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1. Ruiz Clemente J, Ortiz Bish E, Gonzalez García J, Gómez Aldaz E, Ruiz Carmona E, Muñoz Borge E, Galera Ruiz H: [Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid metastatic to the parapharyngeal space]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2005 Mar;56(3):135-7
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  • [Title] [Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid metastatic to the parapharyngeal space].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumoración parafaríngea metastásica de carcinoma papilar de tiroides.
  • This is a case report of a papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the parapharyngeal space, that presented with local obstructive symptoms (dysphagia and displacement of the ipsilateral tonsil).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15819522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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2. Chowhan AK, Kinnera VS, Yootla M, Reddy MK: Cervical ectopic thymus masquerading as metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma. Malays J Pathol; 2010 Jun;32(1):65-8
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  • [Title] Cervical ectopic thymus masquerading as metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • We report a 12-year-old female presenting with multinodular thyroid swelling since seven years of age.
  • FNAC revealed adenomatous goitre with suspicious cystic papillary neoplastic foci, for which she underwent total thyroidectomy along with excision of a nodular swelling near the lower pole of the right thyroid lobe which was per-operatively suspected to be a lymph node.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a follicular variant papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with background thyroiditis, and a nodule of ectopic thymic tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Thyroid Dysgenesis / complications. Thyroid Dysgenesis / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20614729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0126-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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3. Polyzos SA, Anastasilakis AD, Iakovou IP, Partsalidou V: Primary hyperparathyroidism and incidental multifocal metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a man. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Aug;54(6):578-82
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism and incidental multifocal metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a man.
  • Co-existence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and non-medullary thyroid carcinoma has been previously reported in sporadic case reports and some surgical series, but the majority of cases concerned women with occult papillary carcinomas without cervical lymph node involvement.
  • We present a 71-year man with PHPT and multinodular goiter who was subjected to surgery for single parathyroid adenoma and was found to have synchronous multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with cervical lymph node involvement.
  • Ultrasonography of both thyroid and parathyroid glands might be considered in patients with hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Incidental Findings. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20857065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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4. Ikeda M, Tanaka K, Sonoo H, Miyake A, Yamamoto Y, Shiiki S, Nakashima K, Kurebayashi J: [Docetaxel administration for radioiodine-resistant patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Jun;34(6):933-6
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  • [Title] [Docetaxel administration for radioiodine-resistant patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma].
  • We report three radioiodine-resistant patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma administered docetaxel.
  • Since no effective systemic treatment has been established for radioiodine-resistant patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma,docetaxel therapy was supposed to be a viable alternative for them.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17565260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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5. Melck AL, Yip L, Carty SE: The utility of BRAF testing in the management of papillary thyroid cancer. Oncologist; 2010;15(12):1285-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The utility of BRAF testing in the management of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Over the last decade, investigators have developed a clearer understanding of the genetic alterations underlying thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • A number of biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer have undergone intensive study, not only for their role in tumorigenesis, but also for their potential utility as diagnostic and prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets.
  • This review summarizes the current literature surrounding BRAF and its significance in thyroid cancer.
  • Further, we discuss how molecular analysis can be integrated into management algorithms for thyroid nodules and papillary thyroid cancer.
  • We also review what is known, to date, about the association of BRAF and papillary microcarcinoma as well as using targeted therapies for BRAF as adjuvant treatment for metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21147872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3227917
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6. Vassilatou E, Fisfis M, Morphopoulos G, Savva S, Voucouti E, Stefanoudaki K, Tzavara I: Papillary thyroid carcinoma producing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is associated with neutrophilia and eosinophilia. Hormones (Athens); 2006 Oct-Dec;5(4):303-9
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma producing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is associated with neutrophilia and eosinophilia.
  • Thyroid tumors producing colony-stimulating factors associated with neutrophilia and/or eosinophilia are very rare and almost all of them concern anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • Only one case of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with neutrophilia and one case of medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with eosinophilia have been reported.
  • In this report a 72-year old male patient with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with neutrophilia and eosinophilia is described.
  • While investigating the cause of neutrophilia and eosinophilia, a blind bone marrow biopsy of the posterior iliac crest was performed, which showed infiltration by papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • As other causes of neutrophilia and eosinophilia were excluded, we assumed that these were paraneoplastic manifestations induced by GM-csF produced by the thyroid tumor. the disease progressed rapidly, despite appropriate treatment which included thyroidectomy and postoperative radioactive (131)I administration. the patient died 11 months after diagnosis because of extensive lung metastasis.
  • Neutrophilia and eosinophilia were stable findings, while serum thyroglobulin levels remained elevated throughout the follow-up period. to our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in whom neutrophilia and eosinophilia associated with high circulating levels of GM-csF were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Eosinophils / pathology. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood. Neutrophils / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17178706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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7. Chi HS, Wang LF, Chiang FY, Kuo WR, Lee KW: Branchial cleft cyst as the initial impression of a metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma: two case reports. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2007 Dec;23(12):634-8
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  • [Title] Branchial cleft cyst as the initial impression of a metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma: two case reports.
  • Rare branchial cleft cysts are associated with malignant tumors metastatic from the oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharynx or thyroid gland.
  • Occult thyroid papillary carcinomas often present as a solid mass in the lateral neck, with only a few cases revealing a branchial cleft cyst as the initial manifestation.
  • Herein, we report two cases of metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma that presented as lateral neck cysts, with preoperative diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst.
  • Finally, after complete surgical resection and histopathologic examination, one case was diagnosed as cystic change of metastatic lymph node from thyroid papillary carcinoma, and the other was determined to be a branchial cleft cyst with concurrent lymph node metastasis from thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • When a branchial cleft cyst is diagnosed by clinical or histopathologic examination, a metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Branchioma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18192100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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8. Lee JK, Obrzut SL, Yi ES, Deftos LJ, Bouvet M: Incidental finding of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Pract; 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):380-3
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  • [Title] Incidental finding of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report on the management of a patient with the rare concurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism and incidentally found metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in an adjacent lymph node.
  • RESULTS: Primary hyperparathyroidism with concomitant occurrence of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma is rare, occurring in less than 4% of patients.
  • We report a case of a 53-year-old woman with no prior history of endocrine disease with primary hyperparathyroidism and an incidental finding of a concurrent thyroid carcinoma.
  • In this patient, technetium 99m scintigraphy revealed a parathyroid adenoma beneath the inferior pole of the left thyroid bed.
  • The final pathology examination showed a large parathyroid adenoma with an incidental finding of a small adjacent lymph node containing metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The patient subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy, and the pathology evaluation revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this case of concomitant primary hyperparathyroidism and papillary thyroid cancer is unique in the way in which the diagnosis of metastatic papillary thyroid cancer was made.
  • The presence of parathyroid adenoma should not exclude the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma; therefore, careful thyroid evaluation should be considered for all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17669714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Markou KD, Goudakos JK, Triaridis S, Televantou D, Hytiroglou P, Nikolaou A: Simultaneous metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma and carcinoid of the small intestine in the cervical lymph node group. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1025-8
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  • [Title] Simultaneous metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma and carcinoid of the small intestine in the cervical lymph node group.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignancies, primary or metastatic, and infections are the main causative factors that should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervical adenopathy.
  • The histopathological examination showed that the larger mass (measuring 5 cm) was a block of lymph nodes with metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • In the adjacent fibroadipose tissue, two lymph nodes with metastatic carcinoid tumor were found.
  • The smaller mass (measuring 2 cm) was a lymph node with metastatic carcinoid tumor.
  • Histopatological examination of the thyroid gland showed a lesion of papillary carcinoma, measuring 0.6 cm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a coexistence of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma and intestinal carcinoid tumor in cervical lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neck / radiography. Neck / surgery. Neck Dissection. Salivary Glands / surgery. Thyroid Gland / radiography. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20718681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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10. Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, Princi P, De Crea C, Bellantone R: Minimally invasive video-assisted functional lateral neck dissection for metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2007 Jan;193(1):114-8
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  • [Title] Minimally invasive video-assisted functional lateral neck dissection for metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • We evaluated the feasibility of minimally invasive video-assisted functional lateral neck dissection (VALNED) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Neck Dissection / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery

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  • (PMID = 17188101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Kaldrymides P, Kostoglou-Athanassiou I, Gkountouvas A, Veniou E, Ziras N: Partial remission of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma with sunitinib. Report of a case and review of the literature. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):6-10
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  • [Title] Partial remission of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma with sunitinib. Report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Tyrosine kinase receptors have been implicated in thyroid cancer.
  • Therefore, tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be used for the treatment of advanced metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • The aim is to present a case of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma responding to the administration of sunitinib, a multi-targeted protein kinase inhibitor.
  • A patient presented with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism.
  • The administration of sunitinib resulted in partial disease response in a patient with progressive metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Protein kinase inhibitors may prove useful in the management of advanced metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Indoles / therapeutic use. Pelvic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20963554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib
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12. Khandelwal S, Sener SF, Purdy L, Perlman RM: I-123-guided excision of metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. J Surg Oncol; 2007 Aug 1;96(2):173-5
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  • [Title] I-123-guided excision of metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.
  • The use of a gamma probe for intraoperative localization of a cervical lymph node, which contained recurrent metastatic papillary thyroid cancer, facilitated a radio-guided minimally invasive outpatient surgical procedure and resulted in complete excision of clinically occult disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Neck Dissection. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods


13. Chen L, Brainard JA: Pancreatic metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jul-Aug;54(4):640-4
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  • [Title] Pancreatic metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma that has metastasized to the pancreas is extremely rare.
  • CASE: A case of pancreatic metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma occurred in an 82-year-old man with a prior history of thyroid papillary carcinoma, resected 5 years earlier.
  • The microscopic examination showed a highly cellular smear composed of conspicuous papillary architecture at low magnification.
  • Nuclear changes characteristic of papillary thyroid carcinoma were identified.
  • CONCLUSION: EUS-guided fine needle aspiration cytology can be a reliable method for the diagnosis of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20715671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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14. Scurry WC, Lamarre E, Stack B: Radioguided neck dissection in recurrent metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol; 2006 Jan-Feb;27(1):61-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radioguided neck dissection in recurrent metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Although radioguided surgery has been used for the excision of sentinel nodes in breast cancer and melanoma, sparse literature exists describing its use in thyroid cancer.
  • We report a 69-year-old patient with a previous total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection for papillary carcinoma who was subsequently found to have recurrent metastatic disease.
  • Our case report seeks to demonstrate a recent example of our use of the gamma-probe in radioguided surgical excision of recurrent metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16360827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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15. Kreft A, Hansen T, Kirkpatrick CJ: Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression in cystic lesions of the neck: an immunohistochemical investigation of thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts and metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jul;447(1):9-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression in cystic lesions of the neck: an immunohistochemical investigation of thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts and metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Cervical metastases of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) are of particular diagnostic importance, because they can mimic branchiogenic cysts clinically and histopathologically when undergoing cystic change.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), which are positive in thyroid cancers, are reported to be valuable in establishing diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Branchioma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Thyroglossal Cyst / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism


16. Koo JS, Kwak JY, Jung W, Hong S: Importance of foamy macrophages only in fine needle aspirates to cytologic diagnostic accuracy of cystic metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Acta Cytol; 2010 May-Jun;54(3):249-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Importance of foamy macrophages only in fine needle aspirates to cytologic diagnostic accuracy of cystic metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the important cytologic features and thyroglobulin (Tg) level in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of cystic metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and to find some independent cytologic factors that enhance the diagnostic accuracy of cystic lymph node metastasis without identifiable tumor cells or high levels of Tg.
  • CONCLUSION: Foamy macrophages only without Tg level information in FNAC could raise the possibility of cystic metastatic PTC even if no identifiable tumor cells are found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Foam Cells / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20518406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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17. Agriantonis DJ, Hall L, Wilson MA: Utility of SPECT/CT as an adjunct to planar whole body I-131 imaging: liver metastasis from papillary thyroid cancer. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Apr;34(4):247-8
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  • [Title] Utility of SPECT/CT as an adjunct to planar whole body I-131 imaging: liver metastasis from papillary thyroid cancer.
  • We present a case of papillary thyroid cancer metastatic to the liver, a relatively rare scenario.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacology. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


