804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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47. Ferru A, Fromont G, Gibelin H, Guilhot J, Savagner F, Tourani JM, Kraimps JL, Larsen CJ, Karayan-Tapon L: The status of CDKN2A alpha (p16INK4A) and beta (p14ARF) transcripts in thyroid tumour progression. Br J Cancer; 2006 Dec 18;95(12):1670-7
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  • [Title] The status of CDKN2A alpha (p16INK4A) and beta (p14ARF) transcripts in thyroid tumour progression.
  • The aim of this study was to determine if CDKN2A gene products are implicated in differentiated thyroid carcinogenesis and progression.
  • We used real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to assess both transcripts and proteins levels in 60 tumours specimens.
  • Overexpression of p14ARF and pl6INK4A was observed in follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas and papillary carcinomas, while downregulation was found in oncocytic adenomas compared to nontumoral paired thyroid tissues.
  • These deregulations were statistically significant for pl6INK4a (P=0.006) in follicular adenomas and close to statistical significance for p14ARF in follicular adenomas (P=0.06) and in papillary carcinomas (P=0.05).
  • In all histological types, except papillary carcinomas, we observed a statistically significant relationship between p14ARF and E2F1 (r=0.64 to 1, P<0.05).
  • Our data are consistent with involvement of CDKN2A transcript upregulation in thyroid follicular tumorigenesis as an early event.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Transcription, Genetic / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17117177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360765
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48. Aiad H, Abdou A, Bashandy M, Said A, Ezz-Elarab S, Zahran A: Computerized nuclear morphometry in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions with predominant follicular pattern. Ecancermedicalscience; 2009;3:146
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  • [Title] Computerized nuclear morphometry in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions with predominant follicular pattern.
  • BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions with predominantly follicular pattern is one of the most common problems in thyroid pathology.
  • This work is aimed at studying the role of nuclear morphometry in differential diagnosis of different thyroid lesions having predominant follicular pattern.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semiautomatic image analysis system was used to measure a total of 8 nuclear parameters in 48 thyroid lesions including seven nodular goiter (NG), 14 follicular adenoma (FA), 14 follicular carcinoma (FC) and 13 follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC).
  • CONCLUSION: Nuclear morphometric parameters may help in the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid lesions and between FVPC and follicular neoplasms (FC and FA) but they have no value in the differentiation between FC and FA.

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  • (PMID = 22276011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3224013
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Thyroid / differential diagnosis / nuclear morphometry
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49. Liu Z, Bai Y, Li Y, Ohba K, Nakamura H, Ozaki T, Taniguchi E, Mori I, Kakudo K: Non-solid type thyroid carcinoma: a case report of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. Pathol Int; 2010 Jul;60(7):524-7
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  • [Title] Non-solid type thyroid carcinoma: a case report of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • We report the case of a common type papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patient who developed early recurrence and persistent disease even after ablation therapy.
  • The patient was an 80-year-old man that was incidentally found to have a mass lesion in the left lower lobe of his thyroid.
  • A total thyroidectomy and a left side modified radical neck dissection were performed; histological examination revealed a common type PTC.
  • The resected tumor and recurrence in lymph nodes revealed non-solid type papillary carcinoma with mixed features of less well-differentiated morphology, which we suggest included loss of cellular polarity/cohesiveness, tall cells and columnar cells.
  • We recently proposed a new classification for follicular cell tumors of the thyroid gland, and this case is an example of moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma according to our classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20594275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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50. Saleh HA, Feng J, Tabassum F, Al-Zohaili O, Husain M, Giorgadze T: Differential expression of galectin-3, CK19, HBME1, and Ret oncoprotein in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Cytojournal; 2009;6:18
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  • [Title] Differential expression of galectin-3, CK19, HBME1, and Ret oncoprotein in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a common and excellent procedure for the evaluation of thyroid lesions that require surgical resection.
  • At times, the FNAB diagnosis can be difficult, particularly of follicular-patterned lesions.
  • In this study, our goal was to evaluate four of the recently investigated markers in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules on FNABs.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed IHC staining of galectin-3, Ret oncoprotein (Ret), HBME-1, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19), on cell block sections of thyroid FNAB cases that had corresponding surgical resections.
  • They included 44 benign lesions (37 hyperplastic or cellular nodules, HN; and 7 follicular adenomas, FA) and 27 malignant tumors (6 follicular carcinoma, FC; 19 classic papillary carcinoma, PTC; and 2 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, FVPC).
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that galectin-3 is the best single marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions with the highest sensitivity and specificity.
  • Because they were the best two independent and combined markers, we recommend the use of the galectin-3 + HBME-1 panel to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions on FNABs.

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  • (PMID = 19826479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2758025
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CK19 / HBME-1 / Ret oncoprotein / fine needle aspiration / galectin-3 / immunohistochemical / thyroid
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51. Namba H, Yamashita S: [Gene abnormalities in thyroid cancer]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1967-72
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  • [Title] [Gene abnormalities in thyroid cancer].
  • A number of genetic abnormalities in oncogenes or anti-oncogenes have been identified in association with thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • Especially, oncogenes such as ras mutation, ret/PTC and Braf mutation that constitutively activate MAP kinase pathway a refrequently found in papillary thyroid cancer.
  • The p53 mutation aggravates differentiated thyroid cancers to anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • In this article, we review the genetic diagnostic methods and phenotype-genotype relationship of human thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18018556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / TRIM27 protein, human; 0 / taste receptors, type 2; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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52. Pellegriti G, De Vathaire F, Scollo C, Attard M, Giordano C, Arena S, Dardanoni G, Frasca F, Malandrino P, Vermiglio F, Previtera DM, D'Azzò G, Trimarchi F, Vigneri R: Papillary thyroid cancer incidence in the volcanic area of Sicily. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2009 Nov 18;101(22):1575-83
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid cancer incidence in the volcanic area of Sicily.
  • BACKGROUND: The steadily increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been attributed mostly to more sensitive thyroid nodule screening.
  • We evaluated thyroid cancer incidence in Sicily, which has a homogenous population and a province (Catania) that includes the Mt Etna volcanic area.
  • METHODS: In a register-based epidemiological survey, we collected all incident thyroid cancers in Sicily from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2004.
  • The age-standardized incidence rate for the world population (ASR(w)) was calculated and expressed as the number of thyroid cancer diagnoses per 100 000 residents per year.
  • The association of thyroid cancer incidence rate with sex, age, tumor histotype, and various environmental factors was evaluated by modeling the variation of the ASR(w).
