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1. Romanchishen AF, Kuz'michev AS, Bogatikov AA, Morozova EB, Chukhlovin AB, Totolian AA: [Clinical significance of functional variants of matrix metalloproteinase genes in thyroid cancer]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2009;168(1):57-60
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  • [Title] [Clinical significance of functional variants of matrix metalloproteinase genes in thyroid cancer].
  • Under analysis were results of genetic investigations of 105 patients with thyroid cancer (TC) treated from 2004 through 2007 in the St. Petersburg City Center of surgery and oncology of the endocrine system organs.
  • A reliably decreased frequency of hyperactive genotype MMP-1 2G was detected in a group of women with metastatic forms of papillary cancer as compared with patients without metastases.
  • It was shown that MMP genes could be a substantial factor of slowing down the rate of malignant growth and invasive properties of cancer of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Variation. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 19432148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.24.17 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 3; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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2. Choi JY, Kim JH: A case of an ectopic thyroid gland at the lateral neck masquerading as a metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Korean Med Sci; 2008 Jun;23(3):548-50
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  • [Title] A case of an ectopic thyroid gland at the lateral neck masquerading as a metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Ectopic thyroid glands generally occur in the midline as a result of abnormal median migration, and their presence lateral to the midline is rare.
  • We present one case of an ectopic thyroid gland masquerading as a lateral neck metastasis of a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • The patient was diagnosed as having an accessory thyroid gland on the lateral neck on the final pathologic report.
  • Surgeons should be aware of the existence of an ectopic thyroid gland in unusual locations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Choristoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jan;86(1):392-5 [11232030.001]
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  • (PMID = 18583899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2526509
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3. Fujie S, Okumura Y, Sato S, Akaki S, Katsui K, Himei K, Takemoto M, Kanazawa S: Diagnostic capabilities of I-131, TI-201, and Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy for metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Acta Med Okayama; 2005 Jun;59(3):99-107
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  • [Title] Diagnostic capabilities of I-131, TI-201, and Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy for metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy.
  • We investigated the diagnostic capabilities of I-131, Tl-201, and Tc-99m-MIBI (hexakis-2-methoxyisobutyl- isonitrile) scintigraphy for thyroid cancer metastases after total thyroidectomy over the entire body and for every locus before and after thyroid bed ablation.
  • After total thyroidectomy of thyroid cancer, 36 cases were subjected to I-131 treatment 64 times.
  • They consisted of 17 men and 19 women with 31 papillary carcinomas and 5 follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adult. Aged. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Care. Radionuclide Imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thallium Radioisotopes

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  • (PMID = 16049563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0386-300X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Okayama
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med. Okayama
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Thallium Radioisotopes; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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4. Cardenas MG, Kini S, Wisgerhof M: Two patients with highly aggressive macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Apr;19(4):413-6
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  • [Title] Two patients with highly aggressive macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (MFV-PTC) is an unusual type of thyroid carcinoma with histological features that can be confused with nodular goiter or follicular adenoma.
  • SUMMARY: The first patient was a 59-year-old woman with an occipital mass diagnosed histologically as papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant.
  • Ten years earlier a biopsy of a thyroid nodule had been negative for malignant cells.
  • Thyroidectomy showed a 3-cm nodule in the thyroid, diagnosed as MFV-PTC.
  • The second patient was an 81-year-old man with a history of right thyroid nodule treated by total thyroidectomy with a postoperative diagnosis of adenomatous goiter.
  • He died of metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • Although MFV-PTC usually has a good prognosis these cases highlight the importance of careful histopathological examination for MFV-PTC in thyroidectomy specimens that may appear to be seemingly benign nodular thyroid disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19355832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Polyzos SA, Anastasilakis AD, Iakovou IP, Partsalidou V: Primary hyperparathyroidism and incidental multifocal metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a man. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Aug;54(6):578-82
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism and incidental multifocal metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a man.
  • Co-existence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and non-medullary thyroid carcinoma has been previously reported in sporadic case reports and some surgical series, but the majority of cases concerned women with occult papillary carcinomas without cervical lymph node involvement.
  • We present a 71-year man with PHPT and multinodular goiter who was subjected to surgery for single parathyroid adenoma and was found to have synchronous multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with cervical lymph node involvement.
  • Ultrasonography of both thyroid and parathyroid glands might be considered in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Incidental Findings. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20857065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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6. Kłubo-Gwieździńska J, Junik R, Kopczyńska E: Serum endostatin levels in patients with metastatic and non-metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):7-12
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  • [Title] Serum endostatin levels in patients with metastatic and non-metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of serum endostatin levels as a potential marker of metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, and to estimate the effect of endogenous TSH stimulation on serum endostatin levels.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 68 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Endostatins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20205098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endostatins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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7. Hiltzik D, Carlson DL, Tuttle RM, Chuai S, Ishill N, Shaha A, Shah JP, Singh B, Ghossein RA: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas defined on the basis of mitosis and necrosis: a clinicopathologic study of 58 patients. Cancer; 2006 Mar 15;106(6):1286-95
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas defined on the basis of mitosis and necrosis: a clinicopathologic study of 58 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas (PDTC) occupy an intermediate position at the prognostic level on the spectrum of thyroid carcinoma progression.
  • METHODS: PDTC was defined as thyroid carcinoma with follicular cell differentiation at the histologic and/or immunohistochemical levels and displaying tumor necrosis and/or > or = 5 mitoses per 10 high-power fields (x400).
  • Retrospective chart review and microscopic examination identified 58 patients with primary tumors meeting the above criteria and seen at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1992 and 2004.
  • Of 27 patients with distant metastasis, 19 (70%) had concentrated radioactive iodine (RAI) at their metastatic sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Mitosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16470605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Chi HS, Wang LF, Chiang FY, Kuo WR, Lee KW: Branchial cleft cyst as the initial impression of a metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma: two case reports. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2007 Dec;23(12):634-8
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  • [Title] Branchial cleft cyst as the initial impression of a metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma: two case reports.
  • Rare branchial cleft cysts are associated with malignant tumors metastatic from the oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharynx or thyroid gland.
  • Occult thyroid papillary carcinomas often present as a solid mass in the lateral neck, with only a few cases revealing a branchial cleft cyst as the initial manifestation.
  • Herein, we report two cases of metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma that presented as lateral neck cysts, with preoperative diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst.
  • Finally, after complete surgical resection and histopathologic examination, one case was diagnosed as cystic change of metastatic lymph node from thyroid papillary carcinoma, and the other was determined to be a branchial cleft cyst with concurrent lymph node metastasis from thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • When a branchial cleft cyst is diagnosed by clinical or histopathologic examination, a metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Branchioma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18192100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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9. Abdel-Wanis ME, Kawahara N, Tomita K: Comment on Kasai et al.: Clinical profile of long-term survivors of breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours. Int Orthop; 2008 Feb;32(1):135-6; author reply 137
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  • [Title] Comment on Kasai et al.: Clinical profile of long-term survivors of breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Spinal Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


10. Agriantonis DJ, Hall L, Wilson MA: Utility of SPECT/CT as an adjunct to planar whole body I-131 imaging: liver metastasis from papillary thyroid cancer. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Apr;34(4):247-8
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  • [Title] Utility of SPECT/CT as an adjunct to planar whole body I-131 imaging: liver metastasis from papillary thyroid cancer.
  • We present a case of papillary thyroid cancer metastatic to the liver, a relatively rare scenario.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacology. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


11. Antic T, Staerkel G: Mediastinal epithelioid hemangioendothelioma metastatic to lymph nodes and pleural fluid: report of a case. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Feb;38(2):113-6
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  • [Title] Mediastinal epithelioid hemangioendothelioma metastatic to lymph nodes and pleural fluid: report of a case.
  • The patient had a complex history of papillary renal cell carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and Waldenstrom's hyperglobulinemia making the diagnosis of metastatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma difficult.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / complications. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroiditis / complications. Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia / complications

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  • (PMID = 19688765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Montella L, Caraglia M, Abbruzzese A, Soricelli A, Caputi M, Squame G, Salvatore M, Del Prete S, Palmieri G: Mediastinal images resembling thymus following 131-I treatment for thyroid cancer. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis; 2005 Jun;63(2):114-7
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  • [Title] Mediastinal images resembling thymus following 131-I treatment for thyroid cancer.
  • The follow-up of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer conventionally includes serum thyroglobulin and periodic Whole Body Scans.
  • The uptake of 131-I in normal and pathological tissues different from metastatic thyroid cancer sites is a cause of false-positive scans.
  • The aim of the present study was to review a series of 573 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with 131-I after surgery between 1992 and 2003 looking above all for those with mediastinal images resembling thymus.
  • This evaluation is presented together with some hypotheses on the relationships between thymus and thyroid.
  • Moreover, some considerations are made on the differential diagnosis between thymus and mediastinal tumour thyroid residues.

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  • (PMID = 16128228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1122-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Monaldi archives for chest disease = Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Monaldi Arch Chest Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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13. Ruiz Clemente J, Ortiz Bish E, Gonzalez García J, Gómez Aldaz E, Ruiz Carmona E, Muñoz Borge E, Galera Ruiz H: [Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid metastatic to the parapharyngeal space]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2005 Mar;56(3):135-7
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  • [Title] [Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid metastatic to the parapharyngeal space].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumoración parafaríngea metastásica de carcinoma papilar de tiroides.
  • This is a case report of a papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the parapharyngeal space, that presented with local obstructive symptoms (dysphagia and displacement of the ipsilateral tonsil).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15819522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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14. Kuba VM, Caetano R, Coeli CM, Vaisman M: [Utility of positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in the evaluation of thyroid cancer: a systematic review]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Aug;51(6):961-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Utility of positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in the evaluation of thyroid cancer: a systematic review].
  • After the initial thyroid cancer treatment, the detection of likely recurrences and/or metastases is made through the measurement of serum markers determinations and diagnostic image procedures.
  • These techniques may be negative in spite of biochemical evidence of metastatic disease.
  • The aim of this study is to present a synthesis of the evidences obtained from a systematic review regarding FDG-PET accuracy in locating suspected metastases of previously treated thyroid cancer, when the conventional methods failed to do it.
  • A bibliographic review of all studies related to FDG-PET and differentiated thyroid cancer was made on MEDLINE, indexed until September 2005.
  • The results point to FDG-PET as a useful diagnostic test to detect and localize thyroid cancer metastases, with direct implications in the treatment of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17934664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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15. Duprez R, Lebas P, Marc OS, Mongeois E, Emy P, Michenet P: Preoperative US-guided hook-needle insertion in recurrent lymph nodes of papillary thyroid cancer: a help for the surgeon. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Jan;73(1):40-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative US-guided hook-needle insertion in recurrent lymph nodes of papillary thyroid cancer: a help for the surgeon.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate whether preoperative ultrasound guided insertion of a hook-needle is useful in reoperations for cervical recurrent lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 8 patients with operated papillary thyroid cancer were included in this study.
  • These lymph nodes were identified by ultrasound imaging and their metastatic nature was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology and measurement of in situ thyroglobulin.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In all 8 patients, the suspicious lymph nodes were removed and their metastatic nature was confirmed by the final pathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ultrasonography / methods