18. Nabili V, Natarajan S, Hirschovitz S, Bhuta S, Abemayor E: Collision tumor of thyroid: metastatic lung adenocarcinoma plus papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol; 2007 May-Jun;28(3):218-20
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  • [Title] Collision tumor of thyroid: metastatic lung adenocarcinoma plus papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • We present a case of a collision tumor of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma occurring in the thyroid gland of a 63-year-old woman who presented with a multinodular central neck mass.
  • This is the first report of this unique combination of tumors occurring in the thyroid gland.
  • This case report emphasizes the role of detailed histopathologic analysis and the use of immunohistochemistry in better identifying rare thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17499145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Khan OA, Roses DF, Peck V: Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to skin may herald aggressive disease. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):446-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to skin may herald aggressive disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a skin lesion on the nose.
  • RESULTS: An asymptomatic 73-year-old man noted a skin lesion on his nose, which when biopsied, revealed histopathologic characteristics consistent with papillary thyroid cancer and was immunohistochemistry positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 and thyroglobulin, also consistent with a neoplasm of thyroid origin.
  • Subsequent physical examination showed a large left thyroid mass, and further workup demonstrated invasion of the trachea and surrounding musculature.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy performed on the thyroid mass confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • At operation, the cancer demonstrated fixation to the trachea and musculature, as well as infiltration of the surrounding soft tissues.
  • Only the portion of the left thyroid mass that could be mobilized was removed.
  • Final pathologic examination confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous metastases of thyroid carcinoma are infrequent, and, as the presenting feature of thyroid carcinoma, are even more rare.
  • This case is noteworthy because a skin lesion was the presenting feature of thyroid carcinoma and histopathologic findings together with immunophenotyping provided the initial diagnosis.
  • This case also demonstrates that papillary thyroid carcinoma in men older than age 50 years can behave very aggressively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20061298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Sanioglu S, Sokullu O, Ozgen A, Demirci D, Sargin M, Bilgen F: Unusual metastasis of the papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2009 Jun;87(6):1928-30
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  • [Title] Unusual metastasis of the papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma.
  • Floating thrombus in the ascending aorta is rare and its association with papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma has not been documented.
  • Although the aortic wall was macroscopically normal, histologic examination revealed metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Aorta. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19463626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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21. Sohn MH, Kim MW, Lim ST, Lee NR, Song EK, Yim CY: Radioiodine uptake by metastatic nonthyroidal adenocarcinoma of the lung in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Apr;30(4):269-70
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  • [Title] Radioiodine uptake by metastatic nonthyroidal adenocarcinoma of the lung in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • A 49-year-old woman with a history of a hysterectomy for carcinoma of the cervix and papillary thyroid carcinoma showed multiple pulmonary metastases on chest radiography.
  • These lesions were found to be metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • The radioiodine uptake by the metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma of the lungs occurred in the presence of normal thyroid imaging in a patient with a thyroid nodule and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 15764888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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22. Yazdi S, Saadat P, Young S, Hamidi R, Vadmal MS: Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma: a paraneoplastic phenomenon? Clin Exp Dermatol; 2010 Mar;35(2):152-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma: a paraneoplastic phenomenon?
  • Four months later, metastatic papillary thyroid cancer was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Collagen Diseases / etiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19438550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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23. Yousuf K, Archibald SD: Brain metastases from papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. J Otolaryngol; 2006 Dec;35(6):366-72
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  • [Title] Brain metastases from papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma (PTA) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy.
  • Distant metastatic spread is relatively rare, most commonly affecting the lungs and bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17380829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0381-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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24. Wang W, Wang H, Teng X, Wang H, Mao C, Teng R, Zhao W, Cao J, Fahey TJ 3rd, Teng L: Clonal analysis of bilateral, recurrent, and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas. Hum Pathol; 2010 Sep;41(9):1299-309
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clonal analysis of bilateral, recurrent, and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma usually presents as a multifocal disease; and tumors often recur in the contralateral thyroid lobe, raising questions concerning their clonal origins.
  • Accordingly, we examined 25 pairs of bilateral papillary thyroid carcinomas (synchronous or metachronous) and 15 matched metastatic lymph nodes.
  • Eighteen (18/21, 85.7%) of 21 informative cases showed concordant BRAF status in tumors from both thyroid lobes, being either BRAF mutation positive (12 patients) or BRAF mutation negative (6 patients).
  • Metastatic lymph nodes in 12 patients (12/15, 80%) had a complete concordance of BRAF state with their primaries.
  • In conclusion, our data provide evidence that bilateral, recurrent, and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas often arise from a single clone and that intrathyroidal metastasis may play an important role in the development of bilateral tumors, as well as in the recurrence of this malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20471663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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25. Dokuzlar U, Erişen L, Kasapoğlu F, Coşkun H, Basut O, Onart S, Hizalan I: Unexpected findings in the neck dissection specimens for primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2009 Jan-Feb;19(1):9-15
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  • [Title] Unexpected findings in the neck dissection specimens for primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the incidence of unexpected pathological findings observed during the histopathological examination of the neck dissection specimens performed for primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and their impacts on the treatment and follow-up plans.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 410 patients (369 males, 41 females; 169 patients unilateral, 241 patients bilateral) with a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, who underwent 651 neck dissections.
  • These unexpected findings were tuberculosis in eight patients (2%), metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in three patients (0.7%), Warthin,s tumor in one patient and cystic hygroma in one patient.
  • All patients who had metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma received radioactive iodine treatment after thyroidectomy.
  • In control examinations, none of these cases had problem related to neither primary disease nor thyroid pathology.
  • Most frequently seen unexpected findings were tuberculosis lymphadenitis and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neck Dissection
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Laryngectomy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / complications. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19793041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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26. Nishijima H, Kitahara N, Murata M, Egami N: [A case of papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the sphenoid sinus presenting with epistaxis]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2010 Feb;113(2):62-6
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  • [Title] [A case of papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the sphenoid sinus presenting with epistaxis].
  • Distant metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma is rare and metastasis to the paranasal sinus is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with metastases to the sphenoid sinus presenting with epistaxis.
  • Histopathological diagnosis using endoscopic biopsy indicated a metastatic PTC tumor.
  • Compared to the primary site, the metastatic tumor was poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / secondary. Sphenoid Sinus. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20225705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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27. Diaz J, Chawla M, Simoff M: Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Metastatic Thyroid Cancer. J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol; 2009 Jan;16(1):70-1
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  • [Title] Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Metastatic Thyroid Cancer.
  • Since its first application in 1992, endobronchial ultrasound, in conjunction with transbronchial needle aspiration, has proven to be an efficient tool for lung cancer staging.
  • Its use in the diagnosis of solitary intrapulmonary tumors and preoperative assessment of tracheobronchial invasion from thyroid cancer has also been reported.
  • We present a case of metastatic papillary thyroid cancer diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in a patient with a paratracheal mass.

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  • (PMID = 23168478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bronchology & interventional pulmonology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Liou MJ, Lin JD, Chung MH, Liau CT, Hsueh C: Renal metastasis from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol; 2005 Apr;125(4):438-42
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  • [Title] Renal metastasis from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • Papillary or follicular microcarcinoma of the thyroid comprises 10-20% of all thyroid malignancies.
  • Distant metastasis caused by thyroid microcarcinoma is uncommon, and is usually found in the lung or bone.
  • Thyroid microcarcinoma with metastasis to the kidney has not previously been reported.
  • Clinically detectable well-differentiated metastatic thyroid carcinoma to the kidney is rare, and only 16 cases have been reported.
  • Herein we describe a case of metastatic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma to the kidney in a patient with a pelvic fracture and pulmonary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Calcinosis / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Pelvic Bones / pathology. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15823819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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29. Hwang I, Lee SK, Cho KJ, Kim KR: Heterotopic intrathymic thyroid tissue. Pathol Int; 2006 Oct;56(10):629-32
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  • [Title] Heterotopic intrathymic thyroid tissue.
  • Heterotopic intrathymic thyroid tissue is an extremely rare condition, but it is important to distinguish it from metastases of clinically undetected thyroid carcinoma because metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma is often so well differentiated, simulating normal thyroid tissue.
  • Described herein are histological findings of heterotopic intrathymic thyroid tissue that was incidentally identified in a woman with papillary thyroid carcinoma during histological examination of a radical neck dissection specimen.
  • These findings emphasize that this rare incidence may occur and should be differentiated from metastatic papillary carcinoma.
  • Histologically, the patient's intrathymic thyroid follicles were identical to the normal thyroid follicles, having flat cuboidal cells with uniformly small nuclei without nuclear grooves or inclusions.
  • The follicular cells had a low Ki-67 labeling index close to zero, and immunonegativity for galectin-3, HBME-1, and RET oncoprotein, in contrast to the tumor cells in primary papillary thyroid carcinoma of the patient.
  • To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report of intrathymic heterotopic thyroid tissue posing a diagnostic difficulty in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Galectin 3 / genetics. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16984621.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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30. Tretheway D, Gebhardt JG, Dogra VS, Schiffhauer LM: Metastatic versus primary oncocytic papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a report of a case and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 May;28(3):256-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic versus primary oncocytic papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a report of a case and review of the literature.
  • We report a case of an oncocytic papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in an 89-year-old female with vaginal bleeding.
  • Diagnostic workup included an endometrial biopsy which showed malignant, oncocytic cells in a predominantly papillary pattern.
  • Consultation with experts in Gynecologic and Genitourinary pathology returned a diagnosis of "adenocarcinoma compatible with metastatic renal cell carcinoma"--an intriguing possibility worthy of further exploration.
  • To our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature of metastatic oncocytic papillary renal cell carcinoma to the endometrium.
  • The clinical and pathologic features of oncocytic papillary endometrial lesions, including primary and metastatic processes, are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Atrial Fibrillation / complications. Dementia, Multi-Infarct / complications. Depression / complications. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2. Female. Humans. Hypercholesterolemia / complications. Hypertension / complications. Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19620943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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31. Khafif A, Ben-Yosef R, Abergel A, Kesler A, Landsberg R, Fliss DM: Elective paratracheal neck dissection for lateral metastases from papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: is it indicated? Head Neck; 2008 Mar;30(3):306-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Elective paratracheal neck dissection for lateral metastases from papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: is it indicated?
  • BACKGROUND: Therapeutic paratracheal neck dissection for patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is standard treatment.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and evidence of positive adenopathy at levels II-V underwent selective neck dissection and elective/therapeutic paratracheal neck dissection.
  • All specimens showed metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma: 100% (37/37) in the jugular chain of lymphatics and 83.7% (31/37) in the paratracheal region.
  • CONCLUSION: The high rate of occult metastases in the paratracheal region and the low rate of surgical morbidity speak in favor of elective paratracheal neck dissection in patients with metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Neck Dissection / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 2008.
  • (PMID = 17615566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Pietarinen-Runtti P, Apajalahti S, Robinson S, Passador-Santos F, Leivo I, Mäkitie AA: Cystic neck lesions: clinical, radiological and differential diagnostic considerations. Acta Otolaryngol; 2010 Feb;130(2):300-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic disease should always be considered as a potential differential diagnosis in the adult patient with a cystic neck lesion.
  • In older patients metastatic lymph nodes may be easily misdiagnosed as BCC.
  • This study aimed to investigate the incidence of unsuspected carcinoma in routinely excised cervical cysts at a tertiary care teaching hospital and to determine the characteristics of benign BCC and cystic malignancy in preoperative imaging.
  • RESULTS: Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma was demonstrated histologically postoperatively in six (3.1%) patients and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one (0.5%) patient.
  • Therefore, the incidence of unsuspected carcinoma in the cystic neck lesions initially diagnosed as BCC was 3.6%.
  • [MeSH-major] Branchioma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19593684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2251
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Kim HS, Choi YJ, Yun JS: Features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in the presence and absence of lymphocytic thyroiditis. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Sep;21(3):149-53
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  • [Title] Features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in the presence and absence of lymphocytic thyroiditis.
  • It is known that the prevalence of lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) is higher in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), that gender influences this association, and that certain features of PTC occur more frequently in patients who also have LT.
  • These relationships have not been studied in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC), however.
  • We collected the 323 consecutive patients following excision of PTMC diagnosed as papillary carcinoma on preoperative needle aspiration cytology.
  • Among the patients with metastatic PTMC, LT was noted significantly more often in female than male patients (95.2% vs. 79.8%).
  • In metastatic PTMC, multifocality and bilaterality was more frequent in with LT than without LT (44.4% vs. 29.2%; 29.6% vs. 14.6%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20506003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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34. Cardenas MG, Kini S, Wisgerhof M: Two patients with highly aggressive macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Apr;19(4):413-6
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  • [Title] Two patients with highly aggressive macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (MFV-PTC) is an unusual type of thyroid carcinoma with histological features that can be confused with nodular goiter or follicular adenoma.
  • SUMMARY: The first patient was a 59-year-old woman with an occipital mass diagnosed histologically as papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant.
  • Ten years earlier a biopsy of a thyroid nodule had been negative for malignant cells.
  • Thyroidectomy showed a 3-cm nodule in the thyroid, diagnosed as MFV-PTC.
  • The second patient was an 81-year-old man with a history of right thyroid nodule treated by total thyroidectomy with a postoperative diagnosis of adenomatous goiter.
  • He died of metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • Although MFV-PTC usually has a good prognosis these cases highlight the importance of careful histopathological examination for MFV-PTC in thyroidectomy specimens that may appear to be seemingly benign nodular thyroid disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19355832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Min HS, Choe G, Kim SW, Park YJ, Park DJ, Youn YK, Park SH, Cho BY, Park SY: S100A4 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis in papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid. Mod Pathol; 2008 Jun;21(6):748-55
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  • [Title] S100A4 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis in papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The detection of papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid is increasing due to frequent use of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Although most of the papillary microcarcinomas remain quiescent and follow an indolent clinical course, some behave aggressively and metastasize early, giving rise to clinically significant disease.
  • There have been few studies concerning factors predictive of lymph node metastasis in papillary microcarcinomas.
  • We analyzed the expression of S100A4, cyclin D1, p27 and MUC1, the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation and the clinicopathological features of the tumors, including patient age, tumor size (>or=5 vs <5 mm), extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, histological subtype, sclerosis and encapsulation, in a series of 198 papillary microcarcinomas in relation to lymph node metastasis to determine the predictive factors of lymph node metastasis.
  • In conclusion, S100A4 expression in papillary microcarcinomas may indicate the presence of nodal metastasis.
  • Thus, S100A4 immunohistochemistry may be valuable for predicting metastatic potential in papillary microcarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. S100 Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