  • RESULTS: In 2002-2004, 1950 incident thyroid cancers were identified in Sicily (among women, ASR(w) = 17.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 16.9 to 18.7; and among men, ASR(w) = 3.7, 95% CI = 3.3 to 4.1).
  • Although the percentage of thyroid cancers that were microcarcinomas (ie, < or = 10 mm) and ratio of men to women with thyroid cancer were similar in all nine Sicilian provinces, thyroid cancer incidence was statistically significantly higher in the province of Catania (among women, ASR(w) = 31.7, 95% CI = 29.1 to 34.3; and among men, ASR(w) = 6.4, 95% CI = 5.2 to 7.5) than in the rest of Sicily (among women, ASR(w) = 14.1, 95% CI = 13.2 to 15.0; and among men, ASR(w) = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.4) (all P values < .001).
  • Incidence of papillary, but not follicular or medullary, cancers was statistically significantly increased in Catania province, and papillary tumors from patients in Catania more frequently carried the BRAF V600E gene mutation (55 [52%] of 106 tumors) than tumors from patients elsewhere in Sicily (68 [33%] of 205 tumors) (relative risk = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.8, P = .02).
  • CONCLUSION: Residents of Catania province with its volcanic region appear to have a higher incidence of papillary thyroid cancer than elsewhere in Sicily.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Environmental Exposure / adverse effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Volcanic Eruptions / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / etiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Registries. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution. Sicily / epidemiology. Young Adult


53. Okada T, Sasaki F, Takahashi H, Taguchi K, Takahashi M, Watanabe K, Itoh T, Ota S, Todo S: Management of childhood and adolescent thyroid carcinoma: long-term follow-up and clinical characteristics. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;16(1):8-13
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  • [Title] Management of childhood and adolescent thyroid carcinoma: long-term follow-up and clinical characteristics.
  • AIM: This analysis was performed to evaluate clinical factors such as local tumor control, control of distant metastasis, survival, and complications in children and adolescents with thyroid carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1960 to 2003, 21 children and adolescents (16 girls and 5 boys, aged 4 to 15 years) were treated for thyroid carcinoma in our departments.
  • RESULTS: Papillary carcinoma was found in 20 patients (95%) and follicular carcinoma in one patient.
  • Cervical lymph node metastases were found in 12 out of 21 patients (57.1%) when thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed, and 5 patients (23.8%) had pulmonary metastasis.
  • In patients with pulmonary metastasis, total thyroidectomy and bilateral radical lymph node resection was performed in 3 patients, lobectomy of the thyroid and radical lymph node resection in one patient, and partial thyroidectomy in one patient.
  • Internal irradiation by 131I and thyroid hormone replacement therapy was administered to 2 of 3 patients with pulmonary metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite metastasis in the lymph nodes and even the lungs, the prognosis for patients with papillary carcinoma is good.
  • Total thyroidectomy and positive 131I therapy are recommended for childhood and adolescent thyroid carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16544219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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54. Ghossein R: Encapsulated malignant follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):212-8
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  • [Title] Encapsulated malignant follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors.
  • Encapsulated malignant follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors are subject to considerable controversies.
  • This group includes encapsulated follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPTC) and encapsulated (so-called minimally invasive) follicular carcinoma (EFC).
  • Encapsulated FVPTC have a molecular profile very close to follicular adenomas/carcinomas (high rate of RAS and absence of BRAF mutations).
  • Infiltrative follicular variant has an opposite molecular profile closer to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma than to follicular adenoma/carcinoma (BRAF > RAS mutations).
  • Encapsulated FVPTC have a molecular profile and a clinical behavior very similar to the follicular adenoma/carcinoma class of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / classification. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Humans. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21088998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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55. Liou MJ, Lin JD, Chung MH, Liau CT, Hsueh C: Renal metastasis from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol; 2005 Apr;125(4):438-42
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  • [Title] Renal metastasis from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • Papillary or follicular microcarcinoma of the thyroid comprises 10-20% of all thyroid malignancies.
  • Distant metastasis caused by thyroid microcarcinoma is uncommon, and is usually found in the lung or bone.
  • Thyroid microcarcinoma with metastasis to the kidney has not previously been reported.
  • Clinically detectable well-differentiated metastatic thyroid carcinoma to the kidney is rare, and only 16 cases have been reported.
  • Herein we describe a case of metastatic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma to the kidney in a patient with a pelvic fracture and pulmonary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Calcinosis / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Pelvic Bones / pathology. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15823819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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56. Tseleni-Balafouta S, Gakiopoulou H, Fanourakis G, Voutsinas G, Litsiou H, Sozopoulos E, Balafoutas D, Patsouris E: Fibrillin expression and localization in various types of carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Mod Pathol; 2006 May;19(5):695-700
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  • [Title] Fibrillin expression and localization in various types of carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate fibrillin-1 expression in thyroid carcinomas at mRNA and protein level, since ECM proteins are suggested to be of great importance for the metastatic potential of carcinomas.
  • RNA was extracted from 13 thyroid carcinoma cell lines and RT-PCR analysis with gene-specific primers revealed fibrillin-1 mRNA expression in all cell lines, with highest expression in the follicular carcinoma cell line WRO and lowest expression in the two anaplastic cell lines (APO, FRO).
  • Furthermore, we investigated fibrillin-1 expression by immumohistochemistry in a commercially available tissue microarray including 50 thyroid carcinomas as well as in archival tissue from 33 thyroid carcinomas.
  • Fibrillin-1 demonstrated a cytoplasmic location in the neoplastic cells of almost all carcinomas apart from the follicular ones.
  • The most intense staining was observed in papillary carcinomas with some evidence of a slight increased intensity in advanced stages.
  • Our data indicate that fibrillin-1 is strongly expressed by the neoplastic cells of thyroid carcinomas in different degree in the various histologic types and might be implicated in cell-stroma interaction in terms of signaling, attachment and migration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Microfilament Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16528372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / fibrillin
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57. McLaughlin PJ, Zagon IS, Park SS, Conway A, Donahue RN, Goldenberg D: Growth inhibition of thyroid follicular cell-derived cancers by the opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:369
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  • [Title] Growth inhibition of thyroid follicular cell-derived cancers by the opioid growth factor (OGF) - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) axis.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon cancer, but the most frequent malignancy of the endocrine system.
  • Most thyroid cancers are derived from the follicular cell.
  • Follicular carcinoma (FTC) is considered more malignant than papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most lethal human cancers.
  • Both the peptide and receptor have been detected in a wide variety of cancers, and OGF is currently used clinically as a biotherapy for some non-thyroid neoplasias.
  • This study addressed the question of whether the OGF-OGFr axis is present and functional in human thyroid follicular cell - derived cancer.