16. Agrawal AR, Nair N: Unusual metastasis of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma to the masticator space. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Jul;32(7):516-8
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  • [Title] Unusual metastasis of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma to the masticator space.
  • We report an unusual case of metastasis to the masticator space from a poorly differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Metastatic disease to the masticator space and to the jaws is a rare event.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Stomatognathic Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17581333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. American Thyroid Association (ATA) Guidelines Taskforce on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Kloos RT, Lee SL, Mandel SJ, Mazzaferri EL, McIver B, Pacini F, Schlumberger M, Sherman SI, Steward DL, Tuttle RM: Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2009 Nov;19(11):1167-214
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  • [Title] Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent.
  • Since the publication of the American Thyroid Association's guidelines for the management of these disorders was published in 2006, a large amount of new information has become available, prompting a revision of the guidelines.
  • RESULTS: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, and management of benign thyroid nodules.
  • Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to optimal surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation, and suppression therapy using levothyroxine.
  • Recommendations related to long-term management of differentiated thyroid cancer include those related to surveillance for recurrent disease using ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin as well as those related to management of recurrent and metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We created evidence-based recommendations in response to our appointment as an independent task force by the American Thyroid Association to assist in the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neck. Physical Examination. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Treatment Outcome. United States


18. Park JS, Son KR, Na DG, Kim E, Kim S: Performance of preoperative sonographic staging of papillary thyroid carcinoma based on the sixth edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM classification system. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Jan;192(1):66-72
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  • [Title] Performance of preoperative sonographic staging of papillary thyroid carcinoma based on the sixth edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM classification system.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the overall performance of sonography for staging papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety-four consecutive patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent preoperative sonography.
  • Sonography accurately identified 75.9% (22/29) of patients with multifocal cancer and 83.3% (15/18) of patients with bilateral cancers.
  • Using a cutoff value of 50% or more of the tumor abutting the thyroid capsule (grade 2), the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of sonography in predicting extrathyroidal invasion were 85.3%, 70.0%, and 74.5%, respectively, and the overall accuracy of sonography for T staging was 67.0% (63/94).
  • All six sonographic findings were significantly more frequent in metastatic lymph nodes in the lateral group.
  • CONCLUSION: Sonography is a feasible tool to use for the preoperative staging of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Risk Assessment / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / statistics & numerical data

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  • [ErratumIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009 Mar;192(3):560
  • (PMID = 19098181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Vitagliano D, Portella G, Troncone G, Francione A, Rossi C, Bruno A, Giorgini A, Coluzzi S, Nappi TC, Rothstein JL, Pasquinelli R, Chiappetta G, Terracciano D, Macchia V, Melillo RM, Fusco A, Santoro M: Thyroid targeting of the N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene in transgenic mice results in follicular tumors that progress to poorly differentiated carcinomas. Oncogene; 2006 Aug 31;25(39):5467-74
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  • [Title] Thyroid targeting of the N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene in transgenic mice results in follicular tumors that progress to poorly differentiated carcinomas.
  • Ras oncogenes are frequently mutated in thyroid carcinomas.
  • To verify the role played by N-ras in thyroid carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice in which a human N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene (Tg-N-ras) was expressed in the thyroid follicular cells.
  • Tg-N-ras mice developed thyroid follicular neoplasms; 11% developed follicular adenomas and approximately 40% developed invasive follicular carcinomas, in some cases with a mixed papillary/follicular morphology.
  • N-ras(Gln61Lys) expression in cultured PC Cl 3 thyrocytes induced thyroid-stimulating hormone-independent proliferation and genomic instability with micronuclei formation and centrosome amplification.
  • These findings support the notion that mutated ras oncogenes could be able to drive the formation of thyroid tumors that can progress to poorly differentiated, metastatic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, ras. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Amino Acid Substitution. Animals. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Invasiveness


20. Yazdi S, Saadat P, Young S, Hamidi R, Vadmal MS: Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma: a paraneoplastic phenomenon? Clin Exp Dermatol; 2010 Mar;35(2):152-5
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  • [Title] Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma: a paraneoplastic phenomenon?
  • Four months later, metastatic papillary thyroid cancer was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Collagen Diseases / etiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19438550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Valsamaki P, Gotzamani-Psarrakou A, Tsiouris S, Molyvda-Athanasopoulou E, Psarrakos K, Papantoniou V, Gerali S, Zerva C: Tc-99m depreotide imaging of I-131-negative recurrent metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2006 Aug 15;119(4):968-70
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  • [Title] Tc-99m depreotide imaging of I-131-negative recurrent metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The detection of radioiodine (I-131)-negative metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has been hitherto successfully tried by the well-known synthetic somatostatin analogue indium-111-labeled DTPA-octreotide (In-111 pentetreotide).
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of scintiscan with the newer synthetic somatostatin analogue Tc-99m depreotide, in the restaging of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with detectable serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and negative I-131 whole-body scan (WBS).
  • Whole-body planar and cervico-thoracic tomographic scintigraphy (single-photon emission tomography-SPET) with Tc-99m depreotide was performed in a 68-year-old male patient suffering from PTC stage III, with a mild increase in serum Tg levels coupled with a recent negative I-131 WBS.
  • Histopathology established the diagnosis of metastatic cervical lymph node PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Iodine Radioisotopes. Organotechnetium Compounds. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16550594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9M48M2SF02 / technetium Tc 99m depreotide
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22. Lind P, Kohlfürst S: Respective roles of thyroglobulin, radioiodine imaging, and positron emission tomography in the assessment of thyroid cancer. Semin Nucl Med; 2006 Jul;36(3):194-205
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  • [Title] Respective roles of thyroglobulin, radioiodine imaging, and positron emission tomography in the assessment of thyroid cancer.
  • Depending on the iodine supply of an area, the incidence of thyroid cancer ranges between 4 and 12/100,000 per year.
  • To detect thyroid cancer in an early stage, the assessment of thyroid nodules includes ultrasonography, ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and conventional scintigraphic methods using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate, (99m)Tc-sestamibi or -tetrofosmin, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in selected cases.
  • After treatment of thyroid cancer, a consequent follow-up is necessary over a period of several years.
  • For following up low-risk patients, recombinant thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated thyroglobulin and ultrasonography is sufficient in most cases.
  • After total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation therapy, thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated thyroglobulin should be below the detection limit (eg, <0.5 ng/mL, R: 70-130).
  • An increase of thyroglobulin over time is suspicious for recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • Especially in high-risk patients, aside from the use of ultrasonography for the detection of local recurrence and cervial lymph node metastases, nuclear medicine methods such as radioiodine imaging and FDG-PET are the methods of choice for localizing metastatic disease.
  • In patients with low or dedifferentiated thyroid cancer and after several courses of radioiodine therapy caused by metastatic disease, iodine negative metastases may develop.
  • The fusion of the metabolic and morphologic information was able to increase the diagnostic accuracy, reduces pitfalls and changes therapeutic strategies in a reasonable number of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Iodine Radioisotopes. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Preoperative Care. Radiometry / methods. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Thyrotropin. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16762610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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23. Sheahan P, Hafidh M, Toner M, Timon C: Unexpected findings in neck dissection for squamous cell carcinoma: incidence and implications. Head Neck; 2005 Jan;27(1):28-35
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  • [Title] Unexpected findings in neck dissection for squamous cell carcinoma: incidence and implications.
  • These pathologic findings may simulate malignant disease and/or have implications on the already complicated management of patients with head and neck cancer.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 202 consecutive patients with a preoperative diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), who underwent 307 neck dissections performed by a single surgeon and examined by a single pathologist.
  • These included metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, leukemia, lymphoma, Warthin's tumor, and tuberculosis.
  • Two of three patients with benign-appearing thyroid tissue within lymph nodes received no further treatment, and both remained well beyond 6 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neck Dissection
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenolymphoma / pathology. Adenolymphoma / therapy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Cricoid Cartilage / pathology. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / drug therapy. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / pathology


24. Grosz AH, Sauer DA, Bliziotes MM, Cohen JI, Gross ND: Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a long-standing calcified neck mass. Thyroid; 2007 Aug;17(8):799-800
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  • [Title] Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a long-standing calcified neck mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcinosis / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17725440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Liou MJ, Lin JD, Chung MH, Liau CT, Hsueh C: Renal metastasis from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol; 2005 Apr;125(4):438-42
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  • [Title] Renal metastasis from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • Papillary or follicular microcarcinoma of the thyroid comprises 10-20% of all thyroid malignancies.
  • Distant metastasis caused by thyroid microcarcinoma is uncommon, and is usually found in the lung or bone.
  • Thyroid microcarcinoma with metastasis to the kidney has not previously been reported.
  • Clinically detectable well-differentiated metastatic thyroid carcinoma to the kidney is rare, and only 16 cases have been reported.
  • Herein we describe a case of metastatic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma to the kidney in a patient with a pelvic fracture and pulmonary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Calcinosis / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Pelvic Bones / pathology. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15823819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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26. Melck AL, Yip L, Carty SE: The utility of BRAF testing in the management of papillary thyroid cancer. Oncologist; 2010;15(12):1285-93
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  • [Title] The utility of BRAF testing in the management of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Over the last decade, investigators have developed a clearer understanding of the genetic alterations underlying thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • A number of biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer have undergone intensive study, not only for their role in tumorigenesis, but also for their potential utility as diagnostic and prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets.
  • This review summarizes the current literature surrounding BRAF and its significance in thyroid cancer.
  • Further, we discuss how molecular analysis can be integrated into management algorithms for thyroid nodules and papillary thyroid cancer.
  • We also review what is known, to date, about the association of BRAF and papillary microcarcinoma as well as using targeted therapies for BRAF as adjuvant treatment for metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21147872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3227917
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27. Yu WB, Zhang NS, Zeng ZY: [Use of en bloc principle in re-operation of thyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Apr;44(4):268-71
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  • [Title] [Use of en bloc principle in re-operation of thyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: The study is to explore the extent, main-point and use of en bloc principle in re-operation of thyroid carcinoma.
  • The total metastatic lymph nodes in VI level were 63.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ipsilateral completing lobectomy, isthmectomy, ipsilateral anterior cervical muscle and VI level dissection is adequate for thyroid carcinoma patients who received nonstandard operation.
  • The principle of en bloc resection can be used in the reoperation of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19558829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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28. Ensinger C, Kremser R, Prommegger R, Spizzo G, Schmid KW: EpCAM overexpression in thyroid carcinomas: a histopathological study of 121 cases. J Immunother; 2006 Sep-Oct;29(5):569-73
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  • [Title] EpCAM overexpression in thyroid carcinomas: a histopathological study of 121 cases.
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is expressed by a broad variety of carcinoma cells.
  • It is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 17-1A, which has already been applied for immunotherapy of several carcinoma types in preclinical and small clinical studies.
  • In the present study the immunohistochemical properties of 17-1A were evaluated in 121 cases of thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin, comprising of 75 differentiated (DTC; 35 papillary and 40 follicular carcinomas), 24 poorly differentiated (PDTC) and 22 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
  • In contrast, all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (0%) completely lacked EpCAM expression.
  • Normal thyroid tissue presented with weak and heterogeneous EpCAM staining.
  • Our findings suggest that patients with recurrent or advanced tumor disease and metastatic spread could benefit from this modern therapeutic regime, especially after insufficient radioiodine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16971812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-9557
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / EPCAM protein, human
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29. Levy MJ, Clain JE, Clayton A, Halling KC, Kipp BR, Rajan E, Roberts LR, Root RM, Sebo TJ, Topazian MD, Wang KK, Wiersema MJ, Gores GJ: Preliminary experience comparing routine cytology results with the composite results of digital image analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in patients undergoing EUS-guided FNA. Gastrointest Endosc; 2007 Sep;66(3):483-90
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  • PATIENTS: A total of 39 patients were enrolled in whom each diagnostic test was performed on samples from 42 sites to evaluate lymphadenopathy (n=19), pancreatic mass (n=19), esophageal or gastric wall mass (n=3), and thyroid mass (n=1).
  • RESULTS: Malignancy was diagnosed in 30 of 42 patients, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasia, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia, metastatic forearm sarcoma, small cell and non-small cell lung cancer, thyroid carcinoma, malignant GI stromal tumor, melanoma, adenocarcinoma of unknown primary, and lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Endosonography. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