36. Machado NO, Chopra PJ, Al Hamdani A: Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Presenting Primarily as Cervical Lymphadenopathy: An approach to management. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J; 2009 Dec;9(3):328-32

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  • [Title] Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Presenting Primarily as Cervical Lymphadenopathy: An approach to management.
  • Papillary carcinoma of thyroid usually presents as a palpable thyroid mass.
  • Rarely, it presents solely as cervical lympadenopthy in the presence of an otherwise grossly normal thyroid gland.
  • We report here a middle-aged lady who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy which on fine needle aspiration cytology was confirmed as metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The thyroid gland was, however, normal on clinical examination and radiological investigations.
  • Neck exploration confirmed a grossly normal thyroid gland; however, the cervical lymph node was found to invade the internal jugular vein.
  • Histopathology confirmed metastasis in the lymph node and a 2mm sized microcarcinoma in the resected thyroid gland.

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  • [Cites] Head Neck. 1989 Sep-Oct;11(5):410-3 [2807881.001]
  • [Cites] Semin Oncol. 1987 Sep;14(3):315-32 [3306936.001]
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  • (PMID = 21509319.001).
  • [ISSN] 2075-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Sultan Qaboos University medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Oman
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3074800
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoma of thyroid / Case report / Lymphatic metastasis / Oman / Thyroidectomy
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37. Donnellan KA, Bigler SA, Wein RO: Papillary thyroid carcinoma and familial adenomatous polyposis of the colon. Am J Otolaryngol; 2009 Jan-Feb;30(1):58-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma and familial adenomatous polyposis of the colon.
  • OBJECTIVE: Case report and limited review of the literature on the topic of papillary thyroid carcinoma and familial adenomatous polyposis and its genetic associations.
  • METHODS: A patient with multiple prior surgeries for colonic polyps, abdominal perineal resection for colorectal cancer, and wedge resection for metastatic adenocarcinoma (consistent with rectal primary) presented with a thyroid mass.
  • Fine-needle aspiration demonstrated papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Pathologic examination revealed the cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma that has been reported in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon diagnosis known to be associated with familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19027515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-818X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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38. Griffith C, Zhang S, Mukhopadhyay S: Synchronous metastatic medullary and papillary thyroid carcinomas in a patient with germline RET mutation: case report, molecular analysis, and implications for pathogenesis. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):115-9
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  • [Title] Synchronous metastatic medullary and papillary thyroid carcinomas in a patient with germline RET mutation: case report, molecular analysis, and implications for pathogenesis.
  • The occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in patients with germline RET mutation is well established, but the occasional occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in this setting remains unexplained.
  • A 48-year-old man presented with cervical lymphadenopathy and was found to have metastatic MTC involving cervical and mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • He underwent thyroidectomy and debulking of metastatic disease.
  • The resected thyroid showed bilateral MTC and a 1-cm PTC.
  • His lymph node metastases were predominantly MTC along with a small focus of metastatic PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20369307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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39. Soler ZM, Hamilton BE, Schuff KG, Samuels MH, Cohen JI: Utility of computed tomography in the detection of subclinical nodal disease in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Sep;134(9):973-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Utility of computed tomography in the detection of subclinical nodal disease in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize the ability of computed tomography (CT) to identify subclinical cervical metastatic disease in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated separately for central compartment (level VI) and lateral compartment (levels III and IV) dissections.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Computed tomography has a limited capability to identify subclinical metastatic cervical disease in PTC, with a sensitivity near 60% and an NPV near 50%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18794443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Feng D, Rhatigan R, Shuja S, Wolfson D, Makary R, Koch K, Masood S: Papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis to the frontal skull. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Jul;37(7):522-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis to the frontal skull.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis to the frontal skull is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of unsuspected papillary thyroid carcinoma with frontal skull metastasis.
  • The diagnosis was a metastatic carcinoma.
  • Surgical biopsy demonstrated histological and cytological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma including prominent papillae, nuclear overlapping, grooves, and intranuclear pseudoinclusions.
  • Thus, a diagnosis of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma was rendered.
  • Though skull metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a skull mass lesion is encountered.
  • [MeSH-major] Skull Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19459156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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41. Ito Y, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Kobayashi K, Miya A, Miyauchi A: Clinical outcomes of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma after the detection of distant recurrence. World J Surg; 2010 Oct;34(10):2333-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical outcomes of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma after the detection of distant recurrence.
  • PURPOSE: Papillary thyroid carcinoma generally has an excellent prognosis but can have recurrence to the distant organs that is often life-threatening.
  • To date, prognosis and prognostic factors of papillary carcinoma have been intensively investigated, but our knowledge regarding prognosis after the detection of distant recurrence remains inadequate.
  • METHODS: We investigated the prognosis and prognostic factors of papillary carcinoma after distant recurrence was detected during follow-up in a series of 105 patients who underwent locally curative surgery between 1987 and 2004.
  • RESULTS: To date, 30 patients (29%) have died of carcinoma, and the 5-year and 10-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rates after the detection of distant recurrence were 71 and 50%, respectively.
  • Uptake of radioactive iodine (RAI) to distant metastasis was not significantly linked to CSS, but none of the patients younger than aged 55 years showing RAI uptake died of carcinoma.
  • RAI therapy is effective, especially for younger patients, if metastatic lesions show RAI uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20628741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Bohn OL, De las Casas LE, Leon ME: Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to papillary carcinoma of thyroid-report of a case and review of the literature. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Dec;3(4):327-30
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  • [Title] Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to papillary carcinoma of thyroid-report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Metastatic disease to thyroid gland is a rare event.
  • Although renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been reported to metastasize the thyroid gland, metastatic RCC to a thyroid neoplasm is very unusual.
  • We report a case of a 68-year-old man with history of RCC who presented with a 2.5-cm thyroid nodule.
  • Histologic examination demonstrates a renal cell carcinoma metastatic to a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The clinicopathologic features of metastatic disease into a thyroid gland neoplasm are shown, and a review of the literature is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


43. Roh JL, Yoon YH, Park CI: Chyle leakage in patients undergoing thyroidectomy plus central neck dissection for differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Sep;15(9):2576-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chyle leakage in patients undergoing thyroidectomy plus central neck dissection for differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Chyle leakage is an uncommon complication of lateral neck dissection for metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Chyle. Postoperative Complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18592317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Triglycerides; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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44. Szporn AH, Yuan S, Wu M, Burstein DE: Cellular swirls in fine needle aspirates of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a new diagnostic criterion. Mod Pathol; 2006 Nov;19(11):1470-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular swirls in fine needle aspirates of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a new diagnostic criterion.
  • No single cytologic feature is specifically diagnostic for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • We report herein the presence of swirl-like cellular aggregates in fine needle aspirates of papillary thyroid carcinoma but not in other thyroid entities.
  • One hundred Papanicolaou- and/or Diff-Quik-stained FNAs of the thyroid diagnosed as papillary carcinoma, including seven fine needle aspirates of cervical lymph nodes showing metastatic papillary carcinoma, with or without cell blocks, were reviewed for the presence of cellular swirls.
  • An additional 100 thyroid FNAs, similarly stained and prepared, diagnosed as nodular goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular neoplasm were also reviewed for the presence of cellular swirls.
  • Seventeen of 100 FNAs (17%) of papillary carcinoma contained cellular swirls.
  • These comprised seven papillary carcinomas with classical histopathology, two designated 'differentiated papillary carcinoma,' two with follicular variant histopathology; one with a minor component of follicular variant histopathology; one papillary carcinoma metastatic to a cervical lymph node with classic histopathology.
  • Swirls occurred in cases with relatively little pleomorphism, or in well-differentiated regions of papillary carcinoma that also displayed less well-differentiated components.
  • Cellular swirls are a finding that is highly specific to papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Their presence in a FNA specimen may be helpful in cases where classic criteria for papillary thyroid carcinoma are scarce, particularly in well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • While the size and scope of this study are insufficient to conclude that cellular swirls alone are diagnostic of papillary thyroid carcinoma in the absence of other criteria, we believe these structures should be added to the list of diagnostic criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16951672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Al-Saif O, Farrar WB, Bloomston M, Porter K, Ringel MD, Kloos RT: Long-term efficacy of lymph node reoperation for persistent papillary thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;95(5):2187-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term efficacy of lymph node reoperation for persistent papillary thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the outcome of surgical resection of metastatic papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in cervical lymph nodes after failure of initial surgery and I(131) therapy.
  • SETTING: The study was conducted at a university-based tertiary cancer hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / statistics & numerical data. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 May;95(5):2061-3 [20444934.001]
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  • (PMID = 20332244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA124570
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Durante C, Haddy N, Baudin E, Leboulleux S, Hartl D, Travagli JP, Caillou B, Ricard M, Lumbroso JD, De Vathaire F, Schlumberger M: Long-term outcome of 444 patients with distant metastases from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: benefits and limits of radioiodine therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):2892-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome of 444 patients with distant metastases from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: benefits and limits of radioiodine therapy.
  • AIM: The goal of this study was to estimate the cumulative activity of (131)I to be administered to patients with distant metastases from thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: A total of 444 patients were treated from 1953-1994 for distant metastases from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: 223 had lung metastases only, 115 had bone metastases only, 82 had both lung and bone metastases, and 24 had metastases at other sites.
  • Treatment consisted of the administration of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) (131)I after withdrawal of thyroid hormone treatment, every 3-9 months during the first 2 yr and then once a year until the disappearance of any metastatic uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;2(11):610-1 [17082807.001]
  • (PMID = 16684830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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47. Kuo SF, Chen JY, Chuang WY, Jung SM, Chang YC, Lin JD: Concurrent papillary thyroid cancer with pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor. J Formos Med Assoc; 2007 Apr;106(4):330-5
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  • [Title] Concurrent papillary thyroid cancer with pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor.
  • Concomitant thyroid cancer with pituitary tumor is uncommon.
  • This study reports a case of advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma with pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumor.
  • A 58-year-old male patient had thyroid cancer in 1991 and presented with headache caused by pituitary tumor with apoplexy in 1993.
  • Due to hypopituitarism, the patient underwent radioactive iodide ((131)I) for detection and treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer after the use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) in 2000.
  • During follow-up for thyroid cancer, (201)thallium scan proved to be an effective tool for detecting metastatic thyroid cancer in the patient without pituitary TSH reserve.
  • Although the patient underwent three operations and a total of 370 mCi (131)I therapy for recurrent thyroid cancer, the cancer continued to progress.
  • Finally, the patient died of pneumonia with septic shock 12 years after the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.