  • The ubiquity of the OGF-OGFr axis in thyroid follicular cell-derived cancer was assessed in KTC-1 (PTC) and WRO 82-1 (FTC) tumor cells.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that OGF and OGFr are present in follicular-derived thyroid cancers, and that OGF serves in a tonically active inhibitory manner to maintain homeostasis of cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Enkephalin, Methionine / metabolism. Receptors, Opioid / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19835629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Opioid; 0 / methionine-enkephalin receptor; 58569-55-4 / Enkephalin, Methionine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2770570
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58. Xu F, Liu B, Chen XY, Zhou EX, Fan DF, Ma Y, Tang ZH: [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;11(2):120-3
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of thyroid carcinoma in children.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 12 children under the age of 14 years, diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma between August 1998 and August 2008, were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: A hard thyroid mass was observed in 10 out of 12 children with thyroid carcinoma, but only one out of 15 children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • The rate of cervical lymph node metastasis in children with thyroid carcinoma was significantly higher than that in children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • There was no significant difference in the final diagnostic rate of thyroid carcinoma between ultrasonography and CT scans (75% vs 83%; >0.05).
  • All of 12 cases were pathologically confirmed as differentiated thyroid carcinoma, including papillary carcinoma (7 cases), follicular carcinoma (3 cases) and papillary-follicular carcinoma (2 cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood thyroid carcinoma is mostly differentiated and characterized by hard thyroid mass and cervical lymph node metastasis.
  • A combination of ultrasonography and CT is helpful to the diagnosis of childhood thyroid carcinoma.
  • The treatment outcome may be satisfactory by optimal therapy in children with thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19222949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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59. Kupferman ME, Weinstock YE, Santillan AA, Mishra A, Roberts D, Clayman GL, Weber RS: Predictors of level V metastasis in well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Head Neck; 2008 Nov;30(11):1469-74
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  • [Title] Predictors of level V metastasis in well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Cervical lymphadenectomy is frequently performed in patients with lateral cervical lymph node metastases to improve regional control of disease.
  • To identify clinical and pathological predictors of cervical node metastases to level V in differentiated thyroid carcinoma, we reviewed our experience at The University of Texas M. D.
  • Anderson Cancer Center for the management of metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients who underwent thyroidectomy and neck dissection for well-differentiated thyroid cancer at M. D.
  • RESULTS: In our series, 53% of neck specimens harbored metastatic thyroid carcinoma at level V.
  • The presence of ipsilateral level V metastases was significantly associated with multifocal disease (p <.05), ipsilateral level II (p <.05), III (p <.05), or IV (p <.01) metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: In our series, cervical metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma were commonly present at level V.
  • Patients with multifocal cancer within the thyroid gland, and cervical metastases in the ipsilateral jugular nodes have a higher risk of harboring metastatic disease at level V.
  • We believe that routine dissection of the level V lymph nodes should be performed in the setting of a comprehensive neck dissection for patients with lateral neck metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Neck Dissection. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2008.
  • (PMID = 18704973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Wang JX, Yu JK, Wang L, Liu QL, Zhang J, Zheng S: Application of serum protein fingerprint in diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Proteomics; 2006 Oct;6(19):5344-9
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  • [Title] Application of serum protein fingerprint in diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • To find new biomarkers and establish serum protein fingerprint models for early diagnosis and preoperative staging of papillary thyroid carcinoma, we employed SELDI-TOF-MS and bioinformatics tools.
  • Pattern 1 distinguishes patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma from healthy individuals.
  • Pattern 2 distinguishes papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid nodes.
  • The analysis of this independent test set yielded a specificity of 80.0% and a sensitivity of 88.9% for pattern 1 and a specificity of 80.0% and a sensitivity of 80.0% for pattern 2.
  • Two additional biomarker patterns were identified to distinguish different stages of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (pattern 3) with an accuracy of 77.1% and different pathological types of thyroid carcinoma (pattern 4) with an accuracy of 88.1%.
  • Taken together, the SELDI-TOF-MS technique combined with bioinformatics approaches can not only facilitate the discovery of better biomarkers for papillary thyroid carcinoma but also provide a useful tool for molecular diagnosis in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Peptide Mapping. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Protein Array Analysis. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 16941571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9853
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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61. Furlan JC, Bedard YC, Rosen IB: Significance of tumor capsular invasion in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Am Surg; 2007 May;73(5):484-91
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  • [Title] Significance of tumor capsular invasion in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • This study examines the influence of tumor capsular invasion on the biological behavior of papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and the prognosis of surgically treated patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17521005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Troncone G, Cozzolino I, Fedele M, Malapelle U, Palombini L: Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Mar;38(3):172-6
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  • [Title] Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study.
  • V600E BRAF mutation is emerging as an independent marker of papillary thyroid carcinoma aggressive behavior.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas harboring this mutation should be extensively resected.
  • Cytological diagnoses were inadequate (2%), benign (85%), follicular lesion of undetermined significance (5%), follicular neoplasms (2%), suspicious for malignancy (2%), and malignant (4%).
  • Whenever necessary BRAF testing may also be performed on the residual samples of thyroid nodules, without interfering with routine cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Specimen Handling / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19693938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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63. Chung D, Ghossein RA, Lin O: Macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma: a potential thyroid FNA pitfall. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Sep;35(9):560-4
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  • [Title] Macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma: a potential thyroid FNA pitfall.
  • Macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma (MFPC) is a rare variant of papillary carcinoma in which over 50% of the follicles are represented by macrofollicles.
  • Most cases were moderately to highly cellular with presence of both microfollicles as well as macrofollicles, but nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma were absent or focal in all cases.
  • MFPC is a variant of papillary carcinoma that can be extremely difficult to diagnose cytologically.
  • The presence of abundant colloid, macrophages, macrofollicular follicular cell arrangement and/or absence of widespread cytologic features associated with papillary carcinoma can lead to an erroneous diagnosis of goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17703452.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Listewnik MH, Birkenfeld B, Chosia M, Elbl B, Niedziałkowska K, Sawrymowicz M: The occurrence of malignant thyroid lesions in patients after radioiodine treatment due to benign thyroid diseases. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):454-7
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  • [Title] The occurrence of malignant thyroid lesions in patients after radioiodine treatment due to benign thyroid diseases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Radioiodine treatment (RT) of benign thyroid diseases is a well-known, safe, and effective treatment.
  • In a group of patients after RT, who remained in long-term follow-up, sporadic cases of malignant thyroid lesions occurred.