30. Lee YS, Lim YS, Lee JC, Wang SG, Kim IJ, Lee BJ: Clinical implication of the number of central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma: preliminary report. World J Surg; 2010 Nov;34(11):2558-63
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  • [Title] Clinical implication of the number of central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma: preliminary report.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) metastasizes to central lymph node (CLN).
  • The significance of the number of metastatic CLN has not been addressed.
  • This study was designed to evaluate the clinical implication of the number of metastatic CLN in PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20703463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Bohn OL, De las Casas LE, Leon ME: Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to papillary carcinoma of thyroid-report of a case and review of the literature. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Dec;3(4):327-30
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  • [Title] Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to papillary carcinoma of thyroid-report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Metastatic disease to thyroid gland is a rare event.
  • Although renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been reported to metastasize the thyroid gland, metastatic RCC to a thyroid neoplasm is very unusual.
  • We report a case of a 68-year-old man with history of RCC who presented with a 2.5-cm thyroid nodule.
  • Histologic examination demonstrates a renal cell carcinoma metastatic to a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The clinicopathologic features of metastatic disease into a thyroid gland neoplasm are shown, and a review of the literature is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


32. Tretheway D, Gebhardt JG, Dogra VS, Schiffhauer LM: Metastatic versus primary oncocytic papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a report of a case and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 May;28(3):256-61
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  • [Title] Metastatic versus primary oncocytic papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a report of a case and review of the literature.
  • We report a case of an oncocytic papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in an 89-year-old female with vaginal bleeding.
  • Diagnostic workup included an endometrial biopsy which showed malignant, oncocytic cells in a predominantly papillary pattern.
  • Consultation with experts in Gynecologic and Genitourinary pathology returned a diagnosis of "adenocarcinoma compatible with metastatic renal cell carcinoma"--an intriguing possibility worthy of further exploration.
  • To our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature of metastatic oncocytic papillary renal cell carcinoma to the endometrium.
  • The clinical and pathologic features of oncocytic papillary endometrial lesions, including primary and metastatic processes, are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Atrial Fibrillation / complications. Dementia, Multi-Infarct / complications. Depression / complications. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2. Female. Humans. Hypercholesterolemia / complications. Hypertension / complications. Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19620943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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33. Soman AD, Collins JM, DePetris G, Decker GA, Silva A, Moss A, Greer W, Ashman J, Callister M, Borad MJ: Isolated supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a report of three cases and review of the literature. JOP; 2010;11(6):604-9
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  • [Title] Isolated supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a report of three cases and review of the literature.
  • CONTEXT: Supraclavicular lymph nodes represent a rare site of metastasis in pancreatic cancer.
  • We report three cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with metastases to supraclavicular lymph nodes.
  • CASE REPORT: A 51-year-old male was diagnosed with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • The patient received systemic chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • The second patient, a 66-year-old female with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and was found to have peripancreatic lymph node involvement.
  • PET/CT scan and biopsy revealed supraclavicular lymph node metastasis from a pancreatic adenocarcinoma primary.
  • The third patient, a 79-year-old male with a past history of thyroid carcinoma who was treated with partial thyroidectomy, developed neck swelling 4 years after his surgery.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology was consistent with known papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Histopathology revealed grade 3 pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Excisional biopsy of a supraclavicular lymph node showed metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, supraclavicular lymph node metastasis represents an uncommon, but clinically significant finding that can lead to changes in treatment planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] JOP. 2011 Jan;12(1):66-7; author reply 70 [21206107.001]
  • (PMID = 21068495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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34. Lee MJ, Kim EK, Kim MJ, Kwak JY, Hong S, Park CS: Spontaneous pneumothorax in metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jun 20;25(18):2616-8
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  • [Title] Spontaneous pneumothorax in metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / complications. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pneumothorax / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17577042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Mori K, Kitazawa R, Kondo T, Kitazawa S: Lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary component presenting with metastatic scrotum tumor and cancer-to-cancer metastasis: A case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):162
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  • [Title] Lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary component presenting with metastatic scrotum tumor and cancer-to-cancer metastasis: A case report.
  • A scrotal skin biopsy revealed a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma, immunohistochemically positive for cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), and negative for CK20.
  • At autopsy, a consolidating lesion with vague margin was noted in the left lung as well as a well-circumscribed nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • Histopathologically, pulmonary lesion was adenocarcinoma with a micropapillary component.
  • On the other hand, thyroid tumor was diagnosed as a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma with foci of micropapillary adenocarcinoma.
  • Positive immunohistochemistry for surfactant protein on micoropapillary component was useful to confirm that micropapillary component was of lung adenocarcinoma origin.

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  • (PMID = 18801198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2556662
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36. Sterlacci W, Verdorfer I, Gabriel M, Mikuz G: Thyroid follicular carcinoma-like renal tumor: a case report with morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and scintigraphic studies. Virchows Arch; 2008 Jan;452(1):91-5
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma-like renal tumor: a case report with morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and scintigraphic studies.
  • In this report, a rare renal tumor that morphologically resembles a thyroid follicular carcinoma is described.
  • To date, this subtype has not been integrated into a known form of renal carcinoma.
  • The macroscopically white-yellow tumor showed follicular structures with abundant eosinophilic colloidal material and focal papillary differentiation by light microscopy.
  • CD-10, CD-117, thyroid transcription factor-1, and thyreoglobulin remained completely negative.
  • Scintigraphs showed an inconspicuous thyroid gland and no extrathyroidal pathological accumulations, making metastatic spread to the kidney highly unlikely.
  • To our knowledge, this is the second fully documented case of a thyroid follicular carcinoma-like renal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Virchows Arch. 2009 Jun;454(6):717-8 [19449026.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Virchows Arch. 2008 Apr;452(4):471. William, Sterlacci [corrected to Sterlacci, William]; Irmgard, Verdorfer [corrected to Verdorfer, Irmgard]; Michael, Gabriel [corrected to Gabriel, Michael]; Gregor, Mikuz [corrected to Mikuz, Gregor]
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  • (PMID = 17704942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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37. Paraskeva M, McLean C, Snell GI, Westall GP: Lung transplant survival despite unexpected pulmonary metastatic thyroid cancer in the explant. Transpl Int; 2010 Sep;23(9):e45-8
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  • [Title] Lung transplant survival despite unexpected pulmonary metastatic thyroid cancer in the explant.
  • We describe a 15- year-old patient who underwent cut-down lobar lung transplant for end-stage obliterative bronchiolitis secondary to GVHD that had developed as a result of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • Unexpectedly, histopathological examination of the explant revealed extensive metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Graft Survival. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Transplantation / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