48. Liu Z, Bai Y, Li Y, Ohba K, Nakamura H, Ozaki T, Taniguchi E, Mori I, Kakudo K: Non-solid type thyroid carcinoma: a case report of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. Pathol Int; 2010 Jul;60(7):524-7
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  • [Title] Non-solid type thyroid carcinoma: a case report of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • We report the case of a common type papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patient who developed early recurrence and persistent disease even after ablation therapy.
  • The patient was an 80-year-old man that was incidentally found to have a mass lesion in the left lower lobe of his thyroid.
  • The resected tumor and recurrence in lymph nodes revealed non-solid type papillary carcinoma with mixed features of less well-differentiated morphology, which we suggest included loss of cellular polarity/cohesiveness, tall cells and columnar cells.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed high a MIB-1 labeling index (15-20%) in both the primary tumor and the metastatic tumor in the lymph nodes. p53 immunoreaction was found positive at very low level (<5%).
  • E-cadherin was faintly positive in a few cells of the primary tumor and negative in the metastatic site.
  • We recently proposed a new classification for follicular cell tumors of the thyroid gland, and this case is an example of moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma according to our classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20594275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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49. Ralli M, Cohan P, Lee K: Successful use of recombinant human thyrotropin in the therapy of pediatric well-differentiated thyroid cancer. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Mar;28(3):270-3
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  • [Title] Successful use of recombinant human thyrotropin in the therapy of pediatric well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is increasingly employed in stimulating radioiodine (131I) uptake in adults with well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) for diagnostic scanning, and preliminary evidence suggests that it may have a role in radioactive iodine therapy as well.
  • We report a case of a 13-yr-old boy presenting with metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.
  • A diagnostic whole body scan (WBS) demonstrated multiple foci of uptake in the neck, thyroid bed and chest.
  • His serum TSH only increased to 14.2 microU/ml (0.3-4.7) upon thyroid hormone withdrawal.
  • This case highlights the safety and effectiveness of rhTSH stimulated radioablation in pediatric WDTC, and proposes to invite controlled studies to further investigate pediatric rhTSH use, particularly in patients in whom thyroid hormone withdrawal is not a viable option.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroidectomy. Whole-Body Irradiation

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  • (PMID = 15952413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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50. Taweevisit M, Chirakalwasan N, Pumsuk U, Keelawat S, Shuangshoti S: Metastatic adenocarcinoma to the cervical lymph node: a significant proportion of cholangiocarcinoma in Thai patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2008 Jan-Mar;9(1):39-41
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  • [Title] Metastatic adenocarcinoma to the cervical lymph node: a significant proportion of cholangiocarcinoma in Thai patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine distribution of the primary site of metastatic adenocarcinoma to the cervical lymph node in Thai population with histological correlation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 72 Thai patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma to the cervical lymph node were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid gland (papillary carcinoma) was the commonest source of tumor (41%), followed by lung (25%), bile duct (17%) and breast (7%).
  • Metastatic cholangiocarcinoma typically produced distinct glandular pattern, and frequently involved the right supraclavicular lymph node.
  • Brush border of the gland-forming tumor cells was a consistent finding in metastatic cholangiocarcinoma, with 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity.
  • This figure may hold true for countries where bile duct malignancy is endemic, and may be of clinical usefulness in identification of primary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thailand. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18439070.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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51. Liu J, Singh B, Tallini G, Carlson DL, Katabi N, Shaha A, Tuttle RM, Ghossein RA: Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of a problematic entity. Cancer; 2006 Sep 15;107(6):1255-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of a problematic entity.
  • BACKGROUND: There is continuous debate regarding the optimal classification, prognosis, and treatment of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC).
  • The objective of this study was to assess the behavior of FVPTC, especially its encapsulated form, and shed more light on its true position in the classification scheme of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: All patients with FVPTC, follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) who were diagnosed between 1980 and 1995 were reviewed and reclassified according to the currently accepted definition of FVPTC.
  • The lymph node metastatic rate was significantly higher in patients who had nonencapsulated tumors (11 of 17 patients; 65%) compared with patients who had encapsulated neoplasms (3 of 61 patients; 5%; P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: FVPTC appeared to be a heterogeneous disease composed of 2 distinct groups: an infiltrative/diffuse (nonencapsulated) subvariant, which resembles classic papillary carcinoma in its metastatic lymph node pattern and invasive growth, and an encapsulated form, which behaves more like FTA/FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16900519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Koo BS, Yoon YH, Kim JM, Choi EC, Lim YC: Predictive factors of level IIb lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 May;16(5):1344-7
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of level IIb lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The extent of neck dissection (ND) appropriate for necks yielding clinical evidence of metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is controversial.
  • RESULTS: Metastatic disease at levels II, III, IV, and V, was seen in 40 (52.6%), 55 (72.4%), 52 (68.4%), and 12 (15.8%) of the patients, respectively.
  • By univariate analysis, the rate of level IIb LN metastasis was significantly higher in patients with positive level IIa LNs and positive LNs in all lateral neck levels (levels IIa + III + IV) (P < .05).
  • Multivariate analysis showed that positive LN involvement in all lateral neck levels (IIa + III + IV) was an independent predictive factor of level IIb LN metastasis (P = .044, odds ratio = 9.692).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neck Dissection. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19224280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Lanzafame S, Caltabiano R, Puzzo L, Cappellani A: Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and p63 expression in two primary thyroid papillary carcinomas of branchial cleft cysts. Virchows Arch; 2006 Jul;449(1):129-33
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  • [Title] Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and p63 expression in two primary thyroid papillary carcinomas of branchial cleft cysts.
  • Malignant lateral cervical cysts can be related to metastatic tumors or rarely to primary thyroid carcinoma arising in branchial cleft cysts.
  • This study evaluates the expression of thyroid-associated transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and p63 in three branchial cleft cysts and in two primary thyroid papillary carcinoma of branchial cleft cysts.
  • TTF-1 was negative in the nuclei of the lining epithelia of branchial cleft cysts, but positive in the adjacent normal thyroid tissue, while TTF-1 was positive in the nuclei of the lining epithelia and in the nuclei of the papillae and follicles in branchial cleft cysts with ectopic thyroid carcinoma.
  • P63 was positive in the nuclei of the lining epithelia of branchial cleft cysts, but negative in the adjacent normal thyroid tissue.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma of branchial cleft cysts displayed p63-positive foci.
  • In conclusion, our results demonstrate that TTF-1 cannot distinguish between primary and metastatic tumors of branchial cleft cysts.
  • The detection of p63 in papillary thyroid carcinomas of branchial cleft cysts could suggest that p63 contributes to the onset of this tumor.
  • It is really important to evaluate if the case has a metastatic derivation or represents papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue in a branchial cleft cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Branchioma / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16628413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human
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54. Park JS, Son KR, Na DG, Kim E, Kim S: Performance of preoperative sonographic staging of papillary thyroid carcinoma based on the sixth edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM classification system. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Jan;192(1):66-72
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  • [Title] Performance of preoperative sonographic staging of papillary thyroid carcinoma based on the sixth edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM classification system.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the overall performance of sonography for staging papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety-four consecutive patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent preoperative sonography.
  • Sonography accurately identified 75.9% (22/29) of patients with multifocal cancer and 83.3% (15/18) of patients with bilateral cancers.
  • Using a cutoff value of 50% or more of the tumor abutting the thyroid capsule (grade 2), the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of sonography in predicting extrathyroidal invasion were 85.3%, 70.0%, and 74.5%, respectively, and the overall accuracy of sonography for T staging was 67.0% (63/94).
  • All six sonographic findings were significantly more frequent in metastatic lymph nodes in the lateral group.
  • CONCLUSION: Sonography is a feasible tool to use for the preoperative staging of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Risk Assessment / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / statistics & numerical data