  • The aim of the study was to estimate how often it happened despite the exclusion of malignancy before RT.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: A group of 4314 patients (7438 person-years) underwent RT and subsequently were followed-up for 1-8 years (mean 20.69 months).
  • Apart from thyroid function estimation, if needed, fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid or neck focal lesions was performed based on ultrasonographic or clinical examination.
  • Suspicious thyroid lesion results were found in 9 patients (8 F, 1 M), aged 46-73 (average 56 years) followed up for 3-57 months after RT: papillary cancer in two patients, Hürthle cell tumour in one patient, and suspicious cells in two patients (with benign lesions on postoperative histopathology).
  • Two patients refused surgery (a suspicion of papillary cancer in one case and suspicious cells in FNAB in the second case).
  • A follicular tumour in FNAB was suspected in two cases (no data about the first, and the second with lung cancer was not operable).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant thyroid lesions in patients after RT due to benign thyroid diseases are seldom detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma. Causality. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 21049457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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65. Gombos K, Zele E, Kiss I, Varjas T, Puskás L, Kozma L, Juhász F, Kovács E, Szanyi I, Ember I: Characterization of microarray gene expression profiles of early stage thyroid tumours. Cancer Genomics Proteomics; 2007 Nov-Dec;4(6):403-9
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  • [Title] Characterization of microarray gene expression profiles of early stage thyroid tumours.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A high-density oligonucleotide array with 20,000 human gene-specific oligonucleotide was used to analyze benign and early-stage malignant thyroid tumours of epithelial origin: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma, compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • Our findings suggest that modulation of NF-kappaB signalling plays a crucial role in early thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Microarray Analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18204203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genomics & proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genomics Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B
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66. Takano T, Yane K, Oue T, Otsuki N, Nibu K, Hidaka Y: Outpatient administration of radioactive iodine after total thyroidectomy for pediatric thyroid cancer: a report of three cases. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2009 Dec;73(12):1810-3
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  • [Title] Outpatient administration of radioactive iodine after total thyroidectomy for pediatric thyroid cancer: a report of three cases.
  • Radioactive iodine is used as an anti-cancer reagent for papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • Some young children with thyroid carcinoma who cannot take care of themselves are not able to undergo this therapy.
  • We administrated 13 mCi (131)I to three patients suffering from pediatric thyroid carcinomas.
  • One patient with recurrent follicular carcinoma in the neck showed complete loss of the thyroid bed and an undetectable level of serum thyroglobulin 7 months after the first administration of (131)I, and no further recurrence was observed after 5 years.
  • Thus, it is worth considering this therapy as a practical option for pediatric thyroid carcinoma in the countries in which outpatient administration of a large dose of (131)I is restricted.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Ambulatory Care / methods. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19748135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8464
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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67. Russo D, Bisca A, Celano M, Talamo F, Arturi F, Scipioni A, Presta I, Bulotta S, Ferretti E, Filetti S, Scaloni A, Damante G, Tell G: Proteomic analysis of human thyroid cell lines reveals reduced nuclear localization of Mn-SOD in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Feb;28(2):137-44
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of human thyroid cell lines reveals reduced nuclear localization of Mn-SOD in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells.
  • Differential protein arrays between nuclear extracts of human thyroid cell lines obtained from tumors with different degree of differentiation were exploited to define molecular alterations occurring during thyroid tumor progression.
  • Nuclear extracts from the well differentiated TPC-1 (from papillary carcinoma) and the poorly differentiated ARO (from anaplastic carcinoma) cells showed an overall similar pattern of protein expression as revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis.
  • A similar expression pattern of nuclear Mn-SOD was detected by immunohistochemistry in human thyroid tumors, with the lowest or absent detection in anaplastic carcinomas.
  • These data indicate that an altered nuclear expression of Mn-SOD parallels, together with changes in other elements of the antioxidant protective system, the loss of differentiation occurring during the progression of thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / enzymology. Cell Nucleus / enzymology. Proteomics. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 15887859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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68. Clary KM, Condel JL, Liu Y, Johnson DR, Grzybicki DM, Raab SS: Interobserver variability in the fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of follicular lesions of the thyroid gland. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jul-Aug;49(4):378-82
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  • [Title] Interobserver variability in the fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the degree of interobserver variability in the interpretation of fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies of the thyroid, specifically in the categorization of follicular lesions (FLs), and to examine the accuracy of FNA diagnosis of FLs with surgical follow-up.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Fifty cases were chosen with surgical follow-up and a cytologic diagnosis of either FL (21) or follicular neoplasms (29).
  • The accuracy of the 4 pathologists' cytologic diagnoses in predicting the surgical outcome was 77-90% for follicular neoplasms and 53-74% for nonneoplastic diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation

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  • (PMID = 16124165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Siddiq S, Ahmad I I, Colloby P: Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases. J Surg Case Rep; 2010;2010(3):2
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases.
  • Thyroid carcinoma is rare comprising 1% of all malignancies and commonly presents as a neck lump.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma unlike follicular thyroid carcinoma tends not to metastasise to distant sites.
  • We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases and highlight current management of bone metastases.
  • A 59-year old female was found on abdominal computerised tomography to have an incidental finding of a 4.5 cm soft tissue mass in the right iliac bone.
  • Biopsy of the lesion confirmed metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Further imaging confirmed focal activity in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • A total thyroidectomy and level VI neck dissection was performed and histology confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Early detection of bone metastases have been shown to improve prognosis and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary malignancy.

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  • [Copyright] © JSCR.
  • (PMID = 24946172.001).
  • [ISSN] 2042-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3649091
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70. Harvey JN, Parker D, De P, Shrimali RK, Otter M: Sonographically guided core biopsy in the assessment of thyroid nodules. J Clin Ultrasound; 2005 Feb;33(2):57-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sonographically guided core biopsy in the assessment of thyroid nodules.
  • PURPOSE: This study was conducted to assess the value of sonographically guided core biopsy in the evaluation of thyroid nodules by comparison with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) performed with and without sonographic guidance.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 645 thyroid samples obtained at a single center.
  • Samples came from 422 patients who underwent FNAC (with or without sonographic guidance), sonographically guided core biopsy, or excision of thyroid tissue with or without prior frozen sectioning.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sonographically guided core biopsy provides an accurate and safe alternative to FNAC in the assessment of thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytodiagnosis. False Negative Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Frozen Sections. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Safety. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15674833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Dardas M, Abboud M, Salti I, Sabri A, Shoucair M, Saleh M, Azar S, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Muwakkit S: Thyroid cancer in Lebanese children and adolescents: a 15-year experience at a single institution. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Sep;26(6):439-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid cancer in Lebanese children and adolescents: a 15-year experience at a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Thyroid carcinomas are rare in childhood and adolescence.