38. Tseleni-Balafouta S, Gakiopoulou H, Fanourakis G, Voutsinas G, Litsiou H, Sozopoulos E, Balafoutas D, Patsouris E: Fibrillin expression and localization in various types of carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Mod Pathol; 2006 May;19(5):695-700
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  • [Title] Fibrillin expression and localization in various types of carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate fibrillin-1 expression in thyroid carcinomas at mRNA and protein level, since ECM proteins are suggested to be of great importance for the metastatic potential of carcinomas.
  • RNA was extracted from 13 thyroid carcinoma cell lines and RT-PCR analysis with gene-specific primers revealed fibrillin-1 mRNA expression in all cell lines, with highest expression in the follicular carcinoma cell line WRO and lowest expression in the two anaplastic cell lines (APO, FRO).
  • Furthermore, we investigated fibrillin-1 expression by immumohistochemistry in a commercially available tissue microarray including 50 thyroid carcinomas as well as in archival tissue from 33 thyroid carcinomas.
  • The most intense staining was observed in papillary carcinomas with some evidence of a slight increased intensity in advanced stages.
  • Our data indicate that fibrillin-1 is strongly expressed by the neoplastic cells of thyroid carcinomas in different degree in the various histologic types and might be implicated in cell-stroma interaction in terms of signaling, attachment and migration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Microfilament Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16528372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / fibrillin
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39. Kaldrymides P, Kostoglou-Athanassiou I, Gkountouvas A, Veniou E, Ziras N: Partial remission of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma with sunitinib. Report of a case and review of the literature. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):6-10
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  • [Title] Partial remission of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma with sunitinib. Report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Tyrosine kinase receptors have been implicated in thyroid cancer.
  • Therefore, tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be used for the treatment of advanced metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • The aim is to present a case of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma responding to the administration of sunitinib, a multi-targeted protein kinase inhibitor.
  • A patient presented with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism.
  • The administration of sunitinib resulted in partial disease response in a patient with progressive metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Protein kinase inhibitors may prove useful in the management of advanced metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Indoles / therapeutic use. Pelvic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20963554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; V99T50803M / sunitinib
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40. Gubała E, Olczyk T, Pawlaczek A, Handkiewicz-Junak D, Roskosz J, Krajewska J, Zeman M, Chmielik E, Kukulska A, Czarniecka A, Włoch J: [Indications for surgery of thyroid cancer based on bioptate molecular examination]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):396-402
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  • [Title] [Indications for surgery of thyroid cancer based on bioptate molecular examination].
  • INTRODUCTION: In differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) the differentiation between reactive and metastatic lymph nodes is difficult at the early stages of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17006843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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41. Pietarinen-Runtti P, Apajalahti S, Robinson S, Passador-Santos F, Leivo I, Mäkitie AA: Cystic neck lesions: clinical, radiological and differential diagnostic considerations. Acta Otolaryngol; 2010 Feb;130(2):300-4
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  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic disease should always be considered as a potential differential diagnosis in the adult patient with a cystic neck lesion.
  • In older patients metastatic lymph nodes may be easily misdiagnosed as BCC.
  • This study aimed to investigate the incidence of unsuspected carcinoma in routinely excised cervical cysts at a tertiary care teaching hospital and to determine the characteristics of benign BCC and cystic malignancy in preoperative imaging.
  • RESULTS: Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma was demonstrated histologically postoperatively in six (3.1%) patients and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one (0.5%) patient.
  • Therefore, the incidence of unsuspected carcinoma in the cystic neck lesions initially diagnosed as BCC was 3.6%.
  • [MeSH-major] Branchioma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19593684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2251
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Kłubo-Gwieździńska J, Junik R: [The early treatment results of well differentiated thyroid cancer and its dependence on chosen factors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Mar-Apr;59(2):123-30
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  • [Title] [The early treatment results of well differentiated thyroid cancer and its dependence on chosen factors].
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of a thyroid remnants' volume, postsurgical concentration of thyroglobulin and radioiodine dose on the early treatment efficacy of well differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 91 patients (76 females, 15 men) with well differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: Histological classification revealed 68.1% (62/91) papillary thyroid cancers, 25.3% (23/91) follicular thyroid cancers, and 6.6% (6/91) oxyphilic thyroid cancers.
  • Among the group, 74 (81.3%) patients reached the remission criteria and the remaining 17 patients (18.7%) showed biochemical and morphological evidence of metastatic disease.
  • The remission was obtained in 100% of patients in stage I of the disease, 68.4% - in stage II, 78.6% - in stage III and 33.3% in stage IV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment results of well differentiated thyroid cancer depend on the clinical stage, and postoperative serum thyroglobulin level measured after endogenous TSH stimulation.
  • Early treatment results are not dependent on age, sex, histological type of thyroid cancer, the dose of radioiodine used in brackets of 60-150 mCi and additional diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18465687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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43. Dralle H, Lorenz K, Machens A: [Surgery of thyroid carcinoma]. Chirurg; 2009 Nov;80(11):1069-82; quiz 1083
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  • [Title] [Surgery of thyroid carcinoma].
  • The 5 main types of thyroid cancer (papillary, PTC, follicular, FTC, poorly differentiated, PDTC undifferentiated, UTC, medullary, MTC) not only differ regarding morphology, pathogenesis, genetics,and pathophysiology (iodine metabolism, thyroglobulin and calcitonin production), but also concerning tumor biology, metastatic behavior (lymphogenous, locally invasive and hematogenous routes) and prognosis.
  • Knowledge of these features is the basis of the surgical concept of one or two-stage thyroidectomy, the exceptions and the concept of locoregional lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19902289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0385
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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44. Todaro M, Iovino F, Eterno V, Cammareri P, Gambara G, Espina V, Gulotta G, Dieli F, Giordano S, De Maria R, Stassi G: Tumorigenic and metastatic activity of human thyroid cancer stem cells. Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 1;70(21):8874-85
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  • [Title] Tumorigenic and metastatic activity of human thyroid cancer stem cells.
  • Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy and the first cause of death among endocrine cancers.
  • We show that the tumorigenic capacity in thyroid cancer is confined in a small subpopulation of stem-like cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH(high)) activity and unlimited replication potential.
  • Orthotopic injection of minute numbers of thyroid cancer stem cells recapitulates the behavior of the parental tumor, including the aggressive metastatic features of undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas, which are sustained by constitutive activation of cMet and Akt in thyroid cancer stem cells.
  • The identification of tumorigenic and metastagenic thyroid cancer cells may provide unprecedented preclinical tools for development and preclinical validation of novel targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Animals. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Cell Adhesion. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Female. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, Nude. Mice, SCID. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Stem Cell Assay. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays. Young Adult


45. Taweevisit M, Chirakalwasan N, Pumsuk U, Keelawat S, Shuangshoti S: Metastatic adenocarcinoma to the cervical lymph node: a significant proportion of cholangiocarcinoma in Thai patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2008 Jan-Mar;9(1):39-41
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  • [Title] Metastatic adenocarcinoma to the cervical lymph node: a significant proportion of cholangiocarcinoma in Thai patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine distribution of the primary site of metastatic adenocarcinoma to the cervical lymph node in Thai population with histological correlation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 72 Thai patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma to the cervical lymph node were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid gland (papillary carcinoma) was the commonest source of tumor (41%), followed by lung (25%), bile duct (17%) and breast (7%).
  • Metastatic cholangiocarcinoma typically produced distinct glandular pattern, and frequently involved the right supraclavicular lymph node.
  • Brush border of the gland-forming tumor cells was a consistent finding in metastatic cholangiocarcinoma, with 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity.
  • This figure may hold true for countries where bile duct malignancy is endemic, and may be of clinical usefulness in identification of primary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thailand. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18439070.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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46. Nabili V, Natarajan S, Hirschovitz S, Bhuta S, Abemayor E: Collision tumor of thyroid: metastatic lung adenocarcinoma plus papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol; 2007 May-Jun;28(3):218-20
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  • [Title] Collision tumor of thyroid: metastatic lung adenocarcinoma plus papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • We present a case of a collision tumor of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma occurring in the thyroid gland of a 63-year-old woman who presented with a multinodular central neck mass.
  • This is the first report of this unique combination of tumors occurring in the thyroid gland.
  • This case report emphasizes the role of detailed histopathologic analysis and the use of immunohistochemistry in better identifying rare thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17499145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Feng D, Rhatigan R, Shuja S, Wolfson D, Makary R, Koch K, Masood S: Papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis to the frontal skull. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Jul;37(7):522-6
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis to the frontal skull.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis to the frontal skull is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of unsuspected papillary thyroid carcinoma with frontal skull metastasis.
  • The diagnosis was a metastatic carcinoma.
  • Surgical biopsy demonstrated histological and cytological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma including prominent papillae, nuclear overlapping, grooves, and intranuclear pseudoinclusions.
  • Thus, a diagnosis of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma was rendered.
  • Though skull metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a skull mass lesion is encountered.
  • [MeSH-major] Skull Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19459156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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48. Shpitzer T, Saute M, Gilat H, Raveh E, Koren I, Shvero J, Bahar G, Feinmesser R: Adaptation of median partial sternotomy in head and neck surgery. Am Surg; 2007 Dec;73(12):1275-8
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  • The 17 patients included 11 adults with metastatic thyroid disease (six metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, two medullary carcinoma, and one Hiirthle cell carcinoma) and huge retrosternal goiter (n = 2), four adults with parathyroid disease (two primary parathyroid adenoma, one secondary hyperplasia, and one parathyroid carcinoma), and two children with lymphangioma and huge thymic cyst (one each).

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  • (PMID = 18186389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Filesi M, Colandrea M, Montesano T, D'Apollo R, Ronga G: Thyroid stunning in clinical practice: is it a real problem? Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Mar;34(1):29-36
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  • [Title] Thyroid stunning in clinical practice: is it a real problem?
  • Stunning is a phenomenon of reducing (131)I uptaking activity by residual or metastatic tissue during the follow-up of patients after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • In case of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, we recommended a careful selection of patients who will be given ablative therapy using very low diagnostic doses and administering further therapeutic dose in a short time.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / metabolism. Hyperthyroidism / radiotherapy. Iodine / metabolism. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals / adverse effects. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Dosage. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19209126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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50. David A, Blotta A, Rossi R, Zatelli MC, Bondanelli M, Roti E, Braverman LE, Busutti L, degli Uberti EC: Clinical value of different responses of serum thyroglobulin to recombinant human thyrotropin in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2005 Feb;15(2):158-64
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  • [Title] Clinical value of different responses of serum thyroglobulin to recombinant human thyrotropin in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • In the present study, we examined the clinical value of a differential response of thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) stimulation (rhTSH Tg testing) and its correlation with (131)I uptake and whole body scanning (rhTSH-WBS) in 104 patients who had previously undergone near total thyroidectomy and (131)I ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • Imaging techniques (CT, MRI, FDG-PET) documented metastatic disease in 22.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Hypothyroidism / drug therapy. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / radionuclide imaging. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2006 May;16(5):517-9 [16756477.001]
  • (PMID = 15753676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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51. Wang W, Wang H, Teng X, Wang H, Mao C, Teng R, Zhao W, Cao J, Fahey TJ 3rd, Teng L: Clonal analysis of bilateral, recurrent, and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas. Hum Pathol; 2010 Sep;41(9):1299-309
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  • [Title] Clonal analysis of bilateral, recurrent, and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma usually presents as a multifocal disease; and tumors often recur in the contralateral thyroid lobe, raising questions concerning their clonal origins.
  • Accordingly, we examined 25 pairs of bilateral papillary thyroid carcinomas (synchronous or metachronous) and 15 matched metastatic lymph nodes.
  • Eighteen (18/21, 85.7%) of 21 informative cases showed concordant BRAF status in tumors from both thyroid lobes, being either BRAF mutation positive (12 patients) or BRAF mutation negative (6 patients).
  • Metastatic lymph nodes in 12 patients (12/15, 80%) had a complete concordance of BRAF state with their primaries.
  • In conclusion, our data provide evidence that bilateral, recurrent, and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas often arise from a single clone and that intrathyroidal metastasis may play an important role in the development of bilateral tumors, as well as in the recurrence of this malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20471663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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52. Diaz J, Chawla M, Simoff M: Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Metastatic Thyroid Cancer. J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol; 2009 Jan;16(1):70-1
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  • [Title] Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Metastatic Thyroid Cancer.
  • Since its first application in 1992, endobronchial ultrasound, in conjunction with transbronchial needle aspiration, has proven to be an efficient tool for lung cancer staging.
  • Its use in the diagnosis of solitary intrapulmonary tumors and preoperative assessment of tracheobronchial invasion from thyroid cancer has also been reported.
  • We present a case of metastatic papillary thyroid cancer diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in a patient with a paratracheal mass.