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  • [ErratumIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009 Mar;192(3):560
  • (PMID = 19098181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Kennedy TL, Riefkohl WL: Lingual thyroid carcinoma with nodal metastasis. Laryngoscope; 2007 Nov;117(11):1969-73
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  • [Title] Lingual thyroid carcinoma with nodal metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVES: To discuss treatment options and surgical management of lingual thyroid carcinoma with cervical metastasis.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Lingual thyroid is relatively uncommon, and carcinoma of the lingual thyroid is extremely rare, with only 40 cases reported.
  • We report a new case of a young female who presented with a cervical neck mass found to represent metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Further workup revealed the patient's only thyroid tissue was located at the tongue base and was the site of the primary tumor.
  • Management of lingual thyroid carcinoma and review of the literature is discussed.
  • METHODS: A case report and review of the literature of lingual thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: A young female presented with a left neck mass diagnosed as metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Review of the computed tomography scan of the neck revealed a tongue base mass, absence of an othotopic thyroid gland and bilateral cervical lymphandenopathy.
  • Bilateral selective neck dissections with removal of the tongue base lesion confirmed the diagnosis of lingual thyroid carcinoma with multiple left cervical nodal metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A case of lingual papillary thyroid carcinoma with cervical metastasis is reported.
  • Treatment is best managed with surgical excision of all thyroid tissue followed by radioactive iodine ablation.
  • Surgical approaches to the tongue base need to be considered based on the size of the lingual primary tumor and the need to address lymph node metastases gland.
  • This is the first reported case in the literature of lingual papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting with cervical nodal metastasis in a female with absence of an orthotopic thyroid gland.
  • This is also the first report to show that papillary and not follicular cell carcinoma is the predominating histopathology in lingual thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17828053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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56. Jacobson AS, Wenig BM, Urken ML: Collision tumor of the thyroid and larynx: a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma colliding with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Thyroid; 2008 Dec;18(12):1325-8
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  • [Title] Collision tumor of the thyroid and larynx: a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma colliding with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Collision tumors involving the thyroid gland and/or neck region are especially uncommon, with most reported cases involving papillary thyroid carcinoma in coexistence with medullary thyroid carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and metastatic disease, the latter including a rare occurrence of metastatic liposarcoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • A collision tumor of papillary thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma primary to the thyroid has also been reported.
  • SUMMARY: We now report a collision tumor comprised of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma that originated as a laryngeal primary tumor.
  • Histologically, the thyroid mass is consisted of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The laryngeal mass consisted of in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Additionally, cervical lymph nodes showed metastatic carcinoma, including independent cervical lymph nodes with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma only, cervical lymph nodes with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma only, and cervical lymph nodes with foci of both papillary thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: As best we can determine this is the first publication of a collision tumor comprised of a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma that originated as a laryngeal primary tumor.
  • For any patient with a thyroid mass that appears to be in continuity with a laryngeal mass, more commonly one would find invasive thyroid cancer, but one must consider a collision tumor in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Larynx / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19067640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Lee YS, Lim YS, Lee JC, Wang SG, Kim IJ, Lee BJ: Clinical implication of the number of central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma: preliminary report. World J Surg; 2010 Nov;34(11):2558-63
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  • [Title] Clinical implication of the number of central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma: preliminary report.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) metastasizes to central lymph node (CLN).
  • The significance of the number of metastatic CLN has not been addressed.
  • This study was designed to evaluate the clinical implication of the number of metastatic CLN in PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20703463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Simpson KW, Albores-Saavedra J: Unusual findings in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma suggesting partial regression: a study of two cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Apr;11(2):97-102
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  • [Title] Unusual findings in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma suggesting partial regression: a study of two cases.
  • Histologic changes of regression have been recognized in many malignant tumors, although they have not been documented in thyroid carcinoma.
  • We analyze here the histologic features of 2 cases of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, one of the diffuse sclerosing variant and another multicentric of the follicular variant, that suggest partial regression.
  • The histologic and clinical features of the 2 thyroid microcarcinomas were compared with the features of regression reported in other tumors.
  • In addition, immunoperoxidase stains for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor-1 were performed on the metastatic and primary lesions of each case.
  • Immunostains for CD4 and CD8 performed on the thyroid lesions were also examined.
  • Both patients presented with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in regional lymph nodes with no clinical or radiologic evidence of primary tumor in the thyroid glands.
  • When examined, the thyroid glands revealed only microscopic foci of papillary thyroid carcinoma measuring less than 1.5 mm, diffuse sclerosis and a lymphocytic infiltrate mainly composed of cytotoxic T lymphocytes around the neoplastic microfollicles.
  • Numerous psammoma bodies were also found in the thyroid of case 1, and venulitis similar to that seen in acute hepatic rejection was also seen in the microcarcinoma of case 2.
  • The 2 patients reported had papillary thyroid microcarcinomas measuring less than 1.5 mm and features suggestive of regression characterized by extensive fibrosis, an accompanying T lymphocyte infiltrate, venulitis, and only a few clusters of neoplastic cells or a few neoplastic follicles.
  • Thus, we believe that these histologic changes suggest regression because papillary thyroid microcarcinomas measuring less than 1.5 mm do not metastasize and have been considered innocuous or medical curiosities.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17349567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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59. Jung CK, Kang YG, Bae JS, Lim DJ, Choi YJ, Lee KY: Unique patterns of tumor growth related with the risk of lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2010 Sep;23(9):1201-8
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  • [Title] Unique patterns of tumor growth related with the risk of lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Although many attempts have been made to predict the occurrence of lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma, there are currently no reliable means to accurately predict cervical nodal metastasis.
  • The frequency of lymph node metastases from a series of 210 papillary thyroid carcinomas was analyzed according to the clinicopathological variables, cyclin D1 staining patterns and BRAF(V600E) mutation in tumor tissue.
  • Cyclin D1 staining of papillary thyroid carcinoma is very useful for identifying the intrathyroidal spreading or multifocality of the tumors.
  • Tumor growth patterns verified by cyclin D1 staining can be used for the identification of papillary thyroid carcinomas with metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20543822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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60. Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Jikuzono T, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Extranodal tumor extension to adjacent organs predicts a worse cause-specific survival in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2007 Jun;31(6):1194-201
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  • [Title] Extranodal tumor extension to adjacent organs predicts a worse cause-specific survival in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We previously reported that massive extrathyroid extension has an independent prognostic value in patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • However, tumor extension to adjacent organs can be observed not only in primary tumor but also in metastatic nodes.
  • In this study we investigated the clinical significance of extranodal tumor extension to adjacent organs (nodal ex) in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We classified all cases into three categories based on the degree of nodal ex: nodal ex0, no apparent extranodal tumor extension; nodal ex1, hard metastatic nodes with perinodal growth extending to adjacent organs, which require separation of the nodes from the organs; and nodal ex2, metastatic nodes with perinodal growth completely invading the adjacent organs and requiring excision of nodes together with these organs.
  • We investigated the clinical significance of each grade in 1,692 patients who underwent initial surgery for papillary carcinoma between 1987 and 1995.
  • RESULTS: The presence of nodal ex was significantly linked to various clinicopathological features such as male gender, N1b, large number of metastatic nodes, pT4a, and distant metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Presence of nodal ex significantly reflects the biologically aggressive behaviors of papillary carcinoma and has a prognostic value, especially for cause-specific survival of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17431714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Todaro M, Iovino F, Eterno V, Cammareri P, Gambara G, Espina V, Gulotta G, Dieli F, Giordano S, De Maria R, Stassi G: Tumorigenic and metastatic activity of human thyroid cancer stem cells. Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 1;70(21):8874-85
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  • [Title] Tumorigenic and metastatic activity of human thyroid cancer stem cells.
  • Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy and the first cause of death among endocrine cancers.
  • We show that the tumorigenic capacity in thyroid cancer is confined in a small subpopulation of stem-like cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH(high)) activity and unlimited replication potential.
  • Orthotopic injection of minute numbers of thyroid cancer stem cells recapitulates the behavior of the parental tumor, including the aggressive metastatic features of undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas, which are sustained by constitutive activation of cMet and Akt in thyroid cancer stem cells.
  • The identification of tumorigenic and metastagenic thyroid cancer cells may provide unprecedented preclinical tools for development and preclinical validation of novel targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Animals. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Cell Adhesion. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Female. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, Nude. Mice, SCID. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Stem Cell Assay. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays. Young Adult


62. Rivera M, Ricarte-Filho J, Knauf J, Shaha A, Tuttle M, Fagin JA, Ghossein RA: Molecular genotyping of papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant according to its histological subtypes (encapsulated vs infiltrative) reveals distinct BRAF and RAS mutation patterns. Mod Pathol; 2010 Sep;23(9):1191-200
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  • [Title] Molecular genotyping of papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant according to its histological subtypes (encapsulated vs infiltrative) reveals distinct BRAF and RAS mutation patterns.
  • The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma usually presents as an encapsulated tumor and less commonly as a partially/non-encapsulated infiltrative neoplasm.
  • The molecular profile of the follicular variant was shown to be close to the follicular adenoma/carcinoma group of tumors with a high RAS and very low BRAF mutation rates.
  • A comprehensive survey of oncogenic mutations in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma according to its encapsulated and infiltrative forms has not been performed.
  • Paraffin tissue from 28 patients with encapsulated and 19 with infiltrative follicular variant were subjected to mass spectrometry genotyping encompassing the most significant oncogenes in thyroid carcinomas: 111 mutations in RET, BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS, PIK3CA, AKT1 and other related genes.
  • One encapsulated carcinoma showed a PAX8/PPARgamma rearrangement, whereas two infiltrative tumors harbored RET/PTC fusions.
  • Encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas have a molecular profile very close to follicular adenomas/carcinomas (high rate of RAS and absence of BRAF mutations).
  • Infiltrative follicular variant has an opposite molecular profile closer to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma than to follicular adenoma/carcinoma (BRAF>RAS mutations).
  • The molecular profile of encapsulated and infiltrative follicular variant parallels their biological behavior (ie, metastatic nodal and invasive patterns).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genes, ras / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20526288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA050706; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA072597
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS720090; NLM/ PMC4573468
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63. Duprez R, Lebas P, Marc OS, Mongeois E, Emy P, Michenet P: Preoperative US-guided hook-needle insertion in recurrent lymph nodes of papillary thyroid cancer: a help for the surgeon. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Jan;73(1):40-2
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  • [Title] Preoperative US-guided hook-needle insertion in recurrent lymph nodes of papillary thyroid cancer: a help for the surgeon.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate whether preoperative ultrasound guided insertion of a hook-needle is useful in reoperations for cervical recurrent lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 8 patients with operated papillary thyroid cancer were included in this study.
  • These lymph nodes were identified by ultrasound imaging and their metastatic nature was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology and measurement of in situ thyroglobulin.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In all 8 patients, the suspicious lymph nodes were removed and their metastatic nature was confirmed by the final pathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19036543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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64. Verburg FA, de Keizer B, Lam MG, de Klerk JM, Lips CJ, Borel-Rinkes IH, van Isselt JW: Persistent disease in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and lymph node metastases after surgery and iodine-131 ablation. World J Surg; 2007 Dec;31(12):2309-14
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  • [Title] Persistent disease in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and lymph node metastases after surgery and iodine-131 ablation.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of treatment of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis and its influence on the course of the disease.
  • Patients were considered disease-free if during follow-up thyroglobulin levels were undetectable and scintigraphy with 370 MBq (131)I was negative during thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation.
  • In total, 22 patients still showed persistent activity in the neck outside the thyroid bed, which was suspect to be cervical lymph node metastasis on postablation scintigraphy; it was not related to the initial clinical presentation (lymph node metastasis or a thyroid nodule without suspicion of metastatic disease) or to the extent of surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17952702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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65. Kłubo-Gwieździńska J, Junik R, Kopczyńska E: Serum endostatin levels in patients with metastatic and non-metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):7-12
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  • [Title] Serum endostatin levels in patients with metastatic and non-metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of serum endostatin levels as a potential marker of metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, and to estimate the effect of endogenous TSH stimulation on serum endostatin levels.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 68 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Endostatins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20205098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endostatins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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66. Roh JL, Kim JM, Park CI: Lateral cervical lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma: pattern of nodal metastases and optimal strategy for neck dissection. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Apr;15(4):1177-82
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  • [Title] Lateral cervical lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma: pattern of nodal metastases and optimal strategy for neck dissection.
  • BACKGROUND: The pattern of lateral cervical metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been reported without a clear understanding of the distribution of central nodes at risk.
  • RESULTS: For the lateral compartment, 75.9% of cases showed metastatic disease at level IV, 72.2% at IIa and III, 16.7% at IIb, 13.0% at Vai, 3.7% at Ib and Vb, and 0% at Vas.
  • For the central compartment, 84.6% of cases showed metastatic disease at the ipsilateral paratracheal nodal site, 46.2% at the superior mediastinal, 30.8% at the pretracheal, and 8.9% at the contralateral paratracheal site.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neck Dissection. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18253801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Kloos RT, Ringel MD, Knopp MV, Hall NC, King M, Stevens R, Liang J, Wakely PE Jr, Vasko VV, Saji M, Rittenberry J, Wei L, Arbogast D, Collamore M, Wright JJ, Grever M, Shah MH: Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr 1;27(10):1675-84
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Based on the pivotal role of Ras-Raf-MAP-ERK signaling and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we conducted a phase II clinical trial of sorafenib targeting RAF and VEGF receptor kinases in PTC.
  • Using a Simon minimax two-stage design, 16 or 25 chemotherapy-naïve metastatic PTC patients were to be enrolled in arm A (accessible tumor for biopsy).
  • Arm B patients had other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma or prior chemotherapy, and did not require tumor biopsies.
  • CONCLUSION: Sorafenib is reasonably well-tolerated therapy with clinical and biologic antitumor activity in metastatic PTC.