  • The aim of this study is to review our experience with multidisciplinary management of papillary thyroid cancer in the pediatric population at a tertiary care specialized medical center in Lebanon.
  • PROCEDURE: The medical records of all patients with thyroid cancer younger than 20 years who presented to our center between January 1991 and January 2006 were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Thirteen patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were identified.
  • At a median follow-up time of 8.3 years all patients are disease free.
  • CONCLUSION: Pediatric thyroid cancer in Lebanon is a rare tumor that presents mainly as a primary malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19657994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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72. Berni Canani F, Dall'Olio D, Chiarini V, Casadei GP, Papini E: Papillary carcinoma of a thyroglossal duct cyst in a patient with thyroid hemiagenesis: effectiveness of conservative surgical treatment. Endocr Pract; 2008 May-Jun;14(4):465-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Papillary carcinoma of a thyroglossal duct cyst in a patient with thyroid hemiagenesis: effectiveness of conservative surgical treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma that arose in a patient with right thyroid lobe hemiagenesis.
  • The patient's preoperative workup included ultrasonography of the neck and head and neck T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, which showed right hemithyroid agenesis and a cystic lesion in the median region of the neck below the hyoid bone.
  • Findings from chest x-rays and thyroid function tests were normal.
  • Histologic findings showed a 2.5-cm thyroglossal duct cyst with a 0.6-cm focus of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma with invasion of the cyst wall.
  • Total thyroidectomy was not performed because of the absence of tumoral invasion of the parenchyma around the thyroglossal duct cyst and because the patient was at low risk for aggressive disease.
  • Presently, the patient is symptom-free after 4 years of follow-up and has no evidence of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Incidentally discovered, well-differentiated thyroid cancer that is confined to a thyroglossal duct cyst in a patient at low risk for aggressive disease can be adequately treated by a modified Sistrunk procedure that includes the median portion of the hyoid bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroglossal Cyst / surgery. Thyroid Dysgenesis / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Thyroid Gland / abnormalities. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18558601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Obara T: [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2087-91
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  • [Title] [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma].
  • Among 4 major traditional groups of thyroid carcinoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas are most common, and other forms, anaplastic and medullary carcinomas, are relatively rare.
  • The 2003 WHO histological classification of thyroid tumor separated 7 other malignant thyroid tumors into distinct pathological entities, such as poorly differentiated, squamous cell, mucinous carcinomas, carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE), etc.
  • In this review, not only diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the rare forms of thyroid carcinomas, specifically focussed on medullary carcinoma and CASTLE, but also their histogenetic abnormalities were discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018575.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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74. Hillenbrand A, Varhaug JE, Brauckhoff M, Pandev R, Haufe S, Dotzenrath C, Köberle R, Hoffmann R, Klein G, Kadmon M, Negele T, Hagieva T, Henne-Bruns D, Luster M, Weber T: Familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma-clinical relevance and prognosis. A European multicenter study. ESES Vienna presentation. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):851-8
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  • [Title] Familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma-clinical relevance and prognosis. A European multicenter study. ESES Vienna presentation.
  • PURPOSE: Approximately 5% of differentiated thyroid carcinomas are of familial origin.
  • These familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinomas (FNMTC) have an increased risk of multifocal disease and lymph node involvement.
  • Consequently, higher recurrence rates and decreased disease-specific survival rates are described.
  • Ninety-five percent of the tumors were papillary carcinomas.
  • Two of 41 patients had follicular carcinomas.
  • Ten patients (24%) with papillary carcinomas were diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • After a mean follow-up of 7.2 years, 39 patients (95%) were disease free.
  • Another patient died 2 years postoperatively from advanced metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNMTC is associated with an early onset of small, mostly papillary thyroid carcinomas and an increased risk of multifocality and lymph node involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germany. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pedigree. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20683623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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75. Miller MC, Rubin CJ, Cunnane M, Bibbo M, Miller JL, Keane WM, Pribitkin EA: Intraoperative pathologic examination: cost effectiveness and clinical value in patients with cytologic diagnosis of cellular follicular thyroid lesion. Thyroid; 2007 Jun;17(6):557-65
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  • [Title] Intraoperative pathologic examination: cost effectiveness and clinical value in patients with cytologic diagnosis of cellular follicular thyroid lesion.
  • OBJECTIVE: Routine use of intraoperative pathologic examination (IOPE), including frozen section (FS) and scrape preparation cytology (SPC), during diagnostic thyroid lobectomy continues to be a source of controversy.
  • We sought to better delineate the usefulness and cost-benefit ratio of IOPE in the context of cytologically diagnosed cellular follicular lesion (CFL) or follicular neoplasm (FN).
  • MAIN OUTCOME: IOPE correctly identified 3 of 16 follicular carcinomas and 9 of 36 papillary carcinomas.
  • On univariate analysis, malignancy risk among follicular nodules did not correlate with age, gender, or nodule size.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytological Techniques / economics. Intraoperative Period. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Frozen Sections / economics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17614777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Paksoy N: Ectopic lesions as potential pitfalls in fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases derived from the thyroid, endometrium and breast. Acta Cytol; 2007 Mar-Apr;51(2):222-6
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  • [Title] Ectopic lesions as potential pitfalls in fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases derived from the thyroid, endometrium and breast.
  • Those that are derived from thyroid, breast, endometrium and salivary glands present with palpable masses that can mimic malignancy.
  • The smears showed crowded thyroid follicular cells comprising papillary clusters.
  • A cytologic diagnosis of papillary thyroid lesion was rendered, Histopathology revealed that this lesion was ectopic thyroid tissue with focal chronic thyroiditis.
  • The case was diagnosed on FNAC as low grade malignancy in which an adenocarcinoma/mesenchymal tumor distinction could not be made.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Endometrium / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Wall / pathology. Abdominal Wall / physiopathology. Adult. Axilla / pathology. Axilla / physiopathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometriosis / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Submandibular Gland / pathology. Thyroiditis / complications. Thyroiditis / pathology. Thyroiditis / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17425209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Zhao J, Leonard C, Brunner E, Gemsenjäger E, Heitz PU, Odermatt B: Molecular characterization of well-differentiated human thyroid carcinomas by cDNA arrays. Int J Oncol; 2006 Nov;29(5):1041-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular characterization of well-differentiated human thyroid carcinomas by cDNA arrays.
  • Well-differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas are the two most common types of thyroid cancer.
  • Although cancerous cells in both types phenotypically resemble the epithelial follicular cell, the tumors display different histological characteristics and clinical outcomes.