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  • (PMID = 23168478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bronchology & interventional pulmonology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Dawson SJ, Conus NM, Toner GC, Raleigh JM, Hicks RJ, McArthur G, Rischin D: Sustained clinical responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Drugs; 2008 Jun;19(5):547-52
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  • [Title] Sustained clinical responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in thyroid carcinoma.
  • The limited therapeutic options available for patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) necessitates the development of novel therapies.
  • Identification of somatic rearrangements of the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET gene in PTC have improved our understanding of thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Its role in the treatment of patients with thyroid carcinoma has yet to be evaluated in clinical trials.
  • Two patients with progressive metastatic thyroid carcinoma (case 1: PTC, and case 2: FTC) were enroled in a phase I clinical trial to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) in the monitoring of response to sunitinib.
  • These case studies highlight potential activity of sunitinib in patients with metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Sunitinib seems to be a promising agent in the treatment of thyroid cancers and this requires validation in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18418222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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54. Roh JL, Yoon YH, Park CI: Chyle leakage in patients undergoing thyroidectomy plus central neck dissection for differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Sep;15(9):2576-80
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  • [Title] Chyle leakage in patients undergoing thyroidectomy plus central neck dissection for differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Chyle leakage is an uncommon complication of lateral neck dissection for metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Chyle. Postoperative Complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18592317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Triglycerides; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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55. Lee EJ, Deavers MT, Hughes JI, Lee JH, Kavanagh JJ: Metastasis to sigmoid colon mucosa and submucosa from serous borderline ovarian tumor: response to hormone therapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:295-9
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  • The metastatic lesion was detected incidentally by screening colonoscopy 7 years after the patient was treated for the primary tumor.
  • The metastatic lesion responded well to treatment with oral Arimidex 1 mg/day.
  • This case showed that the sigmoid colon mucosa and submucosa should be considered as one of distant metastatic sites of a serous borderline ovarian tumor and the favorable response to Arimidex provides support the use of hormone therapy in women with serous borderline ovarian tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Sigmoid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triazoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Colonoscopy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Pelvic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Pelvic Neoplasms / surgery. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16515607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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56. Gupta R, Viswanathan S, D'Cruz A, Kane SV: Metastatic papillary carcinoma of thyroid masquerading as a renal tumour. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Jan;61(1):143
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  • [Title] Metastatic papillary carcinoma of thyroid masquerading as a renal tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18156435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Erickson LA, Jin L, Nakamura N, Bridges AG, Markovic SN, Lloyd RV: Clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Cancer; 2007 May 15;109(10):1965-71
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are rare and are usually identified in patients with widely disseminated disease.
  • Occasionally, thyroid carcinomas can present as cutaneous metastases for which the primary site needs to be determined.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) commonly have BRAF(V600E) mutation.
  • A series of 16 cutaneous metastases were analyzed from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas to learn more about the clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation status.
  • METHODS: Eleven cases of PTC and 5 of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) metastatic to the skin were evaluated.
  • All cutaneous metastases were studied histologically and with thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor immunostains.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous metastases from PTC may show prominent clear cell change requiring differentiation from clear cell hidradenoma, clear cell dermatofibroma, malignant melanoma with prominent clear cell change, and cutaneous metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 17387744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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58. Wang T, Jiang CX, Li Y, Liu X: [Pathologic study of expression and significance of matrix metalloproteinases-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta-1 in papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Dec;38(12):824-8
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  • [Title] [Pathologic study of expression and significance of matrix metalloproteinases-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta-1 in papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the roles of matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1) in differentiation, invasiveness and metastatic potential of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid.
  • METHODS: Eighty-five cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and 59 cases of follicular thyroid carcinoma were enrolled into the study.
  • The positivity rates of MMP-9, TIMP-1, VEGF and TGFβ-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (83.5%, 81.2%, 90.6% and 75.3%, respectively) were similar to or lower than those in follicular thyroid carcinoma (93.2%, 86.4%, 89.9% and 78.0%, respectively).
  • The expression rates in papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis were also higher than those in tumors without lymph node metastasis.
  • The expression rates of MMP-9, VEGF and TGFβ-1 in poorly-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma were higher than those in well-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • In general, the expression of VEGF and MMP-9 was higher than that of TIMP-1 and TGFβ-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical detection of MMP-9, TIMP-1, VEGF and TGFβ-1 expression may carry clinical significance in evaluating the degree of differentiation, invasiveness, metastatic potential and prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20193458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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59. Kloos RT, Ringel MD, Knopp MV, Hall NC, King M, Stevens R, Liang J, Wakely PE Jr, Vasko VV, Saji M, Rittenberry J, Wei L, Arbogast D, Collamore M, Wright JJ, Grever M, Shah MH: Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr 1;27(10):1675-84
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Based on the pivotal role of Ras-Raf-MAP-ERK signaling and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we conducted a phase II clinical trial of sorafenib targeting RAF and VEGF receptor kinases in PTC.
  • Using a Simon minimax two-stage design, 16 or 25 chemotherapy-naïve metastatic PTC patients were to be enrolled in arm A (accessible tumor for biopsy).
  • Arm B patients had other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma or prior chemotherapy, and did not require tumor biopsies.
  • CONCLUSION: Sorafenib is reasonably well-tolerated therapy with clinical and biologic antitumor activity in metastatic PTC.


60. Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Jikuzono T, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Extranodal tumor extension to adjacent organs predicts a worse cause-specific survival in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2007 Jun;31(6):1194-201
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  • [Title] Extranodal tumor extension to adjacent organs predicts a worse cause-specific survival in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We previously reported that massive extrathyroid extension has an independent prognostic value in patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • However, tumor extension to adjacent organs can be observed not only in primary tumor but also in metastatic nodes.
  • In this study we investigated the clinical significance of extranodal tumor extension to adjacent organs (nodal ex) in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We classified all cases into three categories based on the degree of nodal ex: nodal ex0, no apparent extranodal tumor extension; nodal ex1, hard metastatic nodes with perinodal growth extending to adjacent organs, which require separation of the nodes from the organs; and nodal ex2, metastatic nodes with perinodal growth completely invading the adjacent organs and requiring excision of nodes together with these organs.
  • We investigated the clinical significance of each grade in 1,692 patients who underwent initial surgery for papillary carcinoma between 1987 and 1995.
  • RESULTS: The presence of nodal ex was significantly linked to various clinicopathological features such as male gender, N1b, large number of metastatic nodes, pT4a, and distant metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Presence of nodal ex significantly reflects the biologically aggressive behaviors of papillary carcinoma and has a prognostic value, especially for cause-specific survival of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy

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  • [Cites] J Med Internet Res. 2003 Apr-Jun;5(2):e8 [12857664.001]
  • [Cites] J Biomed Inform. 2002 Oct-Dec;35(5-6):313-21 [12968780.001]
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  • (PMID = 17431714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Morita S, Mizoguchi K, Suzuki M, Iizuka K: The accuracy of (18)[F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, ultrasonography, and enhanced computed tomography alone in the preoperative diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2010 Nov;34(11):2564-9
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  • [Title] The accuracy of (18)[F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, ultrasonography, and enhanced computed tomography alone in the preoperative diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D: -glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, ultrasonography, and enhanced computed tomography alone in the preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: In a prospective study performed between January 2007 and December 2009, 74 patients with a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma confirmed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy were referred to our institution for surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative assessment by ultrasonography of metastases in the central and lateral cervical lymph nodes might be the best methodology for determining the extent of surgical resection required to remove metastatic lymph nodes adequately in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20645089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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62. Barwick T, Murray I, Megadmi H, Drake WM, Plowman PN, Akker SA, Chew SL, Grossman AB, Avril N: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography using Iodine-123 in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: additional value over whole body planar imaging and SPECT. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1131-9
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  • [Title] Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography using Iodine-123 in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: additional value over whole body planar imaging and SPECT.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic performance of co-registered single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) compared to Iodine-123 whole body gamma camera (WBGC) imaging and to SPECT alone in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients had local recurrence or metastatic thyroid cancer (11 were radioiodine negative), 9 had remnant thyroid tissue, and 54 had no evidence of disease.

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  • (PMID = 20212015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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63. Rivera M, Tuttle RM, Patel S, Shaha A, Shah JP, Ghossein RA: Encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinico-pathologic study of 106 cases with emphasis on its morphologic subtypes (histologic growth pattern). Thyroid; 2009 Feb;19(2):119-27
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  • [Title] Encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinico-pathologic study of 106 cases with emphasis on its morphologic subtypes (histologic growth pattern).
  • BACKGROUND: Encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma (EPTC) can have a histologic growth pattern similar to the one seen in classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or akin to the follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC).
  • METHODS: All cases of thyroid carcinomas treated at our institution between 1980 and 2000 were reviewed and reclassified according to current histopathologic criteria.
  • The lymph node metastatic rate was significantly higher in E-CPTC (11/43, 26%) compared to E-FVPTC (2/63, 3%) (p = 0.0014).
  • CONCLUSION: E-CPTC resembles classical PTC in its propensity to metastasize to lymph nodes and its vascular/capsular invasive pattern while E-FVPTC behaves more like follicular carcinoma/adenoma group of tumors.
  • Meticulous search for capsular and vascular invasion can reliably predict the metastatic potential of E-FVPTC but not of E-CPTC.
  • Noninvasive E-FVPTC could be managed like minimally invasive follicular carcinoma by lobectomy without RAI therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


64. Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Santisteban P: New insights in thyroid follicular cell biology and its impact in thyroid cancer therapy. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Dec;14(4):957-77
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  • [Title] New insights in thyroid follicular cell biology and its impact in thyroid cancer therapy.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid cancer has in general terms a very good outcome.
  • Whereas the prevalence of nodular thyroid disease worldwide is high, malignant conversion from benign thyroid nodules is rare.
  • Treatment of thyroid cancer is usually successful, but we still do not have effective therapies for patients with invasive or metastatic thyroid cancer if the disease does not concentrate radioiodine and it is not surgically resectable.
  • On the other hand, from the same thyroid cell, one of the most aggressive human tumours can arise--undifferentiated or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma--leading to death in a few months.
  • The most common type of thyroid cancer--papillary thyroid carcinoma--stands out among solid tumours because many of the tumour-initiating events have been identified.
  • This highlights the requirement of this signal transduction pathway for the transformation to thyroid cancer and paves the way to targeted therapies against a tumour with a mutation in a known gene or any gene upstream of the target.
  • Studies in vitro and in vivo, including genomic profiling and genetically engineered mouse models, have clearly shown that each oncoprotein exerts its own oncogenic drive, conferring a distinct biological behaviour on thyroid tumours.
  • In this review, we attempt to summarise the most recent advances in thyroid follicular cell-derived cancers research and their potential clinical impact that may change the management of thyroid cancer in the near future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy


65. Ahn JE, Lee JH, Yi JS, Shong YK, Hong SJ, Lee DH, Choi CG, Kim SJ: Diagnostic accuracy of CT and ultrasonography for evaluating metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid cancer. World J Surg; 2008 Jul;32(7):1552-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic accuracy of CT and ultrasonography for evaluating metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate the diagnostic ability of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (USG) in the preoperative evaluation of the cervical nodal status of patients with thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: The study population consisted of 37 consecutive patients (female:male = 30:7, age range: 20-68 years) who subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite of very high accuracy of USG by per patient analysis, the superior sensitivity of CT on the per level analysis may enable CT to play a complementary role for determining the surgical extent in selected patients with thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


66. Sohn MH, Kim MW, Lim ST, Lee NR, Song EK, Yim CY: Radioiodine uptake by metastatic nonthyroidal adenocarcinoma of the lung in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Apr;30(4):269-70
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  • [Title] Radioiodine uptake by metastatic nonthyroidal adenocarcinoma of the lung in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • A 49-year-old woman with a history of a hysterectomy for carcinoma of the cervix and papillary thyroid carcinoma showed multiple pulmonary metastases on chest radiography.
  • These lesions were found to be metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • The radioiodine uptake by the metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma of the lungs occurred in the presence of normal thyroid imaging in a patient with a thyroid nodule and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging


67. Kreft A, Hansen T, Kirkpatrick CJ: Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression in cystic lesions of the neck: an immunohistochemical investigation of thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts and metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jul;447(1):9-11
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  • [Title] Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression in cystic lesions of the neck: an immunohistochemical investigation of thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts and metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Cervical metastases of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) are of particular diagnostic importance, because they can mimic branchiogenic cysts clinically and histopathologically when undergoing cystic change.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), which are positive in thyroid cancers, are reported to be valuable in establishing diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Branchioma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Thyroglossal Cyst / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism


68. Vassilatou E, Fisfis M, Morphopoulos G, Savva S, Voucouti E, Stefanoudaki K, Tzavara I: Papillary thyroid carcinoma producing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is associated with neutrophilia and eosinophilia. Hormones (Athens); 2006 Oct-Dec;5(4):303-9
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma producing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is associated with neutrophilia and eosinophilia.
  • Thyroid tumors producing colony-stimulating factors associated with neutrophilia and/or eosinophilia are very rare and almost all of them concern anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • Only one case of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with neutrophilia and one case of medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with eosinophilia have been reported.
  • In this report a 72-year old male patient with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with neutrophilia and eosinophilia is described.
  • While investigating the cause of neutrophilia and eosinophilia, a blind bone marrow biopsy of the posterior iliac crest was performed, which showed infiltration by papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • As other causes of neutrophilia and eosinophilia were excluded, we assumed that these were paraneoplastic manifestations induced by GM-csF produced by the thyroid tumor. the disease progressed rapidly, despite appropriate treatment which included thyroidectomy and postoperative radioactive (131)I administration. the patient died 11 months after diagnosis because of extensive lung metastasis.
  • Neutrophilia and eosinophilia were stable findings, while serum thyroglobulin levels remained elevated throughout the follow-up period. to our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in whom neutrophilia and eosinophilia associated with high circulating levels of GM-csF were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Eosinophils / pathology. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood. Neutrophils / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17178706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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69. Durante C, Haddy N, Baudin E, Leboulleux S, Hartl D, Travagli JP, Caillou B, Ricard M, Lumbroso JD, De Vathaire F, Schlumberger M: Long-term outcome of 444 patients with distant metastases from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: benefits and limits of radioiodine therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):2892-9
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome of 444 patients with distant metastases from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: benefits and limits of radioiodine therapy.
  • AIM: The goal of this study was to estimate the cumulative activity of (131)I to be administered to patients with distant metastases from thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: A total of 444 patients were treated from 1953-1994 for distant metastases from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: 223 had lung metastases only, 115 had bone metastases only, 82 had both lung and bone metastases, and 24 had metastases at other sites.
  • Treatment consisted of the administration of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) (131)I after withdrawal of thyroid hormone treatment, every 3-9 months during the first 2 yr and then once a year until the disappearance of any metastatic uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;2(11):610-1 [17082807.001]
  • (PMID = 16684830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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70. Min HS, Choe G, Kim SW, Park YJ, Park DJ, Youn YK, Park SH, Cho BY, Park SY: S100A4 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis in papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid. Mod Pathol; 2008 Jun;21(6):748-55
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  • [Title] S100A4 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis in papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The detection of papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid is increasing due to frequent use of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Although most of the papillary microcarcinomas remain quiescent and follow an indolent clinical course, some behave aggressively and metastasize early, giving rise to clinically significant disease.
  • There have been few studies concerning factors predictive of lymph node metastasis in papillary microcarcinomas.
  • We analyzed the expression of S100A4, cyclin D1, p27 and MUC1, the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation and the clinicopathological features of the tumors, including patient age, tumor size (>or=5 vs <5 mm), extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, histological subtype, sclerosis and encapsulation, in a series of 198 papillary microcarcinomas in relation to lymph node metastasis to determine the predictive factors of lymph node metastasis.
  • In conclusion, S100A4 expression in papillary microcarcinomas may indicate the presence of nodal metastasis.
  • Thus, S100A4 immunohistochemistry may be valuable for predicting metastatic potential in papillary microcarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. S100 Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


71. Sanioglu S, Sokullu O, Ozgen A, Demirci D, Sargin M, Bilgen F: Unusual metastasis of the papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2009 Jun;87(6):1928-30
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  • [Title] Unusual metastasis of the papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma.
  • Floating thrombus in the ascending aorta is rare and its association with papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma has not been documented.
  • Although the aortic wall was macroscopically normal, histologic examination revealed metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Aorta. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19463626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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72. Sotome K, Onishi T, Hirano A, Nakamaru M, Furukawa A, Miyazaki H, Morozumi K, Tanaka Y, Iri H, Mimura Y: A rare case of anaplastic transformation within the metastatic site of the retroperitoneal region in a patient 17 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid beginning with multiple bone metastases. Thyroid; 2007 Dec;17(12):1309-11
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  • [Title] A rare case of anaplastic transformation within the metastatic site of the retroperitoneal region in a patient 17 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid beginning with multiple bone metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18177259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Kim HS, Choi YJ, Yun JS: Features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in the presence and absence of lymphocytic thyroiditis. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Sep;21(3):149-53
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  • [Title] Features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in the presence and absence of lymphocytic thyroiditis.
  • It is known that the prevalence of lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) is higher in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), that gender influences this association, and that certain features of PTC occur more frequently in patients who also have LT.
  • These relationships have not been studied in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC), however.
  • We collected the 323 consecutive patients following excision of PTMC diagnosed as papillary carcinoma on preoperative needle aspiration cytology.
  • Among the patients with metastatic PTMC, LT was noted significantly more often in female than male patients (95.2% vs. 79.8%).
  • In metastatic PTMC, multifocality and bilaterality was more frequent in with LT than without LT (44.4% vs. 29.2%; 29.6% vs. 14.6%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20506003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Markou KD, Goudakos JK, Triaridis S, Televantou D, Hytiroglou P, Nikolaou A: Simultaneous metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma and carcinoid of the small intestine in the cervical lymph node group. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1025-8
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  • [Title] Simultaneous metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma and carcinoid of the small intestine in the cervical lymph node group.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignancies, primary or metastatic, and infections are the main causative factors that should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervical adenopathy.
  • The histopathological examination showed that the larger mass (measuring 5 cm) was a block of lymph nodes with metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • In the adjacent fibroadipose tissue, two lymph nodes with metastatic carcinoid tumor were found.
  • The smaller mass (measuring 2 cm) was a lymph node with metastatic carcinoid tumor.
  • Histopatological examination of the thyroid gland showed a lesion of papillary carcinoma, measuring 0.6 cm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a coexistence of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma and intestinal carcinoid tumor in cervical lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neck / radiography. Neck / surgery. Neck Dissection. Salivary Glands / surgery. Thyroid Gland / radiography. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20718681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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75. Koh YW, Park JH, Kim JW, Lee SW, Choi EC: Endoscopic hemithyroidectomy with prophylactic ipsilateral central neck dissection via an unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation for unilateral micropapillary thyroid carcinoma: preliminary report. Surg Endosc; 2010 Jan;24(1):188-97
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  • [Title] Endoscopic hemithyroidectomy with prophylactic ipsilateral central neck dissection via an unilateral axillo-breast approach without gas insufflation for unilateral micropapillary thyroid carcinoma: preliminary report.
  • BACKGROUND: Recently, various endoscopic approaches have been applied to thyroid surgery.
  • However, few specific data exist on endoscopic thyroidectomy with central neck dissection (CND) for micropapillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In terms of parathyroid gland (PTG) preservation, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups.
  • The mean numbers of dissected central lymph nodes and metastatic central lymph nodes were similar in the two groups (p = 0.506 vs. 0.975).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19688395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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76. Lanzafame S, Caltabiano R, Puzzo L, Cappellani A: Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and p63 expression in two primary thyroid papillary carcinomas of branchial cleft cysts. Virchows Arch; 2006 Jul;449(1):129-33
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  • [Title] Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and p63 expression in two primary thyroid papillary carcinomas of branchial cleft cysts.
  • Malignant lateral cervical cysts can be related to metastatic tumors or rarely to primary thyroid carcinoma arising in branchial cleft cysts.
  • This study evaluates the expression of thyroid-associated transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and p63 in three branchial cleft cysts and in two primary thyroid papillary carcinoma of branchial cleft cysts.
  • TTF-1 was negative in the nuclei of the lining epithelia of branchial cleft cysts, but positive in the adjacent normal thyroid tissue, while TTF-1 was positive in the nuclei of the lining epithelia and in the nuclei of the papillae and follicles in branchial cleft cysts with ectopic thyroid carcinoma.
  • P63 was positive in the nuclei of the lining epithelia of branchial cleft cysts, but negative in the adjacent normal thyroid tissue.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma of branchial cleft cysts displayed p63-positive foci.
  • In conclusion, our results demonstrate that TTF-1 cannot distinguish between primary and metastatic tumors of branchial cleft cysts.
  • The detection of p63 in papillary thyroid carcinomas of branchial cleft cysts could suggest that p63 contributes to the onset of this tumor.
  • It is really important to evaluate if the case has a metastatic derivation or represents papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue in a branchial cleft cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Branchioma / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16628413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human
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77. Roberts SS, Mendonça-Torres MC, Jensen K, Francis GL, Vasko V: GABA receptor expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Dec;15(4):645-50
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  • [Title] GABA receptor expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • The role of neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors has not yet been examined in thyroid cancer.
  • To determine the possible involvement of neurotransmitter systems in thyroid carcinogenesis we characterized the patterns of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor expression in normal thyroid and thyroid tumors.
  • We examined the expression patterns of the GABAergic system in 70 human thyroid tumor samples (13 follicular adenomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, 43 papillary carcinomas) and adjacent normal thyroid by immunohistochemistry.
  • GABAergic system mRNA expression in thyroid cancer cell lines derived from primary (FTC133) and metastatic tumors (FTC236 and FTC238) was examined by real time PCR.
  • Overall, GABA receptor expression is increased in tumors compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • Expression of GABAA receptor beta2 was detected in the vasculature of normal thyroid and thyroid tumors but not in thyroid cancer cells.
  • GABAA alpha2 was detected in metastatic-derived but not in primary-tumor derived cell lines.
  • Expression levels of GABAB R2 and GABA receptor associated protein (GABARAP) are increased in adenomas and thyroid cancer suggesting their role in early stages of thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • This study represents the first demonstration of GABA receptor expression in human thyroid tissue and suggests that the GABAergic system is involved in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptors, GABA / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Receptors, GABA-A / metabolism. Receptors, GABA-B / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19381877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / GABARAP protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Receptors, GABA; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; 0 / Receptors, GABA-B
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78. Scurry WC, Lamarre E, Stack B: Radioguided neck dissection in recurrent metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol; 2006 Jan-Feb;27(1):61-3
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  • [Title] Radioguided neck dissection in recurrent metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Although radioguided surgery has been used for the excision of sentinel nodes in breast cancer and melanoma, sparse literature exists describing its use in thyroid cancer.
  • We report a 69-year-old patient with a previous total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection for papillary carcinoma who was subsequently found to have recurrent metastatic disease.
  • Our case report seeks to demonstrate a recent example of our use of the gamma-probe in radioguided surgical excision of recurrent metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16360827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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79. Banzo J, Ubieto MA, Villalta J, Razola P, Prats E, Andrés A: [Incidental detection of a papillary thyroid cancer by ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT study in a patient with metastatic colorectal cancer]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2010 Nov-Dec;29(6):312-3
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  • [Title] [Incidental detection of a papillary thyroid cancer by ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT study in a patient with metastatic colorectal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Detección accidental de un carcinoma papilar de tiroides mediante ¹⁸F-FDG PET/TAC en un paciente con carcinoma colorrectal metastático.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Sigmoid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