68. Cherk MH, Moore M, Serpell J, Swain S, Topliss DJ: Metastatic colorectal cancer to a primary thyroid cancer. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:122
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  • [Title] Metastatic colorectal cancer to a primary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic malignancy to the thyroid gland is generally uncommon due to an unfavourable local thyroid micro-environment which impairs the ability of metastatic cells to settle and thrive.
  • Metastases to the thyroid gland have however been reported to occur occasionally particularly if there has been disruption to normal thyroid tissue architecture.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a patient with a history of surgically resected rectal adenocarcinoma who presents with a rising serum CEA level and an 18F-FDG PET scan positive thyroid nodule which was subsequently confirmed at surgery to be a focus of metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma within a primary poorly differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma.Subsequent treatment involved right hemi-thyroidectomy, pulmonary wedge resection of oligometastatic metastatic colorectal cancer and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Metastatic rectal carcinoma to the thyroid gland and in particular to a primary thyroid malignancy is rare and unusual.
  • Prognosis is likely to be more dependent on underlying metastatic disease rather than the primary thyroid malignancy hence primary treatments should be tailored towards treating and controlling metastatic disease and less emphasis placed on the primary thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary


69. Miyauchi A, Takamura Y, Ito Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Amino N, Toyoda N, Nomura E, Nishikawa M: 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine thyrotoxicosis due to increased conversion of administered levothyroxine in patients with massive metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;93(6):2239-42
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  • [Title] 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine thyrotoxicosis due to increased conversion of administered levothyroxine in patients with massive metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Some patients with massive metastatic thyroid carcinoma exhibit T(3) thyrotoxicosis.
  • DESIGN: Serum free T(3) (FT(3)), free T(4) (FT(4)), and TSH were measured in patients with massive metastases from papillary, follicular, or medullary thyroid carcinomas (31, 20, and seven patients, respectively).
  • MAIN OUTCOME: The serum FT(3) level and FT(3)/FT(4) ratio in the follicular carcinoma (FC) group were significantly higher than those in the papillary carcinoma group or patients without recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Twenty percent of patients with massive metastatic FC exhibited T(3) thyrotoxicosis, most likely due to increased conversion of T(4) to T(3) by tumor expressing high D1 and D2 activities.
  • Occasional measurement of serum FT(3) in addition to FT(4) and TSH is recommended in patients with massive metastatic FC, especially when serum FT(4) decreases on fixed doses of levothyroxine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology. Thyroxine / pharmacokinetics. Triiodothyronine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prevalence. Thyroid Function Tests. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18397985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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70. Kasai Y, Kawakita E, Uchida A: Clinical profile of long-term survivors of breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours. Int Orthop; 2007 Apr;31(2):171-5
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  • [Title] Clinical profile of long-term survivors of breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours.
  • Patients with breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours are expected to survive relatively longer than patients with other cancers with metastatic spinal tumours.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of long-term survivors of breast or thyroid cancer with metastatic spinal tumours.
  • Our results showed that the longer the time from the diagnosis of the primary cancer to the spinal operation, the longer patients with breast or thyroid cancer and metastatic spinal tumours would survive.
  • Six of the eight patients (75.0%) who had undergone the spinal operation at least 5 years after the diagnosis of the primary cancer survived especially long.
  • In conclusion, the duration from the diagnosis of the primary cancer to the spinal operation is very useful for predicting a prognosis in patients with breast or thyroid cancer and metastatic spinal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Survivors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis


71. Rivera M, Tuttle RM, Patel S, Shaha A, Shah JP, Ghossein RA: Encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinico-pathologic study of 106 cases with emphasis on its morphologic subtypes (histologic growth pattern). Thyroid; 2009 Feb;19(2):119-27
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  • [Title] Encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinico-pathologic study of 106 cases with emphasis on its morphologic subtypes (histologic growth pattern).
  • BACKGROUND: Encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma (EPTC) can have a histologic growth pattern similar to the one seen in classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or akin to the follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC).
  • METHODS: All cases of thyroid carcinomas treated at our institution between 1980 and 2000 were reviewed and reclassified according to current histopathologic criteria.
  • The lymph node metastatic rate was significantly higher in E-CPTC (11/43, 26%) compared to E-FVPTC (2/63, 3%) (p = 0.0014).
  • CONCLUSION: E-CPTC resembles classical PTC in its propensity to metastasize to lymph nodes and its vascular/capsular invasive pattern while E-FVPTC behaves more like follicular carcinoma/adenoma group of tumors.
  • Meticulous search for capsular and vascular invasion can reliably predict the metastatic potential of E-FVPTC but not of E-CPTC.
  • Noninvasive E-FVPTC could be managed like minimally invasive follicular carcinoma by lobectomy without RAI therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19191744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Caron NR, Tan YY, Ogilvie JB, Triponez F, Reiff ES, Kebebew E, Duh QY, Clark OH: Selective modified radical neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer-is level I, II and V dissection always necessary? World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):833-40
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  • [Title] Selective modified radical neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer-is level I, II and V dissection always necessary?
  • BACKGROUND: There is ongoing controversy as to the indications for and extent of lateral cervical lymphadenectomy for patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
  • This initial 'selective LND' usually includes levels III and IV (due to the well-documented increased likelihood of metastases to these levels) and levels I, II, and V are included when there is clinical or radiological evidence of disease or increased risk of it.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of the clinical charts and hospital records of 106 consecutive patients who had metastatic PTC and who underwent at least one lateral cervical LND at UCSF between January 1995 and December 2003 was carried out.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neck Dissection / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


73. Wang T, Jiang CX, Li Y, Liu X: [Pathologic study of expression and significance of matrix metalloproteinases-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta-1 in papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Dec;38(12):824-8
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  • [Title] [Pathologic study of expression and significance of matrix metalloproteinases-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta-1 in papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the roles of matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1) in differentiation, invasiveness and metastatic potential of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid.
  • METHODS: Eighty-five cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and 59 cases of follicular thyroid carcinoma were enrolled into the study.
  • The positivity rates of MMP-9, TIMP-1, VEGF and TGFβ-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (83.5%, 81.2%, 90.6% and 75.3%, respectively) were similar to or lower than those in follicular thyroid carcinoma (93.2%, 86.4%, 89.9% and 78.0%, respectively).
  • The expression rates in papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis were also higher than those in tumors without lymph node metastasis.
  • The expression rates of MMP-9, VEGF and TGFβ-1 in poorly-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma were higher than those in well-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • In general, the expression of VEGF and MMP-9 was higher than that of TIMP-1 and TGFβ-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical detection of MMP-9, TIMP-1, VEGF and TGFβ-1 expression may carry clinical significance in evaluating the degree of differentiation, invasiveness, metastatic potential and prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20193458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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74. Fujie S, Okumura Y, Sato S, Akaki S, Katsui K, Himei K, Takemoto M, Kanazawa S: Diagnostic capabilities of I-131, TI-201, and Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy for metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Acta Med Okayama; 2005 Jun;59(3):99-107
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  • [Title] Diagnostic capabilities of I-131, TI-201, and Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy for metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy.
  • We investigated the diagnostic capabilities of I-131, Tl-201, and Tc-99m-MIBI (hexakis-2-methoxyisobutyl- isonitrile) scintigraphy for thyroid cancer metastases after total thyroidectomy over the entire body and for every locus before and after thyroid bed ablation.
  • After total thyroidectomy of thyroid cancer, 36 cases were subjected to I-131 treatment 64 times.
  • They consisted of 17 men and 19 women with 31 papillary carcinomas and 5 follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adult. Aged. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Care. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thallium Radioisotopes

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  • (PMID = 16049563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0386-300X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Okayama
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med. Okayama
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Thallium Radioisotopes; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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75. Pineda-Daboin K, Neto A, Ochoa-Perez V, Luna MA: Nasopharyngeal adenocarcinomas: a clinicopathologic study of 44 cases including immunohistochemical features of 18 papillary phenotypes. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Aug;10(4):215-21

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  • [Title] Nasopharyngeal adenocarcinomas: a clinicopathologic study of 44 cases including immunohistochemical features of 18 papillary phenotypes.
  • The purpose of our study was to better understand the clinicopathologic characteristics of NPACs and to identify the histologic and immunohistochemical features that distinguish the subtypes of papillary NPACs.
  • There were 28 salivary gland type, 13 conventional low-grade papillary NPACs of surface origin, and 3 metastatic adenocarcinomas, 2 thyroid and 1 lung.
  • We performed immunohistochemical studies in 18 papillary NPACs.
  • Two of the low-grade papillary NPACs simulated thyroid carcinoma; they expressed CK7, CK19, and TTF-1 but were negative for thyroglobulin.
  • Polymorphous low-grade papillary NPACs expressed diffuse reactivity to S-100, whereas low-grade papillary NPACs were negative or focally positive.
  • In contrast, 18 (64.2%) of the 28 patients with salivary gland-type NPACs had died of the disease or were living with disease at follow-up.
  • Primary NPACs can be classified by their morphology and clinical behavior into 2 groups: surface origin type and salivary gland type.
  • Papillary NPACs can be identified by their histology and selective immunohistochemical expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Retrospective Studies. Salivary Glands / chemistry. Salivary Glands / pathology. Survival Rate. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16844563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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76. Morita S, Mizoguchi K, Suzuki M, Iizuka K: The accuracy of (18)[F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, ultrasonography, and enhanced computed tomography alone in the preoperative diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2010 Nov;34(11):2564-9
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  • [Title] The accuracy of (18)[F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, ultrasonography, and enhanced computed tomography alone in the preoperative diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D: -glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, ultrasonography, and enhanced computed tomography alone in the preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: In a prospective study performed between January 2007 and December 2009, 74 patients with a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma confirmed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy were referred to our institution for surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative assessment by ultrasonography of metastases in the central and lateral cervical lymph nodes might be the best methodology for determining the extent of surgical resection required to remove metastatic lymph nodes adequately in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20645089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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77. American Thyroid Association (ATA) Guidelines Taskforce on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Kloos RT, Lee SL, Mandel SJ, Mazzaferri EL, McIver B, Pacini F, Schlumberger M, Sherman SI, Steward DL, Tuttle RM: Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2009 Nov;19(11):1167-214
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  • [Title] Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent.
  • Since the publication of the American Thyroid Association's guidelines for the management of these disorders was published in 2006, a large amount of new information has become available, prompting a revision of the guidelines.
  • RESULTS: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, and management of benign thyroid nodules.
  • Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to optimal surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation, and suppression therapy using levothyroxine.
  • Recommendations related to long-term management of differentiated thyroid cancer include those related to surveillance for recurrent disease using ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin as well as those related to management of recurrent and metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We created evidence-based recommendations in response to our appointment as an independent task force by the American Thyroid Association to assist in the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neck. Physical Examination. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Treatment Outcome. United States

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  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2012 Feb;22(2):225-6; author reply 226-7 [22176500.001]
  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2013 Aug;23(8):1042-3 [23441600.001]
  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2009 Nov;19(11):1145-7 [19888856.001]
  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2009 Nov;19(11):1149-51 [19888857.001]
  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2015 Jul;25(7):713-5 [26079318.001]
  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2010 Aug;20(8):933-4; author reply 934-5 [20677999.001]
  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2009 Nov;19(11):1139-43 [19888855.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Thyroid. 2010 Jun;20(6):674-5
  • [ErratumIn] Thyroid. 2010 Aug;20(8):942. Hauger, Bryan R [corrected to Haugen, Bryan R]
  • (PMID = 19860577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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78. Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA: Unusual tumors of the thyroid gland. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;37(2):297-310, vii
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  • [Title] Unusual tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid neoplasms are classified into three major categories: epithelial, nonepithelial, and secondary.
  • Most primary epithelial tumors of thyroid are derived from follicular cells.
  • These include follicular adenoma and carcinoma (Hürthle and non-Hürthle), and papillary carcinoma and its variants.
  • Other primary epithelial tumors include medullary carcinoma, mixed medullary and follicular carcinomas, insular and poorly differentiated carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and the least common squamous carcinoma and related tumors.
  • The secondary tumors represent metastatic tumors to the thyroid usually originating in lung, kidney, and breast.
  • In this article, the authors review the unusual tumors of the thyroid, their morphologic features, and clinical and prognostic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Rare Diseases / diagnosis. Rare Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18502328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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79. Nishida AT, Hirano S, Asato R, Tanaka S, Kitani Y, Honda N, Fujiki N, Miyata K, Fukushima H, Ito J: Multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma without metastases. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Sep;35(3):432-6
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  • [Title] Multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma without metastases.
  • Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid carcinoma is rare, and most cases are caused by hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma rather than primary carcinoma.
  • Among primary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma, multifocal thyroid carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with the only one case being reported in the literature.
  • Here, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with multifocal functioning thyroid carcinoma.
  • Technetium-99m (99m Tc) scintigraphic imaging showed four hot areas in the thyroid gland.
  • Histopathological examination of all four nodules revealed papillary carcinoma, corresponding to hot areas in the 99m Tc scintigram.
  • DNA sequencing of the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) gene from all nodules revealed no mutation, indicating that activation of TSH-R was unlikely in the pathophysiogenesis of hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma in the present case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging. Technetium. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17826928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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80. Ahn JE, Lee JH, Yi JS, Shong YK, Hong SJ, Lee DH, Choi CG, Kim SJ: Diagnostic accuracy of CT and ultrasonography for evaluating metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid cancer. World J Surg; 2008 Jul;32(7):1552-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic accuracy of CT and ultrasonography for evaluating metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate the diagnostic ability of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (USG) in the preoperative evaluation of the cervical nodal status of patients with thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: The study population consisted of 37 consecutive patients (female:male = 30:7, age range: 20-68 years) who subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite of very high accuracy of USG by per patient analysis, the superior sensitivity of CT on the per level analysis may enable CT to play a complementary role for determining the surgical extent in selected patients with thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