  • Gene expression profiling of 46 thyroid samples (16 papillary carcinomas, 13 follicular carcinomas and 17 normal thyroid specimens) was performed by using high-density human UniGene cDNA arrays.
  • The majority of genes with altered expression were found in both papillary and follicular carcinomas, reflecting a close relationship between the two tumor types.
  • However, 123 genes consisting of 45 known and 78 unknown genes were shown to be differentially expressed between papillary and follicular carcinomas.
  • Follicular variants of papillary carcinoma, clustered together with classical papillary carcinoma, could be differentiated from follicular carcinoma.
  • Our study revealed a set of genes differentiating follicular carcinoma from classical papillary carcinoma and follicular variant.
  • The data generated in this study could serve as a useful source for further investigation of pathways of papillary and follicular differentiation of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genes, Neoplasm. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17016634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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78. Hurtado-López LM: [The extent of surgery for well-differentiated thyroid cancer related with surgical morbidity]. Cir Cir; 2007 Mar-Apr;75(2):71-4
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  • [Title] [The extent of surgery for well-differentiated thyroid cancer related with surgical morbidity].
  • BACKGROUND: The extent of surgical treatment for well-differentiated thyroid cancer is based on non-oncological reasons related to morbidity and oncological reasons related to risk factors and cancer staging.
  • We undertook this study to evaluate if the surgical extent for the treatment of well-differentiated thyroid cancer has a relationship with increased morbidity.
  • Subjects were grouped in two groups: G1 with differentiated thyroid cancer; G2 with benign thyroid disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is no reason to limit the extent of surgery for treatment of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, based on morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Hypoparathyroidism / epidemiology. Hypoparathyroidism / etiology. Internship and Residency. Laryngeal Nerve Injuries. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Voice Disorders / epidemiology. Voice Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17511900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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79. Tamez-Pérez HE, Gutiérrez-Hermosillo H, Forsbach-Sánchez G, Gómez-de Ossio MD, González-González G, Guzmán-López S, Tamez-Peña AL, Mora-Torres NE, González-Murillo EA: Nondiagnostic thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology: outcome in surgical treatment. Rev Invest Clin; 2007 May-Jun;59(3):180-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nondiagnostic thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology: outcome in surgical treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) is the main screening process for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • Despite this, by 5-29% of patients, their FNA results are not enough to confirm malign neoplasia, particularly in cases with follicular lesions.
  • The objective of this report is to present the definitive histological results of a group of 41 patients with FNA of Thyroid nodule catalogued as "indeterminate/non diagnostic" sent for surgical treatment.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was done on all of the patients who had underwent surgery for thyroid nodule, with a previous diagnosis of "indeterminate/non diagnostic" by FNA.
  • Fifteen of 16 patients had a definitive diagnosis of papillary carcinoma and one follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • (PMID = 17910409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-8376
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de investigación clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Invest. Clin.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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80. Reschini E, Ferrari C, Castellani M, Matheoud R, Paracchi A, Marotta G, Gerundini P: The trapping-only nodules of the thyroid gland: prevalence study. Thyroid; 2006 Aug;16(8):757-62
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  • [Title] The trapping-only nodules of the thyroid gland: prevalence study.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of trapping-only nodules of the thyroid gland.
  • The study was prospectively performed in patients bearing hot or warm thyroid nodules at pertechnetate scan in the presence of circulating thyrotropin (TSH) within the normal range.
  • Five had benign thyroid nodules, one follicular carcinoma, and one extrathyroid metastases of papillary-follicular carcinoma.
  • Despite controversy on this issue, trapping-only nodules of thyroid should be searched because they have risk of malignancy and must be differentiated from autonomous adenomas at the compensated stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology. Thyroid Nodule / therapy. Thyrotropin / blood


81. Denning KM, Smyth PC, Cahill SF, Finn SP, Conlon E, Li J, Flavin RJ, Aherne ST, Guenther SM, Ferlinz A, O'Leary JJ, Sheils OM: A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1095-102
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  • [Title] A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples.
  • Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a lesion that frequently causes difficulties from a diagnostic perspective in the laboratory.
  • The purpose of this study was to interrogate a cohort of archival thyroid lesions using gene expression analysis of a panel of markers proposed to have utility as adjunctive markers in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in particular.
  • HLA-DMA, HLA-DQB1, MT1X, CSNK1G2 and RAB23 were found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing follicular adenoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Comparison of follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups showed significant differential expression for MT1K, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Comparison of the papillary thyroid carcinoma group (classic and follicular variants) and the follicular adenoma group showed differential expression for CSNK1G2, HLA-DQB1, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Finally, KRAS2 was found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing the papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups.
  • This panel of molecular targets discriminates between follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma by their expression repertoires.
  • It may have utility for broader use in the setting of fine-needle aspiration cytology and could improve the definitive diagnosis of certain categories of thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Gene Expression. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


82. Sheu SY, Grabellus F, Schwertheim S, Worm K, Broecker-Preuss M, Schmid KW: Differential miRNA expression profiles in variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma and encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours. Br J Cancer; 2010 Jan 19;102(2):376-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential miRNA expression profiles in variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma and encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed a significant upregulation of distinct microRNAs (miRNAs) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • The objective of this study was to explore whether this upregulation could also be assigned to distinct histomorphological variants of PTC, especially the follicular variant and other encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours.
  • METHODS: We used total RNA of 113 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 50 PTCs ((10 conventional type (PTC-CT), 10 tall cell variants (PTC-TCVs), 30 follicular variants (PTC-FVs)), 10 follicular adenomas (FAs), 10 multinodular goitres (MNGs), 21 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 22 well-differentiated tumours of unknown malignant potential (WDT-UMP) to analyse the miRNA expression pattern of five selected miRNAs (146b, 181b, 21, 221 and 222) using RT-PCR TaqMan miRNA assay to explore the diagnostic utility of this method.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that analysis of a set of five selected miRNAS distinguish common variants of PTC from FA/MNG but failed to be a useful diagnostic method in individual and doubtful cases, especially in the differential diagnosis of encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20029416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2816660
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83. Barwick T, Murray I, Megadmi H, Drake WM, Plowman PN, Akker SA, Chew SL, Grossman AB, Avril N: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography using Iodine-123 in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: additional value over whole body planar imaging and SPECT. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1131-9
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  • [Title] Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography using Iodine-123 in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: additional value over whole body planar imaging and SPECT.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic performance of co-registered single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) compared to Iodine-123 whole body gamma camera (WBGC) imaging and to SPECT alone in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients had local recurrence or metastatic thyroid cancer (11 were radioiodine negative), 9 had remnant thyroid tissue, and 54 had no evidence of disease.