80. David A, Blotta A, Rossi R, Zatelli MC, Bondanelli M, Roti E, Braverman LE, Busutti L, degli Uberti EC: Clinical value of different responses of serum thyroglobulin to recombinant human thyrotropin in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2005 Mar;15(3):267-73
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  • [Title] Clinical value of different responses of serum thyroglobulin to recombinant human thyrotropin in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • In the present study we examined the clinical value of a differential response of thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) stimulation (rhTSH Tg testing) and its correlation with (131)I uptake and whole-body scanning (rhTSH-WBS) in 104 patients who had previously undergone near-total thyroidectomy and (131)I ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • Imaging techniques (computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography [FDGPET]) documented metastatic disease in 22.
  • [MeSH-major] Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyrotropin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Recurrence. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 15785246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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81. Kuroda N, Hamauzu T, Toi M, Yamaoka K, Miyazaki E, Hiroi M, Nakata H, Taguchi H, Enzan H: Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with micropapillary component: an immunohistochemical study. Case report. APMIS; 2005 Jul-Aug;113(7-8):550-4
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  • [Title] Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with micropapillary component: an immunohistochemical study. Case report.
  • Micropapillary carcinoma has been described in various organs, including the breast, urinary bladder, ovary and lung.
  • We here present a case of pulmonary micropapillary carcinoma in a 72-year-old Japanese man who died of respiratory failure and septic shock, following which autopsy was performed.
  • The tumor showed moderately differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma with a focal micropapillary component.
  • Carcinomatous lymphangiosis was also observed in the left lung and metastatic lesions were observed in the bilateral lung, liver, vertebra, muscle layer of the urinary bladder, right adrenal gland, spleen and lymph nodes.
  • The micropapillary component was predominant at some metastatic sites.
  • Immunohistochemically, both the adenocarcinoma and micropapillary components were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK19, TTF (thyroid transcription factor)-1, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and surfactant apoprotein A (SP-A), and negative for CK20, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, uroplakin III, and CA125.
  • The invasive area of the conventional adenocarcinoma component contained a large number of myofibroblasts, whereas the stroma of the micropapillary component contained a small number of myofibroblasts.
  • However, no myofibroblasts were observed in the stroma of the central core of the non-invasive micropapillary carcinoma.
  • Myofibroblasts are present in the stroma of the invasive neoplastic nests in the micropapillary component as well as the conventional adenocarcinoma component, and D2-40 monoclonal antibody may be useful for evaluating the lymphatic invasion of pulmonary micropapillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16086826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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82. Papi G, Corrado S, LiVolsi VA: Primary spindle cell lesions of the thyroid gland; an overview. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jun;125 Suppl:S95-123
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  • [Title] Primary spindle cell lesions of the thyroid gland; an overview.
  • Spindle cell lesions of the thyroid gland (T-SCL) are not encountered routinely in clinical practice or in the context of thyroid pathology.
  • They commonly are classified as primary or secondary to metastatic disease.
  • Primary T-SCL can be derivedfromfollicular, C-cell (parafollicular), or mesenchymal components and may be the result of reactive or neoplastic processes, including post-fine-needle aspiration spindle cell nodules, Riedel thyroiditis, solitary fibrous tumor, leiomyoma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, hyalinizing trabecular tumor, spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation, follicular dendritic cell tumor, medullary carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Fibrous Tissue / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16830961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 354
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83. Matuszczyk A, Petersenn S, Bockisch A, Gorges R, Sheu SY, Veit P, Mann K: Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Mar;40(3):210-3
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • Twenty-two patients (mean age 61) with metastasizing, progressive, nonradioiodine-accumulating thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium were treated with doxorubicin between 2000 and 2005.
  • Tumors were histologically classified as follicular in 15 patients (68%) and papillary in 7 patients (32%).
  • In addition, nine patients (mean age 51 years) with medullary thyroid carcinoma were treated with doxorubicin between 1997 and 2005.
  • In patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma, 5% had a partial regression over 6 months, 42% had stable disease for a median of 7 months (range: 1-22), and 53% had continuous progression established over 5 months (range: 1-11).
  • In patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, 11% had a partial regression over 6 months followed by stable disease for 3 months, 11% had stable disease over 7 months, and 79% demonstrated progressive disease established over 5 months (range: 2-12).
  • Doxorubicin can be a valid chemotherapy option, especially for advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18348081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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84. Nishida AT, Hirano S, Asato R, Tanaka S, Kitani Y, Honda N, Fujiki N, Miyata K, Fukushima H, Ito J: Multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma without metastases. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Sep;35(3):432-6
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  • [Title] Multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma without metastases.
  • Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid carcinoma is rare, and most cases are caused by hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma rather than primary carcinoma.
  • Among primary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma, multifocal thyroid carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with the only one case being reported in the literature.
  • Here, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with multifocal functioning thyroid carcinoma.
  • Technetium-99m (99m Tc) scintigraphic imaging showed four hot areas in the thyroid gland.
  • Histopathological examination of all four nodules revealed papillary carcinoma, corresponding to hot areas in the 99m Tc scintigram.
  • DNA sequencing of the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) gene from all nodules revealed no mutation, indicating that activation of TSH-R was unlikely in the pathophysiogenesis of hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma in the present case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging. Technetium. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17826928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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85. Chen L, Brainard JA: Pancreatic metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jul-Aug;54(4):640-4
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  • [Title] Pancreatic metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma that has metastasized to the pancreas is extremely rare.
  • CASE: A case of pancreatic metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma occurred in an 82-year-old man with a prior history of thyroid papillary carcinoma, resected 5 years earlier.
  • The microscopic examination showed a highly cellular smear composed of conspicuous papillary architecture at low magnification.
  • Nuclear changes characteristic of papillary thyroid carcinoma were identified.
  • CONCLUSION: EUS-guided fine needle aspiration cytology can be a reliable method for the diagnosis of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20715671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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86. Suster S, Moran CA: Diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):624-31
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  • In 3 patients, there was a previous history of malignancy and the radiologic findings were suspected of representing diffuse metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Aged. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Radiography, Thoracic. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17414111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Ralli M, Cohan P, Lee K: Successful use of recombinant human thyrotropin in the therapy of pediatric well-differentiated thyroid cancer. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Mar;28(3):270-3
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  • [Title] Successful use of recombinant human thyrotropin in the therapy of pediatric well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is increasingly employed in stimulating radioiodine (131I) uptake in adults with well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) for diagnostic scanning, and preliminary evidence suggests that it may have a role in radioactive iodine therapy as well.
  • We report a case of a 13-yr-old boy presenting with metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.
  • A diagnostic whole body scan (WBS) demonstrated multiple foci of uptake in the neck, thyroid bed and chest.
  • His serum TSH only increased to 14.2 microU/ml (0.3-4.7) upon thyroid hormone withdrawal.
  • This case highlights the safety and effectiveness of rhTSH stimulated radioablation in pediatric WDTC, and proposes to invite controlled studies to further investigate pediatric rhTSH use, particularly in patients in whom thyroid hormone withdrawal is not a viable option.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroidectomy. Whole-Body Irradiation

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  • (PMID = 15952413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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88. Kim SK, Kim DL, Han HS, Kim WS, Kim SJ, Moon WJ, Oh SY, Hwang TS: Pyrosequencing analysis for detection of a BRAFV600E mutation in an FNAB specimen of thyroid nodules. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2008 Jun;17(2):118-25
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  • [Title] Pyrosequencing analysis for detection of a BRAFV600E mutation in an FNAB specimen of thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the primary means of distinguishing benign from malignant and of guiding therapeutic intervention in thyroid nodules.
  • In detail, 63 (84.0%) of 75 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples showed positive BRAF mutation, whereas 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma, 1 medullary thyroid carcinoma, and 1 metastatic lung carcinoma did not show BRAF mutation.
  • Out of 27 thyroid nodules classified as 'indeterminate' on cytologic examination preoperatively, 21 (77.8%) cases turned out to be malignant: 18 PTCs (including 2 follicular variant types) and 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • Although it was not statistically significant, pyrosequencing was superior to direct DNA sequencing in detecting the BRAF mutation of thyroid nodules (P=0.25).
  • CONCLUSION: Detecting BRAF mutation by pyrosequencing is more sensitive, faster, and less expensive than direct DNA sequencing and is proposed as an adjunct diagnostic tool in evaluating thyroid nodules of indeterminate cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