81. Papi G, Corrado S, LiVolsi VA: Primary spindle cell lesions of the thyroid gland; an overview. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jun;125 Suppl:S95-123
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  • [Title] Primary spindle cell lesions of the thyroid gland; an overview.
  • Spindle cell lesions of the thyroid gland (T-SCL) are not encountered routinely in clinical practice or in the context of thyroid pathology.
  • They commonly are classified as primary or secondary to metastatic disease.
  • Primary T-SCL can be derivedfromfollicular, C-cell (parafollicular), or mesenchymal components and may be the result of reactive or neoplastic processes, including post-fine-needle aspiration spindle cell nodules, Riedel thyroiditis, solitary fibrous tumor, leiomyoma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, hyalinizing trabecular tumor, spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation, follicular dendritic cell tumor, medullary carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Fibrous Tissue / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16830961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 354
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82. Mori K, Kitazawa R, Kondo T, Kitazawa S: Lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary component presenting with metastatic scrotum tumor and cancer-to-cancer metastasis: A case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):162

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  • [Title] Lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary component presenting with metastatic scrotum tumor and cancer-to-cancer metastasis: A case report.
  • A scrotal skin biopsy revealed a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma, immunohistochemically positive for cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), and negative for CK20.
  • At autopsy, a consolidating lesion with vague margin was noted in the left lung as well as a well-circumscribed nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • Histopathologically, pulmonary lesion was adenocarcinoma with a micropapillary component.
  • On the other hand, thyroid tumor was diagnosed as a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma with foci of micropapillary adenocarcinoma.
  • Positive immunohistochemistry for surfactant protein on micoropapillary component was useful to confirm that micropapillary component was of lung adenocarcinoma origin.

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  • [Cites] APMIS. 2005 Jul-Aug;113(7-8):550-4 [16086826.001]
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  • (PMID = 18801198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2556662
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83. Kuroda N, Hamauzu T, Toi M, Yamaoka K, Miyazaki E, Hiroi M, Nakata H, Taguchi H, Enzan H: Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with micropapillary component: an immunohistochemical study. Case report. APMIS; 2005 Jul-Aug;113(7-8):550-4
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  • [Title] Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with micropapillary component: an immunohistochemical study. Case report.
  • Micropapillary carcinoma has been described in various organs, including the breast, urinary bladder, ovary and lung.
  • We here present a case of pulmonary micropapillary carcinoma in a 72-year-old Japanese man who died of respiratory failure and septic shock, following which autopsy was performed.
  • The tumor showed moderately differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma with a focal micropapillary component.
  • Carcinomatous lymphangiosis was also observed in the left lung and metastatic lesions were observed in the bilateral lung, liver, vertebra, muscle layer of the urinary bladder, right adrenal gland, spleen and lymph nodes.
  • The micropapillary component was predominant at some metastatic sites.
  • Immunohistochemically, both the adenocarcinoma and micropapillary components were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK19, TTF (thyroid transcription factor)-1, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and surfactant apoprotein A (SP-A), and negative for CK20, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, uroplakin III, and CA125.
  • The invasive area of the conventional adenocarcinoma component contained a large number of myofibroblasts, whereas the stroma of the micropapillary component contained a small number of myofibroblasts.
  • However, no myofibroblasts were observed in the stroma of the central core of the non-invasive micropapillary carcinoma.
  • Myofibroblasts are present in the stroma of the invasive neoplastic nests in the micropapillary component as well as the conventional adenocarcinoma component, and D2-40 monoclonal antibody may be useful for evaluating the lymphatic invasion of pulmonary micropapillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16086826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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84. Antic T, Staerkel G: Mediastinal epithelioid hemangioendothelioma metastatic to lymph nodes and pleural fluid: report of a case. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Feb;38(2):113-6
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  • [Title] Mediastinal epithelioid hemangioendothelioma metastatic to lymph nodes and pleural fluid: report of a case.
  • The patient had a complex history of papillary renal cell carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and Waldenstrom's hyperglobulinemia making the diagnosis of metastatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma difficult.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / complications. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroiditis / complications. Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia / complications