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  • (PMID = 20212015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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84. Rahman GA, Abdulkadir AY, Braimoh KT, Inikori AR: Thyroid cancers amongst goiter population in a Nigerian tertiary hospital: surgical and radiographic perspective. Niger J Med; 2010 Oct-Dec;19(4):432-5
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  • [Title] Thyroid cancers amongst goiter population in a Nigerian tertiary hospital: surgical and radiographic perspective.
  • Thyroid cancer is known to be commoner in whites than in blacks and in females than in males.
  • We hope to determine the incidence and the cervical radiographic patterns of thyroid cancer amongst goiter population in Nigeria.
  • The histological sub-types of malignant goiters were follicular (5.0%), papillary (1.9%) and poorly differentiated or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (1.3%).
  • As much as 30% of thyroid cancers demonstrated calcification on plain neck radiograph, which were commonly scattered or diffused.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinomatous goiters occurred in 9.3% of the goiter population studied with predominance of follicular variant.
  • Aside evidence of bony destruction, TC should be suspected in goiters with mixed (diffused or scattered) calcifications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21526634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1115-2613
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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85. Ito Y, Arai K, Ryushi, Nozawa, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Uruno T, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K, Kakudo K, Miyauchi A: S100A9 expression is significantly linked to dedifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;201(8-9):551-6
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  • [Title] S100A9 expression is significantly linked to dedifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma.
  • S100A9, a calcium-binding protein, is associated with myeloid cell differentiation and is expressed in some adenocarcinomas as well as in squamous epithelia and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In this study, we immunohistochemically investigated S100A9 expression in thyroid neoplasms.
  • S100A9 was absent in normal follicles, follicular adenoma, and follicular and papillary carcinomas with conventional growth structures.
  • One (5.9%) of the 17 follicular carcinomas and three (7.8%) of the 38 papillary carcinomas were regarded as positive for S100A9, but the positive cell areas always accounted for 5% or less.
  • It is therefore suggested that S100A4 protein plays an important role in thyroid carcinoma dedifferentiation, and can be considered a novel characteristic of undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Calgranulin B / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16259107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calgranulin B
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86. Savin S, Cvejic D, Isic T, Paunovic I, Tatic S, Havelka M: Thyroid peroxidase and galectin-3 immunostaining in differentiated thyroid carcinoma with clinicopathologic correlation. Hum Pathol; 2008 Nov;39(11):1656-63
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  • [Title] Thyroid peroxidase and galectin-3 immunostaining in differentiated thyroid carcinoma with clinicopathologic correlation.
  • Thyroperoxidase and galectin-3 have been reported as useful immunohistochemical markers of thyroid malignancy.
  • In this study, we evaluated the relationship between immunohistochemical staining results for these markers and clinicopathologic features of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • A total of 193 archival thyroid samples including 28 follicular adenomas, 18 follicular carcinomas, and 147 papillary carcinomas with 114 adjacent thyroid tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
  • The sensitivity for diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was 86.1% for thyroperoxidase and 82.4% for galectin-3, whereas the combination of both markers increased the sensitivity up to 94.5%.
  • Furthermore, tumor size, nodal involvement, extrathyroidal invasion, and high tumor-node-metastasis stage in patients with papillary carcinoma were related to thyroperoxidase absence and high galectin-3 expression in most cases (P < .05).
  • In patients with follicular carcinoma, the extent of invasiveness was associated with galectin-3 positivity.
  • Thus, expression of these markers is related to more or less aggressive biological behavior of differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • Although thyroperoxidase presence may indicate favorable prognosis of papillary cancer, expression of galectin-3 illustrates the potential importance of this protein in the pathogenesis and/or progression of differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Galectin 3 / metabolism. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18657294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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87. Ferretti E, Tosi E, Po A, Scipioni A, Morisi R, Espinola MS, Russo D, Durante C, Schlumberger M, Screpanti I, Filetti S, Gulino A: Notch signaling is involved in expression of thyrocyte differentiation markers and is down-regulated in thyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Oct;93(10):4080-7
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  • [Title] Notch signaling is involved in expression of thyrocyte differentiation markers and is down-regulated in thyroid tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Notch genes encode receptors for a signaling pathway that regulates cell growth and differentiation in various contexts, but the role of Notch signaling in thyroid follicular cells has never been fully published.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to characterize the expression of Notch pathway components in thyroid follicular cells and Notch signaling activities in normal and transformed thyrocytes.
  • DESIGN/SETTING AND PATIENTS: Expression of Notch pathway components and key markers of thyrocyte differentiation was analyzed in murine and human thyroid tissues (normal and tumoral) by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
  • The effects of Notch overexpression in human thyroid cancer cells and FTRL-5 cells were explored with analysis of gene expression, proliferation assays, and experiments involving transfection of a luciferase reporter construct containing human NIS promoter regions.
  • RESULTS: Notch receptors are expressed during the development of murine thyrocytes, and their expression levels parallel those of thyroid differentiation markers.
  • Notch pathway components are variably expressed in human normal thyroid tissue and thyroid tumors, but expression levels are clearly reduced in undifferentiated tumors.
  • Overexpression of Notch-1 in thyroid cancer cells restores differentiation, reduces cell growth rates, and stimulates NIS expression via a direct action on the NIS promoter.
  • CONCLUSION: Notch signaling is involved in the determination of thyroid cell fate and is a direct regulator of thyroid-specific gene expression.
  • Its deregulation may contribute to the loss of differentiation associated with thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Receptors, Notch / physiology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Animals. Cell Dedifferentiation / genetics. Cells, Cultured. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Mice. Organ Specificity / genetics. Signal Transduction / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology. Symporters / genetics. Symporters / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18664540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Italy / Telethon / / GGP07118
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter
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88. Kim TY, Kim WB, Song JY, Rhee YS, Gong G, Cho YM, Kim SY, Kim SC, Hong SJ, Shong YK: The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Nov;63(5):588-93
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  • [Title] The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF(V600E) mutation, the most common genetic alteration reported in papillary thyroid carcinoma, has been associated with poor prognostic factors.