89. Skarf LM, Dezube BJ, Bryan B, Berkenblit A: Ovarian carcinoma with thyroid metastases causing clinical hypothyroidism: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Aug;102(2):394-6
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  • [Title] Ovarian carcinoma with thyroid metastases causing clinical hypothyroidism: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is known to metastasize to the thyroid gland.
  • Despite an incidence of ovarian metastasis to the thyroid of 3-15%, clinical hypothyroidism resulting from such metastasis has not yet been reported.
  • We present a case of metastatic ovarian cancer to the thyroid resulting in clinical hypothyroidism.
  • CASE: A 55-year-old woman with recurrent papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary presented with fatigue, abdominal distention, lymphedema, and depression.
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone was markedly elevated, and thyroid biopsy demonstrated bilateral metastatic ovarian carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Although uncommon, metastatic disease to the thyroid should be considered when evaluating a patient with advanced ovarian cancer and clinical hypothyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothyroidism / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary


90. Roscoe KJ, Raja S, Tronic B, Dou Y: Single F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography hypermetabolic focus containing metastatic papillary thyroid cancer within a primary scarring adenocarcinoma lung cancer. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Jun;31(6):359-60
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  • [Title] Single F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography hypermetabolic focus containing metastatic papillary thyroid cancer within a primary scarring adenocarcinoma lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary


91. Barnett BP, Sheth S, Ali SZ: Cytopathologic analysis of paratracheal masses: a study of 737 cases with clinicoradiologic correlation. Acta Cytol; 2009 Nov-Dec;53(6):672-8
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  • Of the malignant cases, 45 (73%) were metastatic tumors: adenocarcinoma (ACA) 19, small cell carcinoma 12, squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) 11 and other tumors, from lung 34, esophagus 4 and other sites.
  • Malignant neoplasms from local spread included lung non-small cell carcinoma 6, SQCC 3 and ACA 3, papillary thyroid carcinoma 3 and other 2.
  • The most common diagnosis is a malignant tumor (60%), with metastatic carcinoma (73%) the most common neoplasm (lung ACA the most common primary source).

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  • (PMID = 20014557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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92. Miyauchi A, Takamura Y, Ito Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Amino N, Toyoda N, Nomura E, Nishikawa M: 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine thyrotoxicosis due to increased conversion of administered levothyroxine in patients with massive metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;93(6):2239-42
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  • [Title] 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine thyrotoxicosis due to increased conversion of administered levothyroxine in patients with massive metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Some patients with massive metastatic thyroid carcinoma exhibit T(3) thyrotoxicosis.
  • DESIGN: Serum free T(3) (FT(3)), free T(4) (FT(4)), and TSH were measured in patients with massive metastases from papillary, follicular, or medullary thyroid carcinomas (31, 20, and seven patients, respectively).
  • MAIN OUTCOME: The serum FT(3) level and FT(3)/FT(4) ratio in the follicular carcinoma (FC) group were significantly higher than those in the papillary carcinoma group or patients without recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Twenty percent of patients with massive metastatic FC exhibited T(3) thyrotoxicosis, most likely due to increased conversion of T(4) to T(3) by tumor expressing high D1 and D2 activities.
  • Occasional measurement of serum FT(3) in addition to FT(4) and TSH is recommended in patients with massive metastatic FC, especially when serum FT(4) decreases on fixed doses of levothyroxine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology. Thyroxine / pharmacokinetics. Triiodothyronine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prevalence. Thyroid Function Tests. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18397985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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93. Khafif A, Ben-Yosef R, Abergel A, Kesler A, Landsberg R, Fliss DM: Elective paratracheal neck dissection for lateral metastases from papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: is it indicated? Head Neck; 2008 Mar;30(3):306-10
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  • [Title] Elective paratracheal neck dissection for lateral metastases from papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: is it indicated?
  • BACKGROUND: Therapeutic paratracheal neck dissection for patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is standard treatment.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and evidence of positive adenopathy at levels II-V underwent selective neck dissection and elective/therapeutic paratracheal neck dissection.
  • All specimens showed metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma: 100% (37/37) in the jugular chain of lymphatics and 83.7% (31/37) in the paratracheal region.
  • CONCLUSION: The high rate of occult metastases in the paratracheal region and the low rate of surgical morbidity speak in favor of elective paratracheal neck dissection in patients with metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Neck Dissection / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 2008.
  • (PMID = 17615566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Lo CY, Chan WF, Lam KY, Wan KY: Follicular thyroid carcinoma: the role of histology and staging systems in predicting survival. Ann Surg; 2005 Nov;242(5):708-15
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid carcinoma: the role of histology and staging systems in predicting survival.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors including tumor histomorphology for survival specific to follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and to apply commonly employed staging systems in predicting survival for patients with FTC.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: FTC is usually analyzed collectively with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in risk group analysis.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen (11%) patients had distant metastases at presentation, and bilateral thyroid resection was performed for 131 (84%) patients.
  • Seventeen (11%) patients died of recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • The overall and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates at 10 years were 79% and 88%, respectively.
  • For patients who underwent curative treatment, old age and widely invasive carcinoma were risk factors for poor survival.
  • The distinction of FTC in minimally invasive and widely invasive carcinoma based on the extent of invasiveness rather than vascular invasion is important in identifying low-risk FTC patients for a more conservative management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16244545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1409851
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95. Kasai Y, Kawakita E, Uchida A: Clinical profile of long-term survivors of breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours. Int Orthop; 2007 Apr;31(2):171-5
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  • [Title] Clinical profile of long-term survivors of breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours.
  • Patients with breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours are expected to survive relatively longer than patients with other cancers with metastatic spinal tumours.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of long-term survivors of breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours.
  • Our results showed that the longer the time from the diagnosis of the primary cancer to the spinal operation, the longer patients with breast or thyroid cancer and metastatic spinal tumours would survive.
  • Six of the eight patients (75.0%) who had undergone the spinal operation at least 5 years after the diagnosis of the primary cancer survived especially long.
  • In conclusion, the duration from the diagnosis of the primary cancer to the spinal operation is very useful for predicting a prognosis in patients with breast or thyroid cancer and metastatic spinal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Survivors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis


96. Insabato L, Ben-Dor D, Galliani CA, Lastilla G, Bisceglia M: Primary thyroid and thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney versus solitary metastatic carcinoma of the thyroid: a vexing issue. Virchows Arch; 2009 Jun;454(6):717-8
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  • [Title] Primary thyroid and thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney versus solitary metastatic carcinoma of the thyroid: a vexing issue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Virchows Arch. 2009 Jul;455(1):97-8 [19536561.001]
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  • (PMID = 19449026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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97. Liu J, Singh B, Tallini G, Carlson DL, Katabi N, Shaha A, Tuttle RM, Ghossein RA: Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of a problematic entity. Cancer; 2006 Sep 15;107(6):1255-64
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  • [Title] Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of a problematic entity.
  • BACKGROUND: There is continuous debate regarding the optimal classification, prognosis, and treatment of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC).
  • The objective of this study was to assess the behavior of FVPTC, especially its encapsulated form, and shed more light on its true position in the classification scheme of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: All patients with FVPTC, follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) who were diagnosed between 1980 and 1995 were reviewed and reclassified according to the currently accepted definition of FVPTC.
  • The lymph node metastatic rate was significantly higher in patients who had nonencapsulated tumors (11 of 17 patients; 65%) compared with patients who had encapsulated neoplasms (3 of 61 patients; 5%; P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: FVPTC appeared to be a heterogeneous disease composed of 2 distinct groups: an infiltrative/diffuse (nonencapsulated) subvariant, which resembles classic papillary carcinoma in its metastatic lymph node pattern and invasive growth, and an encapsulated form, which behaves more like FTA/FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16900519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Machado NO, Chopra PJ, Al Hamdani A: Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Presenting Primarily as Cervical Lymphadenopathy: An approach to management. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J; 2009 Dec;9(3):328-32
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  • [Title] Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Presenting Primarily as Cervical Lymphadenopathy: An approach to management.
  • Papillary carcinoma of thyroid usually presents as a palpable thyroid mass.
  • Rarely, it presents solely as cervical lympadenopthy in the presence of an otherwise grossly normal thyroid gland.
  • We report here a middle-aged lady who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy which on fine needle aspiration cytology was confirmed as metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The thyroid gland was, however, normal on clinical examination and radiological investigations.
  • Neck exploration confirmed a grossly normal thyroid gland; however, the cervical lymph node was found to invade the internal jugular vein.
  • Histopathology confirmed metastasis in the lymph node and a 2mm sized microcarcinoma in the resected thyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 21509319.001).
  • [ISSN] 2075-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Sultan Qaboos University medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Oman
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3074800
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoma of thyroid / Case report / Lymphatic metastasis / Oman / Thyroidectomy
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99. Al-Saif O, Farrar WB, Bloomston M, Porter K, Ringel MD, Kloos RT: Long-term efficacy of lymph node reoperation for persistent papillary thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;95(5):2187-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term efficacy of lymph node reoperation for persistent papillary thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the outcome of surgical resection of metastatic papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in cervical lymph nodes after failure of initial surgery and I(131) therapy.
  • SETTING: The study was conducted at a university-based tertiary cancer hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / statistics & numerical data. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20332244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA124570
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Khan OA, Roses DF, Peck V: Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to skin may herald aggressive disease. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):446-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to skin may herald aggressive disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a skin lesion on the nose.
  • RESULTS: An asymptomatic 73-year-old man noted a skin lesion on his nose, which when biopsied, revealed histopathologic characteristics consistent with papillary thyroid cancer and was immunohistochemistry positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 and thyroglobulin, also consistent with a neoplasm of thyroid origin.
  • Subsequent physical examination showed a large left thyroid mass, and further workup demonstrated invasion of the trachea and surrounding musculature.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy performed on the thyroid mass confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • At operation, the cancer demonstrated fixation to the trachea and musculature, as well as infiltration of the surrounding soft tissues.
  • Only the portion of the left thyroid mass that could be mobilized was removed.
  • Final pathologic examination confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous metastases of thyroid carcinoma are infrequent, and, as the presenting feature of thyroid carcinoma, are even more rare.
  • This case is noteworthy because a skin lesion was the presenting feature of thyroid carcinoma and histopathologic findings together with immunophenotyping provided the initial diagnosis.
  • This case also demonstrates that papillary thyroid carcinoma in men older than age 50 years can behave very aggressively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20061298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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