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  • (PMID = 19688765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Matuszczyk A, Petersenn S, Bockisch A, Gorges R, Sheu SY, Veit P, Mann K: Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Mar;40(3):210-3
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • Twenty-two patients (mean age 61) with metastasizing, progressive, nonradioiodine-accumulating thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium were treated with doxorubicin between 2000 and 2005.
  • Tumors were histologically classified as follicular in 15 patients (68%) and papillary in 7 patients (32%).
  • In addition, nine patients (mean age 51 years) with medullary thyroid carcinoma were treated with doxorubicin between 1997 and 2005.
  • In patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma, 5% had a partial regression over 6 months, 42% had stable disease for a median of 7 months (range: 1-22), and 53% had continuous progression established over 5 months (range: 1-11).
  • In patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, 11% had a partial regression over 6 months followed by stable disease for 3 months, 11% had stable disease over 7 months, and 79% demonstrated progressive disease established over 5 months (range: 2-12).
  • Doxorubicin can be a valid chemotherapy option, especially for advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18348081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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86. Tseleni-Balafouta S, Gakiopoulou H, Fanourakis G, Voutsinas G, Litsiou H, Sozopoulos E, Balafoutas D, Patsouris E: Fibrillin expression and localization in various types of carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Mod Pathol; 2006 May;19(5):695-700
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  • [Title] Fibrillin expression and localization in various types of carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate fibrillin-1 expression in thyroid carcinomas at mRNA and protein level, since ECM proteins are suggested to be of great importance for the metastatic potential of carcinomas.
  • RNA was extracted from 13 thyroid carcinoma cell lines and RT-PCR analysis with gene-specific primers revealed fibrillin-1 mRNA expression in all cell lines, with highest expression in the follicular carcinoma cell line WRO and lowest expression in the two anaplastic cell lines (APO, FRO).
  • Furthermore, we investigated fibrillin-1 expression by immumohistochemistry in a commercially available tissue microarray including 50 thyroid carcinomas as well as in archival tissue from 33 thyroid carcinomas.
  • The most intense staining was observed in papillary carcinomas with some evidence of a slight increased intensity in advanced stages.
  • Our data indicate that fibrillin-1 is strongly expressed by the neoplastic cells of thyroid carcinomas in different degree in the various histologic types and might be implicated in cell-stroma interaction in terms of signaling, attachment and migration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Microfilament Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16528372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / fibrillin
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87. Granados-García M, Cortés-Flores AO, del Carmen González-Ramírez I, Cano-Valdez AM, Flores-Hernández L, Aguilar-Ponce JL: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation. Cir Cir; 2010 Nov-Dec;78(6):473-8
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer presents as nodules.
  • Thyroid nodules are frequent, but only 5-30% are malignant.
  • RESULTS: From 1,005 cases of thyroid nodules, 121 were follicular neoplasms according to cytology.
  • Malignant cases were comprised of 12 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas-follicular variant, 1 lymphoma, 1 teratoma, 5 medullary carcinomas, 2 insular carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • FNAB is a useful tool for initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, but clinical evaluation can enhance predictive value.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21214982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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88. Romanchishen AF, Kuz'michev AS, Bogatikov AA, Morozova EB, Chukhlovin AB, Totolian AA: [Clinical significance of functional variants of matrix metalloproteinase genes in thyroid cancer]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2009;168(1):57-60
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  • [Title] [Clinical significance of functional variants of matrix metalloproteinase genes in thyroid cancer].
  • Under analysis were results of genetic investigations of 105 patients with thyroid cancer (TC) treated from 2004 through 2007 in the St. Petersburg City Center of surgery and oncology of the endocrine system organs.
  • A reliably decreased frequency of hyperactive genotype MMP-1 2G was detected in a group of women with metastatic forms of papillary cancer as compared with patients without metastases.
  • It was shown that MMP genes could be a substantial factor of slowing down the rate of malignant growth and invasive properties of cancer of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Variation. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 19432148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.24.17 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 3; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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89. Roberts SS, Mendonça-Torres MC, Jensen K, Francis GL, Vasko V: GABA receptor expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Dec;15(4):645-50
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  • [Title] GABA receptor expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • The role of neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors has not yet been examined in thyroid cancer.
  • To determine the possible involvement of neurotransmitter systems in thyroid carcinogenesis we characterized the patterns of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor expression in normal thyroid and thyroid tumors.
  • We examined the expression patterns of the GABAergic system in 70 human thyroid tumor samples (13 follicular adenomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, 43 papillary carcinomas) and adjacent normal thyroid by immunohistochemistry.
  • GABAergic system mRNA expression in thyroid cancer cell lines derived from primary (FTC133) and metastatic tumors (FTC236 and FTC238) was examined by real time PCR.
  • Overall, GABA receptor expression is increased in tumors compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • Expression of GABAA receptor beta2 was detected in the vasculature of normal thyroid and thyroid tumors but not in thyroid cancer cells.
  • GABAA alpha2 was detected in metastatic-derived but not in primary-tumor derived cell lines.
  • Expression levels of GABAB R2 and GABA receptor associated protein (GABARAP) are increased in adenomas and thyroid cancer suggesting their role in early stages of thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • This study represents the first demonstration of GABA receptor expression in human thyroid tissue and suggests that the GABAergic system is involved in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptors, GABA / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Receptors, GABA-A / metabolism. Receptors, GABA-B / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19381877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / GABARAP protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Receptors, GABA; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; 0 / Receptors, GABA-B
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90. Lin JD, Chao TC, Huang BY, Chen ST, Chang HY, Hsueh C: Thyroid cancer in the thyroid nodules evaluated by ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Thyroid; 2005 Jul;15(7):708-17
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  • [Title] Thyroid cancer in the thyroid nodules evaluated by ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • Thyroid nodule is common disorder in endocrine clinics.
  • In Taiwan, thyroid ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the first-line examination procedure.
  • Data in large series on the incidence of thyroid malignancy presenting with thyroid nodules are lacking in this area.
  • To determine the incidence of malignancy in thyroid nodules and compare the results with other populations, this investigation retrospectively reviewed 21,748 subjects who were examined in one medical center from January 1986 to December 1999.
  • All patients underwent thyroid ultrasonography studies using a real-time ultrasonographic machine and a 10-MHz transducer.
  • Fine-needle aspirations were made in the suspected thyroid nodule and stained using the Romanowsky- based method developed by Liu.
  • By the end of 2002, some 3629 patients (16.7%) had thyroid nodules after surgical treatment.
  • The percentages of thyroid malignancy in each age group revealed two peaks in both genders, namely in patients aged 20 to 29 years and in elderly patients (aged over 65 years).
  • The peak age for thyroid malignancy in both genders was 41 to 60 years (male) and 21 to 40 years (female).
  • Anaplastic and metastatic cancers affecting the thyroid were the main subjects in the age group.
  • The present results demonstrated a younger distribution for well-differentiated thyroid cancer, particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma, compared to previous studies.
  • This outcome may have resulted from the routine application of ultrasonography with FNAC in assessing the thyroid nodules, possibly helping to achieve more timely detection.
  • The incidence of thyroid malignancy in young patients was no higher than in adults.
  • Early detection of thyroid malignancy may be the main reason for this phenomenon.
  • Male subjects with thyroid nodules displayed a higher incidence of this malignancy than females.
  • Aging subjects with thyroid nodules suffered a higher rate of malignancy and were poorly differentiated.
  • In conclusion, this retrospective large-series study demonstrated that 3.9% (858/21,748 cases) of patients with thyroid nodules showed histopathologically proven malignancy.
  • Thyroid cancer detected by ultrasonography with FNAC occurred an average of 10 years younger than in prior studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / ultrasonography. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16053388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Dawson SJ, Conus NM, Toner GC, Raleigh JM, Hicks RJ, McArthur G, Rischin D: Sustained clinical responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Drugs; 2008 Jun;19(5):547-52
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  • [Title] Sustained clinical responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in thyroid carcinoma.
  • The limited therapeutic options available for patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) necessitates the development of novel therapies.
  • Identification of somatic rearrangements of the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET gene in PTC have improved our understanding of thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Its role in the treatment of patients with thyroid carcinoma has yet to be evaluated in clinical trials.
  • Two patients with progressive metastatic thyroid carcinoma (case 1: PTC, and case 2: FTC) were enroled in a phase I clinical trial to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) in the monitoring of response to sunitinib.
  • These case studies highlight potential activity of sunitinib in patients with metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Sunitinib seems to be a promising agent in the treatment of thyroid cancers and this requires validation in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18418222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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92. Dralle H, Lorenz K, Machens A: [Surgery of thyroid carcinoma]. Chirurg; 2009 Nov;80(11):1069-82; quiz 1083
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  • [Title] [Surgery of thyroid carcinoma].
  • The 5 main types of thyroid cancer (papillary, PTC, follicular, FTC, poorly differentiated, PDTC undifferentiated, UTC, medullary, MTC) not only differ regarding morphology, pathogenesis, genetics,and pathophysiology (iodine metabolism, thyroglobulin and calcitonin production), but also concerning tumor biology, metastatic behavior (lymphogenous, locally invasive and hematogenous routes) and prognosis.
  • Knowledge of these features is the basis of the surgical concept of one or two-stage thyroidectomy, the exceptions and the concept of locoregional lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19902289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0385
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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93. Sergieva S, Hadjieva T, Doldurova M, Stefanova S, Dudov A: Nuclear medicine approaches in the monitoring of thyroid cancer patients. J BUON; 2006 Oct-Dec;11(4):511-8
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  • [Title] Nuclear medicine approaches in the monitoring of thyroid cancer patients.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of some nuclear medicine approaches such as (99m)Tc-MIBI scan and (131)I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) in the monitoring of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 95 patients (69F/26M) aged 17-74 years (mean 44.2) with DTC (56 cases with papillary, 20 with follicular and 19 with papillary-follicular carcinoma) were assessed.
  • All of them had undergone total or near-total thyroidectomy and received radioiodine treatment for ablation of post-surgical residual thyroid tissue.
  • RESULTS: (131)I scan was positive in 63 patients showing thyroid remnants in 31 cases, lymph node metastases in 24 cases (17 to the neck, 7 to the neck/mediastinum), pulmonary metastases in 6 cases, bone and brain lesions in 2 cases.
  • These false negative results were observed predominantly in cases with less differentiated metastatic disease, especially after several courses of high-dose (131)I therapy. (99m)Tc-MIBI scan revealed the presence of lymph node and/or lung metastases (non-functioning metastases) in 14 of them, false negative results were obtained in 2 cases, and one false positive in 1 case.
  • Serum Tg was increased in all patients with local lymph node and distant metastases, visualized by (131)I or by (99m)Tc-MIBI, but also in 18 patients with thyroid remnants only.
  • [MeSH-major] Patient Care Planning. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17309186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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94. Graf H, Paz-Filho G: [Recombinant human TSH use in differentiated thyroid cancer]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):806-12
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  • [Title] [Recombinant human TSH use in differentiated thyroid cancer].
  • Traditionally, the immediate treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after total thyroidectomy (TT) is thyroid remnant ablation (TRA) with 131I, during hypothyroidism.
  • Finally, in spite of the absence of randomized studies designed to evaluate the role of rhTSH in metastatic DTC disease, results of the combined treatment of rhTSH and 131I show a clinical benefit in the majority of treated patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17891244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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95. Kim HS, Kim GY, Lim SJ, Kim YW: Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein expression in thyroid carcinomas. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):253-7
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  • [Title] Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein expression in thyroid carcinomas.
  • RKIP is reduced in a variety of human carcinomas, but RKIP expression in thyroid carcinomas has not been analyzed at the protein level.
  • In this study, we examined the immunohistochemical expression of RKIP in various subtypes of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Immunostaining for RKIP was performed on 104 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma (40 papillary, 29 follicular, 11 medullary, 11 poorly differentiated, and 13 anaplastic carcinomas) and 26 cases of nodal metastatic tumor (17 papillary, 4 medullary, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas).
  • Normal thyroid tissue and all cases of follicular, papillary, and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for RKIP.
  • The transition zone from the differentiated carcinoma component (strong RKIP expression) to the anaplastic carcinoma component (no RKIP expression) demonstrated a completely opposite pattern of RKIP immunoreactivity.
  • This reduction of RKIP expression in anaplastic carcinoma was statistically significant (P < 0.0001).
  • Additionally, RKIP expression of nodal metastatic tumors corresponded with that of primary tumors: metastatic papillary and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic RKIP immunoreactivity, in contrast, in metastatic anaplastic carcinomas, RKIP expression was completely absent.
  • RKIP expression is significantly reduced in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma as compared to other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Further studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanism of RKIP action in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20734161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PEBP1 protein, human; 0 / Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein
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96. Giatromanolaki A, Lyberakidis G, Lyratzopoulos N, Koukourakis MI, Sivridis E, Manolas C: Angiogenesis and angiogenic factor expression in thyroid cancer. J BUON; 2010 Apr-Jun;15(2):357-61
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis and angiogenic factor expression in thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Increased expression of angiogenic factors and high vascular density characterize tumors with increased invasive and metastatic capability.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether it could be possible to identify a subgroup of thyroid cancer patients with high angiogenic activity.
  • METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 25 papillary and 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas were assessed immunohistochemically for angiogenic activity, i.e. vascular density (VD) and expression of VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased angiogenic activity is a common feature of thyroid carcinomas, particularly in follicular tumors and larger carcinomas.
  • These results support the testing of anti-VEGF therapies in combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy in advanced thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20658735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents
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97. Lind P, Kohlfürst S: Respective roles of thyroglobulin, radioiodine imaging, and positron emission tomography in the assessment of thyroid cancer. Semin Nucl Med; 2006 Jul;36(3):194-205
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  • [Title] Respective roles of thyroglobulin, radioiodine imaging, and positron emission tomography in the assessment of thyroid cancer.
  • Depending on the iodine supply of an area, the incidence of thyroid cancer ranges between 4 and 12/100,000 per year.
  • To detect thyroid cancer in an early stage, the assessment of thyroid nodules includes ultrasonography, ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and conventional scintigraphic methods using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate, (99m)Tc-sestamibi or -tetrofosmin, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in selected cases.
  • After treatment of thyroid cancer, a consequent follow-up is necessary over a period of several years.
  • For following up low-risk patients, recombinant thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated thyroglobulin and ultrasonography is sufficient in most cases.
  • After total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation therapy, thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated thyroglobulin should be below the detection limit (eg, <0.5 ng/mL, R: 70-130).
  • An increase of thyroglobulin over time is suspicious for recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • Especially in high-risk patients, aside from the use of ultrasonography for the detection of local recurrence and cervial lymph node metastases, nuclear medicine methods such as radioiodine imaging and FDG-PET are the methods of choice for localizing metastatic disease.
  • In patients with low or dedifferentiated thyroid cancer and after several courses of radioiodine therapy caused by metastatic disease, iodine negative metastases may develop.
  • The fusion of the metabolic and morphologic information was able to increase the diagnostic accuracy, reduces pitfalls and changes therapeutic strategies in a reasonable number of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Iodine Radioisotopes. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Preoperative Care. Radiometry / methods. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Thyrotropin. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16762610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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98. Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Santisteban P: New insights in thyroid follicular cell biology and its impact in thyroid cancer therapy. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Dec;14(4):957-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New insights in thyroid follicular cell biology and its impact in thyroid cancer therapy.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid cancer has in general terms a very good outcome.
  • Whereas the prevalence of nodular thyroid disease worldwide is high, malignant conversion from benign thyroid nodules is rare.
  • Treatment of thyroid cancer is usually successful, but we still do not have effective therapies for patients with invasive or metastatic thyroid cancer if the disease does not concentrate radioiodine and it is not surgically resectable.
  • On the other hand, from the same thyroid cell, one of the most aggressive human tumours can arise--undifferentiated or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma--leading to death in a few months.
  • The most common type of thyroid cancer--papillary thyroid carcinoma--stands out among solid tumours because many of the tumour-initiating events have been identified.
  • This highlights the requirement of this signal transduction pathway for the transformation to thyroid cancer and paves the way to targeted therapies against a tumour with a mutation in a known gene or any gene upstream of the target.
  • Studies in vitro and in vivo, including genomic profiling and genetically engineered mouse models, have clearly shown that each oncoprotein exerts its own oncogenic drive, conferring a distinct biological behaviour on thyroid tumours.
  • In this review, we attempt to summarise the most recent advances in thyroid follicular cell-derived cancers research and their potential clinical impact that may change the management of thyroid cancer in the near future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy


99. Erickson LA, Jin L, Nakamura N, Bridges AG, Markovic SN, Lloyd RV: Clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Cancer; 2007 May 15;109(10):1965-71
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are rare and are usually identified in patients with widely disseminated disease.
  • Occasionally, thyroid carcinomas can present as cutaneous metastases for which the primary site needs to be determined.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) commonly have BRAF(V600E) mutation.
  • A series of 16 cutaneous metastases were analyzed from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas to learn more about the clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation status.
  • METHODS: Eleven cases of PTC and 5 of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) metastatic to the skin were evaluated.
  • All cutaneous metastases were studied histologically and with thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor immunostains.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous metastases from PTC may show prominent clear cell change requiring differentiation from clear cell hidradenoma, clear cell dermatofibroma, malignant melanoma with prominent clear cell change, and cutaneous metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 17387744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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100. Soman AD, Collins JM, DePetris G, Decker GA, Silva A, Moss A, Greer W, Ashman J, Callister M, Borad MJ: Isolated supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a report of three cases and review of the literature. JOP; 2010;11(6):604-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a report of three cases and review of the literature.
  • CONTEXT: Supraclavicular lymph nodes represent a rare site of metastasis in pancreatic cancer.
  • We report three cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with metastases to supraclavicular lymph nodes.
  • CASE REPORT: A 51-year-old male was diagnosed with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • The patient received systemic chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • The second patient, a 66-year-old female with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and was found to have peripancreatic lymph node involvement.
  • PET/CT scan and biopsy revealed supraclavicular lymph node metastasis from a pancreatic adenocarcinoma primary.
  • The third patient, a 79-year-old male with a past history of thyroid carcinoma who was treated with partial thyroidectomy, developed neck swelling 4 years after his surgery.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology was consistent with known papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Histopathology revealed grade 3 pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Excisional biopsy of a supraclavicular lymph node showed metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, supraclavicular lymph node metastasis represents an uncommon, but clinically significant finding that can lead to changes in treatment planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] JOP. 2011 Jan;12(1):66-7; author reply 70 [21206107.001]
  • (PMID = 21068495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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