  • AIM: To determine whether the presence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation is associated with poor prognosis in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (micro-PTC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded thyroid tumour specimens taken from 60 patients with conventional micro-PTC, as well as from nine patients with follicular variant papillary carcinoma, six with nodular hyperplasia, four with follicular carcinoma (including one with Hürthle cell carcinoma), four with follicular adenoma (including two with Hürthle cell adenoma) and one each with medullary carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected in tumour samples from 31 of 60 conventional micro-PTC patients (52%), but was not detected in patients with other types of thyroid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16268813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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89. Tan LG, Nan L, Thumboo J, Sundram F, Tan LK: Health-related quality of life in thyroid cancer survivors. Laryngoscope; 2007 Mar;117(3):507-10
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  • [Title] Health-related quality of life in thyroid cancer survivors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to study the impact of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) on the quality of life and related issues in an urban multi-ethnic Asian population.
  • DESIGN: A self-administered questionnaire containing the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and assessing sociodemographic, disease, and treatment-related status was mailed to patients with DTC.
  • There was a statistically significant decrease in SF-36 scores between thyroid cancer survivors and the general population in all domains except for social functioning (SF).
  • CONCLUSION: Although most patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer have near normal life expectancy, our study has shown that there is a significant decrease in their quality of life, especially in the elderly and poorer educated.
  • [MeSH-major] Health Status. Survivors / psychology. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / psychology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / psychology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / psychology. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Educational Status. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Singapore / epidemiology. Surveys and Questionnaires. Survival Rate / trends

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  • (PMID = 17334313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Xiao GQ, Unger PD, Burstein DE: Immunohistochemical detection of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) in neoplastic and other thyroid disorders. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Aug;11(4):235-40
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) in neoplastic and other thyroid disorders.
  • XIAP expression was examined in 106 specimens from neoplastic and other thyroid disorders, which underwent citrate-based antigen retrieval and staining with monoclonal anti-XIAP.
  • Normal thyroid was XIAP-negative.
  • Of 35 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 29 (83%) stained variably in intensity and/or extent.
  • An insular carcinoma was strongly positive and 1 of 4 anaplastic carcinomas moderately positive.
  • Follicular, medullary, and 3 of 4 anaplastic carcinomas, oncocytic neoplasms, and a hyalinizing trabecular tumor were nonstaining.
  • Because XIAP was highly specific for PTC among the thyroid neoplasms, it may be a useful marker for differential diagnosis when used alone or in combination with other markers.
  • XIAP may also be useful in differentiating insular carcinoma from follicular neoplasm in certain difficult cases.
  • In addition, the selective expression of XIAP in PTC and some high-grade thyroid malignancies also provides clues to the role of the apoptotic pathway in the tumorigenesis of these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17630106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein
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91. Zhu XL, Zhou XY, Zhu XZ: [BRAFV599E mutation and RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2005 May;34(5):270-4
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  • [Title] [BRAFV599E mutation and RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect the BRAF(V599E) mutation and the RET/PTC chimeric gene in benign and malignant thyroid diseases and to explore their correlation with the clinicopathologic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • METHODS: PCR and RT-PCR were employed to detect BRAF(V599E) mutation and RET/PTC chimeric genes in 95 frozen and parraffine-embeded thyroid tissue. RESULTS:.
  • However, follicular types of PTC and other benign and malignant thyroid diseases were negative for BRAF(V599E) mutation. (2) Fourteen (21.2%) PTC cases expressed RET/PTC chimeric gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Point Mutation. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Rearrangement. Hashimoto Disease / genetics. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16181547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / ret-PTC fusion oncoproteins, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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92. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):767-74
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy results.
  • We hypothesized that genes that regulate cell-cycle progression would be differentially expressed in malignant versus benign thyroid nodules and could serve as diagnostic markers and markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • METHODS: We used a cDNA array with 96 cell-cycle regulatory genes to identify differentially expressed genes in pooled benign versus malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Genes up- or down-regulated by more than 2-fold in malignant thyroid neoplasms were further evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 95 patients with hyperplastic nodules (n = 19), follicular adenoma (n = 19), follicular thyroid cancer (n = 19), the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19), and papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19).
  • RESULTS: cDNA array analysis showed that cyclin B1, MCM5, MCM7, RAD9, ubiquitin C, CDK6, SKP2, and APAF1 were up-regulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative PCR showed that MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 mRNA expression were significantly higher in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms (< or = 0.0012).
  • The combined use of MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 mRNA expression had a sensitivity of 98.2% and a specificity of 65.7%.
  • The level of MCM7 mRNA expression was higher in T4 than in T1, T2, and T3 differentiated thyroid cancers (P < 0.0127).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 are overexpressed in malignant thyroid neoplasms of follicular cell origin.
  • These genes may be useful markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms as an adjunct to FNA biopsy.
  • MCM7 mRNA expression is higher in locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16547620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 139691-42-2 / rad9 protein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
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93. Xue WC, Hui YZ: [Problems in the diagnosis of thyroid papillary and follicular carcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Apr;36(4):220-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Problems in the diagnosis of thyroid papillary and follicular carcinoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroiditis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17706110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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94. Kasai Y, Kawakita E, Uchida A: Clinical profile of long-term survivors of breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours. Int Orthop; 2007 Apr;31(2):171-5
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  • [Title] Clinical profile of long-term survivors of breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours.
  • Patients with breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours are expected to survive relatively longer than patients with other cancers with metastatic spinal tumours.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of long-term survivors of breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours.
  • Our results showed that the longer the time from the diagnosis of the primary cancer to the spinal operation, the longer patients with breast or thyroid cancer and metastatic spinal tumours would survive.
  • In conclusion, the duration from the diagnosis of the primary cancer to the spinal operation is very useful for predicting a prognosis in patients with breast or thyroid cancer and metastatic spinal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Survivors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis


95. Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Gutiérrez-Martínez P, García-Cabezas MA, Nistal M, Santisteban P: The oncogene BRAF V600E is associated with a high risk of recurrence and less differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma due to the impairment of Na+/I- targeting to the membrane. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Mar;13(1):257-69
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  • [Title] The oncogene BRAF V600E is associated with a high risk of recurrence and less differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma due to the impairment of Na+/I- targeting to the membrane.
  • The oncogene BRAF(V600E) is the most frequent genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) but its prognostic impact still remains to be elucidated.
  • This last observation led us to investigate the role of BRAF(V600E) and the MEK-ERK pathway in thyroid dedifferentiation, particularly in Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) impairment, as this thyroid-specific plasma membrane glycoprotein mediates active transport of I(-) into the thyroid follicular cells.
  • Furthermore, experiments with differentiated PCCl3 thyroid cells demonstrated that transient expression of BRAF(V600E) sharply impaired both NIS expression and targeting to membrane and, surprisingly, this impairment was not totally dependent on the MEK-ERK pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Symporters / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Cell Membrane / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Mutation / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Protein Transport. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16601293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; EC 2.7.1.- / MAP2K1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 1
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